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BY JOSE R. CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .

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JOSE R. CAPABLANCA .

BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT. LTD. . BELL AND SONS.

INC. BRACE AND COMPANY. PRINTED IN THE U. A. All rights reserved.COPYRIGHT. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. BY HARCOURT. S. by any other means. without permission in writing from the publisher. 1921. .

There has been no change in the fundamentals. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. The change has been only a change of form. during the opening stages generally. I. ig34 . R. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. had been discovered. of vital importance. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. now. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. and not always for the best at that.

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12... . Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. 71 73 . 4. 16. 2. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17.. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. 19 24 25 6. 7.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13. 28 8... Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 19. II in End-game Play 35 37 10.LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. 14. A A 11. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps . The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook . Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . 5. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1. 15. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. 18..

.LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P.. Rook. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . The Initiative 77 21. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action .) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31.. 23. the 146 power 33. Rook. 29. etc.. 22. 32. 24. Bishop and Pawns v.. 25. 28. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint.) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . 27. of a Pawn at K 5. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . 30.

Capablanca. Capablanca. Capablanca. J. R. Capablanca. 201 9. 221 11. K. Capablanca. 1914) Black: D. a. Mieses. . 1916) White: O. 15^ Black: J. Capablan 1913) Black: E. Capablanca. 1913) White: J. . A. 181 6. R. 197 7. Black: R. 1918). French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. 189 R. R. 1918) White: J. Capablanca. 238 White: F. White: J. 169 4.R. (St. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. 1914) White: J. Queen's Gambit Declined J. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. Marshall. Irregular Defence (Havana. 10. . Burn. White: D. R. White: F. RuY Lopez (St. Rubinstein. R. (New York. R. Petersbltig. Janowski. Black: J. Chajes. J. Centre Game (Berlin. Black: J. 1914) White: Dr. 1913 ) Black: J. 1918) Black: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. French Defence White: J. 12. R. Teichmann. 215 R. Capablanca. White: A. Black: F.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. RvY Lopez (New York. Black: J. 1913 ) Black: J. S. 13. 163 3. Marshall. White: J. Chajes. 231 Morrison. Petroff Defence (St. 2. Rin Lopez (San White: J. 1911 ) R. Capablanca. Black: O. Petersbltjg. Capablanca. Lasker. . Petersburg. Black: J. . Capablanca. Snosko-Borovski. Capablanca. Black: A. Janovvski. E. 225 R. 14. 1911). 174 5. Capablanca. RuY Lopez White: J. Sebastian. 209 R. (St. Marshall. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. 8. Petersburg. French Defence (New York.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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— The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. 1. King to the on any side of . SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces. 1. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do.

strated by the first move. as in this case. K— B K— K i. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. 5K-Q5. K-B i. K— Ri. 7R-QB7.4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. or. . 7K— K6. K— Kt 2. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. loR — BSmate. R— R 7. to When. The forced. 9 K— Kt 6. K— Kti. 3 3.. 9K— Kt6. be 8 by 6. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i. the it is King has been brought it.K-Ri.. 6K-Q6. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. towards the centre. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate.K— B 6.. 8 mate. 8K-B6. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. 4 K— K K-Q i. as the opposing King. fiile. 6.. now the King moves back to Q i. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. the sixth rank. K— K King I. K— Kt K— Kt i. K — R i. according to principle. R— R 8 mates at once. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). 4.K-Kti. in this case. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. as possible on the same rank. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position.

. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. K— B 7. but to one side of the other King. is way to proceed 2. It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. 8 K — B K— R 3. . the Rook If back by 5 R— R . to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. . K— R 6. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. 3.SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. R — B 4 ch. next to the Rook. the King confined to as few squares as possible. . 5 On the other hand. Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . 5. . then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. K-Kt 7. 2. 7 . not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. Now . but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. . Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. . to K 4. K— Kt 6. instead 4. now if 3. K— B instead. not in front. K— K it 3.

in the original had been in the centre of the board. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. and then. play 3 B — Q3. If the Black King. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. K— Kt 2. with the aid of his Bishops. is should be done it may be monotonous. under any conditions. K — B 2 B — B 5. as his pieces. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. I believe it it and. file. position. White can . 2 B — K Kt 5. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. or away his from the last row. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. has taken eleven moves to mate. restricted . K— B 8 R— R I mate. While in under twenty.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. K — Kt II 8. White should have advanced King.

it is to either of . care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. 4. i. it K — Kti. K Kt 6. B 7 2. in this case either K R 6. i. but also into a corner." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. K— 2.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. these squares that the King ought to go. . before a mate can be given. in one of the two 8. and. 9K — R6. files .. K B KB and as 4 KR . position. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate.4K — B 2. last 7. In all endings of this kind. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. 6. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3. Kt 12 i. K — Bi. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4. it is immaterial whether the King forced . 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. so as to force the Black back . In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. same time. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. 5. but he must also be forced into a comer. K— Kt K— Kt 2. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. iiB — K7.K — Kt2. 10 B — R5. moves back to ch. it should be done in thirty. is however. In all such endings. up a K— R I..

. moves. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. In this ending. (Should Black play K — B 4. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. KR 5 Q R 4.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. K — Kt 4. mate move). 7 K—R next 3. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6.K —K 5 4. K— B K Q mates. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. I or Q 8. 2. or to on to the or an outside file.g. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. 3.. Thus: Q— B 6. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. K 4. as in the case of the Rook. K — Kt 5. only . As the Queen combines the power the Bishop. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. 4 6. 6 ch) Q— K and 6. 3 K—K 6. K— Q 5. e. .

Example « „. with at least one intervening square. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . the process is and and shorter._ «„ . and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. then the game cannot be won. at least two required. 2.. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. It essential. even unit. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. 6. speaking generally. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. without the aid of the King.

as for stance in this position because of the White King. K— K 3. K— K 3. 2K— Q3. and a stale mate results. 5 P—K K — B 4. will This is Any other move would lose. ?.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. If White advances the Pawn. K— Q 2. when forced to go back. I. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . 3 4 ch. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. K— K 2. 9 P— K 6 ch. 4 K— K 3. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. K-K2. and when it cannot be done. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. K— K 3. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. as before. K— B Again the same case. of the WTiite King. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. 7K— K4. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. very as K— K4. in front be shown later. K— Q4important move. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. II K— Q6. 5. 5. 4.t the same time. As the White King comes up. the Black King must be kept in front of it. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. should the latter advance.

^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. He is then able advance his own King. 3.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . Pawn until it is essential own I. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. K— K 3. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away.K-K2. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. 6. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on. Thus K— K 4. . P-K3.K-B3. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. White is 2.^^wmWmmm. K-Q5.

K— B 4.K-Ki. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. White must at the move away.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. . the White 5.K— B i. then White would 4. and we P— a draw. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . 4. else. 9K-Q 7. since its own not require it. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7. is winning the Pawn. K-B6. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. 7. There- back his to protect the must continue. P— K4. to play 3. . all these squares being protected by the King. as Black would then similar 5.K-Q2. it Now Pawn 6. it K 6 would make play K — B. Thus K— K6. 8. better for Since he has not done so. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. force As Black to prevent that.K-Ki.K— Q2. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. 7. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. P-K5. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward... White could have played of the K— B K 6. Had he moved anywhere 7. K— K5. .

. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. or three against two. and it 13 to K 8. Furthermore. This ending is like the previous one. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. nobody can how . not. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. that the may out how they can be won. 3. Example 7. is all over. the student the student has one.

i.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. ch. 5. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. not PX then would lose. but i . K— Bi. (This. KxP. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. P — B 4. .) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. . because P — Kt 3 draws. If 2P B 7 ch. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. WTiite. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . which 2 P—B because Black plays. If K— K I PxP. (The student should work out. White cannot win by playing P. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. K— R i. 3P-B6.K— Kt i.PXP. his Pawn 3 without losing it. K B I. however. 2. and draws. 7 4 7ch. and draws. as shown in a previous case. and if PX P. 7 7. K X P. K-Kt If i. 2 K-K i. Example by I P —B 8. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. 3-K-Kt 3. 5 P— Kt 7.

7K— K5. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7..) : White can win. 8P— B K— Kti. 13 K— B 7. and which will be explained more fully later on. K— R i. 7.4K-Q6. K— B into ch.. loK— K6. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. K— Kt 2. by playing i K— K 4. K— R K— Kt i. P— Kt 6 ch. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. K— R2. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. 4 P— Kt K— K3. II K— K 7. 14 K x P. P-Kt 3. i 7. and White queens the PawTi and wins.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. 6 K— K 7. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. KxP. . 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. K— B 2. 3 K-B 4. K— R2.5P-Kt5.) shown Example 5P — B6. 6. K— Kt i. 12 K— B 6. K— Kt 2.6K— K4. 7 K— B 6. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why). 5 I. This ending. apparently so simple. K — B 2. 3K-B5. K-B3. (If K-K3. K-B 3. however.K-B2. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6.) 2 P-B 5 ch. K-Q4. 9K— Q6. K-K3. K— R 7.P-Kt 3. K— Kt i. K— R draws). the only way to win is the one given here. i. K— B i. fact.

