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chess fundamentals

chess fundamentals

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book to learn the chess fundamentals
book to learn the chess fundamentals

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Sections

  • 3. PAWN ENDINGS
  • 4. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLE- GAME
  • 5. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES
  • 6. GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING
  • 28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE
  • 7. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE
  • 32 TRAPS
  • 8. TRAPS
  • 9. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE
  • 10. A CLASSICAL ENDDsG
  • 11. OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
  • 13. THE OPPOSITION
  • 14. THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP
  • 15. HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP
  • 16. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK
  • 18. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE
  • WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 73
  • 19. WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK
  • 20. THE INITIATIVE
  • 78 DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
  • 21. DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
  • 22. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK
  • 23. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE
  • 24. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION
  • 25. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME
  • 27. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION
  • 28. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS
  • 30. ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS v. ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
  • 31. SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
  • 33. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE"

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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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CAPABLANCA .JOSE R.

CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT. BELL AND SONS. LTD. . BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R.

BRACE AND COMPANY. A. by any other means. BY HARCOURT. S. All rights reserved. 1921. without permission in writing from the publisher. . mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form.COPYRIGHT. INC. PRINTED IN THE U.

so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. and not always for the best at that. I. now. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. There has been no change in the fundamentals. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. during the opening stages generally. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. ig34 . R. The change has been only a change of form. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. had been discovered.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. of vital importance.

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28 8. 18. 19 24 25 6. 7. The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook . 19. 16. 15..LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force. 5. 71 73 . . 4. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . 2.aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13.... Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3. A A 11. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps .. 14. 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. 12. II in End-game Play 35 37 10. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1..

Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint. 32. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. 29. Bishop and Pawns v..) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31.. 22.. 23.. 28. the 146 power 33. 27.LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . 30. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game .. Rook. Rook. The Initiative 77 21. 25. 24. of a Pawn at K 5. etc. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action .) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 .

Teichmann. Centre Game (Berlin. Black: R. 1918). R. White: D. Capablanca. Black: A.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. . French Defence White: J. J. Snosko-Borovski. Capablanca. White: A. Lasker. Capablanca. 13. Black: J. Petersbltig. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. (St. Marshall. . White: J. White: F. 1914) White: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. Rubinstein. (New York. R. Janovvski. Capablanca. 15^ Black: J. 1918) Black: J. 2. Janowski. Marshall. Capablanca. Rin Lopez (San White: J. 201 9. French Defence (New York. Capablan 1913) Black: E. 221 11. Sebastian. 169 4. 215 R. 1913) White: J. Petroff Defence (St. a. 189 R. S. 1914) White: Dr. Capablanca. 1911). White: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. Petersbltjg. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. 14. K. R. Chajes. J. Black: J. Black: J. Capablanca. 174 5. 181 6. Petersburg.Capablanca. Black: J. Capablanca. . Mieses. RuY Lopez (St. Petersburg. Irregular Defence (Havana. 8. 209 R. Capablanca. (St. 238 White: F. 225 R. 163 3. RvY Lopez (New York. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. E. A. Marshall. 231 Morrison.R. Capablanca. Capablanca. R. 1913 ) Black: J. Capablanca. Queen's Gambit Declined J. 197 7. Chajes. 1913 ) Black: J. . . 12. 1918) White: J. R. RuY Lopez White: J. 1916) White: O. 1911 ) R. 10. Black: F. Black: O. R. 1914) Black: D. Burn. R.

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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— The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. 1. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates. King to the on any side of . SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King. the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. 1. Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do.

better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i. towards the centre. . R— R 7. K— Ri. 8K-B6. K— Kt K— Kt i. now the King moves back to Q i. as possible on the same rank. 9 K— Kt 6. K— Kti. 7K— K6. strated by the first move. 10 K— B R— R R— R8).4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7. 6. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i.. fiile. K— Kt 2. K— K King I.. K-B i. according to principle. The forced. 3 3. 6K-Q6. K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. as in this case. 4 K— K K-Q i.. 4. K — R i. the sixth rank.K-Ri. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file. 8 mate. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. loR — BSmate. or. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. in this case.. R— R 8 mates at once. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. 9K— Kt6. the it is King has been brought it. be 8 by 6. 5K-Q5.K-Kti. to When.K— B 6. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. as the opposing King. K— B K— K i. 7R-QB7. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate.

not in front. . now if 3. K— B 7. Now . 2. 3. is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. . K— K it 3. 5 On the other hand. to K 4. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. instead 4. K— Kt 6. . 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5.SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. 7 . to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. K-Kt 7. is way to proceed 2. . . the Rook If back by 5 R— R . Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. . K— R 6. next to the Rook. R — B 4 ch. 5. . 8 K — B K— R 3. but to one side of the other King. not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. K— B instead. the King confined to as few squares as possible. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it.

has taken eleven moves to mate. While in under twenty. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. or away his from the last row. I believe it it and. is should be done it may be monotonous. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. as his pieces. White can . will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. file. White should have advanced King. with the aid of his Bishops. play 3 B — Q3. K— B 8 R— R I mate. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. in the original had been in the centre of the board. 10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. K — B 2 B — B 5. If the Black King. 2 B — K Kt 5. K — Kt II 8. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. and then. restricted . K— Kt 2. position. under any conditions.

In all such endings. K — Bi. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. and. these squares that the King ought to go. same time. In all endings of this kind. in one of the two 8. before a mate can be given. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. K Kt 6. 4. it should be done in thirty. position. last 7. iiB — K7. but he must also be forced into a comer. 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares.. Kt 12 i. it K — Kti. K B KB and as 4 KR . so as to force the Black back . but also into a corner.K — Kt2. files . i. 5. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. it is immaterial whether the King forced . move when the Black King B — K Kt 4.4K — B 2. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. B 7 2. up a K— R I. . 9K — R6. moves back to ch. in this case either K R 6.. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. 10 B — R5. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. K— Kt K— Kt 2. is however. it is to either of . 6. i. K— 2.

. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2.. 2. only . moves. trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. Thus: Q— B 6. As the Queen combines the power the Bishop.. K— B K Q mates. In this ending. 3 K—K 6. as in the case of the Rook. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6.K —K 5 4. I or Q 8. K— Q 5. K — Kt 4. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. K 4. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves.g. KR 5 Q R 4. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. or to on to the or an outside file. 7 K—R next 3. 6 ch) Q— K and 6. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. K — Kt 5. 3. e. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. mate move). 4 6. (Should Black play K — B 4.

the process is and and shorter. 6. Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. 2. speaking generally. even unit. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game .. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. then the game cannot be won.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. with at least one intervening square. It essential. at least two required. Example « „. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. without the aid of the King._ «„ . plained This can best be ex- by the following examples.

K-K2. K— K 3. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. 9 P— K 6 ch. II K— Q6. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. As the White King comes up. will This is Any other move would lose. when forced to go back. in front be shown later. 2K— Q3. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. and when it cannot be done. K— K 3. 4 K— K 3. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. 7K— K4. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. K— K 3. K— Q4important move. then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. K— B Again the same case.t the same time. If White advances the Pawn. of the WTiite King. the Black King must be kept in front of it. ?. very as K— K4. 5. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. K— K 2. I. as for stance in this position because of the White King. 5. 3 4 ch. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn. as before. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . K— Q 2. should the latter advance. 4. and a stale mate results. 5 P—K K — B 4.

as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on.K-K2. White is 2. .K-B3. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance. K-Q5. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. 6. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins.^^wmWmmm. therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away. Thus K— K 4. K— K 3.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . P-K3. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. 3. He is then able advance his own King. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. Pawn until it is essential own I.

. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. 9K-Q 7. it K 6 would make play K — B. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward. Had he moved anywhere 7. . else. Thus K— K6.. P— K4. better for Since he has not done so. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. then White would 4. 7. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . 8. K-B6. is winning the Pawn. since its own not require it. to play 3. force As Black to prevent that. White must at the move away. K— K5. as Black would then similar 5.K— B 4. There- back his to protect the must continue.K-Ki. the White 5.K— Q2. 7. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8.. and we P— a draw. 4. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7. P-K5. White could have played of the K— B K 6. it Now Pawn 6.K— B i. .K-Ki.K-Q2. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. all these squares being protected by the King.

Example 7. is all over. . as up to the student to work things learn for himself. Furthermore. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. This ending is like the previous one.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. the student the student has one. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. that the may out how they can be won. 3. or three against two. nobody can how . and it 13 to K 8. not.

K-Kt If i. . K— Bi.K— Kt i. i. 3-K-Kt 3. 7 7. (This. 5. WTiite. as shown in a previous case. (The student should work out. K X P. 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate. If K— K I PxP. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . Example by I P —B 8.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. however. but i . KxP.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. 2 K-K i. because P — Kt 3 draws. not PX then would lose. and if PX P. 7 4 7ch. which 2 P—B because Black plays. 2. P — B 4. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. K— R i. 3P-B6. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. his Pawn 3 without losing it. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. and draws. K B I. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws. If 2P B 7 ch. White cannot win by playing P. 5 P— Kt 7.PXP. K-R Q-Kt m' mm. . ch. and draws.

