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Phn 3: K thut nui to lm thc n cho u trng tm 1.

Gii thiu chung: To khu l mt trong nhng loi to ph hp v kch thc v cht lng dinh dng cho u trng tm s. To c tc tng trng nhanh, c th nui trong iu kin nhn to, trong cc tri sn xut ging. Qua thc t sn xut v nghin cu ngi ta tm ra c hai loi to Silic (Baciliariophyta) nui sinh khi v lm thc n cho u trng tm. Chaetoceros sp v Skeletonema costatum l hai loi to dng chui, kch thc t bo t 4-6m. T bo b mt c dng hnh ch nht hoc vung, gc t bo c cc gai hoc lng ngn, chnh cc gai v lng ny lm cho cc t bo to kt hp nhau thnh chui (Skeletonema 20-50tb/ chui. Chaetoceros 10-20tb/ chui). To khu l mt loi to ph du c trong cc thy vc nc l, nc mn, c nng mui t 0-50. Cc loi to trn rng nhit thch hp trong khong nhit t 25 - 300C. Cng nh sng c bit quan trng nh hng n qu trnh sinh trng v pht trin ca to trong iu kin nui, thi gian chiu sng trn 12 gi th sau khong 20 - 24h to sinh trng t mt 500.000 - 600.000tb/ml. Trong iu kin mi trng thun li, cht lng dinh dng y , s pht trin ca cc loi Chaetoceros v Skeletonema lm cho nc c mu vng xanh n mu nu. to nui sinh khi pht trin qua 4 pha. 1.1 Pha chm: i khi ko di do s thch hp vi mi trng dinh dng mi ca to km v t bo c th cht. 1.2 Pha tng trng: c trng bi s phn chia t bo lin tc theo cng thc X x 2n (X l s t bo tham gia sinh sn X 1 , n s ln sinh sn (n 1)) 1.3 Pha dng c trng bi s cn bng gia s sinh tng trng ca t bo mi vi t bo km bi cht i. 1.4 Pha cht: y l kt qu ca s trit tiu ht cht dinh dng n mc khng duy tr s pht trin hoc cng c th cht do cht thi trong qu trnh sinh sng. Tho khu c th sinh sn theo 2 cch:

- Phn chia t bo. - Hnh thnh bo t. 2. K thut nui cy: 2.1 Trang thit b: - Vt cc loi (vt thu, vt lc) - Li thu - Dy thu 21 hoc 27 - Dy kh, bt - B gy gi ging (bnh thy tinh, hoc hnh tam gic) - B sinh khi (t 1-3m3/b) - Ha cht cc loi 2.2 Mi trng nui cy Dng mi trng Walne cy gi v nui sinh khi to khu Cc dung dch theo th t sau: * Dung dch 1 (tng trng) - KNO3 (hoc NaNO3) - EDTA - H3BO3 - NaH2PO4.2H2O - FeCL3 - MnCL2.4H2O - Dung dch 2 (khong vi lng) -ZnCL2 - CoCL2. 6H2O - Ha tan trong 100ml nc ngt * Dung dch 3 (vitamin) - B1 - B12 200mg 100mg 116gr (100 gr) 45,0 gr 33,6 gr 20 gr 1,3gr 0,36gr 2,1gr 1ml 2,0gr

- Ha tan trong 100 ml nc ngt * Dung dch 4 (dung dch tng thm) - KNO3 100gr - Ha tan trong 1 lt nc ngt * Dung dch 5 (mi trng silicat) - Na2SiO3.5H2O 20gr (hoc 67ml) - Ha tan trong 1 lt nc ngt Cc mi trng trn khi dng trong nui cy th dng mi loi dung dch (1,3,4,5) theo t l 1/1000 (1ml dung dch mi loi cho 1 lt nc). Khi dng nui sinh khi th bn cc dung dch trn theo t l 1/10.000. 2.3 Ngun nc: Ngun nc nui gi v nui sinh khi to cn phi c x l (xem phn k thut x l nc) 2.4 K thut thu ging, thun ging, gi ging: 2.4.2 K thut thu ging: Ging c vt nhng vng ven b bin vo lc triu cao, dng li phiu sinh c kch thc mt li 15-18m, vt theo hnh s 8. c loi cn nui ta phi thu mu nhiu ln. Di knh hin vi ta kim tra u7c to Chaetoceros sp v Skeletonema c dng chui. 2.4.2 Thun ging: To vt t nhin thng ln nhiu tp mn b hu c v ng vt ph du. Do vy ta phi phn lp to bng li c kch thc mt li ln hn lt qua nhiu ln v cui cng ch gi li phn nc c to trong . C th thc hin vic thun ging to theo 2 phng php sau: - Dng u th mi trng thun ging mt cch tng i. Ngha l trong iu kin mi trng dinh dng a vo ph hp vi sinh hc pht trin ca 2 ging to ny s gip cho chng u tin pht trin hn. Nn tri qua mt thi gian 2 ging to ny s chim u th pht trin qun th, chng s tr nn thun chng. - Dng phng php phn lp tch 2 ging to ny ra nui ring vi mi trng dinh dng thch hp. Sau nhiu ln phn lp chng s tr nn thun chng.

- Khi to ging thun chng th c nui gi v a ra nui sinh khi. 2.4.3 Gi ging: ch ng cung cp to cho sn xut, chng ta cn phi c phng php lu gi to. Vic lu gi to c thc hin trong phng nui cy to hoc khu phn b ring cho vng nui to hoc trong tri sn xut tm ging. Ging c gi trong bnh thy tinh hay bnh tam gic v c nui trong mi trng Walne nng mui t 25-30 . Thi gian nui ty thuc vo mt to a ra ban u v s tng trng ca to nui. Thng thng thi gian nui gi to t 16-24h. Cch lu gi ny c th m bo cht lng to ging trc khi a vo nui sinh khi. 2.5 K thut nui sinh khi: Trong cc tri sn xut tm ging, ngi ta thng bt u nui sinh khi to khi u trng Nauplius (N) giai on N3 hoc N4. Vic nui sinh khi c tin hnh theo cc bc sau: - V sinh k b nui bng x phng sau ra li bng nc bin x l - Bm nc bin x l vo b - Cp kh (24h/24h) - Cp to ging (ging ang lu gi) ang pha tng trng vi mt 50.000 70.000tb/ml. - Cp cc mui dinh dng (bn phn) theo th t cc dung dch pha sn (ch dung dch 5 thng hay kt ta vi nc mn v vy i vi dung dch ny ta cn phi pha thm nc ngt). Vo nhng ngy nng nh tri rm c th tng dung dch 5 ln gp nhiu ln. - Khi to trong b nui sinh khi t n mt khong 500.000 - 600.000tb/ml hoc bng mt thng ta thy to c mu nu m l c th tin hnh thu sinh khi. * Cch thu: Dng dy nha 21 hoc ln hn ty theo dng chy, mt u c buc bng ti li thu (kch thc mt li 15 - 20m ) u kia cho vo b ht nh, nc to s chy lin tc trong khong thi gian 15-30 pht, cc t bo to c gi li, sau tho ti ra v chuyn sinh khi to ny vo x, c th li tip tc thu cho n khi nc trong b nui to cn khong 1/4-1/5 th c th kt thc.