^^ ^ ^^ wm. — In this ending ^^ wm.^ i m. P—B and we have a If i . .K-K2. K-K5.K-B2. no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I. whenever there it. . 2 P-Kt 2. 6. 3. and student. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. 2.^ fs^. it. Example 9. P—R 3 .i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. P. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move.Kt K-K 5. If P — Kt 5- 3. to one of those shown above. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. also. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. similar ending .

. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m.P-R 3..^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4. and 3. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . 4 6 ch... 4 P-B 6.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3.P-Kt P — Kt 3. 4. P-R5. perior forces.. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown. Thus we have I. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board.P— Kt 3. P— KKt . R PX P. then result.. and by following it up with P showTi. 4.

5. 3. P-QR4. 7. Black makes an advance on the other side. K-Kt 2.. 2.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. to win the other Pawn. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2. 5'K-B K— B 6. then simple counting will show that side with his King. P-Kt 5. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. In this case either way wins. is far away. K-B 2. . K-B3. — Kt 4. 3.K If 3. . his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. I P-QR4.. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. 4. K-K5.P — R P— Kt and 6. K-K3. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. 5. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. If 7 6.P — R 3.P-R4. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. .

and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game. Black plays of i. Example 11. he. no doubt. . once he becomes better acquainted with it. .m* ^ 5 _« P « «.„„ a . SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained.R— K threatening Kt 7. K— Kti..KxQ. mate by way and most K R— K 8. s It is Black's move.. \dz. 2QxPch.. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game. before considering the openings. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i... 4R— R8 mate. to ^. I.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. 3R— Rsch. shall However.R— Ki... White now uncovers his real effective threat.

QxKt KXQ .. R—R ch. back quickly he 1. —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P.y..20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position. These two examples show the . mate. Again B X Kt . 3 ch. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2.^S.. 4.. and should therefore easily.. and miless he can win will lose .///y i B... remains Q and a win B against a R and B. King moves 3. Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <. 12. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. QXP R—R 3 ch. Kt— Kych ..^. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops..

unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. WTiite. mates in a few moves thus I. Example 13. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. Example curs in 14. otherwise 2. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. QXP mates. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. . is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. 3. should therefore win. after side.

m m ^M . ''mm. 2. B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. . Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position. threatens mate. QX 3 is B. which already attacked. and there- fore wins the Q.wm.22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W .6^ If . R— Kt3 ch mate.^u." . Example tion is 15. . mn. K— R 4. .

Kt X . K— K 3. B) R best 3 B X P ch. 7 P — Kt 5 ch.) Q— R a R.K-R1. wins. 9 Q— K 4 mate. 2 Q-K i. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. i but he can win quickly thus (If I.. 7 R B x P ch.) 4 Q— R 5 ch. K X B. 2 . SBxPch. 5. P-K Kt3..IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. 4 Q-R5. (If 3. P — KKts. R — B i RX B. K— Kt KR 5. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the . K X B. K— B 3.. 16.. -^ 1^ V? h r i:. 6 Q — R 7 ch. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position.. 5 Kt— Kt 5. B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^. i.K-R 6. 5. K— Kt 2.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch. RxB. sBxPch. K— Kt i.

7 Q— R 8 ch. i. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. 9 R— K is ch. rather long This combination ations. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. fathom but. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. K— K 2. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. . RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. ch. 5. most cases . is for all of them. i Kt— Kt i. knowing the tyjDe combination.

on the contrary. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. Get them into play as fast as you can. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. . or a Bishop and two Pawns. increases. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. as no other move accomplishes so much. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. iP— K4oriP Q4. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. the be a better piece against the Rook. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. becomes an offensive piece once the board. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. and sometimes even left. be worth more than three PawTis. The power of the off. and a stronger than a Queen. From the outset two moves. Therefore. of these two moves must be first the best.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. so. as said before. but. A Bishop will often worth so much. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. The King. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game.

5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. which to be bad. .. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack. preferably the also Knight. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out.. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. 4 B-Kt5 same manner.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17. 1. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. 3. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn.BxKt. 4.

As a rule. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. : These moves have a two-fold object. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. to notice three things. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. as there is already in view a combination 5. a ^ W M « A l«i m.BxKt. up the experience has shown. Black follows the same 6. B-Kt5 'm . ^ i^ A very powerful move. Black has .) He is now forced to play 7. (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. » mm. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz..OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. thus bringing First. eight should be enough. 7. which brings us to the middlegame stage..'-1.) Second.

No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. the centre is of great importance. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. is is (This. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings.. . as ence will show. cation varies according to the circumstances. four squares. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White. 77. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. p. 7. puts Black on the defensive. the game.) Third. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board.^ initiative. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. as what has already been stated viz.

Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. whenever possible. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. 29 and possibly three. Example 18. 1. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. 2. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. its sole object the control of the initiative. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. On openings. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. But on prin- . In the at once. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move.

Kt X P because of with 4.. 6 KtxKt.PXP. — Kt 2. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. 7. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. 4. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop..30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. on the contrary. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. 5.B — K 5. 6 Q-Q 5). 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P. first. tends. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . to cramp them. - perfectly safe position. Kt — B3 6. thus abandoning the centre to White. Black's force him to play PX P. PxKt. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. 9. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. and instead action of Black's pieces. . White threatened Kt it .

It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. 4. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. which is opening generally bad. unless there is some compensation. PxP Pawn. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. 2.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. If Kt — B 3 . Example 19.P X P loses a 5. which violates one of the principles set down. 1. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. study this example. BxKt . . There are no weak spots in his armour. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. I this do not know. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. 6. 3.

which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners.. especially P— and P —Q R 3. and White. 8... with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. TRAPS 8.. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black. is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. and in beginners are often caught.. ...32 7. has no pieces out except his Queen. however. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated.. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings.

33 •aigli i *«a^. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate.TRAPS Example 20. 2. Kt 3. 4.4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1." .>: -^^Wm W '. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn.^^-t-^: . K— K2 Example 21.A»i. .

KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. 2BXP 2 mate. . Nor i . because of QX B. Kt — ch KB 3 instead. there a book written on traps on the chess board. is but the type given above the most common of all. B—R 5 help matters. having the move. But suppose he plays 1. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage. should play P— K 3. . I 2. There are a good many other traps is — in fact.34 TRAPS Black. the threat being of course ifBxQ. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position.

either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he . ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. finally to the openings once more. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. then again to the middle-game. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles.e. ^ k In the position shown above. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. governs such cases. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition. 9. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. But suppose that White.

P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. P — Kt (Best. P — R5 P — R6 6. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns. that he plays i . we say. does not.) 3. K— Kt (Best . to those not familiar with . Example cient proof. 7. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. stress unit thai holds two. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. 4. it can be applied in much many ways.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. K—B 5 see why.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. in this case. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. 5. 22. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. p_Q R P—Q R I 4. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. Then Black can win by playing . won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns.

important. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. P-R 4. 2.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. Black's parts. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. . As soon as the easier for Black to win. 1. K — K6 3 2 4. in is order to win the game. since. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23.

^P*P*«*g . ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. 5. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part. B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed.38 2 3./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. 7. 4.

. is This example it excellent training. how two squares according to the position King. 11. K-Kt 10. K— Ri P— Kt 7. II 12. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. It is in this analytical try to learn. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. 13. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. 8. as White's move. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. as indicated previously.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

the player who has the the opposition. all at times somewhat complicated forms. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. we shall have what may be called distant frontal. The . when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. '^M. which can be solved mathematically. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. but. for the present.) In simple forms of opposition. the student should only consider the most simple forms. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively.THE OPPOSITION Now.

process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. 5.. probably looks absolutely even. If4. Who- move wins. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. 2. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. only lead to a draw. ever has tlie It is not the case. thereby keeping the opposition. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. but Black has other Unes of . I. Very little is left on the board. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. and that the number of intervening squares is even. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. however. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win.K— K3.. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. to a beginner. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. and the position. 3.

