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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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JOSE R. CAPABLANCA .

. LTD. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. BELL AND SONS. BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G.

by any other means. A. without permission in writing from the publisher. INC.COPYRIGHT. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. S. All rights reserved. 1921. . BY HARCOURT. PRINTED IN THE U. BRACE AND COMPANY.

The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application. and not always for the best at that. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. now. There has been no change in the fundamentals. had been discovered. ig34 . The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. The change has been only a change of form. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. I. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. of vital importance. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. R. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. during the opening stages generally. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same.

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50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17.LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings... A A 11. . 14. II in End-game Play 35 37 10. 15. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook . 12. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. 28 8. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1. 18. 19 24 25 6. 19. Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. 7.. 2.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 .. 16. 71 73 . Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps .. 4. 5..

24. of a Pawn at K 5. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game . 30. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26.. The Initiative 77 21. 22.) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . 29. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action . 32.. the 146 power 33.LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. 25. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. Bishop and Pawns v. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . etc. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint.. 23. 28..) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31. 27. Rook.. Rook.

R. Rubinstein. Black: J. White: J. J. Capablanca. Black: O. Capablan 1913) Black: E. a. 209 R. Sebastian. (St. Capablanca. Petersburg. R. Janovvski. Janowski. 189 R. 1914) Black: D. S. Teichmann. Capablanca. Snosko-Borovski. White: A. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. R. 221 11. 13.Capablanca. 181 6. Capablanca. Burn. Marshall. 1918). A. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. 1913) White: J. 1911 ) R. RuY Lopez White: J. 1916) White: O. Rin Lopez (San White: J. RuY Lopez (St. Petersburg. . Black: J. Capablanca. 231 Morrison. 14. Queen's Gambit Declined J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. 1918) Black: J. Mieses. Capablanca. R. 197 7. French Defence (New York.R. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. 1911). 1914) White: Dr. K. Black: R. Capablanca. Black: J. (St. Marshall. White: D. White: J. (New York. 174 5. . GAMES PAGE 1909) R. . Centre Game (Berlin.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. 10. 238 White: F. 1913 ) Black: J. 169 4. Black: J. 8. Lasker. 15^ Black: J. Chajes. 1913 ) Black: J. R. Capablanca. Irregular Defence (Havana. White: F. Capablanca. . 1918) White: J. Capablanca. 2. RvY Lopez (New York. 163 3. French Defence White: J. 225 R. 12. E. Chajes. Capablanca. Marshall. Petersbltjg. Petersbltig. 1914) White: J. Black: F. R. Capablanca. 215 R. Petroff Defence (St. R. . J. Black: A. 201 9.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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King to the on any side of . — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. 1. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. 1.

because then the Black King Not K — B 2.. R— R 7. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. K — R i. or. K— Kt K— Kt i. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. 8K-B6.K-Kti. 7R-QB7. K— Kt 2. in this case. 4 K— K K-Q i. as in this case. K-B i. 8 mate. loR — BSmate.. K— K King I.4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate. 9K— Kt6. to When. . strated by the first move. 3 3. 7K— K6.K— B 6. K— B K— K i. The forced. K— Ri. 4. as the opposing King. 6. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. as possible on the same rank. be 8 by 6.. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. now the King moves back to Q i. fiile.K-Ri. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. 9 K— Kt 6. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i.. towards the centre. K— Kti. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. 6K-Q6. 5K-Q5. R— R 8 mates at once. according to principle. the sixth rank. the it is King has been brought it.

. K— K it 3. . .SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. 2. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. K-Kt 7. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. . 8 K — B K— R 3. but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. K— B 7. Now . K— R 6. is way to proceed 2. 3. K— B instead. now if 3. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. . Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . not in front. R — B 4 ch. It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. . K— Kt 6. Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. 5. but to one side of the other King. . the King confined to as few squares as possible. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . 7 . to K 4. 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. next to the Rook. instead 4. 5 On the other hand. to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4.

and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. K — Kt II 8. I believe it it and. in the original had been in the centre of the board. White can . While in under twenty. 2 B — K Kt 5. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King. with the aid of his Bishops. play 3 B — Q3. White should have advanced King.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. file. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. is should be done it may be monotonous. K — B 2 B — B 5. and then. If the Black King. restricted . K— Kt 2. under any conditions. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. position. K— B 8 R— R I mate. has taken eleven moves to mate. as his pieces. or away his from the last row. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner.

iiB — K7. in one of the two 8. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4.4K — B 2. it is to either of . files . so as to force the Black back . i.. In all such endings. 10 B — R5. 5. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. but he must also be forced into a comer. is however. K — Bi. but also into a corner. in this case either K R 6. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board.K — Kt2. it K — Kti. In all endings of this kind. Kt 12 i. moves back to ch. it is immaterial whether the King forced . K— 2." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. position. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. i. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. 4. B 7 2. up a K— R I. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. last 7. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. before a mate can be given. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. these squares that the King ought to go. K B KB and as 4 KR . the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. . it should be done in thirty. K— Kt K— Kt 2. and. 6. same time. 9K — R6. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. K Kt 6. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops..

3 K—K 6. K — Kt 4.. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. moves.K —K 5 4. as in the case of the Rook. 2. As the Queen combines the power the Bishop. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. Thus: Q— B 6. 4 6. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6.g. e. K— Q 5. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. I or Q 8.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2. KR 5 Q R 4. . 7 K—R next 3. or to on to the or an outside file. 3. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. only . K — Kt 5. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. (Should Black play K — B 4. K— B K Q mates. In this ending.. mate move). 6 ch) Q— K and 6. K 4.

that the King should he in front of his Pawn. the process is and and shorter. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. at least two required. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. 2. Example « „._ «„ . Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. then the game cannot be won. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. even unit. It essential. speaking generally.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. with at least one intervening square.. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . 6. without the aid of the King.

3 4 ch. K— Q 2. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . in front be shown later. 5. K— K 3. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. very as K— K4. I. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. K— B Again the same case.t the same time. K— Q4important move. 9 P— K 6 ch. II K— Q6. 7K— K4. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. 5 P—K K — B 4. K— K 3. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. will This is Any other move would lose. As the White King comes up.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. as before. as for stance in this position because of the White King. K— K 2. of the WTiite King. the Black King must be kept in front of it. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. when forced to go back. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. 4 K— K 3. If White advances the Pawn. ?. 5. 2K— Q3. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. K-K2. and a stale mate results. and when it cannot be done. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. 4. K— K 3. should the latter advance.

PAWN PROMOTION with its details . Thus K— K 4. . 6. K-Q5. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away. He is then able advance his own King. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. White is 2.^^wmWmmm. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge.K-K2. P-K3. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. 3. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on. Pawn until it is essential own I. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm. K— K 3.K-B3. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety.

force As Black to prevent that. it K 6 would make play K — B. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King. .K-Ki. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. K-B6. 9K-Q 7. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7. White must at the move away. else. all these squares being protected by the King.. 8. . K— K5. to play 3.K-Q2. better for Since he has not done so. since its own not require it.. then White would 4. the White 5. White could have played of the K— B K 6. 7. is winning the Pawn. 7. P-K5.K-Ki.K— B i. . since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . 4. and we P— a draw. There- back his to protect the must continue. Thus K— K6. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward.K— B 4. P— K4. Had he moved anywhere 7. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn.K— Q2. it Now Pawn 6. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. as Black would then similar 5.

to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. not. that the may out how they can be won.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. Furthermore. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. the student the student has one. nobody can how . and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. This ending is like the previous one. or three against two. . 3. Example 7. is all over. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. and it 13 to K 8.

3-K-Kt 3. which 2 P—B because Black plays. P — B 4. If K— K I PxP. because P — Kt 3 draws. K-R Q-Kt m' mm.PXP. and if PX P. (The student should work out. but i . as shown in a previous case. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. and draws.K— Kt i. 2. K— Bi. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. K B I. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . K-Kt If i. KxP. White cannot win by playing P.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. 5 P— Kt 7. If 2P B 7 ch. i. (This. . K X P. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. 5. not PX then would lose. Example by I P —B 8. 3P-B6. K— R i. ch. WTiite. 2 K-K i. . P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. however. 7 4 7ch. 7 7. and draws. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. his Pawn 3 without losing it.

fact. apparently so simple. by playing i K— K 4.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given.. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. 3 K-B 4. 3K-B5.) 2 P-B 5 ch. 8P— B K— Kti. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. KxP. K— B i. 14 K x P. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. the only way to win is the one given here. K— R 7. K— B 2. 12 K— B 6. K — B 2. 9K— Q6. (If K-K3. K— R2. K— Kt i. i. 13 K— B 7. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. K— R i. K-K3.6K— K4. 7 K— B 6..K-B2. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. This ending. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why). K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. K— B into ch. K-B3. 6. K— R draws).4K-Q6.) shown Example 5P — B6. K— Kt i. 6 K— K 7. K-Q4. loK— K6. K— Kt 2. K— Kt 2. II K— K 7.5P-Kt5.) : White can win.7K— K5. K-B 3. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. K— R K— Kt i. K— R2. and which will be explained more fully later on. however.P-Kt 3. i 7. 5 I. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. P-Kt 3. 7. and White queens the PawTi and wins. 4 P— Kt K— K3. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. P— Kt 6 ch. .

