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BY JOSE R. CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .

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JOSE R. CAPABLANCA .

.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. LTD. BELL AND SONS. BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT.

without permission in writing from the publisher. PRINTED IN THE U. INC. 1921. A. . BRACE AND COMPANY. S. All rights reserved.COPYRIGHT. BY HARCOURT. by any other means. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form.

so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. had been discovered. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. R. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. and not always for the best at that. There has been no change in the fundamentals.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. The change has been only a change of form. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. ig34 . during the opening stages generally. now. of vital importance. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. I.

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12. 71 73 . 4.. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. A A 11. 28 8. Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force.LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . 2. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps . 18. 7. 19.. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. 14.. . Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1... 19 24 25 6. 15. II in End-game Play 35 37 10. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13.. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook . 16. 5.

. 25.. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint.. 22. of a Pawn at K 5..) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . Rook. Rook. 27. etc. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. 24. 32. 28.. 29. 30. the 146 power 33. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns .LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. Bishop and Pawns v. 23. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action . The Initiative 77 21.) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31.

Petersburg. 174 5.Capablanca. 1911). RvY Lopez (New York. R. . (St. 15^ Black: J. Marshall. Petroff Defence (St. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. Capablanca. 1913 ) Black: J. Snosko-Borovski. 1918). Capablanca. 1914) Black: D. 1918) Black: J. Black: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. Marshall. Black: O. 225 R. Janovvski. 1913 ) Black: J. S. Petersburg. R. 10. Lasker. RuY Lopez (St. Chajes. Irregular Defence (Havana. Capablanca. . K. 221 11. E. . Queen's Gambit Declined J. (St. R. Rubinstein. 1914) White: Dr. 201 9. 163 3. 197 7. Sebastian. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. White: J. Capablanca. 189 R. White: D. White: A. Centre Game (Berlin. French Defence White: J. Black: J. a. 1918) White: J. Burn. R.R. R. Teichmann. Mieses. Petersbltjg. 2. Capablanca. R. J. Capablan 1913) Black: E. RuY Lopez White: J. 1911 ) R. Black: A. 238 White: F. J. Capablanca. Rin Lopez (San White: J. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. White: J. 1914) White: J. 1916) White: O. 209 R. 231 Morrison. Black: F. White: F. Capablanca. Black: R. Capablanca. 169 4. Capablanca. French Defence (New York. A. Janowski. 14. (New York. Petersbltig. Black: J. Capablanca. 8. Capablanca. 1913) White: J. . Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. 181 6. Chajes. R. 215 R. 12. Black: J.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. . Marshall. 13. Capablanca.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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King to the on any side of . the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces. — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. 1. SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. 1. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates.

or. K— Kt 2. K-B i. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i.. as possible on the same rank.. 8K-B6. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i. 7K— K6.. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. according to principle. in this case. 7R-QB7. K— Kti. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. 4. K— K King I. strated by the first move. the it is King has been brought it. the sixth rank. as in this case. .K-Kti. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and.4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. 9K— Kt6. towards the centre.K-Ri. 6. The forced. R— R 8 mates at once. fiile. 3 3. now the King moves back to Q i. R— R 7. K— Kt K— Kt i. 9 K— Kt 6.. loR — BSmate. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. 6K-Q6. 4 K— K K-Q i. be 8 by 6. 10 K— B R— R R— R8).K— B 6. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. K— B K— K i. K— Ri. to When. 8 mate. K — R i. as the opposing King. 5K-Q5. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate.

7 . It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. not in front. but to one side of the other King. instead 4. K— B instead. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. is way to proceed 2. 3. R — B 4 ch. K— K it 3. the King confined to as few squares as possible. to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. . now if 3.SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. 2. . 8 K — B K— R 3. . K— Kt 6. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. . not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. K— B 7. . then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. K-Kt 7. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. . K— R 6. 5 On the other hand. . to K 4. is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. next to the Rook. Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . 5. Now . but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5.

worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. 2 B — K Kt 5. restricted . I believe it it and. play 3 B — Q3. K— B 8 R— R I mate. has taken eleven moves to mate. and then. White should have advanced King. or away his from the last row. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. If the Black King. K— Kt 2. with the aid of his Bishops. under any conditions. in the original had been in the centre of the board. K — B 2 B — B 5. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. is should be done it may be monotonous. While in under twenty. as his pieces. position.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. White can . file. K — Kt II 8. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3.

move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. up a K— R I. . move when the Black King B — K Kt 4. 9K — R6. i. In all endings of this kind. in one of the two 8. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. before a mate can be given. but he must also be forced into a comer. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. i. K Kt 6. K— 2. files . K— Kt K— Kt 2.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. but also into a corner. B 7 2. it is to either of . so as to force the Black back . these squares that the King ought to go. moves back to ch. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. position. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2.K — Kt2. In all such endings. and. same time. it K — Kti. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board.4K — B 2. 10 B — R5. iiB — K7. it should be done in thirty. in this case either K R 6. 5... 4. last 7. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. K B KB and as 4 KR ." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. 6. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. it is immaterial whether the King forced . K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. K — Bi. is however. Kt 12 i.

. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. K — Kt 4. e. only . As the Queen combines the power the Bishop.g. In this ending. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. K — Kt 5. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. 3. K— B K Q mates.. or to on to the or an outside file. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. 6 ch) Q— K and 6. 7 K—R next 3. K— Q 5.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. KR 5 Q R 4. K 4. 3 K—K 6. mate move). 2. moves. Thus: Q— B 6. . trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible.K —K 5 4. I or Q 8. as in the case of the Rook. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. 4 6. (Should Black play K — B 4. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6.

then the game cannot be won._ «„ . the process is and and shorter. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win.. at least two required. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. speaking generally. Example « „.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. 2. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . with at least one intervening square. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. even unit. 6. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. It essential. without the aid of the King. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn.

The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. If White advances the Pawn. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. II K— Q6. K— K 3. As the White King comes up. K— K 3. K— B Again the same case. 4. ?. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. 5. K-K2. 2K— Q3. of the WTiite King. 4 K— K 3. K— K 3. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. 5 P—K K — B 4. will This is Any other move would lose. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. K— Q4important move. and a stale mate results. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn.t the same time. 9 P— K 6 ch. 7K— K4. 5. very as K— K4. and when it cannot be done. I. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. 3 4 ch. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . K— K 2. should the latter advance. as before. K— Q 2. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. the Black King must be kept in front of it. when forced to go back. in front be shown later. as for stance in this position because of the White King. it must be brought as far forward as possible and.

K-K2. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. . therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away. 6. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. Thus K— K 4. K— K 3. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . P-K3. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. White is 2. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. He is then able advance his own King. Pawn until it is essential own I. 3. K-Q5.K-B3.^^wmWmmm.

K-Ki. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. all these squares being protected by the King. Had he moved anywhere 7.. to play 3. . because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet.. 7. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7.K— B 4. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. else. and we P— a draw. force As Black to prevent that. 8. is winning the Pawn. better for Since he has not done so.K-Q2. K— K5. White must at the move away. There- back his to protect the must continue. as Black would then similar 5. 7. then White would 4. P-K5. P— K4. .K— B i.K-Ki. it K 6 would make play K — B. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . the White 5. White could have played of the K— B K 6. 4. . 9K-Q 7. since its own not require it. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. Thus K— K6. it Now Pawn 6. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward.K— Q2. K-B6.

or three against two. This ending is like the previous one. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. and it 13 to K 8. that the may out how they can be won. Example 7. not. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. nobody can how .PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. is all over. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. the student the student has one. . 3. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. Furthermore.

i. . . Example by I P —B 8. K B I. however.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. which 2 P—B because Black plays. P — B 4. K— Bi.PXP. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . (The student should work out. ch. 5. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. If 2P B 7 ch. 3-K-Kt 3. 3P-B6. KxP. If K— K I PxP. K X P. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. not PX then would lose. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. (This. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. and draws. 7 7. 5 P— Kt 7. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. K-Kt If i. and draws. as shown in a previous case.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. K— R i. WTiite. and if PX P. 7 4 7ch. because P — Kt 3 draws. his Pawn 3 without losing it. White cannot win by playing P. 2 K-K i.K— Kt i. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. 2. but i .

