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Vol. 1 No. 4:1 doi: 10.3823/1009

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Relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease

B Raghu1 and P Venkatesan2
1    epartment of Biochemistry, D International Medical School, Shah Alam, Malaysia. 2 Department of BioStatistics,Tuberculosis Research Center, Chennai-600031, India. .Correspondence:

Dr. B.Raghu, X – 6, 5th Main Road, Anna Nagar, Chennai 600040. India

Background & Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the association between cigarette smoking and the alteration of plasma concentration of cardiovascular markers.

Methods: Twenty male cigarette smokers and 20 healthy age matched male non
smokers were included in the study. Plasma levels of fasting cholesterol, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein(HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL), Very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL) , C- reactive protein and homocysteine were estimated. Results Both serum total homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in cigarette smokers than in non-smokers(p<0.001). Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides , LDL, VLDL and total cholesterol / HDL ratio were observed to be significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers(p<0.001). However,fasting HDL concentration was significantly decreased in smokers than non-smokers(p<0.001). In conclusion, our study identifies a strong ,positive relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated levels of all three novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Interpretation & Conclusion: These findings suggest that inflammation and
hyperhomocysteinemia may be important mechanisms by which smoking promotes atherosclerotic disease

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Key words: Smoking, Homocysteine, Lipid profile, C-reactive protein.

Smoking remains the single most common cause of preventable deaths. Each year, over 430,000 people die as a result of a smoking related disease(1,2).Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of coronary artery disease than non-smokers. Several possible explanations have been offered for this association, including altered blood coagulation (3), impaired integrity of the arterial wall (4), changes in blood lipid and lipoproteins concentrations (5), elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (6,7,8) and elevated plasma C-Reactive protein levels(9).Cigarette smoking is known to be associated with a raised plasma homocysteine level (10-13). Cigarette smoking © Copyright iMedPub

also leads to increase in the concentration of serum lipids (1417) Smoking has been associated with increased CRP levels, possibly caused by the tissue damaging effects of tobacco smoke (18,19). In contrast to the information on cigarette smoking, few studies have examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a general population (20,21). To understand further the health risks associated with cigar smoking, we examined the association between cigarette smoking and the alteration of plasma concentration of cardiovascular markers.


001 2 © Copyright iMedPub .smokers Smokers p-value * Not Significant 20 20 Table 2.80 ± 13. Subject  n Total Cholesterol  Triglyce-rides  (mg%) (mg%)  HDL (mg%) LDL (mg%) VLDL (mg%) Total Cholesterol/ HDL Ratio Non -smokers Smokers p-value 20 20 163. serum concentration of total homocysteine was determined by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay(Abbott Axsym. 4:1 doi: 10.75 ± 5.60 29.24 6.25 ± 5.81 40.001 50.48) were included in the study.28 ± 9 .72) and twenty male cigarette smokers aged between 26-58 years (mean± SD: 36.001 120. The results are expressed as Mean ± SD for all the parameters and the statistical significance of differences among groups was examined by using t-test. The logistic regression analysis also showed significant changes in all the parameters in smokers when compared to non-smokers.35 ± 6. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lipid Profile.68 <0. BN-100).25 ± 7. VLDL and total cholesterol/HDL ratio were observed to be significantly higher in smokers (p<0. However. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol.001 3.15 <0.23 <0.80 171.France).001) than non-smokers.001 24. Table 1. LDL .25 ± 7. LDL. VLDL-cholesterol was calculated from measured triglycerides divided by 5. Effect of cigarette smoking on serum lipids and lipoproteins are reported in Table 2.3823/1009 Our Site: http://www.06 < 0.08 ± 1. diabetes .iMedPub Journals 2012 JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. and triglyceride concentrations were quantified enzymatically with an autoanayzer(Maxmat PL analyzer. Age ( Years) 35.14 ± 0.41 ± 38.48 NS* Homocyteine ( µmol/L) 9.94 241.75 ± 26.07 ± 2. Serum was used to analyze total cholesterol.85 10.cholesterol were calculated by using the Friedewald equation(22). samples were centrifuged.35 ± 6. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Homocyteine and C-Reactive Protein(values are mean ± SD). All the subjects were nonalcoholic and no history of cardiovascular disease.30 ± 2.39 27.001 C-Reactive Protein (mg %) 5.72 36.001 89. 1 No.50 < 0. HDL cholesterol.03 <0.001 Subject  n Non .75 ± 2.80 ± 35.001). Ten ml of fasting blood was collected by venipuncture into evacuated tubes that were free of anticoagulant to clot.30 ± 0.89 Material and Methods  Twenty non smoking healthy male subjects aged between 27-48 years(mean ± SD:35.64 <0. Results As shown in Table 1 .other systemic and metabolic diseases and also they were from similar socioeconomic status. fasting HDL concentration was significantly decreased in smokers than non-smokers (p<0.35 ± 10.81 ± 1.001).imedpub. The logistic regression analysis was carried out to find the significance of each risk factor after adjusting for other factors.30 ± 12. triglycerides .12 <0.USA) and serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration was determined by means of nephelometry method( Dade-Behring. both serum total homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in cigarette smokers than in non-smokers(p<0.

There are approximately 4000 chemicals in cigarettes. Tracy and colleagues(26) reported that pack-years of smoking but not current cigarette smoking was positively associated with log C-reactive protein levels among 400 health elderly participants in the cardiovascular health study. deadly.3823/1009 Our Site: http://www. such as C-reactive protein and fibrinogen .iMedPub Journals 2012 JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Discussion Few studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of C-reactive protein. Serum homocysteine level has also been related to increased risk for cardiovascular disease(24. This results provide further insight into the role that cigarette smoking may play in the development of atherosclerosis.positive relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated levels of all three novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease. reducing risks for diseases caused by smoking and improving health in general. The effects of smoking on human health are serious and in many cases. 4:1 doi: 10. Our study reports that all the three novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis(23). hundreds of which are toxic. The ingredients in cigarettes affect everything from the internal functioning of organs to the efficiency of the body’s immune system. These findings suggest that inflammation and hyperhomocysteinemia may be important mechanisms by which smoking promotes atherosclerotic disease. C-reactive protein and homocysteine were elevated in cigarette smokers when compared with non-smokers. © Copyright iMedPub 3 . serum lipids .25). Quitting smoking has immediate as well as long-term benefits. lipids and homocysteine are positively associated with risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. In conclusion. our study identifies a strong . In addition. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators .imedpub. 1 No.

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