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&& Amo_ &&

Apeprcrh_e
(Q|V$gp hv$d p_u Cf-syrs-p\_p`fL$ ApepqdL$ epep)

hpdu v$ep_ v$ kfhsu

hpdu v$ep_v$ frQs d|m rlv$u `ysL$ "Apeprcrh_e'_p NyS>fpsu A_yhpv$

NyS>fpsu Aphq : bu (kipr^s) - hipM 2068, d 2012, 10000 s

L$piL$ : hp_\ kp^L$ Apd, Apeh_, fpS>X$, rS>. kpbfL$pW$p

dye rhsfL$ : (1) u fZrkl Ape, pfp : X$p. kv$NyZp Apep, keL$, L$dQpfu kpkpeV$u
kpd, Np^uNpd, S|>_pNY$ - 362001 (2) ApekdpS>, _hpX$fp, c$Q - 392001

dyL$ : q$V$g apk rgrdV$X$, AL $g f

qL$ds : $. 10

: prs\p_ :
1. v$i_ epN dlprhpge, Apeh_, fpS>X$, rS>. kpbfL$pW$p

A_yhpv$L$

v$epgdyr_ Ape

2. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, fpe`yf v$fhp blpf, Adv$phpv $- 380022


3. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, lp\uMp_p, fpS>L$pV$ - 360001
4. Qfpsf v$i ApekdpS>, V$i_ fpX$, ApZv$ - 388001
5. ApekdpS>, 44-45 kfv$pf_Nf, cfs_Nf fpX$, cph_Nf
6. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, Mcprmep _pL$p, d_Nf - 361005

k`pv$L$

7. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, ^pN^p, rS>. kyf_Nf - 363310

cphi df

8. ApekdpS>, e| dpZL$gpg AV$V$, OpV$L$p`f (`), dybC - 400086


9. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, `pfbv$f - 360575
10. ApekdpS>, dlrj v$ep_v$ dpN, kS>`yf bpOp, Adv$phpv$ - 382345

L$piL$

11. ApekdpS>, v$pspf fpX$, S|>_pNY$ - 362001

hp_\ kp^L$ Apd

12. ApekdpS>, Z lpV$X$u, V$L$pfp, rS>. fpS>L$pV$

Apeh_, fpS>X$, rS>. kpbfL$pW$p -383307


ap_: (02770) 287417, 291496, 291555, 291717
E-mail: vaanaprastharojad@gmail.com
Website: www.vaanaprastharojad.org

13. u S>Nv$ui W$$f, Ape khp kp, NpL$mv$pk luf W$$f dpN, ^_bpC_p X$gp, d_Nf
14. hqv$L$ k\p_, 5, `lgp dpm, Apv$i L$p`gn, ApY$h, Adv$phpv - 15
15. "hv$pds' eo Qpf krdrs, asrkl Ape A_p\ Apd, L$pfgubpN, hX$pv$fp

L$piL$ue

A_yhpv$L$ue

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De R>gp `pQL$ lf hj\u gys \C Negu hqv$L$ h_`rs_ `y_: \pr`s L$fhp_p
lsp. sd_u Y$ dpesp lsu L$ dp hv$ S> Cfue op__y `ysL$ R>, S>dp dp_hh__p
ehlpfdp Aphsp sdpd L$s e-L$dp_y rhr^-rh^p_ buS>` hrZs R>. hv$ps rkpsp `f
Qpghp\u S> eqs, `qfhpf, kdpS, fpV$ s\p rh>`|Z kyM-iprs, kspj, r_cesp A_
hssp ps L$fu iL$ R>. hpdu v$ep_v$A hqv$L$ hpde_y Nl_ Aee_ L$fu
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N\ hpQu_ hpQL$p ApeQqL$s \C e R>.
hpdu v$ep_v$ dp hqv$L$ rhp_ A_ kdpS>ky^pfL$ S> _ lsp. sAp AL$ dlp_
cycs A_ epNpepku `Z lsp. Cf_y hpsrhL$ h$` L$hy R> ? s_y ep_ iu fus
L$fhy CA ? - Aphu A_L$ ApepqdL$ bpbsp_y qv$v$i_ sdZ "Apeprcrh_e' _pd_p
`ysL$dp L$ey R>. Ap `ysL$dp hpduA L$fgp hv$dp_p A\ s\p s \L$u NV$ \su
ApepqdL$ cph^pfpAp_p k`i\u eqs cphrhcpf \C e R>. s_p d_dp Cf
e_u p, fyrQ, rhpk, d A_ kd`Z sL$pm D`_ \C e R>. hv$pdp\u Q|V$u
L$pY$gp Ap dp_u syqs s\p p\_p`fL$ epepdp hpduA S> iv$phgu_p epN L$ep
R>, s hpshdp Av$cys R>. s_p hpQ_\u Ahy sus \pe R> L$ hpdu Cf_u kpnps
A_yc|rs L$fu_ `psp_p cph es L$fu fp R>. Apeprcrh_edp hpduA L$fgu
epepAp hpQu_ kyv$e hpQL$ he `Z Cf-kdr`s \C e R>.

dlp_ cycs A_ `fd epNu dlrj v$ep_v$ Ap "Apeprcrh_e' N\dp `psp_y v$e
r_Qphu_ Cfc[s_p cph\u R>gpR>g cfg hv$dp pfp Cf_ syrs A_ p\_pAp L$fg
R>. Ap N\ hpQhp\u L$V$gpL$ hp\} gpL$p pfp agphhpdp Aphsp cd L$ "ApekdpS> ^d
A_ Cf_ dp_sp _\u, _p[sL$ R>' - rbgLy$g cpNu e R>.
Ap N\dp v$ippfL$ dlrj v$ep_v$ Cfc[s kp\ fp$c[s pfp hfpe A_
Q$hs} fpe dpV$_u p\_pAp `Z es L$fg R>.
Ap `lgp Ap N\_y NyS>fpsu cpjpsf `. u drZiL$f idp pfp k_ 1908dp, `.
u op_ rkpsc|jZ pfp 1943dp A_ u Abpgpg `V$g pfp 1960dp \egy. R>sp
hpdu v$ep_v$ S>hp F$rjL$` eyN`yfyj_p Aps hQ_p_y L$$pC 5Z `qfhs_ L$ `qfh^_ frls
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kpdpe L$pk$ ()dp v$iphg R>. d|m rlv$u `ysL$dp Ap`hpdp Aphgp L$pk, s L$pk AsNs
gMpZ sd S> `pv$qV$`ZuAp BV$prgL$ (pkp dfpX$v$pf) Anfpdp Ap`hpdp Apep R>.
Ap `|h F$rj v$ep_v$_p N\p "kep\L$pi',"F$hv$pqv$cpec|rdL$p' A_
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u _p\ycpC X$pqX$epA u v$epgdyr_ hp_\ L$fgp Apeprcrh_e_p NyS>fpsu


A_yhpv$_ Ar^L$pr^L$ gpL$p ky^u `lpQpX$hp_u epS>_p b_phu_ M|b S> Dd L$pe L$ey R>.
A dpV$ ly sd_ A_L$ ^ehpv$ Ap`y Ry>. hpdu_y Ap dlh`|Z `ysL$ Ad Adpfu
fpS>X$_u k\p sfa\u ApS> ky^u L$pris L$fu iep _lpsp. Ap\u lpg s_ L$pris L$fsp
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sdp hrZs ApepqdL$ Dv$p cph_pAp_ `psp_p d_dp rhdp_ fpMu_ ehlpf L$fi, s_
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"Apeprcrh_e'_p cpjpsf_ iy h$`dp fS|> L$fu_ F$rj-F$Z Av$p L$fhp_p L$se`pg_\u

sp. 10 dpQ 2012

V$L$pfp
dlprihfpq (bp^fpq)
rh.k. 2068

- op_ fpe:
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Apeh_, fpS>X$, rS>. kpbfL$pW$p

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kL$fZ hp_\ kp^L$ Apd pfp L$pris \pe R>. A bv$g hp_\ kp^L$ Apd$_p
Apcpf kp\ rhfdy Ry>.
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Apep r crh_e

Apfc L$ep R>. &&2&&


kh_y rls BR>_pf, ^dpdp, rhp_ A_ rhQpfiug Ahp A_L$
kS>_pA d_ d`|hL$ L$y, S>\u kh d_yep_p rls dpV$ A_ `fdf_p
op_ s\p dc[s e\phs D` \C iL$ AV$gp dpV$ N\_p Apfc L$fg
R>. &&3&&

&& Amo _ &&

AW Am`m{^{dZ` CnH$_{UH$m {dMma:


gdm_m g{XmZXmo@ZVmo `mo `m`H$N>{M: &
^y`mm_m ghm`mo Zmo X`mb: gdep$_mZ &&1&&

Ap N\dp d dp b hv$p_ p d|m dp_y pL$s cpjpdp epep_


L$fg R>, S>\u kh (kp^pfZ) d_yep_ kyM`|hL$ (kfmsp\u) bp^ \pe
A_ (sAp) e\p\ bop__ ps L$fu iL$. &&4&&