4 P— Kt K— K3. however. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. 6. and which will be explained more fully later on. P— Kt 6 ch. K— B 2. by playing i K— K 4. K— B i. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7. KxP. K— R2. K— R draws). 7 K— B 6. K— R 7. 9K— Q6.K-B2. II K— K 7. (If K-K3.) shown Example 5P — B6. 14 K x P. K-B 3.. There In is still some resistance in Black's position.. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why).5P-Kt5. K — B 2. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. 3 K-B 4. K-B3.6K— K4. apparently so simple.4K-Q6. loK— K6. and White queens the PawTi and wins.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. 3K-B5.) 2 P-B 5 ch. P-Kt 3. K-Q4. K— Kt 2. K— Kt i. K— R K— Kt i. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. K— B into ch. This ending.) : White can win. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted.P-Kt 3. K— R i. 13 K— B 7. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. 7. 5 I. 12 K— B 6. K— R2. fact. the only way to win is the one given here. i. 8P— B K— Kti. . K— Kt 2. 6 K— K 7. i 7. K-K3.7K— K5. K— Kt i.

even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal. P—R 3 . m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move. 2.^ fs^. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5.K-K2.^ i m. — In this ending ^^ wm. 3. .K-B2. P. also. 2 P-Kt 2. similar ending . and student. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. P—B and we have a If i . no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I. If P — Kt 5- 3. whenever there it.Kt K-K 5. it. to one of those shown above. Example 9. . the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. ^^ ^ ^^ wm. K-K5.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. 6.

P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board. 4. and 3. then result. 4. P-R5. and by following it up with P showTi. 4 6 ch.. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m. 4 P-B 6.^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4.P— Kt 3. P— KKt . and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play .. perior forces.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10.P-R 3.P-Kt P — Kt 3. R PX P... Thus we have I...

P-Kt 5.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. . P-QR4.. K-K5. If 7 6.P-R4. is far away. .. 3.P — R 3. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. K-K3. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2.K If 3. 5. — Kt 4. 7.P — R P— Kt and 6. 5. In this case either way wins. 4. K-Kt 2. 2. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. . K-B 2. then simple counting will show that side with his King. to win the other Pawn. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. 3. Black makes an advance on the other side. 5'K-B K— B 6. K-B3. I P-QR4.

SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. 2QxPch.R— Ki.KxQ. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game. before considering the openings. 3R— Rsch.. 4R— R8 mate.. mate by way and most K R— K 8. he. once he becomes better acquainted with it. \dz.R— K threatening Kt 7. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game... White now uncovers his real effective threat. no doubt. to ^. Black plays of i. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i. Example 11. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained.m* ^ 5 _« P « «.. I. K— Kti. . s It is Black's move. . shall However. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces..„„ a ..

QxKt KXQ . he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2. These two examples show the .. —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P. back quickly he 1.^S...///y i B.. Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <.^.. QXP R—R 3 ch.. mate.y.. King moves 3. and should therefore easily.. 12. 4. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops. and miless he can win will lose . 3 ch.20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position. Kt— Kych .. R—R ch. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. Again B X Kt .

IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. should therefore win. WTiite. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. Example 13. after side. QXP mates. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. . Example curs in 14. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. otherwise 2. mates in a few moves thus I. 3.

22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. QX 3 is B. . . and there- fore wins the Q. mn. ''mm. R— Kt3 ch mate. which already attacked. Example tion is 15. threatens mate.wm.6^ If . m m ^M . —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position.^u. K— R 4. B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. 2." . .

SBxPch. sBxPch.K-R 6... 4 Q-R5. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. 6 Q — R 7 ch. P-K Kt3. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the .. K— Kt KR 5.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^.) 4 Q— R 5 ch. 2 . B) R best 3 B X P ch. 2 Q-K i. 7 R B x P ch. 5.K-R1.. -^ 1^ V? h r i:.) Q— R a R. R — B i RX B.. i but he can win quickly thus (If I. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. K X B. 5 Kt— Kt 5. K— Kt 2. 5. K X B.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. K— Kt i. 16. K— K 3. i. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. wins. Kt X . P — KKts. RxB. K— B 3. 9 Q— K 4 mate. (If 3.

i. ch. 7 Q— R 8 ch. rather long This combination ations. 5. fathom but. most cases . i Kt— Kt i. K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. 9 R— K is ch.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. knowing the tyjDe combination. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. K— K 2. . and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. is for all of them.

A Bishop will often worth so much. iP— K4oriP Q4. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. as said before. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. but. increases. and a stronger than a Queen. Get them into play as fast as you can. Therefore. From the outset two moves. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. or a Bishop and two Pawns. . as no other move accomplishes so much. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. and sometimes even left. the be a better piece against the Rook. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. on the contrary. The King. The power of the off. of these two moves must be first the best. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. becomes an offensive piece once the board. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. so. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. be worth more than three PawTis.

. 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. is show At brought into action in the a very important point.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow.BxKt. 3. which to be bad. 4 B-Kt5 same manner. preferably the also Knight. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2. 1. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. 4... Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out.

: These moves have a two-fold object. which brings us to the middlegame stage. to notice three things. ^ i^ A very powerful move. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. a ^ W M « A l«i m.OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. as there is already in view a combination 5. B-Kt5 'm ..) He is now forced to play 7.'-1.) Second.BxKt. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves. eight should be enough. 7. As a rule. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. thus bringing First. » mm.. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. Black has . (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. up the experience has shown. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. Black follows the same 6. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz.

p. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20. the centre is of great importance. as ence will show. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. is is (This. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. four squares.) Third. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. 7.. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. puts Black on the defensive. 77.^ initiative. as what has already been stated viz. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. . as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. the game. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. cation varies according to the circumstances.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight.

1. whenever possible. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. Example 18. On openings. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. But on prin- . P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. 2. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. In the at once. 29 and possibly three. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. its sole object the control of the initiative.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction.

. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop.PXP. to cramp them. on the contrary. 7. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. 6 KtxKt. — Kt 2. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P.. - perfectly safe position. 6 Q-Q 5). and instead action of Black's pieces. tends. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary.B — K 5. PxKt. 4. 5. first. Kt X P because of with 4. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. 9. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . Black's force him to play PX P. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. White threatened Kt it . thus abandoning the centre to White.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. Kt — B3 6. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5..

3. I this do not know. PxP Pawn. . 6. 1. There are no weak spots in his armour. If Kt — B 3 . have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. which is opening generally bad. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works.P X P loses a 5. study this example. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. 2. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. which violates one of the principles set down. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. BxKt . 4. unless there is some compensation.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. Example 19. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out.

is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. .. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated. has no pieces out except his Queen. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. and in beginners are often caught... and White. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m.. 8. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners... TRAPS 8. however.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black. especially P— and P —Q R 3.32 7...

TRAPS Example 20. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate. .>: -^^Wm W '." .^^-t-^: .4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1. 2. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn. Kt 3. 4. K— K2 Example 21.A»i. 33 •aigli i *«a^.

34 TRAPS Black. . Kt — ch KB 3 instead. the threat being of course ifBxQ. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. 2BXP 2 mate. there a book written on traps on the chess board. having the move. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. Nor i . I 2. But suppose he plays 1. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage. There are a good many other traps is — in fact. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. because of QX B. is but the type given above the most common of all. B—R 5 help matters. . should play P— K 3.

White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous.e.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles. finally to the openings once more. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm. But suppose that White. ^ k In the position shown above. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. governs such cases. then again to the middle-game. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he . 9. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition.

p_Q R P—Q R I 4. in this case. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. K— Kt (Best . we say. 5. P — R5 P — R6 6. does not. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns. that he plays i . and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. 7. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. Then Black can win by playing . K—B 5 see why. it can be applied in much many ways. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. P — Kt (Best. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. 22. to those not familiar with . stress unit thai holds two. Example cient proof.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. 4.) 3.

in is order to win the game. 2. important. 1. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. . Black's parts. since. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. P-R 4. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. As soon as the easier for Black to win. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. K — K6 3 2 4. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. P-Kt 3 Tsill win.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand.

B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part.38 2 3. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed. 4. ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. 5. 7. ^P*P*«*g ./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6.

^ of the WTiite it is In this case. II 12. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. It is in this analytical try to learn. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. 8. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. 13. is This example it excellent training. K— Ri P— Kt 7. . as White's move. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. K-Kt 10. how two squares according to the position King. as indicated previously. 11.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

THE OPPOSITION Now. which can be solved mathematically. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition. '^M. for the present. but. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. all at times somewhat complicated forms. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. we shall have what may be called distant frontal. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. the student should only consider the most simple forms. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. the player who has the the opposition.) In simple forms of opposition. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. The . diagonal and lateral opposition respectively.

Very little is left on the board.. If4. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win. thereby keeping the opposition. 5. only lead to a draw.K— K3. ever has tlie It is not the case. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. 2. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another.. and that the number of intervening squares is even. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. and the position. to a beginner. but Black has other Unes of . 3. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. however. probably looks absolutely even. Who- move wins. I. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn.

viz. or if 2 K— K3. to Black's first move. leaving a rank free between the Kings. is B 3. you must advance. Let us begin anew. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. K— K both cases. by bringing up his King in front of your King. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. Therefore we 2. it would be bad to advance. 2.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. the player who has moved has the opposition. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. because then Black. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. K — Qi 2.) Now There in order to win. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. the White King must advance. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3. and that waiting or file the right place. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. means the winning or a game. is only one other square where he can go. K— Q I. would obtain the opposition. .