— In this ending ^^ wm.^ i m. 6. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal.^ fs^. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. it. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move. 3. . whenever there it. P.Kt K-K 5. K-K5. P—R 3 . and student.K-K2. . to one of those shown above. 2. similar ending . no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I. 2 P-Kt 2. also. Example 9.K-B2.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. P—B and we have a If i . — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. ^^ ^ ^^ wm. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. If P — Kt 5- 3.

P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board.. P— KKt . then result.P— Kt 3.P-Kt P — Kt 3...PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3. P-R5. 4. perior forces. 4. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m. Thus we have I. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play ... and 3. R PX P. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. 4 6 ch. and by following it up with P showTi.^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4.P-R 3. and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.. 4 P-B 6.

K If 3. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2. 5. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. I P-QR4.. 4. K-K5. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. 3. is far away.P — R 3. . 5. K-B3. P-Kt 5.. Black makes an advance on the other side. 5'K-B K— B 6. In this case either way wins. 2. 7. — Kt 4. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. K-Kt 2. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. . K-K3. K-B 2. If 7 6.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. . P-QR4.P — R P— Kt and 6. then simple counting will show that side with his King.P-R4. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. to win the other Pawn. 3.

and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i. . 3R— Rsch... once he becomes better acquainted with it. Black plays of i. 2QxPch. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained. to ^.R— K threatening Kt 7. 4R— R8 mate. s It is Black's move.R— Ki. before considering the openings. White now uncovers his real effective threat. .KxQ. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game.. K— Kti. \dz.. no doubt.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces.. I. Example 11. shall However.m* ^ 5 _« P « «..„„ a .. mate by way and most K R— K 8. he.

—R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P.^S.. back quickly he 1. Again B X Kt .. mate.y. 4. and should therefore easily. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops. QXP R—R 3 ch.. and miless he can win will lose . R—R ch. King moves 3. 12... Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <.///y i B. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. QxKt KXQ . 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. These two examples show the .. Kt— Kych .. 3 ch.^..20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position..

after side. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. 3. QXP mates. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. . unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. mates in a few moves thus I. Example 13. Example curs in 14. should therefore win. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. otherwise 2. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. WTiite.

^u. —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position." . QX 3 is B.22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . threatens mate. Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. Example tion is 15. . .wm. m m ^M . K— R 4. R— Kt3 ch mate. ''mm. . 2.6^ If . B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. and there- fore wins the Q. which already attacked. mn.

P-K Kt3. 5. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. -^ 1^ V? h r i:. sBxPch. 5 Kt— Kt 5. K— Kt 2.. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. K X B. i. K— Kt KR 5. Kt X . i but he can win quickly thus (If I. K— K 3. 9 Q— K 4 mate. 2 .) Q— R a R. SBxPch.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . 7 P — Kt 5 ch. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the . B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^.. R — B i RX B. RxB.. 6 Q — R 7 ch.K-R 6.K-R1. P — KKts.) 4 Q— R 5 ch. 7 R B x P ch.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. B) R best 3 B X P ch. K— Kt i.. wins. 16. 4 Q-R5. K X B. 2 Q-K i. K— B 3. (If 3.. 5.

and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. . and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. 7 Q— R 8 ch. 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. knowing the tyjDe combination. rather long This combination ations. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. 5. i. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. ch. K— K 2. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. fathom but. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. is for all of them. K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. most cases . i Kt— Kt i. 9 R— K is ch.

as said before. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. be worth more than three PawTis. and sometimes even left. The King. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. increases. From the outset two moves. Therefore. as no other move accomplishes so much. the be a better piece against the Rook. but. on the contrary. A Bishop will often worth so much. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. and a stronger than a Queen. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. . The power of the off. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. of these two moves must be first the best. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. iP— K4oriP Q4. so.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. becomes an offensive piece once the board. or a Bishop and two Pawns. Get them into play as fast as you can.

4. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move.. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17. which to be bad. 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre.BxKt. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow. 1. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. 3. 4 B-Kt5 same manner. . preferably the also Knight.. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2.

) Second. 7. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. Black follows the same 6. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop.. which brings us to the middlegame stage.) He is now forced to play 7. ^ i^ A very powerful move. thus bringing First. up the experience has shown. B-Kt5 'm . (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5.BxKt. : These moves have a two-fold object. as there is already in view a combination 5. a ^ W M « A l«i m. » mm.OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. Black has . eight should be enough. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. As a rule. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves. to notice three things. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz.'-1..

unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action.^ initiative. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. as ence will show. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares.. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. p. as what has already been stated viz. cation varies according to the circumstances. . No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. four squares. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre.) Third. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. is is (This.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. 77. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. puts Black on the defensive. 7. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. the game. the centre is of great importance.

But on prin- . since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. 29 and possibly three. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. whenever possible. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. On openings. In the at once. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. its sole object the control of the initiative. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. 2. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. Example 18.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. 1. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points.

for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. 6 Q-Q 5). A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . thus abandoning the centre to White.. to cramp them. White threatened Kt it . to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. PxKt.B — K 5.PXP. first. 7. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. tends. 5. on the contrary. Black's force him to play PX P. 4. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development.. - perfectly safe position. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. — Kt 2. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. Kt X P because of with 4. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. while Black evidently somewhat hampered. 9. and instead action of Black's pieces. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. . Kt — B3 6. 6 KtxKt. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop.

have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. 6. 3. Example 19. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. study this example. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. 4. unless there is some compensation.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. 2. I this do not know. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. which violates one of the principles set down. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. which is opening generally bad. BxKt . but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. . PxP Pawn. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. There are no weak spots in his armour.P X P loses a 5. If Kt — B 3 . 1. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move.

has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway.. especially P— and P —Q R 3.. has no pieces out except his Queen. TRAPS 8.32 7.. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated.. is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game.. and White. however. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings. 8.. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. ..mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black.. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners. and in beginners are often caught.

Kt 3. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn. 33 •aigli i *«a^. K— K2 Example 21.A»i.TRAPS Example 20. 4. .>: -^^Wm W '. 2.^^-t-^: ." .4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate.

because of QX B. B—R 5 help matters. is but the type given above the most common of all. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. . the threat being of course ifBxQ. Nor i . . But suppose he plays 1. should play P— K 3. having the move. 2BXP 2 mate. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. Kt — ch KB 3 instead. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position.34 TRAPS Black. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage. There are a good many other traps is — in fact. there a book written on traps on the chess board. I 2. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage.

so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. But suppose that White. then again to the middle-game. 9. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. finally to the openings once more.e. ^ k In the position shown above. governs such cases. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he .CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles.

Then Black can win by playing . in this case. does not. 7. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. stress unit thai holds two. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. K— Kt (Best .) 3. 4. it can be applied in much many ways. 22. to those not familiar with . Example cient proof. P — Kt (Best. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. p_Q R P—Q R I 4. K—B 5 see why. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. that he plays i . 5. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. P — R5 P — R6 6. we say. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns.

plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. K — K6 3 2 4. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. important. in is order to win the game. 1. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns. P-R 4. 2. As soon as the easier for Black to win. since. Black's parts. .

^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part. 7. ^P*P*«*g . A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed. 4. 5.38 2 3. B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^.

.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. K— Ri P— Kt 7.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. K-Kt 10. It is in this analytical try to learn. 8. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. as indicated previously. is This example it excellent training. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. as White's move. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. II 12. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. 11. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. 13. how two squares according to the position King. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

the player who has the the opposition. '^M. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. which can be solved mathematically. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even.THE OPPOSITION Now. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. The . the student should only consider the most simple forms. we shall have what may be called distant frontal. all at times somewhat complicated forms. but. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. for the present. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams.) In simple forms of opposition. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition.

only lead to a draw. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King.. however.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. 2. and that the number of intervening squares is even. to a beginner.K— K3. Who- move wins. but Black has other Unes of . ever has tlie It is not the case. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. 5. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. probably looks absolutely even. 3. Very little is left on the board. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. and the position. to begin is The proper way to move straight up.. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win. thereby keeping the opposition. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. If4. I.

leaving a rank free between the Kings.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. and that waiting or file the right place. . similar It is White's turn to play a move 3.) Now There in order to win. the White King must advance. 2. because then Black. viz. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. would obtain the opposition. to Black's first move. it would be bad to advance. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. Therefore we 2. K— K both cases. by bringing up his King in front of your King. or if 2 K— K3. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. the player who has moved has the opposition. K — Qi 2. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. means the winning or a game. Let us begin anew. is only one other square where he can go. you must advance. K— Q I. is B 3.

