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CAPABLANCA A PRIMER OF CHESS .BY JOSE R.

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CAPABLANCA .JOSE R.

CHESS FUNDAMENTALS BY JOSE R. . LTD. CAPABLANCA CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD NEW YORK HARCOURT. BRACE AND COIMPANY LONDON: G. BELL AND SONS.

COPYRIGHT. A. BY HARCOURT. mimeograph or No part of this book may be reproduced in any form. S. without permission in writing from the publisher. by any other means. INC. PRINTED IN THE U. . All rights reserved. BRACE AND COMPANY. 1921.

In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles are always the same. and that there nothing to be added and nothing to be changed. as long in fact as the laws and rules of the game remain therefore what they are that there is is at present. first published thirteen years Since then there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with the so-called H>per- modern Theory. Those who have read the articles may well have thought that something new. and not always for the best at that. CAPABLANCA New York Sept. The reader may go over the contents of the book with the assurance in it everything he needs. during the opening stages generally. its Chess Fundamentals was the one standard work of kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly beUeves that it is the one standard work of its kind J. I. is as good now as it was thirteen It will be as good a hundred years from now. The change has been only a change of form. R. of the same old principles through the medium of somewhat new tactics. now. of vital importance. so that Chess Fmtdamentals years ago. There has been no change in the fundamentals. ig34 . had been discovered. The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application.SRUF o<//S PREFACE Chess Fundamentals was ago.

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II in End-game Play 35 37 10. 14. Pawn Endings Some Winning Positions in the Middle-game Relative Value of the Pieces General Strategy of the Opemng Control of the Centre Traps . 32 CHAPTER Further Principles 9. 19. 18..LIST OF CONTENTS I I PART CHAPTER First Principles: Endings. 16. Some Simple Mates Pa\\'N Promotion 3 g 13 3.... 2. 71 73 . The Opposition The Relati\^e Value of Knight and Bishop How TO Mate with Knight and Bishop Qlteen against Rook .aining a Passed Pawn How to find out ^vincH TO Queen 40 Pwvs will be the first 41 43 13.. A A 11. 5. 28 8. 19 24 25 6. 7. 50 59 62 CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-game Play 17. 15. 4. Cardinal Principle Classical Ending Obt. . 12. Winning by Indirect Attack 68 . Attacking without the aid of Knights Attacking vmth Knights as a Prominent Force.. Middle-game and Openings PAGE 1.

30. Rook. 23.. the 146 power 33. Some Salient Points about Pawns Some Possible Developments from a Ruy Lopez (showing the weakness of a backward 143 Q B P.) The Influence of a "Hole" 150 . The Sudden Attack from a Different Side The Danger of a Safe Position Endings with one Rook and Pawns A Difficult Ending: Two Rooks and Pawns . of a Pawn at K 5. The Initiative 77 21. Knight and Pawns (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst imposing restraint.) iii 120 122 127 138 CHAPTER VI Further Openings and Middle-games 31. 22. Direct Attacks en masse The Force of the Threatened Attack Relinquishing the Initiative Cutting off Pieces from the Scene of Action . 29. etc. 32.. 25.. 24.LIST OF CONTENTS IV PAGE CHAPTER General Theory 20. Bishop and Pawns v.. 78 82 89 94 99 CHAPTER V End-game Strategy 26. 27. A Player's Motives Criticised in a Specimen Game .. Rook. 28.

238 White: F. 197 7. Rin Lopez (San White: J. J. Petersburg. . S. Black: O. J. 1913 ) Black: J. Chajes. Capablanca. Burn. Capablanca. White: J. Centre Game (Berlin. Petersbltjg. 1914) White: J. 189 R. 1918) Black: J. 8. 12. Mieses.R. Queen's Gambit Declined (San Sebastian. Black: R. White: D. GAMES PAGE 1909) R. Capablan 1913) Black: E. 231 Morrison. Black: J. Janovvski. 201 9. Teichmann. 221 11. Black: A. R. R. 174 5. Capablanca. RvY Lopez (New York. 1913) White: J. 1913 ) Black: J. Black: J. Queen's Gambit Declined (Match. . 1918) White: J. 225 R. Irregular Defence (Havana. Capablanca. 209 R. Capablanca. Marshall. E. French Defence (Rice Memorlal Tournament. 1911 ) R. French Defence (New York. Capablanca. (St. Lasker. . 215 R. Black: J. 1918). R. . (St. Janowski. Capablanca. R. Sebastian. 13. RuY Lopez (St. 2. Capablanca. 15^ Black: J. Petersbltig. 14. 1914) White: Dr. Marshall. White: F. Capablanca. 1914) Black: D. R. RuY Lopez White: J. A. 1916) White: O. 163 3. Capablanca. R. Petroff Defence (St. Snosko-Borovski. Marshall. 181 6.Capablanca. a. Rubinstein.LIST OF CONTENTS II PART ILLUSTIL\TIVE GAME 1. Capablanca. Queen's Gambit Declined (Berlin. Chajes. White: A. Black: F. (New York. White: J. . French Defence White: J. 10. Black: J. R. 169 4. Petersburg. Queen's Gambit Declined J. Capablanca. K. 1911).

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CHESS FUNDAMENTALS .

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Meddle-Gaaie AND Openings The first thing a student should do. 1. — The is to ending Rook and King against The principle last line drive the opposing the hoard. This can best be done by learning how accompHsh quickly some of the simple mates.CHESS FUNDAMENTALS PART CIL\PTER I I First PRiNcrPLEs: Endings. 1. King to the on any side of . the is to famiharise himself with power of the to pieces. SOME SIMPLE IiIATES Example King.

K— Bi mated King be forced to move in front of the White and i. 9 K— Kt 6. K-B i. K— Kti. strated by the first move. to mate from the On move Black could have played (the Black and. now the King moves back to Q i. 4. 10 K— B R— R R— R8). 7R-QB7. K— Ri. K — R i. combined action of King in Rook is needed to arrive at a position which mate can be for The is general principle a beginner to foUow to keep his King as much file.. K— Kt K— Kt i. K— Kt 2. as possible on the same rank. R— R 7. the it is King has been brought it. as in this case. 8K-B6. 8 mate. moves 5 It has taken exactly ten original position. 7K— K6. 4 K— K K-Q i.. 9K— Kt6. . The forced.K-Ri. according to principle. 6K-Q6.K— B 6. K— K King I. which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank. in this case..4 SOME SIMPLE MATES In this position the power of the Rook is demonand the 7.. K— B K— K i. towards the centre. better to place it not on the same but on the one next to i.K-Kti. 3 3. loR — BSmate. be 8 by 6. R— R 8 mates at once. the sixth rank. White would have continued will ultimately 6K— Q6. will go back to If Q I and it will take much longer to mate. to When. because then the Black King Not K — B 2. 5K-Q5. fiile. mate is quickly 2 accomphshed by: iR — R and K— Kt i. or. 6. as the opposing King.

Should drives if now it the Black King move ch. . 2. 7 . Since the Black King the best is in the centre of the board. now if 3. . 8 K — B K— R 3. K— B 7. K— Kt 6. but to one side of the other King. K-Kt 7. the Rook If back by 5 R— R . is As the better to Rook has not yet come into play. not only to defend reduce the but also to mobility of the opposing King. . Now 5 7 the ending may continue : 4 . 6 K-Q R— Kt 4 ch. the King confined to as few squares as possible. . not in front. to K 4. advance the King straight into the centre of the board. R — B 4 ch. It should be noticed how often the White King has moved it. 5. then also 3 R — R K— Kt there follows 4 K— Q 3. 3. .SOME SIMPLE MATES Example 2. K— K it 3. K— B instead. Now . K— R 6. but keeping K — B 6 then 4 R — R 3 5. next to the Rook. instead 4. . is way to proceed 2. to advance your own King 2 thus: I K— K K— Q 4. . 5 On the other hand.

10 R — any King It square on the Rook's forcing the Black White. is should be done it may be monotonous. White can . position. file. K — Kt II 8. While in under twenty. and already the Black King is confined I to a few squares. I believe it it and. K — B 2 B — B 5.6 White mates SOME SIMPLE MATES in three moves thus: in front of the 9 R— R 4 ch. will teach him the proper handling of Example 3. 2 B — K Kt 5. under any conditions. White should have advanced King. K— Kt 2. play 3 B — Q3. ™^ ^P W W '^^^ <^m ^^ ^^m ^^ ^P ^P ^P Since the Black King is in the corner. K— B 8 R— R I mate. If the Black King. and then. has taken eleven moves to mate. worth while for the beginner to practice such it things. in the original had been in the centre of the board. as his pieces. restricted . with the aid of his Bishops. or away his from the last row. — Now we come to two Bishops and King against King.

files . before a mate can be given. it K — Kti. 4. 6 K— R K — B K— R K— Kt 2. the White King must be brought at the to the sixth rank and. it is to either of . same time. last 7. K Kt i — 13B — It K6 any K— R 14 B—B 6 mate. move when the Black King B — K Kt 4. these squares that the King ought to go. K— Kt K— Kt 2." has taken fourteen moves to force the in mate under and. up a K— R I. B 7 2. In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. Kt 12 i. Now the White Bishop must take position from which can give check next along the White diagonal. so as to force the Black back . is however. move one Kling to go WTiite must now mark time and of the Bishops. In all such endings. it is immaterial whether the King forced . 10 B — R5. 5.. K Kt 6. but he must also be forced into a comer. care must be taken not to drift into a stale mate. i. 7 movements to as few squares as We might now continue : 3. 9K — R6. K — Bi. In this ending the Black King must not only be driven to the edge of the board. moves back to ch. K— 2.SOME SIMPLE MATES the Black King's possible. 6. in one of the two 8.4K — B 2. 8 B — Kt K— Kt 3.K — Kt2. position. K B KB and as 4 KR . 6 and K 5 Kt 6 are the nearest squares. i. but also into a corner. In all endings of this kind.. and. in this case either K R 6. . it should be done in thirty. iiB — K7.

K— B K Q mates. Take the following position: ^^ '^^ W^ ^^' m A as 2 #^ to good way to begin is make i the first move with the Queen. . trying to limit the Black King's mobility much as possible. 5 (if then Q— Kt 4. 6 ch) Q— K and 6. as in the case of the Rook. As the Queen combines the power the Bishop. only . K 4. In this ending. 3. K— Q 5. the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board. mate move). K — Kt 4.g. 7 K—R next 3. 2. Thus: Q— B 6. 4 6.8 SOME SIMPLE MATES last rank. K— Q Q— Q Already the Black King has only one available square 2.. 3 K—K 6. (Should Black play K — B 4.K —K 5 4. KR 5 Q R 4. Example the — We now come it is to Queen and King of all against King. the easiest mate of Rook and and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. moves.. K—R 6Q-K 8 Kt K—B 4 K— R 6. e. K — Kt 5. or to on to the or an outside file. I or Q 8.

2. that the King should he in front of his Pawn. 6. at least two required. apart the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game . the process is and and shorter. Example « „. and is it often is sufTicient when the Pa-wn the only remaining is from the Kings.. It essential._ «„ . Rooks are PAWN PROMOTION is The gain of a Pawm to win. even unit.PAWN PROMOTION the Queen being so 9 the much more powerful than far easier Rook. is In each case the co-operaIn order to force a mate King needed. with at least one intervening square. without the aid of the King. These are the three elementary endings in all of these the principle tion of the is the same. If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn. plained This can best be ex- by the following examples. speaking generally. then the game cannot be won.

then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. K— K 3. as before. the Black King must be kept in front of it. 3 4 ch. As the White King comes up. K— K 2. when forced to go back. the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn K 6. will This is Any other move would lose. 9 P— K 6 ch. 8 K— Q now loK— K K — Ki. he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the of advancing the White King. as for stance in this position because of the White King. 4 K— K 3. should the latter advance. K— K 3. If White advances the Pawn. 7K— K4. ?. 2K— Q3. of the WTiite King.t the same time. in front be shown later. If instead or play K— Pawn White withdraws his King. and when it cannot be done. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn. K— Q 6 P— K 5 ch. and a stale mate results. 5 P—K K — B 4. K— Q 2. very as K— K4. it must be brought as far forward as possible and. The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant . K— K 3. K— B Again the same case. K-K2. 5. I. K— Q4important move. The play would proceed thus : i P— a K 3. since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn. Black brings his King up to the Pawn and. II K— Q6. 4. and the way to proceed is Black to keep the King always directly in front in- of the Pawn. 5.lo PAWN PROMOTION position is The for drawn.

therefore so to now compelled to advance his Pawn as to force Black to move away. and because many a beginner has of proper knowledge. White is 2. # ^P I ^P ^^- MMwm. P-K3.K-B3. II for it involves principles to be taken lost up later on.K-K2.^m m fl ^m ^m m ^m The method of the to follow is to is advance the King as far as compatible with the safety Pawn and to its never to advance the safety. Example King is — In this position WTiite wins. 6. K-Q5.PAWN PROMOTION with its details . He is then able advance his own King. as the in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. Black does not allow the WTiite King to advance. K— K 3.^^wmWmmm. 3. Thus K— K 4. . Pawn until it is essential own I. identical positions from lack this stage of the its At on book I cannot lay too much stress importance.

There- back his to protect the must continue. same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. Had he moved anywhere 7. .K-Q2. is too far back and may be brought up within protection of the King.. but to try to bring the Kmg fur- ther forward.. White could have played of the K— B K 6. because Black would play K— Q King and White would have Pawn. all these squares being protected by the King. White must at the move away.K— B i. else. would have a position to the one explained in connection with Example 8. since he could be forced to advance the Pa^\^l to not advance his King without leaving Black the K opportunity to play K— K it 5.K— Q2.12 If PAWN PROMOTION Black had played 3. and we P— a draw. .K-Ki. Now to bring fore he it would not do K—B 7. 8. Thus K— K6. then White would 4. P— K4. 7. better for Since he has not done so. 4.K-Ki. K-B6. to play 3. P-K5. force As Black to prevent that. K— K5. it K 6 would make play K — B. since its own not require it. to advance the White not safety does still Pawn Thus: yet. 9K-Q 7. . it Now Pawn 6. is winning the Pawn. the White 5. K now followed by the advance tries to Pawn to K him 8 . as Black would then similar 5. 7.K— B 4.

the student the student has one. PAWN ENDINGS I shall now see give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns reader against one. Furthermore. This ending is like the previous one. Example 7. and it 13 to K 8. . 3. and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further. if must realise by long and bitter ex- perience the practical application of the many things explained in the book. to play well merely from the study of a book it can only serve as a guide and the rest must if be done by the teacher. or three against two. it is Fewer explana- tions will be given. is all over. nobody can how . not. as up to the student to work things learn for himself. that the may out how they can be won.PAWN ENDINGS King moves and the White Pawn advances becomes a Queen.

K B I. 2. his Pawn 3 without losing it. White cannot win by playing P. K-Kt If i. WTiite. because of the principle of the "'opposition" . i. 7 7. 5 P— Kt 7. . as shown in a previous case.PXP. Example by I P —B 8. 2 K-K i. . however. and draws. and if PX P. ch. P — B 4. P-Kt 8 (Q) ch. which 2 P—B because Black plays. because P — Kt 3 draws. 3-K-Kt 3. and White will never be — — able 2 to Queen 7. K-R P-B K— R 6 mate. KxP. (The student should work out. — In the above i position White can't win Black's best answer would be this P — Kt 3 draws.) He cannot win by P — Kt 5. K-R Q-Kt m' mm.K— Kt i. (This. K— Bi.14 PAWN ENDINGS this In 1 position 6. 7 4 7ch. and draws. If 2P B 7 ch. If K— K I PxP. K— R i. not PX then would lose. 3P-B6. K X P. 5. can win the position given in the diagram by playing: K-Q 7. but i . 4 K— B 6 5 P — B 8 (Q) mate.

K-B 3. K— Kt 2.4K-Q6. K— R i. loK— K6. apparently so simple. K— R2. K — B 2.7K— K5. K— R 7. 12 K— B 6. K— B 2. i 7. and in order win WTiite must get back to the actual position. and which will be explained more fully later on. K-K3. 8P— B K— Kti. There In is still some resistance in Black's position. 7 K— B 6. K-B3. K— B i. P-Kt 3. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn Q (find out why).5P-Kt5. 8K — B7 and White wins the Pawn. 9K— Q6. by playing i K— K 4. as will easily be seen 15 to by experiment. II K— K 7. (If K-K3. 6.. 5 I.P-Kt 3. K— R draws). should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted.) 2 P-B 5 ch. 17 P— Kt K — B 2. K— R K— Kt i.) shown Example 5P — B6. K— Kt i.. however. K— B into ch. but by giving his Pawn up he Thus can win the other Pawn and the game. KxP. 3 K-B 4. K-Q4. K— R 6 (if K— B K— R i 2.K-B2. the only way to win is the one given here. 3K-B5. as against 16 16 18 P— Kt 6. 14 K x P.) : White can win. P— Kt 6 ch. 13 K— B 7. i. 7. This ending. fact. K— Kt i. 6 K— K 7.PAWN ENDINGS which governs this 15 all ending as well as the Pawn- endings already given. . 4 P— Kt K— K3. and White queens the PawTi and wins.6K— K4. K— R2. 2 (If this Pawn in is kept back we arrive at the ending 7. K— Kt 2.

no good reason against no of advancing the Pawn Thus we begin by I.K-K2. — thai has Pawn opposing P-B 5. whenever there it. P—R 3 . 3. 2. it.^ i m. and student. P. . . even when there are hardly any pieces playing against an adversary the resources at his disposal.^ fs^. P—B and we have a If i . ^^ ^ ^^ wm.i6 PAWN ENDINGS left.K-B2. the necessity of when to use who knows how it should show the strict attention paying to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess. similar ending . 2 P-Kt 2. also. K-K5. Example 9. — In this ending ^^ wm. If P — Kt 5- 3. but it is convenient to follow the is general rule. to one of those shown above. 6.Kt K-K 5. m ^ Mi m ^_^ of the three tf^^^^^^^p^^^^ White can win by advancing any on the first Pawns move.

. Thus we have I. then result. P—B 6 ch with the same Having now seen the all on one side of the a case when there are board. 4 P-B 6..P-Kt P — Kt 3..P— Kt 3. perior forces.^ ^m^ » WWW ^_ «^M 4. R PX P. when the Pa\ATis are board we shall now examine Pawns on both sides of the cases Example 10. — In att these cases the general rule the side wliere is to act immediately you have the su- ^m^ ^m. P— KKt . and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.. and 3. 4. 4.PAWN ENDINGS If 17 if 3.. 4 6 ch.P-R 3.. P-R5. — Kt P X P 6 we have the same ending previously Should Black play . and by following it up with P showTi.

P — R P— Kt and 6.P-R4. 4.K If 3. If 7 6.i8 PAWrN ENDINGS advance the It is generally advisable to Pawn that is free from opposition. K-Kt 2. .. then the two to the Pawns defend themselves and White can go other side with his ELing. In this case either way wins. then simple counting will show that side with his King. but generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King 2. win the Black Pawn and Queen the is Pawn. 5. K-K3. his single White goes to the other wms the P at Q R and then Queens Pawn long before Black can do the same. is far away.P — R 3. — Kt 4. . 5'K-B K— B 6. 3. 3. 2. P-QR4. P-Kt 5. to win the other Pawn. K-B3. typical of all such endings in this case and should be worked and in similar cases by the student which he can put up. single Now This out it is time to go to the other side with the King. I P-QR4. 7. K-K5. 5. K-B 2. and now White considers whether or not he should stop the advance.. Black makes an advance on the other side. .

2QxPch. and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q— R 6 and to mate at i. shall However. we devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game.. 4R— R8 mate.. to get to anxious the actual game and play with all the pieces.R— Ki..R— K threatening Kt 7. K— Kti. and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game. \dz.SO:\IE WINNING POSITIONS GAME 19 4. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLEthe time the student has digested all is By that has been previously explained. I. Black plays of i. he.. Example 11. before considering the openings. .. mate by way and most K R— K 8.m* ^ 5 _« P « «. to ^.KxQ..„„ a . no doubt. once he becomes better acquainted with it. 3R— Rsch. .. s It is Black's move. White now uncovers his real effective threat.

.. King moves 3...///y i B. mate. he therefore plays Kt X Kt B — Kt 4 He by cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate QXP if ch followed by 2.20 SOME WINNING POSITIONS may come as the of This same type of combination result a somewhat more compHcated position.^. and miless he can win will lose . QXP R—R 3 ch. 3 ch. QxKt KXQ . —R 8 RX Q Q-Q7 P. Again B X Kt . 4..y.. 1 I ^^^ 1 it ^^ White is a piece behind. and should therefore easily. These two examples show the . Bx R of and White wins one with a the two Bishops. Example -f/Miii '-^Jm^ 1/^^^ *" <. Kt— Kych ... R—R ch. 12.^S. back quickly he 1. remains Q and a win B against a R and B..

Kt — B 6ch PxKt K—R I Forced. Example curs in 14. WTiite. mates in a few moves thus I. QXP mates.IN THE MIDDLE-GAME 21 danger of advancing the having Castled on that K Kt P one square. is another very interesting t>pe of combina- Black has a R is for a Kt and in fact. otherwise 2. 3. should therefore win. unless White tion able to obtain some compensa- immediately. — The same t>Toe of combination oc- a more complicated form in the following position. after side. W! m ^ W _»^ i - i This tion. Example 13. Q— Kt 3 ch B X P mate. .

2. . threatens mate. . Kt— B BXP 6ch Px Kt I 3.wm. QX 3 is B. and there- fore wins the Q. —A very frequent type of combina- shown in the following position.6^ If . which already attacked. mn." . . K— R 4.22 SOME WINNING POSITIONS W . B X Kt B X Kt Q — B 1. Example tion is 15. m m ^M . R— Kt3 ch mate. ''mm.^u.

K— B 3. sBxPch. — This same t5TDe of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the foUowmg 1 p^rjl 'tf#j ^1 % i fcli i iy B. 2 Q-K i. SBxPch.K-R1. 5 Kt— Kt 5.) Q— R a R. 7 P — Kt 5 ch. i. K— Kt i. wins. K— K 3. B ^ n^m ^m ^ '^^L ^P B H ^'H^^ft:^^^^^^ 1^^. RxB. 16. 3 Kt— Kt and Black cannot stop mate at except by sacrificing the Queen by Q— K which would leave White with a Q for Example position. 7 R B x P ch. 5.IN Here White THE MIDDLE-GAME is 23 the exchange : and a Pawn behind. Kt X .ij 1 1 White proceeds as follows clears the line for the B) . 2 . K X B. 6 Q — R 7 ch. i but he can win quickly thus (If I.. K— Kt KR 5. 9 Q— K 4 mate. Kt X Kt ch (this B X Kt (to stop the Kt : i from moving to Kt 2 5 after the sacrifice of the ...K-R 6. K X B. P — KKts. R — B i RX B.. -^ 1^ V? h r i:.. 4 Q-R5. P-K Kt3.) 4 Q— R 5 ch. B) R best 3 B X P ch. 5. K— Kt 2. (If 3. 3 Q— R 2 and 5 ch.

most cases . which have been brought to bear against a weak point.24 6 8 RELATIVE WALVE OF THE PIECES 7 ch. There is no complete and accurate table the only thing to do arately. knowing the tyjDe combination. and has many of vari- therefore a beginner will hardly be able to it. It will be seen that all the combina- shown have for a foundation the proper co-ordiall nation of the pieces. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES advisable to give the student an idea Before going on to the general principles of the openings. . 7 Q— R Kt — R K — B i. and in combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the Knight will be. though it is my opinion that the Bishop will prove the in more valuable piece Knights. it is of the proper relative value of the pieces. i Kt— Kt i. K— Q 10 Q X Kt mate. and it is well known that two Bishops are almost always better than two The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the KLnight. he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a briUiant attack which he would otherwise never think tions of. i. 5. fathom but. is for all of them. K— K 2. rather long This combination ations. 7 Q— R 8 ch. and to compare the pieces sep- For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be considered as of the same value. 9 R— K is ch. ch.

as said before. Get them into play as fast as you can. but a Queen and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop. so. be worth more than three PawTis. as no other move accomplishes so much. From the outset two moves. becomes an offensive piece once the board. when there are one or two minor pieces reached. Therefore.RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES 25 A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook. The power of the off. or a Bishop and two Pawns. The King. of these two moves must be first the best. The handling of the King becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage 6. iP— K4oriP Q4. — open up lines for the theoretically one Queen and a Bishop. increases. are slightly weaker than two little Knights and a more so than two Bishops and of the a Knight. but. a purely pieces are off the defensive piece throughout the all middle-game. are slightly Two Rooks They Bishop. on the contrary. Knight decreases as the pieces are changed The power Rook. the be a better piece against the Rook. but a Knight very seldom and may even not be A Rook Bishop will will be worth a Knight and two Pawns. and sometimes even left. and a stronger than a Queen. . A Bishop will often worth so much. is GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING The main thing is to drcclop the pieces quickly.

