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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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CAPABLANCA .JOSE R.

CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT. LTD. . BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G. BELL AND SONS.

1921. .COPYRIGHT. BY HARCOURT. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. All rights reserved. A. PRINTED IN THE U. by any other means. without permission in writing from the publisher. BRACE AND COMPANY. S. INC.

ig34 . of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. The change has been only a change of form. during the opening stages generally.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. had been discovered. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. and not always for the best at that. now. R. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application. of vital importance. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. There has been no change in the fundamentals. I. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory.

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Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps .LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. A A 11.. 2. 14. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 .. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. II in End-game Play 35 37 10. 7. 19 24 25 6.. 5. 4. 15. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. 71 73 . 18.. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. 28 8.. 12. 16. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook . Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 19.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13. ..

24.. 23. Rook. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. 28.. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. 22.) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . 30. 27. Bishop and Pawns v. of a Pawn at K 5. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . the 146 power 33. 25...) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . etc. Rook. 29. The Initiative 77 21. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action .LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20.. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint. 32.

. White: J. 215 R. French Defence White: J. Capablanca. 10. 14. 197 7. RvY Lopez (New York. Black: F. Capablanca. . . 231 Morrison. 1914) White: J. Petersbltjg. 12. Chajes. Petersbltig. 1913) White: J. Marshall. R. RuY Lopez (St. 1913 ) Black: J. R. Capablanca. J. 1911 ) R. 221 11. Capablanca.R. 8. Black: J. 189 R. 1914) White: Dr. S. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. Petersburg. 174 5. J. R. Capablanca. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. Mieses. Black: J. Capablanca. Capablanca. R. Chajes. Capablanca.Capablanca. R. Black: J. Sebastian. 15^ Black: J. 181 6. Snosko-Borovski. 238 White: F.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. . . RuY Lopez White: J. Black: J. Rubinstein. Centre Game (Berlin. Black: R. Janovvski. 13. Capablanca. 1913 ) Black: J. Rin Lopez (San White: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. 163 3. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. 169 4. E. A. Capablanca. Burn. White: J. White: D. Petroff Defence (St. 2. a. Capablan 1913) Black: E. Petersburg. Lasker. Marshall. Black: A. 1914) Black: D. 1918). 225 R. R. Irregular Defence (Havana. White: A. R. White: F. 1911). (St. Marshall. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. Black: O. (New York. (St. 1916) White: O. Capablanca. 209 R. Janowski. Capablanca. 1918) Black: J. Teichmann. Queen's Gambit Declined J. 201 9. French Defence (New York. K. 1918) White: J.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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1. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces. SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. 1.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. King to the on any side of .

R— R 7. loR — BSmate... 7K— K6. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. K-B i. now the King moves back to Q i. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. 6. 8 mate. the sixth rank. the it is King has been brought it. K— B K— K i.K— B 6.. strated by the first move. K— Kti. K— Ri. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. 3 3. be 8 by 6. as in this case. .4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. as possible on the same rank. 7R-QB7. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). according to principle. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. 5K-Q5. 9 K— Kt 6. or. The forced. R— R 8 mates at once. 4 K— K K-Q i.K-Ri. towards the centre. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. to When. in this case.. fiile.K-Kti. K— Kt K— Kt i. 9K— Kt6. K— K King I. K — R i. as the opposing King. K— Kt 2. 8K-B6. 4. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. 6K-Q6.

. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. . to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. K— R 6. is way to proceed 2. but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. 2.SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. 5. not in front. Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . . . . is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. K— B instead. 5 On the other hand. 8 K — B K— R 3. to K 4. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . advance the King straight into the centre of the board. 7 . It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. next to the Rook. . but to one side of the other King. K— B 7. R — B 4 ch. K— Kt 6. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. K-Kt 7. Now . K— K it 3. now if 3. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. 3. . not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. instead 4. the King confined to as few squares as possible. 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch.

K — B 2 B — B 5. K— B 8 R— R I mate. K — Kt II 8. has taken eleven moves to mate. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. and then. K— Kt 2. I believe it it and. restricted . under any conditions. While in under twenty. position. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. If the Black King.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. White should have advanced King. 2 B — K Kt 5. or away his from the last row. as his pieces. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. file. play 3 B — Q3. in the original had been in the centre of the board. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. is should be done it may be monotonous. with the aid of his Bishops. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. White can .

iiB — K7.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. K B KB and as 4 KR . In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. 6. 9K — R6. 4. K Kt 6. position. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. K— Kt K— Kt 2. B 7 2. . it should be done in thirty. files . up a K— R I." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and.. it is to either of .4K — B 2. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. but he must also be forced into a comer. In all endings of this kind. these squares that the King ought to go. last 7. K— 2. but also into a corner. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and.K — Kt2. 10 B — R5. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. and. it is immaterial whether the King forced . same time. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. in this case either K R 6. before a mate can be given. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. In all such endings. Kt 12 i.. i. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. in one of the two 8. so as to force the Black back . 5. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. it K — Kti. is however. K — Bi. i. moves back to ch. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3.

K— Q 5.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. K — Kt 4. 3. K 4. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4..K —K 5 4. only . KR 5 Q R 4. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6. K — Kt 5. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. 7 K—R next 3. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. Thus: Q— B 6. 3 K—K 6. 2. 4 6. or to on to the or an outside file. . 6 ch) Q— K and 6. I or Q 8. (Should Black play K — B 4.g. As the Queen combines the power the Bishop.. moves. K— B K Q mates. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. e. as in the case of the Rook. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. In this ending. mate move). Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen.

without the aid of the King. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . with at least one intervening square._ «„ . is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. even unit. 6. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. at least two required. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook.. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. the process is and and shorter. then the game cannot be won. It essential. Example « „. 2. speaking generally.

7K— K4. K-K2. 4 K— K 3. 3 4 ch. II K— Q6. should the latter advance. K— Q4important move. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . when forced to go back. of the WTiite King. If White advances the Pawn. 4. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. as for stance in this position because of the White King. it must be brought as far forward as possible and.t the same time. K— K 3. very as K— K4. in front be shown later. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. the Black King must be kept in front of it. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. 5. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. K— K 2. ?. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. 5 P—K K — B 4. K— B Again the same case. will This is Any other move would lose. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. As the White King comes up. I. 5. and when it cannot be done. K— K 3. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. 2K— Q3. K— Q 2. K— K 3. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. as before. and a stale mate results. 9 P— K 6 ch. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn.

6. He is then able advance his own King. K-Q5. Thus K— K 4.^^wmWmmm. .^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. Pawn until it is essential own I. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. White is 2. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. K— K 3. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away.K-B3. 3.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . P-K3.K-K2.

. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward. and we P— a draw. it K 6 would make play K — B.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. . all these squares being protected by the King. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. to play 3. P-K5. K— K5. . since its own not require it. 9K-Q 7. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. There- back his to protect the must continue. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8.. force As Black to prevent that. 7. is winning the Pawn. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. it Now Pawn 6. K-B6. as Black would then similar 5. else. 8. then White would 4. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. the White 5. White could have played of the K— B K 6.K— B i. Thus K— K6. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . 4.K-Ki.K— B 4.K-Q2. 7. White must at the move away. better for Since he has not done so.K— Q2.K-Ki. Had he moved anywhere 7.. P— K4. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7.

not. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. . nobody can how . and it 13 to K 8. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. 3. Example 7. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. This ending is like the previous one. or three against two. is all over. that the may out how they can be won. the student the student has one. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. Furthermore.

WTiite. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. White cannot win by playing P. 5 P— Kt 7. 7 4 7ch. 3P-B6. and if PX P. K B I. and draws.PXP.K— Kt i. KxP. as shown in a previous case. K-Kt If i. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. . his Pawn 3 without losing it. 3-K-Kt 3. (The student should work out. i. K— Bi.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. K— R i. 5. 7 7. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . not PX then would lose. which 2 P—B because Black plays. but i . can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. K X P. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. If K— K I PxP. and draws. P — B 4. If 2P B 7 ch.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. Example by I P —B 8. . (This. however. 2 K-K i. 2. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. ch. because P — Kt 3 draws.

K-B3. 3K-B5. however. P-Kt 3. K— R draws).6K— K4. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. 6. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7. i 7. 7 K— B 6. K— Kt i. loK— K6. K— R i.4K-Q6.P-Kt 3. 12 K— B 6.5P-Kt5. K— R2. K— Kt 2. 9K— Q6. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. and White queens the PawTi and wins. fact.) : White can win.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. This ending. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. K— R2. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. i. K— B into ch.K-B2. .) shown Example 5P — B6. K— R K— Kt i.7K— K5. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. II K— K 7. apparently so simple.) 2 P-B 5 ch.. and which will be explained more fully later on. 13 K— B 7. 6 K— K 7. 3 K-B 4. the only way to win is the one given here. K-B 3. K— B 2. P— Kt 6 ch. 7. KxP. K— Kt 2. K— B i. K— Kt i. 5 I. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. K-K3. 4 P— Kt K— K3.. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. by playing i K— K 4. K — B 2. 14 K x P. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. K-Q4. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. 8P— B K— Kti. K— R 7. (If K-K3. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why).