K— Q 7. own Pawn if B 3. 2. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. Example defence. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 . yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. m White is jm. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. On the other hand. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. K— Q move. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety.48 THE OPPOSITION 28. K— R2 K-R3I 3. because of his after the text I 2.^^ m m ^m^m^.

If the Queen. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. but plays 2.PXP draw. KxP. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. 1..THE OPPOSITION 4. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 . —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. because P win. and always keep the opposition. ^ See page 13. . will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. 3. in fact. Going back to the original position. 5. attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. by K— K 4. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. as.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . 3 K— Q7 followed If 2.. 6.

but in the following position. under certain conditions of course.so 14. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. although the Black cornered. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . I. they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. in which Black has a Pawn. '^""""' '^m. — In the above position White cannot King is win. White wins with or without the move. but.

unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved. as explained before. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. 2.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. the absolutely worthless. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. . Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn.

the chief reason being that. unlike the Bishop. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. 2. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases. I. the generally overlooked that the Knight. However. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. 31. at any one time. .

prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. and of course there is. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. there is and Tchigorin. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. to-day . a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. a Bishop can . Example 32. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. In this respect. in as shown the following Example. much Knight from one wing to the other. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. as in many others. or should be.

Of course. in an ending. there his Bishop. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. I shall also call attention to the . on both sides of the in having a Knight. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. generally. mistake often made by players. While on this subject. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop.

BisJiop.. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position.. the opponent has a Bisliop.' . The game should surelv end in a draw.. The might be stated thus When Bisliop.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop.-^ ^. Example 34. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not. Naturally. <mA- m MA milaf^.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ . in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King.

56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36. both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. though if the position. properly played out. should end in a of having the draw. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. at long range. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m ..^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. wm m^ 2 mm. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command.

they are not balanced on each side of the board. while on to Queen's Still. side is Black that has three two. the game should end a draw. Example 37. but there is a passed Black). because. since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. in with proper play. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. White has three it to two.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. though White has somewhat better chances. Thus. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. he can do . although each player has the same number of Pawns. Q R P at all. on the King's the side.

be best. that the all proper course in these endings. do. as in ings. or practical experience. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. and requires different handhng. to the general method wiU of procedure. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. I might say generally. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. a teacher. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . in their true value. Example — Again Black would have great this position.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. according to Calculation will count. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. however. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. is Each to ending different.

K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. in all such cases.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. and the openings. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. and. 3. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. then. against a Rook. Black. us see and Bishop. colotir Example at 39. — In 8. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. We might begin. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now.

The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. 9. 12. the Black King in the white-squared corner. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. position. White 5. has two ways to prevent that. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. one by 14 B—K .6o 4. 7. 5. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. 13. 10.

27.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. 20. 28.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . and the other which as the text. 25. and which I consider better for the student to learn. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. 22. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. 15 Kt — it K is 3. 19. 26. and the Knight and King. 29. 14. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King.Kt 2 ch 24. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. by using King as much as possible. 21. 17- 18. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the .

The resources of the defence are many.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why). 40. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns.62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. and rules. when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. is that your opponent mate you within However. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. and then the Rook would be compara- .) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. moves which are granted by 16. If it Now.

4 Q— K 5 ch. Now we come will to the second part. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch. K—R 2. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. is required. the way to proceed Thus I. and that.) I 2. 3KXR. 5- best 6. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. Q — R 6. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. Q— K 5ch . Once we know becomes easier to what find. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap.. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. The first part concluded. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. Stalemate. check with the Queen win it. in order to compel Black to do so.R— Kt 8..) . we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. K to R I or to R 2 3.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win.

64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. ^m. . Example 42. [ « ^. — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position.. . and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. — The procedure here is very similar.^ ^^m^ ^^. m. The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate.

6. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. IfK— R2. which defence. Thus 2. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. 5. 7. not the best. Q— Kt 6ch. If3. since he . Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i. . quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. but.. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. unfortunately. The best move is 1. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4. King.. a very effective makes very difficult for .. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41.R— Kt2ch. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. White. 8. 2..

K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. Kt 2 ch. The text move. in these examples.K R2. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. is given to show the finesse of such endings. 5.. Also that the Queen and . 6Q— K5 ch. 5 K B 6 3. 1. Q 8. Let us go back again. White threatened mate at 8. 5 i however. R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8.. 4 Q— Q 4. seen. White now threatens mate at 5 6. Example 40 with Black 2. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. 7. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. 4ch and the Rook Note. K— Kt 2.

67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text. . He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

with of great help It often in fact. . may help the little effort. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . I my own have selected those that types.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games.e. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. without such 17. player to find. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. the right move. i.

RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. forceful White. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. at all. K— R I. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. K 6. 2 If. has a more move. 69 is 43. QX Q. — Black's last move was P — 5. and mates in three moves as follows . — It is Black's move. viz. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . however. RXP 2 3. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check.

Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. ^1 W^^ i^^W. Kt and Black would be 3. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6. 8. RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. better gain some he can. ^^ if 45. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. 7. — White has a beautiful position. He there- 2. If Kt X B . .70 1. but material. before Black consolidates his defensive position. 5.

P-B3(best). Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch.'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. must therefore press on his attack. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. . Black should have played i. by R. White is two Pawns behind. 4. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. 6 Kt-K J.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. 3 Kt X B. The game tinues : — He con- I. lose. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. K-B 2. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite. 18.KtxKt... Chess Career. 4 P- K 5. 5 KtxP. ii). K-Kta. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack.^ R-K My 2.

3 . K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. If 2 ..72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. . as the sacrifice of the typical. 4. 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. attack. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2.). — The is student should carefully ex- position.K — Kti. 3.. The game continues 1. K— R and if2. Best. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. Kt— Kt .^ is This position elaborated under . 3Q — R5. White * finally won.

and there no violent direct attack against White's King.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. or even Pawns. are very well placed and free to act. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. The student should carefullv . — Black's pieces. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. Black is a Pawn behind. is of such positions of great im- portance. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. however. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. Very often. however.

easier. 9. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. 7. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . ultimately win Q X Kt. Queen He now threatens. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. 8. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. The move makes matters 2 3. the Q R P. among other thmgs. 4. 5. This threatens to win the Kt. 5.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . management I 2. but he sees that there to be had. R X Kt P. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side.

Rx B . But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. QR — Qi. It is. Indeed. B —B 4. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. Black's move. might be good enough. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. and his Bishop commanding however. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. The obvious move. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. if it we might conclude side. that he would have the better game. since after 2 iB — B4.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. and he has two courses to choose from. besides obtaining the better position. Wliite's move.

B—B 4. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. at should be. 5. that — note. 4. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. with the better position. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. The student should positions. White. as White threatened 3. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. least. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. machine- That. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. .

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

all cannot he hroken of. in Failing the second case. for direct attack.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. as in and that out. holding the threat in hand. one or more must be created. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. But once the no longer. with full force. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . or be unable to parry. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. always an advantage to threaten something. his threat carried into effect. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. such cases that means 22. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. to King must ensure their success. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. For. forces the opponent to provide against its it. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. a thrust at another point. since in defeat. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. so as to side.

1. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. 2.) Black : J.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. Capablanca. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. 4. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. (French Defence. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. 5. 3. R. to . Ayala. Blanco. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. 1913. R. M.

which is Black's usual it development to in this variation. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM. and puts Black .84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. would have led to held his complications. in which Black might have at least.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better.A.. iii m.m.. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out. 4 was the right move.±:m. White's play would be very difficult. which otherwise has everything to recomit. mend 7 8. The text move accomplishes nothing. i m. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own.

Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. seriously weakening his King's side. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). in order to improve the position of White at other 13. The . Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. 16. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. because of the sacrifice BX P). any sort. 15. B X Kt followed by 9. 12. P—B 10.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . points. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . He has lost much time. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. position. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. 14. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable.

and tempting White to play Kt X B. . QX if P. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. is one line of attack this anticipated. 21 — P2. 11mi m X m m.^m^m. and no exception to the will be seen. PX Kt. 23QxR. 18.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. 20 B x P. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. KR4.K— R Kt 25 4. but merely to 17. Q X Kt. make way for the Rook. But is it always happens in such is cases that. followed by B X P. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. 24RxRch. which would be bad. as another. not as an active attack- ing piece./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K.PxQ. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. there rule. 22 P— K R 4. Kt Q-Kt 4. RxB. tending to prevent P—B 5. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. as of White.