5- 0-0 way of an indirect preventing will 5. 4 B-Kt5 same manner. more experience or study the same time the Rook centre. but advisable whenever possible to combine development and attack.. B-Kt5 advisable is // is generally not to bring this Bishop King's out until one Knight out. threatening a pos- Black sible replies in the exchange of Bishop for Knight with Kt XP to follow. Example — Suppose 3 we begin P — K4 2.26 GENERAL STRATEGY 17.BxKt. . preferably the also Knight. which to be bad. Kt-B3 Kt-B3 These moves are of a purely developing nature. 1. Black can now either reply with the identical move or play 2 Kt— QB3 This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn. to The Bishop could it is have been played B 4. 3.. Kt— KB P— K4 This is both an attacking and a developing move. is show At brought into action in the a very important point. 4.

to notice three things. 7.) Second. tect to profor the the King's Pawn and to open the diagonal development of the Queen's Bishop. As a rule. (There lose if is a long analysis showing that Black should he also plays B — Kt as 5. ^ i^ A very powerful move.BxKt. a ^ W M « A l«i m. " 2 t» ' W(im m wn^i '-" ' w mmj^m mm > -mm. Black follows the same 6. or twelve up to ten moves in some very exceptional cases. eight should be enough.'-1... B-Kt5 'm . Black has .OF THE OPENING 5 27 0-0 line of reasoning. complete development of the opening (This varies has taken only seven moves. as there is already in view a combination 5. P-Q3 P-Q3 viz. » mm. : These moves have a two-fold object. thus bringing First. up the experience has shown.) He is now forced to play 7. which brings us to the middlegame stage. to win quickly by Kt — Q This threat makes it impossible for Black to continue the same course.

is and control The of these control of squares called control of the centre. the game. unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage or to secure freedom of action.^ initiative. puts Black on the defensive. Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which the student should bear in mind. is is (This. four squares. . as ence will show. The beginner would do well as well to remember : this. but as a compensation he has isolated White's and doubled a Pawn. cation varies according to the circumstances. the centre is of great importance. and thus keeps the tionable advantage. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE The tively. bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops. K 4 and Q 4 on each side respec- are the centre squares.. White by the exchange brings up a Pawn the square Q 4. 77. as what has already been stated viz. as the Pawn doubled towards the centre of the board. at such an early stage rather an advantage for White.28 CONTROL OF THE CENTRE QRP of been compelled to exchange a Bishop for a Knight. to control experi- an unques- The same strategical principles expounded above are the only their tactical appli- for all the openings. p. Before development has been completed no piece should he moved more than once. 7.) Third. No violent attack can succeed without controlling at least two of these ^ The value of the initiative is explained in section 20.

since will often be moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. it which invariably ensures the It is well always to bear this in mind. But on prin- . The student will in that way train his at mind in the proper direction. 3 immediately and strives to control the centre so as to have ample room to Kt-Q2 move to Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text Kt — Q B 3. 3- P-Q4 offensive White takes the deploy his forces.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE squares. whenever possible. 29 and possibly three. On openings. At the reason of a series of present I shall devote some time to openings taken random and explain the moves according to general principles. which would be the more natural square for the Kt. and will thus have less trouble in finding a way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation. Example 18. As this book progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. its sole object the control of the initiative. Black assumes a defensive attitude wrong. Many a manoeu\Te in the opening has for centre. pieces should he moved in preference to Paums. 2. In the at once. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 principle the P— K4 P — Q3 move is A timid move. 1.

It should be noticed that The reason is and through the move Black to play P—Q B threatens 3 to make room i. PxKt. 6 KtxKt. 4. because it blocks the action of facihtating the of the Queen's Bishop. Q — R and White wins a Pawn and has besides a 5.30 ciple the CONTROL OF THE CENTRE move is wrong. R— Qi -O P-B3 Q-B 2 his With this last is move White completes development. tends. while Black evidently somewhat hampered.PXP. . for the Queen as White R— Q 7 8. first. — Kt 2. A simple examination will suffice to show that White's position . on the contrary. - perfectly safe position. Kt X P because of with 4. B— QB 4 P— KR3 of his previous Black is forced to pay the penalty move. 6 Q-Q 5). thus abandoning the centre to White. 5 and Black could hot stop 5 (if 7 P X P... White threatened Kt it . and instead action of Black's pieces. K3 Q— K2 that he wants last B— KKt — B3 B — K2 White does not Castle to deploy his forces force yet. Kt — B3 6. 5. to be followed other alternatives would finally by P X P. to cramp them.B — K 5. 9. 7. Black's force him to play PX P. itself Such a move on Black's part condemns by any form of opening that makes it necessary.

3. given by WTiether the moves me agree or not with the standard works. and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. BxKt . 4. QxB B — QB4 Q — Q Kt 3 PxP Q-B3 wins a Pa\\Ti. It will The student should carefully show him that it is someI times convenient to delay Castling. If Kt — B 3 . I this do not know. 2. study this example. There are no weak spots in his armour. unless there is some compensation. P— K4 Kt— KB 3 P-Q4 P— K4 P— Q3 B-Kt5 least A bad move. Example 19. and also because in the it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight. 6.CONTROL OF THE CENTRE is 31 unassailable.P X P loses a 5. have given the moves as they come to my mind without following any standard book on openings. . which violates one of the principles set down. 1. according to which at one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are brought out. PxP Pawn. which is opening generally bad. but at the present stage of it book is not convenient to enter into discussions of mere technicalities which the student will be able to under- stand when he has become more proficient.

has no pieces out except his Queen. Q-QKt3 Kt-B3 5- P-QKt3 P-QB3 To prevent Kt— Q i^ m.mj^^^^ * ^^ • p^ 1^ ™ P""" ^p Black.32 7. TRAPS which (practice has shown) I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings. The student is to work out the many variations arising from position. .. has a chance of obtaining an advantage quickly by playing Kt Q 5 anyway. which are moves very commonly in- dulged in by beginners.. is The student warned against playing Pawns in preference to pieces K R 3 at the beginning of the game. — left this These examples will show the practical appHcation of the principles previously enunciated.. 8. with a Bishop and a Knight already developed. and in beginners are often caught. however.. especially P— and P —Q R 3. TRAPS 8.. and White....

4. PxP Kt y KtxP BX Q Black should have recaptured with the Pawn.>: -^^Wm W '.TRAPS Example 20. Kt 3. . 2.A»i.4 M ^m iP PI €m White plays: 1. 33 •aigli i *«a^." . K— K2 Example 21.^^-t-^: . BxPch Kt — Q 5 mate.

There are a good many other traps is — in fact. there a book written on traps on the chess board. having the move. is but the type given above the most common of all. I 2. should play P— K 3. KxB Kt — K 5 ch K moves 3.34 TRAPS Black. . and the beginner at any rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative advantage in position. the threat being of course ifBxQ. because of QX B. KtxB and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position. B—K White's 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. B—R 5 help matters. Nor i . Kt — ch KB 3 instead. But suppose he plays 1. . 2BXP 2 mate. But move in the text secures an immediate material advantage. then comes — B XP Kt — does K 5 would also give White the advantage.

so that the ad- vance this may not only be gradual but homogeneous. finally to the openings once more.e. ^^^ '^^^ ^ m^^ ^ F ^m^^^l. free to advance the Pawn that is from opposition.CHAPTER II Further Principles in End-Game Play We and shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles. either because he does not know this principle or 35 because he . 9. But suppose that White. In way the foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and solid. governs such cases. ^ k In the position shown above. White can draw by playing P— Kt 4 according to the general rule that i. then again to the middle-game. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE ^ 'fm wm.

it can be applied in much many ways. In this case one Pawn would It hold two of the oplay too The student cannot on this principle.) 3. Then Black can win by playing . Example cient proof. won by classical and which constitutes one of the endings of King and Pawns. stress unit thai holds two. K—B 5 see why. we say. P — R4 P — QR4 2 2. 22. to those not familiar with .36 A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE suppose.) 4 PXP P — Kt6 P — Kt 7 4. P-R8(Q) Q-Ksch KXQ QX Q is This brings the game to a position which Black. K— Kt (Best . 4. P-R7 P-Kt8(Q) 8. in this case. P — R5 P — R6 6. applying one of the cardinal prmciples of the high strategy of chess — A ponent's Pawns. guiding idea of it I shall try to explain the it. and in the constitutes one of the principal weapons hands of a master. that he plays i . 7. P — Kt (Best. sufficiently appreciate the value of its application. does not. — The example given should be suffi- ation : — We give a few moves of the main vari- 1. p_Q R P—Q R I 4. 5.

1. P-Kt 3 Tsill win.) If 2 K— Kt3 K— Kt K-Kt K-B 7. As soon as the easier for Black to win. . plan to win (supposing that WTiite does not advance Pawn) may be divided into three part will be to get his King to K R 6. P-R 4. 37 A CLASSICAL ENDDsG Example at 23. since. Black's parts. Pawn is advanced it becomes On the other hand. his all The first at the same time (This it keeping intact the position of his Pawns.A CLASSICAL ENDING 10. — In this position WTiite's best line of defence consists in keeping his Pawn where it stands R 2. K — K6 3 2 4. is essential at the his rearmost end that Black may be able to advance Pawn one or two squares according to the position of the White King. important. 2. in is order to win the game.

5. K— Ri K-Kt I P — R4 P — R5 This ends the second part./^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^P ^^(^ ^^p ^^ ^^p 0^ i^^p ^ ™ The second part advancing the 6. 4.38 2 3. ^^p ^» ^^p ^^ ^^ ^^ P F^ 'P will consist in ^^P ^^P will be short and R P up the K. ^P*P*«*g . B B B B H B i B B B^^H^^1 ^^ ^^ J ^^^iS^„^. 7. A CLASSICAL ENDING K-B K— Kt K— Kt 2 2 I K-B5 K— Kts K— R 5 K— R6 The first part has been completed.

P-KT5 P — Kt6 If K— Kt I. It is in this analytical try to learn. K-Kt 10. II 12. as White's move. . K— Ri P— Kt 7. the since the Pawn will be advanced two squares if it White King one square will be in the comer. K— R Px P I P — Kt4 I 9. as indicated previously. 11. 8.A CLASSICAL ENDING The third part the Kt P so as King sary is 39 will consist in timing the advance of 6 to play It P — Kt when the White at R to it is necesnow becomes evident be able to move the Kt P either one or I. The next subject we * shall study is the simple oppo- See page 37. but were now Black's move the Kt P the should only be ad^ WTiite vanced since King is at Kt I. logical He will thus train his mind to follow a sequence in reasoning out any position. is This example it excellent training.^ of the WTiite it is In this case. how two squares according to the position King. K— Kt K—B 2 I PXP P — Kt 7 K — R7 way that the student shovdd and wins. since it is easy to di\'ide into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. 13.

40
sition,

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
but before we devote our time to
it

I wish to

call attention to

two

things.

11.

OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN
more PawTis are opposed
to each

When
there
is

three or

other in some such position as the one in Example 24,

always a chance for one side or the other of

obtaining a passed Pawn.

WM:

m

M '^m ^m..^^^^^m^^^^m

m

illl

m^ «
Wa

M^

^w
m.

^^^^^^^^^^ ,^
^m

^m

^m

Example
Pawn.

24.

— In

the above position the

way

of

obtaining a passed

Pawn

is

to advance the centre

1.

P — Kt6

RPxP
PxBP
White Pawn
is

If

B

PxP;
2.

P—R

6,

3.

P — B6 P — R6
case the
of

and as

in

this

nearer

to
will

Queen than any

the

Black Pawns, White

WHICH PAWN FIRST TO QUEEN
win.

41

Now

if

it

had been Black's move Black could

play
I

P-Kt3

2.

BPxP

BPxP
to try to obtain a passed

It

would not be advisable

Pawn

because the White Pawns would be nearer to
single

Queen than the
3.

Black Pawn.

Px

P

PxP
The

and the game properly played would be a draw.
student should work this out for himself.

12.

HOW TO

FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN
are free, or will be free, to ad-

When two Pawns
Pawn
will

vance to Queen, you can find out, by counting, which
be the
25.
first

to succeed.
this position

Example
wins.

— In

whoever moves

first

42

WTIICH
The
first

PAWN
is

FIRST TO QUEEN
by counting, whether

thing

to find out,

the opposing King can be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it cannot

be done, the point
first.

is

to count
is

which Pawn comes

in

In this case the tune

the same, but the
first

Pawn

that reaches the eighth square

and becomes a

Queen

is

in

a position to capture the adversary's

Queen when he makes one.
1.

Thus

P — R4

P-KR4
P-R5 PXP
White can capture
so,

2.

3.

P-R5 P— Kt6
httle calculation.
if

Now
ing,

comes a

the Pawn, but

he does

he

will not,

when Queen-

command
Pawn.

the square where Black will also Queen

his

Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:
4.
5.

6.

P-R6 P — R7 P — R8

P-R6 P-R7
(Q),

and wins.
well
to

The student would do

acquamt hunself

with various simple endings of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to know
with ease when he can or cannot get there
again I must
call
first.

Once

attention to the fact that a book

cannot by
as a guide,

itself

teach

how

to play.

It

can only serve

and

if

must be learned by experience, a teacher can be had at the same time, so much
and the
rest

the faster will the student be able to learn.

THE OPPOSITION
13.

43

THE OPPOSITION
King into a position
similar to the

When
by

Kings have to be moved, and one player can,

force, bring his

one shown in the following diagram, so that his adversary
is

forced to

move and make way
is

for him, the

player obtaining that advantage
opposition.

said to

have

the

^^^^^^^

^—^^?^^^
^^

^^
^m.^

^^

M.

^m.^^^m^^^m

Example
plays

26.

— Suppose
K-Q4
WTiite

in the

above position White

I.

Now
or,
if

Black has the option of either opposing the
of

passage

the

Kmg

by playing
the

K— Q

3

he prefers, he can pass wdth his

own King
Kings are

by replying

K— B

4.

Notice that

directly opposed to

each other, and the number of

intervening squares between
this case.

them

is

odd

— one

in

The

opposition can take the form shown

above,

44

THE OPPOSITION
close frontal opposition

which can be called actual or
or this form:

^—"J

^ ^ ^ ^
which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition,
or, again, this

^p

p

^

form

« ^ ^ ^" « " A
i
.

^P P P ^ ^p ^p
which can be called actual or close
In practice they are
all

P
lateral opposition.

one and the same.

The
Kings,

Kings are always on squares of the same colour, there
is

only one intervening square between the

and the player who has moved

last ^^has the opposition.^^

if 45 the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as in a game in the same frontal. all at times somewhat complicated forms. W ^„M„^^_ 'm W W ^„„„„ \' ^^ ^^ m ^1^ m^ Example tage the 27. we shall have what may be called distant frontal.THE OPPOSITION Now. The matter and takes of of the opposition is highly important. '^M. for the present.) In simple forms of opposition. which can be solved mathematically. diagonal or lateral line respectively shown in the dia- grams. the student should only consider the most simple forms. but. of (An examination of some of the examples King and Pawns endings already given will show all several cases of close opposition. diagonal and lateral opposition respectively. the player who has the the opposition. The . when the Kings are on move has the same line and the number of intervening squares between them is even. — The above position shows to advanof enormous value the opposition.

only lead to a draw. Notice that the Kings are directly in front of one another. Very little is left on the board.. and the position. to begin is The proper way to move straight up. I. 3. therefore White takes the latter course and K — B4 K— Kt3 will win. thereby keeping the opposition. process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above. 5K— Kt5 K— K5 it K— Kt 2 be seen that White wins by Now by The counting will capturing Black's Knight Pawn. If4.. Mere counting will will show that the former course plays 4. Who- move wins. 5. 2. K— K2 K-K3 K— K4 K— K2 K-K3 K-B3 his King. to a beginner. or of playing N6w White can 5 exercise the option of either playing K— Q K— B and thus passing with 4 and prevent the Black King from passing.46 position is THE OPPOSITION very simple. but Black has other Unes of . probably looks absolutely even. ever has tlie It is not the case.K— K3. however. and that the number of intervening squares is even. Now Thus: as to the procedure to win such a position.

or if 2 K— K3. the White King must advance. because then Black.THE OPPOSITION defence more difficult to 47 overcome. you must advance. would obtain the opposition. and Black obtains the opposition in (WTien the Kings are directly in tront of one another. similar It is White's turn to play a move 3. K—B 3 K— K 2 Now. K-K3 first which brings the position back to the shown. self variation The student would do It often well to familiarise himin all with the handling of the King examples of losing of opposition. Therefore it is seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called have — move. is B 3. K— K2 Nowif 2K— Q3. 2. Let us begin anew. viz. is only one other square where he can go. .) Now There in order to win. and that waiting or file the right place. means the winning or a game. to Black's first move. Therefore we 2. the player who has moved has the opposition. it would be bad to advance. and the number is of intervening squares between the Kings last odd. by bringing up his King in front of your King. K — Qi 2. K— Q I. leaving a rank free between the Kings. K— K both cases.

own Pawn if B 3. 2. — The following position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of %^ «^ ilJ^ wm me. : hence he takes the distant opposition 1 2 K— B K— B I (actual or close opposition). Example defence.^^ m m ^m^m^. a Pawn behind and apparently lost. 6 and White cannot continue to at keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety. yet he can manage to draw as follows 1. m White is jm. K— Ri! Pawns does not permit White in effect if The to position of the draw by means of the actual or close opposition. K— Q move. K-Q7 K— Q6 K-K7 .48 THE OPPOSITION 28. K— Q 7. because of his after the text I 2. On the other hand. K— R2 K-R3I 3.

if K— Ri P — Kt5 White does not play P X P. Going back to the original position.^ he will realise that in the matter of the opposition is all of them paramount imporall tance . ^ See page 13. —K 5 will K— Kt2 ch. 3.. 49 K— Kt2 K-Kt3 K— K6 K-Q5 forcing Black to play 6 .. except position in itself in such cases where the Pawn- ensures the win. it is in nearly endings of King and Pawns. and always keep the opposition. as. will PXP will P-K5 show that both sides and mere counting drawing the game. but plays 2. 6. 1. by K— K 4. . attacking the K— K 6 when he can go back to Kt 3 as already shown. If the Queen. KxP. 5.PXP draw. K— Kt 4 Pawn and .THE OPPOSITION 4. in fact. student will now take the trouble to go back I to the examples of King and Pawns which of have given in this book. because P win. 3 K— Q7 followed If 2.

but in the following position. — In the above position White cannot King is win. under certain conditions of course. I.so 14. m »__•___•__»- ^"'"W^ Example 29. Thus : Kt — Kt6 P — R5 . '^""""' '^m. but. they can do the opponent has one or more Pawns. White wins with or without the move. in which Black has a Pawn. although the Black cornered. THE RELATIVE VALUE THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP it is Before turning our attention to this matter weU so if to state now that two Knights alone cannot mate.

. 5- Kt-Kt5 — B 7 mate eviaent. that when a square of opposite colour in front of the the Rook's Pawn Queens on is and the opposing King Bishop is Pawn. Kt-K5 Kt — B Kt 6 3- P-R6 P — R7 P-R8(Q) is 4. unless Black a Pawn is which can he moved.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP White cannot take the Pa\\Ti because the 51 game will be drawn. The reason White with for this pecuHarity in chess the two Knights can only stalemate the Jias King. —Although he ahead the following position cannot be won by WTiite. as explained before. 2. All that Black has to close to the do is to keep moving his King comer square. a Bishop and a Pa\\'n Example 30. the absolutely worthless. WM i i w M pi mm It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop.

the generally overlooked that the Knight. 31. 345- — Kt 4 ch P— Kt4 K— B P — R7 K— B 2 Kt I K — Ry K— R8 Kt-K3 Kt B I Kt X P mate we have the P-Kt5 6. However. merits analyse different and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop. I. at any one time. unlike the Bishop. 2. the Knight can command fact is both Black and White squares. the chief reason being that. — In the above position White with or Take the most difficult without the move can win. It is is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight the more valuable piece of the two. .52 THE RELATIVE VALUE M m ™ ^ W i Example variation. 7- — P— Kt6ch we Now can that seen these exceptional cases.

to bring a It takes 53 longer Also. like Pillsbury ferred Knights to Bishops. much Knight from one wing to the other. in as shown the following Example. ^P ^m P ^m ^M ^m i ^ ^ The weaker is the player the more terrible the Knight to him. and of course there is. stalemate a Knight is a compliment which the Knight unable to return. the masters of to-day are far ahead of the masters of former generations. a corresponding decrease in his estimation of the ^'alue of the Knight as compared to the Bishop. a Bishop can . to-day . In this respect. but as a player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident to him. prehardly a master of agree with the state- who would not completely ments made above. or should be. as in many others. While not so long ago some of the very best amongst them. Example 32.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP has the choice of one colour only. there is and Tchigorin.

While on this subject. Knight is more valuable than the Bishop. generally. mistake often made by players. there his Bishop. on both sides of the in having a Knight. and consequently the value of the Bishop diminished. is an a extra source of weakness for WTiite in having his Pawns is on the same colour-squares as This The proper way. since the value of a piece can often be measured by the number of squares it commands. in an ending. Of course. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same is colour the action of your own Bishop limited by is them. I shall also call attention to the . is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that of your own Bishop.) there were Pawns board there would be no advantage In such a position Black has excellent chances of winning. — m ™^ ^ i« « ^ i ^ It is ^^ imi ^ ^''^ what is called a '^hlock position (If and all the Pawns are on one side of the board.54 THE RELATIVE VALUE This is about the only case when the Example 33.

' . Example 34. these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the exigencies of the position.j i ill i im 4mM M 4b_ .-^ ^. keep your the Pawns on squares of same colour as your opponent's Whenever you Imve a has also one or not. BisJiop. <mA- m MA milaf^... wJiether the opponent keep your Paivns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop.. the opponent has a Bisliop.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP fact that it is 55 generally preferable to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour if as that of the opposing Bishop. The game should surelv end in a draw. in having either a no advantage Knight or a Bishop. The might be stated thus When Bisliop. Naturally. — In the following position and there is the Pa\Mis are on one side of the board. particularly they are passed Pawns supprinciples ported by the King.

Example — Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position. wm m^ 2 mm. though if the position. properly played out. ^^ mm » mm m mm J "9 m «^Wm^™ ^ ^m '^i A ft P 4m& -mm W W^ ^^ F . should end in a of having the draw..56 THE RELATIVE VALUE 36. so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board. both its sides of the board from a central position as in abihty to move quickly from one ~m side of the board to the other.^Mi_ It is now preferable to have the Bishop. at long range. The advantage in its ability to Bishop Hes as much command. M^Ai>?''^# & P^^rf iiJ fil*^ i mm \ i m .

White has three it to two. Q R P at all.OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP Example 36 57 it — In the above position is un- questionably an advantage to have the Bishop. on the King's the side. — Here is is a position in which to have the Bishop a decided advantage. in with proper play. because. side is Black that has three two. since not only are there Pawms on both sides of the board. he can do . but there is a passed Black). while on to Queen's Still. Pawn (K R P if for WTiite. Example 37. although each player has the same number of Pawns. though White has somewhat better chances. Thus. the game should end a draw. they are not balanced on each side of the board. for Black should have extreme it difficulty in drawing this position.

I might say generally. Example — Again Black would have great this position. to the general method wiU of procedure. a teacher. or practical experience. however. and requires different handhng. according to Calculation will count. as in ings.58 VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP 38. in their true value. diffi' culty in drawing 'P P P P § » tions. is Each to ending different. the relative merits of the Knight and Bishop. To give a fixed line of play would be folly. what the adversary proposes visuaHsing the future positions by is what . do. and rapid advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their safety. is : similar end- Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the passed Pawns. P The student should I carefully consider these posi- hope that the many examples As will help him to understand. be best. or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked. that the all proper course in these endings.

against a Rook. — In 8. Part one consists in driving the Black King done to the last line. 3. and the openings. Black. 59 HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP before going back again to the middle-game let Now.MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP 15. us see and Bishop. We might begin. K— K2 make it K — Q2 more difficult. then. in all such cases. given in the earners of the how to mate with Knight how to win with a Queen the With a Knight and a Bishop same mate can only be as the Bishop. this example we must mate either QR I or KR The ending can be divided mto two parts. K-Q3 B-B4 K-B3 K-Q4 . in order to goes towards the white-squared comer: 2. as is generally to the by advancmg the King centre of the board I. colotir Example at 39. and.

will consist in driving the QR8toQRiorKR8m i will QR be the quickest in this Kt — Kt6ch 11. The second and last part Black King now from order to mate him. 9. one by 14 B—K . has two ways to prevent that. HOW TO Kt— K 2 Kt-B3 IMATE WITH K— B 4 K-Kt5 6. the Black King in the white-squared corner. 12. B—B 7 B — Kt8 K — R2 K — R3 K — R4 Kt-Q5 make for K-R 5 Black tries to KR i with his King. K— Q4 K-B5 K-B 6 Kt— Q5 is 8. 5. 7. K— R4 K-R3 K-R K— Ri 2 is The first part now over. 13.6o 4. 10. White 5. position.