K— Q 7.^^ m m ^m^m^. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. 2. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). m White is jm. K— Q move. own Pawn if B 3. On the other hand. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. Example defence. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. K— R2 K-R3I 3.48 THE OPPOSITION 28. because of his after the text I 2.

. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 .PXP draw. If the Queen.THE OPPOSITION 4. in fact.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . and always keep the opposition. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. Going back to the original position. 3. attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. because P win. 1.. by K— K 4. as. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. . ^ See page 13. 5. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . 6. KxP. if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. but plays 2.

'^""""' '^m. under certain conditions of course. they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. in which Black has a Pawn. — In the above position White cannot King is win. White wins with or without the move.so 14. but in the following position. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . I. although the Black cornered. but.

the absolutely worthless. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. . as explained before. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. 2. that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn.

2. However. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. at any one time. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. . unlike the Bishop. the chief reason being that. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. 31. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. the generally overlooked that the Knight. I.

to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. a Bishop can . In this respect. or should be. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. and of course there is. to-day . stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. Example 32. in as shown the following Example. there is and Tchigorin. much Knight from one wing to the other. as in many others. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop.

I shall also call attention to the . When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. on both sides of the in having a Knight. mistake often made by players. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. While on this subject. Of course.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. generally. in an ending.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. there his Bishop. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished.

in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop.. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. <mA- m MA milaf^.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. the opponent has a Bisliop. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. Naturally..j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ .. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not. Example 34. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position.-^ ^. BisJiop.' . The might be stated thus When Bisliop. The game should surelv end in a draw.

both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m .. though if the position. properly played out. at long range. should end in a of having the draw. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command. wm m^ 2 mm.56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36. Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F .

since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. in with proper play. while on to Queen's Still. because. Thus. White has three it to two. they are not balanced on each side of the board. although each player has the same number of Pawns.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. the game should end a draw. but there is a passed Black). Example 37. Q R P at all. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. he can do . side is Black that has three two. though White has somewhat better chances. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. on the King's the side.

58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. is Each to ending different. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. be best. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. or practical experience. to the general method wiU of procedure. I might say generally. Example — Again Black would have great this position. that the all proper course in these endings. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. according to Calculation will count. as in ings. and requires different handhng. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. however. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . a teacher. in their true value. do. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns.

3. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. We might begin. then. us see and Bishop. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. and. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . in all such cases. against a Rook. colotir Example at 39. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. — In 8.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. and the openings. Black.

9. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. position. one by 14 B—K . White 5. has two ways to prevent that. 12. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. 5. 13.6o 4. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. the Black King in the white-squared corner. 7. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. 10.

17- 18. 27. 21. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. 14. and which I consider better for the student to learn. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. 15 Kt — it K is 3. and the other which as the text.Kt 2 ch 24. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . 29. 19. 22. 25. 20. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. 28. and the Knight and King. 26. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. by using King as much as possible. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the .

The resources of the defence are many. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move.62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. and then the Rook would be compara- . 40.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why). is that your opponent mate you within However. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. and rules. If it Now. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. moves which are granted by 16.

Once we know becomes easier to what find. the way to proceed Thus I. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. in order to compel Black to do so. The first part concluded. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King.. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. and that. is required. Stalemate. Q — R 6.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. K—R 2.. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. 5- best 6. Now we come will to the second part. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap.) I 2. K to R I or to R 2 3.) . Not I 2 K — Kt 6. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. Q— K 5ch . 4 Q— K 5 ch. 3KXR.R— Kt 8. check with the Queen win it. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8.

m. — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position.64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. Example 42. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. ^m. The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate. [ « ^. .^ ^^m^ ^^. . — The procedure here is very similar..

similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4.. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. which defence. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. not the best. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. since he . IfK— R2.. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. Thus 2.. 7. The best move is 1. 8. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. a very effective makes very difficult for .. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. Q— Kt 6ch. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41. King. If3. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i.R— Kt2ch. but. 5. 2. unfortunately. . White. 6.

R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. Kt 2 ch. in these examples. 1. 5 K B 6 3. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. K— Kt 2. Let us go back again. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. 5. seen. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. White now threatens mate at 5 6. 4 Q— Q 4. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. 4ch and the Rook Note. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook.K R2.. White threatened mate at 8. 7. 5 i however. 6Q— K5 ch.. The text move. Also that the Queen and . is given to show the finesse of such endings. Example 40 with Black 2. Q 8. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King.

QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines. He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book. . 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text.

I my own have selected those that types. may help the little effort. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 .e. with of great help It often in fact. player to find. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. . the right move. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. i.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. without such 17.

— Black's last move was P — 5. however. 69 is 43. viz. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. at all. has a more move. QX Q. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. RXP 2 3. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. K 6. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . and mates in three moves as follows . 2 If. forceful White. — It is Black's move. K— R I. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44.

RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. — White has a beautiful position. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. better gain some he can. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. He there- 2. Kt and Black would be 3. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. 5. If Kt X B . ^^ if 45. 8. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6.70 1. 7. .^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. but material. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. ^1 W^^ i^^W. before Black consolidates his defensive position.

lose..THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. by R. White is two Pawns behind. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. 3 Kt X B. must therefore press on his attack. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. . 6 Kt-K J. ii). The game tinues : — He con- I. K-B 2.^ R-K My 2. P-B3(best). 4 P- K 5.'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. K-Kta. Chess Career. 4. 18..KtxKt. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. 5 KtxP. Black should have played i. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite.

If 2 . The game continues 1. .^ is This position elaborated under . Kt— Kt .K — Kti.). 3Q — R5.. Best.. as the sacrifice of the typical. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2. 3 . K— R and if2. K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen.72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. White * finally won. 3. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. attack. 4. — The is student should carefully ex- position. 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80.

however. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. however.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. or even Pawns. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. The student should carefullv . in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces. is of such positions of great im- portance. Black is a Pawn behind. — Black's pieces. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. are very well placed and free to act. Very often. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position.

easier. management I 2. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. 5. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. 7. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. Queen He now threatens. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. 8. but he sees that there to be had. The move makes matters 2 3.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. 9. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. R X Kt P. the Q R P. 4. This threatens to win the Kt. 5. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . always keeping a text slight advantage in position. among other thmgs. ultimately win Q X Kt.

and his Bishop commanding however. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. that he would have the better game. Rx B . It is. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. and he has two courses to choose from. besides obtaining the better position. QR — Qi. The obvious move. since after 2 iB — B4. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. if it we might conclude side. Indeed. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. Black's move. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. Wliite's move. B —B 4. might be good enough.

and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. machine- That. as White threatened 3. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. The student should positions. B—B 4. least. with the better position. that — note. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. 5. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. 4. White. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. at should be. . m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. a thrust at another point. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. so as to side. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. since in defeat. to King must ensure their success. one or more must be created. in Failing the second case. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. forces the opponent to provide against its it. with full force. his threat carried into effect. for direct attack. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . as in and that out. or be unable to parry. such cases that means 22. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. all cannot he hroken of. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. holding the threat in hand. But once the no longer.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. For. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. always an advantage to threaten something.

3. to . (French Defence. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. 4. Capablanca. M. 2. R. 1. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. 5.) Black : J. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. 1913. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. Blanco. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. Ayala. R.

Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation.. i m. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM. mend 7 8. and puts Black . 4 was the right move. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own.A. The text move accomplishes nothing..m. iii m.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out.±:m. White's play would be very difficult. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. which otherwise has everything to recomit. would have led to held his complications. in which Black might have at least.

14. because of the sacrifice BX P). any sort. seriously weakening his King's side. points. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . in order to improve the position of White at other 13. 15. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). position. P—B 10. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. 16. 12. He has lost much time. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. B X Kt followed by 9.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. The .

S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. tending to prevent P—B 5. Q X Kt. 22 P— K R 4. Kt Q-Kt 4. followed by B X P. 21 — P2.PxQ. 23QxR. . and tempting White to play Kt X B. QX if P. there rule.K— R Kt 25 4. 20 B x P. PX Kt. KR4. 18. 24RxRch. which would be bad./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K. as another. is one line of attack this anticipated. as of White. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. make way for the Rook. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. RxB. But is it always happens in such is cases that. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. not as an active attack- ing piece. and no exception to the will be seen.^m^m. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. but merely to 17. 11mi m X m m.