PX K P. and also QX P Q-B3 better. I not the case. 24. in my for opinion.THREATENED ATTACK 20. untenable. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. Such. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. 22. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. 87 21. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. Black 5. as White quickly demonstrates. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. as White threatened 23. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . Pawn. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. however.

and Black will soon be helpless. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns.. 33P-K Kt 3. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. to advance P—R 29. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up.P 4. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5.PXP. R— K 2. E. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. as he has P— B 28. 27.. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. and finally at the proper time to play RX B. 3031. 28. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. 5. 4. Dr. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. R— K2 3. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . 32. White's play were might be found that there was it. winning. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. Q— K3 4.

J. 23. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. 5.) White: R. involving of pieces. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. 1. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. Black: D. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. Capablanca. 7. once the obtained. Kt — Q2 9. and therefore I played knew 7 8. there material advantage is nothing to do. Example 53. to be good. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. Janowski. is A good example of type of game given below. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. 4. 1913. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. 10. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. 12.

^ Such grand show hand of a master. Black has two B 3 and 3. a could establish themselves. B— R6 2 I 14. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook.K B - 3 was 18 19. BxR Kt— K3 better. in the following diagram. R— Q R— —Q B 4. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. supported by pieces or Pawns. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17.. it is Then. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. 20. Pawn and relieving the position. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. "holes" at Thus. K KR Kt . 15. concerned there is only one thing to do. e. once to derive passed. 16. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. where White forces.g. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. 18. 13.

reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. ^y^/y/y^. 22. ^P wm '^**i^. without even a Pawn for it. is In reality Black's attack force. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. If m '. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. and then . could not succeed against sound defensive play.

92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5. i Now is the Black It prepared. Then. 25- He could Q— R 5 26.. 28.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. Bepres- sides. '''. 27. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. but he will soon prepare the way for it. . Rook enters into the game. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. but White is now time to give back the exchange. '"<. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. action. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. well prepared.

RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. 40. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. Rx B RX B. 3334. 38. i. 34 35. I . 93 303132.n . fine. 36. 39. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning.

42. 49. which will be treated separately. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. 45- P . game a master only plays to cut so to speak.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. 24. 4344. . because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. 4748. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action.

Black R. 2. Capablanca. which. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. 6 QPxB . He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4.) White: W. Niemzowitch's variation. It gives WTiite is a very solid game. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. Winter. 54. he will have to weaken is his some other way.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. should be sufficient to win. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. On the other hand. (Four Knights. J. 1. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. which I have played successfully in many a game.

against Levitzki. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. New York ment. See Capablanca-Janowski game. R. . Some- it is a direct assault against the King. K Kt 3. ^ 9 14. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. Petersburg. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. The Kt P X B . possible. i.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. remains at Kt i.^ 8 9. The general strategical plan for K R 3. Capablanca. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. without doubt. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. and then the real attack begins. I believe. 1913. at St. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. 19 13. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book. by J. 8. in most cases comes P — KB times 4. gives White the best of the game. but mostly at K R Finally. 7. Then. after most of the pieces have been exchanged.

10. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm. 10.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. as soon as the circumstances permit.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. t^ • bi^^ k To / . falls into the trap. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal.

energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. so that the student The rest of the game is given. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. 12. the result cannot be in doubt. 11. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. . 13. side. and possibly not even then. Black now devotes and. to may see how simple it is win such a game. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. After this as will be seen. with disastrous results in either case. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. either before or after Kt X Kt. 14.

after PX B P. 18. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. PxP 28. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. one of England's foremost players. It . 23. 29.Kt B 5. F. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. has the Alexander. 17. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. 26. R. against Mr. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. F. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. 27. Black regains immediately by 24. L. file. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. 22. 19.

P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. Black : George Thomas. my request. F.) White Mr. 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. Alexander. I. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. 2. F. Example 55. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . L. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P.

first. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. Q 3. 9. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. 7. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. which. and might be compelled to stake all on a .) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. 5. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5.) GAME . constitutes an advantage. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. loi There are. In the opening. in a general way. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. 10. 12. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. besides. B X Kt Kt X B 8.

He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. a turning point in the game. 13 14. There were three moves to consider: first. or that were not possible. P-Qs K R— Q is i. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. .

which would weaken Pawns. sive. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 . 103 in the P—Q R 4. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 .) . P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. This would have 3 to pre. PX P. either of Rooks to Kt X B. B — Kt 5 and third. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. B X P . which he 15 16.IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies.Kt and P. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. 18 B X P ch. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by . Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development.B QB 5. which he would do in case. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second.

K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. direct attack against the King. play Q R— K I. which. or rather to prevent then. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. therefore. time with his Rook's moves. He should.) Black's play hereabout weak . If is able to defeat this plan.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . play 20. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. once they enter in action. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. a plan on a large success. threatening P— K B 4. In such cases a player must conceive scale. B—K B—B P—B better. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. . it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. have probably. side. 21. which promises chances of and with it all. 2 4 3 to would . once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. lacks force.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. 23. to be followed by a White it. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. 20. 22. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24.

His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. GAME 105 2. as he expected. PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. 26. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. Had White retaken with the B P.

he could then play Q— PX P. It 28. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. as. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. had White Kt 3.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. K B 2. vented all that. 29. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. but it is isolated. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. B P on 27. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. after having placed the Q at Q 2. and P — B text to The move 4. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. and there is no effective continuation. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight.

ch. P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. however. and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. ch . B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. 107 now 34 B-B 3. B X B. 35 BXB ch.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. with a winning attack. R X Kt RXR 4.) . best. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. and White plays is lost. Kt — B 4.1 take pleasure . on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36.. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . PXP. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. manner. by the masked attack on White's Rook. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. 37. B —K If. 35. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. •/ /'^^ m.) 34. 40 RX R.

to carry on the attack. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i. and the way 41.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. 3940. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. Kt 2. .. .Q— R 38.ove. beginning with 39. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence.) best A very beautiful m.R-R3. QxKtP. 41 Kt-Kt I..io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. ® i i (If 40. 39. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. QXR .

but \Miite has no time to take it.) 44. because of P —Q 6 dis.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B. (Again.) (If 42 QX last. very fine . then. R—R 3 wins. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape. WTiite resigns. ch. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish.) 41 BxB . not R— K R 3 42. at 42 43. Rx R B.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM.

in Then I followed a very hard. itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. Finally. players they are weak in the endings first . Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. a failing from free.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. that very often the case among the large majority of . of course. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. which masters of the rank are at times not . After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. arduous struggle. I accepted. Unfortunately. which. it But yet the ending at first appeared.

JNIorphy. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. that at times the in attacking first on one side. in this and Dr. Example 56. then. breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. when speaking about win consists general theory.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. granted greater mobility of the pieces. . THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. 26.

. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. which loses quickly. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. side. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. Kt 8 R-KB5 . and thus to Rooks. White should have played 8 answered .R (R —R 9 P—B 3. I A serious mistake. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. 4. as will be seen very soon. 3. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. therefore. 3. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . 7. In the above position with the Black pieces. K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. Black. 5. played I 2. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. R— KKt 8. which in the end might give him the victory.

also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. Example 57. The . 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. ' Mt M. 9. R— 4 ch. If PX R. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. by R— K R 8 winning. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 .FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. R — B 6ch followed 10. while Black has an isolated Q R P. ' M. ^^^ M. Ml. if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. which There is him the initiative. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. 1913. Another good example.

Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. try make it weaker. If he has a weakness. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. 4 ch.P — KB4. the to bring Rooks forward.. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. make else. If he has a weak point. If4. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . If4. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. He does nothing after Besides. 4.. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. and also not to allow 2. followed by hard to point out anything better. 5R — . 5R — 2. 3. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. and he can get rid of it...114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. White the control I open file. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums.. as in the previous ending.P — Q4. it is but follow White's footsteps. freely.

P—Q 5 .R-K2.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. 7. King's side would be held 5. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. 10. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5.. 7K-B2. which is all White desires. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. winning the R—Q R Q R P. 3. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. Evidently forced. and Black's game is hopeless. for reasons that will soon 7 8. become evident. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P.RxP. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side.. which is the only one that can advance two squares. which would have left If 8 . 6PxR. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. 9 1 1 R-K 4. K-Q 9. R — R 6. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6.

drawn. R—R . tinuation. P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. I with excellent winning chances. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R .R-Kt i. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. . RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. but this move is weak. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. and 15 if then 13. would have . 12. 14 P — Kt 3. 3 was the proper coni .Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. won game. 12 13. Rooks because I. 4.Kt i Black misses his only chance. fact. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. in beheve. K-Kt2. since of it forces the exchange .