2 P-Kt 2. 3. similar ending . to one of those shown above. If P — Kt 5- 3. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule.^ i m. . ^^ ^ ^^ wm.^ fs^. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. also. 2. . no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. it. 6. P—R 3 . P—B and we have a If i . m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move. K-K5. and student. Example 9. whenever there it.K-B2. — In this ending ^^ wm. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal.Kt K-K 5. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5.K-K2. P.

— In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m.P— Kt 3.. 4 6 ch.P-Kt P — Kt 3..^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4. P— KKt . P-R5. then result.. perior forces. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10... and by following it up with P showTi. 4. R PX P.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3.. and 3. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board. 4 P-B 6. 4. Thus we have I.P-R 3. and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.

P — R P— Kt and 6. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. P-QR4.P-R4. 4. — Kt 4.. K-K5. 2. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. K-B 2. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing.K If 3..i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. . . I P-QR4. Black makes an advance on the other side. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. 5. 5'K-B K— B 6. 3. In this case either way wins. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2.P — R 3. is far away. 5. K-Kt 2. then simple counting will show that side with his King. 7. K-B3. K-K3. to win the other Pawn. . 3. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. If 7 6. P-Kt 5.

Example 11.. no doubt.R— K threatening Kt 7. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game. .. White now uncovers his real effective threat. he. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game.„„ a . 3R— Rsch. before considering the openings. to ^. mate by way and most K R— K 8.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. \dz. Black plays of i.R— Ki. K— Kti. s It is Black's move. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained.m* ^ 5 _« P « «. I. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i. shall However.. once he becomes better acquainted with it. 4R— R8 mate. ..KxQ.... 2QxPch.

. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind.^. and should therefore easily.. and miless he can win will lose .20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position. 12. Kt— Kych . mate. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2. back quickly he 1. King moves 3. QXP R—R 3 ch. 3 ch.... Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <.. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. These two examples show the .. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops. 4.///y i B.y.^S. R—R ch.. QxKt KXQ . —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P.. Again B X Kt .

— The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. QXP mates. should therefore win. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. otherwise 2. mates in a few moves thus I. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. after side. Example 13. 3. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. . Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. WTiite. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. Example curs in 14.

—A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position. K— R 4. .22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . R— Kt3 ch mate. B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. threatens mate.6^ If . .wm. and there- fore wins the Q. 2. Example tion is 15. .^u. which already attacked. Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. ''mm." . QX 3 is B. m m ^M . mn.

IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. P-K Kt3. (If 3. 5. 16. K— K 3. K— Kt 2.K-R1. RxB. 6 Q — R 7 ch. K— B 3. i but he can win quickly thus (If I.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . K X B. 5 Kt— Kt 5. 2 Q-K i. K X B. 2 . B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^. wins.. B) R best 3 B X P ch. i. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the . Kt X .K-R 6. 7 R B x P ch. sBxPch.. K— Kt KR 5. 5. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. 4 Q-R5.) 4 Q— R 5 ch.) Q— R a R.. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. R — B i RX B. P — KKts. 9 Q— K 4 mate. -^ 1^ V? h r i:. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. K— Kt i... SBxPch. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch.

5. . which have been brought to bear against a weak point. i Kt— Kt i. most cases . K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. K— K 2. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. rather long This combination ations. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. 7 Q— R 8 ch. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. is for all of them. ch. i. fathom but. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. 9 R— K is ch. knowing the tyjDe combination.

From the outset two moves. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. Therefore. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. but. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. A Bishop will often worth so much. the be a better piece against the Rook. as no other move accomplishes so much. Get them into play as fast as you can. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. so. be worth more than three PawTis. on the contrary. and a stronger than a Queen. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. of these two moves must be first the best. . are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. and sometimes even left. The King. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. The power of the off. or a Bishop and two Pawns. increases. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. becomes an offensive piece once the board. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. as said before. iP— K4oriP Q4.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook.

preferably the also Knight. 1. 4 B-Kt5 same manner. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. which to be bad. . Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move.BxKt. 3. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17.. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out.. 4. 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow.

tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop..BxKt. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm.) Second. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz. thus bringing First. Black has . to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course.'-1. Black follows the same 6. eight should be enough..OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. ^ i^ A very powerful move. which brings us to the middlegame stage. to notice three things. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves. (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. As a rule. » mm.) He is now forced to play 7. 7. B-Kt5 'm . a ^ W M « A l«i m. as there is already in view a combination 5. : These moves have a two-fold object. up the experience has shown.

and thus keeps the tionable advantage.. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action. cation varies according to the circumstances. is is (This. . K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White. four squares. puts Black on the defensive. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. the game. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. the centre is of great importance. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre.^ initiative. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. 7. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. as ence will show. 77. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings.) Third. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20. p. as what has already been stated viz.

2. its sole object the control of the initiative. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. In the at once. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. On openings. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. 1. Example 18. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. 29 and possibly three. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. whenever possible. But on prin- .

30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. thus abandoning the centre to White.. 6 KtxKt. on the contrary. and instead action of Black's pieces. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P. . because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop. 5.. 7. — Kt 2. 6 Q-Q 5).PXP. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. tends. to cramp them. Kt — B3 6. 4. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. 9. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8.B — K 5. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. Black's force him to play PX P. - perfectly safe position. Kt X P because of with 4. White threatened Kt it . K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. PxKt. first. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position .

study this example. 1. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient.P X P loses a 5. 6. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. If Kt — B 3 . and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. I this do not know. unless there is some compensation. 3. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. 2. 4. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. PxP Pawn. which is opening generally bad. Example 19.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. BxKt . . which violates one of the principles set down. There are no weak spots in his armour. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings.

has no pieces out except his Queen.. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners.... is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. . Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m.. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black.. however. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. 8. TRAPS 8.32 7. especially P— and P —Q R 3. and White... and in beginners are often caught.

" . . 33 •aigli i *«a^. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn. Kt 3.A»i. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate. K— K2 Example 21. 2.TRAPS Example 20.^^-t-^: . 4.4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1.>: -^^Wm W '.

and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. I 2. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. there a book written on traps on the chess board. Kt — ch KB 3 instead. B—R 5 help matters. is but the type given above the most common of all. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3.34 TRAPS Black. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. Nor i . But suppose he plays 1. . the threat being of course ifBxQ. having the move. 2BXP 2 mate. should play P— K 3. There are a good many other traps is — in fact. . because of QX B. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage.

In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. 9. But suppose that White. then again to the middle-game. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he . governs such cases. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm. ^ k In the position shown above. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition.e. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. finally to the openings once more.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles.

5. to those not familiar with . sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. Example cient proof. stress unit thai holds two.) 3. we say. P — Kt (Best. P — R5 P — R6 6. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. does not. Then Black can win by playing . 4. K—B 5 see why. that he plays i . it can be applied in much many ways. 7. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. K— Kt (Best . p_Q R P—Q R I 4. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. 22. won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. in this case. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose.

— In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. 2. Black's parts. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. 1.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. in is order to win the game. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. important. . As soon as the easier for Black to win. K — K6 3 2 4. P-R 4.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. since.

K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part. 5. ^P*P*«*g ./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. 4.38 2 3. 7. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed. B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K.

since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. is This example it excellent training. . K— Ri P— Kt 7. 8. as White's move. how two squares according to the position King. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. K-Kt 10. 11. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. It is in this analytical try to learn. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. as indicated previously.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. 13. II 12.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

'^M.THE OPPOSITION Now. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams.) In simple forms of opposition. the player who has the the opposition. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. for the present. The . we shall have what may be called distant frontal. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. all at times somewhat complicated forms. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. the student should only consider the most simple forms. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. but. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. which can be solved mathematically. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition.

Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. and that the number of intervening squares is even. Who- move wins. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. Very little is left on the board. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win. but Black has other Unes of . I.. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. 2. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. 5.. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. If4.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. thereby keeping the opposition. 3. to a beginner. only lead to a draw. ever has tlie It is not the case. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above.K— K3. and the position. probably looks absolutely even. however.

would obtain the opposition. because then Black.) Now There in order to win. Therefore we 2. or if 2 K— K3. 2. means the winning or a game. the player who has moved has the opposition. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3. to Black's first move. is B 3. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. Let us begin anew. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. K— K both cases. K — Qi 2. by bringing up his King in front of your King. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. . Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. is only one other square where he can go. K— Q I. leaving a rank free between the Kings. it would be bad to advance. you must advance.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. and that waiting or file the right place. viz. the White King must advance. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now.