4 P— Kt K— K3. II K— K 7.K-B2. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. K — B 2. K-K3. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position.. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game.7K— K5. K-B3.) : White can win. K— R2. apparently so simple. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7.5P-Kt5. and which will be explained more fully later on. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn.. K— R K— Kt i. 13 K— B 7. 8P— B K— Kti. (If K-K3. 6. K— R2. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2. the only way to win is the one given here. loK— K6. KxP.) 2 P-B 5 ch. K— B i. should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted. K— B 2. K— R 7. 12 K— B 6. 6 K— K 7. i. K-B 3. K— R i. by playing i K— K 4. 9K— Q6. i 7. fact. 7 K— B 6.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. P-Kt 3. K— Kt i. and White queens the PawTi and wins. K— B into ch.6K— K4. K— Kt 2. 14 K x P.4K-Q6. P— Kt 6 ch. . This ending. K— R draws). 3K-B5. K— Kt i.P-Kt 3. K— Kt 2. 3 K-B 4. 7. however.) shown Example 5P — B6. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why). K-Q4. 5 I.

^ fs^. P—B and we have a If i .K-K2.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left. If P — Kt 5- 3.K-B2. similar ending . but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I. . — In this ending ^^ wm.^ i m. P. 2 P-Kt 2. it. 6. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. ^^ ^ ^^ wm. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move. whenever there it. 2. 3. P—R 3 .Kt K-K 5. Example 9. even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal. K-K5. also. . the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. to one of those shown above. and student.

P-R5. P— KKt . 4. R PX P. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m.P— Kt 3.. Thus we have I. 4 6 ch... then result.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3.P-Kt P — Kt 3.. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. 4. and 3. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . and by following it up with P showTi. and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown..^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4. 4 P-B 6. perior forces.P-R 3. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board..

K-K5. K-B 2. I P-QR4. — Kt 4. 5'K-B K— B 6. P-Kt 5. K-K3. .P — R P— Kt and 6. 5. . Black makes an advance on the other side. 3. 2.P — R 3. K-B3. 7.K If 3. 5. is far away. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. .i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. 3. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing.. 4. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2. P-QR4.. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same.P-R4. If 7 6. In this case either way wins. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance. then simple counting will show that side with his King. K-Kt 2. to win the other Pawn.

s It is Black's move. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i. .. \dz.. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained. once he becomes better acquainted with it.m* ^ 5 _« P « «. Black plays of i. no doubt.R— Ki.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. shall However. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game.KxQ. to ^.. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces. 3R— Rsch. 4R— R8 mate. . K— Kti. he. White now uncovers his real effective threat. I..„„ a .R— K threatening Kt 7. mate by way and most K R— K 8. Example 11. 2QxPch. before considering the openings....

Again B X Kt . and should therefore easily. Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <. Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops. Kt— Kych .. remains Q and a win B against a R and B. —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P.. 3 ch. 12. 4.. R—R ch.^. mate. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2..20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position.. back quickly he 1.. QXP R—R 3 ch.. King moves 3. These two examples show the .^S.. and miless he can win will lose . QxKt KXQ ..///y i B.y.

after side. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. otherwise 2. WTiite. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. .IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. should therefore win. Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. mates in a few moves thus I. Example 13. 3. QXP mates. Example curs in 14.

. mn. m m ^M .22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . threatens mate. Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3. . —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position. QX 3 is B. K— R 4.wm.^u. and there- fore wins the Q. R— Kt3 ch mate. . which already attacked. 2." . B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. Example tion is 15.6^ If . ''mm.

.K-R1. 2 Q-K i.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind.ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. 2 . B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^... B) R best 3 B X P ch. K— K 3. K— Kt 2. i. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the . Kt X . K— Kt i. SBxPch.K-R 6. K— Kt KR 5.) Q— R a R. sBxPch. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. P — KKts. K X B. 5. i but he can win quickly thus (If I. K X B. (If 3. 9 Q— K 4 mate. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. 4 Q-R5. 5 Kt— Kt 5. 5.. K— B 3. 7 R B x P ch. 6 Q — R 7 ch. R — B i RX B. wins. RxB. -^ 1^ V? h r i:.. 16. P-K Kt3.) 4 Q— R 5 ch.

7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. i. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. most cases . fathom but. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. 9 R— K is ch. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. . knowing the tyjDe combination. i Kt— Kt i. K— K 2. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. rather long This combination ations. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. 7 Q— R 8 ch. which have been brought to bear against a weak point. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. 5.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. ch. is for all of them. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be.

the be a better piece against the Rook. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. From the outset two moves.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. as said before. . — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. Therefore. becomes an offensive piece once the board. of these two moves must be first the best. A Bishop will often worth so much. and a stronger than a Queen. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. Get them into play as fast as you can. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. on the contrary. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly. or a Bishop and two Pawns. The King. increases. so. The power of the off. but. iP— K4oriP Q4. as no other move accomplishes so much. be worth more than three PawTis. and sometimes even left.

26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17.BxKt. 1. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack.. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. 3. preferably the also Knight. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. which to be bad. . 5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. 4. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow.. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out. 4 B-Kt5 same manner.

7. : These moves have a two-fold object. As a rule.) He is now forced to play 7. Black has . thus bringing First. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz. which brings us to the middlegame stage. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. ^ i^ A very powerful move.) Second. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. eight should be enough. » mm. up the experience has shown. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm.BxKt. Black follows the same 6.. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves.'-1. to notice three things. as there is already in view a combination 5. a ^ W M « A l«i m..OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. B-Kt5 'm .

p. four squares. 77. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this.) Third.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. the centre is of great importance. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. cation varies according to the circumstances.^ initiative. is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White.. puts Black on the defensive. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. as ence will show. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. . is is (This. 7. as what has already been stated viz. the game. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once.

3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. On openings. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. But on prin- . Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. In the at once. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces. The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. whenever possible. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. its sole object the control of the initiative. 29 and possibly three. 2. 1. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. Example 18. since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood.

on the contrary. for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet.PXP.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. Kt X P because of with 4. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary. — Kt 2. thus abandoning the centre to White. . Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. Kt — B3 6. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P. It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. 5.B — K 5. and instead action of Black's pieces.. to cramp them. Black's force him to play PX P. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop. 7. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. tends. White threatened Kt it . while Black evidently somewhat hampered. 9. - perfectly safe position. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . first.. 6 KtxKt. 6 Q-Q 5). 4. PxKt.

but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient. If Kt — B 3 . Example 19. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. 3. 2. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. study this example. . I this do not know. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. 6. PxP Pawn. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. BxKt . There are no weak spots in his armour.P X P loses a 5. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. which violates one of the principles set down. 1. which is opening generally bad. unless there is some compensation.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. 4.

.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black. is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. however.. and White.. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. especially P— and P —Q R 3. . and in beginners are often caught. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated. 8.32 7. has no pieces out except his Queen.. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. TRAPS 8. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners... Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings...

K— K2 Example 21. 2.>: -^^Wm W '. 33 •aigli i *«a^. BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate. 4. . PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn." .TRAPS Example 20. Kt 3.4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1.A»i.^^-t-^: .

KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. There are a good many other traps is — in fact. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage. 2BXP 2 mate. is but the type given above the most common of all. should play P— K 3. there a book written on traps on the chess board. . But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. having the move. But suppose he plays 1. the threat being of course ifBxQ. and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. I 2.34 TRAPS Black. B—R 5 help matters. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. . KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3. Kt — ch KB 3 instead. because of QX B. Nor i .

But suppose that White. so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. ^ k In the position shown above. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. finally to the openings once more. 9. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he .e. governs such cases. then again to the middle-game. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm.

P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. does not. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. it can be applied in much many ways. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. 5. p_Q R P—Q R I 4. Then Black can win by playing . guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it.) 3. that he plays i . in this case. P — Kt (Best. stress unit thai holds two. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. 4. we say. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns.36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose. K—B 5 see why. to those not familiar with . won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. 7. K— Kt (Best . 22. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle. P — R5 P — R6 6.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. Example cient proof.

2. important. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. K — K6 3 2 4. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. P-Kt 3 Tsill win. As soon as the easier for Black to win. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. in is order to win the game. since. plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. 1. . Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. P-R 4. Black's parts.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7.

4. 5. ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. 7. ^P*P*«*g . B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6.38 2 3. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part.

K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. how two squares according to the position King.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. K-Kt 10. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. 13. as White's move. is This example it excellent training.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. It is in this analytical try to learn. II 12. K— Ri P— Kt 7. . K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. 11. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. 8. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. as indicated previously.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition. the student should only consider the most simple forms. but. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. we shall have what may be called distant frontal.THE OPPOSITION Now. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition. if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. '^M. which can be solved mathematically.) In simple forms of opposition. the player who has the the opposition. for the present. The . all at times somewhat complicated forms.