Therefore we 2. because then Black. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. Let us begin anew. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. to Black's first move. would obtain the opposition.) Now There in order to win. is only one other square where he can go. . K— Q I. it would be bad to advance. you must advance. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. and that waiting or file the right place.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. K— K both cases. 2. is B 3. the player who has moved has the opposition. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. leaving a rank free between the Kings. by bringing up his King in front of your King. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. viz. means the winning or a game. K — Qi 2. the White King must advance. or if 2 K— K3.

because of his after the text I 2. own Pawn if B 3. K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. K— Q move. Example defence. K— Q 7. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. On the other hand. 2. K— R2 K-R3I 3. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition).48 THE OPPOSITION 28.^^ m m ^m^m^. m White is jm. a Pawn behind and apparently lost.

. in fact. ^ See page 13. 1. KxP. If the Queen. Going back to the original position. as. and always keep the opposition. because P win. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch.PXP draw.. but plays 2. 6. 5. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 . it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2. .^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . 3. attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown.THE OPPOSITION 4. by K— K 4. if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game.

White wins with or without the move. but in the following position. they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. '^""""' '^m. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. — In the above position White cannot King is win. in which Black has a Pawn. although the Black cornered. under certain conditions of course. but. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . I.so 14.

The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn. the absolutely worthless. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. 2. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. as explained before. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. .

31. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. 2. . at any one time. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. unlike the Bishop. the chief reason being that. the generally overlooked that the Knight. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. I. However. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.

stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. a Bishop can . to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. as in many others. Example 32. much Knight from one wing to the other. In this respect. to-day . and of course there is. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. there is and Tchigorin. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. or should be. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. in as shown the following Example.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop.

and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. there his Bishop. in an ending. mistake often made by players. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. While on this subject. generally. on both sides of the in having a Knight. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. Of course. I shall also call attention to the . is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way.

the opponent has a Bisliop. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not.' .. in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ . The game should surelv end in a draw. Example 34. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop.. BisJiop. The might be stated thus When Bisliop. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King. Naturally.. <mA- m MA milaf^.-^ ^.

should end in a of having the draw. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command. wm m^ 2 mm.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m . properly played out. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board.. though if the position. at long range.56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36.

since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. because. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. he can do . they are not balanced on each side of the board. White has three it to two. although each player has the same number of Pawns. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. Thus. but there is a passed Black). though White has somewhat better chances. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. while on to Queen's Still.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. on the King's the side. the game should end a draw. Example 37. side is Black that has three two. Q R P at all. in with proper play.

is Each to ending different. and requires different handhng.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. or practical experience. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. as in ings. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. however. according to Calculation will count. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. Example — Again Black would have great this position. in their true value. be best. to the general method wiU of procedure. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. that the all proper course in these endings. I might say generally. a teacher. do. To give a fixed line of play would be folly.

Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 .MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. then. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. and. us see and Bishop. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. 3. and the openings. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. colotir Example at 39. in all such cases. against a Rook. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. We might begin. Black. — In 8.

will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. has two ways to prevent that. 10. position. the Black King in the white-squared corner. 5. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. White 5. 12. 13. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. one by 14 B—K . B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over.6o 4. 9. 7.

Kt 2 ch 24. 22. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . 25. 19. 20. 29. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. 14. 28. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the . and the other which as the text. 17- 18. 27. 15 Kt — it K is 3. 26. by using King as much as possible. and which I consider better for the student to learn. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. 21. and the Knight and King.

and then the Rook would be compara- . moves which are granted by 16. The resources of the defence are many. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why). it is White's were Black's move it would be simple.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. is that your opponent mate you within However. 40. If it Now.62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. and rules. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh.

Stalemate.) . 3KXR. K—R 2. Q — R 6. 5- best 6. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. the way to proceed Thus I. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square.. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. check with the Queen win it. Once we know becomes easier to what find. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. Now we come will to the second part. and that. 4 Q— K 5 ch.R— Kt 8. in order to compel Black to do so. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. K to R I or to R 2 3. is required. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. Q— K 5ch .. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. The first part concluded.) I 2.

— We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position. Example 42. ^m. The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate..^ ^^m^ ^^. m. . and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. .64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. [ « ^. — The procedure here is very similar.

2. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. Thus 2. 8. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . ..QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position.. If3. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. 5. 6. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back.. since he .. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41. but. IfK— R2.R— Kt2ch. not the best. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. 7. a very effective makes very difficult for .K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. Q— Kt 6ch. King. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i. unfortunately. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4. White. The best move is 1. which defence.

1. 7. 5 i however. White threatened mate at 8. in these examples. Example 40 with Black 2. 4 Q— Q 4. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. White now threatens mate at 5 6. 5 K B 6 3. seen. Let us go back again. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3..K R2. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. The text move. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. 5. 6Q— K5 ch. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. Kt 2 ch. Also that the Queen and . R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. is given to show the finesse of such endings. K— Kt 2. 4ch and the Rook Note. Q 8..

. 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text. He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

player to find. the right move. without such 17. may help the little effort. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge.e. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . i.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. . I my own have selected those that types. with of great help It often in fact.

R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . — It is Black's move. K 6. and mates in three moves as follows . B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. K— R I. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. RXP 2 3. forceful White. at all. has a more move. viz.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. however. 69 is 43. QX Q. — Black's last move was P — 5. 2 If. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat.

5. 8. If Kt X B . ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. ^^ if 45. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. 7. better gain some he can. — White has a beautiful position. before Black consolidates his defensive position. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6. ^1 W^^ i^^W.70 1. Kt and Black would be 3. RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. but material. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. .^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. He there- 2.

K-Kta.. by R. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. White is two Pawns behind. Black should have played i. . ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. 18. K-B 2..^ R-K My 2. 4 P- K 5. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. 6 Kt-K J.KtxKt. P-B3(best). lose.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. 3 Kt X B. The game tinues : — He con- I. ii). 5 KtxP. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite. 4.'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. Chess Career. must therefore press on his attack.

. If 2 . White * finally won. — The is student should carefully ex- position. as the sacrifice of the typical. 3Q — R5. 4. The game continues 1.^ is This position elaborated under . 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. 3 .K — Kti.). . K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. attack. Kt— Kt .. Best. 3.72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2. K— R and if2.

Very often. The student should carefullv . are very well placed and free to act.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. — Black's pieces. however. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. or even Pawns. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. is of such positions of great im- portance. Black is a Pawn behind. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. however. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48.

This threatens to win the Kt. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. 5. the Q R P. but he sees that there to be had. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. 4. The move makes matters 2 3. management I 2. among other thmgs.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . 5. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. 9. ultimately win Q X Kt. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. easier. Queen He now threatens. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 8. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . R X Kt P. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. 7.

Rx B . Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. It is. besides obtaining the better position. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. B —B 4. might be good enough. QR — Qi. that he would have the better game. The obvious move. and he has two courses to choose from. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. since after 2 iB — B4. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. Wliite's move. if it we might conclude side. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. Indeed. and his Bishop commanding however. Black's move.

76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. least. 4. White. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. at should be. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. machine- That. 5. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. The student should positions. B—B 4. that — note. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. with the better position. . as White threatened 3.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. in Failing the second case. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. since in defeat. one or more must be created. for direct attack. or be unable to parry. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. holding the threat in hand. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. all cannot he hroken of. such cases that means 22. to King must ensure their success. so as to side. as in and that out. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. But once the no longer. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. with full force. his threat carried into effect. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. forces the opponent to provide against its it. always an advantage to threaten something. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . For. a thrust at another point.

A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. 2. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. 3. 4. R. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. Ayala. (French Defence. Blanco. to . mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. M. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. R.) Black : J.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. 1. Capablanca. 1913. 5. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6.

prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own. which otherwise has everything to recomit.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation.. mend 7 8.m.±:m.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM..A. and puts Black . 4 was the right move. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. would have led to held his complications. The text move accomplishes nothing. iii m. in which Black might have at least. White's play would be very difficult. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out. i m.

any sort. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. B X Kt followed by 9. because of the sacrifice BX P). points.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . P—B 10. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. seriously weakening his King's side. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . He has lost much time. in order to improve the position of White at other 13. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. position. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. 15. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. The . 16. 12. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. 14.

as of White. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. make way for the Rook. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. 18. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. is one line of attack this anticipated. and tempting White to play Kt X B.K— R Kt 25 4. tending to prevent P—B 5.^m^m. followed by B X P. RxB. Q X Kt. which would be bad. PX Kt. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. QX if P. 23QxR. as another. 20 B x P. 24RxRch.PxQ. . there rule. 11mi m X m m. KR4. 21 — P2. Kt Q-Kt 4./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K. not as an active attack- ing piece. and no exception to the will be seen. but merely to 17. But is it always happens in such is cases that. 22 P— K R 4.

pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. PX K P. however. in my for opinion. 24. Pawn.THREATENED ATTACK 20. as White threatened 23. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. Such. and also QX P Q-B3 better. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. 87 21. as White quickly demonstrates. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. I not the case. Black 5. 22. untenable. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre.