20. P-Kt 7. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. less. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. 17. P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 18.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. . and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. R 2 6 via Kt 4. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. 2526. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. 27. but only one move. 4 R-B 3 . 22. however. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. SIDE I 117 15. 19. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. 16.

forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. P . RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132. which is gives Black a fighting chance.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. as often the case with most players. ""f^i (Bis.. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling. The right move was 28. In this ending.Kt 5 A weak move. 29. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. of. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. ..

no matter how strong. 7 ch. even in master-play. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. 3940. followed by RxP R-K R 7. so long as there no great advantage of material. 4546. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. 4344. 48. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. It and how often. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. 49. made and opportunities are is shows that. offered better 38.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. 37. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. 42. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. mistakes are lost. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. a player. R-K7 R— Kt chances. even with a good position. .

The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. 1913). but his position is rather poor. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58.120 THE DANGER OF 27. 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana.^.^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn. I. as did. how it P-Kt4 RXRP . careless became exceedingly happened.. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. .

5. as will soon be seen. then R . The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. 5R-R8ch. which is actually in danger. K .. Px R. K-K 2.Kt 5 ch. 4. R . R . K— Ki.. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two. and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. The reason is evident.K 4.Kt 3 8 P . and wins easily. If instead White played K. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns.Kt 2 If4. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. K — Kt 3 . i2i This is the first.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. R X P. 7 Px P ch. .P-B4. 6 .B 3 7 R X P ch. 6. 10 R-Kt 7 ch. His best there move was is R —R 4. . After the text is lost. and is does not stop to think whether there better. . From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. . move no defence.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. iiRxKtP. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. If then K-Kt 3. R (Q 4) -Q 8 .K-Kt3. and has only taken three moves. 3. Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. 2. 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. 9 R (R 6) X R.

Example 59. P—R 28. 10 R-R 8 ch. 5 mate. Yet though and they do occur so often. 8RxR. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . . but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. few have mastered them thoroughly. K-Kt 3. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. KxR. They are often of a very difficult nature.

Now suppose that after 1P-B6. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn.R— K7 a very important move. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. a simple wm by R—B ch. P-B6 7 ch. (6) 2.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. P—B 7. R-Q3. or draw by perpetual check. 2P-B7. but there are other very interesting features. R—B (a) 2. We have therefore 3. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. 4. . were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. played poorly. 5. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. R— Q 3. as against wins. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. Luckily for him Black did lost. 3. not see the drawing move. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3.

because the King the Kmg goes up. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. followed by R — K B 4 wins.Kt 6 R . then goes back. and come out with a winning ending. Let us examine them. R-Kt3ch 2. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. then R — R 6. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins..:. . or (6) R-K B 3.. . R-B3 K-B 5 P . I. .. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch. If P_Kt 6. 3.. 4. and R — R 4 ch..Kt 3. K-K 6. If R-Q 3 ch. 5.

going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. Now. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. 4. K-K2 . R — Q3. 2R — Bych. and iP — B6. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. K 6. Black did not to draw.3. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. according to the circumstances. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3.P-B7 2. and come out with a winning ending.

and to check besides. if. m. K-K3 ^„„..0 ^... This last condition is very im- portant. RxP R-Q2 8. because instead of the position on the diagram. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5.. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win ..126 Best...„„^^„ m ^^'.. the last-named move particularly would win with ease. RxP R-KR2 RxP 9. the Black Rook were at KR i. This position we have arrived at is won by White. — ^^ '^" ^^^. and Black had the move. ^^^ ^ .. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook. .„.. he could draw by preventing the ad- .. i^ ^. 7.. 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file..„^^.

generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. These endings. 29. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. is The way them. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. . as already stated. in the 60. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. Now position that is we have explained won. are not is very common. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. — From a game.

. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. It is Black's move. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. unless White plays P . and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. There is nothing to gain by this move. criticised. This move not only prevents intended. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay.Q Kt 3. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive.128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. to It often leads to disaster. R-Q4 P—B 3. That would fix the Queen's side.

Black unaware of the danger of . should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. 5. but . 3.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. hence move.K R—B 2. and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. R-K2 R-QR He 3. I K-K.Kt PXP ch 2 4. by making this P. . R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. however. R— Q R force I should have been played now. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. in order to WTiite. He could not play 8. P . now develop. his position. This in move K— K 8. 5 6. w^hich will 7. 3 and Kt 7.3 is This is a mistake. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. is a little too late. R-R6 K—Q 3. because P— KB 4 would have .

He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3. ^m. nor could he do much with 10. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10. King at B 5 or K 5. because of RX R... White RXR P. as he could not go back with the King.PXP.J^^^ . loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation.^ mmi. might play K — Q 4. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5. If he 9. followed by R—R 3. cannot play Of course.. threat- not enough.. i ^ ILl . 5 9.. . Rook. either .I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. which he should have started before. „ . tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. recovering the Pawn with advantage. or. K—K 2 ^^j^ .

and consequently 2 to KR Q R P.R— Kt2. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. and it will be seen that 11. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks.. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. 13. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. nor could he advance On the other hand.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4.. 4 at once was the right move. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. then 14. because of Q R P. . it is very similar. because would leave him paralysed. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. if there was nothing better. P-R5 K B If good. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. would play P — Kt 4. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. or he might first play Q 4.

K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . lyRxP. R5. 21. then 15 17 P XP. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . R-Ktych. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . M M M P-R3 last chance. RxP.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . R-K R 7 iSRxR. 19. chances. 15. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. 17. . 16. 18.Q 3. with winning RxR. 19R-R6. 16 K. RxP.) 20.Kt 2 any case. would draw.

. ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :. — From the 7 ski. ^M" ft ^^ W^. R-KB Example 61. 2S. ^^H M^. which. K-B R-K R 8... ^33 If2i. K-Q 2. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. 5...TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail. 25 RxP. 26. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29. to make matters worse.. will win 22. 24. R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate.22R-R6! 2. R-Q White 8 ch. easily."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. 26 R-Q R and 27. KxP Resigns.R-Kt8. . 23. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. 25. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. he cannot . 6. sees he can no longer defend Pawns.^.

thus P-Q 4. 1. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. of course. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. Black wants to play prevents it. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. advance. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. and finaUy 5. but White. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. 3. This King should come to the King's danger lurks. by P X Rook and be able P. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. 2. and will then bring his own King to K 3. Pawn on the with which White expected to win.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. P-KKt4 P .

TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. also prevents 4. 5. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. the text move is really a serious loss of time. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. 6. 8. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. RxP . R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. P-QR4I . 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. 7. 9. however. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. White. might have been the best chance for Black.

but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. to go to in case of danger. necessary. White holds the open with one of his Rooks. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . superior and his chances 10 11. 12. or to move to the right wing file Besides. R-R3 R-Kt3 4.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. if of White's Pawns. 13.i. board ready to support the advance or. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. is White not only has a passed Pawn. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later.

than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. 22. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. R 5) X R. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . 19. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. or up Black's Rooks better completely. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. White would have an easy game. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . much. and whichever Rook Black took. P-K5 18.) (The student should carefully study 14. 2 would not help much.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. however. nothing therefore Black had wait. only helps WTiite. these variations. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. text move. 15. which would finally force Black to take. 20.

means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. ROOK. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. Knight and Pawns. 27. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. 28. v.138 ROOK. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. while often the losing side all. ROOK. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. . 30. Example 62. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26.

3 R course his was taken by Black. forcing White to defend something time. There are two courses open to him. and more subtle. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. and the one that most players would take.ROOK. To a beginner may look like a draw. The other. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings. The most evident. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. not only because he has the initiative. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14).

P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them.140 WTiite's of ROOK. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. way. Consequently a very bad move. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. 4. Black's King where it is it wants to go. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. 6 7. Rook. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. of Black's Queen's side 3. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. 2. P-KR4 R-R3 . Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. in material and position. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. 1. use my owTi games. not because they will better illustrate the point. 9. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . 6. 2. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. 5. 12. knowing shall them thoroughly. 7. but because. whenever possible. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. I shall. 11. 32. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. 13. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4.

. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. referred to. may be excused the reference. and that in some way White.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus .'. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost.- . obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland.) '^/^/////. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we. they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time. 191 2. which will in no way be able to advance to 4. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. '/^-//M. 14. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. forced the exchange of both Knights. In fact.

PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn.^wm.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. and we might to have some such position as 66. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. pieces can be said to be ^xt^.. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . ^i m. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. . i i a m 3.„. wM If 2. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4.