Black 5. Pawn. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. in my for opinion. as White threatened 23. I not the case. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. 24. 22. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre.THREATENED ATTACK 20. however. PX K P. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. Such. as White quickly demonstrates. untenable. 87 21. and also QX P Q-B3 better. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act.

P 4. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. Q— K3 4. Dr. R— K2 3. to advance P—R 29. 4.. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. E.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26.. winning. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. and Black will soon be helpless. 3031. R— K 2. and finally at the proper time to play RX B.PXP. 28. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. White's play were might be found that there was it. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. 27. 5. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. 32. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. as he has P— B 28. 33P-K Kt 3.

Black: D. 4. to be good. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. 12. and therefore I played knew 7 8. J. Kt — Q2 9. Janowski. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. 23. Example 53. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. involving of pieces. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. 1.) White: R. once the obtained. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. Capablanca. is A good example of type of game given below. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. 10. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. 5. there material advantage is nothing to do. 7. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . 1913.

20. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. B— R6 2 I 14. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. 16. 13. where White forces. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange.g. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17. e. Black has two B 3 and 3. 15. concerned there is only one thing to do. Pawn and relieving the position. R— Q R— —Q B 4. BxR Kt— K3 better.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. 18. in the following diagram. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. once to derive passed.K B - 3 was 18 19. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. it is Then. supported by pieces or Pawns. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt.^ Such grand show hand of a master. K KR Kt . a could establish themselves. "holes" at Thus..

RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. and then . i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. 22. ^P wm '^**i^. without even a Pawn for it. If m '. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. is In reality Black's attack force. ^y^/y/y^. could not succeed against sound defensive play.

. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. Rook enters into the game. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. Then. well prepared. 27. action. but he will soon prepare the way for it. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. 28.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. . '"<. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. i Now is the Black It prepared. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. '''.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. Bepres- sides. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. but White is now time to give back the exchange.

38. 93 303132. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. fine. 3334. 36. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned.n . The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. 34 35. i. I . 40. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. 39. Rx B RX B.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29.

A very good illustration furnished by the following game. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. 45- P . In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. 42. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. 4344. 4748. which will be treated separately. 49. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. 24. game a master only plays to cut so to speak. .

time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks.) White: W. J. 6 QPxB . should be sufficient to win.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. which I have played successfully in many a game. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. Capablanca. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. which. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. 2. It gives WTiite is a very solid game. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. 1. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. 54. (Four Knights. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. Black R. Winter. he will have to weaken is his some other way. Niemzowitch's variation. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. On the other hand.

i. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. and then the real attack begins. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2. gives White the best of the game. The general strategical plan for K R 3. . by J. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book. Capablanca. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. ^ 9 14. against Levitzki.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. Then. possible. remains at Kt i. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. at St. without doubt. R. I believe. See Capablanca-Janowski game. 7. Petersburg. 19 13. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. but mostly at K R Finally. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. New York ment. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. 8.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. K Kt 3. 1913.^ 8 9. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. The Kt P X B . in most cases comes P — KB times 4. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. after most of the pieces have been exchanged.

10. 10. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. as soon as the circumstances permit. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . falls into the trap.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. t^ • bi^^ k To / . Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move.

because Kt x Kt will win a piece. with disastrous results in either case. and possibly not even then. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. the result cannot be in doubt. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. to may see how simple it is win such a game. Black now devotes and. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. 12. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. 11. so that the student The rest of the game is given. either before or after Kt X Kt. side. 14. 13. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. After this as will be seen. . PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes.

29. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. 23. Black regains immediately by 24. L. one of England's foremost players. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. PxP 28. against Mr. has the Alexander. F. R. after PX B P. It . because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. F. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. 27.Kt B 5. 17. 22.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. 19. 18. 26. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. file.

Example 55. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. Black : George Thomas. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. L. F. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . Alexander. F. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. I. my request. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. 2.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate.) White Mr.

time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. 10. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. and might be compelled to stake all on a . which. in a general way. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. first. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. constitutes an advantage.) GAME . 9. 5. In the opening. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. besides. Q 3. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. B X Kt Kt X B 8. loi There are. 12.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. 7. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P.

style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. P-Qs K R— Q is i. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B. . (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. a turning point in the game. or that were not possible. There were three moves to consider: first. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. 13 14.

18 B X P ch. 103 in the P—Q R 4. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 .) . which he 15 16. sive. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. which would weaken Pawns. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 .Kt and P. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. B X P . This would have 3 to pre. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. which he would do in case. either of Rooks to Kt X B. B — Kt 5 and third. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3.IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by . blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17.B QB 5. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second. PX P.

20. 22. In such cases a player must conceive scale. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops.) Black's play hereabout weak . He should. direct attack against the King. play 20. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. therefore.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . 2 4 3 to would . or rather to prevent then. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. once they enter in action. have probably. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. a plan on a large success. play Q R— K I. 23. B—K B—B P—B better. . it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. which promises chances of and with it all. to be followed by a White it. lacks force. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. side. which. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. threatening P— K B 4. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. time with his Rook's moves. If is able to defeat this plan. 21.

IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here. as he expected. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. GAME 105 2. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. Had White retaken with the B P. 26.

blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. had White Kt 3. and there is no effective continuation. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. as. B P on 27. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. 29. after having placed the Q at Q 2. vented all that. It 28. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. and P — B text to The move 4. he could then play Q— PX P. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. but it is isolated. K B 2. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight.

IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2.) 34. B X B. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. by the masked attack on White's Rook. best. and White plays is lost. ch . 37. R X Kt RXR 4. B —K If. 107 now 34 B-B 3.) . and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. •/ /'^^ m.1 take pleasure . 35. Kt — B 4. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. ch. manner. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R.. 40 RX R. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . PXP. however. with a winning attack. 35 BXB ch. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it.

® i i (If 40.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. QxKtP.ove.Q— R 38. 39.io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. QXR . 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. . to carry on the attack. 41 Kt-Kt I. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i. 3940. ... and the way 41.) best A very beautiful m. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out.R-R3. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. Kt 2. beginning with 39.

but \Miite has no time to take it. at 42 43. then. because of P —Q 6 dis.) (If 42 QX last. (Again. R—R 3 wins. Rx R B. WTiite resigns.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B.) 44. ch.) 41 BxB . not R— K R 3 42. very fine . R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape.

itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. I accepted. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. arduous struggle. which masters of the rank are at times not . and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. in Then I followed a very hard. of course. that very often the case among the large majority of .CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. Unfortunately. it But yet the ending at first appeared. Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. players they are weak in the endings first . After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. which. a failing from free. Finally. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces.

END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. JNIorphy. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. when speaking about win consists general theory. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. 26. in this and Dr. Example 56. . THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. then. that at times the in attacking first on one side. granted greater mobility of the pieces.

K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. R— KKt 8. as will be seen very soon. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. played I 2. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . which in the end might give him the victory. . which loses quickly. 5. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. 7. 4. In the above position with the Black pieces. Kt 8 R-KB5 . R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. 3. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. I A serious mistake. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. Black. 3. therefore. White should have played 8 answered . keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. and thus to Rooks. side.

if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. If PX R. R — B 6ch followed 10. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament.FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. ' M. which There is him the initiative. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. The . Another good example. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . Ml. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. while Black has an isolated Q R P. ^^^ M. 1913. 9. Example 57. also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. ' Mt M. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. by R— K R 8 winning. R— 4 ch.

QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. If4. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. If4. 4 ch. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. followed by hard to point out anything better. 5R — 2.. and also not to allow 2. try make it weaker...P — KB4. and he can get rid of it. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. it is but follow White's footsteps. He does nothing after Besides.P — Q4. 5R — . If he has a weakness.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. freely. 4. If he has a weak point. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . as in the previous ending. the to bring Rooks forward. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position.. White the control I open file.. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. 3. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. make else.

which is all White desires. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side. 9 1 1 R-K 4.RxP. for reasons that will soon 7 8. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. 7K-B2. R — R 6. 7. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . winning the R—Q R Q R P.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. which is the only one that can advance two squares. Evidently forced.R-K2. 3. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. which would have left If 8 . P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. 10. and Black's game is hopeless. K-Q 9. 6PxR. become evident. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. P—Q 5 ... King's side would be held 5. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6.

would have .R-Kt i. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. in beheve. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. 4. 3 was the proper coni . but this move is weak. since of it forces the exchange .Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing.Kt i Black misses his only chance. I with excellent winning chances. Rooks because I. R—R . K-Kt2. P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. 12. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . . 14 P — Kt 3. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. drawn. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. won game. and 15 if then 13. 12 13. tinuation. fact.