If4. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. to begin is The proper way to move straight up.K— K3. however. I. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. 5. thereby keeping the opposition. Who- move wins. ever has tlie It is not the case. but Black has other Unes of . only lead to a draw. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. to a beginner. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position. 2. 3. and that the number of intervening squares is even. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing. probably looks absolutely even.. Very little is left on the board.. and the position. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4.

the White King must advance. would obtain the opposition. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. K— K both cases. leaving a rank free between the Kings. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. Let us begin anew. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. the player who has moved has the opposition. K — Qi 2. and that waiting or file the right place. by bringing up his King in front of your King. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. to Black's first move. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. you must advance. K— Q I. Therefore we 2. is B 3. viz. or if 2 K— K3. because then Black. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3. it would be bad to advance. means the winning or a game. . 2. is only one other square where he can go.) Now There in order to win.

— The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. own Pawn if B 3. On the other hand. because of his after the text I 2. m White is jm. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. Example defence. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 .48 THE OPPOSITION 28. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). K— Q 7.^^ m m ^m^m^. 2. K— Q move. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. K— R2 K-R3I 3.

attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance .THE OPPOSITION 4. KxP. 1. . ^ See page 13. and always keep the opposition. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. by K— K 4. K— Kt 4 Pawn and . because P win. if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. If the Queen.. 3. Going back to the original position. 5. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2. 6. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch..PXP draw. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 . in fact. but plays 2. as. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book.

I. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. but in the following position. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate. but. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . '^""""' '^m.so 14. they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. although the Black cornered. under certain conditions of course. White wins with or without the move. in which Black has a Pawn. — In the above position White cannot King is win.

that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn. .OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. the absolutely worthless. as explained before. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. 2. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square.

the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. I. However. 31. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. at any one time. the generally overlooked that the Knight. the chief reason being that. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. 2. unlike the Bishop. . 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two.

OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. a Bishop can . ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. Example 32. In this respect. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. or should be. much Knight from one wing to the other. there is and Tchigorin. to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. and of course there is. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. to-day . in as shown the following Example. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. as in many others.

and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished. in an ending. While on this subject. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board. Of course. mistake often made by players.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. generally. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop. there his Bishop. I shall also call attention to the .54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33. on both sides of the in having a Knight.

these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position... — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. The might be stated thus When Bisliop. <mA- m MA milaf^.' . Example 34.-^ ^. the opponent has a Bisliop. BisJiop. in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop. Naturally. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King. wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop..OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. The game should surelv end in a draw.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ .

Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other. though if the position. properly played out. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m .56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36.. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command. at long range.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. should end in a of having the draw. wm m^ 2 mm.

he can do . though White has somewhat better chances. White has three it to two. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position. since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. in with proper play. Thus. the game should end a draw. because. but there is a passed Black). side is Black that has three two. Example 37. Q R P at all.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. they are not balanced on each side of the board. while on to Queen's Still. although each player has the same number of Pawns. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. on the King's the side. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite.

to the general method wiU of procedure. as in ings. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. I might say generally. a teacher. is Each to ending different. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. and requires different handhng. Example — Again Black would have great this position. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . that the all proper course in these endings. according to Calculation will count. do. in their true value. or practical experience. be best. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. however. To give a fixed line of play would be folly.

given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. against a Rook. and the openings. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. Black. in all such cases. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now. — In 8. in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. We might begin. and. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. then. 3. us see and Bishop. colotir Example at 39.

12. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. has two ways to prevent that. 5. the Black King in the white-squared corner. White 5. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. 10. 13. position.6o 4. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. one by 14 B—K . 7. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. 9.

15 Kt — it K is 3. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 26. and the Knight and King. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the . 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. 17- 18. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings.Kt 2 ch 24. 22. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. 28. 27. 14. 25. 20. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. 29. and the other which as the text. 19. by using King as much as possible.B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 . and which I consider better for the student to learn. 21.

when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. If it Now.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why).62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. is that your opponent mate you within However. The resources of the defence are many. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. and rules. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m. and then the Rook would be compara- . 40. moves which are granted by 16.

63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. K to R I or to R 2 3. Q— K 5ch . Once we know becomes easier to what find. Stalemate.R— Kt 8.) . because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. Q — R 6. the way to proceed Thus I. 4 Q— K 5 ch. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. check with the Queen win it.. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8.) I 2. 3KXR. K—R 2. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap. in order to compel Black to do so. The first part concluded. Now we come will to the second part.. 5- best 6. and that.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. is required.

.64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. . — The procedure here is very similar. Example 42. . The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate.^ ^^m^ ^^. — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position. [ « ^. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i. ^m. m.

since he . The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. .K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. but. King. If3. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41. 8. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3...R— Kt2ch.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. IfK— R2.. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. Thus 2. a very effective makes very difficult for . 5. 7. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i. not the best.. unfortunately. White. The best move is 1. 6. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4. which defence. 2. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. Q— Kt 6ch.

White now threatens mate at 5 6. K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook. is given to show the finesse of such endings. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost. The text move. 4ch and the Rook Note.K R2. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. White threatened mate at 8. R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. Kt 2 ch..66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. 7. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. Let us go back again. 1. 5 i however. 6Q— K5 ch. Q 8. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. 5 K B 6 3. Also that the Queen and . in these examples. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch. Example 40 with Black 2.. 5. seen. 4 Q— Q 4. K— Kt 2.

He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book. . 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

without such 17. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. the right move. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. I my own have selected those that types.e. player to find.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. . ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . with of great help It often in fact. i. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. may help the little effort.

K— R I. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. 69 is 43. and mates in three moves as follows . 2 If. K 6. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. QX Q. — Black's last move was P — 5. viz. RXP 2 3. at all. — It is Black's move. however. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch .ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. has a more move. forceful White. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check.

Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6. ^1 W^^ i^^W. 7. 5. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2. ^^ if 45. better gain some he can. but material. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. Kt and Black would be 3.70 1. He there- 2.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. 8. . RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. — White has a beautiful position. If Kt X B . before Black consolidates his defensive position.

We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. by R.. P-B3(best). K-B 2. K-Kta. 4 P- K 5. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. lose. 3 Kt X B. 18. 5 KtxP.KtxKt. The game tinues : — He con- I.^ R-K My 2. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite. ii). 4. 6 Kt-K J. must therefore press on his attack. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. Chess Career. .'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. Black should have played i. White is two Pawns behind.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack..

Kt— Kt .. The game continues 1. White * finally won. 4. . K— R and if2.^ is This position elaborated under . — The is student should carefully ex- position.K — Kti. Best. 3 . 3. attack.. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2.72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. 3Q — R5.). If 2 . 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. as the sacrifice of the typical.

are very well placed and free to act. and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. is of such positions of great im- portance. Black is a Pawn behind. or even Pawns. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. The student should carefullv . however. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. Very often. — Black's pieces.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces. however. The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game.

This threatens to win the Kt. The move makes matters 2 3. the Q R P. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . but he sees that there to be had. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. R X Kt P. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. ultimately win Q X Kt. 5. 5. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. 4. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . Queen He now threatens. 7. among other thmgs. easier. management I 2. 8. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. 9.

WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. besides obtaining the better position. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. Indeed. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King. Wliite's move. B —B 4. The obvious move. Black's move. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. and he has two courses to choose from. It is. and his Bishop commanding however. QR — Qi. might be good enough. since after 2 iB — B4. that he would have the better game. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. Rx B . if it we might conclude side.

5. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered. machine- That. least. that — note. as White threatened 3. with the better position. at should be. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. . and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. 4. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. B—B 4. The student should positions. a very necessary quaHty in a good player.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. White.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. since in defeat. forces the opponent to provide against its it. all cannot he hroken of. such cases that means 22.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. to King must ensure their success. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. For. with full force. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. for direct attack. so as to side. his threat carried into effect. as in and that out. always an advantage to threaten something. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost. holding the threat in hand. But once the no longer. one or more must be created. or be unable to parry. a thrust at another point. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. in Failing the second case.

1. 5. 3.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. R. R. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. to . Ayala. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. (French Defence. Capablanca.) Black : J. 1913. Blanco. 2. M. 4.

prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3. would have led to held his complications. White's play would be very difficult.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out.. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation.m. iii m. The text move accomplishes nothing. and puts Black . i m.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better.A. which otherwise has everything to recomit.. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own. 4 was the right move. in which Black might have at least. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM.±:m. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. mend 7 8.

12. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. points.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . 16. The . and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. B X Kt followed by 9. any sort. 14. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). 15. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3. seriously weakening his King's side. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. position. P—B 10. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. because of the sacrifice BX P). B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. in order to improve the position of White at other 13. He has lost much time.

followed by B X P. Q X Kt. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. and tempting White to play Kt X B. but merely to 17. which would be bad. not as an active attack- ing piece. P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4. KR4. and no exception to the will be seen. 18. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B. there rule. 22 P— K R 4.^m^m. . 23QxR. make way for the Rook. PX Kt. is one line of attack this anticipated. 21 — P2. But is it always happens in such is cases that./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K. 11mi m X m m. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. 20 B x P. 24RxRch. Kt Q-Kt 4. as another. as of White. QX if P.PxQ.K— R Kt 25 4.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. tending to prevent P—B 5. RxB.

