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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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JOSE R. CAPABLANCA .

LTD. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. BELL AND SONS. BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G. .

BY HARCOURT. 1921. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form.COPYRIGHT. S. by any other means. A. All rights reserved. without permission in writing from the publisher. . INC. BRACE AND COMPANY. PRINTED IN THE U.

In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application. now. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. I. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. ig34 . The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. had been discovered. of vital importance. R. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. The change has been only a change of form. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. and not always for the best at that. during the opening stages generally. There has been no change in the fundamentals. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago.

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Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . 19. 2.. 5. .. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps . 71 73 .. Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 28 8.. 4. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook .. 12. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. 15.LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. 14. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1. 19 24 25 6. A A 11..aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13. 16. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. II in End-game Play 35 37 10. 7. 18.

30. 23.. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26.) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 .) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint. the 146 power 33. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action . Rook. Bishop and Pawns v. of a Pawn at K 5. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game .. 29.. etc.. 28.LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. 32.. Rook. 27. 22. The Initiative 77 21. 25. 24.

Black: A. 238 White: F. Sebastian. Centre Game (Berlin.R. 169 4. R. Petersburg. 209 R. 1911 ) R. 1913) White: J. Capablanca. R. (New York. RuY Lopez (St. Queen's Gambit Declined J. R. Capablanca. 14. 12. Teichmann. Capablanca. 15^ Black: J. Petersbltjg. J. (St. R. 189 R. 1914) White: J. 163 3. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. Rin Lopez (San White: J. White: F. Black: J. Petersbltig. S. 221 11. Black: R. 215 R. Capablanca. A. 201 9. 1914) White: Dr. Burn. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. White: D. Petersburg. Marshall. Snosko-Borovski. White: J. 225 R. 181 6. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. RvY Lopez (New York. Lasker. Capablanca. . . 13. Irregular Defence (Havana. . 1913 ) Black: J. Rubinstein. 1911). Capablanca. Black: J. Capablanca.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. Capablanca. R. Black: J. Capablanca. White: J. Janowski. Capablanca. 8. Black: O. . 1918). Black: J. Capablan 1913) Black: E. 174 5. Mieses. Capablanca. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. J. 1918) Black: J. French Defence White: J. . 1916) White: O. E. Petroff Defence (St. R. 1913 ) Black: J.Capablanca. 197 7. Chajes. K. 1914) Black: D. White: A. R. Chajes. RuY Lopez White: J. Capablanca. Black: F. 1918) White: J. Marshall. French Defence (New York. (St. 231 Morrison. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. 10. Marshall. Janovvski. a. 2.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. 1. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. 1. SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. King to the on any side of .

4 K— K K-Q i. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. strated by the first move.. 7R-QB7. R— R 7. K— Kti. 9K— Kt6.. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. K— B K— K i. as the opposing King. or. 6. 5K-Q5. 3 3. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. K-B i.4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. 8 mate. as possible on the same rank. loR — BSmate. The forced. to When. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i.K— B 6. 6K-Q6. . 9 K— Kt 6.. K — R i. K— Ri. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. 8K-B6. towards the centre. according to principle.. the it is King has been brought it. K— Kt 2. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. R— R 8 mates at once. in this case.K-Ri. be 8 by 6.K-Kti. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. now the King moves back to Q i. 7K— K6. K— Kt K— Kt i. fiile. 4. as in this case. the sixth rank. K— K King I. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate.

8 K — B K— R 3. now if 3. 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. 3. but to one side of the other King. instead 4. . . . .SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . Now . not in front. K— K it 3. K-Kt 7. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. next to the Rook. to K 4. R — B 4 ch. K— Kt 6. 5. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. 7 . the King confined to as few squares as possible. K— R 6. is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. 2. is way to proceed 2. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. 5 On the other hand. K— B instead. but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. . . K— B 7. .

I believe it it and. K — B 2 B — B 5. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. K— Kt 2. or away his from the last row. as his pieces. 2 B — K Kt 5. If the Black King. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. in the original had been in the centre of the board. under any conditions. file. is should be done it may be monotonous. has taken eleven moves to mate. K— B 8 R— R I mate. White should have advanced King. While in under twenty. position. play 3 B — Q3. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. White can . with the aid of his Bishops. K — Kt II 8. restricted . and then.

Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. files . 6. . so as to force the Black back .. it is immaterial whether the King forced .. it K — Kti. K— 2. in this case either K R 6. K B KB and as 4 KR . but he must also be forced into a comer. these squares that the King ought to go. 9K — R6. In all endings of this kind. before a mate can be given. K — Bi. B 7 2. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. but also into a corner. it should be done in thirty. in one of the two 8." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. 5. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. K Kt 6. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. iiB — K7. In all such endings. same time. last 7.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. 10 B — R5. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. is however. i.K — Kt2. Kt 12 i. K— Kt K— Kt 2. and. moves back to ch. it is to either of . position. up a K— R I. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4.4K — B 2. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. 4. i.

6 ch) Q— K and 6. 4 6. mate move). Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. I or Q 8. as in the case of the Rook. moves.K —K 5 4. K — Kt 4. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. K 4. In this ending. . As the Queen combines the power the Bishop. K— B K Q mates.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank.g. Thus: Q— B 6. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen.. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. only . or to on to the or an outside file. e. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. 7 K—R next 3.. 2. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. K — Kt 5. (Should Black play K — B 4. 3. K— Q 5. KR 5 Q R 4. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6. 3 K—K 6.

speaking generally.. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings._ «„ . the process is and and shorter. even unit. Example « „. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. It essential. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . with at least one intervening square. 6.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. then the game cannot be won. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. at least two required. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. 2. without the aid of the King. that the King should he in front of his Pawn.

2K— Q3. the Black King must be kept in front of it. should the latter advance.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. as for stance in this position because of the White King. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. K— K 3. ?. 4 K— K 3. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. 4. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. II K— Q6. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. in front be shown later. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. K-K2. when forced to go back. As the White King comes up. 9 P— K 6 ch. and when it cannot be done. K— B Again the same case. very as K— K4. K— K 3. I. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki.t the same time. 7K— K4. K— Q4important move. will This is Any other move would lose. 5. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. and a stale mate results. 3 4 ch. If White advances the Pawn. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. K— Q 2. 5. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. K— K 3. K— K 2. as before. 5 P—K K — B 4. of the WTiite King. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant .

identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . K— K 3. Pawn until it is essential own I. 3. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. P-K3. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. Thus K— K 4. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on.K-B3. He is then able advance his own King. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away.^^wmWmmm. K-Q5.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. White is 2. 6. .K-K2.

would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. 4. else. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward. as Black would then similar 5. all these squares being protected by the King. 7.K— B i.K-Ki. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. K— K5. Had he moved anywhere 7. 9K-Q 7.K-Ki. White could have played of the K— B K 6. since its own not require it. . K-B6. it K 6 would make play K — B. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. force As Black to prevent that. and we P— a draw. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet.K-Q2. . There- back his to protect the must continue. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 .. White must at the move away. to play 3. P-K5. the White 5.K— Q2. is winning the Pawn. P— K4.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. 7. it Now Pawn 6.. 8. then White would 4. better for Since he has not done so. Thus K— K6. . Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7.K— B 4.

Furthermore. 3. that the may out how they can be won. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. Example 7. nobody can how . and it 13 to K 8. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. or three against two. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. .PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. not. This ending is like the previous one. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. the student the student has one. is all over.

KxP. If 2P B 7 ch. WTiite. . K— R i. K-Kt If i. P — B 4. his Pawn 3 without losing it. because P — Kt 3 draws. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . White cannot win by playing P. as shown in a previous case. 7 7. which 2 P—B because Black plays. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. and draws. however. (The student should work out.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6.PXP. K B I. and draws. If K— K I PxP. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. ch. K X P.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. K— Bi. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. (This. 5 P— Kt 7. 7 4 7ch. i. and if PX P. . P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. not PX then would lose. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. 2. 5. Example by I P —B 8. 3-K-Kt 3. 2 K-K i. but i . 3P-B6.K— Kt i.

K— R K— Kt i. K— R 7. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. P— Kt 6 ch. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why). 7. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. loK— K6. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. K-B3.6K— K4. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2.) shown Example 5P — B6. P-Kt 3. KxP. K-B 3.K-B2.4K-Q6. 6. fact. 13 K— B 7. K— B 2. This ending. by playing i K— K 4.7K— K5. 8P— B K— Kti. 7 K— B 6. K— Kt i. K— R2.P-Kt 3. 12 K— B 6. 3 K-B 4. i 7.. K— R draws). K— Kt 2. 3K-B5. apparently so simple.) 2 P-B 5 ch. i. the only way to win is the one given here. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. and which will be explained more fully later on. 5 I.) : White can win. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. (If K-K3. 4 P— Kt K— K3. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6.. K-Q4. and White queens the PawTi and wins. 14 K x P. K— Kt i. K— R2. however. . K-K3. K— B into ch. K— B i.5P-Kt5. 6 K— K 7. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. 9K— Q6. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. K— Kt 2. K— R i. II K— K 7. K — B 2.