Mjy a m_mMo o @Xo M o _m{g {gVo Xbo &


Xe`m Jdmao@` JWma^: H$Vmo _`m &&2&&

Ap N\dp hv$dpdp v$iphg kh kyMp_u hq L$f_pfu, `fdf_u


syrs, p\_p, D`pk_p A_ ^dpqv$ rhjep_y hZ_ L$fhpdp Aphg R>. &&5&&

~h{^: m{WV: g`J JWma^: H$Vmo@YZm &


{hVm` gdbmoH$mZm kmZm` na_m_Z: &&3&&

S> b rhdg, kyML$pfL$, `|ZL$pd, ss A_ S>Nsdp eps R>,


sd_u prs hv$p_p op_\u \pe R>. S> d_yep_p d_dp A b_u L$V$sp
(e\p\ rhop_) R>, s S> d_ye Cf_p Ap_v$_p cpsp b_u iL$ R>. s
khv$p kh\u Ar^L$ kyMu R>. Ahp d_ye_ ^e R>. &&6&&

doX ` _yb_mUm `m`mZ bmoH $^mf`m &


{H$`Vo gI~moYm` ~kmZm` g{V &&4&&
V `nmgZ`mo: g`H$ mWZm`m d{UV: &
{df`mo doX _ gd} f m gI d Z : &&5&&
{d_b g I X gVV g{ hV OJ{V VV VX do X JV_ &
_Z{g H$Q> `{X `` gIr g Zamo@pV gXoa^mJ{YH$: &&6&&
{deof^mJrh dUmo{V `mo {hV Za: nam_mZ_Vrd _mZV: &
AeofX:Imm {d_` {d`m g _moj_mZmo{V Z H$m_H$m_H$: &&7&&
epep_ : S> `fdpdp kh_p Apdp, ks-rQs-Ap_v$-h$`,
A_s, AS>, epeL$pfu, r_dm, kv$p `rh, v$epmy, kh kpdeeys Ap`Zp
B$v$h R>, s Ap`Z_ r_e klpe Ap`sp fl L$ S>\u L$fu_ Ars L$qW$_ L$pe
`Z Ap`Z hpcprhL$ $` L$fhp_ kd\ \C iL$uA. l L$`pr_^ ! Ap` S>
Adpfy Ap L$pe rk L$f_pf R>p. Ad Apip fpMuA R>uA L$ Ap` S> Adpfu
L$pd_p Ahe rk (`qf`|Z) L$fip. &&1&&
khs 1932 rsr\ Q kyv$ 10 Ny{$hpf_p qv$hk Ap N\_p (d)
Apep r crh_e

S> d_ye Ap kkpfdp Aes d, ^dpdp`, rhp, kkN,


kyrhQpfsp, r_hfsp, rS>s[esp A_ en hNf dpZp pfp `fdpdp_p
huL$pf (Ape) L$f R>, s S> d_ye dlpcpeipmu R>; L$pfZ L$ s d_ye
e\p\ kerhp\u k`|Z vy$:Mp\u R|>V$u_ `fdp_v$ `fdpdp_u prs $` S>
dpn R> s_ ps L$f R> A_ vy$:MkpNf_ sfu e R>. `fsy S> rhjeg`V$,
rhQpffrls, rhp, ^d, rS>s[esp A_ kkNfrls, R>m, L$`V$, Arcdp_,
vy$fpNl hNf vy$$sp\u eys R>, s dpnkyM_ ps L$fu iL$sp _\u, L$pfZ L$ s
Cfc[s\u rhdyM fl R>. &&7&&
A L$pfZ (Ahp d_yep) S>d, dfZ A_ hfpqv$ `uX$p\u `uqX$s
flu_ khv$p vy$:MkpNfdp S> `X$p fl R>. s\u kh d_yep_ DrQs R> L$
sApA `fdf A_ s_u Apop\u rhfy hs_ L$v$u `Z L$fhy _rl. `fsy s_u
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8

Apep r crh_e

Ap Apeprcrh_e N\dp dyeh hv$dp_p `fdf kb^u AL$ S>


A\ kn`dp L$fhpdp Aphg R>. b_ A\ L$fhp\u N\_y L$v$ h^u e AV$gp
dpV$ ehlpfrhp kb^u A\ L$fhpdp Aphg _\u (gMhpdp Aphg _\u).
`fsy hv$p_p cpedp e\phs rhspf`|hL$ `fdp\ A_ ehlpfp\ A b_
A\p kdpZ L$fhpdp (gMhpdp) Aphi. S>d L$ VXodm@{VXm{X`Vm`{a`m{X e. (eSy>hv$) krlsp . (dpZ
32.1), B {_ dU{_`m{X F$. k. . (1.164.46), ~hn{Vd ~
(As. 1.13), JUn{Vd ~ (is. 3.1.4.15), mUmo d ~ (is`\
14.1.10.2), Amnmo d ~, ~{{a`m{X. is`\ (1.5.1.11;
14.1.10.2), Asfe bpZpqv$ . A_ _hmV_odm_mZ{_`m{X r_{$s
(14.1) Apqv$ dpZp\u "`fb' A\_y S> NlZ L$fhpdp Aph R>. s\p
_ImX{aOm`Vo`m{X e. k. . (31.12), dm`moa{{a`m{X bpZ . s\p
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NyZeys, v$pl-L$pieys cprsL$ Ar_ R>, s A\_y NlZ L$fhpdp Aph R>.
Ap fus hv$cpepdp Y$ dpZ, ey[s A_ en ehlpf\u b_
A\p gMhpdp Aphi, S>\u kpeZpqv$L$s cpep_p v$pj A_ s_ A_ykfu_
L$fhpdp Aphgp AN cpjpsfdp \egp v$pjp\u hv$p `f S> L$gL$ gpNgy R>
s v|$f \C S>i. hmu hv$p_ p ke A\p_p L$pi \hp\u hv$p_y dlh s\p
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e\phs urs D`_ \i.
Ap N\\u sp d_yep_ L$hm Cf_p h$`_y op_ A_ c[s,
^dr_$p, ehlpf-iyq hNf epS>_p rk \i, S>\u d_ye _p[sL$ A_
`pMX$ dspqv$ A^ddp akpi _rl. AV$gy S> _rl, `fsy d_ye kh L$pf\u
Ars Dd b_ A_ khi[sdp_ S>Nv$uf_u L$`p kh d_yep `f b_u
fl, S>\u kh d_yep vy$$sp R>pX$u_ $sp_p huL$pf L$f, Ahu dpfu
`fdpdp_ p\_p R>, S> `fdf S>$f `|Z L$fi.

B`nH$_{UH$m gjonV: gnyUm &&


Apep r crh_e

&& Amo _ &&


VV gV na~Uo Z_:

AWm`m{^{dZ`ma^:
(1)

Am| e Zmo {_: e dU: e Zmo ^dd`_m &


e Z Bmo ~hn{V: e Zmo {dUH$_: &&
- F$0 A0 1, A0 6, d0 18, _0 91
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L$piL$, l `fd Aev$peL$, kpdpe kpfL$, l A^dppfL$, `rss`ph_,
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l v$pqfrh_piL$, r_hfrh^peL$, ky_ursh^L$, l urskp^L$, fpe rh^peL$,
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l `yfyjp\_u prs L$fph_pf, vy$NyZ_piL$, rkqv$, l kS>_kyMv$,
vy$$kyspX$_, Nh-Ly$$p^-Ly$gpc rhv$pfL$, l `fdi, `fi, `fdpd_, `fb_,
l S>Nv$p_v$L$ `fdf, ep`L$, k|dpR>, l AS>f, Ads-Ace1. Ap kepdp \d cpNdp kh e\phs Zhu, L$pfZ L$ ApNm_p dpdp L$hm AL$ kep
gMhpdp Aphi. F$1.6.18.9 `f\u A$L $, Aepe, hN, d ($di:) Zhp.

10

Apep r crh_e

r_b^p_pqv$, l Arsd cph, r_NyZpsyg, rhp, rhh, rhqgpkL$,


Bepqv$ A_s rhijZ hpe, l dNgv$ Cf ! -

Cf Ap`Z_ L$`p L$fu_ kh ehlpf A_ rhpqv$ `v$p\p_p D`v$i L$fg R>;


S>\u Ap`Z_ ehlpf op_ A_ `fdp\ op_ pfp Aes kyM \pe.

Ap` kh\p kh_p r_qs rd R>p, Ad_ khv$p kekyMv$peL$


R>p. l khpL$$, huL$fZue, hff ! Ap` hfyZ A\ps kh\u `fdpd
R>p, AV$g Ap` Ad_ `fd kyMv$peL$ R>p. l `n`psfrls, ^d epeL$pqf_
! Ap` Aedp (edfpS>) R>p, S>\u Ad_ epeeys kyM Ap`_pf Ap` S>
R>p. l `fd Aehp_, Bf ! Ap` Ad_ `fd Aeeys [\f kyM
iuO Ap`p. l dlprhphpQpr^`s, bl`s, `fdpd_ ! Ad_ (bls)
kh\u dlp_ kyM Ap`_pf Ap` S> R>p. l khep`L$, A_s `fp$df
rhZp ! Ap` Ad_ A_s kyM Ap`p. Ad S> L$C dpNuiy s Ap`_u `pk
S> dpNuiy. Ap`_p rkhpe kh kyM_p Ap`_pf bu L$pC _\u. Ad_ sp
kh\p Ap`_p S> Ape R>, bu L$pC_p _\u; L$pfZ L$ Ad khi[sdp_,
epeL$pfu, v$epde, kh\u dlp_ r`sp_ R>pX$u_ _uQ (A^d A\hp A$)_p
Ape L$v$u `Z _ql gCA. Ap`_p sp A hcph S> R> L$ (Ap`) ANuL$s_
(`psp_p L$fgp_, huL$pfgp_) epfe _\u R>pX$sp. S>\u Ap` kv$h Ad_
kyM Ap`ip Ahp Adpfp Y$ r_e R>.

S>hu fus kh_y Apqv$ L$pfZ Cf R>, shu fus `fd rhp hv$_y `Z
Apqv$ L$pfZ Cf R>.
l khrlsp`L$pfL$ ! Ap` namo{hV_ kds S>Ns_p rlskp^L$ R>p.
l eov$h ! (Ap`) kh d_yep dpV$ kh$ `|S>_ue A_ op_-eopqv$ dpV$
L$d_uesd (Aes BR>_ue) R>p. F$pdO_ hks hNf kh F$syAp_p
fQ_pf R>p, A\ps S> kde S>hy kyM CA shy kyM Ap`_pfp Ap` S> R>p.
hmoVma_ Ap` kh S>Ns_ kh L$pf_p epN A_ nd_p Ap`_pf R>p A_
ge kde kh S>Ns_ s_p L$pfZdp (d|m L$rsdp) lpd (gu_) L$f_pf
R>p. aZYmV__ f_ A\ps fdZue `hu hNf `v$p\p_u fQ_p (L$f_pf),
^pfZ L$f_pf s\p `psp_p khL$p (csp) dpV$ f_pqv$ `v$p\p_ ^pfZ
L$fhphpmp (f_p ^pfZ L$fph_pfp) L$hm Ap` S> R>p.
l khi[sdp_ `fdpdp ! ly AV$gp dpV$ Ap`_u hpfhpf syrs L$fy
Ry>, Ap` A_p huL$pf L$fp, S>\u L$fu_ Ad Ap`_p L$`p`p b_u_ kv$h
Ap_v$dp fluA.