THREATENED ATTACK 20. Such. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . 87 21. PX K P. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. as White quickly demonstrates. and also QX P Q-B3 better. untenable. 22. I not the case. Pawn. 24. however. as White threatened 23. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25. Black 5. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. in my for opinion.

in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4. 4.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. E. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. and finally at the proper time to play RX B. 27. 3031. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2.. Dr. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. Q— K3 4. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. 5. to advance P—R 29. winning. and Black will soon be helpless. White's play were might be found that there was it. R— K 2.PXP..P 4. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns. 32. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing . as he has P— B 28. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. 28. 33P-K Kt 3. R— K2 3.

12. 7. is A good example of type of game given below. PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. 23. J. and therefore I played knew 7 8. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. Example 53. involving of pieces. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. 4. there material advantage is nothing to do. Janowski. 10. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. to be good. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. 5. 1913. once the obtained. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . Kt — Q2 9. Black: D. Capablanca. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. 1. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3.) White: R.

18. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17. 20.. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook. 15. BxR Kt— K3 better. where White forces. to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. a could establish themselves.^ Such grand show hand of a master. 16. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. 13. K KR Kt . supported by pieces or Pawns. it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. it is Then. Black has two B 3 and 3. "holes" at Thus. Pawn and relieving the position. concerned there is only one thing to do. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt.K B - 3 was 18 19. e. B— R6 2 I 14. R— Q R— —Q B 4. once to derive passed. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight.g. in the following diagram. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack.

^P wm '^**i^. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. without even a Pawn for it. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. and then . If m '. ^y^/y/y^.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. could not succeed against sound defensive play. 22. and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange. is In reality Black's attack force.

28. Then. but he will soon prepare the way for it. 27.. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P. Bepres- sides. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm. . '"<. well prepared. action. Rook enters into the game. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn. i Now is the Black It prepared. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. but White is now time to give back the exchange.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. '''.

3334. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. 39. I . 38.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. 93 303132. 36. i. 34 35. fine. 40.n . The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. Rx B RX B.

. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. 4748. 49. 24. 45- P . R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict. game a master only plays to cut so to speak.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. which will be treated separately.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. 42. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. 4344.

he will have to weaken is his some other way. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. Niemzowitch's variation. 54. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5. which. Winter. Black R. (Four Knights. J. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development.) White: W. 2. On the other hand. which I have played successfully in many a game. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. Capablanca. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces. should be sufficient to win. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. 6 QPxB . 1. It gives WTiite is a very solid game.

B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. Then. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. remains at Kt i. . or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. by J. and then the real attack begins. in most cases comes P — KB times 4. The general strategical plan for K R 3. 8.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. possible. 19 13. Capablanca. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. Petersburg. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. after most of the pieces have been exchanged. K Kt 3.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. without doubt. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. New York ment. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. 7. See Capablanca-Janowski game. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. gives White the best of the game. at St. i. I believe. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2. The Kt P X B . R. 1913. ^ 9 14.^ 8 9. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book. against Levitzki. but mostly at K R Finally.

THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. 10. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal. falls into the trap. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move. t^ • bi^^ k To / . 10. as soon as the circumstances permit. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop.

12. to may see how simple it is win such a game. and possibly not even then. either before or after Kt X Kt. 14. Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. 11. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. . PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. the result cannot be in doubt. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. Black now devotes and. After this as will be seen. so that the student The rest of the game is given. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. side. 13. with disastrous results in either case.

L. one of England's foremost players. 18. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. 23. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. 26. PxP 28. 29. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. has the Alexander. against Mr.Kt B 5. 22. 17. R. Black regains immediately by 24. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. after PX B P. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. F. It . 27. F.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. file. 19.

Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P. L. 2. 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments. Black : George Thomas. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. Alexander.) White Mr. I. But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . my request. F. F. Example 55. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined.

10. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. which. in a general way. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. and might be compelled to stake all on a . (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. In the opening. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. 12. first. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known.) GAME . make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. Q 3. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. besides. 5.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. constitutes an advantage. 7. B X Kt Kt X B 8. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. loi There are. 9. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0.

He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15. There were three moves to consider: first. (White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game. . or that were not possible. 13 14. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. P-Qs K R— Q is i. a turning point in the game.

KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. which would weaken Pawns. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second. which he would do in case.) . blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. 18 B X P ch. sive. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by . B — Kt 5 and third. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4.B QB 5.Kt and P. Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 . P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. 103 in the P—Q R 4. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. PX P. This would have 3 to pre. B X P .IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies. which he 15 16. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 . either of Rooks to Kt X B. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3.

have probably. In such cases a player must conceive scale. which promises chances of and with it all. 2 4 3 to would . play 20. 23. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. 21. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. play Q R— K I. therefore. threatening P— K B 4. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. 20.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . 22. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. If is able to defeat this plan.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. which. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. a plan on a large success. or rather to prevent then. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. He should. time with his Rook's moves. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. direct attack against the King.) Black's play hereabout weak . side. . and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. B—K B—B P—B better. to be followed by a White it. lacks force. once they enter in action.

If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. as he expected. Had White retaken with the B P. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. GAME 105 2. 26.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26.

as. he could then play Q— PX P. after having placed the Q at Q 2. K B 2. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. and P — B text to The move 4. 29. vented all that. had White Kt 3. It 28. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 .io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. and there is no effective continuation. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. but it is isolated. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. B P on 27. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5.

107 now 34 B-B 3. B —K If. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i . and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. •/ /'^^ m. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. best. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. 35 BXB ch. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. B X B. PXP. ch. R X Kt RXR 4.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R. however. only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. by the masked attack on White's Rook. and White plays is lost. manner. 40 RX R. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2.) . with a winning attack. 37. ch .. P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P.) 34. on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36.1 take pleasure . 35. Kt — B 4.

. . QxKtP.R-R3. Kt 2. 41 Kt-Kt I.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves. 39. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. 3940. beginning with 39. QXR . to carry on the attack.ove. .io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. and the way 41.Q— R 38. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i.) best A very beautiful m.. ® i i (If 40. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out.

but \Miite has no time to take it. then. WTiite resigns. m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape. not R— K R 3 42.) 44.) 41 BxB . R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish. because of P —Q 6 dis. very fine . ch.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. Rx R B.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B. R—R 3 wins. (Again.) (If 42 QX last. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight. at 42 43.

which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. a failing from free. which. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. players they are weak in the endings first . opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. it But yet the ending at first appeared. that very often the case among the large majority of . Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). which masters of the rank are at times not . itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. Finally. arduous struggle. Unfortunately. and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage. in Then I followed a very hard. of course. I accepted. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain.

breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. . when speaking about win consists general theory. Example 56. then.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. 26. that at times the in attacking first on one side. in this and Dr. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. granted greater mobility of the pieces. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. JNIorphy.

K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 .R (R —R 9 P—B 3. In the above position with the Black pieces. makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. 4. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. Black. R— KKt 8. . K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. 5. Kt 8 R-KB5 . to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. as will be seen very soon.112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. 3. which loses quickly. therefore. which in the end might give him the victory. I A serious mistake. 7. and thus to Rooks. played I 2. White should have played 8 answered . side. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. 3. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea.

which There is him the initiative. The . ' M. 9. Example 57. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. Ml. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament. Another good example. ^^^ M. If PX R. by R— K R 8 winning. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. R— 4 ch. while Black has an isolated Q R P. R — B 6ch followed 10. ' Mt M. if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move.FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. 1913. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united.

5R — 2. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. 4. shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. try make it weaker.. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. 4 ch. If4. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later. White the control I open file. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. freely. 3. and he can get rid of it... 5R — . make else. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. followed by hard to point out anything better.. If he has a weak point. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre.P — KB4.. and also not to allow 2. If he has a weakness. it is but follow White's footsteps. If4. the to bring Rooks forward.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. He does nothing after Besides.P — Q4. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . as in the previous ending.

6PxR. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. which would have left If 8 . for reasons that will soon 7 8.RxP. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. winning the R—Q R Q R P. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. King's side would be held 5. R — R 6. become evident.R-K2. which is the only one that can advance two squares. K-Q 9. 7. and Black's game is hopeless. 7K-B2. Evidently forced. 9 1 1 R-K 4. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. 10. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. 3. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. which is all White desires..FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side. P—Q 5 ..

K-Kt2. R—R . would have . 12. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. drawn. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. 4. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. 12 13. won game. but this move is weak.Kt i Black misses his only chance. 3 was the proper coni .Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. since of it forces the exchange . and 15 if then 13. tinuation. Rooks because I. 14 P — Kt 3. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. in beheve. I with excellent winning chances. a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. fact. .R-Kt i.

16. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. less. R 2 6 via Kt 4. 2526. but only one move. however. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. SIDE I 117 15. P-Kt 7. . P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 18. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. 20. 17. 22. 4 R-B 3 . 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. 27. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 19.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5.

KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?.Kt 5 A weak move. . forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. ""f^i (Bis.. In this ending.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3. of. which is gives Black a fighting chance. P . The right move was 28. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch. as often the case with most players.. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling. 29.

and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. 37. even with a good position. offered better 38. 42. . 7 ch.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. no matter how strong. 4546. It and how often. mistakes are lost. a player. made and opportunities are is shows that. 3940. followed by RxP R-K R 7. 4344. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. 49. so long as there no great advantage of material. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. R-K7 R— Kt chances. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. it is This ending shows to make weak moves. even in master-play. 48.

how it P-Kt4 RXRP . Not only he bound to lose a Pawn.^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58. careless became exceedingly happened. but his position is rather poor. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana. . as did. I. 1913). 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position.^.120 THE DANGER OF 27.. The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened.

.P-B4. R . The reason is evident. iiRxKtP.Kt 3 8 P .A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. and wins easily. and has only taken three moves. move no defence.Kt 5 ch. anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. K— Ki. K . 7 Px P ch. Px R. . Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. 9 R (R 6) X R. 4.K-Kt3. which is actually in danger. R X P.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. If instead White played K. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. i2i This is the first. 5R-R8ch. 6 . as will soon be seen. K-K 2.K 4.. Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . K — Kt 3 . 5. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. 6. .B 3 7 R X P ch. . and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. 2. If then K-Kt 3. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns. His best there move was is R —R 4. and is does not stop to think whether there better. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. R .Kt 2 If4. 3. 10 R-Kt 7 ch. After the text is lost. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two. then R ..

8RxR. 5 mate. Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. K-Kt 3. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . Example 59. 10 R-R 8 ch. . P—R 28. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. few have mastered them thoroughly. They are often of a very difficult nature. KxR. but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. Yet though and they do occur so often. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns.

ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. a simple wm by R—B ch. P-B6 7 ch. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. R—B (a) 2. not see the drawing move. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. . Now suppose that after 1P-B6. but there are other very interesting features. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. R-Q3. R— Q 3. 3. as against wins.R— K7 a very important move. 4. (6) 2. 2P-B7. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. played poorly. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. We have therefore 3. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. Luckily for him Black did lost. 5. or draw by perpetual check. P—B 7.

.... Let us examine them.124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch. If R-Q 3 ch. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3. and come out with a winning ending. then R — R 6. and R — R 4 ch. R-Kt3ch 2. R-B3 K-B 5 P . If P_Kt 6. 3. K-K 6. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. 4. because the King the Kmg goes up. I. . K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2. 5. or (6) R-K B 3.Kt 3. . K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. . followed by R — K B 4 wins. then goes back..Kt 6 R .:.

R — Q3. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1. K-K2 . Now. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. K 6.P-B7 2. 4. according to the circumstances.3. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. and come out with a winning ending. and iP — B6. 2R — Bych. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. Black did not to draw.

7. If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5. — ^^ '^" ^^^. RxP R-KR2 RxP 9. the Black Rook were at KR i. because instead of the position on the diagram. and to check besides..„. he could draw by preventing the ad- . This last condition is very im- portant.... both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win . ^^^ ^ . i^ ^.„„^^„ m ^^'. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook.„^^... 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6.. m... and Black had the move. RxP R-Q2 8. the last-named move particularly would win with ease. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file.. if...0 ^. K-K3 ^„„.126 Best.. . This position we have arrived at is won by White.

either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time. Now position that is we have explained won. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. is The way them. These endings. as already stated.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. in the 60. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. 29. . and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns. — From a game. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. are not is very common. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg.

unless White plays P .128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. There is nothing to gain by this move.Q Kt 3. I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. to It often leads to disaster. It is Black's move. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. That would fix the Queen's side. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. R-Q4 P—B 3. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. . This move not only prevents intended. criticised.

5 6. 3 and Kt 7. in order to WTiite. is a little too late. his position. R-R6 K—Q 3. now develop. I K-K. R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. 5. . and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. Black unaware of the danger of . R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. because P— KB 4 would have . by making this P. He could not play 8. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2. 3. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced.Kt PXP ch 2 4. P . should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. R-K2 R-QR He 3.K R—B 2. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. but .3 is This is a mistake. R— Q R force I should have been played now. This in move K— K 8.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. hence move. w^hich will 7. however.

PXP. either . . nor could he do much with 10.. King at B 5 or K 5. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. followed by R—R 3. tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. Rook. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation. K—K 2 ^^j^ .. ^m. or. 5 9. i ^ ILl . and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. because of RX R. might play K — Q 4.. he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5.J^^^ . threat- not enough.I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. as he could not go back with the King. recovering the Pawn with advantage. White RXR P.. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10.. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. cannot play Of course. which he should have started before. If he 9. He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3.^ mmi. „ .

K — K 2 P — Kt wrong. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. it is very similar. nor could he advance On the other hand.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. 4 at once was the right move. would play P — Kt 4. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. 13. and it will be seen that 11. because of Q R P. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. if there was nothing better. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. then 14.. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. because would leave him paralysed. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. .. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe. P-R5 K B If good. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. or he might first play Q 4. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P.R— Kt2. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5.

with winning RxR. R5. chances. RxP.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. 15.Q 3. 17. Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . R-Ktych. lyRxP. 21. 16 K. then 15 17 P XP. 18. K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) .Kt 2 any case. 19.) 20. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out. 16. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance. would draw. M M M P-R3 last chance. I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. . 19R-R6. R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . RxP. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . R-K R 7 iSRxR. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i.

KxP Resigns. 26 R-Q R and 27. ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :.. . R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate.R-Kt8. K-B R-K R 8. 2S.. will win 22. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29..TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail. 25. 26. R-KB Example 61. ^^H M^. 25 RxP. he cannot .^. 24. which.. 5. R-Q White 8 ch. ^M" ft ^^ W^. 23.22R-R6! 2.. to make matters worse.. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. sees he can no longer defend Pawns."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. — From the 7 ski. easily. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. ^33 If2i. 6. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913. K-Q 2.

or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. This King should come to the King's danger lurks. 1. but White.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. 2. and will then bring his own King to K 3.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. advance. thus P-Q 4. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. 3. Black wants to play prevents it. Pawn on the with which White expected to win. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. by P X Rook and be able P. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. P-KKt4 P . and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . It is on this fact that White side builds his plans. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. of course. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. and finaUy 5.

9. 5. might have been the best chance for Black.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right. 8. R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. P-QR4I . R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. 6. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. also prevents 4. however. RxP . 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. the text move is really a serious loss of time. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. White. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. 7.

remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. board ready to support the advance or. to go to in case of danger. if of White's Pawns. necessary. is White not only has a passed Pawn. 13. 12. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. White holds the open with one of his Rooks.i.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. superior and his chances 10 11. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. R-R3 R-Kt3 4. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. or to move to the right wing file Besides.

) (The student should carefully study 14. 15. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. nothing therefore Black had wait. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . which would finally force Black to take. 19.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. these variations. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . 20. 2 would not help much. P-K5 18. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. much. 22. text move. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. White would have an easy game. and whichever Rook Black took. however. or up Black's Rooks better completely. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. R 5) X R. only helps WTiite.

ROOK. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. 30. while often the losing side all. 27. Knight and Pawns. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given.138 ROOK. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. v. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game. 28. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. ROOK. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. . Example 62.

but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. There are two courses open to him.ROOK. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. To a beginner may look like a draw. and more subtle. forcing White to defend something time. 3 R course his was taken by Black. The other. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). The most evident. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . and the one that most players would take. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. not only because he has the initiative. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. 139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray.

P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them.140 WTiite's of ROOK. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. 6 7. Rook. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. 4. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. Black's King where it is it wants to go. way. Consequently a very bad move. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. 2. in material and position. P-KR4 R-R3 . of Black's Queen's side 3. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. 2. 11. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. 32. 7. use my owTi games. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others. 13. P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. 1. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. I shall. 5. whenever possible. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . knowing shall them thoroughly. not because they will better illustrate the point. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. 6. 12. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. 9. but because.

'/^-//M. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram. and that in some way White. referred to. Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on. '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P. forced the exchange of both Knights.- .'. In fact. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . which will in no way be able to advance to 4.) '^/^/////. may be excused the reference. 191 2. . 14. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time.

.148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead.„. pieces can be said to be ^xt^. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. and we might to have some such position as 66. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm. . ^i m. wM If 2.^wm. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn. and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B ». until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4. i i a m 3.