Q— K3 4. winning. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. 32. 28.. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. 3031.PXP. 4. White's play were might be found that there was it. R— K2 3.. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. R— K 2. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. E. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. 33P-K Kt 3. to advance P—R 29. and Black will soon be helpless. as he has P— B 28.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. and finally at the proper time to play RX B.P 4. Dr. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. 27. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. 5. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing .

P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. 1913. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. 5. 4. Black: D. 1. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . is A good example of type of game given below. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. to be good. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. 10. Capablanca. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. 12. Kt — Q2 9. J. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material.) White: R. involving of pieces. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. once the obtained. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. there material advantage is nothing to do. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. 23. and therefore I played knew 7 8. 7. Example 53. Janowski.

Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. in the following diagram. Black has two B 3 and 3. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. it is Then. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. "holes" at Thus.K B - 3 was 18 19. once to derive passed. Pawn and relieving the position. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. B— R6 2 I 14. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. R— Q R— —Q B 4. K KR Kt . 20. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz.g. 18. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange. supported by pieces or Pawns. e. where White forces. a could establish themselves. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. 15.. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. 16. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. BxR Kt— K3 better.^ Such grand show hand of a master. 13. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. concerned there is only one thing to do.

is In reality Black's attack force. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. and then . could not succeed against sound defensive play. ^P wm '^**i^. ^y^/y/y^. 22.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. without even a Pawn for it. If m '. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21.

Rook enters into the game. Then.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. but White is now time to give back the exchange. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. but he will soon prepare the way for it. well prepared. 27. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. 28. i Now is the Black It prepared.. .^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. '''. action. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. '"<. Bepres- sides. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead.

Rx B RX B. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. i. 39.n . 40. 93 303132. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. I . RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. 3334. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. 38. 36. 34 35. fine.

4344.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. . game a master only plays to cut so to speak. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. 49. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. 45- P . 42. 24. 4748.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. which will be treated separately.

6 QPxB . 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. (Four Knights. which I have played successfully in many a game. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. On the other hand. Black R. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. Niemzowitch's variation. 2.) White: W.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. J. 54. Winter. Capablanca. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. should be sufficient to win. he will have to weaken is his some other way. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. 1. which. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. It gives WTiite is a very solid game.

the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. but mostly at K R Finally. The general strategical plan for K R 3. Capablanca. in most cases comes P — KB times 4. Then. possible. after most of the pieces have been exchanged. remains at Kt i. 7. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. and then the real attack begins.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. . K Kt 3. I believe. against Levitzki.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. ^ 9 14. The Kt P X B . ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. R. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. Petersburg. See Capablanca-Janowski game. without doubt. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. 8. at St. New York ment. by J. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. 1913. gives White the best of the game. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book.^ 8 9. i. 19 13.

P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . 10. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. as soon as the circumstances permit. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. t^ • bi^^ k To / . falls into the trap. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. 10. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop.

98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. After this as will be seen. either before or after Kt X Kt. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. Black now devotes and. with disastrous results in either case. to may see how simple it is win such a game. 11. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. 13. . 12. and possibly not even then. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes. so that the student The rest of the game is given. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. 14. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. side. the result cannot be in doubt.

29. R. 27. against Mr. F. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. 18. 17. file. L. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. 26. 22. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. PxP 28.Kt B 5. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. It . 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. has the Alexander. 23. one of England's foremost players. 19. F. Black regains immediately by 24. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. after PX B P.

345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. Black : George Thomas.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. F. Alexander.) White Mr. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. my request. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. F. 2. Example 55. L. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. I.

and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. and might be compelled to stake all on a . in a general way. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. Q 3. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. 7. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. In the opening. 10. B X Kt Kt X B 8. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. first. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. 12. loi There are. 9. besides. 5. which. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3.) GAME .IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. constitutes an advantage. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known.

and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. a turning point in the game. . 13 14. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. There were three moves to consider: first. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. P-Qs K R— Q is i. or that were not possible.

which he 15 16. 103 in the P—Q R 4. B X P . blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. which would weaken Pawns. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. B — Kt 5 and third. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second. sive. 18 B X P ch.Kt and P. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. PX P. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 .IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. either of Rooks to Kt X B. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong.) . This would have 3 to pre. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3. which he would do in case. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 .B QB 5. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by .

B—K B—B P—B better. a plan on a large success. side. or rather to prevent then. .) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. play Q R— K I. to be followed by a White it. 20. 2 4 3 to would . play 20. lacks force. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. 22. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. 21. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack.) Black's play hereabout weak . In such cases a player must conceive scale. have probably. time with his Rook's moves. If is able to defeat this plan. once they enter in action. direct attack against the King. which. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. He should. 23. threatening P— K B 4. it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. therefore. which promises chances of and with it all.

PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here. as he expected. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. Had White retaken with the B P.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . GAME 105 2.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6. 26. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack.

and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. as.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. It 28. K B 2. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. had White Kt 3. vented all that. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. 29. after having placed the Q at Q 2. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . and P — B text to The move 4. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. but it is isolated. he could then play Q— PX P. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. and there is no effective continuation. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. B P on 27. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been.

against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3.) 34. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. and White plays is lost. 37. Kt — B 4. ch. 107 now 34 B-B 3. by the masked attack on White's Rook. R X Kt RXR 4. P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. 40 RX R.) . and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. B —K If. however. PXP. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. 35 BXB ch. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. B X B.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. with a winning attack. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. •/ /'^^ m. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. best.1 take pleasure .. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. 35. manner. ch .

Q— R 38. Kt 2. .R-R3. 41 Kt-Kt I. to carry on the attack. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. .ove. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i. 3940. beginning with 39. QXR .) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. QxKtP. ® i i (If 40. 39...io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. and the way 41.) best A very beautiful m.

m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape. at 42 43.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B.) 44. Rx R B. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight. then. (Again.) (If 42 QX last. very fine . not R— K R 3 42.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. WTiite resigns. but \Miite has no time to take it.) 41 BxB . ch. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. R—R 3 wins. because of P —Q 6 dis.

players they are weak in the endings first .CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. Finally. it But yet the ending at first appeared. a failing from free. in Then I followed a very hard. itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). arduous struggle. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. that very often the case among the large majority of . Unfortunately. of course. which. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. which masters of the rank are at times not . I accepted.

26. then. JNIorphy. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. granted greater mobility of the pieces. . in this and Dr. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. when speaking about win consists general theory. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. that at times the in attacking first on one side. breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. Example 56. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally.

I A serious mistake. R— KKt 8. . which loses quickly. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. side. 7. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. Black. In the above position with the Black pieces. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. which in the end might give him the victory. 4. 3. and thus to Rooks.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. therefore. White should have played 8 answered . Kt 8 R-KB5 . R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. played I 2. as will be seen very soon. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. 3. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . 5. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up.

FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. The . which There is him the initiative. 1913. If PX R. R — B 6ch followed 10. while Black has an isolated Q R P. R— 4 ch. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. 9. Another good example. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. ' Mt M. ' M. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. ^^^ M. by R— K R 8 winning. if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. Example 57. Ml.

If he has a weakness.P — KB4. He does nothing after Besides. it is but follow White's footsteps.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. 3. 4. If he has a weak point. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . White the control I open file. make else. and he can get rid of it. the to bring Rooks forward. 4 ch. followed by hard to point out anything better. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. freely. 5R — . If4. try make it weaker.. 5R — 2. and also not to allow 2. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. as in the previous ending... sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. If4. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later.P — Q4. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board.. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack..

Pawns of Black on by the two of White. 9 1 1 R-K 4. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side. and Black's game is hopeless. 7. 10. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. 7K-B2. 3. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . K-Q 9. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. P—Q 5 . as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. for reasons that will soon 7 8. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4.RxP. which is all White desires. winning the R—Q R Q R P..FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. R — R 6.. King's side would be held 5. Evidently forced. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. become evident. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. which would have left If 8 . which is the only one that can advance two squares.R-K2. 6PxR.

R—R . in beheve. P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. and 15 if then 13.Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. drawn. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. .R-Kt i. 12 13. but this move is weak. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. 3 was the proper coni . 12. tinuation. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. fact. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. won game. since of it forces the exchange . I with excellent winning chances. K-Kt2. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . 14 P — Kt 3. Rooks because I. 4.Kt i Black misses his only chance. would have .

move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. 18. 22.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. however. 19. 2526. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. less. R 2 6 via Kt 4. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. . use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. SIDE I 117 15. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. but only one move. 16. 17. P-Kt 7. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. 20. 4 R-B 3 . 27. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24.

KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3.Kt 5 A weak move.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. P . but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. ""f^i (Bis. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling. of. as often the case with most players.. 29. In this ending.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?.. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132. The right move was 28. . which is gives Black a fighting chance. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch.

48. 42. followed by RxP R-K R 7. 4546. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. so long as there no great advantage of material. 37. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. R-K7 R— Kt chances. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. mistakes are lost. made and opportunities are is shows that. 49. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. . It and how often. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. 7 ch. no matter how strong. even in master-play. even with a good position. a player. 3940. 4344. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. offered better 38.

as did. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn. . The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened.120 THE DANGER OF 27. 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana. but his position is rather poor. careless became exceedingly happened. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. 1913).^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. I. how it P-Kt4 RXRP .^.. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58.

K .B 3 7 R X P ch.Kt 5 ch... 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. which is actually in danger. and is does not stop to think whether there better. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . 6 . K— Ki. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two.Kt 2 If4. 5R-R8ch. 7 Px P ch. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns. If instead White played K. move no defence. . His best there move was is R —R 4. . If then K-Kt 3. K — Kt 3 . anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. The reason is evident. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. as will soon be seen.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. 10 R-Kt 7 ch. and wins easily. R . R .K-Kt3.K 4. After the text is lost. K-K 2. 3. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. 9 R (R 6) X R. then R . . 6. 5.P-B4. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. 2. . 4. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. and has only taken three moves.Kt 3 8 P . R X P. Px R. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. i2i This is the first.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. iiRxKtP.

few have mastered them thoroughly. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. . but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board. They are often of a very difficult nature. Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . Yet though and they do occur so often. KxR. Example 59. 10 R-R 8 ch. K-Kt 3. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. 8RxR. 5 mate. P—R 28.

Luckily for him Black did lost. (6) 2. 2P-B7. P-B6 7 ch. a simple wm by R—B ch. 3. R— Q 3.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6.R— K7 a very important move. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. P—B 7. but there are other very interesting features. 4. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. R—B (a) 2. 5. played poorly. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. as against wins. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. R-Q3. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. not see the drawing move. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. We have therefore 3. . or draw by perpetual check.

followed by R — K B 4 wins. or (6) R-K B 3.Kt 6 R .. then goes back. 4. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins.. If R-Q 3 ch. I. and come out with a winning ending.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch.. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. K-K 6. . Let us examine them. . 3.:. because the King the Kmg goes up. R-Kt3ch 2. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2.. 5.Kt 3. R-B3 K-B 5 P . and R — R 4 ch. . If P_Kt 6. then R — R 6..

K 6. 2R — Bych. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. Black did not to draw. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. and iP — B6. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. Now. K-K2 .3. and come out with a winning ending. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. R — Q3.P-B7 2. according to the circumstances. 4.

.126 Best. . m. 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6. This position we have arrived at is won by White.. because instead of the position on the diagram. and to check besides. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file. if. 7.. K-K3 ^„„. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5. i^ ^.. RxP R-Q2 8.. he could draw by preventing the ad- .„„^^„ m ^^'. the last-named move particularly would win with ease..0 ^.„^^.. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook. RxP R-KR2 RxP 9. the Black Rook were at KR i.. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win .„.. This last condition is very im- portant... and Black had the move.. ^^^ ^ . — ^^ '^" ^^^..

and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. 29. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. — From a game. is The way them. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. in the 60. Now position that is we have explained won. . as already stated. are not is very common. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. These endings. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case.

he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. It is Black's move. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. to It often leads to disaster. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong.Q Kt 3. unless White plays P .128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. R-Q4 P—B 3. There is nothing to gain by this move. . After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. This move not only prevents intended. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. That would fix the Queen's side. criticised. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy.

PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. now develop. I K-K. is a little too late. his position. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. because P— KB 4 would have . P . R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3.Kt PXP ch 2 4. . in order to WTiite. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. He could not play 8. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. Black unaware of the danger of .3 is This is a mistake. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. but . w^hich will 7. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. R-R6 K—Q 3. This in move K— K 8. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position.K R—B 2. should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. 3. 3 and Kt 7. by making this P. R-K2 R-QR He 3. R— Q R force I should have been played now. hence move. 5 6. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. however. 5.

Rook.. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10. either . tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. threat- not enough. King at B 5 or K 5.. which he should have started before. i ^ ILl . as he could not go back with the King.PXP.. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side.^ mmi. He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. or. „ . he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5. 5 9. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation. cannot play Of course. because of RX R. ^m. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. . K—K 2 ^^j^ . If he 9. recovering the Pawn with advantage. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4.. White RXR P. followed by R—R 3.I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed.J^^^ . nor could he do much with 10. might play K — Q 4..

KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12.. then 14. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks.. 13. because of Q R P. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. or he might first play Q 4. because would leave him paralysed. .R— Kt2. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong. would play P — Kt 4. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. if there was nothing better. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. 4 at once was the right move. it is very similar. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. P-R5 K B If good. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. nor could he advance On the other hand. and it will be seen that 11.

K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP.) 20. with winning RxR. 19. 19R-R6. 17. 16 K. then 15 17 P XP. R5. 15.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . lyRxP.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. chances. RxP. R-K R 7 iSRxR.Kt 2 any case. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . 18. R-Ktych. . 16. would draw. RxP. 21.Q 3. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. M M M P-R3 last chance. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14.

ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :. K-B R-K R 8. — From the 7 ski.^."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. . 5. 6. will win 22.. to make matters worse. sees he can no longer defend Pawns. 25. he cannot .TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. easily.. 26 R-Q R and 27. 24. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29. K-Q 2.22R-R6! 2.. ^33 If2i. 23. R-Q White 8 ch. R-KB Example 61.. ^^H M^.R-Kt8. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate. 2S. ^M" ft ^^ W^. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. KxP Resigns.. 26. 25 RxP.. which.

where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. 3. of course. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. and will then bring his own King to K 3. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. and finaUy 5.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . Black wants to play prevents it. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. 2. thus P-Q 4. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. but White. This King should come to the King's danger lurks. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. P-KKt4 P . Pawn on the with which White expected to win. by P X Rook and be able P. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. 1. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. advance. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side.

7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. might have been the best chance for Black. White. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. also prevents 4. 9. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. 6. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. 7. the text move is really a serious loss of time. RxP . Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. however. 5. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. 8. P-QR4I .

to go to in case of danger. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 .s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. board ready to support the advance or. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. 12. White holds the open with one of his Rooks. superior and his chances 10 11. if of White's Pawns. necessary. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. 13. is White not only has a passed Pawn. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. or to move to the right wing file Besides.i. R-R3 R-Kt3 4.

P-K5 18. which would finally force Black to take. and whichever Rook Black took. 20. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. 19. R 5) X R. nothing therefore Black had wait. only helps WTiite.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. or up Black's Rooks better completely. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . 2 would not help much. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. White would have an easy game.) (The student should carefully study 14. 22. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . text move. 15. however. much. these variations. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17.

Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. 30. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. ROOK. 27. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment.138 ROOK. Example 62. v. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. Knight and Pawns. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. 28. . while often the losing side all. ROOK.

in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. There are two courses open to him.ROOK. The most evident. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. To a beginner may look like a draw. and more subtle. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . forcing White to defend something time. not only because he has the initiative. The other. and the one that most players would take. 3 R course his was taken by Black. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move.

140 WTiite's of ROOK. P-KR4 R-R3 . P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. 2. P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them. Rook. Consequently a very bad move. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. 4. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. Black's King where it is it wants to go. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. way. 6 7. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. in material and position. of Black's Queen's side 3. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

2. use my owTi games. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. 12. not because they will better illustrate the point. knowing shall them thoroughly. 32. I shall. but because. whenever possible. 13. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. 6.146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. 7. 5. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. 11. 9. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. 1.

and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. In fact.) '^/^/////.'. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. referred to. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. 14. which will in no way be able to advance to 4. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. may be excused the reference. forced the exchange of both Knights.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we. 191 2. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram. . '/^-//M.- . they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. and that in some way White. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on.

„.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. . pieces can be said to be ^xt^. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ».^wm. ^i m. and we might to have some such position as 66. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4.. i i a m 3. wM If 2. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A .