(2) d|m d - syrs rhje


(3) d|m p\_p

A{Z_rio namo{hV `k` Xod_pdO_ &


hmoVma aZYmV__ &&

A{ZZm a{`_Zdnmof_od {Xdo{Xdo &


`eg dradm__ &&

F$0 1.1.1.1
epep_ : l h Cf A_ ! Ap` op_ h$` R>p. ly Ap`_u
syrs L$fy Ry>.
kh d_yep rs `fdpdp_p A D`v$i R> L$, l d_yep ! sd dpfu
Ahu fus syrs, p\_p A_ D`pk_p L$fp, S>hu fus r`sp A\hp Nyfy
`psp_p `y A\hp rie_ rinp Ap` R> L$ sd r`sp A\hp Nyfy_p rhjedp
Aepf (S> L$pf) syrs hNf L$fp R>p, s fus kh_p r`sp A_ `fd Nyfy$
Apep r crh_e

11

F$0 1.1.1.3
epep_ : l dlpv$psp, Cfp_ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u syrs L$f_pf
d_ye a{`_ s rhpqv$ ^_ s\p kyhZpqv$ ^__ Ahe p L$f R>, S> ^_
rsqv$_ nmof_od dlp_ `yr$ L$f_pf, kL$urs_u hq L$f_pf R> s\p S>_p\u
rhp, ipe, ^e, Qpsye, bm, `fp$d A_ Y$pN (^fphsp) ^dpdp,
epeeys s\p Aes huf `yfy$j ps \pe. shp S> kyhZ f_pqv$ s\p
12

Apep r crh_e

Q$hs} fpe A_ rhop_$`u ^__u ly prs L$fy s\p Ap`_u L$`p\u khv$p
^dpdp b_u_ Aes kyMu fly.

Ap`_p `y A_ khL$ S>hp R>uA.


(6) d|m p\_p

(4) d|m syrs

`X Xmefo d_Zo ^ H${a`{g &


Vdomg`_{a: &&

A{Z: nyd}{^F${f{^arS>`mo ZyVZV &


g Xodm Eh dj{V &&
F$0 1.1.1.2
epep_ : l kh d_yep_ syrs L$fhp epe Cfp_ ! nyd}{^:
rhp cZgp pQu_ F${f{^: dp\_p kpnpL$pf L$f_pfp rhp_p s\p ZyVZ:
hv$p\_p Aepk L$f_pfp _hu_ bQpfuAp pfp B@: syrs L$fhp epe R>p
CV A_ S> rhp_ A\hp Arhp_ (d|M) Ahp Ad gpL$p R>uA, sd_p
pfp `Z Ap` S> Ahe syrs L$fhp epe R>p. s\u Adpfu syrs kpcmu_
- ps L$fu_ Ap` Adpfp s\p kL$m kkpf_p kyM dpV$ qv$e NyZ A\ps
rhpqv$ L$`p L$fu_ Ap`p. Ap` S> kh_p B$v$h R>p.

F$0 1.1.1.6
epep_ : l AS>J: ! rd ! S> Ap`_ Apdpqv$_y v$p_
(kd`Z) L$f R>, s_ ^_ Ap` ehlpqfL$ A_ `pfdpr\L$ kyM Ahe
Ap`p R>p. l A{a: pZre ! Ap`_y A ke hs R> L$ hcsp_
`fdp_v$ Ap`hp. Ap`_p Ap S> hcph Adpfp dpV$ Aes kyML$pfL$ R>.
Ap` d_ ArlL$ A_ `pfdpr\L$ A b_ kyMp_y S>gv$u v$p_ Ap`p, S>\u
Adpfp kh vy$:Mp v|$f \pe A_ Ad kv$p kyMu S> fluA.
(7) d|m syrs

dm`dm `m{h XeVo_o gmo_m AaLH$Vm: &


Vofm nm{h lYr hd_ &&

(5) d|m syrs

A{Zhm}Vm H${dH$V: g`pMldV_: &


Xodmo Xodo{^amJ_V &&

F$0 1.1.3.1

epep_ : l khL$ ! kh_ _pf H$V: kh S>Ns_p S>_L$


(D`pv$L$) g`: Arh_piu A\ps S>_p L$v$u `Z _pi \sp _\u,
{MldV_: Ap` Ape hZpqv$, Ape NyZ, Ape i[s, Ape
h$`hp_ A_ Aes $ R>p. Ap`_p sye - kdp_ A\hp Ap`\u
dlp_ L$pC _\u. l S>Nv$ui ! Xodo{^: qv$e NyZp\u eys Ap` Adpfp
v$edp L$V$ \pAp. kh S>Nsdp `Z L$pris \pAp, S>\u Ad A_
Adpfy fpe qv$eNyZeys \pe. s fpe Ap`_y S> R>. Ad sp L$hm

epep_ : l A_s bm ! `fi, hpep, v$i_ue ! Ap`


Ap`_u L$`p\u S> Ad_ ps \pAp. Ad gpL$pA Adpfu A` i[s\u
kpd (kpdhepqv$) Apjr^Ap_p Dd fk k`pv$_ L$fg R> A_
Adpfp S> L$C $ `v$p\p R>, s kh Ap`_p dpV$ AaLH$Vm: AgL$s
A\ps Ad Dd furs\u b_pep R>, s kh Ap`_ kd`Z L$ep R>.
Ap` s_p huL$pf L$fp (khpdp\u `p_ L$fp - `|Z$` huL$pf L$fp).
Adpfu Nfubp_u v$u_sp kpcmu_ S>d `y _p_u kfMu hsy r`sp_
kd`Z L$f R> AV$gp\u r`sp Aes k_ \pe R>, shu S> fus Ap`
Adpfp `f k_ \pAp.

Apep r crh_e

14

F$0 1.1.1.5

13

Apep r crh_e

(8) d|m p\_p

(10) d|m p\_p

nmdH$m Z: gadVr dmOo{^dm{OZrdVr &


`k d> {Y`mdg: &&

V_remZ OJVVWfn{V {Y`{Od_dgo hy_ho d`_ &


nyfm Zmo `Wm doXgm_gX dYo a{jVm nm`aXY: dV`o &&

F$0 1.1.6.10

F$0 1.6.15.5

epep_ : l hp`s ! kh rhpde ! Ad_ Ap`_u L$`p\u


gadVr khip rhop_eys hpZu ps \pAp. dmOo{^: A_ DL$$ A_
Apqv$ krls hsdp_ dm{OZrdVr khpd q$ep rhop_eys nmdH$m `rh
h$` A_ `rh L$fhphpmu ke cpjZde dNgL$pfL$ hpZu Ap`_u
fZp\u p L$fu, Ap`_p A_yNl\u `fd $ byq_u kp\ hsdp_ dg:
r_r^ h$` - op__p cX$pf$`u A hpZu\u `k d> kh ip_p bp^ A_
`|S>_uesd Ap`_p rhop__u ldip L$pd_p L$fuA, S>\u Adpfu kh L$pf_u
d|Msp_p (Arhp_p) _pi \pe A_ Ad dlp `pqX$eeys b_uA.

epep_ : l khpr^hprd_ ! Ap` S> Qf A_ AQf S>Ns_p


Cip_ (fQ_pf) R>p. {Y` {Od_ khrhpde rhop_h$` byq_ L$pris
L$f_pf, uZ_ue h$` nyfm kh_y `pjZ L$f_pf R>p. s Ap`_y AdZ: Adgo
Adpfu fnp_ dpV$ hy_ho Aplhp_ L$fuA R>uA. `Wm S>hu fus Ap` Adpfp
rhp hNf ^_p_u hq A\hp fnp dpV$ AXY: a{jVm Apmk frls b_u_
fnp L$fhpdp s`f flp R>p, shu S> fus Ap` L$`p L$fu_ dV`o Adpfu
h\sp_ dpV$ nm`: r_fsf fnL$ (rh_pi-q_hpfL$) R>p. Ap` pfp `pg_
\egp - `pjpegp Ad kv$p Dd L$pepdp D_rs A_ Ap_v$ ps L$fuA.

(9) d|m syrs

(11) d|m syrs

n$V_ n$Um_remZ dm`mUm_ &


B gmo_o gMm gVo &&

AVmo Xodm AdV Zmo `Vmo {dU{dMH$_o &


n{W`m: g Ym_{^: &&
F$0 1.1.9.2

F$0 1.2.7.16

epep_ : l `fp`f `fdpd_ ! Ap` n$V__ Aes Dd


A_ khiy rh_piL$ R>p s\p S>Ns_p blyrh^ `v$p\p_p BemZ hpdu A_
D`pv$L$ R>p. dm`mUm_ Dd, `kv$ L$fhp epe `fdp_v$ dpnpqv$ `v$p\p_p
`Z Cip_ - hpdu R>p. gmo_o A_ D`r \p_ - kkpf Ap`_p\u
D`_ \hp_p L$pfZ B_ `fd Aehp_ Ap`_ (A{^Jm`V) 1 v$edp
Aes d\u NpCA (A\ps) e\phs syrs L$fuA, S>\u Ap`_u L$`p pfp
Adpfy `fd Ae `Z h^sy e A_ (Ad) `fdp_v$_ ps L$fuA.

epep_ : l Xodm: rhp_p ! {dU: kh ep`L$ `fdf kh


hp_ `p` A_ `ye_y am cpNhhp_ dpV$ s\p kh `v$p\p_ [\s L$fhp
dpV$ `hu\u gC_ kps L$pf_p gpL$ Ym_{^: A\ps KQp-_uQp \p_p\u
keys b_pep R> s\p Npeu hNf kps R>v$p pfp rhss rhpeys hv$p_u
`Z fQ_p L$fg R>. A gpL$p_u kp\ hsdp_ (flgp) ep`L$ Cf `V: S>
kpde\u kh gpL$p_ u fQ_p L$fg R>, AV: (gm_`mV) s kpde\u
Adpfu fnp L$fp. l rhp_p ! sd gpL$p `Z s S> rh_p D`v$i\u Adpfu
fnp L$fp. s rh L$hp R> ? S>Z Ap kh S>Ns_u {dMH$_o rhrh^ L$pf
fQ_p L$fg R>, s_u r_e c[s L$fp.