^^ ^ ^^ wm. and student. 3. whenever there it. 2 P-Kt 2. P—B and we have a If i . 2.^ i m. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. it. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. P. — In this ending ^^ wm. K-K5.^ fs^.K-K2. no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I.Kt K-K 5. similar ending . .i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. P—R 3 . to one of those shown above. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal. 6. also.K-B2. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. Example 9. . If P — Kt 5- 3. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move.

then result..P-Kt P — Kt 3.. 4. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board. P— KKt ..^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4.. and by following it up with P showTi.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m. and 3.. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . 4 6 ch. 4 P-B 6. 4. P-R5.P-R 3..P— Kt 3. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. Thus we have I. R PX P. perior forces. and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.

K If 3. . 2.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition.P — R 3. is far away. K-K3. 5'K-B K— B 6. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. then simple counting will show that side with his King. I P-QR4. K-K5. . 3. 3.P — R P— Kt and 6. P-Kt 5. . K-Kt 2. Black makes an advance on the other side. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same.. 4. P-QR4. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. — Kt 4. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. In this case either way wins. K-B 2. K-B3.P-R4. 7. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2.. to win the other Pawn. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. If 7 6. 5. 5.

KxQ. Example 11. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game.. mate by way and most K R— K 8. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game.. once he becomes better acquainted with it... .m* ^ 5 _« P « «. \dz. to ^. Black plays of i. 4R— R8 mate. before considering the openings. I.R— Ki. no doubt. 3R— Rsch. .SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. s It is Black's move. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained.R— K threatening Kt 7. he.. shall However. K— Kti.. 2QxPch. White now uncovers his real effective threat. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i..„„ a . to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces.

These two examples show the . —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P... R—R ch. back quickly he 1. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops.. Again B X Kt ... Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <.y.. Kt— Kych . 12.. 3 ch. QXP R—R 3 ch.^. mate.. 4. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. and should therefore easily. QxKt KXQ .///y i B. King moves 3. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2. and miless he can win will lose . 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind.20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position..^S.

— The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. mates in a few moves thus I. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. after side. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. QXP mates. . otherwise 2. WTiite. Example 13. 3.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. should therefore win. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. Example curs in 14. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced.

Example tion is 15. . . which already attacked." . mn. Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. threatens mate. R— Kt3 ch mate. 2.22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . m m ^M . B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1.wm. K— R 4.6^ If . QX 3 is B. ''mm.^u. . —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position. and there- fore wins the Q.

) 4 Q— R 5 ch. 2 .. 5. K— Kt KR 5. 7 R B x P ch. P — KKts. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. 5 Kt— Kt 5.. RxB. 2 Q-K i. SBxPch.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . 9 Q— K 4 mate. 5. i. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. K— Kt 2. 6 Q — R 7 ch.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. P-K Kt3. K— B 3.. K X B. (If 3.K-R1. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. K— K 3. 4 Q-R5. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the . R — B i RX B. wins. B) R best 3 B X P ch. sBxPch. K X B. -^ 1^ V? h r i:. K— Kt i. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch..) Q— R a R. B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^. 16. Kt X . i but he can win quickly thus (If I.K-R 6..

There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. fathom but.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. ch. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. 5. rather long This combination ations. 9 R— K is ch. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. i Kt— Kt i. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. 7 Q— R 8 ch. most cases . K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. . is for all of them. knowing the tyjDe combination. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. K— K 2. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. i. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it.

. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. as said before. the be a better piece against the Rook. The King. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. but. be worth more than three PawTis. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. Get them into play as fast as you can. increases. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. becomes an offensive piece once the board. Therefore. on the contrary. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. From the outset two moves. so. or a Bishop and two Pawns. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. A Bishop will often worth so much.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. as no other move accomplishes so much. The power of the off. iP— K4oriP Q4. and sometimes even left. of these two moves must be first the best. and a stronger than a Queen.

BxKt. preferably the also Knight. 4 B-Kt5 same manner. 4. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4..26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2.. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. 1. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack. . 3. which to be bad.

as there is already in view a combination 5. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. 7.. to notice three things. : These moves have a two-fold object. a ^ W M « A l«i m. thus bringing First..) Second. As a rule.) He is now forced to play 7. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases.OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. Black follows the same 6. B-Kt5 'm . P-Q3 P-Q3 viz. (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. eight should be enough. » mm. up the experience has shown. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. ^ i^ A very powerful move.'-1. which brings us to the middlegame stage.BxKt. Black has . tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves.

as what has already been stated viz. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. as ence will show. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre.. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. cation varies according to the circumstances. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. the game. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. four squares. . puts Black on the defensive. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White. p. is is (This. 77. 7. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once.) Third. the centre is of great importance.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action.^ initiative. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20.

In the at once. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. its sole object the control of the initiative. On openings. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. 29 and possibly three. But on prin- .CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. Example 18. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. whenever possible. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. 1. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. 2. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums.

Black's force him to play PX P. 4. Kt — B3 6. - perfectly safe position. . White threatened Kt it . tends. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. 5.. 6 KtxKt. thus abandoning the centre to White.. Kt X P because of with 4. 6 Q-Q 5). 9. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P. — Kt 2.B — K 5. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. PxKt.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. first. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P.PXP. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. 7. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop. and instead action of Black's pieces. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. to cramp them. on the contrary.

given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. I this do not know. study this example. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. unless there is some compensation. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move.P X P loses a 5. There are no weak spots in his armour. 1. which violates one of the principles set down. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. which is opening generally bad. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. PxP Pawn. Example 19. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. . 4. 2. 6. 3. BxKt . If Kt — B 3 .

. TRAPS 8. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway.. 8. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners.. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings. and White. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m. especially P— and P —Q R 3.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black. . however. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed.32 7. has no pieces out except his Queen. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position... is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game.... and in beginners are often caught.

. K— K2 Example 21. 4. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn.>: -^^Wm W '. 33 •aigli i *«a^.TRAPS Example 20.4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1.^^-t-^: . Kt 3. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate." . 2.A»i.

because of QX B. is but the type given above the most common of all. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. . But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. B—R 5 help matters. But suppose he plays 1. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. . Kt — ch KB 3 instead. having the move. Nor i . then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage.34 TRAPS Black. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. 2BXP 2 mate. should play P— K 3. I 2. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. There are a good many other traps is — in fact. there a book written on traps on the chess board. the threat being of course ifBxQ.

e. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. then again to the middle-game. 9. But suppose that White. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he .CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. governs such cases. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm. finally to the openings once more. ^ k In the position shown above.

won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. p_Q R P—Q R I 4. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. 22. P — Kt (Best. it can be applied in much many ways. 4. K— Kt (Best . does not. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it.) 3. P — R5 P — R6 6. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns. stress unit thai holds two. Example cient proof. 5. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. in this case. we say. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. to those not familiar with . Then Black can win by playing . 7. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. that he plays i .) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. K—B 5 see why. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black.

. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. 2. important. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. Black's parts. 1. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. P-R 4. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. since. K — K6 3 2 4. As soon as the easier for Black to win.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. in is order to win the game.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7.

^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. 7. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part. 5. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed.38 2 3./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. 4. ^P*P*«*g .

II 12. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. 13. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. is This example it excellent training.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. . K— Ri P— Kt 7. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. as White's move. 8. K-Kt 10. how two squares according to the position King. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. It is in this analytical try to learn. 11. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. as indicated previously. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27.THE OPPOSITION Now. '^M. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. which can be solved mathematically.) In simple forms of opposition. the player who has the the opposition. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. for the present. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. the student should only consider the most simple forms. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. we shall have what may be called distant frontal. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition. all at times somewhat complicated forms. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. but. The .

therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win.. 2. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. and the position. 3. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. and that the number of intervening squares is even. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. probably looks absolutely even. Very little is left on the board. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing.. Who- move wins.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. but Black has other Unes of .K— K3. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. I. to a beginner. 5. If4. ever has tlie It is not the case. only lead to a draw. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. thereby keeping the opposition. however.

. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. leaving a rank free between the Kings. viz. it would be bad to advance. Let us begin anew.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. or if 2 K— K3. K— Q I. you must advance. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. is B 3.) Now There in order to win. means the winning or a game. and that waiting or file the right place. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. K — Qi 2. 2. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. by bringing up his King in front of your King. Therefore we 2. is only one other square where he can go. would obtain the opposition. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. to Black's first move. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. because then Black. K— K both cases. the player who has moved has the opposition. the White King must advance. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3.