25. 27. 19. and it requires foresight in order to accomphsh the .B 3 mate I - K--Kt6 K--B6 K--Kt6 K--R5 K--R4 K--R5 K--R6 K--R5 K--R6 K--R7 K--R6 K--R7 K--R8 K--R7 K--R8 is : It will be seen that the ending rather laborious. 23- B--B4 B--K5 K--B4 B--B 7ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt6 Kt-. 21. K--B5! Kt--Kt 4 1516. There are two outstanding features ing the close follow- by the King. 20. 28. K--Ba K--B 2 B--B 5ch Kt--Q3 B--Kt4 Kt--B ch B. and the other which as the text. 17- 18. because more methodical and more in accord with the the spirit of all these endings. 15 Kt — it K is 3.Kt 2 ch 24. and which I consider better for the student to learn. by using King as much as possible. as gives a very good idea of the actual power of the pieces. controlling of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop of the by the combined action The student would do well it to exercise himself methodically in this ending. and the Knight and King. 14. 26. 22. 29.A KNIGHT AND BISHOP 6i I give K — Kt 6 .

62 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK fifty mate within the the rules. moves which are granted by 16. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK difficult This is one of the most endings without Pawns.^^{ he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out why). and then the Rook would be compara- . when used (The rule skilfully only a very good player will prevail fifty within the limit of is moves allowed by the fifty that at any moment you may demand moves. If it Now. as ^«^^ ^M i^ ^ ^ '^^'W ^m^^^^m.) Pawn advanced the counting must begin Example move. The resources of the defence are many. 40. is that your opponent mate you within However. it is White's were Black's move it would be simple. every tune a piece exchanged or a afresh. — This is one of the standard positions which Black can often bring about. and rules.

(The beginner will invariably fall into this trap.. 3KXR. is required. 4 Q— K 5 ch. K to R I or to R 2 3. Once we know becomes easier to what find.) . 5- best 6. Not I 2 K — Kt 6. the way to proceed Thus I. in order to compel Black to do so.R— Kt 8.) I 2. we must bring about the position in the diagram with Black to move. otherwise the The Rook can only go first to a WTiite square. 7- Q— R8ch Q— Kt 7ch Q-Kt8ch Q—R 2 K-R2 K-Ri R-Kt I 8. Now we come will to the second part. mate (The student should find out by himself hov/ to win when 3. check with the Queen win it. K—R 2. 63 We to deduce from the above that the Black the main object is force Rook away from the defending King. The first part concluded. Q — R 6. because R — B 2 ch R— B3ch. Q— R ch Q-R5 I is K— Kt I In a few moves we have accomplished our object. Therefore 3- R— Kt6 Q-Ksch K—R I 4. and that.. Stalemate.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK lively easy to win. Q— K 5ch .

[ « ^. — The procedure here is very similar. m. — We shall now examine a more diffi- cult position. Example 42..^ ^^m^ ^^.64 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK ^^^ ^m^^^mWM^m i^^^^^ I ^^^^ ^ P P P ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Example 41. . ^m. . The things to bear in mind are that the i Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt because of an immediate mate. and in the same way the King must be prevented from going either to R 3 or B i.

similar to those in 4K— B6 leads to a position I Examples 40 and 4.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK Many players would be deceived is 65 by this position. that we have seen the difficulties of the situa- tion let us go back. but. King. Q— Kt 6ch. White.. The most likely looking move suppose we begin 1. unfortunately. Q— K5ch K— B K— Kt6 R— Q2 it I The only one. The best move is 1. cannot play 3 4 K— B 6. . 7. since he . a very effective makes very difficult for ... 8. quickly by 4 K— B Now 6. 6. 2. K — R 5 3K— R6! Q— K ch! 5 3. Q— K4ch K— Kt Q — B 4ch K — R 2 R— KKt 2 K— B 6 Q— R4ch K— Kt Q-R5 I . not the best. which defence. Thus 2. Q— Kt 2 5ch! K — Ri i. R — Kt 2 ch 6 because of 3 — Kt 3 ch draws.K— K R — Q 3 ch! driving back the WTiite Q— K i. 5.. K— Kt K — R 2 best R — R2!best 41.R— Kt2ch. IfK— R2. Nor can he win R 3 Q— Q B 5 ch because 3. If3.

5. The text move. K— Kt 2. Q 8. Also that the Queen and . K — B 7 K — Kt 6 would also win the Rook.K R2. Q— Kt ch K— B Q— Q8ch K— Kt 2 5 I 3. 1.. R— Kt6ch R — B 6ch R— KR6 K R 8. 6Q— K5 ch. 7. 5 K B 6 3. — would lead to positions similar to those already 4. in these examples. 4ch and the Rook Note. White threatened mate at 8. is given to show the finesse of such endings. seen.66 QUEEN AGAINST ROOK of and we have the position to move. Q— Q4ch K— B I K— Kt6 Q_Q 6 ch.. that the checks at long range along the diagonals have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. Kt 2 ch. 5 i however. K— Kt 5 R— B6 R— — The best place for the Rook away from the King. Let us go back again. White now threatens mate at 5 6. 4 Q— Q 4. Example 40 with Black 2. K— B 6 K— K6 Q— B is lost.

He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding further with the book. . 67 The student should carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not given in the text.QUEEN AGAINST ROOK King are often kept on different lines.

player to find. I beheve can be considered as easily occur again in positions that similar form. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS 68 . i. which all he might not be able to find at knowledge. may a somewhat is A knowledge of such positions one cannot know too many. .e. without such 17. with of great help It often in fact. the right move.CHAPTER III Planning a Win in Middle-Game Play I shall now give a few winning positions taken from games. may help the little effort. I my own have selected those that types.

at all. however.ATTACKING WITHOUT KNIGHTS Example plays I 2. RXP ch 5 K— B Ktx B I B—B ch 4. forceful White. B -Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves. — Black's last move was P — 5. and as he if a Kt and P behind he must win quickly. 69 is 43. R— Kt 8mate mm 'i''%M fi*->i m „ HiH M mm mm '^ iS9i Example 44. :R— Q R 5 to which he would have answered Q— B he ch and drawn the game by perpetual check. RXP 2 3. K 6. and mates in three moves as follows . — It is Black's move. 2 If. K— R I. played with the object of stopping what he thought was White's threat. He QR— Kt i! R— B ch . has a more move. viz. QX Q.

^1 W^^ i^^W. Q-R7ch Q X Kt ch 4. before Black consolidates his defensive position. ^^ if 45. He there- 2.70 1. 5. 8. R X P ch R— Q R 5 White mates QXR Black moves 3. RX Kt! Bx Pch RX PxR K— K2 helpless. — White has a beautiful position. but material. If Kt X B . . better gain some he can. ATTACKING WITHOUT 2.^M ^ ^ ^ Example still he had fore plays: 1. 7. RxR in In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops combination with the Queen. Kt and Black would be 3. K— Ki K— Q2 Q— K2 QxQ K-Ki Resigns Q-R7ch B — B8 R X Q ch 6.

'#^ ""^^^ « Example 46. and Black should * Full score and notes are given in Capablanca (Game No. Kt (B 5)xKtP Kt — B4 Evidently an error which made the winning easier for WTiite.THE AID OF KNIGHTS There have been no Knights to take part in 71 the attack. lose. P-B3(best). Black should have played i. White is two Pawns behind. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE ^^^^^. by R. The game tinues : — He con- I.KtxKt. must therefore press on his attack. K-B 2. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a prominent part as an attacking force. . K-Kta.. 5 KtxP. 4. 4 P- K 5. 18. ii). Then would have followed: 2 KtBdch. Chess Career..^ R-K My 2. 3 Kt X B. 6 Kt-K J. as he simply took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack.

as the sacrifice of the typical. K— R and if2.). K-Kt3 ch wins the Queen. Best. BXP ch 5 KxB ch 2.. 3 . . 3Q — R5. The game continues 1.. 3.K — Kti. — The is student should carefully ex- position. attack. If 2 .^ is This position elaborated under . Bishop in for it similar situations and the chance is frequent occurrence in actual play. Kt— Kt . 4.72 ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS " mm i W m i ^l(^B i Example amine the of 47. 3 Kt X P with an irresistible Q-Kt4 Q-Kt3 P-B4 K-R3 Example 50 (p 80. White * finally won.

and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. Very often. I ^^ '^F g Example is 48. Pawn as a means of ^^ A * 'I. in the middle- game attacks are made against a position or against pieces.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 19. Black is a Pawn behind. however. is of such positions of great im- portance. or even Pawns. 73 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK far given positions We have so where the attacks were of a violent nature and directed against the King's position. however. The student should carefullv . The minning of a strength often Paum among the good players of even the means Hence the study winning of game. are very well placed and free to act. We give below two positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere ultimately winning the game. and there no violent direct attack against White's King. — Black's pieces.

5. always keeping a text slight advantage in position. easier. The game continues: R— Ri P — QR4 move was P White's best follow Kt X B . 4. management I 2. B-Qsch K— Ri QR— Kt QxR Q-B5 Pawn.74 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK It consider this position and the subsequent moves. This threatens to win the Kt. ultimately win Q X Kt. RxB R-Qi will recover his Now Black . 5. therefore increases the pressure against Wnite's side. and thus forces White to give up the exchange. is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the of forces. 3 — Q Kt when would R — R 6 and Black would 3. 9. R X Kt P. The move makes matters 2 3. Q-K3 Q-Kt5 R-Kt5 B—Q I Threatening to win the exchange by 6. but he sees that there to be had. 8. KtxB QxKt Q-B5 KR— Qi KR— Kt is I Black could have regained the Pawn by more playing BX and Kt. 7. Queen He now threatens. among other thmgs. the Q R P.

Kt— Q 4! The game continues as follows: 1. QR — Qi.WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK 75 I Wi P M and 1 Example 49. Kt— Q4! PxKt Kt — Kt 5 2. if it we might conclude side. — of this position will lies in the exposed in the fact that his Q R were has not yet come into the game. Indeed. besides obtaining the better position. that he would have the better game. But P — Q Kt is 4 would make it difhcult for Black. on account of having three Pawns to two on the Queen's the long diagonal. The obvious move. might be good enough. Wliite's move. Black's move. Rx B . B —B 4. there another move which completely That move is upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn. and his Bishop commanding however. It is. and he has two courses to choose from. since after 2 iB — B4. An examination show that Black's main weakness position of his King.

at should be. a Pawn These positions have been given with the idea of acquaintmg the student with different types of combmations. and that the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their action with like precision. is if it is what the ideal middle-game play not so altogether in these examples. The student should positions. least. m all these middle-game once the opportunity is offered.76 WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK There is nothing better. 4. that — note. with the better position. into action '^en masse^'' all the pieces are thrown all when necessary. B — B 4ch K— R I R— K6 RXP P— Q6 is And ahead. machine- That. B—B 4. White. . as White threatened 3. a very necessary quaHty in a good player. I hope they will also help to develop his imagination. 5.

CHAPTER

IV

General Theory
Before we
it

revert to the technique of the openings
little

will

be ad\dsable to dwell a

on general theory,

so that the openings in their relation to the rest of the

game may be

better understood.

20.

THE INITIATIVE
on the board both
sides

As the

pieces are set

have

the same position and the same

amount

of material.

White, however, has the move, and the move in this
case

means

the

initiative^
is

and the

initiative,

other

things being equal,

an advantage.

Now

this ad-

vantage must be kept as long as possible, and should
only be given up
or positional,
is
if

some other advantage, material
its

obtained in

place.

WTiite, according
his pieces

to the principles already laid

down, develops

as fast as possible, but in so doing he also tries to

hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure wherever possible.

He
it

tries first of all to control

the_centre, and failing this to obtain

some

positional
to keep

advantage that

will

make

possible for

him

on harassing the enemy.
initiative

He
it

only relinquishes the

when he

gets for

some material ad\-antage
feel

under such favourable conditions as to make him
"

77

78

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
will, in turn,

assured that he

be able to withstand his
through his superiinitiative,

adversary's thrust;
ority of material,

and

finally,

once more resume the
give

which alone can
assertion
is

him the
since,

victory.
in

This last

self-evident,

order to

wm

the

game, the opposing King must be driven to a position

where he

is

attacked without having any

way

of escape.

Once the pieces have been properly developed the It may resulting positions may vary in character.
be that a direct attack against the King
or that
it

is

in order;

is

a case of improvuig a position already
or, finally,

advantageous;

that some material can be

gained at the cost of relinquishing the initiative for

a more or

less

prolonged period.

21.

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
case the attack

In the

first

must be

carried

on with

Under no sufficient force to guarantee consideration must a direct attack against the King
its success.

be carried on a outrance unless there
tainty in one's
failure in

is

absolute cer-

own mind

that

it

will succeed, since

such cases means disaster.

Example
diagram

50.

— A good example of a successful direct
is

attack against the King

shown

in the

following

In this position White could simply play

B—B

2

and
fers

still

have the better position, but instead he preside,

an immediate attack on the King's

with

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
a win.

79

the certaint)' in his mind that the attack will lead to

The game

continues thus:

^

12. 13.
14.

B X P

ch

KxB
K-Kt3
P — B4

Kt — Kt 5 ch Q— Kt 4

P — K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P— K 4; 15 Kt— K 6 ch, K — B 3; 16 P — B 4! P— K 5; 17 Q— Kt 5 ch, KxKt; 18 Q— K 5 ch, K — Q 2; 19 K R— Q i ch, Kt — B 3 (if K i, Kt — Q6ch Q6; 20 Ktx P,
Best.

K—
21

K—

wins the Queen)

;

RX
2

Kt,

QXR

;

22

K — Kt
^

3

(if

K— Q

mate

m

two)

;

R— B 23 Q — B

i

ch,

7

ch

and mate

in five

moves.

We

give,

may
take

familiarise himself with

from now on, games and notes, so that the student the many and varied considerations

that constantly are borne in
it

mind by the Chess Master.

We

must

for granted that the student has already reached a stage

where, while not being able fuUy to understand every move, yet he

can derive benefit from any discussion with regard to them.

So

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
15. 16.
17.

Q-Kt3

Q— R4ch Q— R7ch
P — K4 PX P

K-R3 K— Kt3 K— B3
Kt - Kt
3

If

KX

Kt

;

Q X Kt P
18.

ch and mate in a few moves.

19.

PxP
Kt— Q6 Kt(Q6)-B5

20. 21.

QR— Qi
Q-R3 Q— Kt3

22.
23.

KR— K
;

I

Q-B2 Kt — K 7 ch
..B

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not

be saved
ch,

in

any case
25

e.g. 23.

— K3; 24RXB

Ktx R;
24.

25.

26. 27.
28.

Kt— Q 5 mate. R X Kt QXQ K—B 2 Kt— R 7 ch R — Ri RPXQ K-B3 Kt— Kt 5 ch
P—B
4

Resigns

Example

51.

— Another
m

example

of this

kind

mm

m^Wm ,,„.W3, m

Wwfmm
^_^_j^|_

DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE
In the above position the simple move

8i

Kt X P

would win, but White looks for complications and
their beauties.

Such a course

is

highly risky until a

wide experience of actual master-play has developed

a

sufficient insight into all the possibiUties of

a position.
at
St.

This game, which

won

the

brilhancy prize

Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:
21.

B-R4
Kt X B

Q-Q2
Q X R

22.
^3-

Q— Q8ch
2; 24

Q— Ki
6 ch,

-B
24. 25-

Kt— Q

King moves;

25

B — Kych

K — B2

26.
If

Kt— Q6ch Kt— R4ch
;

K-Kt3
K — R4
5

28

26...K— R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) — B 5 ch, Kt X P ch, K- R 3 29 Kt (R 4) - B
3
;

K-R 4; ch, K-

Kt

30
27. 28.
29.

Q—Q

6 ch

and mate next move.

KtxQ
Kt X P ch Kt (Kt 7) - B
5

ch

RxQ K-R3 K-R4
B—
way

30-

P— KR3!
of the combination started with 21
is still
is

The climax

R 4.

White
it

threatening mate, and the best

to avoid

for

Black to give back

all

the material

he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note
the attack
is

that in the examples given

carried out with every available piece,

own mayour One on one of the best and most is successful noeuvres in this type of stration game then to make a demon- side. it is some of the variations pointed the coming into action of the last available piece that finally overthrows the enemy. such cases that means 22. For. as in and that out. with full force. is if may be in the opponent's position It there is none. in Failing the second case. since in defeat. holding the threat in hand. one must attempt to increase whatever weakness there or. forces the opponent to provide against its it. or be unable to parry. one or more must be created. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK an opportunity. to King must ensure their success. But once the no longer. all cannot he hroken of. so as to side. draw the through forces of opponent to that the greater mobihty of your pieces to shift your forces quickly . execution and to keep material in readiness to meet Thus he may more is easily overlook. his threat carried into effect. It strates the principle already stated demonhe Direct and violent attacks against the carried en masse. for direct attack.82 THE FORCE OF THE often. always an advantage to threaten something. a thrust at another point. but effect such threats must be carried into thing Is only if some- to be gained immediately. it exists and your opponent can devote his attention to schemes. the attack The opposition must he overcmne at all cost.

R.THREATENED ATTACK to the other side S3 before and break through. Blanco. (French Defence. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 Kt X P P-K3 P-Q4 PXP Kt— Q 2 KKt — B3 Ktx Kt Kt-KB3 Kt X Kt ch 6. 3. 1913. 7- Kt-K5 m A'-^ 1 ft & WS. 5. A good example of positional play is shown in the following game 52. R. to . your opponent has had the time to bring over the necessary forces for the defence. 2. Capablanca.) Black : J. mm mm M m s WM m»% This move was first shown to me by The the talented object is Venezuelan amateur. M. 4. Example White — Played at the Havana Interna- tional IMasters : Tournament. 1. Ayala.

m.A. and the violation of that principle this is the only objection that can be made to move. mend 7 8. and puts Black . i m. would have led to held his complications. 4 was the right move. iii m.±:m. Generally is bad the same piece twice in an opening before the other pieces are out. The text move accomplishes nothing. which is Black's usual it development to in this variation.84 THE FORCE OF THE Q Kt move 2. which otherwise has everything to recomit. prevent the development of Black's Queen's Bishop via after P — Q Kt 3.. White's play would be very difficult. move gives Black an opportunity of which he does not avail 8 P-B3 It P—B own.Aw The text B — K Kt himself 5 might be better. B-Q3 Q-B3 2 *"' 'y^yy//y^ mM.. in which Black might have at least.

position. Every move is make the weak King's Pawn uninactivity of the Black tenable. P—B 10. The . and the student can now directed to how the principles expounded previously are applied in this game. any sort. and White brings his pieces into most attacking position without hindrance of 11. whole plan will Now WTiite's be to exploit this weakness (the weak see K P). 14. in order to improve the position of White at other 13. or to profit by the pieces defending the PawTi. Kt— K The play alternative —Q 4. Otherwise White to would play Q— R Kt 3 and Black would be forced P— K (not P— K R 3.THREATENED ATTACK in 85 veiled threat an altogether defensive . He has lost much time. seriously weakening his King's side. Q— R 3 5 4 ch is easily met. but he has compelled Black to create a marked weakness. 16. 12. points. I B — Q3 was Kt 3. because of the sacrifice BX P). B — K Kt 0—0 B—K 2 too their The back fact that Black has now to move his Bishop clearly demonstrates that Black's plan of develis opment faulty. Q— R3 P— KB 4 White has no longer an attack. B X Kt followed by 9. B X B Qx I B 0-0 KR— K R— K2 R — B3 Kt — Q3 B — Q2 . 15.

P-Q5! KtxKt Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats B P X P would make matters worse. 23QxR. as the following variation shows: 19 Kt X B.S6 THE FORCE OF THE last the At Bishop comes out. but merely to 17. 11mi m X m m. which would be bad. there rule. . 18. Kt Q-Kt 4. QR— Ki P — QB 4 R— Ki Kt — B 2 A very clever move. and tempting White to play Kt X B. 21 — P2. PX Kt. '^^Mi 4^^^ 19. make way for the Rook.^m^m. RxB. followed by B X P. KR4. Q X Kt. as another. the White Bishop would finally bear on the weak King's Pawn ma Q B 4.PxQ. 22 P— K R 4. and no exception to the will be seen. tending to prevent P—B 5.K— R Kt 25 4. is one line of attack this anticipated. as of White. QX if P. But is it always happens in such is cases that. 24RxRch. not as an active attack- ing piece./ ^^^ ^ ^J^K. 20 B x P.

22. and also QX P Q-B3 better. P-Kt3 But Black wants to Q— Q White 3 was tempt to play regain his is P X P. I not the case. thinking that he will soon after Pawn with a safe position. Rx Kt Q— R4 Q— Q4 P— KKt3 K— Kt 2 P—B 4 Forced. in my for opinion. pieces are useless after this Bishop reaches Q . 87 21. however. PX K P. untenable. as White threatened 23. since pieces are tied up the defence of a to act. Such. 24. in must add that any case Black's position all his is. as White quickly demonstrates.THREATENED ATTACK 20. Black 5. B— K 2! All the The deciding and timely manoeuvre. Pawn. while WTiite's pieces are free PX P B—B I #$T^ 25.

winning. 3031. to advance P—R 29. 28. 5. R— K2 3. Dr. mark time with his pieces while Wliite prepares 5. and finally at the proper time to play RX B. If 30 32 34 to — B 5. in this if I Commenting on White's play Lasker said at the time that properly analysed it game.P 4. no way to improve upon These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature. White will now try to place Queen at K R 6. 31 Q— Kt K— Kt 2. White's play were might be found that there was it. 27.. as he has P— B 28. Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those positions caUing .. R— K 2. B—B 3 B-Q5 all BxP K— B 2 Q-Q3 the Black pieces are tied Now way his it is it evident that up. 4. and Black will soon be helpless. E. Q—R P-K R Q-Q 2. and only remains for White to find the quickest to force the issue. and then advance the K R P to R 5 in order to break up the Black Pawns defend- ing the King. 33P-K Kt 3. 29 Q — K R P — K R 4.PXP. 32. 33- Q-R6 KR4 P-R5 PxP RxB P— K— Kt P-R3 P-B5 PxP Resigns.8S FORCE OF THREATENED ATTACK 25 26. Q— K3 4.

PXP what I might be but at the time I was not familiar with that variation. and once repulsed to act quickly with all has been your forces and win this on material. 0-0 B X Kt ch 6. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE is In the third case. but to submit to the it opponent's attack for a while. Janowski. and therefore I played knew 7 8. is A good example of type of game given below. involving of pieces. J. Black: D. once the obtained.) White: R.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE sacrilices 89 for a brilliant direct attack against the King. 4. PxP Q-K2 R-Qi B-Kt 5 11. Havana International (Ruy Lopez. Capablanca. Kt — Q2 9. to be good. Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 3. 1913. P— Q4 Kt-B3 better. 1. — From P-K4 the Masters Tournament. 10. PxP 0—0 B-Q3 Q-Ki P-Kt3 Kt-KR4 . 5. 7. Example 53. 12. 23. there material advantage is nothing to do. P-K4 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 P-Qa PXB B—K 2 2.

it is on the part is evident that as far as White viz. defect in A " hole " in chess parlance has come to Pawn him or B. Black has two B 3 and 3.90 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE offers the Black to exchange in order to gain time and obtain an attack. K KR Kt . to win the exchange and then prepare to weather the storm. concerned there is only one thing to do. e.^ Such grand show hand of a master. B— R6 2 I 14. Pawn and relieving the position. in the following diagram. supported by pieces or Pawns. R— Q R— —Q B 4. 15. where White forces. QxB Kt-Q5 Kt. to act quickly with all forces the benefit of numerical superiority.. "holes" at Thus. P— QB 4 Kt-K3 17.K B - 3 was 18 19. 20. Q-Qi P P-QB4 Kt 2 In order to prevent but winning a R X Kt giving back the exchange. it is Then. a could establish themselves. formation which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or otherwise without the possibility of dislodging by Pawn moves. —Q 3 R — Kt mean a I In order to play ^ B — Kt without blocking his Rook.g. once to derive passed. 13. 18. Without considering at justified all whether or not such a course was of Black. BxR Kt— K3 better. Kt— Q Kt — B Kt R— Kt 4 I 5 To the force White to play P 5 for his and thus create a tactics hole at Q Knight. 16.

is In reality Black's attack force. 22. i m s WM WM y// \/^—'<^ 21. ^P wm '^**i^. ^y^/y/y^. If m '. reaching its maximum Very soon it will reach the apex. Kt— B3 PxP P-B4 PxP ^^ "^ mm The position begins to look really dangerous for WTiite. and then . and if he loses is due entirely to the fact that the sacrifice of the exchange.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is 91 adit mirable throughout this game. could not succeed against sound defensive play. without even a Pawn for it.

but he will soon prepare the way for it. i Now is the Black It prepared. R— Ki K2 R— K3 R (Q2) — P—B 3 1^ Wfm: „ wm.^ ^^^^ "' ^^^^ '''mm. Then. Bepres- sides. 25- He could Q— R 5 26. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is founded. 28. action. At ent White cannot with safety play RXK P. he wants to be ready to play P— K 5.. 27. 23- Kt— Bi Kt X Kt 24. he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn ahead. but White is now time to give back the exchange. '''. R-Ki not play R — K P — B5 B P X Kt B — Kt 2 P — B4 i because of RxQ P.92 RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE who is White. . '"<. well prepared. Rook enters into the game. will begin his counter his superiority in material obtain and through an undoubted advantage. by giving up a Rook for a Bishop and a Pawn.