R(B i) . K X R.. 9. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P.R — Pawn by Q X P.K Kt R.KB 3. Q. 4. « « . Q . White might even be able position to obtain the following . R. ch. Q. II. break through.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move. P. and he played R — KB i.: > C^..K. I 6. and Kt 3.Kt2. QNow R5. P X 2. RX R. 5. RX R 3 8. PX Q- Kt Q. (B i) .K B 3. to . QXQ.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ . 10.Kt P . then he would bring his King up to and when the time came.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I. White would then simply defend his move like Q.KKti. as in the previous case. and Black K B i. R(B5)-B2.Ri R 7. K-R 4. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. also win a Pawn at least. because 3 R X B P would 3.Q White threatened could not play win a .R-Kt3. 2.. 2 RX 2. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A .

and thus force Black to play P X P. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). and the fact that advance. and White could then play Q—B 2. and follow up with K B 3. which would give White a greater advantage. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. once all the pieces are exchanged. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. of this kind. The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. at White's K . own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. A careful that.

— Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913.) A. White For a beautiful in that variation. Janowski. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. . 4. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. (Queen's Gambit Declined. but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. K Kt — 10. 8. 1. Kupchick. after 8 . 4. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. 7. QxB. I 151 67. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. D. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . 5. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. Black: 2. is The normal to play course 0—0. B-Q3 in its favour in this position.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. . B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9.

2. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. Kt x Kt P—K 4. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . P—K 4. 12. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . not only but also Kt X B ch. because B 5 threatening. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. by RX P. In off effect.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note. perfectly developed.„„.

if he can do it at it all. especially the one 5. less In such cases. the better chances there are to escape. 14. will ever be able to attack anything. which a Pawn for a while.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. it is hard to see how this Besides. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. henceforth will be full The question how see. 15. 13. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. the the number of pieces on the board. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. K might be said to be ideal. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively.

As that not the case.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. he might i.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. 18. 17. 21.>• I . R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. 2. but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. P ^1 . have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. . White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19.

the . and the position so much in his favour. There were. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22.. among them . and with two Pawns for the exchange. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. any number ref)lies it. White should have no trouble in winning. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. position. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. 2T.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. . B X Kt Q X P. . however. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 .

seen they tie up Black's position more and more. 30. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. There is nothing to be done. 33.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. principally those at K and QB 5. K— Kt of the B X P. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. Kt— Kt4 27. and Black would be helpless. apart from other The student should things. 31. B — Kt i . P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. 32. 36. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. 2. notice that. . 28. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. 35. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. K—B 34. P X P. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. Q — R 2 ch. 29.

PART II .

.

J. 1909) White : F. 4. Black : J. this defence twice before in the with good still results. so often. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. P— Q4 2. 1. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. E. because the 159 . On general principles it should be wrong. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. Marshall. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. Lasker had played should be good. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr.PART GAME 1. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. Capablanca. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. 5. R. it thought that since Dr.

and However. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. would Kt 3. involves the exchange of two pieces. 7. 7 8.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop.. of the match. Kt 2. .PXP. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. 0-0 X P 5. followed by B qBxBP. Kt-B3 . 6. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. I it outside the scope of this book. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. In reality the difficulty in this variation. eleventh For this variation see the game 9.P be good. No longer would 9.. . BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see.

5 without any compensation for this position it. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . i6i 11. 15. believe that Black would regain the Pawn. 16. R— K and If.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. I. The safer course would have been to play 13. instead. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. is doubtful whether good. 12. 14. If I had to play . I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. 3. PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. Q X Q would follow. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way.

As a 5. my mind that this was threatened. 23.K R— Kt 17. 24. 21. then any other move would lose as well. I The game was 22. PxP QxP lost. 16.... 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. .l62 GAME I i. 25.. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. best . 19. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. BX Kt P — R6 20. . 18.. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I. but the text move makes matters worse. One move was as good as another. If that move would have been loses.

The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. R. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. Capablanca. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. K. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. A well-played game on Marshall's part. 4. 5. 3. 2. 1. if 163 Kt X B. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . B — Kt 2 8. aims at the of Black's Q P. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. 25 — GAME 2. Rubinstein. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. B— K3 in this variation. Black : J. 7. 191 1) White : A.

.. K Kt 5. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii.. but with very poor success. was right. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10..^^i mm. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped.. II.. KtxB 12.164 GAME 2 course of this variation.../M. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination . order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. r.. ii W'^M m^A m^. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3.. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake. B 3 or P — K R 3. The move in theory ought to be unsound.

but which I thought could be defeated. but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret.' . let him play it. to my lasting 1 :m . 14. B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^.. B X Kt B. KtxP! ' "y/////.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen.. which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game..^A IB 15.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= .

P— KR 4. 19. i. should have played R X R ch. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. P — K Kt this and Black should win. K — B 2. 7 . K-B Kt. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . 5 (if . Kt — R 19 change). taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 .i66 i6. BxPch wins). GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2.Q B — K6ch. R — B 5 wins. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. I. This gives Black a chance. 3 (if .Q R-QBi. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. 22.R-K7. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. I thought 2. K — Bi. granted i. B X R ch 20 3. 7 . the ex- Kx B. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. 21. Q— B i! PxKt 18. 17. R— B ch. had not considered. R— K 2.

167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. The proper way was to play it Q 3. 26. In fact. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move. 24. Kt— Q 5. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. game will show.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. 28. as the course of the loses several moves. RxR. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . If then R — Q Kt 5. 25. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. followed by P — Q Kt 4. B x R.

but the text move a chance. he can win at White's best con- . how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334.) 31. fortunately for him. 38. Even before the last is a downright blunder. 3536. Black does not avail himself. impossible for to win. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. 37.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. of which.

IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. R.. K— R 3. I. GAME 3. P — R6 R X Kt P 40.P —R 8. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. Janowski. 3 2. As an end game. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. Black : J. 42.. P — R 6. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. 42 R— Kt 41. and 41 to find it. If Px P B X Kt 7. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. K— B 7 . 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. R X B. 8. Capablanca. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. 2. 39. R — By. 5. 7. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. 191 3) White : D. B X P. beginning with 14 B x Kt.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6. 40.

own Pawn openings. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack. to obtaui some definite material advantage. 12.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. ID. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. or failing that. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. 11.

wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game.IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. in order to bring at once all into play. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. B x Kt was also good. Px B . ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. I A very serious mistake. i5Kt— B5. and the other. 13. often brings the player into trouble. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . 18. was the move. 14. 16. that govern any given posiI tion. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. which was a very threatening move. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. 15. right which afraid 3.

R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. For this reason P—K attack. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. which she already defends. Black. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . at doubling the Rooks. which destroys White's plans. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. how- ever. to P — Kt 4. . sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. P — B 4. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. which he text compelled to defend with the King. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. the K P.

because 25 PXP Kt X P. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game.. as will Black cannot ch.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. and would have In fact. should come to a simple ending. 23. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. 22. which loses a Pa\\Ti. P— KR4 soon be seen. 21..Kt— K 3 . reply 24. he did not carry out his original plan. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. This wins a Pa^\^l. 173 Unfortunately for Black. . if it with a very good game. RxR Ktx R 24.

FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. 27. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. 1913) : (St. 2. 35. 29. WTiite : J. 34. A. 31. 33. Black resigned. Black E. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. 1. 32. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. Instead . 26. and. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. 4. at taking the initiative aims away from White. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. 3. R. 36. Capablanca.174 24 25. GAME 4. Snosko-Borovski.

It This is considered superior to has for its object. considered then. of course. QxP Px P. the text move 5 to be the stronger. WTiite. will Castle It is. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. however. 5. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. to make a violent attack against White's King. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. as I said before.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. as I do now. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. side. . 6. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side.

as in this game. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. 4 11. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. sidered. side. is of Philadelphia. overlooking Wliite's fine . it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. 12 13. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. 12. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. it is : of an attack. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. moves. 14. Walter Perm as Shipley. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. I believe.176 9- GAME 10. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr.

15. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . 17. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. pieces. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. 16. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . way for a few moves. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. but also drives the Queen away. putting it out of the is game for the moment. with P 4. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. 19. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18.

It advantage of position. Q-Bi 22. value. but gave up because seemed too slow. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. and . it which was the right move. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. great is K self-evident that White has a 23. 21. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. 3. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch.

PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . P— B 4 the right move. I was." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. 24 25. If Px 28 P P. 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . Kt— R 5 ch 26. still looking for the "grand combination.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . 27. 28. Kt — B 4 was that the however.

I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. ?8 29. num- ber of times.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. on move find out 28. my judgment when. and that is would vindicate 4. P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) .

I. A very interesting battle. 2. 5. 1. P-QR3 is 4. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. Lasker. 1914) White : Dr. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. K-Kt I . which WTiite . R. P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. because Q— R 8 mates. 40. 37 Q-R6. Capablanca. i.FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . White cannot play Kt —Q 4. GAME (St. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. Black : J. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. E. 39.

obstruct Black's Pawns. in order not to also. in order to go K Kt There is . Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. 7. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. 4 5. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove. 8. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. in some event3. ualities. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. On the other hand. 6. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation.

