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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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CAPABLANCA .JOSE R.

BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT. . LTD. BELL AND SONS.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R.

BY HARCOURT. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. S. INC. by any other means. 1921.COPYRIGHT. PRINTED IN THE U. . All rights reserved. without permission in writing from the publisher. A. BRACE AND COMPANY.

as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. ig34 .SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. had been discovered. during the opening stages generally. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. now. The change has been only a change of form. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. R. of vital importance. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. and not always for the best at that. I. There has been no change in the fundamentals. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application.

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19 24 25 6. 12. 71 73 .. A A 11. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . 7.... 14. 15. 4.LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. 2. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1. II in End-game Play 35 37 10.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13. . 5. 28 8. 18. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps . 16. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 19. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook ...

. Rook.. Rook. 23.. 32. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. 29. Bishop and Pawns v.) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31. 28. The Initiative 77 21. of a Pawn at K 5. 30. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action .. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns .LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20.) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . 24. 27. etc. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. 25. 22. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . the 146 power 33..

Petroff Defence (St. K. 12. E. Capablanca. Black: J. R. Capablanca. White: J. 1918) White: J. 1911). French Defence (New York. R. Black: R. 1914) White: J. 13. Teichmann.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. (New York. (St. Capablanca. Capablanca. 209 R. Capablan 1913) Black: E. White: A. Capablanca. R. Centre Game (Berlin. 181 6. Capablanca.Capablanca. R. White: F. . Capablanca. 174 5. J. White: J. . Black: J. Petersbltig. 189 R. Janowski. . (St. Petersburg. Petersburg. 10. 1914) Black: D. 169 4. Black: J. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. Black: F. R. Burn. Chajes. 221 11. 2. a. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. 1913) White: J. 231 Morrison. 1918) Black: J. RuY Lopez White: J. 225 R. 238 White: F. Snosko-Borovski. Irregular Defence (Havana. Capablanca. Sebastian. Rubinstein. S. Rin Lopez (San White: J. White: D. 197 7. 1914) White: Dr. RvY Lopez (New York. Black: A. Mieses. . Marshall. Petersbltjg. French Defence White: J. Capablanca. 201 9. 1913 ) Black: J. Marshall. 1918). A. 163 3. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. 1913 ) Black: J. 215 R. Capablanca. 1916) White: O. Black: O. 1911 ) R. Marshall. 8.R. Queen's Gambit Declined J. . Janovvski. Black: J. Chajes. Lasker. R. 15^ Black: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. RuY Lopez (St. J. R. Capablanca. Capablanca. 14.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. 1. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces. — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. 1.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. King to the on any side of .

to When. 6K-Q6. K— K King I. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i.4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. as possible on the same rank. 7K— K6. K-B i. as in this case. the sixth rank.. .. 8K-B6. be 8 by 6. as the opposing King. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. The forced. K— B K— K i. 3 3. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. 9K— Kt6. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. R— R 7. K — R i. R— R 8 mates at once. K— Kt K— Kt i. according to principle. in this case. now the King moves back to Q i.. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. K— Ri. or. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate. 9 K— Kt 6. 7R-QB7. 5K-Q5. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. 8 mate. K— Kti. loR — BSmate.. K— Kt 2. 6. 4 K— K K-Q i.K-Ri.K-Kti.K— B 6. strated by the first move. towards the centre. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). fiile. 4. the it is King has been brought it.

8 K — B K— R 3. to K 4. . Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 .SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. next to the Rook. to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. but to one side of the other King. . . . is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. . now if 3. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . R — B 4 ch. the King confined to as few squares as possible. K— K it 3. K— B 7. . K-Kt 7. but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. K— Kt 6. 5. not in front. K— R 6. Now . 3. . 5 On the other hand. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. instead 4. K— B instead. 2. is way to proceed 2. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. 7 . not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch.

White can . in the original had been in the centre of the board. K — B 2 B — B 5. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. as his pieces. While in under twenty. restricted . K — Kt II 8. or away his from the last row.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. play 3 B — Q3. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. I believe it it and. 2 B — K Kt 5. If the Black King. and then. is should be done it may be monotonous. K— B 8 R— R I mate. has taken eleven moves to mate. position. with the aid of his Bishops. under any conditions. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. White should have advanced King. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. K— Kt 2. file.

Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. 9K — R6." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. K B KB and as 4 KR . but he must also be forced into a comer. i. in one of the two 8. in this case either K R 6. up a K— R I. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. K— Kt K— Kt 2. K Kt 6. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4.. K — Bi. moves back to ch. B 7 2. iiB — K7. before a mate can be given. K— 2. it is immaterial whether the King forced . 10 B — R5. so as to force the Black back .K — Kt2. last 7. it K — Kti. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. is however. 4. it is to either of . same time. and. 6. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. In all endings of this kind. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. files . . it should be done in thirty.4K — B 2. Kt 12 i. i. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. In all such endings. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. 5. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares.. position. these squares that the King ought to go. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. but also into a corner.

K —K 5 4. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. as in the case of the Rook. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. KR 5 Q R 4. . 3 K—K 6. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. K— B K Q mates. (Should Black play K — B 4. 2. e. 4 6. 3. K — Kt 4. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6.. K 4. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. mate move). the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank.. 7 K—R next 3. In this ending. moves. 6 ch) Q— K and 6. K — Kt 5. I or Q 8. or to on to the or an outside file. K— Q 5. only . As the Queen combines the power the Bishop. Thus: Q— B 6.g.

is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. with at least one intervening square. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. without the aid of the King. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. then the game cannot be won. It essential. Example « „. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . the process is and and shorter. even unit. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win._ «„ . speaking generally. at least two required. 6..PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. 2.

2K— Q3. K— K 2. 9 P— K 6 ch. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. 5. K— Q 2. very as K— K4.t the same time. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. the Black King must be kept in front of it. 4. K— Q4important move. and a stale mate results. 4 K— K 3. when forced to go back. 5 P—K K — B 4. as before. If White advances the Pawn. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. ?. K— K 3. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. K-K2. of the WTiite King. in front be shown later. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. 7K— K4. K— B Again the same case. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. I. 3 4 ch. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. should the latter advance. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . will This is Any other move would lose. as for stance in this position because of the White King. K— K 3. K— K 3.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. II K— Q6. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. and when it cannot be done. As the White King comes up. 5. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn.

Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. K— K 3.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . White is 2.^^wmWmmm. . as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. He is then able advance his own King. Thus K— K 4.K-K2. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. Pawn until it is essential own I. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away. 3. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm.K-B3. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on. K-Q5. P-K3. 6.

K— K5. it K 6 would make play K — B.K— B 4. 7. and we P— a draw.. There- back his to protect the must continue. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. it Now Pawn 6. 4. Had he moved anywhere 7. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. 9K-Q 7. else.K— Q2. P— K4.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. 8. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 .K-Ki. force As Black to prevent that. White could have played of the K— B K 6. . then White would 4. P-K5.. since its own not require it. K-B6. as Black would then similar 5.K-Q2. . Thus K— K6. White must at the move away. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. better for Since he has not done so. to play 3. . all these squares being protected by the King. 7. is winning the Pawn. the White 5.K-Ki. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn.K— B i.

Example 7.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. 3. . to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. that the may out how they can be won. Furthermore. nobody can how . it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. and it 13 to K 8. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. This ending is like the previous one. or three against two. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. is all over. not. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. the student the student has one.

3-K-Kt 3. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . K B I. If K— K I PxP. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. however.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. Example by I P —B 8. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. . his Pawn 3 without losing it. . and draws. which 2 P—B because Black plays. K— Bi.K— Kt i. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. but i . 7 4 7ch. 3P-B6. 5 P— Kt 7. (This. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. P — B 4. If 2P B 7 ch. WTiite.PXP. 2. K X P. K— R i. i.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. and draws. White cannot win by playing P. (The student should work out. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. 7 7. and if PX P. KxP. K-Kt If i. because P — Kt 3 draws. 5. ch. 2 K-K i. as shown in a previous case. not PX then would lose.

K-B2. K— B 2.) shown Example 5P — B6. K— Kt 2. II K— K 7. . K— B into ch. K — B 2. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why). and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. apparently so simple. KxP. K-B 3. K-B3. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. K— R2. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7. 7. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. 3 K-B 4. P-Kt 3. K— Kt i.P-Kt 3. K— R draws). K— B i. 4 P— Kt K— K3..5P-Kt5. K-Q4. 13 K— B 7. and White queens the PawTi and wins.. and which will be explained more fully later on. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. 5 I.7K— K5. 6. i. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. 14 K x P. 9K— Q6. K— R K— Kt i. 7 K— B 6. (If K-K3. the only way to win is the one given here. K— R2. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. K— R 7.4K-Q6.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. K— R i. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. 6 K— K 7. 8P— B K— Kti.6K— K4. K— Kt i. however. 3K-B5. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn.) : White can win. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. This ending. P— Kt 6 ch. by playing i K— K 4.) 2 P-B 5 ch. 12 K— B 6. K— Kt 2. i 7. K-K3. fact. loK— K6.