40. K-B PX B B X Kt RXP R— Q very 5 R— K6 to win. RXP RxB Q— K8 RX Qch BxR R — KR3 R— K5 Kt — Q2 QxQ K— B R-QB3 2 R—B 5 ch might have been better. 34 35. 3334. i. P P-Q6! R B 7 WTiite cannot play ch because K— Q RX 2 Kt winning.n . 39. Rx B RX B. The ending is difficult At this point White had to make the last move before the game was adjourned. The text move did not prove as strong as anticipated. R-Qs Kt — K 4 ch lose easily K-B3 R-K3 K— K 2 RX Very of Kt would 37. 93 303132. I . 36.RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE 29. fine. 38.

49. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION in a Very often off. . because aU practical purposes there side will be one more piece on one is than on the other. 4344.Q Kt 4 ! RxP R-KR3 RX Pch 46. In such cases we might the say that from that for moment game is won. 24. Often a Bishop or a Knight com- pletely put out of action. which will be treated separately. one of the pieces from the scene of is actual conflict.94 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM 41. 45- P . game a master only plays to cut so to speak. 50- RxP K-B3 R—R 5 R — R4 ch R-K5 RxP RxP K-B3 K-B4 R-Kt 7 K-B3 K-Kt4 RxP P-R4ch 5152. and because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the middle- game than we are with the endings. 42. 4748. A very good illustration furnished by the following game. R-B 5ch RxRP K-R4 K-R3 Resigns P--Kt4 I its have passed over the game Hghtly because of difficult nature.

time be able to play P — KB opening a line for his Rooks. Winter. Capablanca. Black R. On the other hand. must be variation White does not attempt to hinder Black's development. which I have played successfully in many a game. he simply attempts to build up a position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an attack in due course. It gives WTiite is a very solid game. 2. 1. 54. Niemzowitch's variation. WTiether this true or not remains to be proved. 95 Victory — Played : at the Hastings 1919. Niemzowitch's idea that White will in due 4. he will have to weaken is his some other way.THE SCENE OF ACTION Example Tournament. 5- Kt-B3 B-Kts 0-0 B X Kt 0-0 6. J. which. should be sufficient to win. in combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5.) White: W. but in my opinion the is move But is perfectly good. He game thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to in KB 5. (Four Knights. 6 QPxB . P-K4 Kt— KB 3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 P--K4 Kt— QB 3 34. there no question that it Black can easily develop considered that in this his pieces.

Capablanca. See Capablanca-Janowski game. and the bringing and of the Q Kt to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q linked with the Kt K 3. Some- it is a direct assault against the King. R. or K 3 White is to play P— i if is it as the occasion demands. the K other Kt by placing at either K R 4. from Havana International Masters Tournament Book.96 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM alternative. The White King sometimes and other times it is placed at K Kt 2.^ and at it other times comes simply to finessing for positional advantage in the end-game. P-Q3 B — Kt 5 not at all in B-Q3 accordance with the nature This move is of this variation. The general strategical plan for K R 3. K Kt 3. after most of the pieces have been exchanged. possible. I believe. Vidmar playing Black against Alechin. ^ See Niemzowitch's 1 game in the All Russian Masters TournaMasters Tourna- ment. Then. .^ 8 9. Petersburg. The Kt P X B . gives White the best of the game. 1913. at St. 19 13. New York ment. to be followed in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4. against Levitzki. B — R4 P— KR3 P — B4 ^ See game Capablanca-Kupchick. ^ 9 14. in most cases comes P — KB times 4. 7. without doubt. 8. remains at Kt i. i. but mostly at K R Finally. or a game in the Carlsbad Tournament of 191 1. and then the real attack begins. by J.

10. Kt— Q to play P— P Q 4 and to draw White into playing which would prove fatal. falls into the trap. Black's plan is — K Kt 4. in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by the Bishop. P-KKt4 a fl A i^-^ I . t^ • bi^^ k To / . WTiite should have considered that a player of my experience and strength could never allow such a move if it were good.1 « ^?i Jm^m « prevent 5. 10.THE SCENE OF ACTION 97 1 i M 5rs5 rm 8. as soon as the circumstances permit. Kt — Q 5 White Only lack of experience can account for this move. Em k i fi^^ 2» ^ •^ Wm.

Ktx Ktch B — Kt3 P-KR3 QXB Qx Kt B — Kt5 BxKt 15. and possibly not even then. After this as will be seen.98 CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM move White's game is lost. 14. White cannot play Kt X Kt P. At least it would all his lose time besides the Pawn. 11. 12. Black now devotes and. . the result cannot be in doubt. with disastrous results in either case. PxQ bA vyy^^^^ P-KB3 ^^^^^^ ywSmrA ^^S ^/^ QXQ A it simple examination will show that White all is minus a Bishop for practical purposes. 13. He can only free by sacrificing one Pawn. side. Therefore he must play B — Kt 3. because Kt x Kt will win a piece. energy to the Queen's having practically a Bishop more. so that the student The rest of the game is given. to may see how simple it is win such a game. either before or after Kt X Kt.

F. 29. PxP P-Kt3 RPxP P-B3 5 21. 27. because White gains nothing by exchanging PawTis and opening the King's Rook 20. If R-QR2 P-Kt4 KR-Ri P-B it White takes the proffered Pawn. 19.THE SCENE OF ACTION 16. one of England's foremost players. 22. 6) RPXP P X P (Kt 25. R — R4 P — Q4 R— B4 RXBP Resigns RxP RxP R — Kt4 R— Kt5 RxP 25. I offer for close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas. against Mr. 99 K-Kt2 P— QR4 P-QR4 KR-QKti K—B 2 K— K3 R— R P-R4 I There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side. 26. file. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME that a few of Now my games with my o\\ti notes have been given. PxP 28. 23. 17. It . R.Kt B 5. Black regains immediately by 24. in the championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920. F. 18. has the Alexander. L. after PX B P.

But 7 Kt —Q 2 is probably a strong way . 345- P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-K3 QKt-Q2 P--B3 6. Sir {The notes within brackets by Sir George Thomas. 2. — Queen's P-Q4 Kt-KB3 P-B4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 Gambit Declined. my request. Alexander. and thus will be distinguished from my own comments.) White Mr. P-K3 Q-R4 mm ^^'^m s^^rf'"'"'^!^ ^ i ^ i w^m mm r^l (One of the objects of Black's method of defence is K 5. I. L.100 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED student that Sir George kindly wrote the notes to the interesting feature for the Thomas game for me at and with the understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered apSir George Thomas' notes are in brackets propriate. F. Black : George Thomas. Example 55. F. followed to attack White's Q Kt doubly by Kt — by P X P.

WTiite would thereby assume the but would weaken his Pawn position con- siderably. Q 3. — complished by playing B—Q Incidentally it bears my previous statement that the B should have been originally played to 13. followed by P— K and then initiative — 0. which. besides.IN A SPECIMEN of meeting this threat. two good that it reasons for this method of defence is not as much played as some of the other defences and consequently not so well known. In the opening.) GAME . 9. 12. 5. from where could not dislodge weakening out my K P. in a general way. constitutes an advantage. and might be compelled to stake all on a . 7.) by P K B 3 without The same result could be ac3. B X Kt Kt X B 8. Kt— K 5 B-K 2 This is not the logical place for the B which should is have been posted at great importance. make sure B—Q 3 Kt X Kt 11. time of and therefore the player should be extremely careful in his development and that he posts his pieces in the right places. 0^0 was P The alternative —K 4. loi There are. (I PX Kt Px B Kt it P BxBP — B3 come to did not want White's I to K 5. first. and second that it leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt. P— QR3 Q— Kt 3 Q 3. 10.

(White might play 15 of keeping the option I breakmg up the centre later on. wanted him to advance this P as there this now a fine post for my His B at QB 4. He should therefore have made a if plan to prevent the B from coming out. then he should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out with the B. style of the player decide the 0-0 P— K4 P'-K4 15.) By move White shows that he does not understand the true value of his position.102 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED This is violent attack against the King. or that were not possible. a turning point in the game. There were three moves to consider: first. P-Qs K R— Q is i. only advantage consisted in the undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. 13 14. . and it is in such positions that the temperament and course of the game.

Q Q X Kt i in order to threaten 16 .) . B X P . which he would do in case.B QB 5. because of the reply PXP followed by B-Q 5-) 16 17. At present he cannot play P— Q Kt 3. This would have 3 to pre. in order to maintain the White that it dominating position now 2 . either of Rooks to Kt X B. Q-B B-Q3 it 2 (This seems wrong. 18 B X P ch. But it only compels Black to bring his B to 4. P—B 4 I P-QKt3 B — Kt 2 i 18. which he 15 16. sive. B — Kt 5 and third. Black play his Queen's side 3 Thus by playing P —K R WTiite would text move have attained the desired object. KR-B Q any (With the idea of R. which would weaken Pawns. This would have been met by the 17 Q—B second. i followed to up as previously stated to force P — Q Kt 4. P — K R — Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q vent B been met by .IN A SPECIMEN GAME B occupies.Kt and P. blocks the action of the White B and facihtates Black's The development. as makes the development of Black's Queen wing easier. PX P. Hereafter WTiite will act on the defeninterest and the throughout the rest of the game in will centre mainly on Black's play and the manner carries out the attack. 103 in the P—Q R 4.

time with his Rook's moves. direct attack against the King. or rather to prevent then. once he has fixed some of the White pieces on the King's side. B—K B—B P—B better. 22. 21. which. He should. a plan on a large success. carried out with the means it From the look of the position seems that Black's best chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre. have probably. once they enter in action. side. therefore. If is able to defeat this plan. should produce an advantage on ac- count of the great power of the two Bishops. (It R—E 2 Q— Kt 2 been I. In such cases a player must conceive scale. and It there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack.I04 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED i8 19. lacks force. it must be a plan that can be at his disposal. is true that these are the most difficult positions to handle in a game. K R— K with the idea of is P— B it 4 presently. QR— Kt P— lost I QR— Q B — R3 I QR4 R-Qi (White has clearly 23 24. which promises chances of and with it all. 2 4 3 to would . 20.) Black's play hereabout weak . play 20. 23. to be followed by a White it. he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's and open a Une for his Rooks. threatening P— K B 4.) KR-Ki Q-Kt3 . play Q R— K I. .

26. it I did not expect him to retake with the King's Pawn. as he expected.) in this instance I him ment Black's judg- believe to be faulty. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. His only advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly . GAME 105 2.) — R 4 and B — K R-Q3 Kt — B— R4 K2 P-Kt3 Ai A ™ H i i ' A H PP ^W W W s A A W^ 26. as WTiite would have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side.IN A SPECIMEN (To bring his Queen across after Kt 24 25. as WTiite threatening to play his Bishop via K 6. he would have had the worst of the Pawn position. Had White retaken with the B P. which seemed to expose to a violent King's side attack. PxP Kt 4 to (I is thought this exchange necessary here.

as. but it is isolated.io6 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED Knight. he could then play Q— PX P. 29. account of B XP ch winning the KPxP P — Kt3 move. and there is no effective continuation. B at Q B and make White's position safer than it should have been. or some other m due time by square as the occasion demanded. had White Kt 3. He could and should have pre- then replied with by playing B — B i. the Bishop invariably stronger than the Knight. R— Kt 2 K-Kt 2 B-B B-B4 R-K5 Q-B I I 33- Kt-Kti P- K Kt 4 . B P on 27. P-Ks P-K6 would have been better to I do not it like this to hold in reserve and have played be followed K Kt 4 5. It 28. and P — B text to The move 4. The move in itself is a very strong attacktends to ing move. and on the fact that in such posiis posted tions as the above. after having placed the Q at Q 2. vented all that. P-B4 Kt-B3 303132. and Wliite would not have been able to retake with the exchange. blocks the action of the powerful P— P — B 4. Such advances as a rule should only be made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces. K B 2.

If WTiite therefore protects his Rook. 35 BXB ch. Kt — B 4. and is only a question of carried The final attack is now the right course. P—K 5 39 41 Kt X P. by the masked attack on White's Rook. with a winning attack. however. and WTiite 39 Q—B 2. ch.1 take pleasure . on by Sir George Thomas in an irreproachable 36. •/ /'^^ m.) . ch . only move would have been The it position now is evi- won for Black. B X B. 37. against 38 Kt — B Black Q— R 3. R X Kt RXR 4. P-Kt5 WTiite's R—R dently finding 3 was the ahernative. 107 now 34 B-B 3. i^ (Again preventing m B X 7 ! ! ! R. PX P PX P R-KBi K— R i .) 34. manner.IN A SPECIMEN (If GAME BX R.. B-Q3 Kt — K 2 R-KB3 Q—B I i im _ ^ ^' ' it. 40 RX R. and White plays is lost. best. PXP. B —K If. 35.

beginning with 39. 42 Q— away K Black therefore tries to get the Queen from the defence. . QXR . 3940. to carry on the attack.ove..Q— R 38. 39.io8 A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED my readers as a most beau- in offering the position to tiful and extraordinary win for Black. 6 ch ! ! ! I leave the variations for the student to work out. R(Kt2)-Kt I Q-R3 — Q-B2 which still (Making a double attack on the Rook cannot be taken— and preparing to defend the K R P. Q — R6ch K-R 1 "^ I RXP!! i m"«™»^'» ^1 m i. 41 Kt-Kt I.R-R3. QxKtP.) best A very beautiful m. . and the way 41. ® i i (If 40.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken White would be mated in a few moves.. Kt 2.

ch.IN A SPECIMEN (The best defence was 41 GAME 109 RX B. Rx R B. very fine . but \Miite has no time to take it. WTiite resigns. because of P —Q 6 dis.) Bx Kt— B 4 Q 7! P— K tM. R—R 3 wins. at 42 43. then. not R— K R 3 42.) 44. (Again. but Black would emerge with Queen against Rook and Knight.) 41 BxB . m :i W«4 ^ mm mm ^m (The Queen has no escape. R— KKt A I Q— B 8 finish.) (If 42 QX last.

After an uneventful opening its one of normal variations. of course. players they are weak in the endings first . opponent suddenly made things interesting by an offer offering the exchange. and come to an ending in which clearly had the advantage.CHAPTER V End-Game Strategy We must now revert once more to the endings. Finally. a failing from free. which had to defend myself against a very danger- ous attack vring of made possible by the excellent manoeu- my adversary. in Then I followed a very hard. I accepted. Had been a weak end-game player the game would all probably have ended in a draw. that very often the case among the large majority of . itself was not as simple as became a very I and finally — perhaps through one weak move on my part difficult — it matter to fmd a win. arduous struggle. which masters of the rank are at times not . which. and efforts is my previous would have been in vain. there came the time off when most I I could give back the material and change of the pieces. Unfortunately. Their importance will have become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game with Janowski (Example —a my Ruy Lopez — in 53). it But yet the ending at first appeared.

. then. Lasker had no superiors department of the game while they held their titles. This principle of the in the endings middle-game can sometimes be applied in somewhat similar manner. granted greater mobility of the pieces. I might call attention to the fact that the world's champions of the last sixty years have : been exceedingly strong in the endings Steinitz. 26. that at times the in attacking first on one side. when speaking about win consists general theory. to transfer the attack quickly from one side to the other. JNIorphy. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE way to I have pre\iously stated. in this and Dr.END-GAME STRATEGY all III Incidentally. breaking through before sufficient your opponent has been able to bring up forces to withstand the attack. Example 56.

K— Q K— B 2 2 K— Kt R— KKt4 2 Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's 8. in order to obtain some advantage from the greater mobihty Rooks. evident to Black that White wants to brmg his King to Q Kt 3 to support his free his two weak isolated Pawns. 3. of his R-Qi Rook to R(Q4)-QR4 Rook's square. 5. to play P— R 5 in order to fix White's King's side Pawns with a view It is to the future. R(Qi)-Ri P-R5 6. side. Kt 8 R-KB5 . Black. which loses quickly. R— K2 R— R2 R— K ch R— QRs P-KR4 5 is The idea. 4. as will be seen very soon. 3. which in the end might give him the victory. In the above position with the Black pieces. K — Kt 5) when Black would have 4 . .112 THE SUDDEN ATTACK I. White should have played 8 answered . makes a plan to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time.R (R —R 9 P—B 3. therefore. 7. I A serious mistake. R— KKt 8. keeping in order to force the both Rooks tied up. and Black 6 for his would have obtained an opening at K King. and thus to Rooks. played I 2.

' Mt M. if m k m White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open will secure file and has the move. while Black has an isolated Q R P. which There is him the initiative. 9. in which is shown the advantage of the greater mobiUty of the pieces in an ending. If PX R. is the following from a game Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters — Tournament. Another good example. 1913. also the shght advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united. ^^^ M. 10 RXRP after a few and Black won moves. Example 57. R — B 6ch followed 10. by R— K R 8 winning. ' M. The . Ml. K— Q3 K— K RXR 2 . game can be found The in the full score and notes of the book of the tournament.FROM A DIFFERENT Now Kt the King cannot go to SIDE because of 113 Kt 3. R— 4 ch.

shift so that at least one of them may be able to other. 4. 4 ch.. If he has a weak point. 5R — . and also not to allow 2. If he has a weakness. force him to use his big pieces to defend Paums. or create another weakness somewhere else and his positioti will collapse sooner or later.P — KB4. freely.114 THE SUDDEN ATTACK is proper course. White the control I open file. R-K4 KR-Ki of the with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre. it is but follow White's footsteps. Kt K—K would leave Black in a very disagreeable position. and he can get rid of it. the to bring Rooks forward. 3.. He does nothing after Besides..P — Q4. followed by hard to point out anything better. try make it weaker. The move is justified at least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be all in the middle of the board. sure that you create another weak- ness somewhere From thus the position in question the game continued 1. If4. means really in general theory has been stated already it means : keep harassing the to enemy. as in the previous ending. from one side of the board to the and thus keep Black's Rooks from moving What this . If4. make else. 5R — 2. QR-K QR-K3 K-B I R-K3 R(Bi)-Ki K-B I Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be nearer to whatever point White decides to attack...

vents the advance of Black's It specially pre- KB Pawns. P—Q 5 .FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE Q4! 8 115 Rx R? 4. P-B 5ch P-Q4 K-Q 2 P-B4 . winning the R—Q R Q R P. 6PxR. which would prac- tically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the as the three Queen's side. for reasons that will soon 7 8. as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been P X all Black's Pawns isolated and weak.RxP. King's side would be held 5. R-QR4 is R-QR The student should note noeuvre Black that through the same ma- forced into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending. 10 P-Q Kt 4! R-K 4. which would have left If 8 . which is all White desires. become evident. all of Black's Pawns except the Q P. and Black's game is hopeless.. R-R5! It practically fixes This move has a manifold object.R-K2. 10. the K—K 2 K—K 2 I 6. Pawns of Black on by the two of White. P-QB4! P-Q4 K-Q3 P. By this threat it practically play P — Q 4. 7K-B2. Evidently forced. 9 1 1 R-K 4. and at the of White's same time threatens the advance l^awns to K B B 4 and forces Black to B 5. 7. K-Q 9. 3. which is the only one that can advance two squares.. R — R 6.

in beheve. drawn. 14 P — Kt 3. of the threat R— R 3 but in reaUty leads to nothing. 12 13.R-Kt i. RxR P-B4 PxR to now White had played with finesse. K-B K-Q2 13 I Agam a bad move. so as to force Black to give up his or Q R P Q B P. Rooks because I. 12. K-Kt2.Ii6 THE SUDDEN ATTACK it Apparently very strong. . won game. The best chance was to play R-K K Up last 11. tinuation. 4. would have . fact. 3 was the proper coni .Kt i Black misses his only chance. R—R . a w w 13 'W %^ K-Kt2 R . and 15 if then 13. P-Kt K-R i6R-QKt3. since of it forces the exchange . I with excellent winning chances. R— R 6 was the proper way to contmue. but this move is weak.

but only one move. SIDE I 117 15. less. 17. move stops White from mo\'ing his Rook. P-Kt 7. P-KR4 R-R 5 K-Bi controlling the open To prevent file the Black Rook from 20 21. 2 He goes back with the King to support his K P. 16. K—Q 2 R-Kt 5 K-B 3 K-Kt R-B 2 K-B I He must keep his King on that side because WTiite threatens to march with his King to 23. R-R3 R-R3 K-K2 R-R6 K-Q 3 R-KKt R-Kt 2 K-R3 R-K 2 K-Kt It is. R 2 6 via Kt 4. 22. . 2526. K-R5 P-R4 P-R5 P-QR3 R-R3 The text He for can do nothing but wait for \Miite. 19. however. 18.FROM A DIFFERENT 14. use- and only White's weak play later on gives him further chances of a draw. The only rould play other move was or R-Kt K—R 2 even P — Kt when WTiite 5. and thus be able to utiHse his Rook. 4 R-B 3 . 27. 4 R-B3 K-Kt 24. 20.

Kt 5 A weak move. The right move was 28. In this ending.il fc ft ft « 1^ g55%5??? ^ ^ sM M m -f^ g^%?? A ^g. forcing B m order to avoid the perpetual. KxP P-B6ch PxP R-R7 K-Kti R-Kt7ch R-R7ch 33343536. but once his position efforts seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his is and the nothing to be proud 7. as often the case with most players. which is gives Black a fighting chance. 28 R— Kt RPxP PxP R-Kty K-Kt4 R-Bi! R-Rich 303132.. White plays the best moves whenever the situation is difficult and requires result careful handling.. ""f^i (Bis. RXP R-Kt 7 Black misses his the King to chance: ch.^^ ^^^ ^^ » 28. P . of. RxRP K-R5 K-Kt4 last 3. . 29.ii8 THE SUDDEN ATTACK WM ?.

42. 4344. 48. 50- RxR KxP KxP K-K5 how easy KxP K-B4 Resigns. The reader must bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced player. 4546. even in master-play. mistakes are lost. R-K7 R— Kt chances. 37. so long as there no great advantage of material. made and opportunities are is shows that.FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE 119 would probably draw. P-R6! K-Kt5 RX Pch R-Q8 R-KtSch 41. cannot afford to relax his attention even for one move. P-R7 K-B5 K-Q4 R-B 8ch K-K5 K-B6 R-K8ch P-R8 (Q) R-Q8ch R-K8ch R-KR8 K-R2 RxQ K-Kt3 47. . a player. followed by RxP R-K R 7. offered better 38. It and how often. even with a good position. no matter how strong. 3940. 7 ch. and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he put up. 49. it is This ending shows to make weak moves.

how it P-Kt4 RXRP .^. but his position is rather poor. No reason can be given for Black's loss of the that he felt so game except it certain of having the best of with a Pawn more and what he that he sider the considered a safe position. The best he could hope for was a draw unless someit thing altogether unexpected happened. . 7^^^y//> ^^/yz^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ffin m^^. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION Example 58. careless became exceedingly happened. 1913).^ wM^^ ^^ ^^« WW^/ w^ ^^ g_l^l_ It is evident that difficulties Marshall (White) is under great is in the above position.. Not only he bound to lose a Pawn. ment is shown shall — A good proof of the previous in the following ending in state- between Mar- and Kupchick one of their two games in the same Tournament (Havana. as did. and did not conLet us see danger that actually existed.120 THE DANGER OF 27. I.