1. Ap iv$_u A_yhr d 1.1.9.1\u Aphu R>.

Apep r crh_e

15

16

Apep r crh_e

(12) d|m p\_p

(14) d|m p\_p

nm{h Zmo Ao ajg: nm{h YyV}aamU: &


nm{h arfV CV dm {OKmgVmo ~hX^mZmo `{d> &&

{d OmZrm`m`o M X`dmo ~{h_Vo aY`m emgXdVmZ &


emH$r ^d `O_mZ` Mmo{XVm {domm Vo gY_mXof MmH$Z &&

F$0 1.3.10.15
epep_ : l kh iy_y v$l_ L$f_pf Ar_ kdp_ `fdf !
fpnk rlkpiug vy$$ hcphhpmp v$l^pfuAp\u Z: Adpfy nm{h `pg_ fnp L$fp. YyV}aamU: L$`Z A_ ^|s d_ye\u `Z Adpfu fnp L$fp. l dlp
sS>hu A_ bmhd (khiqsdp_) ! S> Ad_ dpfhp gpN R> A_
S> (Ad_) dpfhp_u BR>p L$f R>, s kh\u `Z Adpfu fnp L$fp.
(13) d|m syrs

d_` nmao aOgmo `mo_Z: d^y`moOm Adgo Yf_Z: &


MH$fo ^y{_ {V_mZ_moOgmo@n: d: n{a^yao`m {Xd_ &&
F$0 1.4.14.12
epep_ : l `fd Aehp_ `fdpd_ ! ApL$pi gpL$\u `pf
s\p Av$f `psp_p Ae A_ bm\u rhfpS>dp_ \C_ vy$$p_p d__ pjZrsfL$pf L$fsp kh S>Ns s\p rhij L$fu_ Adpfy Adgo kpfu fus fnZ
L$fhp dpV$ d_ Ap` kph^p_ \C flp R>p. s\u Ad r_ce b_u_ Ap_v$
L$fuA R>uA. hmu {Xd_ `fd ApL$pi ^y{__ c|rd s\p d: kyM rhij
dedp flg gpL$ A kh_ `psp_p kpde\u S> fQu_ e\phs ^pfZ L$fu
fp R>p. n{a^y: E{f Ap` khdp hsdp_ (rhdp_) A_ kh_ ps \C
fp R>p. Am{Xd_ L$pidp_ k|epqv$ gpL$ Amn: Asqfn gpL$ A_ S>m A
kh_y rsdp_ (`qfdpZ) (dp`-spg) L$f_pf Ap` S> R>p s\p Ap`
A`qfde (dp`u _ iL$pe shp Adp`) R>p. L$`p L$fu_ Ad_ Ap`_y s\p
kr$_y rhop_ Ap`p.
Apep r crh_e

17

F$0 1.4.10.8
epep_ : l kh_ e\pepe Zhphpmp Cf ! Ap` Am`mZ
rhp, ^dpqv$, DL$$ hcph A_ ApQfZhpmp Apep_ Zp. `o M X`d:
A_ S> _p[sL$, X$pLy$, Qpf, rhpkppsu, d|M, rhjeg`V$, rlkpqv$ v$pjp\u
eys, Dd L$ddp rh_ L$f_pfp, hp\}, hp\kp^_dp s`f, hv$rhp
rhfp^u, A_pe (A_pX$u) d_ye A_ ~{h_Vo kh D`L$pfL$ eo_p rhhi
L$fhphpmp R> - Ahp kh vy$$p_p Ap` aY` (g_ybmZ {dZmem`) S>X$d|m\u
_pi L$fp A_ emgXdVmZ bQe, Nl\, hp_\ A_ kepkpqv$ ^d_p
A_y$p_ hsfrls, hv$dpN_p DR>v$L$, A_pQpfuAp `f e\pepe ipk_ L$fp
(sAp_ S>gv$u v$X$ Ap`p) S>\u sAp `Z rinpeys b_u_ ri$ - ke
b_u e; A\hp sAp_p pZps - _pi \C e A\hp Adpfp hidp S>
fl. emH$r s\p Ap` h_ `fd i[seys kpde Ap`_pf s\p $
L$pepdp fZp Ap`_pf R>p. Ap` Adp_ vy$$ L$dp\u fpL$_pf R>p. ly `Z
gY_mXof Dd \p_pdp r_hpk L$fu_ {domm Vo Ap`_u Apop dpZ kh
Dd L$dp_u MmH$Z L$pd_p L$fy Ry>. Ap` s_ `|Z L$fp.
(15) d|m syrs

Z `` mdmn{Wdr AZ `Mmo Z {gYdmo aOgmo AV_mZe : &


ZmoV dd{> _Xo A` ``V EH$mo A`MH $fo {d_mZfH &&
F$0 1.4.14.14
epep_ : l `fd Aeeys ! Ap` B R>p. l d_yep !
`fdpdp_p `pf ApV$gp S> R> Ahy _\u. s_u eprs_p `qfR>v$ (Bep)
`qfdpZ L$pC `pdu iL$sy _\u s\p mdm A\ps k|e Apqv$ gpL$, khp`qf
18

Apep r crh_e

ApL$pi s\p `hu, de, r_L$$ gpL$ - Adp\u L$pC `Z s `fdpdp_p Apqv$
A_ As `pdu iL$sp _\u, L$pfZ L$ AZ`M: s `fdpdp kd|l_u dedp
AZ`yV (`qf`|Z) \C_ flg R> s\p Z {gYd: Asqfndp S> qv$e S>m
s\p khgpL$ (bpX$) `Z s_p As - spN dmhu iL$sp _\u. ZmoV dd{>
_Xo hjp $`u lpf\u ey L$f_pf h (dO) (hpv$mp_u NS>_pAp) s\p
huS>mu_p L$X$pL$pAp hNf `Z Cf_p `pf `pdu iL$sp _\u.1
l `fdpd_ ! Ap`_p `pf L$pZ `pdu iL$ ? L$pfZ L$ EH$: AL$
(bu_u klpesp rh_p) s `psp_p kpde\u S> {d_ kh S>Nsdp
AmZfH$ Ap_yjs A\ps ep`L$ R>p A_ MH$fo (L$shp_) Ap` S> kh
D`_ L$fg R>. sp `R>u S>Ns_p `v$p\p Ap`_p `pf L$hu fus `pdu iL$ ?
hmu A`V Ap` S>Ns$` L$v$u `Z b_sp _\u. `psp_p `X$dp\u
(h$`dp\u) S>Ns_u fQ_p L$fsp _\u. `fsy Ap`_p A_s kpde\u S>
S>Ns_u fQ_p, ^pfZ A_ ge epe kde L$fsp flp R>p. s\u Ad_ sp
kv$h Ap`_u klpesp dep L$f R>.
(16) d|m p\_p

D dm} Z: nmhgmo {Z Ho$VZm {d g_{U Xh &


H$Yr Z D dmMaWm` Ordgo {dXm Xodof Vmo Xd: &&
F$0 1.3.10.14
epep_ : l khp`qf rhfpS>dp_ `fb ! Ap` (Dd:) kh\u
DL$$ R>p. Ad_ L$`p L$fu_ DL$$ NyZhpmp b_php s\p Eh v$idp Adpfu
fnp L$fp. l kh `p`_piL$ Cf ! Ad_ Ho$VZm rhop_ A\ps rhrh^
rhpv$p_ Ap`u_ Ahg: Arhpqv$ dlp`p`\u {Znmhr ({ZVam nm{h) ldip
v|$f fpMp s\p {d_ Ap kds kkpf_y `Z r_e `pg_ L$fp.
l kerd, epeL$pfu ! S> L$pC pZu A{U_ Adpfu iysp L$f s_

s\p L$pd, $p^ pqv$ iyAp_ Ap` gXh kpfu fus cduc|s L$fp (kpfu fus
kmNphu _pMp). H$Yr Z DdmZ l L$`pr_r^ ! Ad_ rhp, ipe, ^e, bm,
`fp$d, Qpsye, rhrh^ ^_, Ae, rh_e, kpdpe, kdrs, kurs,
hv$i kyM-k`pv$_pqv$ NyZpdp kh d_yep\u Ad_ $ b_php s\p
MaWm` Ordgo kh\u Ar^L$ Ap_v$, cpN, kh v$ipdp AeplsNd_
(BR>p_ykpf Aphhy-S>hy), Apfpe, v$l, iy dp_qkL$ bm A_ rhop_
hNf dpV$ Ad_ $sp Ap`p A_ Ap`_u `pg_peys L$fp. {dXm rhpqv$
Ddpd ^_ Xodof rhp_p_u hQ ps L$fphp A\ps rhp_p_u dedp
`Z Ad_ khv$p Dd rs$peys L$fp - fpMp.
(17) d|m syrs