K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. because of his after the text I 2. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). a Pawn behind and apparently lost. 2. K— Q move. K— R2 K-R3I 3. K— Q 7. m White is jm. Example defence. On the other hand. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety.^^ m m ^m^m^.48 THE OPPOSITION 28. own Pawn if B 3. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me.

49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 . but plays 2. by K— K 4. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. 6. Going back to the original position. 5.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. 1. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . because P win. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. in fact.. and always keep the opposition.THE OPPOSITION 4. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. If the Queen. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. as. if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P.. KxP. . ^ See page 13.PXP draw. 3. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2.

THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. although the Black cornered. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. White wins with or without the move. I. '^""""' '^m.so 14. under certain conditions of course. in which Black has a Pawn. but in the following position. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. — In the above position White cannot King is win. but.

5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. as explained before. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. the absolutely worthless. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. . that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. 2. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4.

the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. the chief reason being that. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. unlike the Bishop. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. . at any one time. I. However.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. 31. 2. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. the generally overlooked that the Knight. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.

While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. much Knight from one wing to the other. or should be. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. there is and Tchigorin. In this respect. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. in as shown the following Example. a Bishop can . Example 32. to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. to-day .OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. as in many others. and of course there is. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop.

Of course. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. generally. While on this subject.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. in an ending. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished. mistake often made by players. on both sides of the in having a Knight. there his Bishop. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. I shall also call attention to the .

The game should surelv end in a draw. Naturally.' . particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop.. Example 34. <mA- m MA milaf^. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. BisJiop. in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ .. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board.. the opponent has a Bisliop. The might be stated thus When Bisliop.-^ ^. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position.

^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. should end in a of having the draw.. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. properly played out. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m .^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. though if the position. at long range. wm m^ 2 mm. Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command.56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36.

Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. side is Black that has three two.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. though White has somewhat better chances. but there is a passed Black). in with proper play. because. the game should end a draw. Thus. while on to Queen's Still. Example 37. although each player has the same number of Pawns. Q R P at all. he can do . since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. they are not balanced on each side of the board. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. White has three it to two. on the King's the side.

Example — Again Black would have great this position. and requires different handhng. according to Calculation will count. as in ings. is Each to ending different. be best. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. that the all proper course in these endings. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. do. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. I might say generally. in their true value. to the general method wiU of procedure. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . a teacher. however. or practical experience.

K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. and. We might begin. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. against a Rook. 3. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. in all such cases. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . and the openings.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. colotir Example at 39. — In 8. then. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. Black. us see and Bishop. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts.

has two ways to prevent that. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8.6o 4. 7. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. 12. 5. 13. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. 9. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. White 5. one by 14 B—K . 10. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. the Black King in the white-squared corner. position.

26. and which I consider better for the student to learn. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. 27. 14. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 20. 21.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending.Kt 2 ch 24. 22. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. 29. 25. 15 Kt — it K is 3. 28.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. and the Knight and King. by using King as much as possible. 17- 18. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the . and the other which as the text. 19.

QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns. The resources of the defence are many. and then the Rook would be compara- .^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why). — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. If it Now. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. 40. moves which are granted by 16. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. and rules. is that your opponent mate you within However.62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules.

because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win.. 5- best 6. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. Now we come will to the second part. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. K—R 2.) I 2.) . is required. Q — R 6. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. Stalemate.R— Kt 8. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. 3KXR. and that. in order to compel Black to do so. the way to proceed Thus I. K to R I or to R 2 3.. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. 4 Q— K 5 ch. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. Once we know becomes easier to what find. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap. The first part concluded. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. Q— K 5ch . check with the Queen win it.

64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. [ « ^.^ ^^m^ ^^. m. . — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position. Example 42. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. — The procedure here is very similar. ^m. . The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate..

quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. 7. since he . King. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. Thus 2. IfK— R2. White. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. but. If3. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. which defence. 5.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. 8.. not the best. The best move is 1. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i. unfortunately. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41.R— Kt2ch. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . a very effective makes very difficult for . K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. ... 6..QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. 2. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. Q— Kt 6ch. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4.

Let us go back again. 7.. 6Q— K5 ch. R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. 1. White threatened mate at 8. 4ch and the Rook Note. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. 5 i however. 5 K B 6 3. Q 8. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. Kt 2 ch. The text move.K R2. 4 Q— Q 4. seen. K— Kt 2. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. is given to show the finesse of such endings. Also that the Queen and .. White now threatens mate at 5 6. Example 40 with Black 2. in these examples. 5.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move.

67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text. . He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

e. the right move. player to find.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. without such 17. . may help the little effort. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . I my own have selected those that types. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. i. with of great help It often in fact. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many.

played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. and mates in three moves as follows . QX Q. RXP 2 3.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. K 6. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. — It is Black's move. however. 2 If. viz. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. 69 is 43. — Black's last move was P — 5. K— R I. forceful White. at all. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. has a more move.

K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. but material. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. ^1 W^^ i^^W. ^^ if 45. before Black consolidates his defensive position. — White has a beautiful position.70 1. . RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. If Kt X B . 5. He there- 2. 8. 7. Kt and Black would be 3. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. better gain some he can.

P-B3(best). 18. must therefore press on his attack.^ R-K My 2.. . Black should have played i. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. 4. lose. K-B 2. White is two Pawns behind. The game tinues : — He con- I. 5 KtxP. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. K-Kta.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. by R. 4 P- K 5.'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. 3 Kt X B.. 6 Kt-K J. ii).KtxKt. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. Chess Career. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite.

3.^ is This position elaborated under . . 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. — The is student should carefully ex- position. The game continues 1. attack. 4..72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen..). Kt— Kt . as the sacrifice of the typical. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2. 3 . Best. If 2 .K — Kti. White * finally won. 3Q — R5. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. K— R and if2.

Very often. Black is a Pawn behind. is of such positions of great im- portance. however. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. — Black's pieces. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. are very well placed and free to act. however. The student should carefullv . Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. and there no violent direct attack against White's King.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. or even Pawns.

is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. 9. 7. This threatens to win the Kt. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. management I 2. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. the Q R P. among other thmgs. ultimately win Q X Kt. 4. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. but he sees that there to be had. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . R X Kt P. easier. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. 5. Queen He now threatens. The move makes matters 2 3. 5. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 8.

Indeed. It is.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. B —B 4. might be good enough. since after 2 iB — B4. QR — Qi. Wliite's move. and he has two courses to choose from. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. and his Bishop commanding however. Black's move. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. if it we might conclude side. that he would have the better game. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. Rx B . Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. The obvious move. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. besides obtaining the better position.

. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. The student should positions. 4. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. that — note. machine- That. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. at should be. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. 5. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. B—B 4. as White threatened 3. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead. with the better position. least. White.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

or be unable to parry. with full force. all cannot he hroken of. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. to King must ensure their success. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. as in and that out. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. always an advantage to threaten something. for direct attack.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. in Failing the second case. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. forces the opponent to provide against its it. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. a thrust at another point. his threat carried into effect. For. But once the no longer. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. one or more must be created. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . holding the threat in hand. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. so as to side. since in defeat. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. such cases that means 22.

3. 4. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. R. (French Defence. to . 5. R. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. Ayala. 2. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. M.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. Capablanca. Blanco. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. 1.) Black : J. 1913.

. White's play would be very difficult. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. in which Black might have at least. i m. iii m. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. 4 was the right move. mend 7 8. which otherwise has everything to recomit. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation.A. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own.±:m.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM..m. would have led to held his complications. and puts Black . The text move accomplishes nothing.

The . in order to improve the position of White at other 13. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). points. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. 12. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. because of the sacrifice BX P). I B — Q3 was Kt 3. 14. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. He has lost much time. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. any sort. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. 15. position. P—B 10. seriously weakening his King's side. B X Kt followed by 9. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. 16. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive .

. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. make way for the Rook. RxB. 21 — P2. PX Kt. there rule. 20 B x P. QX if P./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. But is it always happens in such is cases that. Kt Q-Kt 4. 24RxRch. but merely to 17. as of White.PxQ. is one line of attack this anticipated. not as an active attack- ing piece. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. 18. which would be bad. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19.K— R Kt 25 4. tending to prevent P—B 5.^m^m. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. as another. 23QxR. followed by B X P. and tempting White to play Kt X B. and no exception to the will be seen. 22 P— K R 4. Q X Kt. KR4. 11mi m X m m.

thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. I not the case. Black 5. however. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. as White threatened 23. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. untenable. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. as White quickly demonstrates. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. Such. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. and also QX P Q-B3 better. 24. 22.THREATENED ATTACK 20. in my for opinion. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. PX K P. 87 21. Pawn.