Black's game This shows that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. move no defence. R X P.K-Kt3. P-R4 R-R 8 ch If P-R4 Resigns. and is does not stop to think whether there better. which is actually in danger. 2. After the text is lost. The proper move was to play P — B 4 in order to break up White's Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King. 5R-R8ch. K— Ki.Kt 3 8 P . Px R.. From a practically won it position Black finds himself with a lost game. If instead White played K.Kt 5 ch.P-B4.Kt 2 If4. . anything R — B 7 ch was the right move. then R . i2i This is the first. and wins easily. K — Kt 3 . 6 R (B 8) Kt 8 ch. 9 R (R 6) X R. . and one as to almost lose time such a serious the game. as will soon be seen..B 3 7 R X P ch. If then K-Kt 3. 7 Px P ch. iiRxKtP. R (Q 4) -Q 8 . 4. R-Q I R-R this 5 ch Mistake number two.A SAFE POSITION The mistakes begin. R-Q4 (Kt 4) R(R5)-R4 this Mistake number three and time fatal. The reason is evident. 5. . 3.K 4 ch followed by R X R P. R . Black sees that he can take a Pawn without any danger. K . R . and has only taken three moves. 6 . K-K 2. 6.K 4. . His best there move was is R —R 4. 10 R-Kt 7 ch.

but endings of one are about the most common sort on the chess board. and that the same holds true for endings of one Rook and Pawns. few have mastered them thoroughly. Example 59. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are common Rook and Pawns not very of endings arising in actual play . They are often of a very difficult nature. Yet though and they do occur so often. 10 R-R 8 ch. . Here is an example from a game between Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament of 1909-1910. KxR. P—R 28. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS The reader has probably reaUsed by this time that endings of two Rooks and Pawns are very difficult.122 ENDINGS WITH ONE 9 RxP. 5 mate. sometimes while apparently very simple they are in reality extremely intricate. K-Kt 3. 8RxR.

but played P—B and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. but there are other very interesting features. Now suppose that after 1P-B6. a simple wm by R—B ch. . not see the drawing move.R— K7 a very important move. P-B6 7 ch. or draw by perpetual check.ROOK AND PAWNS In this 7 123 position Marshall had 6. R—B (a) 2. played poorly. 5. as against wins. 2P-B7. realise that Black did not to R—Q i was the only move draw. R-Q3. R— Q 3. K-B I R-Kt 7 R-KB3 K-B 6 have to sacrifice and White for If there will finally the Rook would the Pawn. Luckily for him Black did lost. 3. and Had Black been up to the situation he would have drawn by playing I. (6) 2. R-B 7ch P—B 7 K-Q5! R— Kt3 ch! R — KB3. 4. were nothing more in the ending it not be of any great value. We have therefore 3. R-Q3I either (a) : Now or {b) White has two continuations. P-B 7 R-R5ch Or — R-Qi! K-B5 sacrifice the and White will finally have to Rook for Black's Pawn. P—B 7.

and R — R 4 ch. K-B3 K-K3 R-B3ch R-K3ch if if R — R 5 ch wins. because the King the Kmg goes up. 4.. 5.. then goes back. R-B3 K-B 5 P . or (6) R-K B 3. K-Q3 R-KB3 4 wins. and White will either capture the Pawn or go to K B 3.. K-K 6. Let us examine them.. R-Kt3ch 2. K moves R — R 5 ch R — R 6 wins R-Kt 7! W If I 2. . and come out with a winning ending. I. .124 ENDINGS WITH ONE would then have the following position We Now (a) there would be two other moves to try : either R-Kt (a) 3 ch.Kt 6 R . If P_Kt 6. then R — R 6. . If R-Q 3 ch.Kt 3. 3.:. followed by R — K B 4 wins..

K 6. realise that K — Q 5 was the only move consequently played K — Kt 3 instead. the following position we would then have Now the best continuation would be 1.P-B7 2. 4. and iP — B6. K-K2 . Black did not to draw. R — Q3. according to the circumstances.3. R-Kt3ch (best) ' 3. 2R — Bych. going back suppose that after to the position shown on page 122. 5- ROOK AND PAWNS P-Kt6 P-R4 R — Kt 4 ch K moves 125 R-Kt3 capture the PawTi or play and White will either R— KB 3. K-B R-K I R-KB 3 K-B 4 P-Kt6 at 7! (best) White threatened to check with the Rook 4. Now. and come out with a winning ending.

If ENDINGS WITH ONE K-B 5. m. . RxP R-Q2 8.0 ^. This position we have arrived at is won by White... This last condition is very im- portant. — ^^ '^" ^^^. ^^^ ^ . 7. the Black Rook were at KR i.„... because instead of the position on the diagram. and Black had the move. if.. the last-named move particularly would win with ease. both P-R 4 and K-K 3 will win . RxP R-KR2 RxP 9..126 Best..„^^. he could draw by preventing the ad- .. i^ ^. the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before the opponent's Rook can begin on the file. is because there are two files between the opposing cut off King and the Pawn from which the King by the Rook..„„^^„ m ^^'.... K-K3 ^„„. 5- R-K3 R-QKt3 P-Kt 7 (best) 6. and to check besides..

as already stated. . These endings. the student no doubt can obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted with all kinds of endings. 29. Capablanca-KreymState Championship Tourna- New York ment of I 9 10. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS way to learn end- Following our idea that the best ings as well as openings is to study the games of the masters. in the 60. of procedure somewhat similar in all of Example borg. Now position that is we have explained won. we leave it to the reasons why this the student to work out the correct solution. and the author fortunate in ha\ing is himself played more of these endings than the case. w^e give two more endings of two Rooks and Pawns. either through constant checks by playmg R— K B i at the proper time.ROOK AND PAWNS or 127 vance of the Pawn. are not is very common. generally By carefully comparing and stud>ing the endings already given (Examples 56 and 57) \\ath the following. is The way them. — From a game. and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns.

I QR-Ki The move is already wrong. his Rooks to keep the opponent's Rooks 2. he contented himself with a waiting Such conduct must always be The best policy. R-Q4 P—B 3.128 A DIFFICULT ENDING: m m^^m^^m. 5 which Black after but threatens P — Kt followed. to It often leads to disaster. and no doubt thinking that all drawing such a position (that was for) Black played would be easy. This move not only prevents intended. After first that he could decide what demonstration he could make with at bay. That would fix the Queen's side. criticised. There is nothing to gain by this move.Q Kt 3. It is Black's move. positions is to way defend such the assume the initiative and keep opponent on the defensive. Black should play P — Q R 4 to be followed by P — Q R 5. unless White plays P . .

TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS PX P ch. is a little too late.3 is This is a mistake. R— Q R force I should have been played now. 5 6. This in move K— K 8. hence move. now develop. R-K2 R-QR He 3. I K-K. which has done nothing but make his situation practically hopeless. R-R6 K—Q 3. however. because P— KB 4 would have . . by making this P. 5. R-QB 2 because itself He could not play least a P—Q B condemns 4 would his last win at Pawn. w^hich will 7. stop the attack against his P — Kt against WTiite's K R Queen's side PawTis. his position. 129 by the attack with one or both Rooks against Black's 2 Q R P. 3. should have played ening R—R 4 threatdemonstration and. 3 and Kt 7. R-B3 R-Kt 3 probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by 3. He could not play 8. but . which seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side PawTis. Black to defend with does not want to disclose his plan at once. P . and thus awaken Black this to the danger of his position. R (Q4)-QR4 P-KKt4 it Now forced. in order to WTiite. PXP K-Q3 K-B R—K 2.Kt PXP ch 2 4. Black unaware of the danger of .K R—B 2.

.PXP. followed by R—R 3. „ .J^^^ . He practically would have to play 11 P— K R 3.. King at B 5 or K 5. nor could he do much with 10. 5 9. he finally Pawn by P — Kt 5. . either .. to of the that were be followed by the entry 10.^ mmi. tries to Black now finally awakens to the danger. White RXR P. Rook. as he could not go back with the King. If he 9. i ^ ILl . which he should have started before. because of RX R.I30 left his A DIFFICULT ENDING: game completely paralysed. when White would answer ening to win a P — Kt if 4. and save the day by the counter-demonstration on the King's side. ^m. threat- not enough. recovering the Pawn with advantage.. or. loRxP would leave him in a very awkward situation. P-KR4! in a P-Kt Black played is now very disagreeable position. K—K 2 ^^j^ . cannot play Of course. might play K — Q 4..

would play P — Kt 4. it This could never have happened had White played 12 P — Kt 4. The advance KB4 of his K R P defend the P— would make his WTiite's ^ K R P it safe.. KxP move R (B 3)-B 2 Probably 12. if there was nothing better. because of Q R P.. K — K 2 P — Kt wrong. or he might first play Q 4. then 14. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time with one of his Rooks. and then K— at the proper time P — Kt 5. P-Kt4 as he could K-Q3 R-QKt 2 have followed 3. .R— Kt2. it is very similar. WTiite a single one of his Pawns. Compare this botthngup system with the ending in Example 57. up by P-Kt Not 5 after Black's K-Q 14. P-R5 K B If good. and consequently 2 to KR Q R P. because would leave him paralysed. The 12 text gives Black good chances of drawing. 4 at once was the right move. and it will be seen that 11.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 10 131 P X P ch Again he cannot play P—K R 4. nor could he advance On the other hand. P— 4 offered the best chances of 15 P-^ winning by force. would have to retire to KB That would make the impossible for his King to go to Q 2. threatening to win a Pawn by P — Kt 5. 13.

) 20. 21. K-Q3 R-R K-Q4 I R (R 2 6) -R 2 R (K Kt 2) . Black misses his If P—B 2 ch! 5 . R-K 6! R-Kt 2 P-KB4 RxP.132 A DIFFICULT ENDING. chances. but the position lost in leave the stu- dent to work this out.Q 3. K-O3! RxR R-K2 RxR . R5. M M M P-R3 last chance. RxP. 15. 17.K R-Kt 2 R-Kt 7 R (Kt 2) . 19R-R6. with winning RxR. 16. R (Kt 2) — K 16K-B i. 16 K. 19. R-Ktych. RxP. 18. R-K R 7 iSRxR. (I 2 R (Kt 7) — Kt would have is offered greater resistance.Kt 2 any case. lyRxP. then 15 17 P XP. . I mm'- i 25r^"5 m i * 1^ ^ 1 « ^ 14. would draw.

K-B R-K R 8.. 25 RxP.^."^ 1 & f^A Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P. KxP Resigns. easily. which. R-Kt ch R-K3 K-Q2 K-B3 RxP 29.. K-Q 2. 26 R-Q R and 27.22R-R6! 2. . R-K Kt 2 R-Kt7 R-Kt 8 He R-K3 R-K2 P-B 4 Black his is desperate. 5.R-Kt8. he cannot . ft ^m ^P mm Wm ^m :. R-KB Example 61. 2S. will win 22. 23. ^^H M^. R— Kt PX P 6 ch ch 7 27. game Capablanca-JanowNew York National Tournament of 1913.. ^M" ft ^^ W^. 24 P-Kt RxP ch. 6. sees he can no longer defend Pawns. 26. ^33 If2i. R-Q White 8 ch.. 24.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS Nothing would avail.. 25. — From the 7 ski.. to make matters worse.

This King should come to the King's danger lurks. The play was based through- out on the chance of obtaining a passed King's file. where the K-B 2 P-QKt4 K-Kt 3 With the followed his object of playing and P-Q R file 4. and will then bring his own King to K 3. Black wants to play prevents it. advance. but White. He will stop Black's Queen's Pawns from advancing. and finaUy 5. by P X Rook and be able P. 1. and thus have an open to for make a counter-demonstration . of course.K Kt 5 already preparing to play when the time comes. 2. thus P-Q 4. I P-QKt3 P-Q B 4. because as soon as Black plays WTiite replies P — Q Kt 4. Then in due time he will play Kt 5. 3. P-Kt4! K-Kt2 side. It will be seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game. or of Pawns and obtaining in that forcing an exchange P-K P-K way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file.134 A DIFFICULT ENDING: P — Q Kt 3. Pawn on the with which White expected to win. P-KKt4 P . and that White obtained his winning advantage m that way. It is on this fact that White side builds his plans.

White. 7 R-K3 R Yet would have it If RXR . R-Q5 will Of course if PX P Black have all his Pawns on the Queen's side disrupted and isolated. might have been the best chance for Black. 9. also prevents 4. however. R (Kt) -KBi P-Kt 5 R(Q2)-K2 PxP 10. and WTiite can easily regain the lost Pawn by playing either Rook on the Q R file. 6. He still wants to play P—Q B will again but as it is easy to foresee that prevent it. 7. K-K3 P-R5 R-Q2 is The first part of White's strategic plan Black's now accom- phshed. Pawns on the Queen's side are fixed for all practical purposes. P-QR4I . RxP . 8. R—Q White Kt I R— K4 4. the text move is really a serious loss of time. 135 side in order to stop White's advance this. Kt P X gi\'en WTiite a very powerful centre. Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately. 5.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS on the Queen's on the right.

R-R3 R-Kt3 4. is Al- together White's position of winning are excellent. necessary. is White not only has a passed Pawn. remains to find out the advantage is sufficient to win. superior and his chances 10 11. 12. 13.i. or to move to the right wing file Besides. if of White's Pawns. White holds the open with one of his Rooks. but his King in the centre of the m a commanding position QB 5. P-R4 R-Kts P-Kt3 P-R3 . board ready to support the advance or.s6 A DIFFICULT ENDING: The second obtained part of White's It strategical plan if is now accomplished. R(R3)-K3 side to prevent P—Q Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two King's Pawns which he may want to utilise later. to go to in case of danger.

R 5) X R.TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS 137 White threatens P — R 5. than not to hold and (Kt R—K 4 would help 8. P-K5 18. and whichever Rook Black took. P-Q4 R-B 8ch K-Bi K-Kt 2 K—Q it. White would have an easy game. 25- RxR R-B 8 K-Q3 RxR R-R5ch R-R6ch . or up Black's Rooks better completely. X P R-R5 PxP K-B R-R2 K-Q2 I 2324. 19. these variations. 2 would not help much. 20. only helps WTiite. R-Kt4 R-Kt 2 16. K-K4 PxP R-B5 R (Kt 4) P-Kt4 R(K3)-K2 21. as WTiite would simply answer R-B R-K i . which would finally force Black to take.) (The student should carefully study 14. but since he made the previous move he should now be consistent and play 17. much. text move. 15. however. and then White would double his Rooks against tie the isolated Pawn and win The tight it. 22. nothing therefore Black had wait.

138 ROOK. ROOK. Example 62. v. 27. 30. The winning tactics in all these endings have nierely tied to the consisted in keeping the opponent's Rooks defence of one or more Pawns. of manoeuvre while hampering your There that is is one more thing of great importance. — From the first game of the Lasker- Marshall Championship Match in 1907. means in general terms — Keep freedom opponent. K-Q2 KtPxP P—Q 5 P-B4 R-QR6 Resigns. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. while often the losing side all. . ROOK. Bishop used in the and Pawns against Rook. KNIGHT AND PAWNS We it shall now examine an ending of Rook. Knight and Pawns. and that the winning side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out with the means at his disposal. BISHOP AND PAWNS 26. leaving free my own Rooks It for action. where will be seen that the Rook at times is same way as in the endings already given. 28. had no plan at but simply moved according to the needs of the moment. This is a general principle which can be equally applied to any part of the game.

139 _feai^i^ ^i e PSJ^ ''^ In this position the position it is Black's move. restricting the action of WTiite's the Knight and . It will take some time for White to bring his into the fray. but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14). There are two courses open to him. forcing White to defend something time. but the advanced player will realise immediately that there are great possibilities for Black to win. not only because he has the initiative. in the It consists in utilising in the pre\'ious all Rook same way as shown endings.ROOK. The other. 3 R course his was taken by Black. is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately at in conjunction with the Bishop check and any other move that might be necessary with the Black Rook. To a beginner may look like a draw. Rook and Knight obtain an and Black can utilise it to advantage. and the one that most players would take. and more subtle. KNIGHT AND PAWNS t„. The most evident.

in material and position. while at the same time keeping freedom action for his own Rook and Bishop. I This forces for the which blocks that square White Knight. of Black's Queen's side 3. 4. and that after Kt — Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his 5. P-QR3 K-K2 R-R3 side. P—Q R 3 at once was the best move. Black's King where it is it wants to go. BISHOP AND PAWNS v. Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's where he has the advantage 8. Consequently a very bad move. R-B I ch It merely drives This check accomplishes nothing. 2. P-B4 K-Kt I R-KR4 P-B4 of action is Note that the White Knight's sphere very limited. way. 6 7. bringing the to attack the King's side so as to force the and thus indirectly making more secure the position Pawns. I R-Kt P — Q Kt 3. Rook. Kt-Q2 K-B 2 6. P-KR4 R-R3 . P-Kt3 Rook King R-Kt 4 Pawns to that side to defend them.140 WTiite's of ROOK.

ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS
Notice

141

how

similar are the manoeuvres with this

Rook

to those seen in the previous endings.
9.

R-R
side.

I

B - Kt

5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and fixing the

whole King's
10.

K — B2
answer

K— K3
Kt — B
3,

White

cannot

because

B x Kt

followed by

K— K

4 will win a Pawn, on account of

the check at

K

B

3

which cannot be stopped.

II.

P-R4
K-Kt
I

12.

2

K-K4 R-KB3
I

13.
14.

R-K R-KB

P-Q6 K-Q5
all
\^ill

Now

the King attacks WTiite's PawTis and

soon be over.
15.
6.

RxR
K-B
2

PxR
P-B
3
finally

Merely to exhaust WTiite's move, which wWl
force

him

to

move

either the

King or the Knight.

17-

P-QR5
Kt-B
I
I

P-QR3

18.

19.

K-K

KxP
B-K7 K-K6
P-B 4 P-R4

20.

21.

22.
2324.

Kt-Q2ch Kt - Kt I Kt-Q2 Kt - Kt Kt-B 3
I

K-B6

KxP

142

ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS
25. 26. 27.

Kt-R4 KtxP Kt-K4ch
way
to win.

P-B 5 P-B 6

K-B
P-B

5

The

quickest
2^. 29.

White should
4

resign.

Kt-Q6 P-Kt4

PxP
P-Kt6 K-Kt6 P-Kt7
how
to con-

30. 31.
32.

P-B

5

Kt-B4 Kt-K3
Resigns.

A

very good example on Black's part of

duct such an ending.

CHAPTER
Further Openings
31.

VI
Middle-Games

ant)

SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS
to the discussion of openings
it

Before going back
mind a few
will

and
in

middle-game positions,

might be well to bear

facts concerning

Pawn

positions which

no doubt help to understand certain moves, and

sometimes even the object of certain variations in
the openings, and of some manoeuvres in the middle-

games.

WB

s

s

i^iM
M
A

P
the position of the diagram

Example
side.

63.

— In

we
and

have an exceedingly bad Pa\vn formation on Black's
Black's

Q B P

is

altogether backward,

White could by means

of the

open

file

concentrate

U3

144

SOME SALIENT POINTS
weak
5,

his forces against that

point.
is

There

is

also the

square at White's

QB

which

controlled

by White,

and from where a White piece once established could In order to get rid of it, Black not be dislodged.
would have to exchange
easy matter, and often
venient.
it,

which

is

not always an
all

when

possible not at

con-

K

P,

K

The same holds true with regard to Black's B P and K Kt P, which create what is called

a "hole" at Black's
be avoided.

KB

3.

Such Pawn formations

invariably lead to disaster,

and consequently must

^^^"^.-"..... fif 1 iii I §m &
i

^

Example
while
the

64.

— In

this position

we might say

that

the White centre

Pawns have

the attacking position,

Black centre Pawns have the defensive

position.

Such a formation of Pawn occurs

in

the

French Defence.
attempts,

In such positions White most often
of

by means

P—

KB

4 and

KB

5,

to obtain
is

a crushing attack against Black's King, which
erally Castled

gen-

on the King's

side.

To

prevent that,

ABOUT PAWNS
and
also to

145

assume the

initiative or obtain material

advantage, Black makes a counter-demonstration by

P - Q B 4, followed by P X P (when White defends the Pawn by P — Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the White Pawn at Q 4. This
in substance

might be said to be a determined attack

against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct

attack of WTiite against Black's King.

It

must be
it

temembered that

at the beginning of the

book

was

stated that control of the centre was an essential co7idition to a successful attack against the

King.

In an abstract

Pawns

are

way we may say strongest when they are
Thus the

that two or more
in the

same rank

next to one another.

centre

strongest in themselves, so to speak,

Pawns are when placed at
fifth

K
is

4 and

Q

4 respectively, hence the question of ad-

vancing either the one or the other to the

rank

one that must be most carefully considered.

The

advance of either
the

Pawn

often determines the course

game

will follow.
is

Another thing to be considered

the matter of one
isolated either

or more passed Pawns when they are
singly or in pairs.
is

We

might say that a passed
strong,

Pawn

either vev}'

weak or very

and that

its

weakness

or strength, whichever happens to be in the case to

be considered, increases as

it

advances, and

is

at the

same time

in direct relation to the

number

of pieces

on the board.

In this last respect

it

might be generally
strength as the

said that a passed

Pawn

increases in

number

of pieces

on

the board diminishes.

P-K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 P-K4 Kt-QB3 3. 13. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ of the variations in the openings That some on some and the manoeuvres in the middle-game are often based of the elementary principles just expounded can be easily seen in the following case Example 65. I be able to explain them more authoritatively than the games of others.146 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS all Having this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and middle-game. but because. 1. 5. 32. knowing shall them thoroughly. P-QR3 Kt-B 3 4. 9. 11. 6. use my owTi games. B-R4 0-0 P-Q4 B-Kt3 KtxP P-QKt4 8. R-Ki B-B 2 QKt-Q2 Kt-Kt3 0-0 Kt-K3 . 7. whenever possible. PxP P-B3 P-Q4 B-K3 B-K2 Kt-B 4 B-Kt 5 10. I shall. 2. 12. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end according to general principles. not because they will better illustrate the point.

and that in some way White. and it in practice a first-class (If I master will invariably from Black.- . Q-Q3 P-Kt3 of the Knights to Let us suppose the game went on. I was play- White pieces against a consulting team headed by Sal we.) I will say that I won the game above After a few moves the position may be easily thus . '^or^ Q QB win we would have here the case of the backward B P. may be excused the reference. and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged. In fact. referred to. Such a position may be said to be theoretically lost. 14. '/^-//M.'.) '^/^/////. obtained such a position in a at way once Lodz in Poland. by playmg one Q 4 at the proper time.FROM A RUY LOPEZ So far 147 a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. and we arrived very similar ing the at some such position as shown (I in the following diagram. which will in no way be able to advance to 4. 191 2. . they are the moves of the Janowski- Lasker game in Paris. forced the exchange of both Knights.

Thus Black can only move according to White's lead. this: Example mAmkm^m ^ ^P ^P f« » » il « • ^ i & a i %^/y/y/A . i i a m 3. and we might to have some such position as 66. until Black will be forced to stop P — B 5 by playing P — K B 4. . and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns finally K B 4 and K Kt 4. White other- Q— QB Black must answer if Q— Q wise he will lose a Pawn.„. ^i m. PM'^^^^ '"^^^ I m The Black plays B »..148 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS "^ "WM. wM If 2.^wm. pieces can be said to be ^xt^. and the Queen to to White returns with Q R 3 Black will have again to return Q Kt 2 with the Queen or lose a Pawn. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ wm.

K Kt R. 10.M ft S ^W^ S ^m ^ .Ri R 7. threatening K B P by some R X Q B P. then he would bring his King up to and when the time came. R(B i) . (B i) . P X 2.K. RX R 3 8. and he played R — KB i. ch.: > C^. break through..KKti.. White would then simply defend his move like Q. R. 149 as follows 2 game might go on P X P. White might even be able position to obtain the following . K X R. PX Q- Kt Q.R — Pawn by Q X P. because 3 R X B P would 3. QXQ. as in the previous case. 9.Q White threatened could not play win a . P. « « . R(B5)-B2. : ^ A I '^^^^^M^ mm ^ ^'^ ^^ A . QNow R5. also win a Pawn at least..Kt2. 5. 2. RX R. 2 RX 2.Kt and White wins suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's move.KB 3. K-R 4. and Kt 3. Q .K B 3.R-Kt3. to .FROM A RUY LOPEZ In this situation the I. I 6. Q. and Black K B i. 4.Kt P . II. Q.

the power at Pawn free to K 5 is enormous. of this kind. which would give White a greater advantage. that con- stitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres. and that it is the commanding it is position of this Pawn. and White could then play Q—B 2. at White's K . own mind any given may arise (out of Thus he his will learn to make strategical plans and be on derive way to the master class. and follow up with K B 3. where has been shown the influence exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created 5. I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so that the student accustomed to build up positions that in his may become possible situation). once all the pieces are exchanged. and thus force Black to play P X P. A careful that. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" game has in The influence of a so-called "hole" in a already been illustrated my game against Blanco (page 81). The student can enormous benefit by further practice 33.150 SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS Black would now be forced to play R— B it i. examination of besides all these positions will reveal the advantage of freedom of of the manoeuvre on White's part. and the fact that advance.