A{X{Vma{X{VaV{aj_{X{V_mVm g {nVm g n: &


{do Xodm A{X{V: nM OZm A{X{VOmV_{X{VO{Zd_ &&
F$0 1.6.16.10
epep_ : l L$pepbp^f (Z L$pm\u rhdys Ahp Cf) !
A{X{Vm: Ap` khv$p rh_pifrls s\p hL$pih$` R>p. A{X{VaV{aj_
ArhL$s (rhL$pf frls) A_ kh_p Ar^$psp R>p. A{X{V_mVm Ap` dpn
`pdgp hp_ Arh_f (rh_pi frls) kyM Ap`_pf A_ Aes dp_
L$f_pf R>p. g {nVm s Arh_piu h$` (Cf) Adpfp kh_p r`sp (S>_L$)
A_ `pgL$ R> A_ g n: s Cf dydyny (dpn_u BR>p L$f_pf) ^dpdp
rhp_p_ _fL$ hNf vy$:Mp\u (`\L$ L$fu) `rh L$f_pfp A_ pZ (fnp)
L$f_pfp R>. {do Xodm A{X{V: kh qv$eNyZ (rh_y ^pfZ, fQ_p, rh_pi,
`pg_ Apqv$ L$pep L$f_pf) Ap` S> Arh_piu `fdpdp R>p. nMOZm
A{X{V: S>Ns_p h__p lsy $` `pQ pZ `Z Ap`_p fQgp R>, sd S>
s Ap`_p _pd `Z R>. OmV_{X{V: s AL$ S> Qs_ b Ap` kv$p pvy$c|s
- hsdp_ R>p A_ buSy> b^y sp L$pChpf pvy$c|s - D`_ \pe R> A_ L$pC
kde Apvy$c|s - rh_pic|s `Z \C e R>. A{X{VO{Zd_ s S>

1. S>d L$pC dv$dp d_ \C_ fZc|rddp ey L$f sd dO_y $ps Zhy.

Apep r crh_e

19

20

Apep r crh_e

Arh_piu h$` Cf Ap` kh S>Ns_p (O{Zd_) S>d_p lsy$` R>p,


Ae L$pC _\u.1
(18) d|m p\_p

F$OZrVr Zmo dUmo {_mo Z`V {dmZ &


A`_m Xod: gOmofm: &&

epep_ : l kpd fpS>_ ! k`s `fdf ! sd kpd R>p,


khkh_L$sp - kh_p kpf-kh L$pY$_pf, pe h$` A_ ipspdp R>p
s\p Ap` k`yfyjp_y `pg_ L$f_pf R>p. sd S> kh_p fp CV A_ dhm
dO_ fQ_pf, ^pfZ A_ _pi L$f_pf R>p. c h$` c (L$epZ) L$f_pf
A_ H$V: kds kkpf_p fQresp Ap` S> R>p.
(20) d|m p\_p

F$0 1.6.17.1
epep_ : l dlpfpr^fpS> `fdf ! Ap` Ad_ F$OZrVr
kfm (iy) L$pdmsp Apqv$ NyZ rhijhpmp Q$hs} fpAp_u _urs_ Z`V
L$`pr$\u ps L$fphp. Ap` dU: khpL$$ lphp\u hfyZ R>p, dpV$ Ad_
Dd fpe, Dd rhp A_ $ _urs Ap`p s\p Ap` kh_p rd iyfrls R>p. Ap` Ad_ `Z rd NyZeys epep^ui b_php s\p Ap`
khpL$$ rhp_ R>p, Ad_ `Z kerhp\u eys ky_urs Ap`u_ iuO
kpdpe_p Ar^L$pfu b_php s\p Ap` A`_m (edfpS>) re-Are
R>pX$u_ (`n`psfrls) epedp flp R>p (s`f flp R>p) sd S> kds
kkpf_p hp_p `p` A_ `yep_u e\pepe eh\p L$fp R>p, shu S> fus
Ap` Ad_ `Z Ahp S> b_php, S>\u Xod: gOmofm: Ap`_u L$`p\u rhp_p
A_ qv$eNyZpeys b_u_ Dd urseys Ap`_pdp fdZ L$fuA A_ Ap`_y
kh_ L$f_pfp b_uA. l L$`prk^p cNh_ ! Ad_ klpesp L$fp L$ S>\u L$fu_
(Ad) ky_urseys b_uA A_ Adpfy hfpe Aes hq `pd.

d Z: gmo_ {dVmo ajm amOKm`V: &


Z {a`oV dmdV: gIm &&
F$0 1.6.20.8
epep_ : l kpd ! fpS>_ Cf ! sd AKm`V: S> L$pC pZuAp
Adpfpdp `p`u A_ `p` L$fhp_u BR>phpmp lpe {dV: s kh pZuAp\u
Adpfu aj fnp L$fp. S>_p Ap` kNp (NpY$ - Apdue) rd R>p, Z {a`oV
s L$v$u _$ \sp _\u. `fsy Ad_ Ap`_u klpesp\u sgcpf `Z vy$:M
A\hp ce L$pC`Z kde gpNi _rl. S> Ap`_p rd R> A_ Ap` S>_p
rd R>p, s_ vy$:M L$d lpe ?
(21) d|m p\_p

V{Umo: na_ nX gXm n`pV gya`: &


{Xdrd MjamVV_ &&

(19) d|m p\_p

F$0 1.2.7.20

d gmo_m{g gn{Vd amOmoV dhm &


d ^mo A{g H$V: &&
1. Ap b^p _pd qv$h Apqv$ Ae hsyAp_p `Z lpe R>. `fsy Ap ddp Cfprcs A\ S>
L$fhpdp Apep R>, dpV$ s_ dpZc|s dp_hp CA.

epep_ : l rhp_p A_ dydyny hp ! rh_y (khep`L$


Cf_y) S> `fd DL$$ `v$ (`v$_ue) R>, s kh_ Zhp epe R>; S>_
p \C_ (dys ApdpAp) `|Zp_v$dp fl R>, afu ep\u iuO vy$:Mdp
`X$sp _\u. s `v$_ gya`: ^dpdp, rS>s[e, kh_p rlsL$pfu rhp_p
e\phs Dd rhQpfp\u Sy>A R> (rhQpf R>), s `fdf_y `v$ R>. L$hu

Apep r crh_e

22

F$0 1.6.19.5
21

Apep r crh_e

(23) d|m syrs

fus ? S>hu fus ApL$pidp Mj __u eprs (ep`L$sp) A\hp k|e_p


L$pi kh ep`gp lpe R>, shu S> fus {Xdrd MjamVV_ `fb kh
\p_pdp `qf`|Z AL$fk ep`u flg R>.
A S> `fd`v$h$` `fdpdp `fd`v$ R>. A_u S> prs \hp\u
h kh vy$:Mp\u dys \C e R>. A rkhpe h_ L$v$u`Z `fd kyM
ps \sy _\u. AV$gp dpV$ `fdf_u prs dpV$ kh L$pf e\phs
e_ L$fhp CA.

F$0 1.2.7.19
epep_ : l hp ! {dUmo: ep`L$ Cf L$fgp S>Ns_u D`r,
[\rs, ge Apqv$ L$dp_ sd Sy>Ap.
: Ad L$hu fus ZuA L$ A L$dp ep`L$ Cf_p R> ?

(22) d|m p\_p

pWam d: gdm`Ym namUXo driy CV {VH$^o &


`_mH$_V V{dfr nZr`gr _m _`` _m{`Z: &&
F$0 1.3.18.2
epep_ : (na_oamo {h gdOrdo` AmerXXm{V) Cf kh
hp_ Apiuhpv$ Ap` R> L$, l hp ! d: (`_mH$_) sdpfp dpV$ Apey^
A\ps is$_u (sp`), cyiyX$u (bv|$L$), ^_ye, bpZ, L$fhpg (sghpf),
i[s (bfR>u) Apqv$ ip [\f A_ driy Y$ \pAp. L$ep epS>_ dpV$ ?
namUXo sdpfp iyAp_p `fpS>e dpV$, L$ S>\u sdpfp L$pC vy$$ iyAp sd_
L$v$u `Z vy$:M _ Ap`u iL$. CV {VH$^o iyAp_p hN_ fpL$hp dpV$
`_mH$_V V{dfr nZr`gr sdpfu bmhp_ Dd k_p kh kkpfdp
irks b_, S>\u sdpfu kp\ gX$hp_p L$pC kL$` `Z iy _ L$f. `fsy
_m _`` _m{`Z: S> AepeL$pfu d_ye R>, s_ ly Apiuhpv$ Ap`sp _\u.
vy$$, `p`u, Cfc[s frls d_ye_p bm, fpe A_ Ae Apqv$ L$v$u `Z
hq _ `pdp, s_p kv$p `fpS>e S> \pAp.
l b^y hNp ! Aphp ! Ap`Z kh dmu_ kh vy$:Mp_p rh_pi A_
rhS>e dpV$ Cf_ k_ L$fuA L$ S> Ap`Z_ Apiuhpv$ Ap` A_ S>\u
Ap`Zp iyAp (vy$$, `p`u hNf) hq - D_rs _ `pd.
Apep r crh_e

{dUmo: H$_m{U n`V `Vmo dVm{Z nneo &


B` ``: gIm &&

23

Df : `Vmo dVm{Z nneo S>\u Ap`Z h gpL$p bQepqv$


hs, kecpjZpqv$ hs A_ Cf_p r_edp_y A_y$p_ L$fhp dpV$ kyifuf
^pfZ L$fu_ kd\ \ep R>uA. A kh L$pe s_p S> - Cf_p kpde\u
\eg R>. L$pfZ L$ B` ``: gIm L$dp_p L$sp, cpsp S> B[ephpmp
h R>, s_p A S> AL$ (Cf) epe rd R>, bu L$pC`Z _\u. L$pfZ
L$ Cf h_p Asepdu R>. s\u s_p\u $ (rc_) L$pC `Z h_p
rlsL$pfu rd \C iL$sp _\u. AV$gp dpV$ `fdpdp kp\ kv$p rdsp
fpMhu CA.
(24) d|m p\_p

nam UXd _Kd{_mgdoXm Zmo dgy H${Y &


A_mH$ ~mo`{dVm _hmYZo ^dm dY: gIrZm_ &&
F$0 5.3.21.25
epep_ : l _KdZ `fd Aehp_ B `fdpd_ ! A{_mZ
Adpfp kh iyAp (vy$$, `p`u hNf)_ namUXd `fps L$fu v$p. l v$psp !
gdoXm Zmo dgy H${Y Adpfp dpV$ kds `hu_y ^_ kygc L$fp. _hmYZo
eydp Adpfp A_ Adpfp rd s\p k_pAp_p A{dVm fnL$ dY: h^L$ ^d
Ap` S> R>p s\p ~mo{Y Ad_ Ap`_p S> (`psp_p S>) Zp. l cNh_ !
24

Apep r crh_e

epf Ap` Adpfp fnL$ epp \ip epf S> Adpfp kh rhS>e \i. sdp
(L$pC`Z s_p) kv$l _\u.

s_pfp R>p. Ap\u Adpfp `fpS>e epfe \C iL$ S> _rl.