P. ^^ ^ ^^ wm. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. P—R 3 .Kt K-K 5. . If P — Kt 5- 3. P—B and we have a If i . whenever there it. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move. K-K5. Example 9. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal. no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I. — In this ending ^^ wm. .K-B2. to one of those shown above. also.^ i m.K-K2. similar ending . 3. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. it. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. and student.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. 2 P-Kt 2. 6.^ fs^. 2.

and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown. P— KKt .P-R 3. then result.. and by following it up with P showTi. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m.P— Kt 3. R PX P. and 3. P-R5.. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. 4 P-B 6.. Thus we have I. 4. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . perior forces.^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4. 4 6 ch.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3....P-Kt P — Kt 3. 4. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board.

. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. 7. K-Kt 2. 5'K-B K— B 6. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn.. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2. If 7 6. In this case either way wins. 3. P-QR4. 2.P — R P— Kt and 6. then simple counting will show that side with his King. 4. 5. to win the other Pawn.K If 3. . K-K3. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. K-B 2.P — R 3. P-Kt 5. — Kt 4.P-R4. 3. . K-K5. K-B3. 5.. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. is far away. I P-QR4.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. Black makes an advance on the other side. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up.

KxQ.m* ^ 5 _« P « «. s It is Black's move. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game. 4R— R8 mate.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained. Example 11. \dz. shall However.R— K threatening Kt 7.. mate by way and most K R— K 8. . he. . to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces.... I.R— Ki. no doubt.„„ a . Black plays of i. once he becomes better acquainted with it. White now uncovers his real effective threat. 3R— Rsch. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i... to ^. before considering the openings. K— Kti.. 2QxPch.

QxKt KXQ .. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2. 12. mate.^S. —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P.^.. King moves 3..y. These two examples show the . Kt— Kych . Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops.... 4.20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position. and should therefore easily.... QXP R—R 3 ch. R—R ch. and miless he can win will lose .///y i B. back quickly he 1. 3 ch. Again B X Kt .

otherwise 2. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. should therefore win. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. . Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. Example curs in 14. Example 13. QXP mates. WTiite. 3. mates in a few moves thus I.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. after side.

''mm. K— R 4." . Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. .^u. m m ^M .22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . and there- fore wins the Q. . mn. threatens mate. Example tion is 15. QX 3 is B. R— Kt3 ch mate. which already attacked.wm. 2.6^ If . . —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position. B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1.

sBxPch. 9 Q— K 4 mate. SBxPch. i. Kt X . K— Kt KR 5. K— B 3. 2 .) Q— R a R. wins. B) R best 3 B X P ch. P-K Kt3. RxB.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. K— Kt 2.K-R 6. i but he can win quickly thus (If I. 5..) 4 Q— R 5 ch. R — B i RX B. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. -^ 1^ V? h r i:.K-R1.. B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^. 4 Q-R5. K X B. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch. 7 R B x P ch.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . 2 Q-K i. 5 Kt— Kt 5. K— Kt i.. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the .. K X B.. 6 Q — R 7 ch. K— K 3. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. 5. 16. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. (If 3. P — KKts.

It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. rather long This combination ations. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. ch. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. 7 Q— R 8 ch. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. fathom but. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. K— K 2. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. knowing the tyjDe combination. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. 9 R— K is ch. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. i. . K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. is for all of them.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. 5. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. most cases . i Kt— Kt i.

iP— K4oriP Q4. as said before.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. of these two moves must be first the best. so. as no other move accomplishes so much. The power of the off. but. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. From the outset two moves. A Bishop will often worth so much. The King. Therefore. on the contrary. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. or a Bishop and two Pawns. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. and a stronger than a Queen. Get them into play as fast as you can. becomes an offensive piece once the board. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. increases. the be a better piece against the Rook. be worth more than three PawTis. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. and sometimes even left. . a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game.

3. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2.BxKt. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. which to be bad. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. preferably the also Knight.. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out.. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17. 4. 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. . 4 B-Kt5 same manner. 1. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn.

complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves.. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. Black has . which brings us to the middlegame stage. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. Black follows the same 6.'-1. eight should be enough. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz. as there is already in view a combination 5. » mm.. a ^ W M « A l«i m. up the experience has shown. As a rule.BxKt.OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. thus bringing First.) He is now forced to play 7. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. : These moves have a two-fold object. ^ i^ A very powerful move. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. B-Kt5 'm . (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. to notice three things.) Second. 7.

as ence will show. the centre is of great importance. as what has already been stated viz.. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. the game. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action. four squares.) Third. 7. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. p. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. is is (This. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. puts Black on the defensive. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White.^ initiative. cation varies according to the circumstances. 77. . to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board.

it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. But on prin- . which would be the more natural square for the Kt. 29 and possibly three. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. On openings. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. whenever possible.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. In the at once. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. its sole object the control of the initiative. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. 1. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. 2. Example 18. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points.

itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. — Kt 2. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . . PxKt. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8.PXP. 6 Q-Q 5). 6 KtxKt. tends.B — K 5. thus abandoning the centre to White. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. White threatened Kt it . - perfectly safe position. 5. to cramp them.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. 7.. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop.. on the contrary. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. first. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. 9. Black's force him to play PX P. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. and instead action of Black's pieces. 4. Kt X P because of with 4. Kt — B3 6.

3. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. BxKt .P X P loses a 5. which is opening generally bad. 6. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. 4. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. 2. unless there is some compensation. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. . study this example. PxP Pawn. If Kt — B 3 .CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. which violates one of the principles set down. 1. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. There are no weak spots in his armour. Example 19. I this do not know.

mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black. 8. and in beginners are often caught. is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. and White. especially P— and P —Q R 3. however... The student is to work out the many variations arising from position... TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings...32 7. has no pieces out except his Queen. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m... which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners. TRAPS 8. . has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway.

4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1.^^-t-^: . Kt 3. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate.>: -^^Wm W '.TRAPS Example 20. 2. . K— K2 Example 21. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn.A»i. 33 •aigli i *«a^." . 4.

should play P— K 3. 2BXP 2 mate. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage. the threat being of course ifBxQ. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position.34 TRAPS Black. . There are a good many other traps is — in fact. B—R 5 help matters. there a book written on traps on the chess board. because of QX B. having the move. Nor i . is but the type given above the most common of all. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. . Kt — ch KB 3 instead. But suppose he plays 1. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. I 2.

governs such cases. 9. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. But suppose that White. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he .e. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles. finally to the openings once more. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. then again to the middle-game. ^ k In the position shown above.

to those not familiar with . p_Q R P—Q R I 4. Then Black can win by playing . P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns. Example cient proof. 7. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. 4.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4.) 3. stress unit thai holds two. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. P — Kt (Best. in this case. we say. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. 5. won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. it can be applied in much many ways. P — R5 P — R6 6. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. does not. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. K—B 5 see why. that he plays i . 22. K— Kt (Best .

in is order to win the game. As soon as the easier for Black to win. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. K — K6 3 2 4. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. important. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. . 2. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. P-R 4.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. Black's parts. since.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. 1.

/^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. ^P*P*«*g . ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. 7. 4.38 2 3. 5. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed.

II 12. as White's move. K-Kt 10. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. as indicated previously. 11. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. K— Ri P— Kt 7. It is in this analytical try to learn. . P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. how two squares according to the position King.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. is This example it excellent training.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. 13. 8.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

but.) In simple forms of opposition.THE OPPOSITION Now. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. we shall have what may be called distant frontal. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. '^M. which can be solved mathematically. the student should only consider the most simple forms. all at times somewhat complicated forms. for the present. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. the player who has the the opposition. The . of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition.

probably looks absolutely even.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. Who- move wins. thereby keeping the opposition.. and the position. but Black has other Unes of . Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. If4. ever has tlie It is not the case.K— K3. 3. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win. I. 5.. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. however. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. and that the number of intervening squares is even. Very little is left on the board. 2. to a beginner. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. only lead to a draw.

leaving a rank free between the Kings. Let us begin anew. K— Q I. means the winning or a game. Therefore we 2. K — Qi 2. is only one other square where he can go. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd.) Now There in order to win. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. viz. and that waiting or file the right place. because then Black. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. the White King must advance. it would be bad to advance. the player who has moved has the opposition. 2. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. K— K both cases. . similar It is White's turn to play a move 3.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. is B 3. by bringing up his King in front of your King. would obtain the opposition. you must advance. to Black's first move. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. or if 2 K— K3. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition.

own Pawn if B 3. K— Q move. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). because of his after the text I 2. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. K— R2 K-R3I 3. K— Q 7. K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition.^^ m m ^m^m^. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . On the other hand. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. 2. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. Example defence.48 THE OPPOSITION 28. m White is jm.

except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. in fact.. 5. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . ^ See page 13. but plays 2. 1. 6. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. . student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book.PXP draw. because P win.. and always keep the opposition. as. If the Queen. 3. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 . if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . Going back to the original position. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2.THE OPPOSITION 4. by K— K 4. KxP.

in which Black has a Pawn. but in the following position. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. I. '^""""' '^m. under certain conditions of course.so 14. — In the above position White cannot King is win. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. White wins with or without the move. although the Black cornered. but.

unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. . as explained before. 2. the absolutely worthless. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent.