Dr. E. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. as he has P— B 28. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns.PXP. 3031. R— K2 3. R— K 2. Q— K3 4. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . 4. to advance P—R 29. and finally at the proper time to play RX B. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6.P 4. White's play were might be found that there was it. 33P-K Kt 3. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. 27. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. 5. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up.. and Black will soon be helpless. 32. winning. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue.. 28.

— From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. 12.) White: R. J. 5. 10. 4. Janowski. involving of pieces. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . Kt — Q2 9. once the obtained. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. Capablanca. 7. 23. to be good. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. 1913. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. Example 53. 1. there material advantage is nothing to do. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. is A good example of type of game given below. and therefore I played knew 7 8. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. Black: D.

Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight.K B - 3 was 18 19. concerned there is only one thing to do. it is Then. R— Q R— —Q B 4. Black has two B 3 and 3. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. 20.^ Such grand show hand of a master. K KR Kt .90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. e.. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange. supported by pieces or Pawns. where White forces. 15. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. BxR Kt— K3 better. a could establish themselves. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. 18. once to derive passed. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. in the following diagram. B— R6 2 I 14. 13.g. 16. Pawn and relieving the position. "holes" at Thus.

^y^/y/y^. If m '. is In reality Black's attack force. and then .RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. without even a Pawn for it. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. could not succeed against sound defensive play. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. ^P wm '^**i^. 22. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21.

At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. i Now is the Black It prepared. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. Rook enters into the game. '''. action.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. . It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. but White is now time to give back the exchange. 28. but he will soon prepare the way for it. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm.. '"<. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. Then. Bepres- sides. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. well prepared. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. 27.

3334.n . fine. 40. 38. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. 36. 39. Rx B RX B. 93 303132. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. I . 34 35. i.

50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. 4748. which will be treated separately. . 42. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. 24. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. 4344. 49.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. game a master only plays to cut so to speak. 45- P .Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other.

54. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. Black R. 2. Winter.) White: W. (Four Knights. should be sufficient to win. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. which. which I have played successfully in many a game. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. J. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. On the other hand. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. Niemzowitch's variation. 1. he will have to weaken is his some other way. 6 QPxB . Capablanca. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. It gives WTiite is a very solid game.

possible. . ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. i. New York ment. gives White the best of the game. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. after most of the pieces have been exchanged. The Kt P X B . in most cases comes P — KB times 4. 8. ^ 9 14. I believe. See Capablanca-Janowski game. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. by J. The general strategical plan for K R 3. but mostly at K R Finally. K Kt 3. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. without doubt. and then the real attack begins. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book. against Levitzki. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. 7. 19 13. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. Then.^ 8 9. Petersburg. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2. R. 1913. Capablanca. remains at Kt i.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. at St.

Black's plan is — K Kt 4. 10. t^ • bi^^ k To / . WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. as soon as the circumstances permit. falls into the trap. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal. 10. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move.

so that the student The rest of the game is given. with disastrous results in either case. After this as will be seen. 14. to may see how simple it is win such a game. the result cannot be in doubt. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. Black now devotes and. and possibly not even then. 13. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. 11. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. . Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. side. 12. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. either before or after Kt X Kt. White cannot play Kt X Kt P.

PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21.Kt B 5. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. against Mr. 27. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. F. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. F. It . Black regains immediately by 24. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. has the Alexander. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. 26.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. 23. file. 17. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. one of England's foremost players. after PX B P. 18. 29. L. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. PxP 28. 22. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. R. 19.

my request.) White Mr. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. 2. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. L. Black : George Thomas. F. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. I. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. Example 55. Alexander. F.

7. and might be compelled to stake all on a . first. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. Q 3. 10. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. 9. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. constitutes an advantage. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. In the opening.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. which. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. loi There are. B X Kt Kt X B 8. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. 12. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. in a general way.) GAME . (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. besides. 5.

There were three moves to consider: first. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. or that were not possible. (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. .) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. a turning point in the game. P-Qs K R— Q is i. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. 13 14.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B.

P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by .B QB 5. either of Rooks to Kt X B. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18.) . Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong.IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 . in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 . 103 in the P—Q R 4. blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. which he 15 16. 18 B X P ch.Kt and P. This would have 3 to pre. sive. which would weaken Pawns. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. B — Kt 5 and third. PX P. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. B X P . which he would do in case.

threatening P— K B 4. 22. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. B—K B—B P—B better. play Q R— K I. If is able to defeat this plan. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. 23. . it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. therefore. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. 21. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. time with his Rook's moves. which. once they enter in action. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . a plan on a large success. side. 2 4 3 to would . carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. or rather to prevent then. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. direct attack against the King. which promises chances of and with it all. have probably. He should. to be followed by a White it. play 20. In such cases a player must conceive scale. 20.) Black's play hereabout weak . lacks force.

which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. GAME 105 2.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. Had White retaken with the B P. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. 26. as he expected. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side.

account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. after having placed the Q at Q 2. and P — B text to The move 4. as. B P on 27. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. K B 2. and there is no effective continuation. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. had White Kt 3. but it is isolated. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. he could then play Q— PX P.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. It 28. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . vented all that. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. 29. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces.

107 now 34 B-B 3. however.) .1 take pleasure . P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. 35 BXB ch. 35. ch . B X B. Kt — B 4. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. 37. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. and White plays is lost. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. •/ /'^^ m. 40 RX R. R X Kt RXR 4. manner. B —K If. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. ch. by the masked attack on White's Rook. with a winning attack. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i .. best. PXP.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R.) 34. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black.

ove. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i.Q— R 38.R-R3. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. 39. and the way 41.) best A very beautiful m.io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. QxKtP. beginning with 39. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. QXR . R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. .. 3940.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. Kt 2. to carry on the attack. . 41 Kt-Kt I. ® i i (If 40..

(Again. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape. then. not R— K R 3 42.) 44. very fine .) (If 42 QX last.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. Rx R B. R—R 3 wins. but \Miite has no time to take it. ch. at 42 43. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. because of P —Q 6 dis.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B.) 41 BxB . WTiite resigns.

there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. which masters of the rank are at times not . players they are weak in the endings first . arduous struggle. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. that very often the case among the large majority of . Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. a failing from free. Unfortunately. of course. and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. which. in Then I followed a very hard. it But yet the ending at first appeared. Finally. I accepted. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange.

breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. Example 56. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. . JNIorphy. 26. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. that at times the in attacking first on one side. granted greater mobility of the pieces. when speaking about win consists general theory. then. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. in this and Dr.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally.

which loses quickly. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. . White should have played 8 answered . 7. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 .112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. as will be seen very soon. Black. I A serious mistake. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. 3. R— KKt 8. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. played I 2. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. 3. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. 5. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. which in the end might give him the victory. K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. and thus to Rooks. Kt 8 R-KB5 . therefore. In the above position with the Black pieces. side.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. 4.

The . which There is him the initiative. ' Mt M. Ml. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. ^^^ M. If PX R. Example 57. Another good example. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. R— 4 ch. 1913. also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. by R— K R 8 winning. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. while Black has an isolated Q R P.FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. R — B 6ch followed 10. ' M. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. 9.

If4.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. If he has a weak point. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . freely.P — KB4. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. 4. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre.. 4 ch. White the control I open file. and also not to allow 2.P — Q4. 5R — . He does nothing after Besides. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. 3.. as in the previous ending. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. followed by hard to point out anything better.. try make it weaker. the to bring Rooks forward... 5R — 2. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. If4. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. If he has a weakness. make else. it is but follow White's footsteps. and he can get rid of it.

P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . which would have left If 8 . which is all White desires. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6.R-K2. R — R 6.. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. for reasons that will soon 7 8. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. and Black's game is hopeless.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. winning the R—Q R Q R P. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak.RxP. 7K-B2. 7. K-Q 9. Evidently forced. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. 6PxR. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. which is the only one that can advance two squares. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side.. become evident. P—Q 5 . P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. 3. 9 1 1 R-K 4. King's side would be held 5. 10.

RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. won game. K-Kt2. R—R .R-Kt i. 12 13. since of it forces the exchange . tinuation. in beheve. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11.Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. Rooks because I. 3 was the proper coni . P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. drawn.Kt i Black misses his only chance. fact. 4. 14 P — Kt 3. 12. . and 15 if then 13. but this move is weak. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. would have . I with excellent winning chances.