Q. 5. as in the previous case. 4. 2. also win a Pawn at least. Q . White might even be able position to obtain the following . R(B i) . RX R.Kt P .KKti. P X 2.: > C^. K-R 4.. and Kt 3. to . 2 RX 2. PX Q- Kt Q. White would then simply defend his move like Q. 9. because 3 R X B P would 3. P.K.Q White threatened could not play win a . K X R. and he played R — KB i.Kt2. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came. and Black K B i.R-Kt3. break through. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . « « .Ri R 7. R. QXQ..K Kt R. RX R 3 8. Q. 10..KB 3.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move. ch. II. R(B5)-B2. (B i) . I 6. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I. QNow R5.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ .R — Pawn by Q X P.K B 3. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P.

A careful that. own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. at White's K . The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. and White could then play Q—B 2. of this kind. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. once all the pieces are exchanged. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. and thus force Black to play P X P. and follow up with K B 3. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). and the fact that advance. which would give White a greater advantage. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i.

. after 8 . but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. 1. K Kt — 10. (Queen's Gambit Declined. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. QxB. . P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. is The normal to play course 0—0. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. Black: 2. Janowski. Kupchick.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. 4. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. White For a beautiful in that variation. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. D. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. I 151 67. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4.) A. 5. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. B-Q3 in its favour in this position. 4. 8. 7.

P—K 4. because B 5 threatening. perfectly developed. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. not only but also Kt X B ch. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . 12.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . by RX P. 2.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note. Kt x Kt P—K 4. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. In off effect. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P.„„.

15. the the number of pieces on the board. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. K might be said to be ideal. 14. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. the better chances there are to escape. less In such cases. especially the one 5. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. it is hard to see how this Besides. if he can do it at it all. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. 13. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. henceforth will be full The question how see. will ever be able to attack anything. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. which a Pawn for a while.

. have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. As that not the case. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. he might i. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. 18. 21. but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. P ^1 . or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. 2.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins.>• I . 17.

Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 . and the position so much in his favour. B X Kt Q X P.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. position. and with two Pawns for the exchange. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. White should have no trouble in winning. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. among them .THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. 2T. however. . There were. any number ref)lies it. the . following Kt (B 5) X Kt. .. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^.

P X P. 2. 29. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. There is nothing to be done. and Black would be helpless. . K— Kt of the B X P. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. 33. B — Kt i . chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. 28. principally those at K and QB 5. 35. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. 31. 30.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. K—B 34. apart from other The student should things. Q — R 2 ch. notice that. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. Kt— Kt4 27. 36. 32. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game.

PART II .

.

when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. Marshall. 4. 1. Lasker had played should be good. P— Q4 2. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. 1909) White : F. E. 5. On general principles it should be wrong. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. Black : J. because the 159 . this defence twice before in the with good still results. J. so often. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. Capablanca.PART GAME 1. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. it thought that since Dr. R.

lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop.P be good. 0-0 X P 5.. followed by B qBxBP. 6. would Kt 3.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Kt-B3 . as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. .. of the match. Kt 2. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. 7 8. and However. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. 7.PXP. No longer would 9. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. In reality the difficulty in this variation. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see. involves the exchange of two pieces. . eleventh For this variation see the game 9. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. I it outside the scope of this book.

15. instead. 14. 3. i6i 11. If I had to play . PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. R— K and If.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. I. 12. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . believe that Black would regain the Pawn. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . is doubtful whether good. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. The safer course would have been to play 13. 5 without any compensation for this position it. Q X Q would follow. 16.

.K R— Kt 17. . 23. One move was as good as another. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. 21. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case. but the text move makes matters worse. PxP QxP lost. BX Kt P — R6 20.l62 GAME I i. I The game was 22. 16. As a 5. my mind that this was threatened. 19. 18. best . 25. 24. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I.. If that move would have been loses. then any other move would lose as well... ..

The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . Rubinstein. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. R. 7. if 163 Kt X B. 3. 5. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. B— K3 in this variation. Black : J. Capablanca. 191 1) White : A. 4. 1. A well-played game on Marshall's part. 2. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. 25 — GAME 2. K. aims at the of Black's Q P. B — Kt 2 8. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn.

order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. The move in theory ought to be unsound... ... KtxB 12./M. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3.. r. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii.. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake.164 GAME 2 course of this variation. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped. was right. but with very poor success... II.. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10. B 3 or P — K R 3. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves. K Kt 5. ii W'^M m^A m^.^^i mm. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination .

which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game. but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= . let him play it. B X Kt B.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen. 14. KtxP! ' "y/////.' . to my lasting 1 :m .. B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^.^A IB 15.. but which I thought could be defeated..

R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . 22. 7 . had not considered. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. i. This gives Black a chance. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. P— KR 4. B X R ch 20 3. Kt — R 19 change). R— B ch. granted i. K — Bi.Q B — K6ch. should have played R X R ch. K — B 2. K-B Kt. Q— B i! PxKt 18. R — B 5 wins. P — K Kt this and Black should win. BxPch wins). 17. I. 19. I thought 2. 21. 5 (if .i66 i6. the ex- Kx B. R— K 2. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. 7 . that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. 3 (if . taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i.Q R-QBi.R-K7.

24. In fact. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. B x R. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. Kt— Q 5. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. 25. If then R — Q Kt 5. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. The proper way was to play it Q 3. followed by P — Q Kt 4. game will show. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. 26. RxR. 28. as the course of the loses several moves.

but the text move a chance. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. fortunately for him. impossible for to win. Black does not avail himself. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334. he can win at White's best con- . 38.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. 3536. Even before the last is a downright blunder. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all.) 31. of which. 37.

this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. I. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. beginning with 14 B x Kt. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. 42 R— Kt 41.. 3 2. R — By. 40. 191 3) White : D. As an end game. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8. 7. If Px P B X Kt 7. 42. R X B. 8. R. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. Janowski. 39. K— R 3.P —R 8. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . 5. and 41 to find it. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. GAME 3. B X P. 2. P — R 6. K— B 7 .. Capablanca. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. Black : J.

^'^•'^'^'i^B . P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. 11. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. or failing that. own Pawn openings. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. 12. to obtaui some definite material advantage. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. ID. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring.

B x Kt was also good. in order to bring at once all into play. i5Kt— B5. 15.IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. Px B . ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. which was a very threatening move. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. right which afraid 3. I A very serious mistake. 16. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. often brings the player into trouble. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. 13. and the other. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. 18. was the move. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. that govern any given posiI tion. 14. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 .

P — B 4. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. which destroys White's plans. how- ever. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. Black. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. which she already defends. which he text compelled to defend with the King. to P — Kt 4. at doubling the Rooks. . For this reason P—K attack. the K P. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20.

23. should come to a simple ending. the position of the Black King would be an advantage. 22. he did not carry out his original plan.. reply 24.. . P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. This wins a Pa^\^l. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. P— KR4 soon be seen. which loses a Pa\\Ti. and would have In fact. if it with a very good game.Kt— K 3 . because 25 PXP Kt X P. as will Black cannot ch. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. 173 Unfortunately for Black. 21. RxR Ktx R 24.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure.

36. WTiite : J. GAME 4. 1. Capablanca. 4. and. Snosko-Borovski. R. 26. 27. Instead . K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves.174 24 25. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. 34. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. 33. 35. 1913) : (St. 3. A. 32. Black E. FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. 2. Black resigned. 29. at taking the initiative aims away from White. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. 31. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation.

Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. as I do now. . 5. as I said before. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. 6. considered then. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. the text move 5 to be the stronger. however. of course. QxP Px P. It This is considered superior to has for its object. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. WTiite. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. to make a violent attack against White's King. will Castle It is. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. side. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns.

it is : of an attack. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. sidered. Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. 12 13. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. Walter Perm as Shipley. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play.176 9- GAME 10. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. as in this game. side. 12. 4 11. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. 14. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. I believe. moves. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. overlooking Wliite's fine . it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. is of Philadelphia.

but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. 15. 16. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . pieces. way for a few moves. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . 19. 17. but also drives the Queen away. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. with P 4. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. putting it out of the is game for the moment.

hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. and . it which was the right move. but gave up because seemed too slow. value. 21. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. It advantage of position. Q-Bi 22. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. great is K self-evident that White has a 23. 3.

28. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24. P— B 4 the right move.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . 27. I was. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. Kt — B 4 was that the however. Kt— R 5 ch 26. PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. If Px 28 P P." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. 24 25. still looking for the "grand combination.

P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. my judgment when. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. num- ber of times.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. and that is would vindicate 4. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. on move find out 28. ?8 29. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) .

i. I. Black : J. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. 40. 5. P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. 1. K-Kt I . White cannot play Kt —Q 4. 2. Capablanca. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. E. which WTiite . R.FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . because Q— R 8 mates. Lasker. 39. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. P-QR3 is 4. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. 37 Q-R6. 1914) White : Dr. GAME (St. A very interesting battle. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns.