(27) d|m p\_p

(25) d|m p\_p

V Bmo dUmo {_mo A{amn AmofYrd{ZZmo OfV &


e_`m_ _Vm_nWo `y` nmV dpV{^: gXm Z: &&

e Zmo ^J: e_ Z: egmo AV e Z napY: e_ gV am`: &


e Z: g`` g`_` eg: e Zmo A`_m nOmVmo AV &&
F$0 5.3.28.2
epep_ : l Cf ! ^J: Ap` A_ Ap`_y Ap`gy Ae e Z:
Adpfp dpV$ kyML$pfL$ b_p A_ e_ Z: egmo AV Ap`_u L$`p\u Adpfu
kyML$pfL$ ikp kv$h \ep L$fp. napY: e_ gV am`: kkpf_ ^pfZ
L$f_pfp Ap` s\p hpey, pZ A_ kds ^_ (Ae) Ap_v$v$peL$ \pAp.
e Z: g`` (g`_` eg:) ke, e\p\ ^d, kyked A_ rS>s[espqv$
gnZeys_u S> ikp (`ye syrs) kh kkpfdp rk R>, s Adpfp dpV$
`fd Ap_v$v$peL$ A_ iprsv$peL$ \pAp. e Zmo A`_m epeL$pfu Ap`
nOmV: A_s kpdeeys ! Adpfp dpV$ L$epZL$pfL$ \pAp.

F$0 5.3.27.25
epep_ : l cNh_ ! V B: k|e, dU: Qdp, {_:
hpey, A{: Ar, Amn: S>m, AmofYr: hn hNf h__p kh `v$p\p Ap`_u
Apop\u kyM$` b_u_ Adpfu khp L$f (A\ps Ad_ ps \pAp). l
fnL$ ! _Vm_nWo pZpqv$ hpeyAp_u Npv$dp bW$gp Ad Ap`_u L$`p\u
e_`m_ kv$p kyMu fluA. dpV{^: kh L$pf_p fnZp pfp `y` nmV
(AmXamW ~hdMZ_) Ap` Adpfu fnp L$fp, S>\u Adpfu L$pC `Z L$pf
lpr_ _ \pe.
(28) d|m syrs

F${f{h nydOm A`oH$ BemZ AmoOgm &


B MmoHy$`go dg &&

(26) d|m syrs

d_{g e`mo {dXWof gh` &


Ao aWradamUm_ &&

F$0 5.8.17.41
F$0 5.8.35.2

epep_ : l Ao kho ! sd S> kh e`: syrs L$fhp_


epe R>p, Ae L$pC _rl. {dXWof eo A_ eydp Ap` S> spse - syrs
L$fhp_ epe R>p. S> sdpfu syrs R>pX$u_ Ae S>X$ Apqv$ (`v$p\p)_u syrs
L$f R>, s_ eodp s\p eypdp L$v$u `Z rhS>e ps \sp _\u. gh`
iyAp_p kd|lp_p Ap` S> Ops - _pi L$f_pf R>p. aWr: Ahfp A\ps eo
A_ eypdp Ap` S> f\u R>p. (Ap` S>) Adpfp iyAp_p eppAp_
Apep r crh_e

25

epep_ : l Cf ! F${f: kho, nydOm: A_ kh_p `|h_p


(EH$:) AL$dp Aqsue BemZ: Ci_L$sp A\ps Cfsp (ipk_) L$f_pf
Cf Ap` R>p. Ap` S> kp\u dlp_ (s\p) ge `R>u_p L$pmdp fl_pf
AmoOgm A_s `fp$d eys R>p.
l B ! dlpfpr^fpS> ! MmoHy$`go dg kh ^_ (Ae)_p v$psp
! Ap`_p khL$p `f (Ap`) L$`p_p hpl iuO hlphu fp R>p. Ap` Aes
Ap (L$pd m) hcpheys R>p.
26

Apep r crh_e

(29) d|m p\_p

Zoh ^ ajpdZo Zmd` Zmon `m CV & Jdo M ^ YoZdo


dram` M ld`Vo@Zohgmo d D V`: gD V`mo d D V`: &&

Ap` Vo Ap`_p g_Vm Aes DL$$ op_ A_ `f`f_u ursdp Ad gpL$p


[\f fluA.
(31) d|m p\_p

F$0 6.4.9.12
epep_ : l cNh_ ! ajpdZo ^ Zoh `p`u rlkL$ vy$$pdp_
Ap kkpfdp kyM _ Ap`ip. Zmd` ^d\u rh`fus Qpg_pfpAp_ `Z L$v$u
kyM _ Ap`ip, s\p Zmon`m CV A^d}_u kdu` fl_pfp s_p klpeL$_ `Z
L$v$u kyM p _ \pe - Ahu Ap`_ Adpfu p\_p R> L$ vy$$p_ L$v$u kyM _
dmhy CA. _qlsf L$pC d_ye ^ddp fy$rQ fpMi _rl. AV$gp dpV$ Ap
kkpfdp ^dpdpAp_ S> kv$p kyM Ap`p s\p Adpfu id-v$dpqv$\u eys
B[ep, v|$^ Ap`_pfu Npep hNf, huf `y A_ i|fhuf khL$ ld`Vo rhp,
rhop_ A_ A_pqv$ Aeeys Adpfp v$i_p fp A_ ^_hp_ gpL$p - A
kh_ AZohg: r_`p`, r_fy`heys, [\f A_ Y$ kyM Ap`p. d DV`mo
d DV`: (d: `_mH$ ~hdMZ_mXamW_) l kh_p fnL$ Cf ! Ap` kh
fnZ A\ps `|hps kh ^dpdpAp_u fnp L$f_pf R>p. Ap` S>_p fnL$ R>p
s_ kv$p ^ L$epZ (`fdkyM) ps \pe R>, bu_ _rl.

dmZa` g_Vm `m_ amOm {h H$ ^dZmZm_{^lr: &


BVmo OmVmo {d{_X {d Mo> dmZamo `VVo gy`}U &&
F$0 1.7.6.1
epep_ : l d_yep ! S> Ap`Zp s\p kh S>Ns_p fp, kh
cyh_p_p hpdu H$_ kh_p kyMv$psp A_ A{^lr: kh_p r_r^ (ipcpL$pfL$)
R>. dmZamo `VVo gy`}U kkpfdp flgp kh d_yep_p _sp (_peL$) A_
k|e_u kp\ (k|e pfp) s S > L$piL$ R> A\ps kh L$pidp_ `v$p\p sdZ
S> fQgp R>. BVmo OmVmo {d{_X {dMo> A Cf_p kpde\u S> Ap
kkpf D`_ \eg R>, A\ps sdZ S> fQg R>. dmZa` g_Vm
`m_ s hp_f `fdf_u kydsp, A\ps kyipc_ (DL$$ op_dp) Ad
r_qs kyMh$` A_ rhop_eys b_uA.
l dlpfpr^fpS> Cf ! Ap` L$`p L$fu_ Adpfu Ap Apip_ `|Z L$fp.

(30) d|m syrs

(32) d|m syrs

dgdgn{V{h H$_`o {d^mdg: &


`m_ Vo g_Vmd{n &&

Z `` Xodm XodVm Z _mm AmnZ edgmo AV_mn: &


g {adm djgm _mo {Xd _dmmo ^dpd DVr &&

F$0 6.3.40.24

F$0 1.7.10.15

epep_ : l `fdpd_ ! Ap` hky A\ps kh_ `psp_pdp


hkph_pf A_ khdp Ap` hpk L$f_pf R>p s\p dgn{V: `hu Apqv$ hpk
L$fhp - flhp epe lsy$` b_gp c|sp_p `rs R>p. H$_{g l A_ !
rhop_p_v$ ! hL$pi h$` ! Ap` S> kh_p kyML$pfL$ A_ kyM h$` R>p
s\p {d^mdg: ke hL$pi h$` AL$ ^_de R>p. l cNh_ ! Ahp S>

epep_ : l A_sbm ! Z `` S> `fdpdp_p sd S> s_p bm


hNf kpde_p Xodm: B[ep, XodVm: rhp_, k|e Apqv$ s\p byq Apqv$ Z,
_mm: kp^pfZ d_yep Amn Z Ap` - S>m, pZ, hpey A_ kdy Apqv$
kh `v$p\p_p As (`pf) epfe `pdu iL$sp _\u. `fsy n{adm DL$$sp`|hL$
khdp ep`L$ flu_ s_p\u Arsqfs (A\u rhgnZ) Sy>v$p flu kh \m

Apep r crh_e

28

27

Apep r crh_e

`qf`|Z \C fp R>, s _dmZ Aes bmhp_ B `fdpdp djgm


iyAp_p bm_p _pi L$f_pfp bm\u _: `hu_ {Xd hN_ ^pfZ L$f
R>. s B: `fdpdp D Vr Adpfu fnp dpV$ ^dV s`f flp.
(33) d|m p\_p