The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. 4 R-B 3 . P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 19. R 2 6 via Kt 4. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. but only one move. 20. 22. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. 18. P-Kt 7. .FROM A DIFFERENT 14. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. SIDE I 117 15. 27. 2526. 16. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. less. however. 17.

The right move was 28. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. In this ending. ""f^i (Bis.. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch.Kt 5 A weak move.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. of. . which is gives Black a fighting chance. as often the case with most players. P .. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. 29.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g.

P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. followed by RxP R-K R 7.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. no matter how strong. 3940. even with a good position. 4344. . even in master-play. 48. It and how often. 4546. mistakes are lost. offered better 38. 37. a player. 7 ch. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. 42. 49. made and opportunities are is shows that. R-K7 R— Kt chances. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. so long as there no great advantage of material.

and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana.. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position.^. as did. I. The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. but his position is rather poor.120 THE DANGER OF 27. 1913). . how it P-Kt4 RXRP .^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn. careless became exceedingly happened. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58.

5.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two.K 4. R X P. If then K-Kt 3. . iiRxKtP. K— Ki. R . as will soon be seen. 10 R-Kt 7 ch.. i2i This is the first. and has only taken three moves. .Kt 5 ch. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move.K-Kt3.P-B4. then R . 3. move no defence.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. 7 Px P ch. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. 5R-R8ch. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. After the text is lost.. K-K 2. His best there move was is R —R 4. . R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. K — Kt 3 . K . Px R.B 3 7 R X P ch. and wins easily. If instead White played K. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch.Kt 2 If4. The reason is evident. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . 9 R (R 6) X R. 6. R . . which is actually in danger.Kt 3 8 P . and is does not stop to think whether there better. 6 . 4. 2.

K-Kt 3. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . 8RxR. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. 5 mate. KxR. .122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. Yet though and they do occur so often. 10 R-R 8 ch. P—R 28. They are often of a very difficult nature. Example 59. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. few have mastered them thoroughly.

but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. R—B (a) 2. as against wins.R— K7 a very important move. played poorly. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. P-B6 7 ch. R-Q3. a simple wm by R—B ch. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. 3. 2P-B7. not see the drawing move. . R— Q 3. We have therefore 3. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. P—B 7. (6) 2. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. 5. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. Luckily for him Black did lost. or draw by perpetual check. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. but there are other very interesting features. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. 4.

then goes back. 5. 3. then R — R 6. R-Kt3ch 2.Kt 6 R . Let us examine them. If P_Kt 6. .:. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. followed by R — K B 4 wins. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. because the King the Kmg goes up. R-B3 K-B 5 P .124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch.Kt 3. and R — R 4 ch. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2. .. 4. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. K-K 6.... or (6) R-K B 3.. and come out with a winning ending. I. If R-Q 3 ch. .

realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. K-K2 . K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4.3. K 6. 2R — Bych. Black did not to draw. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. according to the circumstances. and come out with a winning ending.P-B7 2. R — Q3. Now. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. 4. and iP — B6. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3.

— ^^ '^" ^^^.. and Black had the move.„. This position we have arrived at is won by White.0 ^. RxP R-Q2 8. 7. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win . RxP R-KR2 RxP 9. i^ ^.„„^^„ m ^^'.. K-K3 ^„„.126 Best. m. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook....„^^. because instead of the position on the diagram. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file.. the Black Rook were at KR i... and to check besides... . ^^^ ^ . 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6. if.. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5.. This last condition is very im- portant. he could draw by preventing the ad- .. the last-named move particularly would win with ease.

w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. Now position that is we have explained won. These endings. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. . Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. is The way them. 29. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. — From a game. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. are not is very common. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. in the 60.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. as already stated. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time.

5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. There is nothing to gain by this move. criticised. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. to It often leads to disaster.Q Kt 3. It is Black's move. R-Q4 P—B 3. unless White plays P .128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. This move not only prevents intended. That would fix the Queen's side. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. .

R— Q R force I should have been played now. 3. because P— KB 4 would have . He could not play 8. in order to WTiite. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. w^hich will 7. . should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. now develop. R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. hence move. 5. however. R-K2 R-QR He 3. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. I K-K. R-R6 K—Q 3. is a little too late. This in move K— K 8. his position. by making this P. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. P . 3 and Kt 7. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. but . R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. Black unaware of the danger of .3 is This is a mistake. 5 6.K R—B 2. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once.Kt PXP ch 2 4.

I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. cannot play Of course.. 5 9. or. „ . tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10. . which he should have started before. threat- not enough. King at B 5 or K 5. might play K — Q 4. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. i ^ ILl .J^^^ . He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. nor could he do much with 10. If he 9. followed by R—R 3. ^m. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. K—K 2 ^^j^ . as he could not go back with the King. he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5.^ mmi.. White RXR P. because of RX R.. either ... Rook.PXP. recovering the Pawn with advantage. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation.

up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong.. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5.. 4 at once was the right move. because would leave him paralysed. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. it is very similar. and it will be seen that 11. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. because of Q R P. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P.R— Kt2. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. or he might first play Q 4. P-R5 K B If good. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. if there was nothing better. 13. nor could he advance On the other hand. . and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. WTiite a single one of his Pawns.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. would play P — Kt 4. then 14.

R-Ktych. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. 15. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14.Q 3. then 15 17 P XP.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. 18. would draw.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . 17. 16. RxP. M M M P-R3 last chance. chances.) 20. RxP. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out. 19. R5. R-K R 7 iSRxR. 16 K. 19R-R6. with winning RxR. lyRxP. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . .Kt 2 any case. 21.

ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :.. which. he cannot .. K-B R-K R 8. KxP Resigns. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. ..TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail.. ^M" ft ^^ W^.^. 26. 6. — From the 7 ski. to make matters worse.. 26 R-Q R and 27. ^^H M^. R-Q White 8 ch. 24 P-Kt RxP ch.. 24. 25 RxP. 23."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. ^33 If2i. will win 22. 25. easily.R-Kt8. R-KB Example 61. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate.22R-R6! 2. K-Q 2. 2S. 5. sees he can no longer defend Pawns.

1.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. 2. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans. 3. and finaUy 5. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . This King should come to the King's danger lurks. Pawn on the with which White expected to win. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. advance. but White. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. thus P-Q 4. and will then bring his own King to K 3. P-KKt4 P . of course. Black wants to play prevents it. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. by P X Rook and be able P.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3.

He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. 8. P-QR4I . K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. the text move is really a serious loss of time. 9. also prevents 4. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. RxP . might have been the best chance for Black. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. 6. 7. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . however. White. 5. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10.

but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. or to move to the right wing file Besides. 13. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. necessary. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. 12. is White not only has a passed Pawn. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent.i. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . board ready to support the advance or. if of White's Pawns. R-R3 R-Kt3 4. superior and his chances 10 11. to go to in case of danger. White holds the open with one of his Rooks.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished.

these variations. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. R 5) X R. P-K5 18.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5.) (The student should carefully study 14. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. text move. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. 20. 22. or up Black's Rooks better completely. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . 19. which would finally force Black to take. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. however. 2 would not help much. 15. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. much. White would have an easy game. nothing therefore Black had wait. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. only helps WTiite. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. and whichever Rook Black took. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i .

had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. 28. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. 30. ROOK. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. . v. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. Knight and Pawns. ROOK. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26.138 ROOK. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. Example 62. 27. while often the losing side all. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook.

3 R course his was taken by Black. The other. There are two courses open to him. The most evident. and more subtle. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). and the one that most players would take. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. not only because he has the initiative. To a beginner may look like a draw. forcing White to defend something time. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings.ROOK. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and .

way.140 WTiite's of ROOK. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them. 4. 2. Black's King where it is it wants to go. in material and position. Consequently a very bad move. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. 6 7. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. P-KR4 R-R3 . of Black's Queen's side 3. Rook.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. 9. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. 1. 11. but because. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. not because they will better illustrate the point. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. 6. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. 2. 5. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. I shall. knowing shall them thoroughly.146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. 13. whenever possible. use my owTi games. 7. 32. 12.

which will in no way be able to advance to 4. forced the exchange of both Knights. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. may be excused the reference. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus .'. referred to. '/^-//M. In fact. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we. . and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez.) '^/^/////.- . Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. 14. and that in some way White. 191 2.

„. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4. wM If 2. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. pieces can be said to be ^xt^. and we might to have some such position as 66. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM.. ^i m. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A .^wm. i i a m 3. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». .