This move still. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. Kt— Q 4. B—K 3 because of 3 3. it unless it advances to K 5. It also prevents II. 12. Best. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. B — K I 3. 9. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. 4. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time. and it also makes 4. 10. It threatens B—B R— K 4.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. P-B5 r£ a i .

Kt x R.. Lasker gives right move 4. Q tion.. 16 R— B 2.. is after R— Q i given in Dr. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game.i4RxB. Lasker's variaIf not the best.BxB. Dr. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game. on my part finally to obtain a lost position.. 16. The B X B. P — B B — Kt 2.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. 12 13. i. But. 16. Q R — Q 19 it. RxR. 18R— Q2. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. .. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again.. 17RXR. RxR. my better judgment.

then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. . 14. BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. QR-Qi . .Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. . threatening Kt — B 5. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17. Black plays 19. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. after 19. and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. Black can later P—Q 16. 2. 4. however. if . 5. on play P —B 4. 5. otherwise I would have played the right move .Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . neither which can be stopped. fol- 4. 5 for will at least fact.B X B. also Lasker's variation. . followed by Kt —K Kt 5. . 15. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 .

and there is no good reason why 19 2. Q — 2) P X P. If P — Q Kt 4. lose. i7. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. 18 Now 5.P ..'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4.. . and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. K winning a weaker. P -Q 4. and a 1 7 ..i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. via Q B i.. 21 R X R. 18 R— B 2. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. let us analyse Kt. Kt X R. —B 4. Q Kt 3. B X P 20 Kt X B (best. 19 PxB. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 . P—B 4. RxKt. (B Black should 17 18.Kt — and at later 6. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. . Kt around to K 4. 17. that I could play the text move. B X Kt give Black the advantage). since if R Q 2.. Again.

have been extremely 22. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. difficult. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. the two moves were weak. P X R ch. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. and the game most accurately. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. 20. and Black becomes more . 4 ch. At least it would K— B 2 24. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27.19. Black. 28. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. has no object now. Had . 25. 26. I Again bad. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. of course. 21. would R— R 5. move. with a bad game. flounders around have been better to play file. 23. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This.

35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. 41. 5 The game needs no further comment. Regard- ing the play of White.i88 helpless with each GAME move. probably 29. which was bad. . he played well after that up to the 27th move. 38. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. 3334. perfect. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. . I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. excepting that an altogether made. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. 37. 3940. 42. as well as play The rest of his was good.

but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. and later. Chajes. which Wliite adopted in this game.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. By the text move Black up Castlmg. 5. Black : J. because gives obtain the initiative. 1916) White : O. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. . 8. . 7. Capablanca. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. I. R. P— K4 2. side very weak. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. I The alternative. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best.

he threatens White's K P. B 1 M ^. cannot be said as yet. time and merely weakened 10. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. II. has suffered somewhat.iQO 9. His development. 12.HI. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. which must of course be de- . 14. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. '^^„* WiW^. however. because. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. so that it . besides being a Pawn to the good.

B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. Q 4. and there to dislodge his pieces. of the game. and can consequently decide the course 15. the Bishop will be developed to itself. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. . which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. 17. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. for it. To prevent Kt X P. 17 18. 2 B-K3 4. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . is thoroughly prepared for it. since The move.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. or ever. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. strategically wrong. as dominates the whole situation.

22. since White's attack amounts to nothing. 23. Q R— Kt i. would have avoided everything. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. 24. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. circumstances.192 19. R-R3 24. 21. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. in order to follow p—B as he did later. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . it up with and played Q — R 5 now. as White will soon prove. but under less favourable 4. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20.

p. is 193 However. 27 28. 1 liW 27. 26. the move not a losing one by any means. 25.FRENCH DEFENCE plications. PXP e. Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. ^M i y/y^/yyii. as will soon be seen.

unless first. which gave White time to play convinced. K— R it as already indicated. I am ing to play I . that B—B 3 at once was the right move. as explained above. and Black would reply with to play 5 . P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. which be at give draw.194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. first In some cases. the White KR but in is now Rook having come . or to some other move according circumstances. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. was the best move. of course. White would be forced either P — Kt 4. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. R— K R i . which looks the best is (the plan. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. however. but I was wrong. and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. 5 in to go to 8. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. 3. of course. forcing followed a play- similar plan. tion all. of course. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). 31. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above.

42. 33' 34.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. Kt X Q . 32. 47. 41. 48. therefore. 36. least. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. X P was no 3940. 49. 195 Instead of the text move. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. and Black who has to fight for a draw. It is now White who has the upper hand. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. and the last chance Black best play. 434445- 46. RX 35. 3738.B 2 K--Kt I . Black should have played Kt —K 5.

K X B. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. 5354.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. I was hoping lowing variation. on the other hand. I players will be wondering. 51 who decided 7. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. If the reader does not believe it. My no chances. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. 5758. White. played opponent.K-R2. as the spectators did not resign. . and while . having the best of the position. 53 BKt 5 ch. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch.RxP. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. for while Black. QxP few more moves Black resigned. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. missed none. missed several chances. 5152. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. let and him take the White what happens. 52Q-R5.

191 1) White : J. 5 6. 1. Bum- P— K4 3 2. 9. after 2 P — K Kt 3. 12. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. It B— K a more natural and effective move. (San Sebastian. Black : A. 5. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. 10.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . 11. 4. R. 2. Capablanca. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. to which I was much addicted at the time. B—B 5.

however. and also his King's Pawn. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. . in going to K B. able White. in border to up where it is. does not block the 13. 14. 3 to defend the square QB 4. 16. does not of his allow time for this. because White's QB is out. and superior position 17. This is bad. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. and played make his position more solid. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. and the Knight.

move to eliminate all danger. is by his next 22. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. 19. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. . This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. by using the open able K R file. 18. 21. but game very much weakened. in which case. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P.

25. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. 42. Kt-K3 32. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. of course 39. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . two Pawns down for all practical purposes. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. to be defended I by pieces. 24. B-K2 28. 40. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. followed by R— B 7 ch. 29. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. 37. LrAMJn. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. 3334. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. 31.200 23. 38. 26. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . If B.

1913) GAIVIE White : J. 1. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. 7. 2. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. least. Mieses. 46. is position WTiite The plan. 8. instead of the text move. which would. slight advantage of think. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. at compensate whatever might have. GAMES. 5. I quite feasible. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. Black : J. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. often played in order to develop the Q B. Capablanca. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. My P to idea was it.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. is P—Q t. CENTRE (Berlin. 3. B— KB . to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. R.

II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move.l. with serious of position. all. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. and could only be loss extricated. 12 Kt — B 3. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. . II. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. opening the 11 way Q B. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt.202 GAME 8 I 1. could have played P—Q 3 . R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. If Kt — 3 . With the R — Ki. when would have followed. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. P—Q completely shut if off. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book.

was simple. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch .BxP. 15P— QB3. game 19 RX P. not so in reality. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe. 16 P x B. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. . Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily.^^ mm mm.CENTRE GAME 12. and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13.R Kt 5. — R- . was most interesting. QxPch. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . RXB. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. . besides the fact that all the White 14. K Kt 5 Black. and 13. QxQ. when we would have 14 B X Kt. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. better. 3 (best). Pawns are isolated. 17 Q— K PX Q. 18B — B2.

He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. the attack. however. he would be a Pawn minus. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. favour until. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. 22. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. At first and even after careful thought. White . while having the exchange. enough to win with proper play. 19. feared the difficulties of an ending where. would have given White a decided advanMieses. with the exchange ahead. 17. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. 18. 20.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. in order to maintain one of them. Kt — Q4 4. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. I . B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. 17.. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. Not.P 4. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. and there would be no good way 18 19. Kt X Kt 16. so to speak.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. are manoeuvred chain-like. of course. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. They there. and consequently weak and subject to attack. I R— B . Kt (B 4) — 15.. the Bishop must defend. KR— Q would 5. have 16 14. 14. and therefore move. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. Kt X Q. to prevent 7. but in position such a course is a mistake.

and White is a Pawn ahead. as Wliite demonstrate. . moves anywhere else.. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. 24 R X P. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. 22.R — B 2.. at least of the most kind. then B X Kt. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file . yet. . Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced. There seems to be no particular danger. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. 21 Kt— Q6. If 20. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. 25 R — Q 2. R X Kt.B 20. indeed. Pawns. 23 Bx Kt. B X B. R— B 2. Black may be said to be the defence is lost. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o.B — Qi. 22 Kt X B.