Peters- burg Tournament of 191 4.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Example point. manoeuvre does not seem The Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own Q B. Janowski. K 4 Kt — Q 4 BxB. illustration of how see the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. (Queen's Gambit Declined.) A. K Kt — 10. 8. I 151 67. . but as the other Knight which will be posted there this logical. BxB Kt — B3 Q QxB . 7. 1. Kupchick. after 8 . White For a beautiful in that variation. is The normal to play course 0—0. 4. P-Q4 P-QB4 Kt— QB B — Kt5 3 3. — Li order to further illustrate this in the now give a national Masters game played Tournament White: Havana Inter- of 1913. D. 5. . P-K3 B-Q3 BxP is Of course the idea it is to post a Q 4. P-Q4 P-K3 Kt — KB3 B — K2 QKt-Q2 PxP Kt — Kt3 Knight at 6. Black: 2. 4. B — Kt 3 has some points the most important being the possibility of advancing the King's 9 Pawn immediately 8 9. followed by P —Q B more reasonable. QxB. B-Q3 in its favour in this position.

perfectly developed. not only but also Kt X B ch. 0-0 R— B 0-0 B — Q2 I i m B m «. P—K 4. 12. Kt x Kt P—K 4. 2.«„ ^ ^ White is mmi wmi iSf i J «^^ m^WL and now threatens to .„„.152 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P — K 4 as indicated in the previous note. : win a Pawn as follows followed Kt X Kt. because B 5 threatening. As White's King's Kt —K the K Kt P. by RX P. In off effect. Bishop should never be exchanged in this opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play 10 11. he plays B—Q and now he has to shut the action of his . a move which he cannot make of in the present position. 12 P-QB3 The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the whole system of development on Black's part.

and that not be able to dislodge them without seriously his it weakening game. when at least there would have been an object in preventing the WTiite Knight from reaching B 5. Kt — K4 5 for P— KB 4 This practically amounts to committing suicide. especially the one 5. and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. K might be said to be ideal. the the number of pieces on the board. since it it creates a hole at will K White's Knight. from where If be practically impossible to dislodge him. will ever be able to attack anything. the better chances there are to escape. benefit from such an advantageous This we shall soon . less In such cases. From all these reasons can be gathered that for would probably have been better Black to play Kt X Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights before assuming such a defensive position. if he can do it at it all. Black intended to make such a move he should have done it before. is WTiite going to deri\-e the situation. 13. which a Pawn for a while. can be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at Black will K 5 and QB 5 respectively. it is hard to see how this Besides. 15. Bishop it 153 thereby becomes httle more than In fact.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" own Bishop. 14. Kt — B 5 Kt — K5 B—K I The at position of White's Knights. henceforth will be full The question how see.

but White feels that he has more than enough time to all prepare his attack. 18.154 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" r«r^ m. have gone with the Rook to B as he does later. or Kt— Kt 3 P—B 20. and wants to be secure in every way before he begins. R— Ki Q-B3 Q— Kt3 7 R-B3 R-R3 R— B I 4. As that not the case. P ^1 . 21.^ 8 15- R— Kt in this I There is no object move. unless is it is to be fol- owed by Kt— Q i6. P— QR3 P — R3 R—B 2 K— Ri Perhaps these precautions are unnecessary. 2. 17. White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt— B 19.>• I . . he might i.

following Kt (B 5) X Kt. fi i 1 i fii ^ H 4 *^. B X Kt Q X P. the . . K — Kt 2 Kt X Q. He had better have played rid of and tried later on to get White's Knights by means of Kt — Q 2. however.THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" 21 22. Q X Q Kt — B 7 ch. White should have no trouble in winning. any number ref)lies it. .. position. among them . There were.' i ^4i * ^ B ^ 24. Qx to P PX R Kt — B I Kt — Q of good 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two WTiite Knights. 2T. and the position so much in his favour. and with two Pawns for the exchange. RX Kt Rook for a with this sacrifice of the Knight and Pav^Ti White obtains an overwhelming 24 25. 155 P-Kt4 P—K Q— B 4 2 P-B5 Kt— K6 Kt — B 3 .

and Black would be helpless. 33. From now on collection of to the end of the book I shall give a my games both lost and won. apart from other The student should things. 30. 31. 28. P X P. Kt— Kt4 27. . If Kt(B5)-K4P-KR3 Kt-Q4 P-KR4 R-Kt3 Q-Q2 Q-Bi PxP 2. There is nothing to be done. chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general principles laid down in the foregoing pages. 36. 35.156 THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE" R— Kt3 26. K— Kt of the B X P. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards are highly instructive. Q — R 2 ch. 32. K—B 34. P — K5 B — B4 R— Kt2 B — B2 and as it is All these easily moves are practically forced. principally those at K and QB 5. 2. notice that. Wliite throughout the game has had control 5 Black squares. B — Kt i . P— B 4 P — KKt4 PxP If Kt— K 2 PxP Resigns. 29. Kt — B 6 Kt — Kt 3 This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game. seen they tie up Black's position more and more.

PART II .

.

P-K3 P— Q4 P-K3 Kt-KB3 B — K2 Kt-K5 match I I I had played played tactics. 1. 4. 5. this defence twice before in the with good still results. coupled with the fact that successful with I it it knew that Dr. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces full and once at the same time to bring about a position of possibilities and with promising chances of end-game stage is success the reached. so often. II QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (Match. P— Q4 2. 1909) White : F.PART GAME 1. Lasker had played should be good. P-QB4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt5 3. Marshall. On general principles it should be wrong. Capablanca. E. Black : J. it thought that since Dr. when changed my The reason was my I total lack of knowl- edge of the different variations in this opening. it and although lost this I game until the very last game. J. Lasker had been against IMarshall himself in 1907. R. because the 159 .

6. 7 8. BxB B-Q3 QxB we shall PX P is preferable for reasons that soon see. give Black's — Bishop a powerful range.. and However.. Kt 2. . 7.i6o GAME is I same Kjiight although it moved three times in the opening.P be good. 0-0 X P 5. Kt-B3 . lies the slow development of Black's this Queen Bishop. 3 2 on account of Kt — K . may add that at present my preference it is for a different system of devel- opment. would be a better way to develop the P—Q The idea is that after 8. whether safely played is is variation can or cannot be still a question to be decided. as well as in nearly in all the variations of the Queen's gambit. In reality the difficulty in this variation. eleventh For this variation see the game 9. . of the match. but is not unlikely that I should some time come back to this variation. would Kt 3.PXP. involves the exchange of two pieces. Px Kt Kt X Kt Kt — Q2 Now P X P game. I it outside the scope of this book. No longer would 9. because 11 B — Kt 5 P — Q Kt would prevent B — Kt 10 B X P. followed by B qBxBP.

believe that Black would regain the Pawn. is doubtful whether good. The safer course would have been to play 13. If I had to play . I. I nowadays I would simply play 13 Then after 14 Q X P. since in leaves Black's Queen 's-side Pawns disrupted a way. 5 without any compensation for this position it. P—R 5 0—0 B — Kt 2 Q—B 2 I KR— Kt Kt — Q 2 . i6i 11. 14.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 10. 15. instead. 3. 12. Q X Q would follow. P—B Q-R3 P-QKt3 mm This exposes Black to further attack by P—R . PXP Q— Kt3 P— QR4 move PX P Kt — B 3 P—B 4 Yet it it is Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on this the Queen's side. White played 14 P X P then B — Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game. 16. R— K and If.

then any other move would lose as well. best . 18. 23.... my mind that this was threatened. . 21... I The game was 22. If that move would have been loses. 24. BX Kt P — R6 20. .K R— Kt 17. 16. but the text move makes matters worse. One move was as good as another. 1^ • rj #^^ 1 Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case. 25. As a 5.l62 GAME I i. matter of fact I never It saw White's reply B—B never even passed through Black's I. RxR Kt-K5 P— KB4 Qx R! RxR Q-B4 R— Kt3 Resigns. PxP QxP lost. B—B 5 KR — B QXB B-B3 PxP QR — Kt I From bad to worse. Kt — B 3 offered the only hope. 19.

B — Kt 2 8. I In making the to avoid the beaten track. 3. The text move is pretty and finishes quickly. Capablanca. 7. R Kt 8 ch would have drawn. Kt — B 3 is the normal WTiite's development was introduced by Schlechter and It elaborated later on isolation by Rubinstein. if 163 Kt X B. A well-played game on Marshall's part. 1. aims at the of Black's Q P. 2. Rubinstein. B— K3 in this variation. 25 — GAME 2. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it move was trying in the way of general principles. P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P_B4 PxQP Kt-B3 P— KKt3 move first P-Q4 P— QB 4 P-K3 KPxP Kt-QB3 6. Black : J. against which the White pieces are text gradually concentrated. except that the Knights ought to come out before the Bishops.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Of course. 4. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (San Sebastian. 0-0 B-K2 R-B I In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal . K. 5. R. 191 1) White : A.

I had not yet learned of Kt 5 and the exchange the attack founded on Kt Either Kt of the B at K 3.. KtxB 12.. r. the text Against move White makes a very fine combination .^^i mm. ^J ^ w/M til i WA w%. to prevent either B or Kt — — — 'ii. since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped.. K Kt 5.. II.. was right. .. ii W'^M m^A m^. Inci- dentally shows that White take proper advantage of Black's weak opening moves. 13- B-R3 B-Kt5 0-0 — This is a mistake. order to get the at The right move was R Q i in Rook away from the line of the Bishop same time to support the failed to R 3 and it at the Q P. i^H 9- PXP Kt— KKt 5 BxP Kt-B3 PX Kt Q— K2 10. The move in theory ought to be unsound../M.164 GAME 2 course of this variation... B 3 or P — K R 3. but with very poor success.

but I thought WTiite's combination unsound and therefore regret.^- ^ ^^ i ^^ fi «^ ^/ <i^ ^^i *= .^A IB 15... KtxP! ' "y/////. 14.QUEEN'S GAjMBIT DECLINED which I 165 had seen. let him play it. which it QXB seemed would give I considered PX me a playable game. to my lasting 1 :m . B^H P Q-R3 X- ^i_^i®^.' . B X Kt B. but which I thought could be defeated..

18 R-B Kt — Kt 5 . BxP would win) R— B 8 ch. This gives Black a chance. 22. I. 7 . 5 (if . 7 . granted i. had not considered. I thought 2. Kt — R 19 change). had in the following winning combination Kt — K 4I 17 Kt — B 4 16 B-Kt QxR!! QxQ. 19. R X R K R— K If then Kt — B R. R— K 2. GAME 2 K — Kt2! I This is the move which mind 2. K — Bi. Kt X P R B X P ch wins X Kt. QXB Q-Kt5 Q-Q7 Kt-Qs 20. R — B 5 wins.Q R-QBi. K — B 2.R-K7.Q B — K6ch. P— KR 4. Q— B i! PxKt 18. i. that Rubinstein would have to play I B — Kt (if when i. B X R ch 20 3. should have played R X R ch. Q-Q3 PXQ B — Kt4 QxQ KR — Ki He 7 . that I It is curious that It has been combination has been overlooked. taken for did not see the 17th move Q— B 16 After White's last QR — Qi move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the inevitable. R— B ch. 3 (if . 17. 21. P — K Kt this and Black should win.i66 i6. the ex- Kx B. K-B Kt. BxPch wins).

Kt— Q 5. 24. 25. B — K6ch R — B 5 ch B—B 7 29. RxR. In fact. B x R. If then R — Q Kt 5. The proper way was to play it Q 3.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 22 23. K— account of the dominating position of the Knight at . game will show. 167 R—Q % KR-Ki RXR RXR R-QKt3 R-K5 RX P RxP Kt-B3 K— B I 27. followed by P — Q Kt 4. as the course of the loses several moves. 26. and WTiite would have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on move. ch K— Ki K-Q2 30. 28. which gives away any legitimate a very important chance Black had to draw. B-B4 30- P-QR3 It loses A bad move.

Even before the last is a downright blunder.i68 GAME and the awkward position this is so. RXP P — R4 R— R6ch R — R5 ch B-Q5 K-Q3 P — Kt4 P-QR4 P-RS P-Kt5 K— B4 K-Kt3 gives Black With these last three moves White again move B — B 4 would have won with comparative ease. 38. he can win at White's best con- . 2>^- 2 Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on the Queen's (See side of White's King. Black does not avail himself. 37.) 31. but the text move a chance. fortunately for him. of which. impossible for to win. 38 P— Kt6 it RXP White would make if practically all. 3536. how R — B 7 ch R X K Kt P B — Kt8 3334.

39. 42. beginning with 14 B x Kt. 41 R— Kt 5 ch. 8. and 41 to find it.. B X P. As an end game.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED tinuation then would have been : 169 39 B—B 4. R— R 3! offers excellent chances for a draw. it P—R is 43 B — Kt 8.P —R 8. 191 3) White : D. 3 2. this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. P-Q4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 Kt— KB 34. P — R6 R X Kt P 40. Capablanca. If Px P B X Kt 7.. 7. 40. GAME 3. 40 42 is R— Kt P—R a win 5 ch. 9- B-Q3 Q— K2 0-0 KR — Q P-Q3 Q Kt — Q 2 P-K4 P-B3 B—K Q-R4 2 I Kt-B B-Kt5 I . K— B 7 . The redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the middle game. 2. Black : J. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (Havana. if there very difficult as against 44 P—R 6. B-Q5 R— R6ch P-R7 Resigns. R. 5- P-K3 Kt-B3 6. R — By. P — R 6. I. 42 R— Kt 41. Janowski. K— R 3. 5. R X B.

or that he will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's complete development. ^'^•'^'^'i^B . any particular weakthe It is and that it gives plenty of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. long time it The drawback is takes Black to develop his game. natural to suppose that White will employ that time to prepare a weU-conceived attack. Whether Its it is sound or not remains it yet to be proved. 11. 12.170 GAME last 3 to obtain full developis At ment. ID. Black is on his way The idea of this irregular opening his mainly to throw the as At the time White on game was played. to obtaui some definite material advantage. or failing that. the system of defence was not well known as the regular forms of the Queen's resources. P— KR3 PxP Kt— K4 B — R4 PxP mm. good features are that keeps the centre intact without creating ness. own Pawn openings.

B x Kt was also good. Q— K4 RPx B K— B 3 . in order to bring at once all into play. 16. Px B . 13. been Kt The natural and proper move would have the Black pieces it —K 3. i5Kt— B5. ele- Here seen how failure to comply with the mentary logical reasons. wrong this White would obtain a win- ning position for the end game. that govern any given posiI tion.IRREGULAR DEFENCE 12 171 Kt X Kt I considered castling. often brings the player into trouble. Q-B4 P — QKt 4 B X B Kt-K3 Q—B 2 17. Whether all right or shows how closely related are consequently parts of the game. was the move. and the other. 15. 14. 14 Kt — Kt B — Kt3. but desisted because was that by playmg 13 B X Kt. and at the it same time have is simplified the game. I A very serious mistake. right which afraid 3. how one will influence BxB B X Kt KxB B — Kt 3 Not good. was no fear doubt influenced of in my choice of moves by the B—B 5. which was a very threatening move. as would have reheved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn. 18.

to P — Kt 4. weak point is is unquestionably the Pawn at K 4. at doubling the Rooks. For this reason P—K attack. P — B 4. can meet all this by offering the exchange of Rooks. how- ever. r« R-Q3 be followed by P— K R Black's 4. which destroys White's plans. might have been a more vigorous way to carry on the attack. which would create a "hole" this by or by playing P— Kt 3. which she already defends.172 GAME 3 m ^^^ &^f Kf 19. R 4 appears the proper way to carry on the QR-Qi P — KKt4 20. which would tie the at Q 5 Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as Black could only stop playing . . the K P. sup- ported by a Pawn at Q B 5. QR— Qi which would preparatory to P — K Kt This move 19 is 3. which he text compelled to defend with the King. with the The move aims ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6. Black.

RxR right R— Q I A very serious mistake. which loses a Pa\\Ti.. P— KR4 soon be seen. 21. because 25 PXP Kt X P. should come to a simple ending.. reply 24. if it with a very good game. the position of the Black King would be an advantage.IRREGULAR DEFENCE make Black's position secure. as will Black cannot ch. left P— Black K Kt 3 was the move. 173 Unfortunately for Black.Kt— K 3 . RxR Ktx R 24. he did not carry out his original plan. . 23. P — B4 left RxR Black with a perfectly P— safe K Kt 3 would have game. and would have In fact. 22. This wins a Pa^\^l. 26 Q— R 4 wins the Knight.

35. P-Q4 P — K4 Kt-QB3 B — Kt 5 P-K3 P— Q4 Kt-KB3 B — Kt 5 It This constitutes the McCutcheon Variation. GAME 4. Capablanca. at taking the initiative aims away from White. 29. 26. R. Black resigned. 33. WTiite : J. A. and. 1. FRENCH DEFENCE Petersburg. 4. 36. 31. 32. Instead . Snosko-Borovski. 3. 34. GAME Q X P ch Q— Kt4ch Q— Ktsch 4 PXP 28. 2. K— R2 KtxP KtxQ KtxP Q— Kt4ch! K — K2 QXQ Kt-K3 P-K5 PxP Kt— Q5 The game went on for a few more moves. 1913) : (St. 27. there being no way to counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns.174 24 25. Black E. QxP P-B5 P-K4! K— K 3 K—B 3 K— K3 Q— Q3 Q-Q4 Q-Q8ch P—B 3 30.

however. WTiite. The plan in of Black in this variation to post his later on. side. 6. as I said before. will Castle It is. . considered then. Black 175 makes a counter demonstration It leads to highly interesting on the Queen's games. the text move 5 to be the stronger. has more than ample compensation through up Black's King's is side. expected that \Miite on the King's side because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pa^^•ns. PXP game was played but I At the time this the variation 5 P— K 5 was in vogue. 7- Bx Kt B X Kt ch PXB Kt-B3 PxB P-QKt3 is 8. of course. to make a violent attack against White's King.FRENCH DEFENCE of defending. as I do now. to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's Queen's his breaking laid side. It might be down as a principle of the opening that the breaking of up of the King^s side more importance tlmn a simi- lar occurrence on the Queen''s side. 5. It This is considered superior to has for its object. Bishop on the long diagonal so as to be able the open conjunction with the action of his Rooks along K Kt's file. QxP Px P.

Two possibihties must be conno danger Firstly : If Black Castles on the Queen's evident that there If is side. moves. 12. 12 13. In addition to the attacking probabilities of the text in move. it is : of an attack. White one move brings his King into safety and brings one of his Rooks into play. it will take advantage of the apparently unprotected position of White's King. as in this game. 14. is of Philadelphia. side. I believe. White begins the attack taking advantage of the awkward position of Black's Queen. 4 11.176 9- GAME 10. overlooking Wliite's fine . Q— K3 P-Kt3 0—0—0 KR— Kt Q-QR4 I Unquestionably a mistake. My idea is that there no Black Bishop and because Black's be impossible for Black to pieces have been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side. Walter Perm as Shipley. "tempi" as they are Thus he gains called. played for the first time in a similar position in a game against Mr. Secondly Black Castles on the King's first. Q— Q B—K 2 P — B4 — — 2 B — Kt 2 Kt— Q2 Q— KB4 An original idea. several which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to evolve. sidered.

R-Q3! KR— Q I K— Kt Q-KB4 I W/M lU fa i i Um S ///^//i ^ ^'-•' ^Bi '^////'X-. Certainly the Queen far more valuable than the Knight.FRENCH DEFENCE reply. Kt — R4 it This move has been criticised because puts the forc- Knight out of the . 15. 19. but a careful examination will 177 show that WTiite already has the better position. to say nothing for WTiite's of the time gained and the freedom of action obtained thereby more important 17 18. P—B 4 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Kt 2 B-B3 . but also drives the Queen away. way for a few moves. pieces. putting it out of the is game for the moment. 17. But by WTiite gains a ver}^ important move ing Q — K Kt 4 — B which not only consohdates his position. 16. with P 4.

Kt — B 3 Q 6 via To and prevent the Knight from moving to Q 2 4 or Q B 4. It advantage of position. but gave up because seemed too slow. great is K self-evident that White has a 23. 21. KR— Ki B X B KxB White P-QB 5! P-B3 threatened P — B 6 ch. hence the advantage of gettmg rid of 19 20. and . 3. which form in such positions is The Bishop of very great defensive it. it which was the right move. Q-Bi 22. Kt— Q2? I had considered it R— Kt 3.178 In such positions to get rid it GAME is 4 generally very advantageous and Q B of the Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 "holes" for White's pieces. value.

FRENCH DEFENXE way of winning. Q-Q4 Kt X R— Kt I . 179 that in such a position there had to be some quicker 2Z 24. 28. R-Bi R (Kt — B 29 Kt x P would win. still looking for the "grand combination. 27. If Px 28 P P." and thought I Pawn would later on have at Q 6 would win the game. Kt— R 5 ch 26. Kt— Kt3 K—R I Kt — Q4 i) I . I was. 24 25. PX P Kt — B 4 Kt — Kt 3 Kt — K 4 or would have brought about an ending advantageous to White. P— B 4 the right move. Black deserves great credit for the this exceedingly difficult way in which he conducted . Kt — B 4 was that the however.

I believe I lost if my chance to win the game. and that is would vindicate 4. P-Q7 33- K— Kt I 34. my judgment when. have gone over the following variations RXK R P (of course ifRxBP. P — Q8 35 Q— Q wins) . I played P — B The student can what I 4> would happen if White plays Q— Q 4I : at once. RXP is The here true it position last most interesting. P-K4! Q-Kti PxKt P — Q6 303132. Kt-Kt3 P-K5 PXR R— K7 R-B ych R— Kt ich Q— K2 35. num- ber of times.I So GAME He could easily have gone wrong any defence. on move find out 28. but from move 22 onwards he always played the best move. ?8 29.

best Q— Q 5 ch K— R K— Kt QXB P and WTiite 3536. White cannot play Kt —Q 4. 2. 39. i. 1914) White : Dr. 40. R. Capablanca. 5. 1. A very interesting battle. Lasker. 3^- O-Q4 Q— R4 Q-R6 R-K R-Q Q-K5 K-Kt I There since is nothing to be done against this simple move. 37- R— Q Kt 7 I I wins) 38 will at least have a draw. 37 Q-R6. P-QR3 is 4. P— K4 Kt— KB B-Kt5 BxKt this P— K4 3 Kt— QB 3 3. E. RUY LOPEZ Petersburg. because Q— R 8 mates. K-Kt I .FRENCH DEFENCE I8l I 36QXQP! R-Q (if . which WTiite . The a object of move to bring in about speedily middle-game without Queens. I. GAME (St. Black : J. K-B Kt — Q4 I RxQP R— K8ch Resigns.

reason side to is that the King ought on the weaker oppose later the advance of White's Pawns. while is Pawns on the other side somewhat balanced by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. 8. in some event3. 6. 4 5. Black has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one. form adopted the Black Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. in order to go K Kt There is . P-Q4 QxP KtxQ is QPXB PxP QXQ B-Q3 His to remain Black's idea to Castle on the King's side. is Theoretically there very much to be said in favour of this reasoning. in order not to also. but whether in practice that would be the best system would be rather difhcult to prove.i82 GAME superiority of 5 has four Pawns to three on the King's Black's side. On the other hand. The student should notice that if now all the pieces were exchanged White would practically be a ahead. Kt — QB3 Kt — K2 In any other A perfectly sound form of development. for the K and to 2 is the natural position Black Kt in this variation. and would therefore have a Pawn won ending. ualities. obstruct Black's Pawns. 7.

It threatens B—B R— K 4. It also prevents II. B—K 3 because of 3 3. 10. Kt — Kt B3 followed Preparatory to P — Q Kt in by P B and B — Kt 4 2 in conjunction with great Kt — Kt to which would put WTiite difficulties meet the combined attack against the two centre Pa\Mis. This move still. 12. possible for Black to pin the Kt by B — Q B 10. it unless it advances to K 5.RUY LOPEZ also the possibility of its going to 183 5 via Q QB 3 after P-QB4. Kt — Q 4 or B —Q 3. 9. 4. Kt— Q 4. P-B5 r£ a i . I considered and I do It leaves the K P weak. and it also makes 4. B — K I 3. Best. 0-0 P—B 4 weak 0-0 at the time.