345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. .52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. However. the chief reason being that. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. I. at any one time. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases. 31. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. the generally overlooked that the Knight. 2. unlike the Bishop.

there is and Tchigorin. as in many others. and of course there is. In this respect. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. to-day . the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. a Bishop can . to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. or should be. Example 32. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. much Knight from one wing to the other. in as shown the following Example. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him.

is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished. generally. on both sides of the in having a Knight. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. While on this subject. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. there his Bishop. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. in an ending. Of course. I shall also call attention to the . mistake often made by players.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning.

. The game should surelv end in a draw. the opponent has a Bisliop.' . wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. Example 34. BisJiop.-^ ^. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not.. <mA- m MA milaf^. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position. in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. The might be stated thus When Bisliop.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ .. Naturally. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King.

should end in a of having the draw. Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. properly played out. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command. though if the position. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m .56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. wm m^ 2 mm.. at long range.

Example 37.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. they are not balanced on each side of the board. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. White has three it to two. on the King's the side. while on to Queen's Still. the game should end a draw. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. though White has somewhat better chances. in with proper play. although each player has the same number of Pawns. Thus. but there is a passed Black). since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. side is Black that has three two. because. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. Q R P at all. he can do .

I might say generally. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what .58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. be best. however. and requires different handhng. do. Example — Again Black would have great this position. according to Calculation will count. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. a teacher. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. in their true value. or practical experience. that the all proper course in these endings. as in ings. is Each to ending different. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. to the general method wiU of procedure.

against a Rook. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. and the openings. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. then. us see and Bishop. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. — In 8.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. colotir Example at 39. and. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. in all such cases. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . We might begin. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. Black. 3.

B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. the Black King in the white-squared corner. 10. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. position. has two ways to prevent that. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. White 5. 12. 9. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. 5. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. 13. 7.6o 4. one by 14 B—K .

A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 19. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. 17- 18. 26. 22.Kt 2 ch 24. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. and which I consider better for the student to learn. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. 27.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. 20. by using King as much as possible. and the other which as the text. 29. 15 Kt — it K is 3. and the Knight and King. 21. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. 28. 14. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the . 25.

) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns. and rules. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why).62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. and then the Rook would be compara- . — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. is that your opponent mate you within However. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. If it Now. moves which are granted by 16. 40. The resources of the defence are many.

Q— K 5ch . 3KXR. Q — R 6. Once we know becomes easier to what find. Stalemate.. check with the Queen win it. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. Now we come will to the second part.) I 2. and that. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. 5- best 6. The first part concluded. is required.) . 4 Q— K 5 ch. K—R 2. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch.. the way to proceed Thus I. K to R I or to R 2 3. in order to compel Black to do so.R— Kt 8.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3.

64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41.. m.^ ^^m^ ^^. [ « ^. — The procedure here is very similar. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. . Example 42. . ^m. The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate. — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position.

Q— Kt 6ch. 8. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. . The best move is 1. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. since he . 6. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4. 7. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. White. King. a very effective makes very difficult for . K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41. IfK— R2. 5. not the best. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. 2. If3... K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. which defence. Thus 2.. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. unfortunately.R— Kt2ch. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. but.. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I .

5. 4 Q— Q 4. Let us go back again. Kt 2 ch. is given to show the finesse of such endings. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. 4ch and the Rook Note. K— Kt 2. Also that the Queen and . R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. 5 K B 6 3. 7. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. Example 40 with Black 2.. seen. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King.K R2.. The text move. 5 i however. Q 8. 1. 6Q— K5 ch.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. White threatened mate at 8. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. White now threatens mate at 5 6. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. in these examples. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch.

QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines. He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book. . 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text.

may help the little effort. . ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . the right move. with of great help It often in fact.e. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. I my own have selected those that types. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. player to find. i. without such 17.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many.

RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. RXP 2 3. 2 If. K— R I. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. — Black's last move was P — 5. — It is Black's move. QX Q.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . has a more move. forceful White. however. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. at all. and mates in three moves as follows . K 6. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. 69 is 43. viz. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves.

but material. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. .70 1. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. 5. He there- 2. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. ^^ if 45.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. 7. better gain some he can. ^1 W^^ i^^W. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6. — White has a beautiful position. Kt and Black would be 3. 8. before Black consolidates his defensive position. If Kt X B .

^ R-K My 2. Chess Career. The game tinues : — He con- I. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. 3 Kt X B. . as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. P-B3(best). Black should have played i.. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite..THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. 5 KtxP.KtxKt. 4 P- K 5. must therefore press on his attack. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. 18. ii). by R. lose.'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. K-B 2. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. 6 Kt-K J. K-Kta. 4. White is two Pawns behind. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch.

3. 4.72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. The game continues 1. Kt— Kt . White * finally won. K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. 3Q — R5. K— R and if2. . as the sacrifice of the typical.K — Kti. 3 . Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. — The is student should carefully ex- position.. attack.^ is This position elaborated under . Best. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2.. If 2 .).

and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. or even Pawns. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. however. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. Very often. are very well placed and free to act. however. Black is a Pawn behind. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. — Black's pieces. is of such positions of great im- portance. The student should carefullv .

therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. 7. 9. the Q R P. ultimately win Q X Kt. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 8. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. but he sees that there to be had.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. management I 2. easier. 5. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. Queen He now threatens. 5. This threatens to win the Kt. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . The move makes matters 2 3. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. 4. among other thmgs. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. R X Kt P. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black .

It is. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. besides obtaining the better position. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. Wliite's move. QR — Qi. Indeed. The obvious move. and he has two courses to choose from. since after 2 iB — B4. if it we might conclude side. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. might be good enough. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. and his Bishop commanding however. that he would have the better game. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. B —B 4. Black's move. Rx B .

B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. B—B 4. .76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. least. with the better position. 5. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. 4. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. that — note. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. as White threatened 3. White. at should be. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. The student should positions. machine- That.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

always an advantage to threaten something. in Failing the second case. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. or be unable to parry. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . a thrust at another point. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. for direct attack. with full force. so as to side. For. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. as in and that out. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. one or more must be created. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. since in defeat. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. such cases that means 22. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. But once the no longer. holding the threat in hand. to King must ensure their success. forces the opponent to provide against its it. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. all cannot he hroken of. his threat carried into effect.

5.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. Ayala. M. (French Defence. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. R. 1913. R. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. 1. Blanco. 2. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. to . P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. 3.) Black : J. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. 4. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. Capablanca.

iii m.±:m. mend 7 8. would have led to held his complications. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out.m. in which Black might have at least.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. 4 was the right move. i m. and puts Black .A. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3.. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move.. which otherwise has everything to recomit. The text move accomplishes nothing. White's play would be very difficult. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own.

He has lost much time. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . any sort. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. points. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . 12. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. because of the sacrifice BX P). 16. B X Kt followed by 9. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. 15. in order to improve the position of White at other 13. P—B 10. position. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. seriously weakening his King's side. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). The . and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. 14.

followed by B X P. . make way for the Rook. 11mi m X m m. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. 18. 20 B x P./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K.K— R Kt 25 4. 21 — P2. 23QxR. Q X Kt. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. 24RxRch. 22 P— K R 4. and no exception to the will be seen. KR4. which would be bad. as of White. not as an active attack- ing piece. but merely to 17.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. QX if P. as another. But is it always happens in such is cases that.PxQ. is one line of attack this anticipated. PX Kt. RxB.^m^m. tending to prevent P—B 5. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. there rule. Kt Q-Kt 4. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. and tempting White to play Kt X B. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4.

Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. as White quickly demonstrates. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . 87 21. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. untenable. 22. Black 5. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. PX K P. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. however. as White threatened 23. and also QX P Q-B3 better.THREATENED ATTACK 20. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. Such. I not the case. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. Pawn. 24. in my for opinion.

Dr. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2.. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. E.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. to advance P—R 29. 33P-K Kt 3. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . Q— K3 4. and Black will soon be helpless. 5.P 4. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. White's play were might be found that there was it. as he has P— B 28. 32. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. winning. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. R— K2 3. 28. 3031. and finally at the proper time to play RX B. 27.PXP. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. 4.. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. R— K 2. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns.

1. Example 53. 7. and therefore I played knew 7 8. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. Capablanca. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. there material advantage is nothing to do. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. Kt — Q2 9.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. 5. 1913. 10. J. 4. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. Janowski. to be good. involving of pieces. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. 23. 12. Black: D. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. once the obtained.) White: R. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. is A good example of type of game given below.

15. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black.. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. Pawn and relieving the position. where White forces. 18. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. in the following diagram.g. supported by pieces or Pawns. 16.^ Such grand show hand of a master. "holes" at Thus. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17. once to derive passed. BxR Kt— K3 better. 13. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. R— Q R— —Q B 4. e.K B - 3 was 18 19. it is Then. a could establish themselves. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. 20. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. Black has two B 3 and 3. K KR Kt . to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. B— R6 2 I 14. concerned there is only one thing to do. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B.

is In reality Black's attack force. could not succeed against sound defensive play. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. and then . and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. ^y^/y/y^.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. If m '. without even a Pawn for it. 22. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. ^P wm '^**i^.

^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. .. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. but he will soon prepare the way for it. Bepres- sides. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. Rook enters into the game. Then. but White is now time to give back the exchange. well prepared. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. 28. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. i Now is the Black It prepared. '"<. action. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. 27. '''. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P.

R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. fine. 3334. 40. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated.n . The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. 39. I . 34 35. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. 36.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. 38. Rx B RX B. i. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. 93 303132.

and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. game a master only plays to cut so to speak. 24. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. 49. which will be treated separately. 45- P . one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. 4344. 4748. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. 42. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. .Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature.

he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. J. 54. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. Black R. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. (Four Knights. Niemzowitch's variation. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. 1. which I have played successfully in many a game. 2. should be sufficient to win. Winter. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. which. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919.) White: W. he will have to weaken is his some other way. It gives WTiite is a very solid game.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. Capablanca. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. On the other hand. 6 QPxB .

against Levitzki.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. K Kt 3. i. in most cases comes P — KB times 4. possible. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. Petersburg. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. 19 13. The Kt P X B . from Havana International Masters Tournament Book. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands.^ 8 9. The general strategical plan for K R 3. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. without doubt. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. Then. but mostly at K R Finally. gives White the best of the game. 1913. at St. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. . after most of the pieces have been exchanged. 8. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2. Capablanca. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. R. See Capablanca-Janowski game. ^ 9 14. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. remains at Kt i. 7. New York ment. I believe. and then the real attack begins. by J.

P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . as soon as the circumstances permit.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. falls into the trap. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. t^ • bi^^ k To / . 10. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move. 10. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5.

side. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. 12. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. either before or after Kt X Kt. Black now devotes and. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. the result cannot be in doubt. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. 13. 11. . After this as will be seen.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes. and possibly not even then. so that the student The rest of the game is given. with disastrous results in either case. 14. to may see how simple it is win such a game.

27. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. has the Alexander. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. 18. Black regains immediately by 24.Kt B 5. R. 26. PxP 28. against Mr. F. after PX B P. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. 19. 23. F. file. It .THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. 29. 22. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. 17. one of England's foremost players. L.

) White Mr. Alexander. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. L. 2. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. my request.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. F. Example 55. Black : George Thomas. F. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. I.

time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. B X Kt Kt X B 8. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. Q 3. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. 12. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. 10. which. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. 9.) GAME .) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. In the opening. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. besides. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. 5. 7. loi There are. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. constitutes an advantage. and might be compelled to stake all on a . and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. first. in a general way.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat.

102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. 13 14. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. a turning point in the game. P-Qs K R— Q is i. (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. or that were not possible.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. . then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. There were three moves to consider: first. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4.

because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3.B QB 5. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second.Kt and P. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. which would weaken Pawns. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by . in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 . B X P . Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. either of Rooks to Kt X B. 18 B X P ch. which he would do in case. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. This would have 3 to pre. PX P. B — Kt 5 and third. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. sive. blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. which he 15 16.) . i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 .IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. 103 in the P—Q R 4.

lacks force. have probably. a plan on a large success. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. 22. threatening P— K B 4. 21.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. to be followed by a White it. side. B—K B—B P—B better. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. which promises chances of and with it all. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. If is able to defeat this plan. 23. . 2 4 3 to would .) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24.) Black's play hereabout weak . play Q R— K I. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. direct attack against the King. it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. therefore. time with his Rook's moves. or rather to prevent then. 20. In such cases a player must conceive scale. which. He should. play 20. once they enter in action.

GAME 105 2. Had White retaken with the B P. 26. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly .) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. as he expected. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6.

and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. It 28. after having placed the Q at Q 2. but it is isolated. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. he could then play Q— PX P. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. as. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. B P on 27. and there is no effective continuation. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. 29. K B 2. vented all that. and P — B text to The move 4. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. had White Kt 3. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5.

107 now 34 B-B 3. by the masked attack on White's Rook.) 34. ch . 35. 35 BXB ch. •/ /'^^ m. B X B. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. with a winning attack. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. 40 RX R. and White plays is lost. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. B —K If. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. Kt — B 4. R X Kt RXR 4. manner. ch. and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course..) . PXP. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. 37. however. best. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R.1 take pleasure .

QxKtP.R-R3. Kt 2. beginning with 39.ove. to carry on the attack..io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. and the way 41. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. ® i i (If 40. 3940. 41 Kt-Kt I. . . Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P.) best A very beautiful m.Q— R 38. 39.. QXR .

ch. but \Miite has no time to take it. Rx R B. WTiite resigns. not R— K R 3 42. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight.) (If 42 QX last. because of P —Q 6 dis.) 41 BxB . very fine . at 42 43. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM.) 44. then. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. R—R 3 wins. (Again.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B.

Finally. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. that very often the case among the large majority of . which. of course. players they are weak in the endings first . arduous struggle. and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. which masters of the rank are at times not . which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. it But yet the ending at first appeared. itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. a failing from free. I accepted. in Then I followed a very hard. Unfortunately. After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange.

I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. in this and Dr. breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. 26. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. then. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. . that at times the in attacking first on one side.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. when speaking about win consists general theory. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. JNIorphy. Example 56. granted greater mobility of the pieces.

.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. In the above position with the Black pieces. R— KKt 8. side. 3. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. 7. which loses quickly. I A serious mistake. therefore. which in the end might give him the victory. 4. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. Kt 8 R-KB5 . as will be seen very soon. 3. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. White should have played 8 answered . Black. 5. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. and thus to Rooks. played I 2. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square.

also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. while Black has an isolated Q R P. R — B 6ch followed 10. If PX R. ' M. by R— K R 8 winning. 1913. ^^^ M. 9. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. Another good example. Ml. which There is him the initiative. R— 4 ch. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. ' Mt M. Example 57. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. The .FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3.

shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. freely. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. He does nothing after Besides. 5R — 2..P — KB4.. try make it weaker. and he can get rid of it. as in the previous ending. If he has a weak point. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. If he has a weakness. If4. 5R — . White the control I open file.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course... and also not to allow 2. the to bring Rooks forward. it is but follow White's footsteps.. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. make else. 4 ch. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. 3.P — Q4. followed by hard to point out anything better. If4. 4.

3. P—Q 5 . R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6.. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. winning the R—Q R Q R P. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . which is all White desires. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. for reasons that will soon 7 8. K-Q 9.R-K2. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. 6PxR. 10. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. Evidently forced.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. 7. become evident. which would have left If 8 . 9 1 1 R-K 4.. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak.RxP. King's side would be held 5. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. which is the only one that can advance two squares. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. 7K-B2. R — R 6. and Black's game is hopeless. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side.

. fact. would have . since of it forces the exchange . P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. won game. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. but this move is weak. tinuation. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R .Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. R—R . K-Kt2. Rooks because I. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. 12 13.R-Kt i. 3 was the proper coni . I with excellent winning chances. in beheve. 12. 4. 14 P — Kt 3. drawn. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move.Kt i Black misses his only chance. and 15 if then 13. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing.