^^ m m ^m^m^. Example defence. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. m White is jm. because of his after the text I 2. K— Q 7.48 THE OPPOSITION 28. 2. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . K— R2 K-R3I 3. On the other hand. K— Q move. K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. own Pawn if B 3.

Going back to the original position. If the Queen. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . in fact. and always keep the opposition. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 .. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. ^ See page 13. 3.. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. by K— K 4.THE OPPOSITION 4. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2. KxP. . if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. 1. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . 5. attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. 6.PXP draw. because P win. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. but plays 2. as.

'^""""' '^m. in which Black has a Pawn.so 14. but. but in the following position. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. although the Black cornered. under certain conditions of course. I. White wins with or without the move. — In the above position White cannot King is win. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate.

a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. 2. as explained before. the absolutely worthless. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. . that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn.

. However. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. at any one time. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. unlike the Bishop. I. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. 2. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. 31. the generally overlooked that the Knight. the chief reason being that.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.

to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. and of course there is. In this respect. much Knight from one wing to the other. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. or should be. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. to-day . a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. as in many others. in as shown the following Example. a Bishop can .OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. Example 32. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. there is and Tchigorin. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return.

54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. I shall also call attention to the . — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. generally. mistake often made by players. While on this subject. in an ending. there his Bishop. Of course. on both sides of the in having a Knight. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished.

the opponent has a Bisliop. BisJiop.. Example 34. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not.. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King.' .OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. The might be stated thus When Bisliop.-^ ^. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. <mA- m MA milaf^.. Naturally. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ . in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop. The game should surelv end in a draw.

wm m^ 2 mm.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. should end in a of having the draw. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m . at long range.56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. though if the position. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command.. properly played out. Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position.

White has three it to two. the game should end a draw. since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. Example 37. while on to Queen's Still. although each player has the same number of Pawns.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. Thus. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. on the King's the side. in with proper play. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. but there is a passed Black). Q R P at all. he can do . they are not balanced on each side of the board. though White has somewhat better chances. side is Black that has three two. because.

and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. to the general method wiU of procedure. as in ings. I might say generally. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. however. that the all proper course in these endings. do. a teacher. is Each to ending different. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . be best. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. in their true value. and requires different handhng.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. Example — Again Black would have great this position. according to Calculation will count. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. or practical experience.

We might begin. 3. Black. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. — In 8. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. and the openings. in all such cases. against a Rook. and. colotir Example at 39. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. us see and Bishop. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. then. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15.

13.6o 4. 10. 9. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. 12. the Black King in the white-squared corner. has two ways to prevent that. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. 7. 5. position. White 5. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. one by 14 B—K .

14. 21. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. 19. by using King as much as possible. 29. 15 Kt — it K is 3.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 26. and the Knight and King. 28. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. 22. 17- 18. and which I consider better for the student to learn.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. and the other which as the text. 25. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the . controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. 27.Kt 2 ch 24. 20.

The resources of the defence are many. moves which are granted by 16. and rules. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. If it Now. and then the Rook would be compara- . is that your opponent mate you within However. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why).62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. 40. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns.

) I 2.. The first part concluded. K—R 2. Now we come will to the second part.R— Kt 8. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. Once we know becomes easier to what find. Q — R 6. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch.. and that. Q— K 5ch . Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. the way to proceed Thus I. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. in order to compel Black to do so.) . 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. 3KXR. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. is required. Stalemate. check with the Queen win it. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap. 4 Q— K 5 ch.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. 5- best 6. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. K to R I or to R 2 3. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move.

— We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position. Example 42.^ ^^m^ ^^.. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. .64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate. . m. [ « ^. — The procedure here is very similar. ^m.

Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I .. . White. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. IfK— R2. 8. unfortunately. but.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. 5. King. 2. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3.. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. Q— Kt 6ch.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. Thus 2.R— Kt2ch. If3. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4.. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. 6. since he . R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. 7. a very effective makes very difficult for . Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i.. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. which defence. not the best. The best move is 1.

5. R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. Also that the Queen and . 4ch and the Rook Note. 4 Q— Q 4. 7. White now threatens mate at 5 6. Example 40 with Black 2. Let us go back again. 5 K B 6 3. 1. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres.K R2.. Kt 2 ch. seen. Q 8. is given to show the finesse of such endings.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. in these examples. White threatened mate at 8. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. 6Q— K5 ch. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. The text move.. K— Kt 2. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. 5 i however.

He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book. 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text. .QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

with of great help It often in fact. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. .CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. may help the little effort. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. i. player to find.e. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . I my own have selected those that types. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. without such 17. the right move.

viz. 69 is 43. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. at all. — It is Black's move. however. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . 2 If. forceful White. has a more move. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. K— R I. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. QX Q. — Black's last move was P — 5. and mates in three moves as follows . B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. K 6. RXP 2 3.

He there- 2. ^^ if 45.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1.70 1. 8. 7. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. . before Black consolidates his defensive position. RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. better gain some he can. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6. — White has a beautiful position. ^1 W^^ i^^W. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. 5. If Kt X B . Kt and Black would be 3. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. but material.

Black should have played i. P-B3(best). .'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite.. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. Chess Career. 18. K-Kta.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack.^ R-K My 2.. 6 Kt-K J. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. 4. The game tinues : — He con- I. must therefore press on his attack. 3 Kt X B. 4 P- K 5.KtxKt. 5 KtxP. ii). We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. K-B 2. White is two Pawns behind. by R. lose. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack.

. 3Q — R5. attack. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. as the sacrifice of the typical. The game continues 1. 4. Kt— Kt .72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. If 2 .. — The is student should carefully ex- position. 3 . 3.^ is This position elaborated under .). . K— R and if2.K — Kti. 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. White * finally won. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2. K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. Best.

however. Black is a Pawn behind. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. — Black's pieces. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. is of such positions of great im- portance. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. Very often. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. are very well placed and free to act. or even Pawns. The student should carefullv . however.

Queen He now threatens. R X Kt P. but he sees that there to be had. The move makes matters 2 3. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. 8. ultimately win Q X Kt. among other thmgs. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . 5. This threatens to win the Kt. the Q R P. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. 4. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. easier. management I 2. 7. 9. always keeping a text slight advantage in position.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. 5.

since after 2 iB — B4. if it we might conclude side. and his Bishop commanding however. Rx B . B —B 4. The obvious move. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. besides obtaining the better position. might be good enough. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. that he would have the better game. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. It is. Wliite's move.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. Indeed. QR — Qi. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. and he has two courses to choose from. Black's move.

machine- That. least. as White threatened 3. that — note. 4. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. . into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. at should be. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. White. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. 5. B—B 4. The student should positions. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. with the better position.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

always an advantage to threaten something. his threat carried into effect. in Failing the second case. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. But once the no longer. for direct attack. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. or be unable to parry. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. so as to side. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. For. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. all cannot he hroken of. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. since in defeat. a thrust at another point. holding the threat in hand. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. as in and that out. such cases that means 22. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. with full force. one or more must be created. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . to King must ensure their success. forces the opponent to provide against its it. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse.

R. 4.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. (French Defence. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. 2. 3. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. R. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. 1. 1913. Blanco. 5. Capablanca. Ayala. to . your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence.) Black : J. M.

84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. would have led to held his complications.m. White's play would be very difficult.±:m. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out.. 4 was the right move.A. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own. which otherwise has everything to recomit. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. in which Black might have at least. The text move accomplishes nothing. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation..Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM. i m. iii m. mend 7 8. and puts Black .

P—B 10. B X Kt followed by 9. 14.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . any sort. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. points. because of the sacrifice BX P). 15. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. in order to improve the position of White at other 13. 12. He has lost much time. The . 16. seriously weakening his King's side. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. position. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness.

/ ^^^ ^ ^J^K. PX Kt. is one line of attack this anticipated. 24RxRch. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. but merely to 17.K— R Kt 25 4. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. RxB. .^m^m. Kt Q-Kt 4. 20 B x P.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. as another. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. QX if P. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. But is it always happens in such is cases that. which would be bad. 23QxR. there rule. 21 — P2. KR4.PxQ. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. 22 P— K R 4. followed by B X P. Q X Kt. 18. 11mi m X m m. tending to prevent P—B 5. not as an active attack- ing piece. and tempting White to play Kt X B. and no exception to the will be seen. make way for the Rook. as of White.

however. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. PX K P. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. I not the case. as White quickly demonstrates. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P.THREATENED ATTACK 20. as White threatened 23. Pawn. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. Such. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. 22. untenable. 87 21. and also QX P Q-B3 better. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. Black 5. in my for opinion. 24. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position.

and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. to advance P—R 29. and Black will soon be helpless. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. 27. 33P-K Kt 3. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5.PXP. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns. White's play were might be found that there was it.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6.. 5. Q— K3 4. R— K2 3. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. winning. 32. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. and finally at the proper time to play RX B.. 3031.P 4. E. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. 28. R— K 2. as he has P— B 28. Dr. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . If 30 32 34 to — B 5. 4. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King.

RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. to be good. involving of pieces. Black: D. Capablanca. is A good example of type of game given below. 5. Janowski. 1913. Kt — Q2 9. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. there material advantage is nothing to do. and therefore I played knew 7 8. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. 1. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. Example 53.) White: R. 12. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. 4. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. 23. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. 7. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. J. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. once the obtained. 10.

16. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. a could establish themselves. "holes" at Thus. it is Then. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. 20. 13. Black has two B 3 and 3. 18. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17. where White forces. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. BxR Kt— K3 better.. supported by pieces or Pawns.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. in the following diagram. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange. 15. Pawn and relieving the position. e. K KR Kt .g. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. concerned there is only one thing to do.K B - 3 was 18 19. B— R6 2 I 14. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz.^ Such grand show hand of a master. R— Q R— —Q B 4. once to derive passed.

^y^/y/y^.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. and then . could not succeed against sound defensive play. is In reality Black's attack force. without even a Pawn for it. If m '. 22. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. ^P wm '^**i^. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange.

i Now is the Black It prepared. . will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. 28. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. '''. 27. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. action. well prepared. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. Rook enters into the game. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. '"<. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. but White is now time to give back the exchange. Bepres- sides.. but he will soon prepare the way for it. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. Then. 25- He could Q— R 5 26.

3334. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. 36. Rx B RX B. fine. 38. 40.n . I . The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. 34 35. i. 93 303132. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. 39. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29.

49. 24. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. 4748.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. 42. 45- P . . 4344. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. which will be treated separately. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. game a master only plays to cut so to speak.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46.

which.) White: W. Capablanca. 54. which I have played successfully in many a game. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. It gives WTiite is a very solid game. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. 6 QPxB . 2. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. On the other hand. Winter. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. Black R. 1. he will have to weaken is his some other way. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. J.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. should be sufficient to win. (Four Knights. Niemzowitch's variation.

in most cases comes P — KB times 4. remains at Kt i. Petersburg. ^ 9 14. . the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. R. Then. 8. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. 19 13. 7. New York ment. after most of the pieces have been exchanged. against Levitzki. possible. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2.^ 8 9. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. I believe. gives White the best of the game. and then the real attack begins. at St. without doubt. Capablanca. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. but mostly at K R Finally. See Capablanca-Janowski game. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. 1913. i. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. K Kt 3. by J. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. The general strategical plan for K R 3. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. The Kt P X B .

falls into the trap. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I .1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal. t^ • bi^^ k To / . as soon as the circumstances permit.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop. 10. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. 10. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move.

to may see how simple it is win such a game. Black now devotes and. and possibly not even then.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. . Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. either before or after Kt X Kt. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. 13. 11. After this as will be seen. the result cannot be in doubt. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. 12. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. with disastrous results in either case. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes. 14. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. so that the student The rest of the game is given. side.

6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. F. 17. 26. It .THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. after PX B P. Black regains immediately by 24. file. F. R. has the Alexander. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. one of England's foremost players. against Mr. L. 29.Kt B 5. 18. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. 19. 27. 23. PxP 28. 22.

Alexander. L. F. Example 55.) White Mr. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . Black : George Thomas. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. F. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. my request. 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. I. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. 2.

B X Kt Kt X B 8. In the opening. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. in a general way. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. first.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. constitutes an advantage. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. which. and might be compelled to stake all on a . besides. Q 3.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. 9.) GAME . 10. 12. 7. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. loi There are. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. 5.

(White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. P-Qs K R— Q is i. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. There were three moves to consider: first.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. or that were not possible. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. . 13 14. a turning point in the game. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position.

KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second.) . which he would do in case. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 . This would have 3 to pre. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17.Kt and P. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. PX P. either of Rooks to Kt X B. B — Kt 5 and third. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18.IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. which would weaken Pawns. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by . i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4.B QB 5. 103 in the P—Q R 4. B X P . as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. sive. 18 B X P ch. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 . which he 15 16.

once they enter in action. . is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. 20. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. direct attack against the King. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. lacks force. which promises chances of and with it all. He should. In such cases a player must conceive scale. threatening P— K B 4. 22. it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. a plan on a large success. B—K B—B P—B better. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. 23. therefore.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. or rather to prevent then.) Black's play hereabout weak . have probably. play Q R— K I. If is able to defeat this plan. to be followed by a White it. which. time with his Rook's moves. 2 4 3 to would . side. play 20.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . 21. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks.

PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here. GAME 105 2. 26.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. Had White retaken with the B P.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. as he expected. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn.

and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. he could then play Q— PX P. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. K B 2. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. as.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. 29. but it is isolated. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . and there is no effective continuation. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. after having placed the Q at Q 2. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. vented all that. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. B P on 27. had White Kt 3. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. It 28. and P — B text to The move 4.

P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. manner.. R X Kt RXR 4.1 take pleasure . ch . 107 now 34 B-B 3. and White plays is lost. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. •/ /'^^ m. B X B. PXP. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. with a winning attack.) . however. by the masked attack on White's Rook. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. Kt — B 4. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. 35 BXB ch. best.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. 35. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. B —K If. 40 RX R. 37. ch. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3.) 34.

and the way 41..) best A very beautiful m. . Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. QxKtP.. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P.io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. ® i i (If 40.Q— R 38.ove. 41 Kt-Kt I. to carry on the attack.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. QXR .R-R3. . 3940. beginning with 39. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. 39. Kt 2.

then. very fine . Rx R B. but \Miite has no time to take it. because of P —Q 6 dis. not R— K R 3 42.) 41 BxB . WTiite resigns.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape.) 44. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B.) (If 42 QX last. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. (Again. ch. R—R 3 wins. at 42 43.

arduous struggle. which masters of the rank are at times not . players they are weak in the endings first . and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. of course. a failing from free. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. it But yet the ending at first appeared.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. I accepted. which. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). Finally. that very often the case among the large majority of . Unfortunately. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. in Then I followed a very hard.

when speaking about win consists general theory. Example 56. JNIorphy. 26. then. that at times the in attacking first on one side. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. in this and Dr. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. . breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. granted greater mobility of the pieces. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles.

side. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . 7. 5. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. . Black. White should have played 8 answered . as will be seen very soon. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. I A serious mistake. K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. In the above position with the Black pieces. therefore. which in the end might give him the victory. 3. which loses quickly. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. R— KKt 8.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. and thus to Rooks. played I 2. 3. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. 4. Kt 8 R-KB5 .

by R— K R 8 winning. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . ' M. Another good example. R— 4 ch. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. which There is him the initiative. If PX R. while Black has an isolated Q R P.FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. 1913. Ml. The . Example 57. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. 9. also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. ' Mt M. R — B 6ch followed 10. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. ^^^ M.

P — Q4. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. White the control I open file. 4 ch. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. 5R — . and he can get rid of it. make else.P — KB4.. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. as in the previous ending. freely. If he has a weak point. If he has a weakness... and also not to allow 2. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre.. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. 4. the to bring Rooks forward. it is but follow White's footsteps. 3. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . If4. If4. 5R — 2.. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. He does nothing after Besides. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. followed by hard to point out anything better.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. try make it weaker.

King's side would be held 5. R — R 6. 3. 6PxR. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side. which is all White desires.. Evidently forced. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. which is the only one that can advance two squares. 7K-B2. K-Q 9. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. winning the R—Q R Q R P.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. 9 1 1 R-K 4. 7. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. which would have left If 8 . become evident. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. and Black's game is hopeless. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6.. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. for reasons that will soon 7 8.RxP.R-K2. P—Q 5 . vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. 10.

R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. fact. . Rooks because I. 3 was the proper coni . a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . drawn. 4. would have .Kt i Black misses his only chance. K-Kt2. 12 13. since of it forces the exchange . P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. R—R . K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. 14 P — Kt 3. but this move is weak. 12. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. I with excellent winning chances.R-Kt i. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. in beheve. won game. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. and 15 if then 13.Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. tinuation.