Dr. 16 R— B 2.. Lasker's variaIf not the best. 12 13. 16.BxB. 17RXR. 16.1 84 GAME like 5 It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game. RxR. my better judgment.. on my part finally to obtain a lost position.. QKt3 B-B4 m z^^ 4 HI mm mm ^iS^ » ^ I = i Bg W^ & H^^^B B — Kt2 13- Played against of course was I. Q tion. . Kt x R. is after R— Q i given in Dr.i4RxB. But. the and he claims that White has the best of as Niemzovitch pointed out immediately game. Lasker gives right move 4. RxR.. 18R— Q2.. The B X B. i.. P — B B — Kt 2. the follow- ing 15 variation: Q R— Q i3. Q R — Q 19 it. nothing better than to have such a It required several mistakes but I would position again. Q R—B i! then White will have great difficulty in drawing the game.

then the Black Knight can go to Q K B of 4 will be the object of the attack. 15 QR-Qi yet far from lost. .Kt —B Black threatens so many things that it is difficult to see how WTiite can prevent the loss of one or more Pawns.Kt — — threatening Kt — Kt Black 3 5 and If Kt — Q draw. . White answers 20 Kt In Q Kt — Q . 15. Black plays 19. threatening Kt — B 5. Kt — K6 R — Q2 17.B X B. if .RUY LOPEZ since there is 185 no good way to stop Black from playing Kt — B 3. fol- 4. The game lowed by is as against the entry of the Knight. and the White Pawn at Taking Dr. Black can later P—Q 16. 14. after 19. however. on play P —B 4. 4. . whatever advantage there might be disappears at once 3. 5. neither which can be stopped. otherwise I would have played the right move . BX B PXB Kt-Q4 B — Kt 13. also Lasker's variation. 5. 5 for will at least fact. And should Wliite attempt to meet this maat noeuvre by withdrawing the Kt 3 . . 2. followed by Kt —K Kt 5. . It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this I move when played 13 . QR-Qi .

B X Kt give Black the advantage). via Q B i. still on sacrifice the exchange for the Knight for it. —B 4. P -Q 4. If P — Q Kt 4.. 18 Now 5. since if R Q 2... 17. and Q B 5 or Kt— Q Bx P — B 4. Q Kt 3. let us analyse Kt.. 21 R X R.P . i7. B X P 20 Kt X B (best. . and a 1 7 . 18 R— B 2. Q — 2) P X P. lose. and there is no good reason why 19 2. (B Black should 17 18.'/ I now was on by P the point of playing 4.. but suddenly I became ambitious and thought B i. RxKt.Kt — and at later 6. K winning a weaker. Kt — Bi R— B 2 P-QKt4 .i86 GA^IE 5 C 'iJe^. Again. that I could play the text move. . Kt around to K 4. I Pawn and leaving White's KP intended to carry this plan either before or after playing P— K Kt 4 as the circumstances : demanded. to be followed —Q which I thought would give me a draw. P—B 4. 19 PxB. careful analysis wall show that Black has nothing to Black's plan in this case would be to work his fear. Kt X R.

and the game most accurately. Kt 3 and B K— B 3 K—B 4 Wliite's last R— Kt P — Kt 3 here. 4 ch. the two moves were weak. flounders around have been better to play file. At least it would K— B 2 24. move. difficult.19. P— Kt 4 R-Q3 P— KR4 PX P R—R 2 P — R3 P-QR4 PX R for a P 2) (R —K 2 It This. 21. I Again bad. 20. Black. 26. Black now this should have played P — Kt his After missing finishes chance White has it all own way. I doubt ver>^ much if White would have been able to win the game. 6 to keep the open and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at 27. 28. RUY LOPEZ R (Q 2) — K KR — Q 2 K— B 2 P — QKt4 B — Ri P — QR3 my I 187 2 Once more changing any good reason. 23. Had . R X P as I intended to do when I went back w^ith the Knight to B i. P X R ch. plan and this time without now played R X Kt. since White King does nothing He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move. has no object now. would R— R 5. and Black becomes more . 25. of course. have been extremely 22. with a bad game.

probably 29. 35- K-B3 PXP R-R3 K-Kt3! Kt— Kt3 QR— KRi P-K5 Kt-K4 Kt(K6)-B5 RPXP R— Q2 K— Ki B — Kt2 QPXP Kt-Q4 B—B I 36. 3940. he played well after that up to the 27th move. perfect. When a plan is must be carried out at all possible. as well as play The rest of his was good. it my if play throughout was of irresolute character. R-Kt3 P — Kt4ch 303132. KtxR BxKt R— R7 R-Ri R — RSch Kt-B5 R— B K— Qi B—B I I Resigns. 41. Regard- ing the play of White. I consider his loth and 12th his 28th moves were very weak move. excepting that an altogether made. which was bad. 5 The game needs no further comment. 38. 3334.i88 helpless with each GAME move. . 37. 42. .

5- P-K5 P X P the best move. but gains time for an attack against WTiite's centre and Queen's side. 8. 3- P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Kt5 it P-K3 P— Q4 Kt — KB3 B-Kt5 Black more chances to 4- Of this all the variations of the French Defence I like best. P— K4 2. 7. on White's Bishop by going to would threaten the weakened gives K Kt P. there is Though I consider much to be said in favour of this move. . because gives obtain the initiative. and later. 1916) White : O. I. Black : J. I The alternative. Capablanca.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 6. Bx Kt Kt-Ks K—B . 5. but not of the vari- ation as a whole. side very weak. which Wliite adopted in this game. Kt 3 leaves Black's King's White by playing P — K R 4 would K force Black to play P— K R 4 Q 3. 189 FRENCH DEFENCE (Rice Memorial Tournament. P-KR3 B-Q2 PxB Q-Kt4 P— 6. Chajes. . R. By the text move Black up Castlmg.

M_ ^ ''^m ^ i -. however. besides being a Pawn to the good. GAME 6 B-B Q— R 3. so that it . B-Q3 Kt— K2 0-0 BxKt 13. B 1 M ^. Q-R4 PxP PxP PXB Kt-B3 QxP «i m m W£'. His development. that Black has a won game but he has certainly the best of the posi- tion. 14. cannot be said as yet.iQO 9. he threatens White's K P. and there are Bishops of opposite colour. I P-QB4 It Threatening threat of last 4 and stopping thereby White's B—R demonstrates that White's loss of move was a complete his position. II. 12. has suffered somewhat.^ WiA Pawn '^/'/'/yy/M Black has come out of the opening with a to the good.HI. because. '^^„* WiW^. i ^^ »i ^^^ i #1 ^^^ ^SB m. time and merely weakened 10. which must of course be de- .

for it. The WTiite B would much on the open diagonal than on the defensive. or ever. B 3 via it Q as soon as the opportunity presents and will be Black that will then have the initiative. in Better would have been order to play better posted it B—R 3.FRENCH DEFENCE fended. and this in turn will give to post his 191 him the opportunity 2. Knight at Q 4 via K When the Black Knight is posted at 2. . 2 B-K3 4. Q 4. where acts purely B—B 2 Kt— K 2 Kt — Q4 it is This Knight completely paralyses the attack. 17 18. 17. is thoroughly prepared for it. as dominates the whole situation. is R-Qi Kt — K 2 . White any chance he might have of making a determined attack on the King's side before Black 15 16. the Bishop will be developed to itself. and there to dislodge his pieces. howby bringing his loses pieces to the Queen's side. of the game. which would be answered by still better by B —R 3. since The move. and can consequently decide the course 15. P-KKt3 P—B 4 K— Kt P— Q R be here. To prevent Kt X P. no way Behind it Black can quietly develop said to be The game can now be won Black strategically. strategically wrong.

since White's attack amounts to nothing. In reaUty nearly these precautions are unnecessary. 24. but Black wants assume the initiative at once and plunges into comto . 22. Probably Black should have left aside all these considerations. Q R— Kt i. 23. as White will soon prove. in order to follow p—B as he did later. GAME 6 R— Q3 Kt-Q4 B — Q2 20. would have avoided everything. 21. circumstances. R-R3 24. but under less favourable 4.192 19. p— B4 Q—B i Not the best. R— Kt3 P— KR4 P-R5 K 2 QR— QB K— R2 KR— Kt Q-Kt5 Also to prevent I I In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either or B all i. it up with and played Q — R 5 now.

PXP e. 26. is 193 However. KxR Kt — B 5ch Px Kt 29. 1 liW 27. Kt X P (B 3) PxPch RxP ^„„.FRENCH DEFENCE plications. ^M i y/y^/yyii. 27 28. the move not a losing one by any means. as will soon be seen. 25. M^m '"" ^ m ^^' i^j ?r i»*^« ^^ RxP ch This wins the Queen.p. QxQ ^ w ^ ^^ ft i ^ l^g .

first In some cases. of course. it will be better will to play least K — Kt 5). unless first. K— R it as already indicated. would be possible to get up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him to it hold out much longer. but lost a very important move by Q R — K Kt R — Q I. 31. There are so many possibilities in would be impossible to give them to will worth the reader's time go carefully through the lines of play indicated above. which looks the best is (the plan. forcing followed a play- similar plan. 5 in to go to 8. which be at give draw. tion all. and Black would reply with to play 5 . White would be forced either P — Kt 4. but I was wrong. I am ing to play I . and follow up with K — Kt threatening mate. that B—B 3 at once was the right move. him a this posi- or Kt — K that It it 5. or to some other move according circumstances. 29 QR— KKt —B 3 I As stated B 30. was the best move. the White KR but in is now Rook having come . R— K R i .194 GAME position looks 6 I thought it The most interesting. as explained above. however. Kt it due time and threaten mate at too late. 3. could have been done by playing B — B 3 I P — Kt 3 and then playing K— R 4. of course. P-Kt3 B-B3 R— Qi K— R4 is The plan. which gave White time to play convinced. of course.

least. 33' 34. 48. 434445- 46. Kt X Q . therefore. and the last chance Black best play. 3738. X P was no 3940. which would have given him a draw at the very After the text moves the tables are turned. 50- Q--K5 p--B4 Q--Kt 2 B--Q4 Q--Kt5 K--B 2 Q--Kt6 K--K I Q--Q6 P--Kt 4 P--KB5 K--Q2 P--B6 Q--K6ch B--K3 K--B 2 R--Ki Kt--B3 R--KRi R--R8ch P--R3 R--R 7ch Kt--Q2 B--B3 Px P R--R8ch K--K I R--R2 K--B I B--R6ch R. draw against White's QxBP RxR R. RX 35. 49. 42. 32. R— Q6 still B— had to K5 probably Kt —K 5 was the right move.FRENCH DEFENCE time to prevent the mancEuvre. 36. 47. It is now White who has the upper hand. Black should have played Kt —K 5.B 2 K--Kt I . and Black who has to fight for a draw. Kt Kt-Q4 KxR better. 195 Instead of the text move. 41.

for while Black. . I players will be wondering. 5758. having the best of the position. as the spectators did not resign. If the reader does not believe it. 59- K— Kt P — R4 Q-R3 I P— Kt6 P — Kt 7 Kt — B Kt — Q2 P — R4 BxP I RxP KtxB BxR QxPch K— B I 60. K X B. 5354. and while . on the other hand.196 GAME why I 6 Most did. The reason is that while for the fol- knew the game to be lost. 52Q-R5. White has a won game pieces against a master it is by no means see easy. 5152.RxP. 53 BKt 5 ch. played opponent. let and him take the White what happens.K-R2. My no chances. missed none. to take B — Kt and finally won as shown below. QxP few more moves Black resigned. game on Chajes' part from move 25 and after a very A very fine on. 51 who decided 7. White. K— Kt 2 54 B X R ch. I was hoping lowing variation. missed several chances. which Chajes came very near playing 5iQxPch. 55- B — Kt 2 7 K— K2 K— B Q-Kt4 56.

10. which would have B — Kt 5 B — K3 .RUY LOPEZ GAME RUY LOPEZ 197 7. to which I was much addicted at the time. Capablanca. 12. QKt— Q 0—0 P — QKt4 8. It B— K a more natural and effective move. —B B—B Q— K Kt I 2 2 P— Q4 Px P 4 Px P B — QB Evidently to make room for the Queen at I K 2. (San Sebastian. 1. 5 6. Black : A. P — B3 is P-Q3 B — K2 the alternative of developing In this variation there this Bishop via Kt 7. after 2 P — K Kt 3. 191 1) White : J. because of of the multiple variations of the openings. 9. B—B 5. 2. but do not think the move ad\dsable at 3 is this stage. R. Bum- P— K4 3 2. 11. Kt— KB P— K4 Kt — QB 3 3. 4. B-Kt5 B — R4 P-QR3 Kt — B 3 my ignorance P-Q3 This is a very solid development. 5. develops a piece and threatens to be stopped.

14. . however. Wm ^m § mi \ m ^^^ ^P ^P '^ ^P 15. because White's QB is out. does not of his allow time for this. and played make his position more solid. Black's game was already not He probably had no choice but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move. and superior position 17. Since he had no to prevent the loss of a he should have given Q Kt— Q 2. does not block the 13. and also his King's Pawn. in border to up where it is. Q Kt— K3 — R— Ki Q— K2 good.198 GAME it is 7 Now not so effective. P-QR4 way it P-Kt5 Pawn. able White. 16. This is bad. in going to K B. is by taking advantage to win a Pawn. Kt — Qs BxKt Kt — Kti to support the other Knight PxB it in order to bring to Q 2. 3 to defend the square QB 4. and the Knight.

19. remains for White to drive action^ it only home his advantage before Black can come out with his pieces. move to eliminate all danger. PX P B X Kt B X P QXB 20. Q-K4 QxPch P"^ B-Q3 K—B S I '^^^-mk With a Pa\vn more and all his pieces ready for while Black is still backward in development. 18. .RUY LOPEZ The text 199 leaves Black's move not only loses a Pawn. but game very much weakened. Black might be able to Wliite start a strong attack against WTiite's King. Kt — R4 forced Q-R3 Black P. This is practically could not play P — Kt 3 because of BX and Wliite meanwhile by Kt threatened Q— R S ch followed —B 5 ch and QxP. in which case. by using the open able K R file. is by his next 22. 21.

and the Pawns he has are isolated and have 35. 3334. 7 QxQ Kt-B5 PxQ P-KR4 Kt-Q 2 Kt-B3 KtxP Kt-B5 B-Qi BXP 27. 40. two Pawns down for all practical purposes. to be defended I by pieces. LrAMJn. 31. 29. 24. R-B3 R— B 3 ch P-Kt3 41. R— K R-K4 P-Kt4 Kt X B K— B X R-Kt5 R-R3 would win a piece RXR P . PXB Kt-K3 Kt-B4 KR— Kt K— K2 He is I Black fights a hopeless battle. followed by R— B 7 ch. If B. 37. Kt-K3 32. of course 39. 38. 2 QR— B X I R—R White threatened Kt 36.200 23. 25. B-K2 28. 26. K— Kt2 B-B4 K — Kt 2 B-Qs R-Ri . KR— Q B—B 4 I KR— Qi P — R4 30. P-R4 P-KKt3 B X Kt Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn. 42.

Q— Kt 3 Kt X Kt 9. CENTRE (Berlin. Capablanca. 5. to exert sufficient pressure against the K win and thus gain a material advantage. B— KB .CENTRE GAME 43- 201 P-Kt5 R-R3 Rx Kt 4445. Mieses. P-Rs PxR P-Kt6 R-B3 Resigns. 46. Ktx P R X Kt 4 10. 3. slight advantage of think. my subsequent difficulties being due to faulty execution of the plan. 1. 1913) GAIVIE White : J. at compensate whatever might have. 8. My P to idea was it. GAMES. Q-K3 Kt-QB3 B—Q 2 Kt-QB3 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. 7. least. Black : J. which would. 0—0—0 — R— K I In this position. instead of the text move. I quite feasible. P— K4 P— Q4 QXP P— K4 Px P 4. 2. R. often played in order to develop the Q B. is position WTiite The plan. is P—Q t.

with serious of position. II P-Q3 it This now is not only a developing move. . all. initiative move with the principles away from White laid down in this book. '/W'^ 10 Q-B3 Pawn was merely with Black for his White's threat to regain the the idea of gaining time to develop his pieces. and could only be loss extricated. and White would Black aims at taking the in accordance B — Q3. text soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. R3 and White's Bishop would be B X at P. If Kt — 3 . opening the 11 way Q B. l#P^ Wf^ 4'^ • 1 B ^ ^ ^i^^^^:^^^^ ^. when would have followed.l. II. could have played P—Q 3 . The text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative. With the R — Ki. but also threatens to win a piece by B x Kt. 12 Kt — B 3.202 GAME 8 I 1. I ^mm »^^^ ''^Mm. P—Q completely shut if off.

i 1 i ^^^ i 1 tvLfJ . 15P— QB3. . RXB. 3 (best). better. besides the fact that all the White 14. not so in reality. and Black has the best of the with four Pawns for a Knight.R Kt 5. K Kt 5 Black. . QXB! Kt — K 7 ch . Kt-Q5 R— K i This complicates the game unnecessarily. when we would have 14 B X Kt. and 13. was simple. 17 Q— K PX Q. Pawns are isolated. 18B — B2. QxPch.CENTRE GAME 12. 5! Kt— Kt Rx B There was nothing 15.^^ mm mm. — R- . 16 P x B. 203 B-Q3 perfectly safe.BxP. QxQ. B-K3 WM^jg^'frnm. and though in appearance dangerous for The right move would have been 13. was most interesting. game 19 RX P. 13 B-Kt5 The position This is a serious mistake.

At first and even after careful thought. He preferred to keep the Queens on the board and keep up sight. 17. KR— Ki R-Q5 Q-B3 QXQ tage. 22. with the exchange ahead. BxKt! Kt— K4! RxB RxKt QxR P — KB4 P — B3 Q— Kt 4ch Q-Kt4 B — B4 21. feared the difficulties of an ending where. he would be a Pawn minus. White . enough to win with proper play. the attack. 20. 18. 19. would have given White a decided advanMieses. while having the exchange. there seems to be no objection to his plan From this point but in truth such is not the case.204 GAME 8 i m§ iBi m 1 i6. however. favour until. the game will gradually improve in Black's is lost.

CENTRE GAME
22
23-

205

P-B5
R — Q2

24.

Q-Q2 P-QB3 P-Q4
m

mm
i

WM

^1? i

My
I
shall

plan for the

moment

is

very simple.

It ^ill
3.

consist in bringing

my

Bishop around to

B

Then

try to paralyse

White's attack against
also prevent

my
is

King
from
safe
side

by playing P — K R 3, and ever playing P — K Kt
5.

White

from attack

I shall begin to

my ad\^ance my
Once
;

King

Queen's

Pawns, where there are four to three
Bishop at

and that
even

advantage, coupled with the enormous attacking power
of

my

B

3, will

at least assure

me an

chance of success.

2526. 27.

Q-B3

B—
2

K2

QR— K

28.

B-B3 Q-R5 P — KR3 P — KKt4 K — R2!

2o6

GAME

8

To prevent P — K R 4, which I would answer with P — K Kt 3, winning the Queen. It can now be
considered that
will

my

King

is

safe

from attack.

White

have to withdraw his Queen via

R

3,

and Black

can use the time to begin his advance on the Queen's
side.

29.

30.

K— Kt R— Q

I

I

R— Qi P—B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has
placed his Rooks correctly from the point of view of
strategy.

They

are both on white squares free from

the possible attack of the Black Bishop.
31.

Q-R3
at

Q-R5
moment, on account
in the

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding
the White the

Q

R

3 for the

of

K Kt P.

Besides, the

Queen must be

middle

of the fray

now

that the attack has to be brought
in

home.

White has actually more value
utilise

material,

and therefore Black must

everything at his

command
32.

in order to succeed.

R(K2)-Q2
5
;

33' K-Ri threatening P — Kt of action of the

Q-K5ch P-QKt4
which would open the
line

Bishop and also secure a passed Pawn.

34.

Q-Kt2
Q QXR
ch.

Q-R5
P, which White cannot

indirectly defending the

take on account of

CENTRE GAME
35.

207

K-Kt

I

P-Kt5
force as
it is

The attack increases in home directly against
is

gradually brought

the King.

The

position

now
It
is

most interesting and extremely
if

difficult.

doubtful

there

is

any valid defence against Black's

best play.

The

variations are

numerous and

difficult.

36.

PXP
White cannot very

QxP
well play

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts
great pressure.

37

RxP
5

because of

RxR;

38

R

now x R, B x P

and WTiite could not take the Bishop because

Q—

K

ch would win the Rook, leaving Black a clear

passed

Pawn
37.

ahead.

38. 39.
40. 41.

P-QR3 RxP
R(Ql)_Q2
Q — Kt3

Q-R5! R-QKti

P-B5

R— Kt6

Q-Q6

208

GAME
mm

8

^
i

s
^jp

^™
VA

i

^
63
,
,'

;'

A ^^^

^^^

^^^

f

^^

^^i

^^P

^M
P — B6

^;.-^

41.

B X P would
game
it is

also

win, which shows that White's

is

altogether gone.

In these cases, however,
that should be played,

not the prettiest

move

but the most effective one, the

move

that will

make

your opponent resign soonest.
42.

4344.

R— QB R-Q3 R-Qi
Resigns.

2

PxP
Q-K5I R — QB6

Of course White must play
plays

Q— Q

2,

and Black then

RX

P.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

209

GAME

9.

QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED
(Berlin, 1913)

White:

J.

R. Capablanca.

Black: R. Teichmann.

I.

P-Q4
Kt
-^K

2. 345-

B

3

P-B4
B-Kt5 Kt-B3

6.
7.

8. 9-

P-K3 R— B PxP
I

P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P-K3 B — K2 QKt — Q2 0-0 P-QKt3 PxP
I believe.

B-Kt5
my
own,
I played
it

An

invention of
of the

on the spur
or to

moment simply

to change the normal

course of the game.

Generally the Bishop goes to
4.

R

6, after

Q— R
it

Q

3,

The

text

move

is

in the
it

nature of an ordinary developing move, and as
violates

no principle
9-

cannot be bad.

B — Kt

2

10.

II.
12.

13-

0-0 B-R4 Q-K PxP
R— Q
I,

2

P-QR3 R-B P-B4
I

KtxP

If

PX P

one of

and WTiite would play to win Black's centre Pawns. The drawback to the
;

K

14. so to speak. but in position such a course is a mistake. because the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means. B—B P — Kt Kt —Q R — Kt4.. Queen's unless Black gives up the isolated Pawn which 18. and consequently weak and subject to attack. KR— Q would 5. to prevent 7. 17. are manoeuvred chain-like. Kt X Q.P 4. have 16 14. of course. QxQ Kt(B3)xQ! the Notice the co-ordination of Knights' moves.210 text GAME move is 9 that it leaves Black's QP isolated. RXR P — Kt QXR 4 Kt-B3 Q-B5 this Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops for the ending. the Bishop must defend. Kt X Kt 16. Kt — Q4 4. I R— B . R—B R-B R— Q because of Q X Q. They there. either at Q 4 or ready to go file. I . Not. in order to maintain one of them. I Ktx B been The 15 alternative 2. and therefore move. Now 19 White threatens to take the open forces Black's next . Kt (B 4) — 15.. and there would be no good way 18 19.

B — Qi. 22. as Wliite demonstrate. as WTiite threatened — by B 5 ch. 23 Bx Kt. 21 Kt— Q6.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 211 The student should examine will this position carefully. If 20. and White is a Pawn ahead. doubling the KB P and isolating all of Black's King's side 21.B 20.. R X Kt. 25 R — Q 2. I must confess that I can see no adequate defence against White's next move.R — B 2. 24 R X P. moves anywhere else. then B X Kt. If the game is not altogether difficult lost.. . at least of the most kind. K—B I Kt— B 5! If2o. yet. Notice that the Black Knight is pinned in such a giving way that no relief can be afforded except up the K R P or abandoning the open file . Black may be said to be the defence is lost. indeed. . There seems to be no particular danger. Pawns. Kt X B Kt — Q4 KX P— Kt Kt 3 Kt This is practically forced. R— B 2. 22 Kt X B. B X B.

of course.212 GAME sieze it. to give Hence. White. threatens to march up with his King to via K 5 KB2. which would be disastrous. 9 with the Rook. KB4. as White would immediately 23. after having. Kt— B 4 Kt— K3 Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of . 24. prepared the way. in order to free his Knight. Black's best chance was as in the text. since as soon as he moved his away White would take it. on the other Black could do nothing hand. 25. B X P P — K R4 B—B 4 Kt — Q 2 26. up a Pawn.KKt3. P-B3I 23- R3 else except mark time with Rook along the open file.

27. 29. P X Kt would be worse. which would get the Black Bishop into the game. B — Kt3. would on account P —Q 4. of P— KKt3 5 . soon be seen. R— QB 2! RXR R— QB B X I 30. . Kt X Kt KX Kt 27. R — Q2 R— KRi Black wants to force be bad. —K The it text move is. even though White could answer P however. which. obtaining a passed Pawn. . weak. as WTiite would then be able to post his Bishop at 28. R There are now Bishops of opposite colour. should win.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED opposite colours. and follow and B — R White meanwhile —R 4 — Kt 4 could play P up with P R 5. but nevertheless White has an easily -won game. which gives 273 him the best chance to draw. His best chance was and to play P — Kt 3. as will 5 . K 5. with proper play.