R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. 20. R 2 6 via Kt 4. 16. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. however. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. 22. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. 4 R-B 3 . 19. but only one move. 18. 17. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. less. 2526. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. SIDE I 117 15.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. 27. P-Kt 7. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. . P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21.

28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?. which is gives Black a fighting chance.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. 29. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual.. In this ending. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. P . as often the case with most players. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch. The right move was 28. .Kt 5 A weak move.. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling. of. ""f^i (Bis. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7.

mistakes are lost. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. made and opportunities are is shows that. 48. offered better 38. R-K7 R— Kt chances. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. 4344. . even in master-play. 4546. a player. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. so long as there no great advantage of material. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. even with a good position. 42. 49. It and how often. followed by RxP R-K R 7. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. 3940. 7 ch. 37. no matter how strong.

and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed.^. 1913).^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. as did. how it P-Kt4 RXRP . but his position is rather poor.120 THE DANGER OF 27. I. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana.. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. . Not only he bound to lose a Pawn. careless became exceedingly happened.

5R-R8ch. After the text is lost. R . as will soon be seen.Kt 3 8 P . The reason is evident. 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. K — Kt 3 . .K-Kt3. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two. which is actually in danger.. R .. then R . 3. i2i This is the first. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care.P-B4. 5. move no defence. 4. iiRxKtP. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. and wins easily. K— Ki. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. K-K 2. 9 R (R 6) X R. Px R.B 3 7 R X P ch. 10 R-Kt 7 ch. 7 Px P ch. . 2. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. K . R (Q 4) -Q 8 . P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns.Kt 2 If4. and has only taken three moves. R X P. If then K-Kt 3.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin.Kt 5 ch. 6 .K 4. . . 6. His best there move was is R —R 4. and is does not stop to think whether there better. If instead White played K.K 4 ch followed by R X R P.

and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. Yet though and they do occur so often. few have mastered them thoroughly. They are often of a very difficult nature. 10 R-R 8 ch. 8RxR. Example 59. K-Kt 3. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . . Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. P—R 28. 5 mate.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. KxR. but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board.

2P-B7. . or draw by perpetual check. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. R-Q3. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. as against wins. We have therefore 3.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. R—B (a) 2. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. P-B6 7 ch. 3. R— Q 3. Luckily for him Black did lost. P—B 7. not see the drawing move. a simple wm by R—B ch. 4. played poorly. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. 5. but there are other very interesting features. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. (6) 2.R— K7 a very important move. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn.

Let us examine them.Kt 3. 4. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2.Kt 6 R . and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. then R — R 6.. . R-B3 K-B 5 P . 5.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch. or (6) R-K B 3.. and come out with a winning ending. . K-K 6. and R — R 4 ch. followed by R — K B 4 wins. because the King the Kmg goes up.:. R-Kt3ch 2.. 3.. . then goes back. If P_Kt 6. If R-Q 3 ch. I.. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins.

the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. and iP — B6.3. 2R — Bych. Now. K 6.P-B7 2. K-K2 . going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. and come out with a winning ending. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. according to the circumstances. 4. R — Q3. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. Black did not to draw. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3.

This last condition is very im- portant.0 ^. because instead of the position on the diagram. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5.. the Black Rook were at KR i.. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file. and Black had the move.. RxP R-Q2 8. K-K3 ^„„. and to check besides.. — ^^ '^" ^^^... RxP R-KR2 RxP 9.„^^. m.. i^ ^. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook. he could draw by preventing the ad- .. 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6... ^^^ ^ ..126 Best. if.„„^^„ m ^^'. the last-named move particularly would win with ease. ..„. 7. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win .. This position we have arrived at is won by White.

of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. These endings. Now position that is we have explained won. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. is The way them. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. 29. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. as already stated. in the 60. — From a game. are not is very common.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. . The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings.

This move not only prevents intended. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. criticised. There is nothing to gain by this move. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. . It is Black's move.128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. R-Q4 P—B 3. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. That would fix the Queen's side. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. unless White plays P . to It often leads to disaster. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5.Q Kt 3. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed.

R-K2 R-QR He 3. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. now develop. but . 3 and Kt 7. in order to WTiite. He could not play 8. 5. This in move K— K 8. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn.3 is This is a mistake. is a little too late. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. P .Kt PXP ch 2 4. . Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. R-R6 K—Q 3. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position.K R—B 2.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. R— Q R force I should have been played now. Black unaware of the danger of . should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. 5 6. his position. R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. however. by making this P. 3. hence move. because P— KB 4 would have . stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. w^hich will 7. I K-K.

nor could he do much with 10. threat- not enough.I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed.. recovering the Pawn with advantage.. 5 9. K—K 2 ^^j^ . tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position.. or.. ^m. King at B 5 or K 5. . If he 9. He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. because of RX R. cannot play Of course. as he could not go back with the King. which he should have started before. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation.PXP. Rook. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. „ . he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5. followed by R—R 3. i ^ ILl . White RXR P. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side.J^^^ . either .. might play K — Q 4. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10.^ mmi.

or he might first play Q 4. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong.. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. then 14. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. 4 at once was the right move. if there was nothing better. . Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. 13. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. P-R5 K B If good.R— Kt2. it is very similar. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. would play P — Kt 4. because of Q R P. and it will be seen that 11. nor could he advance On the other hand. because would leave him paralysed..

16 K. . 17. with winning RxR. RxP. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . lyRxP.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. chances. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out. 18.Q 3. R5. RxP. 19. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i.) 20. would draw. K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP. 21. R-K R 7 iSRxR. M M M P-R3 last chance. 15. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . R-Ktych.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) .Kt 2 any case. 19R-R6. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. 16. then 15 17 P XP. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance.

sees he can no longer defend Pawns. 5. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. which. K-Q 2. easily. ^M" ft ^^ W^.. 26 R-Q R and 27.. . 26. ^^H M^. ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate. K-B R-K R 8. — From the 7 ski. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29.. ^33 If2i.. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. he cannot . game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. 25..22R-R6! 2. R-KB Example 61. to make matters worse. KxP Resigns. 24.^."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. R-Q White 8 ch. 25 RxP.R-Kt8. will win 22. 6.. 2S. 23.

Black wants to play prevents it. and finaUy 5. 2. P-KKt4 P . Pawn on the with which White expected to win. of course.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. by P X Rook and be able P. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. 1. 3. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. and will then bring his own King to K 3. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . This King should come to the King's danger lurks. thus P-Q 4. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. advance. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. but White. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file.

and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. the text move is really a serious loss of time. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. however. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. RxP . Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . P-QR4I . K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. 8. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. also prevents 4. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. 6.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. 5. might have been the best chance for Black. 9. 7. White.

13. R-R3 R-Kt3 4. superior and his chances 10 11. to go to in case of danger. necessary. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. board ready to support the advance or. 12. or to move to the right wing file Besides. White holds the open with one of his Rooks.i. is White not only has a passed Pawn.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. if of White's Pawns.

22. these variations. 15. P-K5 18. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. 2 would not help much. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. or up Black's Rooks better completely. 20. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. only helps WTiite. White would have an easy game. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. R 5) X R. text move. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . and whichever Rook Black took. 19. which would finally force Black to take. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. nothing therefore Black had wait.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. however. much. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324.) (The student should carefully study 14.

means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. v. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. ROOK. 30. 28.138 ROOK. . Knight and Pawns. 27. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. ROOK. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. Example 62. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. while often the losing side all. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26.

To a beginner may look like a draw. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. 3 R course his was taken by Black. The most evident. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. The other. and the one that most players would take.ROOK. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings. not only because he has the initiative. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. and more subtle. forcing White to defend something time. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . There are two courses open to him. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage.

bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. 2. of Black's Queen's side 3. Black's King where it is it wants to go. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. way. P-KR4 R-R3 . Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. Consequently a very bad move. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. 6 7. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5.140 WTiite's of ROOK. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. Rook. P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing. 4. in material and position.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. whenever possible. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. but because. use my owTi games. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . 9. 2. knowing shall them thoroughly. 1. 11. 7. 13. 32. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. I shall. 6. 12. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. 5. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. not because they will better illustrate the point.

and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. may be excused the reference. referred to. 191 2. In fact. . which will in no way be able to advance to 4.'.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland.- . they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we. and that in some way White. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. '/^-//M. forced the exchange of both Knights. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P.) '^/^/////. 14. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black.

PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. ^i m. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4.. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . pieces can be said to be ^xt^.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. .^wm. i i a m 3. and we might to have some such position as 66. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. wM If 2. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn.„.