FROM A DIFFERENT 14. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. 27. but only one move. 19. SIDE I 117 15. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. however. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. R 2 6 via Kt 4. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 20. 22. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. less. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. . The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. 2526. 18. 17. 4 R-B 3 . 16. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. P-Kt 7.

as often the case with most players. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3.. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch. ""f^i (Bis. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling..^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. 29. which is gives Black a fighting chance.Kt 5 A weak move. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?. of. The right move was 28.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. In this ending. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. . P .

so long as there no great advantage of material. no matter how strong.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. 4546. 7 ch. It and how often. 37. 3940. R-K7 R— Kt chances. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. offered better 38. even with a good position. made and opportunities are is shows that. 48. mistakes are lost. followed by RxP R-K R 7. even in master-play. 49. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. . a player. 42. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. 4344.

. but his position is rather poor.^. I. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana. . 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^.^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. 1913). No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. as did. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58. careless became exceedingly happened. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn.120 THE DANGER OF 27. The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. how it P-Kt4 RXRP .

3. After the text is lost. and has only taken three moves. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move.Kt 5 ch. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . then R . Px R. 6. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. .B 3 7 R X P ch. R . .K-Kt3. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. 9 R (R 6) X R. If then K-Kt 3. 4. . 7 Px P ch. 2.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. The reason is evident. . K — Kt 3 .. move no defence. R . 5R-R8ch. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. i2i This is the first. R X P. If instead White played K.P-B4. and wins easily. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. K— Ki.. as will soon be seen. His best there move was is R —R 4. 5. iiRxKtP. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. K-K 2.Kt 2 If4. 6 . 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two. K . and is does not stop to think whether there better.K 4. 10 R-Kt 7 ch.Kt 3 8 P . which is actually in danger.

Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. P—R 28. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . 5 mate.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. KxR. They are often of a very difficult nature. but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. Yet though and they do occur so often. K-Kt 3. few have mastered them thoroughly. 8RxR. . and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. 10 R-R 8 ch. Example 59. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult.

. R-Q3. 3. 2P-B7. played poorly. P—B 7. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. as against wins. We have therefore 3. P-B6 7 ch. a simple wm by R—B ch. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. 4. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. Luckily for him Black did lost. R— Q 3. 5. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. but there are other very interesting features. or draw by perpetual check. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. not see the drawing move. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw.R— K7 a very important move. R—B (a) 2. (6) 2.

then R — R 6. then goes back. If R-Q 3 ch. . 5.. . R-B3 K-B 5 P . Let us examine them.Kt 3. K-K 6.:. R-Kt3ch 2.. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. followed by R — K B 4 wins. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. . and come out with a winning ending.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch. If P_Kt 6.Kt 6 R . and R — R 4 ch. 3. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. because the King the Kmg goes up. or (6) R-K B 3.... I. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2. 4.

K-K2 . Now. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. R — Q3.3.P-B7 2. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. Black did not to draw. according to the circumstances. 2R — Bych. K 6. and iP — B6. and come out with a winning ending. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. 4. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122.

both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win . 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5. This position we have arrived at is won by White. if. and to check besides... m. he could draw by preventing the ad- . the Black Rook were at KR i.0 ^... because instead of the position on the diagram.. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file.. . RxP R-Q2 8. — ^^ '^" ^^^.. 7. i^ ^.„„^^„ m ^^'. This last condition is very im- portant. RxP R-KR2 RxP 9.126 Best. K-K3 ^„„.. ^^^ ^ .„^^.. and Black had the move. the last-named move particularly would win with ease...„... is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook.

29. is The way them. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. . Now position that is we have explained won. These endings.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. as already stated. in the 60. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. — From a game. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. are not is very common. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following.

There is nothing to gain by this move. This move not only prevents intended.Q Kt 3. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. criticised. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. unless White plays P . That would fix the Queen's side. R-Q4 P—B 3. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. . and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5.128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. It is Black's move. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. to It often leads to disaster.

P . R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. however. should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. 5 6. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. is a little too late. 5. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. now develop. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. R-K2 R-QR He 3.K R—B 2. This in move K— K 8.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. his position.Kt PXP ch 2 4. R— Q R force I should have been played now. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. 3. He could not play 8.3 is This is a mistake. in order to WTiite. by making this P. w^hich will 7. 3 and Kt 7. hence move. but . R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. Black unaware of the danger of . R-R6 K—Q 3. I K-K. . because P— KB 4 would have .

. . „ . because of RX R. which he should have started before. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. either .I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. followed by R—R 3. King at B 5 or K 5.^ mmi.. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10. ^m.J^^^ . he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5... as he could not go back with the King. i ^ ILl . P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position.. might play K — Q 4. White RXR P. K—K 2 ^^j^ . 5 9. Rook. threat- not enough. recovering the Pawn with advantage. cannot play Of course. If he 9. nor could he do much with 10. or.PXP.

threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. 4 at once was the right move. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. if there was nothing better. because of Q R P. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. would play P — Kt 4. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P.. because would leave him paralysed.. . The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. nor could he advance On the other hand. and it will be seen that 11. it is very similar. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong.R— Kt2. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. P-R5 K B If good. then 14. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. 13. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. or he might first play Q 4. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12.

K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . RxP. R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP. 16. R-K R 7 iSRxR. 17. R5. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. 18. 15. with winning RxR. RxP.Kt 2 any case. M M M P-R3 last chance. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. lyRxP. then 15 17 P XP.) 20. 16 K. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out. 19R-R6. would draw.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. .K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 .Q 3. chances. 19. R-Ktych. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. 21. K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) .

26. sees he can no longer defend Pawns. 6. 2S. to make matters worse."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. ^33 If2i. easily. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27.. will win 22. K-Q 2. ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :. 23. . 25.. 5. which. 25 RxP. R-Q White 8 ch. he cannot . game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913... 24 P-Kt RxP ch.. ^^H M^.^.22R-R6! 2. — From the 7 ski. 24. 26 R-Q R and 27..R-Kt8. ^M" ft ^^ W^. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29. R-KB Example 61. KxP Resigns. K-B R-K R 8.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail.

P-KKt4 P . by P X Rook and be able P. and finaUy 5. but White. This King should come to the King's danger lurks. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. 1. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. 2. thus P-Q 4. 3. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. advance. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. Black wants to play prevents it. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. Pawn on the with which White expected to win. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . of course. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. and will then bring his own King to K 3.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes.

7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. P-QR4I . R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. might have been the best chance for Black. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. White. the text move is really a serious loss of time. 8. 6. 9. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. however. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. 7. 5. K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. RxP . also prevents 4.

R-R3 R-Kt3 4. superior and his chances 10 11. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. if of White's Pawns. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. 13. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. necessary. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . board ready to support the advance or. or to move to the right wing file Besides.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. 12. White holds the open with one of his Rooks. is White not only has a passed Pawn. to go to in case of danger.i.

P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. nothing therefore Black had wait. White would have an easy game. which would finally force Black to take. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. these variations. 22. and whichever Rook Black took. P-K5 18. much. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . text move. only helps WTiite. 20. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21.) (The student should carefully study 14. 15. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. 19. 2 would not help much. however. R 5) X R. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. or up Black's Rooks better completely.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5.

ROOK. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns.138 ROOK. Example 62. . v. 30. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. Knight and Pawns. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. 28. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. while often the losing side all. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. 27. ROOK. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game.

forcing White to defend something time. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. There are two courses open to him. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . The most evident.ROOK. The other. and more subtle. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. To a beginner may look like a draw. not only because he has the initiative. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings. and the one that most players would take. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. 3 R course his was taken by Black.

P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. Consequently a very bad move. P-KR4 R-R3 . I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. 6 7. Black's King where it is it wants to go. way. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. 2. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. 4. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. in material and position. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. Rook. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. of Black's Queen's side 3.140 WTiite's of ROOK.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

9. 12. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. use my owTi games. whenever possible. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. but because. 5. 1. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. 7. 13. I shall. 6. 32. 11. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10.146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. knowing shall them thoroughly. not because they will better illustrate the point. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. 2.

by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. .- . referred to. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on.) '^/^/////. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P. forced the exchange of both Knights.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . and that in some way White. 14. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. which will in no way be able to advance to 4.'.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. may be excused the reference. In fact. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. 191 2. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram. '/^-//M. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we.

pieces can be said to be ^xt^. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. wM If 2.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . ^i m.„. and we might to have some such position as 66. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. i i a m 3. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn.. .^wm. PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4.