R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. R 2 6 via Kt 4. 27. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. but only one move. 16. P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 18. 19. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. 17. SIDE I 117 15. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 4 R-B 3 . P-Kt 7. however. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. less. 2526. 22. . 20.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw.

.Kt 5 A weak move.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?. In this ending.. as often the case with most players. P . . White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. ""f^i (Bis. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3. which is gives Black a fighting chance. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. 29. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. of. The right move was 28. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch.

P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. 4344. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. 42. 7 ch. even with a good position. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. 48. 37. 3940. followed by RxP R-K R 7. a player. . offered better 38. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. so long as there no great advantage of material. 4546. even in master-play. mistakes are lost. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. made and opportunities are is shows that. no matter how strong. It and how often. R-K7 R— Kt chances. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. 49.

. as did. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana. I. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. how it P-Kt4 RXRP .^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. 1913). The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. but his position is rather poor.120 THE DANGER OF 27. careless became exceedingly happened.. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn.^.

R X P. 6.Kt 3 8 P .K-Kt3. as will soon be seen. His best there move was is R —R 4. If instead White played K. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. . 2. K . If then K-Kt 3. iiRxKtP. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. and has only taken three moves.Kt 5 ch. 4.B 3 7 R X P ch. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. and wins easily. After the text is lost. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. 5.. K — Kt 3 . 6 . .P-B4. 5R-R8ch. 10 R-Kt 7 ch. then R . which is actually in danger. R . The reason is evident. K-K 2. . 3. and is does not stop to think whether there better. 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. 9 R (R 6) X R. K— Ki. 7 Px P ch. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care.K 4. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns.Kt 2 If4.. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . . Px R.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. move no defence.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. R . i2i This is the first.

8RxR. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. 5 mate. Yet though and they do occur so often.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. 10 R-R 8 ch. KxR. They are often of a very difficult nature. K-Kt 3. P—R 28. . Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board. Example 59. few have mastered them thoroughly. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate.

but there are other very interesting features. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. We have therefore 3. R—B (a) 2. 2P-B7. 3. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. 5.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. not see the drawing move. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. P—B 7. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. R— Q 3. P-B6 7 ch. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. as against wins. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. or draw by perpetual check. R-Q3.R— K7 a very important move. played poorly. . (6) 2. a simple wm by R—B ch. 4. Luckily for him Black did lost. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value.

K-K 6. or (6) R-K B 3. R-Kt3ch 2.. R-B3 K-B 5 P .. then R — R 6.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch.Kt 6 R . and come out with a winning ending. If R-Q 3 ch. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2. . Let us examine them. and R — R 4 ch.. because the King the Kmg goes up. .. 5. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. If P_Kt 6. then goes back. 3. followed by R — K B 4 wins. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. 4..:. . I.Kt 3.

and come out with a winning ending. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. 4. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. K-K2 . R — Q3. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. and iP — B6. according to the circumstances. Now. K 6.P-B7 2. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. Black did not to draw.3. 2R — Bych.

. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5.„„^^„ m ^^'. he could draw by preventing the ad- .. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook. This position we have arrived at is won by White.. This last condition is very im- portant. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win ... the last-named move particularly would win with ease. if. 7.126 Best..„. ^^^ ^ ... i^ ^. — ^^ '^" ^^^. because instead of the position on the diagram.. 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6.. RxP R-Q2 8. the Black Rook were at KR i. . K-K3 ^„„..„^^. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file... and to check besides. and Black had the move.0 ^. m. RxP R-KR2 RxP 9.

29. in the 60. . Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. — From a game. as already stated. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. These endings. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. are not is very common. is The way them. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. Now position that is we have explained won.

Q Kt 3. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. That would fix the Queen's side. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. criticised. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. to It often leads to disaster. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. R-Q4 P—B 3. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. There is nothing to gain by this move. . It is Black's move. unless White plays P . This move not only prevents intended.128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m.

R-R6 K—Q 3. P . stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. . by making this P. w^hich will 7. now develop. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. 3. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. 5 6. because P— KB 4 would have . PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. Black unaware of the danger of .3 is This is a mistake. hence move. in order to WTiite. should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. is a little too late. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. however. R-K2 R-QR He 3. He could not play 8. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. R— Q R force I should have been played now.Kt PXP ch 2 4. 3 and Kt 7. This in move K— K 8. 5. R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. his position. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless.K R—B 2. but . I K-K. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis.

I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. because of RX R. followed by R—R 3. he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5. either . which he should have started before.^ mmi. 5 9. cannot play Of course. ^m. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation.PXP.J^^^ . as he could not go back with the King.. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. K—K 2 ^^j^ . tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. or. King at B 5 or K 5. recovering the Pawn with advantage. i ^ ILl .. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. White RXR P.. nor could he do much with 10. „ . If he 9.. Rook.. threat- not enough. . might play K — Q 4.

The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. . or he might first play Q 4.. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. P-R5 K B If good. then 14. because of Q R P. and it will be seen that 11. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. 4 at once was the right move. if there was nothing better.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3.R— Kt2. because would leave him paralysed. nor could he advance On the other hand. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong. would play P — Kt 4. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. it is very similar.. 13.

16. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. 21.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . 15. 19R-R6. lyRxP. R-K R 7 iSRxR. . (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . R5.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. 17. 16 K.Q 3. then 15 17 P XP. 18. RxP. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out.) 20. with winning RxR.Kt 2 any case. 19. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. R-Ktych. R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP. would draw. M M M P-R3 last chance. chances. RxP.

KxP Resigns.. which. 6. 2S.. 23. ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :. — From the 7 ski. 26 R-Q R and 27.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail. 25. easily.. 5. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29. to make matters worse. R-KB Example 61.. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. R-Q White 8 ch. will win 22. sees he can no longer defend Pawns. . he cannot . ^^H M^. 25 RxP. K-B R-K R 8..R-Kt8. 26..^.22R-R6! 2. 24. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. K-Q 2."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. ^33 If2i. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. ^M" ft ^^ W^.

because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. advance. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. 3. of course. by P X Rook and be able P. Black wants to play prevents it. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. 2. but White. 1. and finaUy 5. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. P-KKt4 P . Then in due time he will play Kt 5. thus P-Q 4. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. This King should come to the King's danger lurks. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . and will then bring his own King to K 3. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. Pawn on the with which White expected to win. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4.

He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. might have been the best chance for Black. 6. 5. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. 8. 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. P-QR4I . 9.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. also prevents 4. K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. 7. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. however. RxP . White. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. the text move is really a serious loss of time.

R-R3 R-Kt3 4. 13. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. is White not only has a passed Pawn. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . to go to in case of danger. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5.i. White holds the open with one of his Rooks. if of White's Pawns. or to move to the right wing file Besides. 12. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. superior and his chances 10 11. board ready to support the advance or. necessary.

22. White would have an easy game. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. 2 would not help much. text move. these variations. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. or up Black's Rooks better completely. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. much. however. 20. 15. and whichever Rook Black took. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. nothing therefore Black had wait.) (The student should carefully study 14. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. P-K5 18. 19. only helps WTiite. R 5) X R. which would finally force Black to take. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i .

had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. 28. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. while often the losing side all. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. Example 62.138 ROOK. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. ROOK. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. 27. ROOK. . BISHOP AND PAWNS v. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. 30. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. Knight and Pawns. v.

The other. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings.ROOK. and more subtle. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. There are two courses open to him. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. forcing White to defend something time. The most evident. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). and the one that most players would take. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. To a beginner may look like a draw. not only because he has the initiative. 3 R course his was taken by Black. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray.

bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. in material and position. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing.140 WTiite's of ROOK. 2. 6 7. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. 4. Consequently a very bad move. Black's King where it is it wants to go. way. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. of Black's Queen's side 3. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. P-KR4 R-R3 . P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them. Rook.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

5. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . 1. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. use my owTi games. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. I shall. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. whenever possible. 11. 12. not because they will better illustrate the point. 7. 9. knowing shall them thoroughly. 6. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3.146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. 13. 2. 32. but because.

by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. . they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. '/^-//M.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . In fact.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P.- .) '^/^/////. may be excused the reference.'. referred to. 14. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. and that in some way White. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. forced the exchange of both Knights. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. 191 2. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we. which will in no way be able to advance to 4. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on.

wM If 2. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. ^i m. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. . and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. i i a m 3..148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM.^wm. and we might to have some such position as 66.„. pieces can be said to be ^xt^. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4.

4. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. R(B i) . 5. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P.Ri R 7. R. break through. (B i) . 2 RX 2.. P X 2.KB 3.K. White might even be able position to obtain the following . 9. RX R. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . and he played R — KB i. I 6. because 3 R X B P would 3. Q .. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came. 10..Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move. P. White would then simply defend his move like Q. also win a Pawn at least. and Black K B i. 2. K-R 4. to . « « . Q. and Kt 3.Kt2.Kt P .Q White threatened could not play win a . as in the previous case. ch.R — Pawn by Q X P.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I.KKti.K B 3.K Kt R.R-Kt3.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ .: > C^. R(B5)-B2. Q. PX Q- Kt Q. QNow R5. QXQ. RX R 3 8. II. K X R.

I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). and thus force Black to play P X P. and follow up with K B 3. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. A careful that. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). and White could then play Q—B 2. The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. once all the pieces are exchanged. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. of this kind. and the fact that advance.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. which would give White a greater advantage. at White's K . where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn.

8. P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. 4. (Queen's Gambit Declined. . 4.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. 5. . I 151 67. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . Janowski. 7. B-Q3 in its favour in this position. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. after 8 . QxB. but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical.) A. 1. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. Black: 2. D. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. is The normal to play course 0—0. Kupchick. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. K Kt — 10. White For a beautiful in that variation. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913.

P—K 4. by RX P. because B 5 threatening. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. not only but also Kt X B ch. perfectly developed. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. 12.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . In off effect. Kt x Kt P—K 4. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. 2.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note.„„.

Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. less In such cases. if he can do it at it all. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. especially the one 5. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. the the number of pieces on the board. will ever be able to attack anything. the better chances there are to escape. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. 14. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . 13. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. K might be said to be ideal. henceforth will be full The question how see. which a Pawn for a while. it is hard to see how this Besides. 15.

or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. 18.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. he might i. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. 21. have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. 2. P ^1 . White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19. . 17.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. As that not the case.>• I .

B X Kt Q X P. and the position so much in his favour. . however. White should have no trouble in winning. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 .THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. the . and with two Pawns for the exchange. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. 2T. . fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. among them . any number ref)lies it. position. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. There were..

apart from other The student should things. P X P.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. 30. . Q — R 2 ch. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. notice that. K—B 34. and Black would be helpless. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. 36. 2. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. 31. 35. 32. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. principally those at K and QB 5. Kt— Kt4 27. 28. 29. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. There is nothing to be done. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game. 33. B — Kt i . Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. K— Kt of the B X P.

PART II .

.

P— Q4 2. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. Lasker had played should be good. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. R. it thought that since Dr. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. this defence twice before in the with good still results. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. Black : J. 1. Capablanca. because the 159 . On general principles it should be wrong. 4. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. so often. 1909) White : F. J. E.PART GAME 1. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. 5. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. Marshall.

In reality the difficulty in this variation. would Kt 3. followed by B qBxBP. 7. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop. involves the exchange of two pieces. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. . but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation.PXP.P be good. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. eleventh For this variation see the game 9. Kt 2. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. 0-0 X P 5. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. and However. 6. 3 2 on account of Kt — K .. of the match.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Kt-B3 . No longer would 9. 7 8. I it outside the scope of this book.. . may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see.

PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. R— K and If. instead.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. I. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . 16. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . Q X Q would follow. The safer course would have been to play 13. 15. 12. 3. If I had to play . i6i 11. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. 14. believe that Black would regain the Pawn. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. is doubtful whether good. 5 without any compensation for this position it.

. then any other move would lose as well. I The game was 22. As a 5. 25. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope.K R— Kt 17. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case.. One move was as good as another. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns.l62 GAME I i. 24. 19. . B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. but the text move makes matters worse. If that move would have been loses.. 16. PxP QxP lost. . BX Kt P — R6 20. 21.. my mind that this was threatened. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I.. 23. 18. best .

The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. 2. Black : J. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. R. A well-played game on Marshall's part. K. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops. if 163 Kt X B. aims at the of Black's Q P. 4. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. B— K3 in this variation. 191 1) White : A. Rubinstein. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. 1. B — Kt 2 8. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. 5. 25 — GAME 2. 3. 7. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. Capablanca.

. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii. was right. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake.. r. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10.. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. II. B 3 or P — K R 3. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination . but with very poor success..164 GAME 2 course of this variation.. K Kt 5.. KtxB 12.^^i mm. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped. ii W'^M m^A m^.. order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P./M. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3. The move in theory ought to be unsound. ...

but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret. which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen. KtxP! ' "y/////.' . B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^..^A IB 15. B X Kt B... 14. let him play it. to my lasting 1 :m . but which I thought could be defeated.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= .

i. taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. 5 (if . should have played R X R ch. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch.Q B — K6ch. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. granted i. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. P— KR 4. Q— B i! PxKt 18. P — K Kt this and Black should win. had not considered. 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . I. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . 7 .R-K7. R— K 2. This gives Black a chance. 7 . K — Bi. R— B ch. 19. BxPch wins).i66 i6. the ex- Kx B. K-B Kt. I thought 2. 22. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. K — B 2. R — B 5 wins. B X R ch 20 3. 21.Q R-QBi. 3 (if . 17. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. Kt — R 19 change).

B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. as the course of the loses several moves. 25. 28.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. In fact. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. B x R. 24. 26. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. Kt— Q 5. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . If then R — Q Kt 5. followed by P — Q Kt 4. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. The proper way was to play it Q 3. game will show. RxR. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move.

3536. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334. but the text move a chance.) 31. 37. fortunately for him. he can win at White's best con- . of which. impossible for to win. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. Even before the last is a downright blunder. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. Black does not avail himself.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. 38.

42. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. If Px P B X Kt 7. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. R — By. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. Capablanca. and 41 to find it.. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . beginning with 14 B x Kt. K— B 7 . 42 R— Kt 41. 8.P —R 8. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6. 7.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. 40. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. R. I. Janowski. 2. P — R 6. 3 2. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. K— R 3. R X B. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. 191 3) White : D. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. As an end game. 39. Black : J. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8.. GAME 3. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. B X P. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. 5.

170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. or failing that. own Pawn openings. 12. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack. 11. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. ID. to obtaui some definite material advantage.

was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5.IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. was the move. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . I A very serious mistake. 15. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. often brings the player into trouble. in order to bring at once all into play. which was a very threatening move. and the other. that govern any given posiI tion. right which afraid 3. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. 14. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. 16. Px B . 13. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. 18. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. i5Kt— B5. B x Kt was also good.

which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . at doubling the Rooks. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. For this reason P—K attack. which destroys White's plans. the K P. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. Black. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. . which she already defends. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. to P — Kt 4. how- ever. P — B 4. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. which he text compelled to defend with the King.

173 Unfortunately for Black. 22. as will Black cannot ch. P— KR4 soon be seen.. .Kt— K 3 . if it with a very good game. RxR Ktx R 24. 21. This wins a Pa^\^l. he did not carry out his original plan. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. because 25 PXP Kt X P. which loses a Pa\\Ti.. and would have In fact. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. should come to a simple ending. reply 24. P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. 23.

FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. GAME 4. and. Black resigned. 29. at taking the initiative aims away from White. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. Capablanca. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. 27.174 24 25. WTiite : J. A. 36. 32. 1913) : (St. 26. 2. 33. Snosko-Borovski. 31. 4. 34. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. Black E. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. 35. 3. 1. Instead . R.

5.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. as I said before. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. as I do now. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. the text move 5 to be the stronger. QxP Px P. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. considered then. however. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. of course. 6. . WTiite. It This is considered superior to has for its object. side. to make a violent attack against White's King. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. will Castle It is. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side.

"tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. as in this game.176 9- GAME 10. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. I believe. is of Philadelphia. moves. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. it is : of an attack. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. 14. sidered. Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. overlooking Wliite's fine . side. 12. 12 13. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. 4 11. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. Walter Perm as Shipley. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side.

16. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . putting it out of the is game for the moment. pieces. with P 4. 15. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. 19. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. but also drives the Queen away. 17. way for a few moves. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight.

21.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. great is K self-evident that White has a 23. value. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. it which was the right move. 3. It advantage of position. and . but gave up because seemed too slow. Q-Bi 22. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20.

" and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. I was. Kt— R 5 ch 26. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . 27. 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. If Px 28 P P.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. P— B 4 the right move. still looking for the "grand combination. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . Kt — B 4 was that the however. 28. PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . 24 25.

?8 29. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. on move find out 28. my judgment when. num- ber of times. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. and that is would vindicate 4.

P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. 39. 1. 5. R. because Q— R 8 mates. 1914) White : Dr. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. Black : J. which WTiite .FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . A very interesting battle. E. K-Kt I . 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. Capablanca. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. i. GAME (St. 2. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. 40. Lasker. I. White cannot play Kt —Q 4. 37 Q-R6. P-QR3 is 4.

form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. 8. in order not to also. 4 5. in order to go K Kt There is . 6. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. 7. in some event3. ualities.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. On the other hand. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. obstruct Black's Pawns. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side.