K.R-Kt3. and Black K B i. Q. I 6. (B i) .: > C^. 10. PX Q- Kt Q.Ri R 7. and Kt 3. QXQ. P. 2 RX 2. because 3 R X B P would 3. R(B i) . R. White would then simply defend his move like Q..Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move.KKti. 5.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. ch. as in the previous case. also win a Pawn at least. Q. QNow R5.KB 3.R — Pawn by Q X P. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P. White might even be able position to obtain the following . « « . P X 2. 2.Q White threatened could not play win a .M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ . and he played R — KB i.K Kt R. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came. Q . RX R 3 8. K X R.Kt2..K B 3. RX R. to . R(B5)-B2.. 4. K-R 4. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A .Kt P . II. break through. 9.

own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. and White could then play Q—B 2. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. of this kind. and thus force Black to play P X P. once all the pieces are exchanged. A careful that. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. which would give White a greater advantage. and the fact that advance. at White's K . The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. and follow up with K B 3. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation).

Kupchick. Janowski. . B-Q3 in its favour in this position. 7. White For a beautiful in that variation. Black: 2. 1. 5. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. (Queen's Gambit Declined. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. 4. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. K Kt — 10. 8.) A. but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. is The normal to play course 0—0. P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. D. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . . 4. I 151 67.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. after 8 . K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. QxB. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B.

: win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. perfectly developed. In off effect. 2. P—K 4. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note. 12. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. because B 5 threatening.„„. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. not only but also Kt X B ch. by RX P. Kt x Kt P—K 4. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to .

benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. the the number of pieces on the board. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. especially the one 5. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. henceforth will be full The question how see.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. it is hard to see how this Besides. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. the better chances there are to escape. 15. 14. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. 13. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. which a Pawn for a while. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. less In such cases. if he can do it at it all. K might be said to be ideal. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. will ever be able to attack anything. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5.

but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. 18. . R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. P ^1 . unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. 2.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m.>• I . or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. he might i. have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19. 17. As that not the case.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. 21.

. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 . any number ref)lies it. and the position so much in his favour. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. however. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch.. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. position. and with two Pawns for the exchange. B X Kt Q X P. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. White should have no trouble in winning.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. . 2T. the . There were. among them .

Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game. Kt— Kt4 27. apart from other The student should things. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. 32. K—B 34. Q — R 2 ch. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. and Black would be helpless. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. P X P. 31. 30. B — Kt i . From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. 33. 2. 29.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. principally those at K and QB 5. K— Kt of the B X P. . notice that. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. 35. There is nothing to be done. 28. 36.

PART II .

.

On general principles it should be wrong. P— Q4 2. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. because the 159 . 5. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. it thought that since Dr. E. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. Lasker had played should be good. so often. R. 1909) White : F.PART GAME 1. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. this defence twice before in the with good still results. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. Capablanca. 4. 1. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. Marshall. J. Black : J.

and However.PXP. Kt 2. eleventh For this variation see the game 9. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. of the match. .. involves the exchange of two pieces. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop. Kt-B3 . but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation.P be good. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. I it outside the scope of this book. 7 8. 7.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. . 6. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. 0-0 X P 5. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. In reality the difficulty in this variation. would Kt 3.. No longer would 9. followed by B qBxBP. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment.

White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . 12. i6i 11. is doubtful whether good. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. 15. 14. 16. If I had to play . The safer course would have been to play 13. instead. PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . 5 without any compensation for this position it. I. believe that Black would regain the Pawn. R— K and If. 3. Q X Q would follow.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10.

. 23. 19. then any other move would lose as well.l62 GAME I i. 21.. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. PxP QxP lost. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I.K R— Kt 17. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. If that move would have been loses.. best . As a 5. 24. .. . One move was as good as another. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case. 18. 16. my mind that this was threatened. but the text move makes matters worse. 25. BX Kt P — R6 20.. I The game was 22.

7. aims at the of Black's Q P. B — Kt 2 8. 1. B— K3 in this variation. 2. 25 — GAME 2. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . 5. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. K. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. Capablanca. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. 4. if 163 Kt X B. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. 3. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. 191 1) White : A. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. Black : J. A well-played game on Marshall's part. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. R. Rubinstein.

Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves.. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%../M. ii W'^M m^A m^.. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination . was right... but with very poor success. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10..^^i mm. The move in theory ought to be unsound. II. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii.164 GAME 2 course of this variation. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped.. r. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3. . K Kt 5.. B 3 or P — K R 3. KtxB 12.. order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P.

to my lasting 1 :m .^A IB 15.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen.. KtxP! ' "y/////. B X Kt B. but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret. 14.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= . B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^. which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game. but which I thought could be defeated.' .. let him play it..

P — K Kt this and Black should win. 19. 21. Q— B i! PxKt 18. 5 (if . K-B Kt.Q R-QBi. 3 (if . had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. K — B 2. i. P— KR 4. R — B 5 wins. Kt — R 19 change). had not considered. B X R ch 20 3. R— K 2.Q B — K6ch. 17. GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . K — Bi.i66 i6. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. I. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. the ex- Kx B. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. BxPch wins). R— B ch. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. granted i. This gives Black a chance. 22. I thought 2. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . 7 . 7 . should have played R X R ch.R-K7.

as the course of the loses several moves. game will show. Kt— Q 5. 24. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. B x R. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. 25. If then R — Q Kt 5. The proper way was to play it Q 3. 28. RxR. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . followed by P — Q Kt 4. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move. 26. In fact.

Black does not avail himself. impossible for to win. Even before the last is a downright blunder. 3536. fortunately for him. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. 37. of which. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. 38. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334.) 31. but the text move a chance.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. he can win at White's best con- .

B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw.P —R 8. If Px P B X Kt 7. 2. 40. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6.. GAME 3. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. and 41 to find it. beginning with 14 B x Kt. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. P — R 6. K— B 7 . it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8.. As an end game. 191 3) White : D. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. Janowski. R — By. B X P. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. 3 2. 42.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. R X B. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. K— R 3. 8. I. 7. R. Capablanca. Black : J. 39. 42 R— Kt 41. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. 5. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters.

Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. to obtaui some definite material advantage. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. 12. or failing that. own Pawn openings. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . 11. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. ID.

ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. that govern any given posiI tion. 14. Px B . 13. 18. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. 16. B x Kt was also good. 15. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. right which afraid 3. I A very serious mistake. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. in order to bring at once all into play. often brings the player into trouble. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 .IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. i5Kt— B5. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. and the other. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. which was a very threatening move. was the move. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3.

which he text compelled to defend with the King. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. which destroys White's plans.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. the K P. at doubling the Rooks. which she already defends. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. how- ever. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. P — B 4. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. to P — Kt 4. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. . For this reason P—K attack. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. Black.

. because 25 PXP Kt X P. P— KR4 soon be seen. should come to a simple ending.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. as will Black cannot ch. if it with a very good game.Kt— K 3 . which loses a Pa\\Ti.. 173 Unfortunately for Black. 23. 22. P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. reply 24. he did not carry out his original plan. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. 21. . RxR Ktx R 24. This wins a Pa^\^l. and would have In fact. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake.

WTiite : J. 34. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. R. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. 1. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. at taking the initiative aims away from White. Instead . 36. 26. A. 3. 1913) : (St.174 24 25. Black resigned. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. 31. and. Black E. 33. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. 29. FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. 4. 27. 32. 2. GAME 4. 35. Snosko-Borovski. Capablanca.

as I said before. 6. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. 5. It This is considered superior to has for its object. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. as I do now. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. the text move 5 to be the stronger. considered then. of course. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. side. will Castle It is. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. to make a violent attack against White's King. WTiite. QxP Px P. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. . however.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games.

12 13. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. is of Philadelphia. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. 4 11. Walter Perm as Shipley. side. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. as in this game. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. 12. moves. it is : of an attack. I believe. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. overlooking Wliite's fine . Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake.176 9- GAME 10. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. sidered. 14. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King.

to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight. 15. but also drives the Queen away. pieces. with P 4. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. 17. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. way for a few moves. 16. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . 19. putting it out of the is game for the moment. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position.

KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. It advantage of position. it which was the right move. 21. but gave up because seemed too slow. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. great is K self-evident that White has a 23.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. and . value. 3. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. Q-Bi 22. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it.

PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. P— B 4 the right move. Kt— R 5 ch 26. 28. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . If Px 28 P P. 27. Kt — B 4 was that the however. still looking for the "grand combination. I was. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . 24 25. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24.

P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. and that is would vindicate 4. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. num- ber of times. ?8 29.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. on move find out 28. my judgment when. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP.

K-Kt I . i. 40. which WTiite . best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. 1914) White : Dr. because Q— R 8 mates. Lasker. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. Black : J. A very interesting battle. 1. E. White cannot play Kt —Q 4.FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . I. 2. GAME (St. 39. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. Capablanca. 37 Q-R6. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. R. 5. P-QR3 is 4.

is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. On the other hand. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. ualities. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. 4 5. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. 6. obstruct Black's Pawns. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. in order not to also. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. 7.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. in order to go K Kt There is . but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove. in some event3. 8. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side.

Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. Kt— Q 4. This move still. 10. It also prevents II. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. Best. B—K 3 because of 3 3. 12. it unless it advances to K 5.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. 4. 9. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. It threatens B—B R— K 4. P-B5 r£ a i . B — K I 3. and it also makes 4. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time.

. 16. on my part finally to obtain a lost position. 16. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game.. P — B B — Kt 2. But.. is after R— Q i given in Dr.. 18R— Q2. Dr. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. 16 R— B 2.BxB. Kt x R.i4RxB. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game. The B X B. RxR. Lasker's variaIf not the best. i. Lasker gives right move 4.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game.. Q R — Q 19 it.. Q tion. my better judgment. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. 17RXR. RxR. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. 12 13. .

Kt — K6 R — Q2 17. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. 4. Black plays 19. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. 15.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. neither which can be stopped. however. after 19. 5. 5 for will at least fact. Black can later P—Q 16. otherwise I would have played the right move . 14. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. fol- 4. and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . . also Lasker's variation.B X B. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 .Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. QR-Qi . . threatening Kt — B 5. . . on play P —B 4. followed by Kt —K Kt 5. if . 5. . 2. BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13.

Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 . K winning a weaker. lose.. that I could play the text move. let us analyse Kt. (B Black should 17 18. since if R Q 2. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. 21 R X R. and there is no good reason why 19 2. i7. B X P 20 Kt X B (best.. Again. . Kt around to K 4. via Q B i. RxKt. 19 PxB. . P—B 4. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. and a 1 7 . and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. Q — 2) P X P. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded.i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. Q Kt 3. 17.Kt — and at later 6. P -Q 4.. Kt X R.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4. —B 4. 18 Now 5. If P — Q Kt 4.. B X Kt give Black the advantage). 18 R— B 2..P .

I Again bad. and the game most accurately. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. flounders around have been better to play file. 26. the two moves were weak. 21. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. Had . Black. move. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. and Black becomes more . of course. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game.19. 20. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. would R— R 5. P X R ch. has no object now. At least it would K— B 2 24. difficult. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. 28. 4 ch. have been extremely 22. with a bad game. 25. 23.

i88 helpless with each GAME move. 37. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. 41. probably 29. he played well after that up to the 27th move. . KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. 5 The game needs no further comment. 42. perfect. excepting that an altogether made. 3940. which was bad. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. as well as play The rest of his was good. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. 38. . 3334. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. Regard- ing the play of White. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36.

there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. I. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. Chajes. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. 8. side very weak. P— K4 2. R. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. I The alternative. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. 7. because gives obtain the initiative. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. . By the text move Black up Castlmg. . Black : J. 1916) White : O.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. Capablanca. and later. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. which Wliite adopted in this game. 5.

besides being a Pawn to the good. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. His development. 14. which must of course be de- . I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position.iQO 9. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. II. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. however. because. has suffered somewhat. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -.HI. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. so that it . he threatens White's K P. 12. cannot be said as yet. '^^„* WiW^. time and merely weakened 10. B 1 M ^.

The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. 17. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. 2 B-K3 4. or ever. which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. as dominates the whole situation. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. Q 4. the Bishop will be developed to itself. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. and can consequently decide the course 15. for it. of the game. To prevent Kt X P. 17 18. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 .FRENCH DEFENCE fended. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. is thoroughly prepared for it. since The move. strategically wrong. and there to dislodge his pieces. . Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2.

Q R— Kt i.192 19. as White will soon prove. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. 22. 23. 24. would have avoided everything. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. circumstances. R-R3 24. 21. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. but under less favourable 4. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. in order to follow p—B as he did later. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . since White's attack amounts to nothing.

Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. is 193 However. as will soon be seen.p. ^M i y/y^/yyii. 25. 26. the move not a losing one by any means. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . 27 28.FRENCH DEFENCE plications. 1 liW 27. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. PXP e.

of course. and Black would reply with to play 5 . which gave White time to play convinced. 31. White would be forced either P — Kt 4.194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. K— R it as already indicated. of course. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. but I was wrong. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. of course. and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. 5 in to go to 8. 3. was the best move. first In some cases. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. which looks the best is (the plan. as explained above. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. unless first. R— K R i . forcing followed a play- similar plan. or to some other move according circumstances. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. tion all. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. which be at give draw. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. however. the White KR but in is now Rook having come . There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. I am ing to play I .

36. 42. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. 47. RX 35. Black should have played Kt —K 5. least.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. 41. Kt X Q . 3738. 49. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. It is now White who has the upper hand. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. and the last chance Black best play. 195 Instead of the text move. 48. and Black who has to fight for a draw. therefore. 33' 34. 434445- 46.B 2 K--Kt I . X P was no 3940. 32.

which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. for while Black. 51 who decided 7. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. 5758. I was hoping lowing variation.K-R2. White. . K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. missed several chances. K X B. as the spectators did not resign.RxP. QxP few more moves Black resigned. 5152. My no chances. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. I players will be wondering. 5354. and while . 53 BKt 5 ch. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. let and him take the White what happens. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. played opponent. having the best of the position. 52Q-R5. on the other hand. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. If the reader does not believe it. missed none.

—B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. Bum- P— K4 3 2. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . 10. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. 9. 5 6. to which I was much addicted at the time. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. It B— K a more natural and effective move.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. 4. 12. 1. Black : A. 191 1) White : J. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. after 2 P — K Kt 3. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. (San Sebastian. Capablanca. 5. B—B 5. 2. 11. R.

14. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. and superior position 17. does not block the 13. This is bad. and also his King's Pawn. in border to up where it is. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. able White. in going to K B. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. however. 16. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. 3 to defend the square QB 4. . because White's QB is out. does not of his allow time for this. and the Knight. and played make his position more solid. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good.

RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. by using the open able K R file. 19. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. . PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. in which case. 18. but game very much weakened. move to eliminate all danger. is by his next 22. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. 21.

25. 29. followed by R— B 7 ch. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. Kt-K3 32. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . of course 39. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. 31. LrAMJn. 37. 3334. 26. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. B-K2 28. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. 42. 24. 40. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. If B.200 23. 38. to be defended I by pieces.

8. Mieses. least. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. 1. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. is position WTiite The plan. I quite feasible. Capablanca. is P—Q t. 46. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. at compensate whatever might have. often played in order to develop the Q B. Black : J. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. CENTRE (Berlin.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. instead of the text move. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. slight advantage of think. 2. 5. 3. B— KB . R. My P to idea was it. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. 7. which would. GAMES.

R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. If Kt — 3 . P—Q completely shut if off. opening the 11 way Q B. . With the R — Ki. II. when would have followed.202 GAME 8 I 1. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. and could only be loss extricated. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. with serious of position. all. could have played P—Q 3 . initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. 12 Kt — B 3.l.

and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. when we would have 14 B X Kt. better. 3 (best). . K Kt 5 Black. .R Kt 5. — R- . 17 Q— K PX Q.CENTRE GAME 12. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. 16 P x B. 15P— QB3.BxP. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch . 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. game 19 RX P. besides the fact that all the White 14.^^ mm mm. not so in reality. and 13. was most interesting. RXB. was simple. QxPch. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . 18B — B2. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake. QxQ. Pawns are isolated. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe.

17. while having the exchange. however. the attack. would have given White a decided advanMieses. 20. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. favour until. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. with the exchange ahead. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. feared the difficulties of an ending where. 22.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. White . enough to win with proper play. 19. 18. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. he would be a Pawn minus. At first and even after careful thought.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. and consequently weak and subject to attack. are manoeuvred chain-like. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. KR— Q would 5. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves.. to prevent 7. Kt — Q4 4. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. I R— B . of course. and therefore move. the Bishop must defend. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . Kt (B 4) — 15.. but in position such a course is a mistake. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. They there. so to speak. I . 14. in order to maintain one of them. have 16 14.P 4.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. Not. 17. and there would be no good way 18 19. Kt X Kt 16. Kt X Q. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means.

Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced. B X B. Black may be said to be the defence is lost. Pawns. 22. and White is a Pawn ahead. .B 20.. 25 R — Q 2.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. 24 R X P. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. R X Kt. If 20. moves anywhere else. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. 23 Bx Kt. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file .. indeed.B — Qi. R— B 2. 22 Kt X B. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. then B X Kt. 21 Kt— Q6. yet. as Wliite demonstrate. at least of the most kind. . There seems to be no particular danger.R — B 2.

since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. after having. White. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2.KKt3. which would be disastrous. Black's best chance was as in the text. 24. 25. to give Hence. prepared the way.212 GAME sieze it. as White would immediately 23. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. up a Pawn. on the other Black could do nothing hand. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . KB4. in order to free his Knight. 9 with the Rook. of course.