On the other hand. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. in some event3. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. in order to go K Kt There is . is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. 8. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. in order not to also. ualities. obstruct Black's Pawns.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. 4 5. 6. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. 7.

4. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. Kt— Q 4. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 10. It threatens B—B R— K 4. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. P-B5 r£ a i . 9. B — K I 3. It also prevents II. This move still. 12. it unless it advances to K 5. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. B—K 3 because of 3 3. Best. and it also makes 4. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time.

The B X B. 16 R— B 2. 12 13. P — B B — Kt 2. Dr. i. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game. on my part finally to obtain a lost position..BxB. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game. Q R — Q 19 it.i4RxB. 17RXR. Kt x R. RxR. 16.. . my better judgment.. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again.. But..1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. Lasker gives right move 4.. RxR. Lasker's variaIf not the best. 16. is after R— Q i given in Dr. Q tion. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. 18R— Q2.

BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17. . if . however. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. 2. otherwise I would have played the right move .B X B. QR-Qi . 14. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. Black plays 19. also Lasker's variation. and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. . after 19. . on play P —B 4.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. fol- 4. followed by Kt —K Kt 5. White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . . Black can later P—Q 16. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. 15. 5. neither which can be stopped. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight.Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. 5 for will at least fact. . threatening Kt — B 5. 5.RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. 4.

i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. 19 PxB. Again. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i.P . B X Kt give Black the advantage). and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. 21 R X R. (B Black should 17 18.. via Q B i. B X P 20 Kt X B (best. RxKt. P—B 4. since if R Q 2. . Kt X R.. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. 18 R— B 2. If P — Q Kt 4. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. Q Kt 3. —B 4. Kt around to K 4. K winning a weaker. let us analyse Kt. 18 Now 5. 17.. lose. .Kt — and at later 6. and a 1 7 .. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 .. P -Q 4. and there is no good reason why 19 2. that I could play the text move. Q — 2) P X P. i7.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4.

25. and the game most accurately. 21. 20. difficult. At least it would K— B 2 24. move. flounders around have been better to play file. Black. I Again bad. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27. P X R ch. has no object now. of course. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. 4 ch. 28. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. 23. have been extremely 22. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. and Black becomes more . plan and this time without now played R X Kt. Had . the two moves were weak. with a bad game. 26. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. would R— R 5.19.

. 5 The game needs no further comment. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. excepting that an altogether made.i88 helpless with each GAME move. he played well after that up to the 27th move. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. 41. probably 29. . 42. 37. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. which was bad. 38. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. as well as play The rest of his was good. Regard- ing the play of White. 3940. perfect. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. 3334.

side very weak. Black : J. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . I The alternative. and later. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. 8. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. 7. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. . 5. 1916) White : O. Capablanca. Chajes. . Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. P— K4 2. I. By the text move Black up Castlmg. because gives obtain the initiative. which Wliite adopted in this game. R. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6.

12. '^^„* WiW^. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. II. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. he threatens White's K P. because. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. cannot be said as yet. which must of course be de- . Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. B 1 M ^. has suffered somewhat.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. and there are Bishops of opposite colour.HI. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. so that it . time and merely weakened 10. however. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. besides being a Pawn to the good. His development.iQO 9. 14.

and there to dislodge his pieces. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. is thoroughly prepared for it. since The move. strategically wrong. 17 18.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. Q 4. . B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. or ever. 2 B-K3 4. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. To prevent Kt X P. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. and can consequently decide the course 15. the Bishop will be developed to itself. as dominates the whole situation. 17. White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. of the game. for it.

R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. 22. since White's attack amounts to nothing. in order to follow p—B as he did later. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . would have avoided everything. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. 24. R-R3 24. 21. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. circumstances.192 19. 23. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. as White will soon prove. but under less favourable 4. Q R— Kt i.

FRENCH DEFENCE plications. 1 liW 27. the move not a losing one by any means. 27 28. ^M i y/y^/yyii. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29.p. PXP e. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . as will soon be seen. 26. Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„. 25. is 193 However.

I am ing to play I . forcing followed a play- similar plan. as explained above. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. of course. 3. first In some cases. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. White would be forced either P — Kt 4. unless first. R— K R i . would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer.194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. which looks the best is (the plan. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. however. of course. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. was the best move. which be at give draw. the White KR but in is now Rook having come . 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. and Black would reply with to play 5 . There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. but I was wrong. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. of course. 5 in to go to 8. tion all. 31. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. K— R it as already indicated. which gave White time to play convinced. or to some other move according circumstances. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate.

50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. and the last chance Black best play. X P was no 3940. It is now White who has the upper hand. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. 42. 36. Kt X Q . 49. 3738. Black should have played Kt —K 5. RX 35. and Black who has to fight for a draw. 48. 32. 47.B 2 K--Kt I . which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. therefore. 195 Instead of the text move. least. 41. 33' 34. 434445- 46.

I players will be wondering. I was hoping lowing variation. as the spectators did not resign. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. let and him take the White what happens. having the best of the position. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. My no chances. White. 5758. missed none.K-R2. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. K X B. and while .RxP. missed several chances. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. 52Q-R5. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. 5354. 5152. for while Black. If the reader does not believe it. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. played opponent. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. on the other hand. QxP few more moves Black resigned. 51 who decided 7.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. 53 BKt 5 ch. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. .

which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . 11. (San Sebastian. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. Capablanca. B—B 5. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. 9. It B— K a more natural and effective move. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. to which I was much addicted at the time. 4. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. 10. Bum- P— K4 3 2. 12. Black : A. R. 5.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. 191 1) White : J. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. 1. 5 6. after 2 P — K Kt 3. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. 2.

and superior position 17. because White's QB is out. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. 14. 16. in going to K B. . does not of his allow time for this. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. 3 to defend the square QB 4. however. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. This is bad. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. and the Knight. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. and also his King's Pawn. in border to up where it is. does not block the 13.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. able White. and played make his position more solid.

19. by using the open able K R file. but game very much weakened.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. is by his next 22. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. 18. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. move to eliminate all danger. . in which case. 21.

If B. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. 37. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . 24. of course 39. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. 31. 25. followed by R— B 7 ch. Kt-K3 32. 42. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . 29. LrAMJn. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. to be defended I by pieces. 3334.200 23. 40. 38. 26. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. B-K2 28. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27.

7. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. which would. Black : J. is P—Q t. least. 8. My P to idea was it. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. is position WTiite The plan.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. GAMES. often played in order to develop the Q B. 2. slight advantage of think. 1. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. Mieses. at compensate whatever might have. Capablanca. 46. B— KB . instead of the text move. R. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. CENTRE (Berlin. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. 5. I quite feasible. 3.

With the R — Ki.202 GAME 8 I 1. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. If Kt — 3 . but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. 12 Kt — B 3.l. could have played P—Q 3 . and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. with serious of position. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. II. all. R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. P—Q completely shut if off. opening the 11 way Q B. . I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. when would have followed. and could only be loss extricated.

game 19 RX P. was most interesting. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe. 17 Q— K PX Q. — R- .^^ mm mm. besides the fact that all the White 14. QxPch. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. was simple. when we would have 14 B X Kt.CENTRE GAME 12. and 13. . . RXB. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch . QxQ. not so in reality. K Kt 5 Black. Pawns are isolated.BxP.R Kt 5. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake. 3 (best). 15P— QB3. 18B — B2. 16 P x B. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. better.

favour until. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. feared the difficulties of an ending where. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. 20. 22. he would be a Pawn minus. 19. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. enough to win with proper play. 17. would have given White a decided advanMieses. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. At first and even after careful thought. however. 18. White . there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. with the exchange ahead. the attack. while having the exchange.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

are manoeuvred chain-like. but in position such a course is a mistake. and therefore move. Not. 17. I . and consequently weak and subject to attack. R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. to prevent 7. I R— B . because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means.P 4. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. so to speak. Kt (B 4) — 15. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. KR— Q would 5. and there would be no good way 18 19. of course. Kt X Q.. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. the Bishop must defend. Kt X Kt 16. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. Kt — Q4 4. They there. have 16 14.. in order to maintain one of them. 14.

. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. Black may be said to be the defence is lost.R — B 2. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. moves anywhere else. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. yet. then B X Kt. 25 R — Q 2. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file ..B — Qi. 22 Kt X B. 24 R X P. 21 Kt— Q6. R— B 2. 23 Bx Kt. at least of the most kind. R X Kt. as Wliite demonstrate. . and White is a Pawn ahead. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. There seems to be no particular danger. 22. B X B. indeed.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully.B 20. Pawns. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. If 20. . Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced.

as White would immediately 23. up a Pawn. 9 with the Rook. on the other Black could do nothing hand. prepared the way. in order to free his Knight. after having. 24. White.KKt3. KB4. to give Hence. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. Black's best chance was as in the text. 25. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. which would be disastrous. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . of course. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file.212 GAME sieze it.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. B — Kt3. of P— KKt3 5 . . R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. with proper play. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. weak. obtaining a passed Pawn. . soon be seen. K 5. P X Kt would be worse. which. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. 27. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. even though White could answer P however. should win. —K The it text move is. 29. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. as will 5 . would on account P —Q 4.