: > C^. P. Q.KB 3. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . QNow R5. QXQ.Kt P .. R(B i) .K B 3. « « . (B i) .. PX Q- Kt Q. 2. Q . 4. break through. 9. II. P X 2.K Kt R. R. 10. RX R 3 8. K X R. and he played R — KB i. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. 5. ch. White would then simply defend his move like Q. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P. White might even be able position to obtain the following .Ri R 7.. RX R. because 3 R X B P would 3. also win a Pawn at least.R — Pawn by Q X P. as in the previous case.KKti. to .Kt2.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ . then he would bring his King up to and when the time came.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I. and Black K B i.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move. I 6. and Kt 3. R(B5)-B2.Q White threatened could not play win a . 2 RX 2.R-Kt3. K-R 4. Q.K.

at White's K . of this kind.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. which would give White a greater advantage. own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. A careful that. and White could then play Q—B 2. once all the pieces are exchanged. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. and thus force Black to play P X P. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. and the fact that advance. and follow up with K B 3. The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5.

B-Q3 in its favour in this position. Black: 2. Janowski. (Queen's Gambit Declined. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. . K Kt — 10. I 151 67. White For a beautiful in that variation. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. followed by P —Q B more reasonable.) A. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. is The normal to play course 0—0. 4. QxB. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. 7. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. 4. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. Kupchick. D.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. 8. 5. . manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. after 8 . 1.

As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. 2.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. perfectly developed. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . because B 5 threatening. Kt x Kt P—K 4. P—K 4. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. In off effect. 12.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part.„„. by RX P. not only but also Kt X B ch.

15. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. it is hard to see how this Besides. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. less In such cases. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. the better chances there are to escape. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. 14. the the number of pieces on the board. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. henceforth will be full The question how see. will ever be able to attack anything. K might be said to be ideal. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . especially the one 5.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. 13. which a Pawn for a while. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. if he can do it at it all.

>• I . have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. he might i. or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. 21. P ^1 . 17. 2. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. As that not the case. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. .^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. 18.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m.

fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. . There were. any number ref)lies it.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. however. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch. . He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. and with two Pawns for the exchange.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. the . among them . and the position so much in his favour. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. 2T. White should have no trouble in winning. position.. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 . B X Kt Q X P. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights.

33. B — Kt i . 30. K— Kt of the B X P. 36. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. 35. K—B 34. 29. principally those at K and QB 5. 31. 2. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. notice that. Kt— Kt4 27. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. and Black would be helpless. Q — R 2 ch. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. apart from other The student should things. . There is nothing to be done. 28. 32.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. P X P. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game.

PART II .

.

when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. 1909) White : F. because the 159 . The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. Capablanca.PART GAME 1. 4. Black : J. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. 1. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. 5. it thought that since Dr. P— Q4 2. Lasker had played should be good. On general principles it should be wrong. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. this defence twice before in the with good still results. R. E. Marshall. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. so often. J. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3.

0-0 X P 5. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. No longer would 9. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. . involves the exchange of two pieces. I it outside the scope of this book. 7. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. would Kt 3. and However. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop.P be good. In reality the difficulty in this variation. 7 8. followed by B qBxBP. . whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided.. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . 6. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. Kt 2.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. of the match.. Kt-B3 . eleventh For this variation see the game 9.PXP. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see.

PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. 14. The safer course would have been to play 13. i6i 11. Q X Q would follow. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. instead. 15. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. 16. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. R— K and If. 3. I. 12. If I had to play .QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . 5 without any compensation for this position it. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . is doubtful whether good. believe that Black would regain the Pawn.

my mind that this was threatened.l62 GAME I i. best . I The game was 22. 21. 24. 16. . . matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I.. 23.K R— Kt 17. 25. If that move would have been loses. As a 5. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse.. 18. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. but the text move makes matters worse. then any other move would lose as well.. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. BX Kt P — R6 20. 19. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case... One move was as good as another. PxP QxP lost.

7. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. B— K3 in this variation. 2.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. aims at the of Black's Q P. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops. B — Kt 2 8. Black : J. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. Capablanca. R. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. K. 1. 4. A well-played game on Marshall's part. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. 191 1) White : A. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. 25 — GAME 2. 3. Rubinstein. if 163 Kt X B. 5.

. B 3 or P — K R 3. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%... K Kt 5. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii.. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10. ii W'^M m^A m^... 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake.. was right. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination . II../M.164 GAME 2 course of this variation. r. order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. . I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3.^^i mm. KtxB 12. The move in theory ought to be unsound. but with very poor success.. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves.

which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game.' .^A IB 15. but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret. but which I thought could be defeated. KtxP! ' "y/////.. B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= . 14. B X Kt B.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen... to my lasting 1 :m . let him play it.

18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. B X R ch 20 3. R — B 5 wins. 22. 3 (if .R-K7. K-B Kt. 7 . I thought 2. had not considered. 21.i66 i6. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. Q— B i! PxKt 18. BxPch wins). P— KR 4. This gives Black a chance. granted i.Q B — K6ch. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. K — B 2. P — K Kt this and Black should win. 19. 17.Q R-QBi. I. 5 (if . the ex- Kx B. should have played R X R ch. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. Kt — R 19 change). i. R— B ch. R— K 2. 7 . K — Bi. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt.

In fact. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. 26.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. Kt— Q 5. 28. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. The proper way was to play it Q 3. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move. 25. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. game will show. RxR. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . 24. as the course of the loses several moves. B x R. followed by P — Q Kt 4. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. If then R — Q Kt 5.

38. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334. 3536. Black does not avail himself. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. Even before the last is a downright blunder. he can win at White's best con- . but the text move a chance. impossible for to win. 37. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. of which.) 31.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. fortunately for him.

P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34.. K— R 3. B X P. beginning with 14 B x Kt. K— B 7 . Capablanca. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. 2. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. R. 191 3) White : D. 8.. 39. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . As an end game. R X B. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. I. 42 R— Kt 41. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. 7. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. If Px P B X Kt 7. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. Janowski. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. GAME 3.P —R 8. 40.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. R — By. and 41 to find it. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. 3 2. P — R 6. 5. 42. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. Black : J. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6.

Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. to obtaui some definite material advantage. own Pawn openings. 12. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack. 11. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. ID. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. or failing that.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game.

been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. I A very serious mistake. ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. 16. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . and at the it same time have is simplified the game. 18. and the other. B x Kt was also good. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. Px B . how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. which was a very threatening move. that govern any given posiI tion. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. often brings the player into trouble. right which afraid 3. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. 15. 13. was the move. in order to bring at once all into play. 14.IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. i5Kt— B5.

which destroys White's plans. which she already defends. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. Black. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing .172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. the K P. how- ever. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. at doubling the Rooks. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. . For this reason P—K attack. to P — Kt 4. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. which he text compelled to defend with the King. P — B 4. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4.

P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. RxR Ktx R 24. which loses a Pa\\Ti. 22. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. .. if it with a very good game. 23. reply 24. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. should come to a simple ending. P— KR4 soon be seen.Kt— K 3 . as will Black cannot ch.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure.. 173 Unfortunately for Black. 21. and would have In fact. he did not carry out his original plan. because 25 PXP Kt X P. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. This wins a Pa^\^l.

4. 31. Black resigned. Black E. and. 1913) : (St.174 24 25. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. 32. 1. WTiite : J. Instead . at taking the initiative aims away from White. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. Snosko-Borovski. 29. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. R. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. A. Capablanca. 27. 3. 34. 33. 35. 2. 26. 36. GAME 4.

5. side. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. It This is considered superior to has for its object. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. WTiite. will Castle It is. . however. considered then. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. of course. as I do now. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. the text move 5 to be the stronger.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. as I said before. to make a violent attack against White's King. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. 6. QxP Px P. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side.

moves. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. is of Philadelphia. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. sidered. as in this game. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. 12 13. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. I believe. 12. 14. Walter Perm as Shipley. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side.176 9- GAME 10. 4 11. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. overlooking Wliite's fine . Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. it is : of an attack. side.

but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. pieces. 16. 15. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight. 17. 19. with P 4. putting it out of the is game for the moment. way for a few moves. but also drives the Queen away. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the .

it which was the right move. 3. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. but gave up because seemed too slow. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. Q-Bi 22.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. value. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. It advantage of position. and . 21. great is K self-evident that White has a 23.

Kt— R 5 ch 26. If Px 28 P P." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . P— B 4 the right move. 24 25. I was.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24. 27. still looking for the "grand combination. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. 28. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . Kt — B 4 was that the however.

Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. ?8 29. and that is would vindicate 4. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. num- ber of times. on move find out 28. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. my judgment when.

FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . K-Kt I . 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. 37 Q-R6. 1914) White : Dr. E. 2. P-QR3 is 4. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. 5. White cannot play Kt —Q 4. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. i. 1. I. P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. 40. Lasker. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. which WTiite . A very interesting battle. because Q— R 8 mates. R. 39. Capablanca. GAME (St. Black : J.

Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. in order not to also. 8. in some event3. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. in order to go K Kt There is . form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. 6. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. obstruct Black's Pawns. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. On the other hand. 7. ualities. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. 4 5.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove.

10. P-B5 r£ a i . I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 4. It threatens B—B R— K 4.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. B — K I 3. B—K 3 because of 3 3. 9. This move still. It also prevents II. 12. Kt— Q 4. Best. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. it unless it advances to K 5. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. and it also makes 4.

i. RxR. Q R — Q 19 it. But.BxB. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game. 16. P — B B — Kt 2. 17RXR. 16. The B X B. 16 R— B 2. 18R— Q2. Q tion. 12 13. Dr... is after R— Q i given in Dr..i4RxB. my better judgment. . RxR.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. on my part finally to obtain a lost position.. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I.. Lasker gives right move 4.. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. Lasker's variaIf not the best. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game. Kt x R.

after 19. on play P —B 4. then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17.B X B. if . and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. 5 for will at least fact.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. 5. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . . otherwise I would have played the right move . . whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3.Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. fol- 4. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. Black plays 19. Black can later P—Q 16. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . . . 2. 4. however. 15. neither which can be stopped.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. threatening Kt — B 5. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. QR-Qi . BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . 5. . 14. followed by Kt —K Kt 5. also Lasker's variation.

B X P 20 Kt X B (best. P—B 4.. that I could play the text move. and there is no good reason why 19 2. 21 R X R. lose. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. via Q B i. and a 1 7 . . i7. —B 4. since if R Q 2. 18 Now 5. P -Q 4. Kt around to K 4. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. Q — 2) P X P.. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 .P . If P — Q Kt 4. Kt X R. 19 PxB. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it.Kt — and at later 6. K winning a weaker.. RxKt.. 17. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. 18 R— B 2.. let us analyse Kt. Q Kt 3.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4. B X Kt give Black the advantage).i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. (B Black should 17 18. Again. .

has no object now. move. would R— R 5. difficult. 25. At least it would K— B 2 24. Black. 4 ch. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. I Again bad. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. and the game most accurately. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27.19. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. P X R ch. with a bad game. of course. and Black becomes more . flounders around have been better to play file. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. the two moves were weak. Had . 20. have been extremely 22. 28. 21. 26. 23.

35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. he played well after that up to the 27th move. 42. 41.i88 helpless with each GAME move. which was bad. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. 37. . excepting that an altogether made. as well as play The rest of his was good. 3940. probably 29. Regard- ing the play of White. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. 38. 3334. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. 5 The game needs no further comment. perfect. .

By the text move Black up Castlmg. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. and later. . . 7. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. Black : J. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . P— K4 2. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. because gives obtain the initiative. Capablanca. 8. 5. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. side very weak. I. R. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. 1916) White : O. Chajes. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. which Wliite adopted in this game. I The alternative.

time and merely weakened 10.HI. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. cannot be said as yet. 12. which must of course be de- . M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. has suffered somewhat. besides being a Pawn to the good. '^^„* WiW^. because.iQO 9. so that it . 14. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. and there are Bishops of opposite colour.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. His development. however. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. B 1 M ^. he threatens White's K P. II.

. Q 4. is thoroughly prepared for it. for it. 2 B-K3 4. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. and can consequently decide the course 15. 17 18. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. 17. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. To prevent Kt X P. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. since The move. and there to dislodge his pieces. strategically wrong. or ever. of the game. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. as dominates the whole situation. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. the Bishop will be developed to itself.

but under less favourable 4. in order to follow p—B as he did later. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. 24.192 19. Q R— Kt i. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. 21. would have avoided everything. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. circumstances. as White will soon prove. since White's attack amounts to nothing. 23. R-R3 24. 22.

p. 1 liW 27. 26.FRENCH DEFENCE plications. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. ^M i y/y^/yyii. PXP e. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. the move not a losing one by any means. as will soon be seen. is 193 However. 25. 27 28. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„.

or to some other move according circumstances. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. however. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. K— R it as already indicated. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). White would be forced either P — Kt 4. forcing followed a play- similar plan. 3. and Black would reply with to play 5 . Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. which gave White time to play convinced. of course. first In some cases. unless first. I am ing to play I . the White KR but in is now Rook having come . of course. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. which be at give draw. which looks the best is (the plan. of course. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. 31. 5 in to go to 8. as explained above.194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. tion all. was the best move. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. R— K R i . but I was wrong. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above.

X P was no 3940. 3738. and Black who has to fight for a draw. Kt X Q . draw against White's QxBP RxR R.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. therefore. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. 42. 33' 34. 47. 48. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. least. 49. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. 41. RX 35. 32. 195 Instead of the text move.B 2 K--Kt I . It is now White who has the upper hand. Black should have played Kt —K 5. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. and the last chance Black best play. 434445- 46. 36.

I was hoping lowing variation. I players will be wondering. for while Black. as the spectators did not resign. If the reader does not believe it. My no chances. and while . 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. missed several chances. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. White. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. . 5758. 52Q-R5. missed none. 51 who decided 7. played opponent. 5354. K X B. QxP few more moves Black resigned.196 GAME why I 6 Most did.K-R2.RxP. let and him take the White what happens. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. having the best of the position. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. 5152. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. on the other hand. 53 BKt 5 ch. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60.

(San Sebastian. B—B 5. 10. 5 6.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. 12. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. 191 1) White : J. to which I was much addicted at the time. It B— K a more natural and effective move. 1. Capablanca. 11. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. R. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . 5. after 2 P — K Kt 3. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. 4. 2. 9. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. Black : A. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. Bum- P— K4 3 2.

is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. however. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. and also his King's Pawn. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. does not of his allow time for this. able White. and played make his position more solid. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. . because White's QB is out. 3 to defend the square QB 4. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. in going to K B. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. and superior position 17. This is bad. does not block the 13. and the Knight. 14. 16. in border to up where it is.

19. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. move to eliminate all danger. 21. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. 18. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. in which case. . is by his next 22. but game very much weakened. by using the open able K R file.

followed by R— B 7 ch. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. 31. 29. 38. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. B-K2 28. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. Kt-K3 32. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . 24. to be defended I by pieces. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle.200 23. 40. 26. 25. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. LrAMJn. 3334. 42. If B. 37. of course 39. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35.

3. 5. 7. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. often played in order to develop the Q B. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. is P—Q t. slight advantage of think. 8. Capablanca. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. is position WTiite The plan. GAMES. 46. B— KB . 2. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. My P to idea was it. CENTRE (Berlin. least. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. 1. Mieses. which would. at compensate whatever might have. I quite feasible. instead of the text move. Black : J. R. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position.

I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm.l. . R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. all. 12 Kt — B 3. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. P—Q completely shut if off. If Kt — 3 . could have played P—Q 3 . The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. opening the 11 way Q B. II. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. and could only be loss extricated. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. With the R — Ki. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. when would have followed. with serious of position.202 GAME 8 I 1.

and 13. QxPch. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe. Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. besides the fact that all the White 14. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. 16 P x B. 18B — B2. — R- . K Kt 5 Black. Pawns are isolated. QxQ. RXB. better. not so in reality. 17 Q— K PX Q. . and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake.^^ mm mm. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . when we would have 14 B X Kt. 15P— QB3.CENTRE GAME 12. . was most interesting. and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. was simple. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch .BxP.R Kt 5. 3 (best). B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. game 19 RX P.

At first and even after careful thought. White . the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. with the exchange ahead. he would be a Pawn minus. 17. 20. enough to win with proper play. the attack. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. favour until. 22. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. would have given White a decided advanMieses. 18.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. however. feared the difficulties of an ending where. while having the exchange. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. 19.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

They there. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . in order to maintain one of them. and there would be no good way 18 19. KR— Q would 5. and consequently weak and subject to attack. Kt X Kt 16. R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. 14. 17.P 4.. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. Kt (B 4) — 15. I . RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. have 16 14. the Bishop must defend.. to prevent 7. are manoeuvred chain-like. I R— B . Not. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. and therefore move. Kt X Q. of course. so to speak. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. but in position such a course is a mistake. Kt — Q4 4. either at Q 4 or ready to go file.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated.

R X Kt. moves anywhere else. .B 20. B X B. There seems to be no particular danger. 22 Kt X B. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. yet.. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21.R — B 2. If 20. 22. 25 R — Q 2. indeed. Black may be said to be the defence is lost. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. 23 Bx Kt. 24 R X P.. as Wliite demonstrate. 21 Kt— Q6. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. . and White is a Pawn ahead. Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file .B — Qi. then B X Kt. R— B 2. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. at least of the most kind. Pawns.

25. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. Black's best chance was as in the text. which would be disastrous. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. White. up a Pawn. after having. prepared the way.212 GAME sieze it. in order to free his Knight.KKt3. to give Hence. 9 with the Rook. of course. as White would immediately 23. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. KB4. on the other Black could do nothing hand. 24.

would on account P —Q 4.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. as will 5 . soon be seen. . . P X Kt would be worse. —K The it text move is. 27. which. weak. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. should win. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. of P— KKt3 5 . K 5. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. B — Kt3. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. with proper play. 29. obtaining a passed Pawn. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. even though White could answer P however.

P-QR3 5 36. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\. 32.2l4 31. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. 4 31 Practically forced. it would take longer. K-K3 37. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop . P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. 35.^. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily.

but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. he tried for and obtained. advantage of a Pawn. Capablanca. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. Black: F. The student ought of ending. J. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . 3. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. 2. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. Petersburg. tion terial fortunately. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. 7. Marshall. 1. 3 6. finest players in the world. practically from the opening. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. 1914) White: J. where it not only protects the P. R. Once he obtained that. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. Q P. 5.

It is now time to examine the result of the opening. The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. and a very is move. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. Kt — B 3 P— 9. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. 8. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. 11. BxKt B-Q3! 10.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. .

and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. wins a Pawn. Kt X P ch. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. then P Q 5. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . unquestionably an advantage . Besides. . which. as White threatened Kt K 4. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. R— Kti. blocks the Bishop.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. followed by B X B. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. in turn. 5. B game him to — — — B 4. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. 13. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. Queen.

in attack against WTiite's fails. The plan. will Black and. he will sooner or later them. & /. as it always must is such cases. 18.2l8 14. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . 15. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. 20. 17. P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. because Black's development backward. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. however.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . which destroys Black's plan utterly. his Pawns are all weak.

on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. 30- 3132. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. 2526. 23. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29. 3334. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. interest. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. 27.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . are given merely as a matter of form. that Black's game is lost. 28.

50. 59. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. . 45. 57. 47. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. 49. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. lo 40. 52. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. 48. GAME 39. 4344. 41.220 38. 58. 42. 54. 55. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. Resigns.

.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. I. Alechin on several occasions. Lasker. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. E. R. 2. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. superior to Alechin considered 4. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. at the time. which he only through a blunder. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. move. 8. Black: D. in one of his games against Dr. 7. Petersburg. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. 9. typical of Janowski. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. P—Q which is generally- played. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. Janowski. and obtained the superior game. Capablanca. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. 191 4) White: J.

since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. . but one which. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move. under the cumstances. hoping to lighten White's attack.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5.222 10. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. was the best. 13. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. 12. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. at once. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. GAME Q— Ki M.

223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. 14. Beto 4. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t.. ^ .. The only 4 . P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns... 1718.. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5.RUY LOPEZ 14. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. 1516. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack. There is only one thing to take care of and that .

. Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. 2324. I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. The move 22. Black could have played instead of the text move. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. i8. RX Kt . 29. 19. 25- loses very rapidly.2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. now K P X R. 27. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. . QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. 20. .

y^. and consequently 4 cannot be bad. White: J. 2. R.. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . 5. 3. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. 1. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. but a perfectly natural it developing one. 7. Black: O. Capablanca.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. 4. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6.Jm. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York. Chajes. i i g<^ i 'M..

P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. This weakens Black's King's the right move. in this variation. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. . R— K i was m %///M. . Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. followed by 10. 3 because B X Kt. 11. 12.226 8. But as he does not obtain . Black now plays 8 2 . B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. P — Q Kt If 3. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . 5 ch. 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. .

14. 17. B — Kt 2. 17 18. threatening P— 18 19. 16. the move It bad. BxP. 15. because after BxP. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. KtxB. Black with a 21. . Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. 14QXBP. advantage of position for White. Of course if R— K 3. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. suicide. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . Kt X B. I 20. Kt x R— K B. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. P— QB 3 Q X Kt . QxKt. Pawm minus fights very hard. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4.

4 to defend. the KB Pawn at K 5. the way of the K B P.228 GAME 3. . 12 R— K Black could 21 22. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. that the White Knight is He notices. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. of course. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. 23. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. or support which cannot advance to rather.

He sees P—K R 5. 29. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. the Queen goes difficulties. P. 3. 229 P-QKt3 303132. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. K— K K—B 2 I 36. P X w li.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. might otherwise become a source 35. 38. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. 33- 34. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. R 6. 37.

with a winning game..>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch.P — K Kt 40. practically forcing the exchange of Queens. 41. PxP i . 4 would be answered by Q— B 5. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. R—Q 7. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending.. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. J i 39. White ready to advance. R — Q7 BxPch . threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. His best . against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4.

White: J. 1. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. is Therefore. Capablanca. 2.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. Morrison. 231 This loses a piece. 43. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. GAME 13. S. I think. even while the on the board. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. (New York. once it is Castled. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. one of great defensive strength. 4. . 5. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. 6. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. Black: R. in this form of development. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. the Bishop.

B—K B 4 would have done this. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2.232 GAME say. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. but again faulty judgment. 8. The alternative would have been P — B 3. page 197. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose.) 7. 10 11. Bold play. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. II 12. R— Ki KR— Ki . it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. 10. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. 9. because of Kt — Q 5. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately.

which now acts along the long diagonal. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. followed by Kt X P. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. which he cannot in the centre. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. winning a Pawn. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. K 5. X B . advance.. which would be answered by Kt . PX Kt X P etc. 14. and at the same time preventing P— Kt.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. since. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. Black can safely side.

GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. 16. 2. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B. but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action.) 17.234 15. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. and then advancing K P. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings.

235 posed position of the Black King. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. and. which is to put the Bishop out of action. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. for if immediately. he It is doubtful. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. it might have done ever. 20 21. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. 19. 1 It was difficult .RUY LOPEZ judgment. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. 20. even offers tiie Bishop. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. bad.

rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. 22. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. QX Kt. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. and also Q — K 3. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. . 23. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer.

QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. R (K i) —K 7. but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. space. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. . where he in a be mating net. Kt — K3 attack. R— K R— Q i. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. 30. 31If P-R3 8 ch. Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. 29. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. RxP. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over.

: 191 8) : J. 41. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. 34. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. GAME White F. 34. Capablanca. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. expected it. . A very lively game. 14. I. 33. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic.23S -21 GAME 32. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. 36. 40. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. Black J. 2. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. the quickest way 35. Marshall. 38. R.

on the other hand. 12. during a Tournament.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. 8. . 9- I generally play all the time. 14. one of them has given it me good results.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . 13. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. WTiite. simplified the changes. 10. m The developing on both sides. as generally the case. II. has .5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness.

but also Kt XP . Black now threatens not only BPX P position . The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . but Mar- shall believed differently. GAME first 14 is Black. had he analysed this move. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. It on my part. K P. since. followed by B P X P. which. I think. three ranks.240 obtained the centre. on the other hand. truly an attack against Black's 15. otherwise he would not have played this variation. his Knight at KB 3. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. he would.

(threatening Q— KB2. . QR — least. But. . . 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. move. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. obtaining a very superior game. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. 4.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. 3. and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. factory if 18.Q text x R P move . K—R i. The text QR—Q i). the Queen. 22P— KR4. 17. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. P—B KKt3 Qi. on the other hand. as will be seen. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen.

20. 22 Kt —K . The powerfully com(see Besides. but that the Black is not so. thus. because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. White is under the impression that he has the better game. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. K X R. curious that. an assault which soon be shifted against . be- best of RXB (best. after seeing this analysis. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). and. take a draw at once. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. as already stated. Kt 8 ch. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. 25 RxR ch. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). foUowed by R X K P). It is only now. 21.242 19. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. White is who is always in danger. K i. because is a Pawn ahead. R X Kt. against White's centre. 7 ch K—B P i. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. although a Pawn ahead. is superior long range. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure. at the proper time. White 4. 24..: 23. because he does not move on account RXK P. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4. S . and thus make them weak. to disrupt Black's 23. This is a sequel to the previous move. practically pinned. t. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ . itself.

244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. atK i. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. 26. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. 28. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . P— QKt4 5. going to be decided on the King's side. P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. 27. because R— Kt 25.

cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. but that would only have prolonged the game. RxKt. 32. If 33 P-Kt R. KxP. . P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. R — R ch. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. R— R 8 mate. winning easily. which is lost in any case. 35 RX RX P. 245 White loss. 34K-R1. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. 31. as pieces are tied up. P-R ch. I 29. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. K— Kt i.

246 3334. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. fiNIS . 3940. 36. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738. 35. K— B I P-B4ch Resigns.

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UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.irANG°Ss:crF?.RN>r90095-.38S .

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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