You are on page 1of 8

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

NG DNG GIS V VIN THM NGHIN CU TRT L T THNH PH NNG


(A STUDY ON LANDSLIDE IN DANANG CITY BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNOLOGY) Trng Phc Minh, Nguyn Th Diu, Trn Th n, Nguyn Vn Nam Trng i hc S phm, i hc Nng
Abstract: Landslide is natural disasters causing much damage to socio - economic activities. A current study on landslide in Danang city in order to determine the cause of landslide and forecasting the landslide situation at the main location (the mountainous areas, the flow in estuaries, coastal), from that proposed solutions to set up the economic activities such as Agriculture, Tourism, Transportation and provide information to planning, relocation and resettlement reasonable. Therefore, current research and mapping landslide by using GIS and Remote Sensing technology is absolutely necessary. Keywords: Landslide, GIS, Remote Sensing, Danang city.

1. T VN Vit Nam l mt quc gia nm trong khu vc c kh hu nhit i m, lng ma ln v c s phn ha theo ma r rt. Bn cnh , vi c im a hnh c ti 3/4 din tch l i ni nn thng xuyn chu nhiu thin tai do nh hng ca t nhin. Cc thin tai m hng nm Vit Nam phi thng xuyn hng chu nh: bo, l lt v i km vi l trt l t ni v xm thc xi l b sng, b bin. Chng nh hng rt ln n mi trng t nhin v kinh t - x hi ca nc ta, nh hng n s pht trin ca t nc. Thnh ph Nng nm 1555' - 1614' Bc, 10718' - 10820' ng v c kh hu nhit i gi ma. Ma ma t thng 8-12, ma kh t thng 1-7, c nhng t rt ma ng nhng khng m. Nhit trung bnh hng nm khong 25,9oC; cao nht cc thng 6,7,8; thp nht cc thng 12,1,2. a hnh pha Ty l i ni, c cc nhnh ni cu to macma chy vt ngang v m ra bin vi c im lp v phong ha dy v b vn. B N cao 1.500m c nhit trung bnh 20oC. m trung bnh l 83,4%; Lng ma 2.500 mm/nm; cao nht cc thng 10, 11 v thp nht cc thng 1,2,3,4. S gi nng 2.156 gi/nm; nhiu nht l thng 5,6 v t nht l thng 11,12. Nhng ch s a hnh, kh hu ny mang li nhiu nguy c trt l. 2. TRT L T V NGUY C TRT L T THNH PH NNG Trt l v l v mt c ch di chuyn vt cht th c khc nhau, song thc t chng lun din ra ng hnh v cng hng vi nhau, nhiu khi gy nn cc him ha ln i vi cng ng dn c k cn. V vy, chng thng gp li di tn chung l trt l. Trt l (Landslide) ng ch hu ht cc hin tng chuyn dch ca khi t trn sn dc t trn xung di theo mt hoc vi mt no (trt) hoc ri t do (l, t, /ln). Trt l c th xy ra trn sn dc t nhin hoc sn (b/mi) dc nhn to di tc dng ca trng lng bn thn v mt s nhn t ph tr khc nh: p lc ca nc mt v nc di t, lc a chn v mt s lc khc. 230