This move still. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 12.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time. P-B5 r£ a i . 10. It also prevents II. 9. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. It threatens B—B R— K 4. Kt— Q 4. 4. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. B — K I 3. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. B—K 3 because of 3 3. and it also makes 4. Best. it unless it advances to K 5.

.. Kt x R. Q R — Q 19 it.. 12 13. on my part finally to obtain a lost position.. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. RxR. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game.. But.BxB. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game.i4RxB. 16.. Lasker's variaIf not the best. i. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3.. 16. Lasker gives right move 4. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. P — B B — Kt 2. my better judgment. Q tion. 18R— Q2. 17RXR. Dr. is after R— Q i given in Dr. RxR. The B X B. 16 R— B 2.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game.

fol- 4. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17. followed by Kt —K Kt 5. QR-Qi . however. and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. 14. otherwise I would have played the right move . then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. on play P —B 4.B X B. BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13.Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. threatening Kt — B 5.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . 5 for will at least fact. whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. 5. Black plays 19. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. if . 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. . Black can later P—Q 16. . 5.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. after 19. neither which can be stopped. . 15. 4. . . also Lasker's variation. 2.

. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. B X Kt give Black the advantage). .Kt — and at later 6.i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded.P . 18 Now 5. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. (B Black should 17 18. 17. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. Q — 2) P X P. If P — Q Kt 4. B X P 20 Kt X B (best. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. . 18 R— B 2... 21 R X R. Kt X R.. 19 PxB. and there is no good reason why 19 2. let us analyse Kt.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4. and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. Q Kt 3. P -Q 4. K winning a weaker. that I could play the text move. since if R Q 2.. i7. —B 4. P—B 4. RxKt. Again. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 . Kt around to K 4. and a 1 7 . via Q B i. lose.

At least it would K— B 2 24. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. P X R ch. 23. would R— R 5. move. flounders around have been better to play file. difficult. 28. 26. the two moves were weak. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. I Again bad.19. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. with a bad game. 4 ch. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. 21. and the game most accurately. have been extremely 22. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. Black. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27. 20. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. of course. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. Had . 25. and Black becomes more . has no object now.

KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. 41. 37. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. . 42. 3940. 3334. which was bad. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132.i88 helpless with each GAME move. perfect. 38. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. . 5 The game needs no further comment. probably 29. as well as play The rest of his was good. excepting that an altogether made. Regard- ing the play of White. he played well after that up to the 27th move.

because gives obtain the initiative. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . side very weak. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. Chajes. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. and later.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. Capablanca. 5. I. Black : J. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. I The alternative. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. By the text move Black up Castlmg. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. which Wliite adopted in this game. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. . 1916) White : O. R. . 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. P— K4 2. 7. 8.

B 1 M ^. time and merely weakened 10. cannot be said as yet. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. because. 12. he threatens White's K P. 14. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. besides being a Pawn to the good.iQO 9. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. however. which must of course be de- . has suffered somewhat. so that it . II. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. His development. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. '^^„* WiW^.HI.

To prevent Kt X P. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. as dominates the whole situation. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. 2 B-K3 4. 17. or ever. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. for it. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. and can consequently decide the course 15. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. the Bishop will be developed to itself. and there to dislodge his pieces. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. of the game. . Q 4. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. strategically wrong. since The move. is thoroughly prepared for it. 17 18.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically.

22. R-R3 24. as White will soon prove. 23. but under less favourable 4. in order to follow p—B as he did later. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. circumstances. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . would have avoided everything. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. 24. Q R— Kt i. 21. since White's attack amounts to nothing.192 19. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations.

the move not a losing one by any means. PXP e. is 193 However. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„. 27 28. ^M i y/y^/yyii. 25. 1 liW 27. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. as will soon be seen. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. 26.FRENCH DEFENCE plications.p.

it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). the White KR but in is now Rook having come . could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. tion all. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. of course. which looks the best is (the plan. R— K R i . which gave White time to play convinced. and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. 31. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. which be at give draw. White would be forced either P — Kt 4. of course. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. forcing followed a play- similar plan. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. unless first. but I was wrong. 3. as explained above. first In some cases. K— R it as already indicated. I am ing to play I .194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. and Black would reply with to play 5 . or to some other move according circumstances. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. of course. however. was the best move. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. 5 in to go to 8.

It is now White who has the upper hand. 33' 34. 434445- 46. therefore. 47. Kt X Q .FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. least.B 2 K--Kt I . 195 Instead of the text move. and the last chance Black best play. 48. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. 32. and Black who has to fight for a draw. 41. 42. 36. RX 35. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. 49. X P was no 3940. Black should have played Kt —K 5. 3738.

White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. If the reader does not believe it. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. 52Q-R5. I players will be wondering. having the best of the position. 53 BKt 5 ch. missed several chances. let and him take the White what happens. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. QxP few more moves Black resigned. . K X B. 5354. as the spectators did not resign. 51 who decided 7. missed none. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. 5758. played opponent. I was hoping lowing variation. White.K-R2.RxP. for while Black. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. and while . which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. 5152. on the other hand. My no chances.

QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. B—B 5. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. 5 6. 191 1) White : J. Black : A. 2.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. 4. It B— K a more natural and effective move. Capablanca. 1. 5. (San Sebastian. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. R. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . to which I was much addicted at the time. after 2 P — K Kt 3. 12. 11. 10. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. Bum- P— K4 3 2. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. 9.

P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. 14. This is bad. because White's QB is out. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. and the Knight. able White. 16. and also his King's Pawn. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. does not of his allow time for this. 3 to defend the square QB 4. . Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. and superior position 17. in border to up where it is. does not block the 13. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. however. and played make his position more solid. in going to K B.

Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. is by his next 22.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. move to eliminate all danger. but game very much weakened. 19. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. . 18. 21. by using the open able K R file. in which case. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King.

LrAMJn. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . If B. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. of course 39. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. to be defended I by pieces. B-K2 28. 24.200 23. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. 40. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. followed by R— B 7 ch. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. 29. Kt-K3 32. 38. 37. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . 3334. 25. 26. 31. 42.

P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. least. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. at compensate whatever might have. instead of the text move. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. is position WTiite The plan. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. R. CENTRE (Berlin. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. 1. 46. 8. GAMES. B— KB . which would. often played in order to develop the Q B. Mieses. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. I quite feasible. My P to idea was it. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. slight advantage of think. 3. Black : J. 2. 5. Capablanca. is P—Q t. 7.

R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. With the R — Ki. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. opening the 11 way Q B.202 GAME 8 I 1. all. with serious of position. II. P—Q completely shut if off.l. 12 Kt — B 3. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. . l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. could have played P—Q 3 . but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. when would have followed. If Kt — 3 . and could only be loss extricated. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move.

3 (best). and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. QxPch. was most interesting. when we would have 14 B X Kt.R Kt 5. . 15P— QB3. besides the fact that all the White 14. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. QxQ. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake.^^ mm mm. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch . and 13. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ .CENTRE GAME 12. game 19 RX P. Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. — R- . 18B — B2. not so in reality. K Kt 5 Black. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. was simple. better. . 16 P x B. RXB.BxP. and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. Pawns are isolated. 17 Q— K PX Q. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe.

the attack. At first and even after careful thought. 17. while having the exchange. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. enough to win with proper play. White . 19. would have given White a decided advanMieses. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. favour until. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. he would be a Pawn minus. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. 20. however. 18. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. feared the difficulties of an ending where. with the exchange ahead.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. 22.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

Kt — Q4 4. KR— Q would 5. so to speak. to prevent 7.. and consequently weak and subject to attack. in order to maintain one of them. Kt (B 4) — 15. the Bishop must defend. R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. They there.. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . 17. have 16 14. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. are manoeuvred chain-like. but in position such a course is a mistake. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. Not. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. of course. Kt X Kt 16. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. either at Q 4 or ready to go file.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. I .P 4. I R— B . I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. and therefore move. 14. Kt X Q. and there would be no good way 18 19.

yet. moves anywhere else. 21 Kt— Q6.R — B 2. as Wliite demonstrate. indeed. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. 25 R — Q 2. at least of the most kind. B X B. Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. 23 Bx Kt. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. . Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file . 22 Kt X B. 24 R X P. . doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. R— B 2.. and White is a Pawn ahead. R X Kt.B 20. 22.. then B X Kt. There seems to be no particular danger. Black may be said to be the defence is lost. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. If 20. Pawns.B — Qi.

of course. 9 with the Rook.212 GAME sieze it. KB4. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. on the other Black could do nothing hand. to give Hence. 25. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . Black's best chance was as in the text.KKt3. up a Pawn. 24. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. as White would immediately 23. which would be disastrous. after having. prepared the way. in order to free his Knight. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. White.