K-K3 37. P-Qs Otherwise the White King would to march up this to Q 4 and then If B 5 and win Black's White King Queen's side Pawns. 4 31 Practically forced. 32. Now the White King threatens to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop . 33- PxP It is K-K3 K-Q3 34. 35. Black attempted to stop by putting his King at QB 3 then the would enter through K 5 into Black's King's side and win just as easily.^. B-R6 better not to hurry P — K Kt 4 because of P — B 4 White could win in K-Q4 B-K3 K-B3 B — B ch B-K3 any for although case. GAME 9 K— B 2 ^ ^ «__«__• i m\.P-QR3 5 36.2l4 31. it would take longer.

The student ought of ending. White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. but indi- rectly also the Q Kt 37 38. 7. 3 6. practically from the opening. advantage of a Pawn. 1914) White: J. tion terial fortunately. finest players in the world. 3. R. Once he obtained that. 1. another advantage of posiitself elsewhere which translated into the ma- in Then by accurate playing the ending he gradually forced home his advantage. he tried for and obtained. to have reaHsed by this time the enormous importance of playing well every kind In this game again.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED at 215 Kt 7. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of the GAME 10. PETROFF DEFENCE (St. K-Q4 B — Kt 7 Resigns. J. Q P. Marshall. P— K4 Kt— KB KtxP Kt — K B 3 P— K4 Kt — KB P-Q3 Kt X P 3 4. Petersburg. where it not only protects the P. 5. Capablanca. Q— K P — Q3 2 Q— K Kt — KB 2 3 B-Kts . Black: F. 2.

On White's side we find the minor pieces well posted place. It is now time to examine the result of the opening. it is and the Queen out in a somewhat odd true. 11. . and a very is move. but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn. B-K3 it Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently played in preference to QX Q ch. BxKt B-Q3! 10. The will point that should Black exchange Queens he in be a will move behind get a development and consequently if cramped game 7 White plays accurately.2l6 GAME lo fine Played by Morphy. P— Q4 Q— Kt 5 ch Kt— Q2 KR3 QxB B — K2 12. 8. Kt — B 3 P— 9.

but on the other hand we find his pieces in bunched together too much. as White threatened Kt K 4. 13. 5. unquestionably an advantage . Consequently we must conclude that the opening all in is White's favour. wins a Pawn. Black cannot Castle on the King's side be- cause QxP. Queen. threatening also P— P-KR3 in initiative. Besides. and the Queen of being lattacked without having danger to it any good square go to. blocks the Bishop. The Bishop at K 2 its has no freedom and blocks the Queen. 12 P — Kt for his 4 To make room Kt 5. and should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2. . in turn. Q— K4 Nor can he threatening mate. B game him to — — — B 4. Kt X P ch. 0-0 free his giving up a Pawn an attempt to and take the find a It was difficult for move. which.PETROFF DEFENCE White is 217 is also ready to Castle. R— Kti. White's position evidently free from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre. followed by B X B. since he cannot play nor Q— R 5 would put Black's game in unminent P — R 3 because of B x P can he play K— Kt because of Kt — Kt i . On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his Bishops. then P Q 5. because Castle on the Queen's side danger.

P-QB4 In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus lay the foundation for a violent King. 15. as it always must is such cases. ft m WA WJ^B 1 m B — Qi B—B 4 Kt-B4 QxP QxQ . GAME lo QxP Q-K4 P . however. i i^ ^ ^A\^ mm. Si m hW| ^gi( MAB m ^Wi w/ M 18 19. 0—0 Kt — Q5! PxP A simple move.Q Kt 3 QR-Kt Q— Kt 2 I 16. 17. his Pawns are all weak. in attack against WTiite's fails. & /. 18. and consequently his pieces are not properly placed. as lose now have no concerted action of his pieces. The plan. 20.2l8 14. will Black and. because Black's development backward. which destroys Black's plan utterly. he will sooner or later them.

23. on account rest of the of some poor play on move The moves 24. 3334. interest. is QR-Qi The Knight was too ending brought about is one in which the Bishop stronger than the Knight. 35- R-B ch R— Kt4 R-B5 P-KR4 I K— K2 R— KKt R-B3 R — B4 I KR-QB PxB I PxP Bx Kt RxR 36. RxB B-B4 R— Ki P — B4 PX Pch K-Kt2 R-Kt3 K-B3 Kt-K3 PxP 29.PETROFF DEFENCE The fact that he has to 219 is exchange Queens when he a Pawn behind shows 21. 37- RxR P-Kt6 K-B R-QB4 R-QR4 . B X B B-B3 Bx Kt But now the threatening. 28. The game has no its further and it is only because of value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it. 30- 3132. 27. that Black's game is lost. which makes Black's plight a desperate one. 2526. Kt X Q B X Kt 22. are given merely as a matter of form. Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth WTiite's part.

Resigns. 49. 52. . K— Kt 2 R— Q4 R— B ch KxP R— Q8ch RXP P-Q4 K-R2 R-QB8 P_R5 R-QR8 R-B P-QKt4 R-R5 P — R4 R— B 6 7 7 46. 59. 55. 50. 47. P-B3 R— B 6 RXP R — QR3 P — R6 P-Q5 PxP RX 51. R— R— QR K-B3 K— K2 K-Q3 K—B 2 K-Q2 K— K K—B K— Ki RxP R— Kt3 ch 2 2 I Kt P Kt 2 61. GAME 39. 57. R-R5 P— Kt4 K-Kt3 53. 58. KxP P— Kt 7 P—R 7 K —B 5 60. 41. 4344. 42. 45.220 38. K— B 4 K-K5 P— Kt 5 P— Kt6 56. lo 40. 48. 54.

E. at the time. Petersburg. 9. P—B I 3 is do not like the text 6. 221 RUY LOPEZ (St. typical of Janowski. Black: D.RUY LOPEZ GAME 11. . KB file but Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop. R. 7. and also reinforces This opens the his centre. superior to Alechin considered 4. Capablanca. I. He played it himself later on in the Tourna- ment. 5 lost B-QB4 probably the best move in this position. P— K4 Kt-KB3 B-Kt5 B X Kt P-K4 Kt-QB3 34. 191 4) White: J. which he only through a blunder. move. 2. P — Q3 B — K3 B— for KKt5 BxB White. and obtained the superior game. 5- P-QR3 QPXB having discussed it Kt-B3 move after I played this with it. 8. Lasker. PxB 0-0 Q— K2 0-0-0 Bold play. Alechin on several occasions. Janowski. P—Q which is generally- played. in one of his games against Dr.

hoping to lighten White's attack. As a matter of fact White played a cir- rather unusual move. GAME Q— Ki M. 13. he plays If Q Kt P P — Q Kt 4 first he plays P— Q R 3 and then P — Q Kt 4. since after it he could at 4 and once play P—Q 11. he will still have to protect his Q Kt P before he can go on and play P — Q R 4 and P— Kt 5. R— Kt i! P — Kt 4 P — QR4 P — B3 Kt — B 2 B X Kt which He will simpUfies. . but one which. He may have also done it in order to play Kt — Kt 4 and K 3. under the cumstances. Kt 4 and then P—Q R P— Kt 5.222 10. at once. was the best. 12. Black simply takes is to advance his If it.??<:^ fflSa II Kt — R3 ^g The problem for White now to Kt 5 as fast as he can. have to be conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board.

alternative would have been P it —Q Kt which on the face of looks bad.RUY LOPEZ 14. P-Kt5 PxP Kt-Q5 BPxP P-QR4 Q-B4 P-B4 t. which will begin with P—Q away the play Black Queen and thus leave himself free to P— B 5.. 1718. 223 RXB possi- Taking with the Pawn would have opened a bihty for a counter attack. WTiite will be able prepare to drive an attack. 14. The only 4 . Beto 4.. P-QKt3 up He of is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking his Queen's side Pawns.. There is only one thing to take care of and that . ^ . ^ ^ m The White hind it Elnight is now a tower of strength. 1516...

The move 22. . I R— Q K— Kt for 2 It would have been better text Black to play K— Q i. 25- loses very rapidly. Kt— Kt4 R--B 2 Q--B3 his 19th 2. 2324. now K P X R. Kt-K3 R— Q2 move played Had White on stead of K R—B i in- R—B by Kt 21. P-Q4 R-B 2 PxP P-B 5 PxKt P-B6ch Q-Q3 PxP Kt-B5 Kt X Kt 26. . . Q X P ch followed —B 4 with a winning game. Black could have played instead of the text move. QxQP K— Kt QXP I 28. 20. 29. RX Kt .2 24 to prevent Black GAME from II is sacrificing the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn. 27. 19. i8. PxR P-Q5 P — Q6 Q-B 6 (Q I 2) R— K PxP 3031- Resigns.

225 FRENCH DEFENCE 191 8) (New York. QKt— Q2 Ktx Kt B — K2 Kt-B3 I'm I 1 i A :!.. PX P is P —Q B 4 generally played in this case instead of the text move. 3. White: J. P— K4 P-Q4 Kt-QB3 B-Q3 P— K3 P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 Not the most favoured move.Jm.. 2. Chajes. 4. i i g<^ i 'M. but a perfectly natural it developing one. R. ^^^^'wm^'mm^- . y^. KtxP Kt X Kt ch 6. 7. and consequently 4 cannot be bad. Black: O. 5.FRENCH DEFENCE GAME 12. 1. Capablanca.

followed by 10.226 8. 11. . P— and Q Kt 9 B — Kt 8 9. This weakens Black's King's the right move. in this variation. Black now plays 8 2 . P — Q Kt If 3. 12 p— K4 Pawn in order to This is merely giving up a come out quickly with his Q B. 5 ch. B-KKt 5 Of course Black could not of 0-0 P — KR3 play P — Q Kt 4. Q— K B X Kt Q— K4 P — KR4 BX B P — KKt3 side. R— K i was m %///M. . 12. GAME 12 Q— K is 2 This is played to prevent 2. followed by B — Kt for which the general form of development Black 3 . But as he does not obtain . 3 because B X Kt. . B—Q 10 Kt— K 5 WTiite obtains a considerable advantage in position.

P— QB 3 Q X Kt . 14. Black with a 21. He the should have played Q— Q game out 13 that way.FRENCH DEFE^XE any compensation for his 227 is Pawn. suicide. Kt x R— K B. I A better plan would have been to play R—K i. Of course if R— K 3. B — Kt 2. Kt X B. Px P 0—0—0 Rx B Q— KB 4 B—B 4 B x B B — Kt 2 Q—K 2 Q-B4 In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game. 4 and tried to fight might have continued thus: 15 Q — B 4. BxP. 14QXBP. 15. I 20. Pawm minus fights very hard. KtxB. the move It bad. The text move might be considered a mild form of 13. advantage of position for White. QR-Qi KR— Q K 6. because after BxP. 17. Rx R Rx R P— B 3 BxP. threatening P— 18 19. R— K3 to The PawTi had now last be defended after Black's move. . 16. 17 18. Q X Kt 16 O— O— O with considerable . QxKt.

White's plan to fix the Queen's side in order to be able to manoeuvre freely where he has the advantage of material. 4 to defend.228 GAME 3. Q-Q2 Q— B Q-K3 I K— B I K-Kti Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position. . now play Q— Kt i defending the Rook. 23. K— B P-R4 now is 2 P-QB4 P — Kt3 on the other side. and therefore waits in for White to show how he intends to break through. 12 R— K Black could 21 22. the KB Pawn at K 5. or support which cannot advance to rather. of course. that the White Knight is He notices. the way of the K B P.

the Queen goes difficulties. R 6. and White will have to face serious In this situation White decides that the only course is to bring his King and to K Kt Kt 4. K-Q3 R— Q6 R-Q5 P — KKt4 Q-B4 Q-K4 K--B I K--Kti Q--B Q--K3 K--B K--Kt K--B I I I I 8 ^^^^^ ta^^^^ ^ ^ '^ P X P. Black that to if persists in waiting for developments. 33- 34. 29. He sees P—K R 5. K— K K—B 2 I 36. might otherwise become a source 35. P. 38. 3. 229 P-QKt3 303132. 37. P X w li. so as to defend the squares KR 3 K where the Black Queen of annoyance. K-Kt2 K-Kt3 K— Kt K— B K— Kt K— B I I I I .FRENCH DEFENCE 28.

P — K Kt 40. R — Q7 BxPch . threaten- ing Kt — Kt 42. PxP i . since Black's Bishop could not do in the resulting position. against which White could either advance the King or play Kt —R 4. R—Q 7. much damage Q— B i 5 K— Kt I Black overlooks the force of 42 defence was R— Q 6 ch. 41. after which White would have Httle trouble in winning the ending. with a winning game. His best .. P— KR 5 'Px P 39. White ready to advance. practically forcing the exchange of Queens.. J i 39. 4 would be answered by Q— B 5.>30 GAME is 12 Now that he has completed his march with the King. Q— K2 White would play Against K — Kt Q — Kt 4.

RUY LOPEZ 191 8) J. Morrison. an instance of the Queens King becoming a are still fighting piece. P— K4 Kt— KB3 B-Kt5 Kt — B 3 P-Q4 3. in this form of development. is Therefore. even while the on the board. S. 45- Q-B3 Q— Kt 2ch Resigns. but Black's position was altogether K-Kt4 Ktx B K — B4 44. the Bishop. 5. once it is Castled. KtxP KB via P— K4 Kt — QB3 P-Q3 B — Q2 PxP P— KKt3 Ruy Lopez the devel2 is.FRENCH DEFENCE hopeless. . (New York. The Bishop Kt 2 exerts great pressure along the long diagonal. 6. 4. 1. centres mainly on the game opening and on the march of interest of this The the White King during It is the final stage of the game. 43. tion of the Bishop At the same time the posiand Pawns in front of the King. White: J. Capablanca. I think. 2. one of great defensive strength. GAME 13. of great In this form of defence of the opment of the Kt at im- portance. 231 This loses a piece. Black: R.

II 12. 10. but was more important Black from Castling unmediately. unless he tended to play to win or the winds. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces is now far superior to White's.) 7. B—K B 4 would have done this. 0—0 0-0-0 inlose. but again faulty judgment. 3 Of course not K Kt— K .232 GAME say. to be but m this position it is followed by K Kt — K 2 preferable to have the Kt at K B 3. 9. Kt — B3 B — Kt 5 B — Kt2 Kt— B 2. because of Kt — Q 5. page 197. 8. it P-KR3 White wants to keep the to prevent An error of Knight pinned. Bold play. R— Ki KR— Ki . therefore it will be Black who mil take the The Black Bishop offensive. Q-Q2 B — KR4 judgment. throwing safety to at Kt 2 becomes a very powerful attacking piece. 10 11. exerts its 13 we might maximum strength (Compare this note ^\dth the one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian. The alternative would have been P — B 3.

B — Kt 3 Kt — KR 4 Uncovering the Bishop. X B . which now acts along the long diagonal. Black drives the Bishop away so as to unpin his pieces and be able manoeuvre . cr-3 fB WTiite wanted to keep his Q R on the open file. and consequently brings over his other Rook to the centre K P. and at the same time preventing P— Kt. Black can safely side. which Black threatened to win by P— K Now Kt 4.RUY LOPEZ i^< 233 «M m to defend his 'J£^'. K 5.. winning a Pawn. followed by Kt X P. do so long as Black keeps up the pressure 13. PX Kt X P etc. which he cannot in the centre. advance. which would be answered by Kt . Kt-Q5 to P-R3 freely. 14. 12 P— Kt 4! K R is that the in the centre. in order to attack on the King's White would have to shift his Rooks. since.

Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's position. 16.234 15. GAME 13 B-Q3 B-K3 Preparing the onslaught.) 17. and which has of the for its ultimate object either the winnmg White Q B or cutting it off from the game. White naturally counter attacks violently against the seemingly ex- . but he also aims at placing his Bishop at his Q Kt I and Queen at QB 7. to check at 16 KR P — B4! is Initiating an attack to which there no reply. With the of Black's last move White not only his blocks the action K B. and then advancing K P. P—B 3 iJiii M H i . 2. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings. P— KR4 now out P—B 5 The Bishop is of action.

1 It was difficult . 20. Kt— K Kt X Kt to decide 4 R X Kt which way to retake. for if immediately. Px P! PXP! if Taking the Bishop would be dangerous. R— R K — Kt I I B—B 2 This move unquestionably loses time. with very good s k I «*?i m mi yy/Ziioi 'PP i^^ '£? ^^^ <M i8. it might have done ever. Since he would have to retire his it Bishop to R 2 sooner or later. 20 21. and. how- at this stage of the to save the game would be possible White game. 235 posed position of the Black King. bad. 19. even offers tiie Bishop. while the text not actually move accompHshes Black's object. which is to put the Bishop out of action.RUY LOPEZ judgment. he It is doubtful.

P— KKt 3 have play for his Bishop. . It may Q5 is the key to White's defence. and also Q — K 3. QX Kt. 23. 22. and Black would be threat- ening R — R 4.236 took with the GAME Rook 13 in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King. rid of White's Black wants to get Knight at at Q 5. Black's drawback in is The student should all notice that this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. The alternative would have been 23 Kt X Kt ch. White strives not only to but also he wants to break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack. It this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. B—R 2 Kt-B3 strongly posted Now that the White Bishop has been driven back. which blocks the attack of the Bishop be said that the Knight at B 2.

. 30. I leave it to the Kt — Kt 4 was the alternative. as the variations are so numerous that they would take up too much 26 27. 29.RUY LOPEZ 23- 237 KtxP 24. K — Ri Q R QR— Ki game and soon Now at last the is enters into the the battle over. where he in a be mating net. 25- Bx Kt RxB PxP * K P-B3 26. RxP. R— K R— Q i. but in any event resist the White could not reader to work this out for himself. QxQ PxP B — Kt 3 w^ll This forces the King to the corner. Kt — K3 attack. space. Q — R4 P-B4 RXQ Kt — Kt 4 28. R (K i) —K 7. 31If P-R3 8 ch.

14. Capablanca. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (New York. Black J. expected it. 14 R— K8ch RxR K-R2 K-Kt3 to finish the RxRch B-B 2 P-Q4 game. had played before in this Tournament against Kostic. 38. : 191 8) : J. 34. R-K5ch RX P ch 39. 7- P-K3 R—B I P-Q4 Kt — KB3 P-K3 QKt — Q2 B — K2 0-0 P-B3 it This is one of the oldest systems of defence against I the Queen's Gambit. BX P PX Pch P — B6 K— Kt4 PxP P-B4 37. 40.23S -21 GAME 32. 5- P-Q4 Kt— KB 3 P—B 4 Kt-B3 B-Kt5 6. . R. K-R5 R— Q8ch R-Q 7 RXB K— R2 B-K 3 Resigns. GAME White F. Marshall. the quickest way 35. 2. 36. 34. I. A very lively game. 41. and no doubt Marshall At times I change my defences. 33.

II. simplified the changes. WTiite.5^ isr? * mm i €m ^^ ^. on the other hand. 9- I generally play all the time.JA stage can now be said to be complete The opening is over and the middleis game begins. 14. one of them has given it me good results. as generally the case. during a Tournament. 12. Black will game considerably by a series of now develop his Q B along of the the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. Q-B BxP BxB 0-0 QX Kt 2 PxP Kt-Q4 QxB KtxKt P-QKt3 Having ex- This is the key to this system of defence. KR— K wM P— K4 B — Kt I 2 KR— Qi ^. 8. 13. has . m The developing on both sides.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED or rather 239 systems of defence if . 10. . The proper development Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit.

entrenched in his will post his and if given time QR play and finally QB I P—Q B at full and 4. in order to break up White's centre and give action to the Black Bishop posted at Q Kt 2. but Mar- shall believed differently. 1 ' X Sf ^ ^ |ga^ ill m . In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan centre. on the other hand. GAME first 14 is Black. I think. P-Qs was carelessness Kt-B4! game I Against Kostic in a previous had played Kt — B I. The is very interestmg and full of possibiUties. three ranks. followed by B P X P. he would. It on my part. since. which. but also Kt XP . K P. otherwise he would not have played this variation. by initiating an advance on the is when carefully analysed. have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game. his Knight at KB 3. had he analysed this move. truly an attack against Black's 15.240 obtained the centre. Black now threatens not only BPX P position .

Q— K4! 19 R— R i would win satis- The is probably the only move in the position. QR — least. But. (threatening Q— KB2. assures Black an even game at the very as will soon be seen. . 241 PX KP B X Kt Kt X P (K 3) QXB QR P. Kt — Q4! 18 Of course. 3. as will be seen. Q— with a tremendous advantage in position. the Queen. K—R i.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED 16. 22P— KR4. move. 4. obtaining a very superior game. 17. . The text QR—Q i). factory if 18. my opponent had quite a httle surprise for 18. . on the other hand. 2 The obvious move would have been Q— Q to defend the Q B P. played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his when I could play P— QB me. P—B KKt3 Qi.Q text x R P move . and then 20 21 would have come 19 Kt —B 5.

K X R. an assault which soon be shifted against . because 23 — B 3 would not R—K i give White the 6 ch. with Pawns on both because of its sides of the board the Bishop Incidentally. K i. be- best of RXB (best. because is a Pawn ahead. but that the Black is not so. White is under the impression that he has the better game. R — and with proper play White the one will draw. although a Pawn ahead. GAME 14 KtxP RxQ R— Kt QXQ R-Q7 I A he ful very serious error of judgment. foUowed by R X K P). this end- ing will demonstrate the great White's best chance was to 21 power of the Bishop. The powerfully com(see Besides. 7 position of pensates Black for the Rook at Q Pawn minus. against White's centre.242 19. curious that. 7 ch K—B P i. and. is superior long range. Kt 8 ch. the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight pages 48-56. R—B Kt 7 (not B X P it). — Kt cause of 24 R— It is B P X Kt. R X Kt. thus. where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are compared). Q—K 4 can be fully appreciated. that the value of Black's 1 8th move 21. 25 RxR ch. as already stated. take a draw at once. after seeing this analysis. White is who is always in danger. 21. R-Ki powerful With this move Black will begins. 20. It is only now. 22 Kt —K .

. S . is afraid to play 22 because of P—B P—B 3 P— K5 To prevent P — B of P— KKt4 The White Knight dare is 4. t. This is a sequel to the previous move. itself.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED the 24^ Kmg 22.M M g WTiite expects P— KR4 Pawns. to be followed this Black now threatens 3 by R — Kt I and P —R R— K and R 7 3. P isolated XP Pawn 6 exercises Though doubled and enormous pressure. to disrupt Black's 23. practically pinned. White 4.: 23. and thus make them weak. 24. at the proper time. because he does not move on account RXK P. R— K White cannot stand the slow death any longer^ .

P— QKt4 5. his 14 He and wants to avert it by giving up on the King's 24 Queen's side Pawns. expecting to regain his fortunes later on side. P — Kt4 defending the Knight and lib- To prevent P — Kt erating the Rooks.244 GAME sees danger everyw'here. 27. because R— Kt 25. P-R3 R-Kt3 K— B I R-R7 ft ^^ i^l^ 3iLH '^AWi 1 i . atK i. 28. by taking the initiative R-K3! This forces White Much better than taking Pawns. 26. and the isolated double that will supply the finishing touch. to defend the of the threat Knight with the Rook 3. going to be decided on the King's side. R (Ki) — QB Preparatory to R— Kt Pawn I K — Kt The game it is is 2 3.

which is lost in any case. RxKt. 31. If 33 P-Kt R. I 29. R— R 8 mate. 34K-R1. 33- P-Kt4 R-R3 7 P-B3 5. as pieces are tied up.QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. winning easily. P— K6 WTiite RxKP move the Knight because 3 Not even now can of P—R 7 ch. K— Kt i. but that would only have prolonged the game. 245 White loss. K— Kt P— R6 lose 30. 35 RX RX P. R — R ch. 32. KxP. P-R ch. P-Kt3 all his P-QR3 something Again forcing White to move and to thereby. . cannot move anything without incurring some His best chance would have been to play 29 P— K 6.

246 3334. K-B3 K— Kt4 R— Kt 7ch P-R7 KxBP An ending worth very careful study. 3940. GAME 14 R-Q3 Kt-K7 Kt-B 5ch Kt — R4 Kt-B 5 R(Q3)-Q7 3738. K— B I P-B4ch Resigns. fiNIS . 36. 35.

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38S .irANG°Ss:crF?.UBRARVFACUTV SOUTHERN REGIONAL '"' university of California °.RN>r90095-.

AA 000 753 088 4 .

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