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

Do nm ven b bin thuc khu vc Min Trung, nn Nng thng xuyn phi hng chu nhiu cn bo nhit i t bin thi vo. Vi c im a hnh sn ni dc ng n gi v chy st bin, cc con sng ln ngn dc cho nn vo ma ma bo hin tng trt l t din ra thng xuyn v nh hng rt ln n t nhin v kinh t - x hi ca thnh ph, c bit l cc vng i ni bn sn a v vng ca sng ra bin. Tai bin trt l t xy ra v c din bin kh phc tp trn a bn thnh ph Nng. Cc nh nghin cu xc nh c 111 im trt l c quy m ln nh khc nhau, trong c cc vng c nguy c trt l t cao cho n rt cao phn b t Dc Kin n ngm i thuc x Ha Ph, xung quanh khu vc ngh mt B N thuc x Ha Ph v Ha Ninh; dc thung lng sng Cu thuc cc x Ha Bc, Ha Lin, pha nam o Hi Vn thuc qun Lin Chiu v ri rc bn o Sn Tr thuc phng Th Quang. Vng c nguy c trung bnh phn b rng pha ty Nng, xung quanh bn o Sn Tr v Ni B N, vng c nguy c trt l thp phn b vng ng bng ven bin, dc thung lng sng Ty Loan, h lu sng L ng. Trong s c khu vc khu vc Thy T thuc ca sng Cu v bn o Sn Tr. Tnh trng trt l t trn a bn thnh ph do nhiu yu t nh cu to a cht, thnh phn thch hc v v phong ha, a cht thy vn, a cht cng trnh, yu t kin to, yu t kh hu. Bn cnh , hot ng kinh t - x hi ca con ngi cng lm tng nguy c trt l t qua vic lm ng, khai thc du lch, ph rng, ph hy thm thc vt che ph, khai thc bt hp l ti nguyn nh ht ct, khai thc t i ni phc v san lp mt bng 2.1. St l t cc b sng Thnh ph Nng, hin tng st l t thng din ra cc b sng v ca sng ra bin to nn cc vch b xm thc, nh hng to ln n t sn xut, nh c v giao thng. Nguy him hn l nhiu h dn x Ha Phong, Ha Nhn, Ha Ph v mt s a phng khc v ang t bn t i, h cao xy dng nh ca st mi dc thng ng. Cch lm ny s dn n thm ha khn lng khi c ma ln. l hin tng trt l t do t b bo ha v mt chn. Bng tng hp tnh hnh st l t ti cc sng Nng cho ta thy r iu ny (Bng 2.1) Bng 1. Din tch st l ca cc sng v nh hng
Tn sng Cu Ty Loan Yn Cu Qu Ging Vnh in Din tch st l 5900m2 8325m2 8400m2 3.850m2 3.075m2 9.300m
2

nh hng t sn xut t sn xut, t , nh dn t sn xut, t , nh dn t sn xut t sn xut, giao thng t sn xut


10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Biu 2.2. Din tch st l cc sng trn a bn TP. Nng 8325 5900 3850 3075 8400 9300

Cu

Ty Loan

Yn

Cu

Qu Ging Vnh in

Din tch st l (m2)

2.2. Trt l t, Sn Tr Kho st ti bn o Sn Tr chng ti nhn thy c 2 im nguy c trt l thng xuyn, l: im chn tng pht cha Linh ng v im gn mi Ngh. 231

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

a. im Linh ng: b mt trt l chim mt din tch kh ln, c khu vc ln n 15000m2, gc dc n 70-75o. B mt sn c lp v phong ha dy vi cu trc vn b, v nhng khi st vi kch thc ln. Mc d c nhiu bin php khc phc nh: on k b tng p mi, khung b tng, chia trng c, rnh thot nc nhng a im ny vn lun cha ng nguy c trt l vo ma ma. b. im mi Ngh: c phm vi nh hn nhng n cha nguy c trt l rt cao. a hnh sn dc (gc dc > 70o), lp ph thc vt ngho nn, qu trnh phong ha gn nh hon ton, b mt c nhiu khe rnh, mng xi vo ma ma trc li lm gia tng nguy c bc thot hi nc v ma kh v tng tnh ph hy s gn kt t vo ma ma. Do nm gn cc khu du lch Bi , trt l s nh hng khng nh n sn xut, hot ng du lch v giao thng, t s lm giao thng gin on gia vng ng nam v ng bc ca bn o.

Hnh 1. Cc im trt l Sn Tr

2.3. Thnh lp bn d bo nguy c trt l t thnh ph Nng tch hp cng ngh GIS v vin thm 2.3.1. Thnh lp cc bn n tnh v cho ra kt qu bn trt l vi cng ngh GIS

Hnh 2. Bn hin trng trt l t khu vc thnh ph Nng 232

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

Bn trt l c thnh lp theo phng php tch hp nhiu lp thng tin ca cc bn n tnh nh a hnh, a mo, thy vn, t ai...Bn cui cng = 1/n ( 1. Kj + .+ n . Kj ). Vi N: s lp nh gi; J: l hp phn th j; K: lp thng tin K1n; 1 n : H s ca cc hp phn. Kt qu chng xp bn xc lp c bn hin trng trt l t khu vc thnh ph Nng vi cc im trt l c mc nguy c t cao n thp khu vc min ni Hi Vn, cc khu vc b sng Vnh in, Ty Loan, Yn, Cu v khu vc b bin Thy T Nam . 2.3.2. S dng nh vin thm thnh lp bn nguy c trt l Chng ti s dng nh v tinh Landsat 2007 v nh SPOT 5 2009 xc inh cc im trt l ti Nng. D liu nh Landsat c phn gii trung bnh 30m, dng thnh lp bn hin trng trt l t v d liu nh SPOT 5 th c phn gii rt cao 5m, dng xc nh cc im trt l. Chnh v vy, c c d liu ca ton khu vc, tc gi phi s dng nhiu cnh nh SPOT khc nhu. Trong nghin cu tai bin thin nhin th hai loi v tinh ny c nh gi l rt thch hp.