R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. . as will 5 . weak. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. would on account P —Q 4. obtaining a passed Pawn.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. K 5. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. with proper play. even though White could answer P however. soon be seen. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. of P— KKt3 5 . P X Kt would be worse. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. which. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. 29. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. B — Kt3. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. should win. —K The it text move is. 27. .

GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\.2l4 31. 32. it would take longer. 4 31 Practically forced. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. 35. 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. K-K3 37.P-QR3 5 36. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily.^. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop .

Q P. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. Once he obtained that. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. Capablanca. finest players in the world. 5. practically from the opening. he tried for and obtained. J. tion terial fortunately. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. Black: F.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. where it not only protects the P. 1914) White: J. Petersburg. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. 3. 7. 3 6. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . The student ought of ending. advantage of a Pawn. Marshall. 1. R. 2. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. PETROFF DEFENCE (St.

. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. Kt — B 3 P— 9. 8. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. and a very is move. 11. The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. BxKt B-Q3! 10. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy.

blocks the Bishop. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. as White threatened Kt K 4. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. which. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. Besides. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. 13. in turn. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. followed by B X B. Kt X P ch. . then P Q 5. Queen. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. 5. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. R— Kti.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. B game him to — — — B 4. Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . unquestionably an advantage . but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. wins a Pawn.

in attack against WTiite's fails.2l8 14. 17. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. will Black and. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . which destroys Black's plan utterly. P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. 15. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . 20. his Pawns are all weak. he will sooner or later them. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. because Black's development backward.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. The plan. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. however. & /. 18. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. as it always must is such cases.

28. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. that Black's game is lost. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. are given merely as a matter of form. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. 27. 2526. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. interest. 3334. 23.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 30- 3132. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29.

4344. 48. 55. . Resigns. 49. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. 47. lo 40. 52. 58. GAME 39. 50. 42. 59. 41. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. 54.220 38. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 45. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. 57.

8. superior to Alechin considered 4. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. and obtained the superior game. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. 2. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. in one of his games against Dr. I. R. Janowski. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. . Lasker. 191 4) White: J.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. typical of Janowski. E. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. P—Q which is generally- played. which he only through a blunder. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. move. 7. 9. Black: D. at the time. Capablanca. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. Alechin on several occasions. Petersburg.

since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can.222 10. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. was the best. . Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. at once. under the cumstances. 12. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. hoping to lighten White's attack. GAME Q— Ki M. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. 13. but one which.

^ . 1516. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5.. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. There is only one thing to take care of and that .. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t.. 14.RUY LOPEZ 14. 1718. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. The only 4 . Beto 4... P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack.

2324. 19. . . 20. RX Kt . I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. 27. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. 29. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. now K P X R. 25- loses very rapidly. Black could have played instead of the text move. The move 22. i8. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns.2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. . Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21.

7. Chajes. R. Capablanca. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York.. and consequently 4 cannot be bad. 1. y^.Jm. White: J. 4. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. 5. i i g<^ i 'M. 3. 2. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. Black: O.. but a perfectly natural it developing one.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12.

. R— K i was m %///M. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. in this variation. B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. 5 ch. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . This weakens Black's King's the right move. 12. . P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. But as he does not obtain . P — Q Kt If 3. . 3 because B X Kt. 11.226 8. followed by 10. 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. Black now plays 8 2 .

P— QB 3 Q X Kt . 14. Kt x R— K B. the move It bad. Pawm minus fights very hard. 15. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . I 20. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. advantage of position for White. 14QXBP. 17 18. BxP. suicide. . QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. QxKt. threatening P— 18 19. 17. B — Kt 2. because after BxP. 16. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. Black with a 21. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. Of course if R— K 3. KtxB. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. Kt X B.

or support which cannot advance to rather. of course. 4 to defend. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. the KB Pawn at K 5. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. that the White Knight is He notices.228 GAME 3. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. the way of the K B P. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. . 23.

He sees P—K R 5. P X w li.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. 33- 34. R 6. 29. 229 P-QKt3 303132. 3. 37. the Queen goes difficulties. K— K K—B 2 I 36. might otherwise become a source 35. 38. P. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4.

His best . practically forcing the exchange of Queens. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. White ready to advance. PxP i . R—Q 7. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. J i 39. 4 would be answered by Q— B 5.. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. with a winning game.>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King.. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. 41. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4. R — Q7 BxPch .P — K Kt 40.

. I think. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. Black: R. 2.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. in this form of development. 6. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. 5. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. even while the on the board. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. once it is Castled. one of great defensive strength. 43. the Bishop. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. Morrison. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. 231 This loses a piece. (New York. S. Capablanca. White: J. 1. 4. is Therefore. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. GAME 13.

Bold play. 10. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. because of Kt — Q 5. 10 11. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. page 197.) 7. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. but again faulty judgment. The alternative would have been P — B 3. 8. II 12. B—K B 4 would have done this. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive.232 GAME say. 9. R— Ki KR— Ki . but was more important Black from Castling unmediately.

. which would be answered by Kt . since. PX Kt X P etc. advance. and at the same time preventing P— Kt.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. 14. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . Black can safely side. Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. X B . followed by Kt X P. 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. winning a Pawn. K 5. which now acts along the long diagonal. which he cannot in the centre. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop.

With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. 16. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. and then advancing K P. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply.234 15. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings.) 17. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. 2.

he It is doubtful. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. for if immediately. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. bad. and. it might have done ever. even offers tiie Bishop. 19. 1 It was difficult . which is to put the Bishop out of action. 20.RUY LOPEZ judgment. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. 235 posed position of the Black King. 20 21.

P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. 23. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack. QX Kt. 22. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. and also Q — K 3. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. . The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch.

space. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. Kt — K3 attack. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. . but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. where he in a be mating net. 29. RxP. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. R— K R— Q i.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. 30. R (K i) —K 7. 31If P-R3 8 ch.

36. the quickest way 35. 41. Capablanca. : 191 8) : J. 34.23S -21 GAME 32. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. expected it. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. 33. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. 40. Marshall. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. R. GAME White F. Black J. 34. 2. 38. I. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. 14. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. A very lively game. .

one of them has given it me good results. on the other hand. m The developing on both sides. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. as generally the case. 9- I generally play all the time. 13. WTiite. .QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . simplified the changes. 12.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. 14. 8. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. 10.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. has . during a Tournament. II. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness.

he would. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. since. GAME first 14 is Black.240 obtained the centre. I think. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. on the other hand. had he analysed this move. It on my part. but Mar- shall believed differently. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . but also Kt XP . truly an attack against Black's 15. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. K P. three ranks. Black now threatens not only BPX P position . his Knight at KB 3. followed by B P X P. otherwise he would not have played this variation. which.

. K—R i. But. on the other hand. move. . P—B KKt3 Qi. (threatening Q— KB2.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. as will be seen. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen. the Queen. 3. . QR — least. 4. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. factory if 18. 22P— KR4. obtaining a very superior game. The text QR—Q i).Q text x R P move . Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. 17. 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P.

against White's centre. be- best of RXB (best. as already stated. because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). 20. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. It is only now. K X R. because is a Pawn ahead. 22 Kt —K . take a draw at once. Kt 8 ch. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. but that the Black is not so. after seeing this analysis. although a Pawn ahead. an assault which soon be shifted against .242 19. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. is superior long range. and. 25 RxR ch. thus. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. 21. K i. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. The powerfully com(see Besides. White is under the impression that he has the better game. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. curious that. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. R X Kt. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. White is who is always in danger. 7 ch K—B P i. foUowed by R X K P).

itself.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22..: 23. because he does not move on account RXK P. 24. practically pinned. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ .M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. and thus make them weak. at the proper time. White 4. S . This is a sequel to the previous move. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4. to disrupt Black's 23. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3. t. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure.

expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. P— QKt4 5. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . atK i. 28. 26. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. because R— Kt 25. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. 27. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. going to be decided on the King's side.

32. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. K— Kt i. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. . 34K-R1. as pieces are tied up. winning easily. RxKt. 245 White loss. R— R 8 mate. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. KxP. 35 RX RX P. R — R ch. 31. but that would only have prolonged the game. I 29. If 33 P-Kt R.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. which is lost in any case. P-R ch. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby.

3940.246 3334. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738. fiNIS . K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. 36. 35. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study.

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UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.38S .irANG°Ss:crF?.RN>r90095-.

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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