OmVdoXgo gZdm_ gmo__amVr`Vmo {Z Xhm{V doX: &


g Z: nfX{V XJm{U {dm Zmdod {gY X{aVm`{: &&
F$0 1.7.7.1
epep_ : l OmVdoX: fb_ ! Ap` shv$ R>p, D`_
\egp k`|Z S>Ns_ Z_pf R>p. kh ps R>p. S> rhp_p\u ops
(Zgp), khdp rhdp_ (s - A\ps pvy$c|s, A_s ^_hp_ A\hp
A_s op_hp_ R>p, dpV$ Ap`_y _pd shv$ R>.) Ahp Ap`_ dpV$ d` gmo_
gZdm_ S>V$gp kpd re NyZ rhri$pqv$ Adpfp `v$p\p R>, s kh A`Z R>.
l L$`pmy ! AamVr`V: vy$$ iyAp S> Adpfp ^dpdpAp_p rhfp^u
R>, s_p doX: ^_, Ae Apqv$_y {Z Xhm{V r_e v$l_ L$fp - bpmu _pMp,
S>\u sAp vy$$sp_ R>pX$u_ $sp_p huL$pf L$f s\p Z: Ad_ XJm{U {dm
k`|Z vy$:kl - kl_ _ L$fu iL$pe Ahp vy$:Mp\u nfX{V `pf L$fphu_ r_e
kyM_ Ap` ps L$fphp. Vmdod {gY_ S>hu fus Aes L$qW$_ _v$u A\hp
kdy_ `pf L$fhp dpV$ _ph lpe R>, shu fus Ad_ kh `p`S>e Aes
`uX$pAp\u `\L$ (rc_) L$fu_ kkpfdp A_ dy[sdp `Z `fd kyM_
S>gv$u ps L$fphp.
(34) d|m syrs

g dO^`hm ^r_ CJ: ghMoVm: eVZrW F$dm &


M_rfmo Z edgm nmMO`mo _dmmo ^dpd D Vr &&
F$0 1.7.10.12
Apep r crh_e

29

epep_ : l vy$$_piL$ `fdpd_ ! Ap` dO^yV AR>


(vy$$p_p DR>v$ L$f_pf) A\ps vy$$p\u R>v$u _ iL$pe Ahp kpde\u
khri$_p rlsL$pfL$ s\p vy$$p_p rh_piL$ S> epe_ ^pfZ L$fu fp
R>p. mUmo d dO: hNf is`\_y dpZ R>. AV$gp dpV$ S> X`hm vy$$
`p`u gpL$p_p _pi L$f_pf R>p. ^r_: Ap`_u epe Apop_p cN L$f_pf_
Ap` ceL$f ce `dpX$_pf R>p. ghMoVm: Ap` S> lfp rhop_pqv$
NyZp\u eys R>p. eVZrW: kL$X$p Akeps `v$p\p_u prs L$fph_pf
R>p. F$dm Aes rhop_pqv$ L$pieys R>p A_ kh_p L$pi L$f_pf
R>p s\p dlp_ A\hp dlpbmhp_ R>p. Z: M_rf: L$pC_u Qd| (k_p)\u
hi \_ppf _\u. edgm nmMO`: hbm\u Ap` `pQS>e (`pQ
pZp_p) S>dv$psp R>p. _dmZ kh L$pf_p hpeyAp_p Ap^pf s\p
Qgph_pf R>p. s Ap` B: Adpfu fnp dpV$ h R>p, S>\u Adpfy$
L$pC`Z L$pe bNX$ _rl.
(35) d|m p\_p

go_ Z: H$m__mnU Jmo{^a: eVH$Vmo &


Vdm_ dm dm`: &&
F$0 1.1.31.9
epep_ : l eVH$Vmo A_s q$ep - L$dp_p Cf ! Ap`
Ake rhop_pqv$ eop\u p R>p s\p A_s q$epeys R>p. Jmo{^a:
Npe, Dd B[e, $ `iy, khpd Arhp (rhop_pqv$eys) s\p
A A\ps $ OpX$p hNf `iyAp A_ Q$hs} fpe_p Ae pfp go_
>Z: H$m__mnU Adpfp L$pdp_ `qf`|Z L$fp. epf `R>u Ad `Z Vdm_
dm dm`: kybyq\u eys \C_ Ap`_y Dd L$pf sh_ (syrs)
L$fuA. Adpfp Y$ r_e R> L$ Ap`_p rh_p Ae L$pC, L$pC _y `Z L$pe
`|Z L$fu iL$ sd _\u. Ap`_ R>pX$u_ S>Ap (L$pC ) Ae_y ep_ ^f R>
A\hp epQ_p L$f R>, sAp_p kh L$pep _$ \C e R>.
30

Apep r crh_e

(36) d|m syrs

(38) d|m syrs

gmo_ Jr{^>dm d` d`m_mo dMmo{dX: &


g_irH$mo Z Am {de &&

J`\$mZmo A_rdhm dg{dn{>dYZ: &


g{_: gmo_ Zmo ^d &&

F$0 1.6.21.11

F$0 1.6.21.12

epep_ : l gmo_ kh S>Ns_p D`pv$L$ Cf ! Ap`_


dMmo{dX: ip_ Z_pfp Ad gpL$p syrsAp_p kd|l\u d`m_:
khp`qf rhfpS>dp_ dp_uA R>uA. g_irH$: Z: Am{de L$pfZ L$ Ap`
S> Ad_ kyv$f kyM Ap`_pf R>p. AV$g L$`p L$fu_ Ap` Adpfpdp
Aphi L$fp (A\ps Ad v$edp Ap`_u A_yc|rs L$fuA). S>\u Ad
gpL$p Arhp A^L$pf\u dys \C_ rhp-op_$`u k|e_ ps L$fu_
Ap_v$ `pduA.

epep_ : l `fdpd_p cs hp ! S> `fdf Ap`Zp


B$ v$h R> s J`\$mZ: , ^_, S>_`v $- v$i A_ kyfpe_u hq
L$f_pf R> s\p A_rdhm ipfuqfL$, B[eS>e A_ dp_rkL$ fpNp_y
l__ (rh_pi) L$f_pf R>. dg{dV kh `hu Apqv$ hkyAp_p Z_pf
R>, A\ps kho A_ rhpqv$ ^__p v$psp R>. n{>dYZ: Ap`Zp ifuf,
B[e, d_ A_ Apdp_u `yr$_u hq L$f_pf R>. g{_: gmo_ Z: ^d
s S> kyv$f e\phs kh_p `fd rd R>. AV$gp dpV$ Ap`Z s_u `pk
A S> dpNuA L$, l kpd ! kh S>Ns D`pv$L$ ! Ap` S> L$`p L$fu_
Adpfp kyrd b_p A_ Ad `Z kh hp_p rd b_uA s\p Ap`_u
kp\ `Z Aes rdsp fpMuA.

(37) d|m p\_p

gmo_ amapY Zmo {X Jmdmo Z `dgodm &


_` Bd d Amo`o &&

(39) d|m p\_p

F$0 1.6.21.13
epep_ : l gmo_ kpe ! kpev$ Cf ! Ap` L$`p L$fu_
amapY, Z: {X Adpfp v$edp e\phs fdZ L$fp. $ps - S>hu fus
k|e_p qL$fZp, rhp_p_p d_ s\p Npe Apqv$ `iyAp `ps`psp_p rhjep
A_ Opk Apqv$dp fdZ1 L$f R> A\hp S>hu fus _`: Bd do Amo`o
d_ye `psp_p Ofdp fdZ L$f R>, shu S> fus Ap` hL$pieys
Adpfp v$e (Apdp)dp kv$p fdZ L$fp, S>\u Ad_ e\p\ kh op_
A_ Ap_v$ \pe.
1. $ps_p AL$ v$i fdZdp ghp.

Apep r crh_e

31

d {h {dVmo_I {dV: n{a^ya{g &


An Z: emoeMXK_ &&
F$0 1.7.5.6
epep_ : l A_ `fdpd_ ! d {h Ap` S> {dV:
n{a^ya{g kh S>Ns, kh \p_dp ep R>p. s\u Ap` rhspdyM R>p.
l khspdyM A_ ! Ap` hi[s\u kh hp_p v$edp r_e S> ke
D`v$i L$fu fp R>p, s S> Ap`_y dyM R>. l L$`pmy ! An Z: emoeMXK_
Ap`_u BR>p\u Adpfp kh `p` _$ \C e, S>\u Ad gpL$p r_`p`
b_u_ Ap`_u c[s A_ Apop `pg_dp r_e s`f fluA.
32

Apep r crh_e

(40) d|m syrs

V_riV W_ `kgmY {de AmaramhV_OgmZ_ &


D O: n ^aV gXmZ Xodm A{ Yma`{dUmoXm_ &&
F$0 1.7.3.3
epep_ : l d_yep ! V_riV s Ar__u syrs L$fp L$ S>
W__ kh L$pep\u `|h rhdp_ A_ kh_y Apqv$ L$pfZ R> s\p `kgmY_
kh kkpf A_ rhop_ Apqv$ eo_p kp^L$ (rk L$fhphpmp), kh_p
S>_L$ R>. l {de: d_yep ! s_ S> hpdu dp_u_ Amar: ps L$fp, S>_
Ap`Z v$u_sp\u (_dsp\u) dfZ L$fuA R>uA, S>_ rhop_ Apqv$ pfp
rhp_p rk L$f R> A_ Z R>. DO: n ^aV_ `hu Apqv$ S>Ns $`
A__p `y A\ps `pg_L$sp s\p "cfs' A\ps s S> A__y `pjZ
A_ ^pfZ L$f_pf R>. gXmZ_ kh S>Ns_ Qpghp_u - q$ep L$fhp_u
i[s Ap`_pf s\p op__p v$psp R>. s_ S> Xodm A{ Yma`Z {dUmoXm_
v$hp (rhp_ gpL$p) "Ar_' L$l R> A_ ^pfZ L$f R>. s S> kh S>Ns_
rhZ A\ps r_hpl_p kh A_-S>mpqv$ A_ rhpqv$ `v$p\p Ap`_pf
R>. L$pCA s Ar_ `fdpdp_ R>pX$u_ bu L$pC _u c[s L$ epQ_p epfe
_ L$fhu CA.
(41) d|m p\_p