^.P-QR3 5 36. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. 35. 4 31 Practically forced. 32. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily. it would take longer. K-K3 37. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\.2l4 31. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop .

to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. J. The student ought of ending. Capablanca. advantage of a Pawn. Once he obtained that. tion terial fortunately. 3. Petersburg. 1. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. finest players in the world. Marshall. 3 6. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. he tried for and obtained. 5. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. 1914) White: J. R.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. 2. Black: F. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . 7. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. where it not only protects the P. Q P. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. practically from the opening. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4.

. 8. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. and a very is move. BxKt B-Q3! 10. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. Kt — B 3 P— 9. The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. 11. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12.

B game him to — — — B 4. then P Q 5. followed by B X B. blocks the Bishop. Kt X P ch. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. in turn. which. as White threatened Kt K 4. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. Queen. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. unquestionably an advantage . Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. 5. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. R— Kti. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. wins a Pawn. Besides. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. . since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . 13.

Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19.2l8 14. & /. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. 18.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. 20. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. his Pawns are all weak. he will sooner or later them. 15. which destroys Black's plan utterly. as it always must is such cases. in attack against WTiite's fails. will Black and. 17. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. because Black's development backward. however. The plan.

that Black's game is lost. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. 27. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. 23. 3334. interest. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. 2526. 28. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 30- 3132. are given merely as a matter of form. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24.

GAME 39. Resigns. 52. lo 40. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. 45. 55. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. 41. 58. 47. 57. 59. 48. 42. 49. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. .220 38. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 4344. 50. 54.

superior to Alechin considered 4. P—Q which is generally- played. 2. Lasker.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. in one of his games against Dr. and obtained the superior game. Petersburg. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. Janowski. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. at the time. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. 8. 9. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. E. Black: D. 7. Alechin on several occasions. . R. 191 4) White: J. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. Capablanca. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. move. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. typical of Janowski. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. which he only through a blunder. I.

have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. but one which. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11.222 10. 12. was the best. . he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. at once. hoping to lighten White's attack. 13. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. under the cumstances. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. GAME Q— Ki M. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move.

. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. Beto 4. P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t..RUY LOPEZ 14. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad. ^ . 14... The only 4 .. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5. There is only one thing to take care of and that . 1516. 1718.

P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. . Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. 19. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. Black could have played instead of the text move. RX Kt . . now K P X R. I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. 27. 29. 2324. 20. . Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. i8. 25- loses very rapidly. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. The move 22. QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28.2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn.

4. Black: O. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. 7. y^.. i i g<^ i 'M. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. Chajes. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. Capablanca. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . and consequently 4 cannot be bad. 5.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. 3.Jm. White: J. but a perfectly natural it developing one. 1. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York. 2.. R.

P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. 3 because B X Kt. B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. 5 ch. This weakens Black's King's the right move. . 11. R— K i was m %///M. . GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. But as he does not obtain . 12. Black now plays 8 2 . 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. . in this variation. Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. followed by 10.226 8. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . P — Q Kt If 3.

Kt x R— K B. Kt X B. Of course if R— K 3. . 17 18. because after BxP. 16. suicide. the move It bad. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . threatening P— 18 19. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. Pawm minus fights very hard. advantage of position for White. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. BxP. 14QXBP. 17. P— QB 3 Q X Kt . B — Kt 2. 14. Black with a 21. KtxB. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. QxKt. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. 15. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. I 20. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6.

the KB Pawn at K 5. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. 4 to defend. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. 23. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. that the White Knight is He notices. the way of the K B P. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. . K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. of course. or support which cannot advance to rather. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position.228 GAME 3.

the Queen goes difficulties. 3. 229 P-QKt3 303132. 33- 34. might otherwise become a source 35. R 6. 29. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments.FRENCH DEFENCE 28. P. P X w li. 37. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. K— K K—B 2 I 36. 38. He sees P—K R 5.

P — K Kt 40. White ready to advance. J i 39. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. 41. His best . PxP i .. with a winning game.. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. R—Q 7. R — Q7 BxPch . against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. practically forcing the exchange of Queens.>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. 4 would be answered by Q— B 5. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4.

once it is Castled. Capablanca. 6. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. I think. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. is Therefore. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. 231 This loses a piece. GAME 13. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. 43. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. one of great defensive strength. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. Morrison. 5. White: J. even while the on the board. 1. the Bishop. (New York. 2. Black: R. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. in this form of development. S. 4. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. .

8. because of Kt — Q 5. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. The alternative would have been P — B 3. R— Ki KR— Ki . Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. 9. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. page 197.232 GAME say. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. 10 11. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment.) 7. II 12. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. 10. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. B—K B 4 would have done this. but again faulty judgment. Bold play. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3.

12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. Black can safely side. which would be answered by Kt . in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks.. since. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. X B . and at the same time preventing P— Kt.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. PX Kt X P etc. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. 14. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . which he cannot in the centre. winning a Pawn. K 5. followed by Kt X P. advance. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. which now acts along the long diagonal.

(Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply. and then advancing K P. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B. P—B 3 iJiii M H i .) 17. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- .234 15. P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. 16. 2. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game.

bad. 1 It was difficult . and. for if immediately.RUY LOPEZ judgment. 19. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. which is to put the Bishop out of action. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. 235 posed position of the Black King. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. 20. even offers tiie Bishop. he It is doubtful. it might have done ever. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. 20 21.

and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. QX Kt. 23. . The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. and also Q — K 3. 22. P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King.

but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. R (K i) —K 7. . as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. space. 31If P-R3 8 ch. 30.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. R— K R— Q i. where he in a be mating net. RxP. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. Kt — K3 attack. 29. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner.

. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. 34. 2. 14. 34. expected it. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. 40. 38. the quickest way 35. R. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. Black J. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. GAME White F.23S -21 GAME 32. Capablanca. I. A very lively game. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. 33. Marshall. 36. : 191 8) : J. 41. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6.

9- I generally play all the time. one of them has given it me good results. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit. 13. on the other hand. 10. as generally the case. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. 14.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. . 8. has . Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. simplified the changes.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . during a Tournament. 12. WTiite. II.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. m The developing on both sides.

have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. I think. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. GAME first 14 is Black. on the other hand. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. three ranks. but Mar- shall believed differently. had he analysed this move. followed by B P X P.240 obtained the centre. otherwise he would not have played this variation. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. his Knight at KB 3. K P. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. he would. truly an attack against Black's 15. since. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . Black now threatens not only BPX P position . It on my part. which. but also Kt XP .

and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5. K—R i. . move.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. (threatening Q— KB2.Q text x R P move . obtaining a very superior game. 4. on the other hand. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. 22P— KR4. 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. The text QR—Q i). my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. factory if 18. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. 17. But. 3. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. as will be seen. . QR — least. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen. P—B KKt3 Qi. the Queen. .

against White's centre. 20. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. White is who is always in danger. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. because is a Pawn ahead. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). R — and with proper play White the one will draw. 25 RxR ch. although a Pawn ahead. thus. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. 7 ch K—B P i. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated.242 19. but that the Black is not so. 21. Kt 8 ch. after seeing this analysis. because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. The powerfully com(see Besides. curious that. R X Kt. White is under the impression that he has the better game. 22 Kt —K . and. K X R. be- best of RXB (best. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. K i. an assault which soon be shifted against . as already stated. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). It is only now. is superior long range. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. take a draw at once. foUowed by R X K P).

to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. 24.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22. because he does not move on account RXK P. at the proper time. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ . This is a sequel to the previous move. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure. t. S .: 23. and thus make them weak.. itself. practically pinned. White 4. to disrupt Black's 23. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4.

expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. atK i.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. 27. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. P— QKt4 5. 28. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. 26. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. because R— Kt 25. going to be decided on the King's side.

KxP. I 29. which is lost in any case. If 33 P-Kt R. 31.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. P-R ch. 35 RX RX P. RxKt. R— R 8 mate. but that would only have prolonged the game. as pieces are tied up. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6. 32. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. K— Kt i. winning easily. R — R ch. 245 White loss. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. 34K-R1. .

K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. 35. 36. K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738.246 3334. 3940. fiNIS .

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RN>r90095-.UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.irANG°Ss:crF?.38S .

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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