Hnh 3. nh Landsat 7 ETM+ (16/3/2007) Nng Hnh 4. nh SPOT 5 Nng (2009) a. Qu trnh chit tch thng tin trt l t bng phng php vin thm Chng ti s dng nh v tinh SPOT5 lm t liu cho khu vc nghin cu. nh c chp vo thng 6/2009 vi phn gii l 2.5x2.5m trn knh PAN v 5x5m trn knh ph. nh c dng kho st s b cc i tng trong khu vc nghin cu nh: cc im trt l, c im a hnh, lp ph thc vt, mng li sng sui. Trt l t trn ng Quc l 14B (khu vc Ha Vang) v dc cc tuyn ng quanh bn o Sn Tr ch yu l hin tng trt l cc taluy m v dng v rt d nhn bit trn nh. Nguyn nhn xy ra trt l ny l do s mt cn bng mi dc khi o ng xy dng cng trnh giao thng. Trn nh vin thm t hp mu gi RGB, cc im trt l ny c th hin bng mu vng nht phn b dc theo tuyn ng. Kt qu gii on chng ti xc nh c cc im trt l vi v tr nh sau:

233

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

im 1: im trt hm Hi Vn, giao nhau vi QL 14B, c ta l 16o757B v 108o612. im trt ny c quy m ln nht. Do ct x dc chn o khi xy dng ng giao thng gy mt cn bng mi dc.

- im 2: Ni Ng Hnh Sn. im trt c ta 160017B v 108o1537. y l khu vc ni vi c cu trc b ri, tim n nguy c xy ra l .

im 3: im trt dc taluy ng ti chn bn o Sn Tr, c ta 16o659B v 108o1422 . Qu trnh xy dng ng giao thng to nn cc taluy xung yu l nhng ni d xy ra trt l.

im 4: c ta 16o99B v 108o1429 nm trn tuyn ng giao thng pha Bc bn o Sn Tr.

im 5: Xi l ti ca sng Cu , c ta 16o722B v 108o726

- im 6: Dc Kin (Ha Ph-HV). y l tuyn giao thng huyt mch gia Qung Nam v Nng. im trt c ta 15o585B v 108o118, thng xuyn xy ra trt l .

Hnh 5. Cc im trt l c kho st trn nh vin thm b. Thnh lp bn d bo nguy c trt l t thnh ph Nng Trt l t l mt trong nhng dng tai bin nguy him, gy thit hi to ln khng ch cho cc cng trnh ng s, cu cng v nh ca m cn gy thit hi v ngi. Do , yu cu phi c bn v nhng khu vc c nguy c xy ra trt l. Cc thng tin khng gian lin quan n cc yu t ny c th c bt ngun t d liu vin thm, thng tin mt t v nhiu ngun d liu khc. H thng thng tin a l (GIS) l mt cng c rt tt cho vic tch 234

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

hp cc loi d liu. Do vy, phng php thnh lp bn trt l t cho khu vc d b tn thng bng cng ngh vin thm (RS) v GIS ang c s dng rng ri. D liu nh v tinh, bn a hnh, s liu thc a v bn thng tin khc c s dng nh l u vo cho nghin cu. Cc yu t a hnh quan trng, l nhng yu t c th to ra l t trong khu vc, c xc nh tng ng vi cc lp d liu chuyn c to ra. Nhng lp d liu khc i din cho cc iu kin a cht, a hnh, thy vn. Mt m hnh phn tch trt l t c xy dng da trn cng c Modelbuilder Tool ca phn mm ArcGis 9.3 da trn kt qu t hp tt c cc lp chuyn trn v trng s ca tng yu t. Kt qu to ra bn d bo nguy c trt l t thnh ph Nng m t cc khu vc c nguy c xy ra trt l vi nm mc khc nhau: Rt cao, cao, trung bnh, thp v rt thp. Cc lp d liu u vo chng ti s dng trong ti ny bao gm cc bn : a hnh, dc, hng dc, mt sng sui,lng ma, thy vn v loi t. Mi lp d liu c gn mt trng s tng ng vi tm quan trng ca chng trong qu trnh trt l t, c th nh sau:
Lp d liu Trng s dc 7 Hng dc 1 Thy vn 2 Mt sng sui 8 Lng ma 4 Loi t 6