.K Kt R. Q. 9.. II. 10. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P. White would then simply defend his move like Q.Kt2. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came.KB 3.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ . : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . K X R. because 3 R X B P would 3. PX Q- Kt Q. R. R(B i) . and Kt 3.K. « « . (B i) . Q . QXQ..Kt P . K-R 4. also win a Pawn at least. break through.R — Pawn by Q X P. QNow R5. 5. RX R 3 8. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. and Black K B i.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move. 2. as in the previous case.: > C^. to . P.FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I.Ri R 7. White might even be able position to obtain the following . and he played R — KB i.R-Kt3. P X 2. RX R.Q White threatened could not play win a . R(B5)-B2. 2 RX 2. I 6. 4.KKti. Q. ch.K B 3.

examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. once all the pieces are exchanged. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. and follow up with K B 3. which would give White a greater advantage. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). and the fact that advance. A careful that. the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. of this kind. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation).150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. and White could then play Q—B 2. and thus force Black to play P X P. at White's K . The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class.

7. Kupchick. 5. K Kt — 10. but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. White For a beautiful in that variation. after 8 . 1. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4. 8. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. is The normal to play course 0—0. 4. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. Janowski. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. B-Q3 in its favour in this position. D. . QxB. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. I 151 67. .) A. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . (Queen's Gambit Declined. 4. Black: 2. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB.

he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . In off effect. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. 2. by RX P. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part. perfectly developed. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. 12. a move which he cannot make of in the present position. P—K 4.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to . Kt x Kt P—K 4. because B 5 threatening. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «.„„. not only but also Kt X B ch.

can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. the better chances there are to escape. and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. K might be said to be ideal. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. which a Pawn for a while. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. it is hard to see how this Besides. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. especially the one 5. 13. will ever be able to attack anything. 14.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . 15. henceforth will be full The question how see. less In such cases. the the number of pieces on the board. if he can do it at it all.

but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. 21.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. he might i. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. As that not the case. . P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. 17. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19. P ^1 .>• I . have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. 2. 18.

. White should have no trouble in winning. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25.. position. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 . B X Kt Q X P. and with two Pawns for the exchange. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. following Kt (B 5) X Kt. . 2T.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. any number ref)lies it. among them . Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. the . and the position so much in his favour. There were. however.

30. 36. K—B 34. P X P. notice that. B — Kt i . apart from other The student should things. 32. principally those at K and QB 5. There is nothing to be done. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. . K— Kt of the B X P. 29. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. and Black would be helpless. 31. 33. seen they tie up Black's position more and more. 2. P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. 35.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. Q — R 2 ch. Kt— Kt4 27. 28. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game.

PART II .

.

J. so often. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. 5. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. 1. P— Q4 2. Marshall. R. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. it thought that since Dr. 1909) White : F. because the 159 . P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. Lasker had played should be good. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. Capablanca. On general principles it should be wrong. E. Black : J. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907.PART GAME 1. this defence twice before in the with good still results. 4.

i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening. Kt 2. lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop.. 6. involves the exchange of two pieces. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. In reality the difficulty in this variation. I it outside the scope of this book. No longer would 9. . give Black's — Bishop a powerful range. eleventh For this variation see the game 9. 7. may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . followed by B qBxBP. Kt-B3 . 0-0 X P 5. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P.PXP. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. and However.P be good. . 7 8.. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see. of the match. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. would Kt 3.

P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . R— K and If. 14. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . is doubtful whether good. 3. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. 16. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. 5 without any compensation for this position it. The safer course would have been to play 13. believe that Black would regain the Pawn. i6i 11. If I had to play . 12. Q X Q would follow.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. I. instead. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. 15. PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side.

If that move would have been loses.. . but the text move makes matters worse. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case.. 18. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. 21. I The game was 22.l62 GAME I i..K R— Kt 17. best . RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. 25. One move was as good as another. then any other move would lose as well. 24. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. my mind that this was threatened.. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I. BX Kt P — R6 20. 16. As a 5. . PxP QxP lost. 19. 23..

Capablanca. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. 4. B— K3 in this variation. if 163 Kt X B. Rubinstein. 2. 7. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops. 3. B — Kt 2 8. K. 25 — GAME 2.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. A well-played game on Marshall's part. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . aims at the of Black's Q P. R. 5. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. Black : J. 1. 191 1) White : A. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn.

The move in theory ought to be unsound.. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination . order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii.164 GAME 2 course of this variation../M.. but with very poor success.. I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3. . II.. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. KtxB 12..^^i mm. K Kt 5. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves.. B 3 or P — K R 3. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10... r. ii W'^M m^A m^. was right.

which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game. B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^.' . to my lasting 1 :m .^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= . but which I thought could be defeated. KtxP! ' "y/////.. but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret.^A IB 15. let him play it...QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen. 14. B X Kt B.

had not considered. This gives Black a chance.i66 i6. 17. 5 (if . granted i.R-K7. K — B 2. K — Bi. P — K Kt this and Black should win. the ex- Kx B. Kt — R 19 change). I thought 2. Q— B i! PxKt 18. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . 7 .Q R-QBi. BxPch wins). R — B 5 wins. K-B Kt. 19. R— K 2. 18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. B X R ch 20 3.Q B — K6ch. should have played R X R ch. BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. i. 7 . QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. 21. 3 (if . R— B ch. GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. I. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. 22. had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. P— KR 4. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i.

followed by P — Q Kt 4. 24. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. Kt— Q 5. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. 26. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move. In fact. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. RxR. B x R. The proper way was to play it Q 3. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . 28. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. as the course of the loses several moves. game will show.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. 25. If then R — Q Kt 5. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29.

Black does not avail himself. impossible for to win.) 31. 38. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334. Even before the last is a downright blunder. fortunately for him. 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. but the text move a chance. of which. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. 3536. he can win at White's best con- . 37.

P —R 8.. B X P. 191 3) White : D. K— B 7 . Capablanca. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. Black : J. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. 2. 5. I.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. P — R 6. Janowski. 8. and 41 to find it. R. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. R X B. 7. 39. The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. If Px P B X Kt 7. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . 42. 42 R— Kt 41. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8. GAME 3. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. 40. K— R 3. R — By. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. 3 2. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6.. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. beginning with 14 B x Kt. As an end game.

Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . 11. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. own Pawn openings. any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. ID. 12. or failing that. to obtaui some definite material advantage.

B x Kt was also good. 14. was the move. 16. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. 18. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. in order to bring at once all into play. Px B .IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. which was a very threatening move. 15. right which afraid 3. often brings the player into trouble. that govern any given posiI tion. 13. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. I A very serious mistake. ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. i5Kt— B5. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. and the other.

. For this reason P—K attack. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. which he text compelled to defend with the King. how- ever.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. at doubling the Rooks. Black. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. which she already defends. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. to P — Kt 4. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . the K P. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. which destroys White's plans. P — B 4.

because 25 PXP Kt X P. P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. 23. which loses a Pa\\Ti. and would have In fact. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight. RxR Ktx R 24..IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. if it with a very good game. as will Black cannot ch. the position of the Black King would be an advantage.. should come to a simple ending. 22. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. he did not carry out his original plan.Kt— K 3 . 21. This wins a Pa^\^l. RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. 173 Unfortunately for Black. reply 24. P— KR4 soon be seen. .

K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. Black resigned. 27. 4. 3. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. A. 2. R. at taking the initiative aims away from White. and.174 24 25. 35. 29. 31. Snosko-Borovski. Black E. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30. 34. 1913) : (St. 36. Capablanca. Instead . FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns. 26. 1. 33. 32. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. GAME 4. WTiite : J.

however. side. of course. will Castle It is. the text move 5 to be the stronger. as I said before. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. WTiite. . It This is considered superior to has for its object.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. to make a violent attack against White's King. considered then. 5. QxP Px P. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. 6. as I do now.

12. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. I believe. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. sidered. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. as in this game. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve.176 9- GAME 10. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. 12 13. Walter Perm as Shipley. overlooking Wliite's fine . "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. moves. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. side. is of Philadelphia. Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. it is : of an attack. Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. 4 11. 14.

pieces. but also drives the Queen away. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. putting it out of the is game for the moment. R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. way for a few moves. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight. 16. 17.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. with P 4. 15. 19.

value. It advantage of position. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. 21. but gave up because seemed too slow. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. and . it which was the right move. 3.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. Q-Bi 22. great is K self-evident that White has a 23.

If Px 28 P P. Kt— R 5 ch 26. 27. I was. still looking for the "grand combination. PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. 28. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . Kt — B 4 was that the however. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win.FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I ." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . P— B 4 the right move. 24 25. 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24.

on move find out 28. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. ?8 29. P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . num- ber of times. I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. and that is would vindicate 4. I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. my judgment when.

FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. Capablanca. K-Kt I . Black : J. The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. 2. best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. 5. White cannot play Kt —Q 4. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns. E. R. i. I. Lasker. 40. GAME (St. 37 Q-R6. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. which WTiite . 1914) White : Dr. P-QR3 is 4. 39. A very interesting battle. because Q— R 8 mates. 1.