—K The it text move is. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. 29. 27. B — Kt3. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. K 5. even though White could answer P however. . which. with proper play. would on account P —Q 4. of P— KKt3 5 . obtaining a passed Pawn. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. P X Kt would be worse. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. should win. . soon be seen. weak. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. as will 5 .

K-K3 37. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop .2l4 31. 32. 35. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily. 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. 4 31 Practically forced. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\.^. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. it would take longer. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns.P-QR3 5 36.

3. Q P. 1914) White: J. advantage of a Pawn. The student ought of ending. 5. Once he obtained that. J. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. finest players in the world. practically from the opening. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. Black: F. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. 2. Capablanca. tion terial fortunately. 1. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . R. 7. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. 3 6. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. Marshall. where it not only protects the P. he tried for and obtained. Petersburg.

11. BxKt B-Q3! 10. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. 8. and a very is move. . The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. Kt — B 3 P— 9. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn.

unquestionably an advantage . White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. in turn. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. followed by B X B. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. 5. Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. Besides. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. Kt X P ch. wins a Pawn. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. B game him to — — — B 4. 13. R— Kti. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. Queen. blocks the Bishop. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. . as White threatened Kt K 4. which. then P Q 5. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i .

i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. 17. 20. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. as it always must is such cases. his Pawns are all weak. he will sooner or later them. because Black's development backward. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. will Black and. The plan. & /. however. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. 15. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. in attack against WTiite's fails.2l8 14. 18.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. which destroys Black's plan utterly.

is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. interest. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . 2526. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. 3334. 27. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. that Black's game is lost. 30- 3132. are given merely as a matter of form. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. 28. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29. 23.

220 38. 42. 55. 4344. 47. 50. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 54. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. GAME 39. 58. 57. 45. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. 41. 48. . K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. Resigns. 49. lo 40. 52. 59.

I.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. E. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. 7. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. R. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. at the time. in one of his games against Dr. . superior to Alechin considered 4. 2. Capablanca. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. Petersburg. and obtained the superior game. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. typical of Janowski. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. 191 4) White: J. P—Q which is generally- played. 9. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. Janowski. Alechin on several occasions. Black: D. which he only through a blunder. Lasker. 8. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. move.

222 10. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. under the cumstances. hoping to lighten White's attack. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. GAME Q— Ki M. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. at once. 13. was the best. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. 12. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. . but one which. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can.

alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad..RUY LOPEZ 14... 14. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack. 1718. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. There is only one thing to take care of and that .. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5. ^ . Beto 4. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t.. P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns. 1516. The only 4 .

Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. Black could have played instead of the text move. RX Kt .2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. 29. 19. 2324. 25- loses very rapidly. now K P X R. . I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. The move 22. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. 27. . i8. . QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. 20.

Capablanca.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12.Jm. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. but a perfectly natural it developing one. y^. 4. and consequently 4 cannot be bad. White: J. 7. 5. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. 3... Chajes. Black: O. 2. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. R. i i g<^ i 'M. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. 1.

12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. . This weakens Black's King's the right move. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. P — Q Kt If 3. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. . 5 ch. P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. 11. But as he does not obtain . 3 because B X Kt. 12. Black now plays 8 2 . in this variation. B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. R— K i was m %///M. .226 8. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. followed by 10.

4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. 17. . 16. advantage of position for White. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. KtxB. Black with a 21. suicide. Pawm minus fights very hard. Kt X B. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. because after BxP. threatening P— 18 19. Of course if R— K 3. 14. 15. QxKt. 17 18. Kt x R— K B.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. 14QXBP. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. B — Kt 2. I 20. the move It bad. BxP. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. P— QB 3 Q X Kt .

White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. that the White Knight is He notices. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. or support which cannot advance to rather. 23. 4 to defend. the KB Pawn at K 5. . and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through.228 GAME 3. of course. the way of the K B P. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook.

33- 34. 3. 229 P-QKt3 303132. the Queen goes difficulties. R 6. 37. 38. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . might otherwise become a source 35.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. 29. K— K K—B 2 I 36. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. P X w li. P. He sees P—K R 5.

4 would be answered by Q— B 5.. His best . Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. 41. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. with a winning game. J i 39.P — K Kt 40..>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. White ready to advance. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. practically forcing the exchange of Queens. R—Q 7. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. PxP i . R — Q7 BxPch .

an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. Capablanca. S. is Therefore. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. the Bishop. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. even while the on the board. in this form of development. one of great defensive strength. White: J. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. 43. 1. Morrison. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. GAME 13. Black: R. 6. 231 This loses a piece. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. (New York. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. . I think. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. 5. once it is Castled.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. 2. 4.

Bold play. but again faulty judgment. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. R— Ki KR— Ki . II 12. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. 9. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. B—K B 4 would have done this. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. 10 11. 8. page 197. 10. The alternative would have been P — B 3. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . because of Kt — Q 5.232 GAME say. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. unless he tended to play to win or the winds.) 7. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian.

Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. X B . and at the same time preventing P— Kt. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. 14. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. K 5. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. followed by Kt X P. Black can safely side. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . advance. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop.. winning a Pawn. which now acts along the long diagonal. since. PX Kt X P etc. which he cannot in the centre. which would be answered by Kt .

(Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B. 2.234 15. 16. but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- .) 17. and then advancing K P. P—B 3 iJiii M H i .

20 21. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. 1 It was difficult . R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. which is to put the Bishop out of action. for if immediately. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. 20. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. it might have done ever. he It is doubtful. even offers tiie Bishop. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. bad. 235 posed position of the Black King. 19.RUY LOPEZ judgment. and.

and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. . rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. QX Kt. 22. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. 23. P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. and also Q — K 3. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack.

but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. 29. where he in a be mating net. 30. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. 31If P-R3 8 ch. space. RxP. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. R (K i) —K 7. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. Kt — K3 attack. R— K R— Q i.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. . Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28.

Marshall. 2. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. . expected it. 14. R. R-K5ch RX P ch 39.23S -21 GAME 32. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. 34. 38. 36. I. A very lively game. 34. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. the quickest way 35. Black J. Capablanca. 40. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. GAME White F. 41. 33. : 191 8) : J.

KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. II. on the other hand. 10. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. simplified the changes. 14.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . m The developing on both sides.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. 13. 12. as generally the case. . one of them has given it me good results.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. WTiite. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. 9- I generally play all the time. 8. during a Tournament. has .

240 obtained the centre. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. It on my part. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. his Knight at KB 3. followed by B P X P. but Mar- shall believed differently. he would. I think. K P. but also Kt XP . on the other hand. had he analysed this move. truly an attack against Black's 15. GAME first 14 is Black. otherwise he would not have played this variation. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. three ranks. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . which. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. since. Black now threatens not only BPX P position .

17. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. on the other hand. QR — least. 22P— KR4. 4. . 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P.Q text x R P move . as will be seen. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. P—B KKt3 Qi. The text QR—Q i). the Queen. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. move. obtaining a very superior game. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. factory if 18. But. 3. (threatening Q— KB2. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. . K—R i. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. .

25 RxR ch.242 19. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. White is who is always in danger. It is only now. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. an assault which soon be shifted against . where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). but that the Black is not so. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. as already stated. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. foUowed by R X K P). because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. 7 ch K—B P i. is superior long range. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. 20. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. after seeing this analysis. and. 21. thus. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. because is a Pawn ahead. R X Kt. be- best of RXB (best. 22 Kt —K . K i. take a draw at once. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). The powerfully com(see Besides. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. White is under the impression that he has the better game. against White's centre. K X R. curious that. although a Pawn ahead. Kt 8 ch. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally.

This is a sequel to the previous move. S . itself.. practically pinned. 24. to disrupt Black's 23. t. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ .M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. at the proper time. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4. and thus make them weak.: 23. White 4. because he does not move on account RXK P.

by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. 27. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. P— QKt4 5. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. going to be decided on the King's side. atK i.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. 26. because R— Kt 25. P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. 28. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns.

winning easily.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. but that would only have prolonged the game. KxP. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. 31. R— R 8 mate. RxKt. I 29. 35 RX RX P. K— Kt i. R — R ch. If 33 P-Kt R. as pieces are tied up. 32. P-R ch. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. 34K-R1. which is lost in any case. 245 White loss. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. . 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby.

fiNIS . 35. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. 3940. K— B I P-B4ch Resigns.246 3334. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738. 36.

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38S .RN>r90095-.UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.irANG°Ss:crF?.

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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