. Q.. K X R. 5. 4. RX R 3 8. because 3 R X B P would 3. 9. and he played R — KB i.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move.: > C^. as in the previous case. Q. 10.Ri R 7. break through. R(B5)-B2. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I.KB 3.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ . P X 2. to .K Kt R.Q White threatened could not play win a . P. White would then simply defend his move like Q. PX Q- Kt Q. K-R 4. White might even be able position to obtain the following . : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . R(B i) . 2. RX R.K B 3. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P. also win a Pawn at least. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P.K.R-Kt3. ch.. R. 2 RX 2. (B i) . and Black K B i. and Kt 3. II.Kt P . I 6. Q . QNow R5.KKti.R — Pawn by Q X P.Kt2. « « . QXQ.

of this kind. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. and follow up with K B 3. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. which would give White a greater advantage.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. once all the pieces are exchanged. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. at White's K . own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). and thus force Black to play P X P. and the fact that advance. and White could then play Q—B 2. A careful that. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81).

QxB. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. 5. after 8 . but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical.) A. I 151 67. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. D. 1. P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. Black: 2. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. K Kt — 10. White For a beautiful in that variation. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. 4. . . Janowski. 7. 8. Kupchick. 4. is The normal to play course 0—0. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. (Queen's Gambit Declined.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . B-Q3 in its favour in this position.

a move which he cannot make of in the present position. perfectly developed. In off effect.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. by RX P.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note.„„. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. P—K 4. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part. 2. not only but also Kt X B ch. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. Kt x Kt P—K 4. 12. because B 5 threatening.

Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. less In such cases. the the number of pieces on the board. which a Pawn for a while. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. 14. will ever be able to attack anything. especially the one 5. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. 13. 15. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. it is hard to see how this Besides. the better chances there are to escape. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. K might be said to be ideal. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. if he can do it at it all. henceforth will be full The question how see.

17. .^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. 2. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. he might i. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. 18. but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19. As that not the case. have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. P ^1 .>• I . 21.

155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 . White should have no trouble in winning. any number ref)lies it. however. and with two Pawns for the exchange. and the position so much in his favour. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch..THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. . There were.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. . K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. position. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. B X Kt Q X P. the . among them . 2T.

30. 2. B — Kt i . apart from other The student should things. There is nothing to be done. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. 36. Q — R 2 ch. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. notice that. 31. 35. K—B 34. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. . White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. 33. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. 29. 32. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. P X P. and Black would be helpless. Kt— Kt4 27. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. principally those at K and QB 5. 28.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. K— Kt of the B X P.

PART II .

.

it and although lost this I game until the very last game. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907.PART GAME 1. R. Capablanca. 1. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. P— Q4 2. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. 5. so often. Black : J. On general principles it should be wrong. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. it thought that since Dr. because the 159 . this defence twice before in the with good still results. J. 4. E. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. Marshall. Lasker had played should be good. 1909) White : F.

3 2 on account of Kt — K . because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. eleventh For this variation see the game 9. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. I it outside the scope of this book. Kt 2. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. . involves the exchange of two pieces. 7.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. In reality the difficulty in this variation.. 6.. 0-0 X P 5. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. 7 8. and However. No longer would 9.PXP. . would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. Kt-B3 . would Kt 3. of the match. followed by B qBxBP.P be good.

PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. If I had to play . 16.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. is doubtful whether good. 12. 14. I. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . R— K and If. 15. 5 without any compensation for this position it. i6i 11. The safer course would have been to play 13. 3. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. Q X Q would follow. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. believe that Black would regain the Pawn. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. instead.

.. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. . 18.. 23.K R— Kt 17. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. BX Kt P — R6 20. 24. I The game was 22. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. PxP QxP lost. best . but the text move makes matters worse. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I.l62 GAME I i. As a 5. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case. my mind that this was threatened. 25.. then any other move would lose as well. One move was as good as another. 19. 21.. If that move would have been loses. 16..

R. A well-played game on Marshall's part. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. 5. B — Kt 2 8. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. aims at the of Black's Q P. 2. K. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. 25 — GAME 2. 7. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. 4. Rubinstein. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. 191 1) White : A. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. 3. 1. if 163 Kt X B. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. Capablanca. Black : J.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. B— K3 in this variation.

i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10. .. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3. B 3 or P — K R 3.... to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii. order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. but with very poor success.. II. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake. ii W'^M m^A m^. was right.^^i mm. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped.164 GAME 2 course of this variation. The move in theory ought to be unsound... K Kt 5.. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves./M. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination .. KtxB 12. r.

but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret.. which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game.^A IB 15.. KtxP! ' "y/////.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen.. B X Kt B. B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^. but which I thought could be defeated. let him play it. to my lasting 1 :m .' . 14.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= .

BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. 3 (if . i. R— K 2. 21. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. I thought 2.Q R-QBi. P — K Kt this and Black should win. 22. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. granted i. GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. K-B Kt. This gives Black a chance. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. 17. the ex- Kx B. R— B ch. 7 . K — B 2. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt.i66 i6. K — Bi.Q B — K6ch. 7 . R — B 5 wins. Kt — R 19 change). 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . had not considered. BxPch wins). P— KR 4. should have played R X R ch. I.R-K7. B X R ch 20 3. Q— B i! PxKt 18. 5 (if . R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. 19. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ.

ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. If then R — Q Kt 5. as the course of the loses several moves. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. Kt— Q 5. 26. In fact. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move. The proper way was to play it Q 3. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. followed by P — Q Kt 4. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . 24. game will show. 28. B x R.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. RxR. 25. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move.

he can win at White's best con- . fortunately for him. Even before the last is a downright blunder. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all.) 31. but the text move a chance. 37. impossible for to win. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. Black does not avail himself. of which. 38. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334. 3536.

42 R— Kt 41. 2.. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . R — By. Black : J. beginning with 14 B x Kt. 42. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. Capablanca.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. R. If Px P B X Kt 7. R X B.. K— B 7 . GAME 3. K— R 3. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. Janowski. and 41 to find it. 39. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. 41 R— Kt 5 ch.P —R 8. 40. P — R 6. I. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. As an end game. 8. 7. 3 2. 191 3) White : D. B X P. 5. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34.

or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. to obtaui some definite material advantage. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. 12. ID. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. own Pawn openings. or failing that. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. 11. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment.

IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. I A very serious mistake. Px B . 14. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. 16. 13. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. that govern any given posiI tion. i5Kt— B5. in order to bring at once all into play. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. B x Kt was also good. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . and the other. often brings the player into trouble. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. which was a very threatening move. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. was the move. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. 15. 18. right which afraid 3.

weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. to P — Kt 4. which she already defends. how- ever. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. For this reason P—K attack. P — B 4. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. Black. at doubling the Rooks. . can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. which destroys White's plans. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. which he text compelled to defend with the King. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. the K P. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing .172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19.

IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. and would have In fact. which loses a Pa\\Ti. reply 24.. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. 22. RxR Ktx R 24. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. because 25 PXP Kt X P. should come to a simple ending.Kt— K 3 .. 21. P— KR4 soon be seen. . P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. This wins a Pa^\^l. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. 23. as will Black cannot ch. 173 Unfortunately for Black. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. he did not carry out his original plan. if it with a very good game.

A. 1. WTiite : J. 27. 33. Capablanca.174 24 25. at taking the initiative aims away from White. 2. 29. Instead . GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. GAME 4. 35. R. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. 34. 26. 4. 1913) : (St. Snosko-Borovski. 31. 36. Black resigned. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. and. 3. FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. 32. Black E. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves.

5. WTiite. QxP Px P. of course. 6. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. . 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. as I do now.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. the text move 5 to be the stronger. will Castle It is. It This is considered superior to has for its object. considered then. however. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. side. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. as I said before. to make a violent attack against White's King.

Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. moves. 14. sidered. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. 12 13. Walter Perm as Shipley. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake.176 9- GAME 10. overlooking Wliite's fine . I believe. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. is of Philadelphia. 12. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. as in this game. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. 4 11. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. it is : of an attack. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. side.

putting it out of the is game for the moment. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. pieces. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. way for a few moves. 19. with P 4. 17. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . but also drives the Queen away. 15. 16.

It advantage of position. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. Q-Bi 22. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. but gave up because seemed too slow. it which was the right move. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. 3. value. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. and . great is K self-evident that White has a 23.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. 21.

still looking for the "grand combination. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . 24 25. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. Kt — B 4 was that the however. If Px 28 P P. 28. PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. 27. P— B 4 the right move. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . Kt— R 5 ch 26." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. I was.

RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. ?8 29. and that is would vindicate 4. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. my judgment when. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. on move find out 28. num- ber of times.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34.

39. Lasker. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. i. which WTiite .FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. because Q— R 8 mates. Black : J. 1. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. 1914) White : Dr. 5. P-QR3 is 4. R. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. E. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. White cannot play Kt —Q 4. 40. I. A very interesting battle. GAME (St. Capablanca. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. 37 Q-R6. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. K-Kt I . 2.

Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. On the other hand. in order to go K Kt There is . ualities. 8. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. 7.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. in some event3. obstruct Black's Pawns. 4 5. in order not to also. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. 6. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead.

Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. 9. Best. B—K 3 because of 3 3. it unless it advances to K 5. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 4. It threatens B—B R— K 4. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. Kt— Q 4. It also prevents II. and it also makes 4. This move still. 10. 12. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. B — K I 3. P-B5 r£ a i .RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4.

i4RxB. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. i. RxR. But. my better judgment. 12 13. Lasker gives right move 4. Kt x R.. 16. Dr.. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. 18R— Q2. Q R — Q 19 it.BxB. Q tion. on my part finally to obtain a lost position. P — B B — Kt 2. Lasker's variaIf not the best.. 16. 17RXR.. RxR. The B X B. . is after R— Q i given in Dr. 16 R— B 2...

15. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . on play P —B 4. . threatening Kt — B 5. 2. QR-Qi . otherwise I would have played the right move . . then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. 5.Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. 4. Black can later P—Q 16. . 14. followed by Kt —K Kt 5.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. . if . whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. 5. after 19. neither which can be stopped. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost.B X B.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. however. also Lasker's variation. 5 for will at least fact. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. Black plays 19. . fol- 4. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . Kt — K6 R — Q2 17.

18 Now 5. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 . B X P 20 Kt X B (best. since if R Q 2. lose. 17. and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4.Kt — and at later 6. P—B 4.. . (B Black should 17 18. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. Q Kt 3. P -Q 4.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4. and there is no good reason why 19 2. via Q B i. RxKt. —B 4.P . Kt around to K 4.. 21 R X R. let us analyse Kt.i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. B X Kt give Black the advantage). Again. K winning a weaker. .. Kt X R.. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. Q — 2) P X P. If P — Q Kt 4. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. i7. and a 1 7 . that I could play the text move. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. 18 R— B 2.. 19 PxB.

25. 28. 4 ch. 23. the two moves were weak. and Black becomes more .19. with a bad game. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. and the game most accurately. would R— R 5. has no object now. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. of course. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. move. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27. P X R ch. At least it would K— B 2 24. difficult. flounders around have been better to play file. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. 21. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. Black. 26. have been extremely 22. 20. Had . I Again bad. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game.

38. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. 3940. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. excepting that an altogether made. 41. perfect. probably 29. 5 The game needs no further comment. 42. 37. he played well after that up to the 27th move. 3334. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. . Regard- ing the play of White. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible.i88 helpless with each GAME move. . as well as play The rest of his was good. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. which was bad.

side very weak. 8. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. P— K4 2. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. I. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. which Wliite adopted in this game. Black : J. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . R. because gives obtain the initiative.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. 1916) White : O. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. By the text move Black up Castlmg. Capablanca. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. 5. and later. Chajes. I The alternative. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. 7. . .

so that it . because.HI. which must of course be de- .iQO 9. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. besides being a Pawn to the good. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. time and merely weakened 10. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. he threatens White's K P. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. '^^„* WiW^.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. cannot be said as yet. His development. has suffered somewhat. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. 12. 14. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. B 1 M ^. however. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. II.

Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. for it. of the game. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. 17 18. 17. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. strategically wrong. as dominates the whole situation. 2 B-K3 4. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . and can consequently decide the course 15. the Bishop will be developed to itself. is thoroughly prepared for it. since The move. and there to dislodge his pieces. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. To prevent Kt X P.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. Q 4. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. or ever. .

192 19. 22. 21. since White's attack amounts to nothing. but under less favourable 4. 24. in order to follow p—B as he did later. 23. would have avoided everything. R-R3 24. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. Q R— Kt i. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. as White will soon prove. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. circumstances. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . p— B4 Q—B i Not the best.

PXP e. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„.FRENCH DEFENCE plications. 1 liW 27. as will soon be seen. 25. 27 28. 26. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29.p. is 193 However. the move not a losing one by any means. ^M i y/y^/yyii.

would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. unless first. K— R it as already indicated. I am ing to play I . and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. the White KR but in is now Rook having come . but I was wrong. as explained above. 3. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. White would be forced either P — Kt 4. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. of course. which be at give draw. was the best move. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. which gave White time to play convinced. R— K R i . or to some other move according circumstances. 31. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. and Black would reply with to play 5 . forcing followed a play- similar plan. which looks the best is (the plan. first In some cases. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. 5 in to go to 8. of course. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. however. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). of course. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. tion all.194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting.

47. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. and Black who has to fight for a draw. It is now White who has the upper hand. Black should have played Kt —K 5. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. RX 35. 195 Instead of the text move. and the last chance Black best play. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. 3738. Kt X Q . 36. 49.B 2 K--Kt I . 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. 48. X P was no 3940. 33' 34. therefore. least. 32. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. 434445- 46. 42. 41.

I was hoping lowing variation.RxP. on the other hand. My no chances. having the best of the position. I players will be wondering.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. QxP few more moves Black resigned. for while Black. missed several chances. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. 5152. 5354. If the reader does not believe it.K-R2. 5758. 53 BKt 5 ch. White. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. . missed none. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. played opponent. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. 51 who decided 7. let and him take the White what happens. as the spectators did not resign. K X B. 52Q-R5. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. and while .

191 1) White : J. R. 5 6. 4. It B— K a more natural and effective move. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. Bum- P— K4 3 2. 12. Capablanca. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . (San Sebastian. B—B 5. 5. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. after 2 P — K Kt 3. 11. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. 1. 9.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. Black : A. to which I was much addicted at the time. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. 2. 10.

3 to defend the square QB 4.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. 14. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. able White. This is bad. and also his King's Pawn. and played make his position more solid. does not block the 13. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. in border to up where it is. . and superior position 17. 16. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. does not of his allow time for this. in going to K B. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. however. and the Knight. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. because White's QB is out.

move to eliminate all danger. in which case. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. 18. is by his next 22. but game very much weakened. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. . remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. 19. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. 21.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. by using the open able K R file.

P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. 25. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. 38. B-K2 28. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . followed by R— B 7 ch. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. 29. 3334. 42. If B. of course 39. 40. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. Kt-K3 32. 37. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . LrAMJn.200 23. 24. 26. to be defended I by pieces. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. 31. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30.

Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. 7. CENTRE (Berlin. 2. My P to idea was it. is P—Q t. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. which would. GAMES. Mieses. 8. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. is position WTiite The plan. R. instead of the text move. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. I quite feasible.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. Black : J. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. 1. 3. slight advantage of think. often played in order to develop the Q B. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. B— KB . to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. at compensate whatever might have. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. Capablanca. 5. least. 46.

R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. when would have followed.202 GAME 8 I 1. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. . text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. II. opening the 11 way Q B. If Kt — 3 . 12 Kt — B 3. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. P—Q completely shut if off. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. could have played P—Q 3 . With the R — Ki. all.l. with serious of position. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. and could only be loss extricated. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move.

3 (best). when we would have 14 B X Kt. QxPch. RXB.CENTRE GAME 12. not so in reality. was simple. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch .BxP. besides the fact that all the White 14. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. K Kt 5 Black.^^ mm mm. 15P— QB3. . 17 Q— K PX Q. game 19 RX P. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe. and 13. Pawns are isolated. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. . was most interesting. Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. 18B — B2. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. better. 16 P x B.R Kt 5. — R- . QxQ.

At first and even after careful thought. 20. however. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. he would be a Pawn minus. 18.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. 19. enough to win with proper play. 17. 22. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. favour until. White . KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. while having the exchange. with the exchange ahead. the attack. would have given White a decided advanMieses. feared the difficulties of an ending where.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. of course.. the Bishop must defend. KR— Q would 5. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. 17. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. Kt X Kt 16. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . and consequently weak and subject to attack. Kt (B 4) — 15.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. have 16 14. They there. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. so to speak. and there would be no good way 18 19. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. but in position such a course is a mistake.. 14.P 4. are manoeuvred chain-like. Kt X Q. R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. Kt — Q4 4. in order to maintain one of them. to prevent 7. Not. and therefore move. I R— B . I .

22 Kt X B. 23 Bx Kt. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file . Black may be said to be the defence is lost.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. and White is a Pawn ahead. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. at least of the most kind. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. yet. 24 R X P. 22. R X Kt. indeed. Pawns. There seems to be no particular danger.B 20. 21 Kt— Q6. B X B. . then B X Kt. Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced.B — Qi.R — B 2.. If 20. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. moves anywhere else. 25 R — Q 2. R— B 2. . as Wliite demonstrate..

up a Pawn. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . which would be disastrous. White. to give Hence. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. after having. KB4. 9 with the Rook.212 GAME sieze it. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. in order to free his Knight. prepared the way.KKt3. as White would immediately 23. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. 25. 24. of course. Black's best chance was as in the text. on the other Black could do nothing hand.