8. 6. reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. obstruct Black's Pawns. On the other hand. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. in some event3. in order not to also. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. ualities. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. in order to go K Kt There is . P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. 7. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. 4 5. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove.

9. B — K I 3. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 12. it unless it advances to K 5. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. It also prevents II. Kt— Q 4. and it also makes 4. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. 10. It threatens B—B R— K 4. This move still. 4. B—K 3 because of 3 3. I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. P-B5 r£ a i . Best.

. my better judgment. is after R— Q i given in Dr. 16. But... 17RXR. 16. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. . Q R — Q 19 it. 12 13. 16 R— B 2. Dr. RxR.. Lasker's variaIf not the best. i. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3.BxB. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. P — B B — Kt 2. Q tion. Kt x R. on my part finally to obtain a lost position. 18R— Q2.. The B X B. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game.i4RxB..1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. RxR. Lasker gives right move 4.

Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns. Black can later P—Q 16. if . fol- 4. Black plays 19. 5 for will at least fact. otherwise I would have played the right move . however. then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. . . White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q .RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. . 4. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 .B X B. . and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. 5. also Lasker's variation. QR-Qi . 5. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. after 19.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. 14. threatening Kt — B 5. on play P —B 4. 15. . neither which can be stopped. It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . followed by Kt —K Kt 5. BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. 2.

that I could play the text move. Q — 2) P X P. B X Kt give Black the advantage). Kt around to K 4. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 . and there is no good reason why 19 2.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4. 19 PxB... i7. (B Black should 17 18. Q Kt 3. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. 18 R— B 2. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. via Q B i. lose. .. let us analyse Kt. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i.Kt — and at later 6. B X P 20 Kt X B (best. Kt X R. P -Q 4. If P — Q Kt 4. K winning a weaker. and a 1 7 . RxKt..P . —B 4. since if R Q 2.i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. . still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it.. P—B 4. 18 Now 5. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. 21 R X R. 17. Again.

plan and this time without now played R X Kt. with a bad game. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. 23. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. 25. 26. flounders around have been better to play file. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. would R— R 5. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. At least it would K— B 2 24. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. Black. 20. difficult. I Again bad. has no object now. 4 ch. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. Had . P X R ch. 21. 28. move. of course. and the game most accurately. and Black becomes more . 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27.19. have been extremely 22. the two moves were weak. R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i.

38. which was bad. 3940. he played well after that up to the 27th move. . R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. probably 29. 42. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. excepting that an altogether made. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. perfect. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character.i88 helpless with each GAME move. . Regard- ing the play of White. 37. 3334. as well as play The rest of his was good. 41. 5 The game needs no further comment.

5. because gives obtain the initiative. Black : J. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. side very weak. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. . Chajes. I. which Wliite adopted in this game. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. P— K4 2. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. I The alternative. 5- P-K5 P X P the best move. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. . 1916) White : O. R. Capablanca. By the text move Black up Castlmg. 7. and later. 8.

cannot be said as yet. besides being a Pawn to the good. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. so that it . I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m.iQO 9. which must of course be de- . because. time and merely weakened 10. II.HI. B 1 M ^. M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. '^^„* WiW^. His development. 14. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. 12. he threatens White's K P.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good. has suffered somewhat. however.

as dominates the whole situation. for it. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. and there to dislodge his pieces. and can consequently decide the course 15. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3. 17. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. since The move. . White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. 2 B-K3 4. To prevent Kt X P. of the game. Q 4. or ever. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. the Bishop will be developed to itself. strategically wrong. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. 17 18.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . is thoroughly prepared for it.

Q R— Kt i. it up with and played Q — R 5 now. but under less favourable 4. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20.192 19. in order to follow p—B as he did later. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . circumstances. 21. 22. R-R3 24. since White's attack amounts to nothing. as White will soon prove. would have avoided everything. 23. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. 24.

27 28. Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. 1 liW 27. ^M i y/y^/yyii. 26. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen. the move not a losing one by any means. 25. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g . PXP e.FRENCH DEFENCE plications.p. as will soon be seen. is 193 However.

194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. which be at give draw. as explained above. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. which gave White time to play convinced. R— K R i . the White KR but in is now Rook having come . or to some other move according circumstances. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. of course. White would be forced either P — Kt 4. unless first. of course. and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. which looks the best is (the plan. 5 in to go to 8. forcing followed a play- similar plan. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. of course. 31. however. 3. but I was wrong. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. was the best move. first In some cases. tion all. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). I am ing to play I . and Black would reply with to play 5 . K— R it as already indicated.

least. 47. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. RX 35. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move. 195 Instead of the text move. 434445- 46. 49. 36. 33' 34. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. 48. 42. 3738.B 2 K--Kt I . draw against White's QxBP RxR R. and the last chance Black best play. and Black who has to fight for a draw. 32. Kt X Q . which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. X P was no 3940. therefore. It is now White who has the upper hand.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. 41. Black should have played Kt —K 5.

QxP few more moves Black resigned. having the best of the position. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. K X B. 5152. 53 BKt 5 ch.196 GAME why I 6 Most did.K-R2. played opponent. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56. for while Black. 5354. I players will be wondering. 52Q-R5.RxP. My no chances. . and while . White. on the other hand. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. as the spectators did not resign. If the reader does not believe it. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. let and him take the White what happens. missed none. 51 who decided 7. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. I was hoping lowing variation. missed several chances. 5758.

2. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 . because of of the multiple variations of the openings.RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. 5 6. (San Sebastian. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped. to which I was much addicted at the time. 5. 191 1) White : J. 11. It B— K a more natural and effective move. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. Capablanca. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. 9. after 2 P — K Kt 3. R. Black : A. 4. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. 10. 12. B—B 5. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. Bum- P— K4 3 2. 1. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2.

and played make his position more solid. This is bad. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. 14. 16. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. able White. . Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. and the Knight. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good. in going to K B. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. and superior position 17. 3 to defend the square QB 4. however. and also his King's Pawn. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. does not of his allow time for this. does not block the 13. in border to up where it is.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. because White's QB is out.

by using the open able K R file. 18. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. 21. move to eliminate all danger. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. 19. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP.RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. . Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. but game very much weakened. in which case. is by his next 22.

3334. LrAMJn. to be defended I by pieces. KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. B-K2 28. Kt-K3 32. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . 25. PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. 37. 40.200 23. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. 42. 24. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36. 31. of course 39. and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . 38. followed by R— B 7 ch. 26. 29. If B.

GAMES. is P—Q t. R. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. 2. 1. CENTRE (Berlin. My P to idea was it. often played in order to develop the Q B. 3.CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. Capablanca. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. B— KB . 5. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. Mieses. 7. Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. 46. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. instead of the text move. least. 8. Black : J. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. slight advantage of think. is position WTiite The plan. I quite feasible. which would. at compensate whatever might have.

'/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. all. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. opening the 11 way Q B. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. could have played P—Q 3 . II.202 GAME 8 I 1. 12 Kt — B 3. . when would have followed.l. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. If Kt — 3 . P—Q completely shut if off. The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. and could only be loss extricated. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. with serious of position. With the R — Ki.

5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15. . and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13.BxP. 17 Q— K PX Q. Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. and 13. QxPch. i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake. not so in reality. — R- . 16 P x B. Pawns are isolated. when we would have 14 B X Kt. was simple. better. RXB. game 19 RX P. 15P— QB3.CENTRE GAME 12. besides the fact that all the White 14. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight. . B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. QxQ. K Kt 5 Black. QXB! Kt — K 7 ch . 3 (best). 18B — B2. was most interesting. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe.R Kt 5.^^ mm mm.

while having the exchange. 17. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case. At first and even after careful thought. however.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. White . favour until. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. 22. 20. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost. the attack. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. feared the difficulties of an ending where. with the exchange ahead. would have given White a decided advanMieses. he would be a Pawn minus. 19. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. 18. enough to win with proper play.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4. to prevent 7. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. but in position such a course is a mistake. R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. Kt — Q4 4. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. have 16 14. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. the Bishop must defend. I . Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next .P 4..210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. of course. and therefore move. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves. 17. 14. KR— Q would 5. I R— B . in order to maintain one of them. and there would be no good way 18 19. Kt X Kt 16. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. Kt (B 4) — 15. so to speak.. are manoeuvred chain-like. Not. They there. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. Kt X Q. and consequently weak and subject to attack.

. 23 Bx Kt. and White is a Pawn ahead. 21 Kt— Q6. moves anywhere else.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully.B 20.. at least of the most kind. If 20. 22 Kt X B.B — Qi. Black may be said to be the defence is lost. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move. R X Kt. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21. indeed. then B X Kt. R— B 2. . 22. . There seems to be no particular danger. B X B. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file . Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced. as Wliite demonstrate.R — B 2. 25 R — Q 2. 24 R X P. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. yet. If the game is not altogether difficult lost. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. Pawns.