Black's best chance was as in the text. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of .KKt3. up a Pawn. to give Hence. 24. after having. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. of course. as White would immediately 23. 25. 9 with the Rook. KB4. in order to free his Knight. on the other Black could do nothing hand. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. which would be disastrous. White. prepared the way. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it.212 GAME sieze it.

and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. B — Kt3. —K The it text move is. with proper play. soon be seen. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. . which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. which. . R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. 27. even though White could answer P however. weak. would on account P —Q 4. of P— KKt3 5 . as will 5 . but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. P X Kt would be worse. K 5. 29. obtaining a passed Pawn. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. should win. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours.

32. 35. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop .^. it would take longer. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\. 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily.2l4 31.P-QR3 5 36. K-K3 37. 4 31 Practically forced.

where it not only protects the P. tion terial fortunately. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . Marshall.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. 1914) White: J. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. 3 6. 2. J. Black: F. R. 7. 5. finest players in the world. advantage of a Pawn. 3. Q P. practically from the opening. The student ought of ending. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. Once he obtained that. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. Petersburg. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. he tried for and obtained. 1. Capablanca. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P.

The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. and a very is move. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. . On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. 8. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. BxKt B-Q3! 10. 11. Kt — B 3 P— 9. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true.

unquestionably an advantage . since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. 13. in turn. Kt X P ch. blocks the Bishop. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. Queen. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. Besides. then P Q 5. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. 5. wins a Pawn. R— Kti. . On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. B game him to — — — B 4. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. as White threatened Kt K 4. which. followed by B X B. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to.

20. in attack against WTiite's fails. because Black's development backward. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . he will sooner or later them.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. as it always must is such cases. which destroys Black's plan utterly. P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . 17. 15. his Pawns are all weak. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. 18. & /. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. however.2l8 14. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. The plan. will Black and.

30- 3132. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . interest. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. are given merely as a matter of form. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. 27. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. 28. 3334. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. 23. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29. that Black's game is lost.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 2526.

.220 38. 50. 42. 47. 59. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. Resigns. 52. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 54. 49. 48. 57. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. 58. 4344. 45. 55. GAME 39. lo 40. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. 41. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51.

8. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. E. I. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. Petersburg. Alechin on several occasions. 2. Black: D. P—Q which is generally- played. superior to Alechin considered 4. and obtained the superior game. in one of his games against Dr. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. R. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. which he only through a blunder. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. Janowski. at the time. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. typical of Janowski. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. Capablanca. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. . 7. move. Lasker. 9. 191 4) White: J.

under the cumstances. hoping to lighten White's attack.222 10. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5. . Black simply takes is to advance his If it. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. at once. 12. GAME Q— Ki M. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. but one which. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. was the best. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. 13. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can.

which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5. 14. ^ . There is only one thing to take care of and that . Beto 4. 1516. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength.. 1718. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack.. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack.. P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns. The only 4 .RUY LOPEZ 14. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad.. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t..

. 27. . 25- loses very rapidly. 29. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. 20. RX Kt .2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. now K P X R. Black could have played instead of the text move. The move 22. 2324. . Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. 19. i8.

2. 5. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. 1.. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. Black: O. 3. Chajes. 4. White: J. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. R. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. and consequently 4 cannot be bad..Jm. 7.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . y^. i i g<^ i 'M. but a perfectly natural it developing one. Capablanca. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York.

12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . But as he does not obtain . Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. followed by 10. Black now plays 8 2 . P — Q Kt If 3. R— K i was m %///M. in this variation. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. . B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. 3 because B X Kt. 12. . 5 ch. . This weakens Black's King's the right move.226 8. 11.

16. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. BxP. 17. 17 18. B — Kt 2. KtxB. Black with a 21. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. threatening P— 18 19. 15. Of course if R— K 3. suicide. Kt x R— K B. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. I 20. because after BxP.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. advantage of position for White. the move It bad. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. P— QB 3 Q X Kt . QxKt. . QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. 14QXBP. Pawm minus fights very hard. 14. Kt X B.

the way of the K B P. . and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. or support which cannot advance to rather. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. of course. that the White Knight is He notices. 4 to defend. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. the KB Pawn at K 5. 12 R— K Black could 21 22.228 GAME 3. 23.

P X w li.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. 33- 34. 38. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. 37. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. He sees P—K R 5. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. 29. R 6. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . 229 P-QKt3 303132. P. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. K— K K—B 2 I 36. the Queen goes difficulties. 3. might otherwise become a source 35.

R — Q7 BxPch . 4 would be answered by Q— B 5. His best .P — K Kt 40.. with a winning game. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4. R—Q 7.. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. White ready to advance. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. PxP i .>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. J i 39. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. practically forcing the exchange of Queens. 41. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position.

White: J. 5. 6. the Bishop. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. 231 This loses a piece. in this form of development. one of great defensive strength. S. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. (New York. I think. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. even while the on the board. once it is Castled. Black: R. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. 1. GAME 13. 4. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. Morrison. Capablanca. 43. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. 2. is Therefore. .

B—K B 4 would have done this. 9. Bold play. 8. 10 11.232 GAME say. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. page 197. because of Kt — Q 5. The alternative would have been P — B 3. but again faulty judgment. R— Ki KR— Ki . throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. II 12. 10. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned.) 7.

PX Kt X P etc. which he cannot in the centre. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. 14. which now acts along the long diagonal. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. followed by Kt X P. K 5. advance. and at the same time preventing P— Kt. X B .RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. which would be answered by Kt . since. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. winning a Pawn. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. Black can safely side..

(Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply.) 17. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. 16. and then advancing K P. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B.234 15. 2. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game.

20 21. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. and. 19. 1 It was difficult . it might have done ever.RUY LOPEZ judgment. for if immediately. even offers tiie Bishop. 235 posed position of the Black King. he It is doubtful. bad. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. 20. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. which is to put the Bishop out of action. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time.

rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. . 22. QX Kt. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. 23. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. and also Q — K 3.

Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. space. 29. 30. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. Kt — K3 attack. R (K i) —K 7. R— K R— Q i. where he in a be mating net. but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. 31If P-R3 8 ch. RxP. .

38. GAME White F. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. 41. expected it. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. 34. 34. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. . Capablanca. Marshall. : 191 8) : J. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. Black J. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. 36. 2. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. I. R.23S -21 GAME 32. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. the quickest way 35. 14. 40. 33. A very lively game.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . 8. 10.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. 13. 12. one of them has given it me good results. during a Tournament. m The developing on both sides. 14.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. WTiite. . Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. simplified the changes. on the other hand. 9- I generally play all the time. as generally the case. has . II. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^.

in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. K P. his Knight at KB 3. he would. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. I think. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. otherwise he would not have played this variation. but Mar- shall believed differently. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. GAME first 14 is Black. on the other hand. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. which. since. three ranks. followed by B P X P. had he analysed this move. It on my part. truly an attack against Black's 15. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. but also Kt XP . Black now threatens not only BPX P position .240 obtained the centre. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m .

and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. on the other hand. factory if 18. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. . 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. (threatening Q— KB2. as will be seen. But. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. the Queen. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. K—R i. move. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. The text QR—Q i). QR — least. obtaining a very superior game. P—B KKt3 Qi. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. 22P— KR4. 3. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. 17.Q text x R P move . . 4. . assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen.

R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. 21. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. and. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. Kt 8 ch. 22 Kt —K . is superior long range. be- best of RXB (best. White is under the impression that he has the better game. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. against White's centre. 25 RxR ch. K X R. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). take a draw at once. thus. foUowed by R X K P). White is who is always in danger. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. 7 ch K—B P i. It is only now. although a Pawn ahead. K i. The powerfully com(see Besides. but that the Black is not so.242 19. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. after seeing this analysis. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. R X Kt. an assault which soon be shifted against . as already stated. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. curious that. 20. because is a Pawn ahead.

P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure. because he does not move on account RXK P. practically pinned. This is a sequel to the previous move.: 23. to disrupt Black's 23. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. at the proper time. White 4. S . t. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22. itself. 24.. and thus make them weak. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ .

going to be decided on the King's side. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. because R— Kt 25. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. 26. 28. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. P— QKt4 5. 27. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. atK i. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns.

as pieces are tied up. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. RxKt. 34K-R1. which is lost in any case. K— Kt i. P-R ch. winning easily. 245 White loss. 32. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. R— R 8 mate. 35 RX RX P. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. If 33 P-Kt R. but that would only have prolonged the game. . 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. KxP. R — R ch.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. 31. I 29.

K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. 3940. 35. 36. fiNIS . GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738.246 3334.

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38S .irANG°Ss:crF?.RN>r90095-.UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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