Mi lp d liu c phn cp c th ty theo mc tc ng n qu trnh trt l t. im cho tng polygon l im trng s ca lp d liu nhn vi im s tng ng ca polygon khi phn cp. Model Builder Tool c xy dng trn c s tng hp tt c cc lp chuyn , v thut ton chng xp cc bn thnh phn ny l thut ton Union. Nh vy, lp d liu u ra cui cng s cha ng thuc tnh ca tt c cc lp bn thnh phn tham gia vo m hnh ny. u ra cui cng l lp bn d bo nguy c trt l t. phn vng cho bn ny, chng ti ly tiu ch trt l da trn im s ca mi polygon tng bn thnh phn. im ca mi polygon trong bn d bo trt l l tng s im ca polygon tng bn . Da trn s liu cui cng, chng ti tin hnh phn vng nguy c trt l nh sau:
Mc trt l S im Rt thp 0 - 35 Thp 35 - 50 Trung bnh 50-75 Cao 75-100 Rt cao >100

235

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

Bn d bo nguy c trt l t thnh lp da trn Model Builder Tool ca ArcGIS nh sau:

Hnh 6. Bn d bo nguy c trt l t thnh ph Nng 3. KT LUN - Nghin cu trt l t da trn cng ngh GIS v vin thm xc nh c cc vng c nguy c trt l phn theo 5 cp qua bn d bo (Hnh 2.7) - Cc im trt, xi l ti ca sng Thy T, bn o Sn Tr, Hi vn, Ng Hnh Sn, Dc Kin.. gy nh hng ln n mi trng t nhin v kinh t - x hi, c bit l sn xut v giao thng. - Kt hp kho st hin trng, chng ti cho rng cn phi tch cc bo v v pht trin thm thc vt rng Hi Vn, Sn Tr v u ngun sng Cu , ngoi ra cn quy hoch khu dn c trnh xa cc khu vc c nguy c trt t v xm thc xi l cao ca sng Thy T v khu vc vi karst Ng Hnh Sn. - i vi nhng im c nguy c trt, xi l Sn Tr v ca sng Thy T, chng ti xut cc bin php phng chng c hiu qu nh l t chc tt cng tc trng v phc hi thm thc vt, c bit l khu vc c dc trn 40o. u tin tp trung cc gii php cng ngh chng trt nh: gia tng thm thc vt, phn b li t , chia b tng, ci to t , xy tng chn, lm k theo hng sng v b. Ngoi ra, khu cnh bo nh l t bin bo nguy him, khoanh vng khu cm vo, quy hoch im dn c cng cn phi c xem xt tin hnh ng b. i vi khu vc danh thng Ng Hnh Sn, cn phi di di dn c ra khi chn ni 500m, thit lp vnh ai an ton bng vic trng cy xanh v gia c chn mng chn cc hn ni v nh gi kh nng Karst ha hang ng cng nh b mt d bo cc khu vc nguy him. 236

HI THO NG DNG GIS TON QUC 2011

Ti liu tham kho


1. Bo co ca B Ti nguyn v Mi trng. 2003. H Ni. 2. Charles C.Plummer.2005. Physical Geology. The Late Carlson..Published by McGraw Hill Companies, Newyork. David McGeary, Diane H.

3. Nguyn Cn, Nguyn nh He.1995. Tai bin mi trng. Nxb i hc Quc Gia H Ni. 4. Nguyn Ngc Thch v nnk.2001. p dng vin thm v GIS nghin cu d bo tai bin t nhin a hnh vng ni, ly v d tnh Ha Bnh. Bo co ti NCKH c bit cp i hc Quc gia. H Ni. 5. S Khoa hc v Cng ngh Thnh ph Nng. 2010. nh gi nguy c trt l t trn a bn thnh ph Nng. Nng. 6. www.danang.gov.vn

237