KB4. 9 with the Rook. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. which would be disastrous. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file. after having. to give Hence. as White would immediately 23. White. on the other Black could do nothing hand. Black's best chance was as in the text. prepared the way. up a Pawn. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. 25. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it.KKt3.212 GAME sieze it. in order to free his Knight. 24. of course.

would on account P —Q 4. of P— KKt3 5 . His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. obtaining a passed Pawn. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. 29. K 5. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. as will 5 . . which. —K The it text move is.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. 27. P X Kt would be worse. Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. B — Kt3. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. weak. with proper play. soon be seen. should win. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. . even though White could answer P however. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw.

33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34.2l4 31. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. it would take longer. K-K3 37. 4 31 Practically forced. 32. 35. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop .^. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\.P-QR3 5 36.

5. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. advantage of a Pawn. tion terial fortunately. Petersburg. 3. where it not only protects the P. Marshall. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. The student ought of ending. Q P. Capablanca. Once he obtained that. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. J. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. practically from the opening. finest players in the world. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. 2. R. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again. he tried for and obtained. 1. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. 3 6. Black: F. 1914) White: J. 7.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7.

BxKt B-Q3! 10. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. and a very is move. 11. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. 8. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately. Kt — B 3 P— 9. .2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. It is now time to examine the result of the opening.

as White threatened Kt K 4. blocks the Bishop. wins a Pawn. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . Queen. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. Besides. in turn. Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. . which. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. B game him to — — — B 4. because Castle on the Queen's side danger. R— Kti. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. 5.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. unquestionably an advantage . Kt X P ch. 13. followed by B X B. then P Q 5. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5.

0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. in attack against WTiite's fails. his Pawns are all weak. will Black and. P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. The plan. GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P .Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. which destroys Black's plan utterly. 15. 20. as it always must is such cases. & /. because Black's development backward. 17. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed.2l8 14. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . however. he will sooner or later them. 18.

which makes Black's plight a desperate one. B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. are given merely as a matter of form. 3334. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . 23. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. that Black's game is lost. interest. 30- 3132. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29. 2526. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part. 27.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 28.

47. Resigns. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. 59. 50.220 38. 57. GAME 39. 41. 58. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. . 49. 4344. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. 54. 45. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. 52. 42. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. 55. 48. lo 40.

and obtained the superior game. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. Janowski. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. P—Q which is generally- played. Black: D. typical of Janowski. in one of his games against Dr. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. 191 4) White: J. move. Lasker. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. Petersburg. KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. at the time. superior to Alechin considered 4.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. which he only through a blunder. E. 8. R. I. Capablanca. Alechin on several occasions. . 2. 9. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. 7.

he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. 13. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. GAME Q— Ki M. Black simply takes is to advance his If it. but one which. . have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. under the cumstances. was the best. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. hoping to lighten White's attack.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can. 12. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. at once. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies.222 10.

P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns.RUY LOPEZ 14.. 14. ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad.. The only 4 .. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack.. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t. 1718. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack.. ^ . There is only one thing to take care of and that . Beto 4. 1516. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5.

2324. Black could have played instead of the text move. 20. Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. 25- loses very rapidly. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. i8. Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. The move 22. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. . . . PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns. QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. 19. 29.2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. RX Kt . 27. now K P X R.

3. i i g<^ i 'M. Chajes.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. Black: O. but a perfectly natural it developing one. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move. 4. Capablanca. y^. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!. 2. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. 7. and consequently 4 cannot be bad.Jm. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move.. 1. 5. R. 225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York.. White: J. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- .

12. P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. 5 ch. P — Q Kt If 3. 11. 3 because B X Kt. 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. .226 8. . But as he does not obtain . . R— K i was m %///M. B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position. in this variation. Black now plays 8 2 . followed by 10. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. This weakens Black's King's the right move. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 .

KtxB. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. the move It bad. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. 14. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. I 20. BxP. Kt X B. 16. 17. Of course if R— K 3. P— QB 3 Q X Kt . R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. threatening P— 18 19. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . advantage of position for White. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way. 17 18. 15. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. B — Kt 2. QxKt. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. Kt x R— K B. Pawm minus fights very hard. because after BxP. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. suicide. . 14QXBP. Black with a 21.

or support which cannot advance to rather. 23. the way of the K B P. of course. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. the KB Pawn at K 5. 4 to defend. now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material.228 GAME 3. that the White Knight is He notices. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. .

FRENCH DEFENCE 28. 33- 34. might otherwise become a source 35. He sees P—K R 5. P X w li. K— K K—B 2 I 36. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. 37. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I . 38. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. the Queen goes difficulties. 3. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. 229 P-QKt3 303132. P. 29. R 6. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments.

J i 39. threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42.P — K Kt 40. practically forcing the exchange of Queens..>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. His best . R—Q 7. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4. 41. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. PxP i . with a winning game. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. White ready to advance. since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. 4 would be answered by Q— B 5.. R — Q7 BxPch . P— KR 5 'Px P 39.

White: J. 231 This loses a piece. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. 43.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. Black: R. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. is Therefore. Capablanca. I think. even while the on the board. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. in this form of development. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. (New York. 1. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. 2. one of great defensive strength. RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. 5. 6. S. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is. the Bishop. . once it is Castled. GAME 13. 4. Morrison. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44.

B—K B 4 would have done this. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. but again faulty judgment. 3 Of course not K Kt— K . but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. 8. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian.) 7. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. 10. because of Kt — Q 5. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. Bold play. II 12. R— Ki KR— Ki . 10 11. page 197.232 GAME say. therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. The alternative would have been P — B 3. 9. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment.

Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4. K 5. which would be answered by Kt . 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. followed by Kt X P. advance. and at the same time preventing P— Kt. Black can safely side. B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. PX Kt X P etc. which he cannot in the centre. Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. winning a Pawn. which now acts along the long diagonal. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'.. 14. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. X B . since.

With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B.234 15. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. 16. 2. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught. and then advancing K P. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply.) 17.

Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. 20. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. for if immediately. and. bad. 20 21. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. 235 posed position of the Black King. 1 It was difficult . 19. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. which is to put the Bishop out of action. he It is doubtful. it might have done ever. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. even offers tiie Bishop. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8.RUY LOPEZ judgment.

236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. 22. 23. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack. QX Kt. rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. . It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2. and also Q — K 3. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back.

where he in a be mating net. space. . as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. R— K R— Q i. RxP. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. 29. Kt — K3 attack. 31If P-R3 8 ch. but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. R (K i) —K 7. 30.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24.

5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. 33.23S -21 GAME 32. 36. 2. 41. 40. 14. I. 34. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. expected it. Black J. 34. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. Capablanca. 38. . A very lively game. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. the quickest way 35. R. GAME White F. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. Marshall. : 191 8) : J. R-K5ch RX P ch 39.

13. one of them has given it me good results. . Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. has . 9- I generally play all the time.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . on the other hand. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. 14. during a Tournament. 8. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. as generally the case. m The developing on both sides. 10. 12. WTiite. II. The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. simplified the changes.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins.

1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . three ranks. on the other hand. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. I think. his Knight at KB 3. since. K P. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. It on my part.240 obtained the centre. truly an attack against Black's 15. followed by B P X P. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. otherwise he would not have played this variation. GAME first 14 is Black. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. but Mar- shall believed differently. had he analysed this move. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. Black now threatens not only BPX P position . he would. which. but also Kt XP .

The text QR—Q i). on the other hand. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. K—R i. move. 22P— KR4. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen. (threatening Q— KB2. obtaining a very superior game.Q text x R P move . Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. 17. . 3. QR — least. factory if 18. the Queen. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. as will be seen. 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. .QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. P—B KKt3 Qi. . 4. But. and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5.

22 Kt —K . although a Pawn ahead. take a draw at once. is superior long range. 7 ch K—B P i. 21. K X R. curious that. — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. because is a Pawn ahead. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. after seeing this analysis. White is who is always in danger. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins.242 19. as already stated. against White's centre. The powerfully com(see Besides. this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). foUowed by R X K P). be- best of RXB (best. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. R X Kt. 25 RxR ch. because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. thus. an assault which soon be shifted against . R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). Kt 8 ch. It is only now. and. K i. White is under the impression that he has the better game. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. but that the Black is not so. 20.

to disrupt Black's 23. is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4.: 23. because he does not move on account RXK P. and thus make them weak.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22.. t. White 4. at the proper time. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ . P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. 24. itself. practically pinned. This is a sequel to the previous move. S .

going to be decided on the King's side. atK i. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3. 28. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. 26. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . 27. P— QKt4 5. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. because R— Kt 25. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch.

245 White loss. 34K-R1. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. winning easily. 31. RxKt. 32. which is lost in any case. R— R 8 mate. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. as pieces are tied up. R — R ch. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. . 35 RX RX P. If 33 P-Kt R. KxP. P-R ch. K— Kt i. I 29. but that would only have prolonged the game. cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6.

36. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. fiNIS . 3940.246 3334. 35. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738.

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UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.38S .RN>r90095-.irANG°Ss:crF?.

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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