27. with proper play.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. K 5. obtaining a passed Pawn. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. should win. as will 5 . —K The it text move is. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. . would on account P —Q 4. 29. P X Kt would be worse. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. . and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. B — Kt3. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. soon be seen. of P— KKt3 5 . weak. even though White could answer P however. which.

4 31 Practically forced. 32. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case.^.2l4 31. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. it would take longer. K-K3 37.P-QR3 5 36. 35. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop . 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34.

1. Q P. Black: F. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. advantage of a Pawn. Petersburg. where it not only protects the P. 5. Marshall. R.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. 3. The student ought of ending. practically from the opening. he tried for and obtained. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. 7. J. tion terial fortunately. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . Once he obtained that. 2. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. 3 6. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. finest players in the world. 1914) White: J. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. Capablanca.

it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. 11. and a very is move. . The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. Kt — B 3 P— 9. BxKt B-Q3! 10. 8.

PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. blocks the Bishop. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. then P Q 5. Kt X P ch. unquestionably an advantage . Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. Queen. as White threatened Kt K 4. 13. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. Besides. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. R— Kti. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . . wins a Pawn. B game him to — — — B 4. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. which. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. in turn. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. followed by B X B. 5. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen.

will Black and. in attack against WTiite's fails. he will sooner or later them. 15. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. 17. as it always must is such cases. which destroys Black's plan utterly. 18. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . The plan. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. however. 20. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P .2l8 14. P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. his Pawns are all weak. & /. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. because Black's development backward.

Kt X Q B X Kt 22. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. 30- 3132. 28. 27. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. that Black's game is lost.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. interest. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. 23. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . 2526. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29. 3334. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. are given merely as a matter of form. which makes Black's plight a desperate one.

K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. 42. 55. 47. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. Resigns. 52. 45. 41. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. 57. 54. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 4344. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. . GAME 39. 58. lo 40. 50.220 38. 59. 49. 48.

Capablanca. and obtained the superior game. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. move. 2. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. Alechin on several occasions. in one of his games against Dr. which he only through a blunder. 7. R. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. I. 8. superior to Alechin considered 4. Janowski. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. Lasker. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. Black: D. typical of Janowski. 9. at the time. . 191 4) White: J. P—Q which is generally- played. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. E. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. Petersburg.

Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. under the cumstances. hoping to lighten White's attack. 13. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. was the best. GAME Q— Ki M. 12. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5.222 10. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. at once. . but one which.

^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength...RUY LOPEZ 14. 1718.. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5. P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns. The only 4 .. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad. 14. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack. 1516. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. There is only one thing to take care of and that . P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t. ^ . Beto 4..

2324.2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. . 20. 25- loses very rapidly. I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. 29. . QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. The move 22. 19. now K P X R. . Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. RX Kt . i8. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. 27. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. Black could have played instead of the text move. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game.

and consequently 4 cannot be bad. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. 4. 3. R. 5. Chajes. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. Capablanca.. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. i i g<^ i 'M. Black: O. White: J. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York.. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . 1. y^.Jm. but a perfectly natural it developing one. 7. 2. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move.

Black now plays 8 2 . 5 ch. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. But as he does not obtain . followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . followed by 10. This weakens Black's King's the right move. . B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. . B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. 12. P — Q Kt If 3. . in this variation. R— K i was m %///M. 3 because B X Kt.226 8. Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. 11. P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9.

Kt x R— K B. Kt X B. 16. B — Kt 2. KtxB. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . the move It bad. 14QXBP. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. because after BxP. 14. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. Pawm minus fights very hard. Black with a 21. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. 17 18. I 20. BxP.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. advantage of position for White. suicide. QxKt. threatening P— 18 19. . The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. P— QB 3 Q X Kt . 17. 15. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. Of course if R— K 3. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP.

K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. the KB Pawn at K 5. 23. or support which cannot advance to rather. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. that the White Knight is He notices. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. 4 to defend. of course. the way of the K B P. .228 GAME 3.

R 6. 229 P-QKt3 303132. the Queen goes difficulties. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. 3. might otherwise become a source 35. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . P X w li.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. 33- 34. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. K— K K—B 2 I 36. P. 38. 37. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. 29. He sees P—K R 5.

practically forcing the exchange of Queens. with a winning game. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4. His best .P — K Kt 40. J i 39. R — Q7 BxPch . PxP i . P— KR 5 'Px P 39. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. 4 would be answered by Q— B 5.>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. R—Q 7. White ready to advance. 41... much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch.

Morrison. once it is Castled. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. (New York. White: J. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. one of great defensive strength. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. 5. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. Capablanca. Black: R. 231 This loses a piece. the Bishop. 1. 6. 2. 4. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. GAME 13.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. 43. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. is Therefore. I think. . even while the on the board. in this form of development. S.

3 Of course not K Kt— K . it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. Bold play. The alternative would have been P — B 3. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. page 197. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. 9. 10. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. 8. but again faulty judgment. B—K B 4 would have done this. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. R— Ki KR— Ki . 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive.) 7. II 12.232 GAME say. 10 11. because of Kt — Q 5.

winning a Pawn. 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. and at the same time preventing P— Kt. 14. Black can safely side. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . which would be answered by Kt . advance. PX Kt X P etc. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. followed by Kt X P. which now acts along the long diagonal. K 5. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13.. which he cannot in the centre. since. X B .

16. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B.) 17. 2. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply. but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. and then advancing K P.234 15.

he It is doubtful. 19. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. 20. 1 It was difficult . Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. which is to put the Bishop out of action. and. it might have done ever. 235 posed position of the Black King. bad. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. even offers tiie Bishop. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object.RUY LOPEZ judgment. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. for if immediately. 20 21.

P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. 23. .236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. QX Kt. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. and also Q — K 3. 22. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack.

Kt — K3 attack. space. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. R— K R— Q i. 29. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. . Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. 30. 31If P-R3 8 ch.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. R (K i) —K 7. RxP. where he in a be mating net. but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner.

Marshall.23S -21 GAME 32. expected it. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. 34. Capablanca. R. 33. 2. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. 38. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. I. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. : 191 8) : J. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. 14. 36. 40. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. Black J. 41. A very lively game. the quickest way 35. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. GAME White F. . 34.

9- I generally play all the time. 14. simplified the changes. as generally the case.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. 8. 13. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. one of them has given it me good results. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . WTiite. has . 10. on the other hand. m The developing on both sides. . KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. during a Tournament. II. 12.

have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. followed by B P X P. since.240 obtained the centre. I think. on the other hand. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. but also Kt XP . by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. he would. but Mar- shall believed differently. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. which. had he analysed this move. truly an attack against Black's 15. otherwise he would not have played this variation. three ranks. Black now threatens not only BPX P position . It on my part. his Knight at KB 3. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. K P. GAME first 14 is Black.

22P— KR4. . played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. The text QR—Q i). obtaining a very superior game. 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. as will be seen. QR — least. 4. and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. 17. 3.Q text x R P move .QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. factory if 18. . the Queen. . K—R i. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. move. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen. P—B KKt3 Qi. on the other hand. But. (threatening Q— KB2. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18.

is superior long range. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. 21. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). K X R. It is only now. and. 25 RxR ch. because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. an assault which soon be shifted against . — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. The powerfully com(see Besides. White is who is always in danger. although a Pawn ahead. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. 20. 22 Kt —K . curious that. R X Kt. after seeing this analysis. take a draw at once. be- best of RXB (best. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. White is under the impression that he has the better game.242 19. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. K i. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. because is a Pawn ahead. against White's centre. foUowed by R X K P). R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. Kt 8 ch. as already stated. thus. 7 ch K—B P i. but that the Black is not so.

to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3. S . because he does not move on account RXK P. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ . at the proper time. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4. to disrupt Black's 23. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure.: 23.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. t.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22. 24.. and thus make them weak. White 4. practically pinned. This is a sequel to the previous move. itself.

28. P— QKt4 5. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. atK i. 26. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. because R— Kt 25.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. going to be decided on the King's side. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. 27.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. 31. 34K-R1. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. R — R ch. RxKt. K— Kt i. which is lost in any case. I 29. 32. If 33 P-Kt R. 245 White loss. R— R 8 mate. as pieces are tied up. P-R ch. winning easily. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. but that would only have prolonged the game. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. KxP. . 35 RX RX P.

K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738. 35. fiNIS . K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study.246 3334. 3940. 36.

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