V_yV`mo aU`Ny>agmVm V jo_` {jV`: H$dV m_ &


g {d` dU`oe EH$mo _dmmo ^dpd D Vr &&
F$0 1.7.9.7
epep_ : l d_yep ! V_yV`: s S> B `fdpdp_u p\_p
s\p ifZpNrs\u Ap`Z_ D V`: A_s fnZ A_ bm Apqv$ NyZ ps
Apep r crh_e

33

\i. eyagmVm eydp Ap`Z_ e\phs aU`Z fdZ A_ fZc|rddp


i|fhufp_p NyZp\u `f`f urs hNf ps L$fphi. V jo_` {jV`: l
i|fhuf d_yep ! s (`fdpdp)_ S> nd Ly$imsp_p m_ fnL$ H$dV
b_php, S>\u Ap`Zp L$v$u `Z `fpS>e _ \pe. L$pfZ L$ g: {d` s
L$fyZpde, kh S>Ns `f L$fy$Zp L$f_pf EH$: AL$ S> R>, Ae L$pC _\u. s
`fdpdp _dmZ pZ, hpey, bm, k_peys D Vr (D V`o) Ap`Zp gpL$p
`f L$`p L$fu_ keL$ - kpfu fus fnL$ R>, S>_u fnp\u Ap`Zp L$v$u `Z
`fpS>e \sp _\u.
(42) d|m syrs

g nyd`m {Z{dXm H$`Vm`mo{a_m: Om AOZ`_ZyZm_ &


{dddVm Mjgm m_n Xodm A{ Yma`{dUmoXm_ &&
F$0 1.7.3.2
epep_ : l d_yep ! s S> nyd`m {Z{dXm Apqv$ k_ps_,
kesp Apqv$ NyZeys `fdpdp lsp. (s kde) Ae L$pC (L$pe) _ lsy.
epf kr$_u Apqv$dp hL$pi h$` AL$ Cf _u D`r L$fu.
CnZsp (rhQpf) L$fsp (A_) khosp Apqv$ kpde\u kerhpeys
hv$p_u s\p _ZyZm d__iug d_yep_u s\p `iy, hnpqv$ Om: _
AOZ`V D`_ L$fu. (ip dpV$ ?) `f`f d_ye A_ `iy Apqv$_p
ehlpf Qpgu iL$ AV$gp dpV$. `fsy d__iug d_yep_ sp A S>
`fdpdp syrs L$fhp epe R>. {dddVm Mjgm k|epqv$ sS>hu `v$p\p_p
L$pi L$f_pf, `psp_p bm (i[s)\u hN (kyM rhij), kh gpL$p An:
Asqfndp (flgp gpL$-gpL$psfp), `hu hNf ded gpL$, r_L$$ vy$:M
rhij _fL$, v$edp_ kh spfpAp Apqv$ gpL$-gpL$psf fep R>. S> Ahp
k[Qv$p_v$ h$` `fdf R>, s S> {dUmoXm_ rhop_pqv$ ^_ Ap`_pf_
Xodm: rhp_p Ar_ Z R> - dp_ R>. Ap`Z `Z s_y S> cS>_
(D`pk_p) L$fuA.
34

Apep r crh_e

(43) d|m p\_p

d` O`o_ d`m `Om dV__mH$_e_Xdm ^ao ^ao &


A_`{_ d{ad: gJ H${Y eyUm _Kdd`m O &&
F$0 1.7.14.4
epep_ : l B `fdpd_ ! d`m `dm d` O`o_ Ap`_u kp\
flu_ Ap`_u klpesp\u Ad vy$$ iyS>_p_ suA. L$hp R> s iy ? L$
AmdV_ s Adpfp bm\u - k_p\u Ofpegp R>. l dlpfpr^fpS> Cf !
^ao ^ao A_mH$_e_Xdm eL$ eydp Adpfp Ai (bm) k_p_y CXd
Dd furs\u Ap` L$`p L$fu_ fnZ L$fp, S>\u Ad L$pC`Z eydp nuZ
\C_ `fpS>e _ `pduA. `fsy S>d_ Ap`_u klpesp lpe sAp_p kh
rhS>e S> \pe R>.
l B_KdZ dlp^_f ! eyUm d`m Adpfp iyAp_p hue,
`fp$d Apqv$_ O c_ - fyZ L$fu_ (spX$u apX$u_) _$ L$fp. A_`
d{ad: gJ H${Y Adpfp dpV$ Q$hs} fpe A_ kpdpe$`u ^__ gJ_
kyM\u ps L$fphp, A\ps Ap`_u L$fyZp\u Adpfp fpe A_ ^_ kv$p
hq_ S> ps \pe.
(44) d|m syrs

`mo {d` OJV: mUVn{V`m} ~Uo W_mo Jm A{dXV &


Bmo `mo X`yaYam Adm{Va_dV g`m` hdm_ho &&

S> R> A_ S> B: `fd Aehp_ `fdpdp X$pLy$Ap-g|V$pfpAp_y AYamZ


`s_ L$f R> s\p s_ dpfu S> _pM R>. _dV g`m` hdm_ho rdp !
cpCAp ! Aphp Ap`Z kh Aes urs`|hL$ dmu_ dfyhp_ A\ps `fd
A_s bmhp_ B `fdpdp_ rd \hp dpV$ p\_p\u Aes Nv$Nqv$s
\C_ bpgphuA. s iuO L$`p L$fu_ Ap`Zu kp\ krMh (`fd rdsp)
L$fi. Adp S>fp `Z kv$l _\u.
(45) d|m p\_p

_im Zmo moV Zmo _`H${Y j`ram` Z_gm {dYo_ Vo &


`N> M `mo _Zam`oOo {nVm VX`m_ Vd Ur{Vf &&
F$0 1.8.5.2
epep_ : l vy$$p_ fX$ph_pf fyf ! Ad_ _i kyMu L$fp s\p
_`H${Y Ad_ de A\ps Aes kyM p L$fphp. j`ram` Z_gm {dYo_
Vo iyAp_p hufp_p ne L$f_pfp ! Aes _dL$pfpqv$\u Ap`_u khp L$f_pfp
- Adpfp gpL$p_y kpfu fus fnZ L$fp. `N>_ l fy ! Ap` Adpfp r`sp
(S>_L$) A_ `pgL$ R>p. Adpfu kh Ap_ kyMu L$fp. `mo _p fpNp_p
`Z _pi L$fp. S>hu fus _Z: dpeL$pfL$ r`sp Am`oOo `psp_p ksp_p_
kdpNNpdu b_phu_ A_L$ fus gpX$ gX$ph R>, shu fus Ap` Adpfy `pg_
L$fp. l fy cNh_ ! Vd Ur{Vf Ap`_u Apop_p Ze (L$fuA) A\ps
Dd epeeys _ursApdp h fluA (_ursAp A_ykpf QpguA) A_
VX`m_ Ap`_p A_yNl\u hufp_y Q$hs} fpe ps L$fuA.

F$0 1.7.12.5

(46) d|m syrs

epep_ : l d_yep ! S> kh S>Ns (\phf) S>X$ - pZfrls_p


A_ mUV: Qs_ S>Ns_p n{V: Ar^$psp A_ `pgL$ R> s\p S> kh
S>Ns_p `|h Apqv$dp kv$p\u rhdp_ R> A_ ~Uo Jm: A{dXV S>Z Ahp
r_ed b_pep R> L$ `hu_y fpS> A_ s_p gpc b A\ps rhp_p_ dpV$
Apep r crh_e

35

Xodmo Z `: n{Wdt {dYm`m Cnjo{V {hV{_mo Z amOm &


na: gX: e_gXmo Z dram AZdm n{VOo>d Zmar &&
F$0 1.5.19.3
36

Apep r crh_e

epep_ : l reb^y rhp_p ! Xodmo Z Cf k|e_u kdp_ kh


S>Ns_u blpf A_ Av$f L$pi L$fu flg R>. `: n{Wdr_ S> `hu Apqv$
S>Ns_u fQ_p L$fu_ ^pfZ L$fu flg R> A_ {dYm`m: Cnjo{V rh_
^pfZ L$fhp_u i[s_ `Z Ape Ap`u_ ^pfZ L$fu flg R> s\p kh
S>Ns_p `fd rd A\ps {hV{_mo Z amOm S>d re rdphpmp fp
`psp_u _y kpfu fus `pg_ L$f R>, sd S> Ap`Zp b^p_y `pg_ L$f_pf
s AL$ S> R>, bu L$pC S> _\u. na: gX: e_gX: Z dram: S> d_ye
Cf_p `yf:kv$ (Cf-ArcdyM S> R>) s S idkv$: A\ps kyMdp
kv$p [\f fl R>. A\hp S>d Z dram: `y `psp_p r`sp_p pfdp
Ap_v$`|hL$ fl R>, shu S> fus S> `fdpdp_p cs R> A_ S> d_yep
A_erQ b_u_ r_fpL$pf, kh ep`L$ Cf_u ke p\u c[s L$f
R>, sAp kv$p kyMu fl R>. S>d L$ AZdm n{VOo>d Zmar Aes Dd
NyZeys `rs_u khpdp `rshsp _pfu (u) fps-qv$hk, s_-d_-^_
A_ Ars d\u A_yL|$m fl R>. sd cpCAp ! Aphp deys urs\u
Cf_u c[s L$fuA A_ Ap`Z b^p dmu_ `fdpdp `pk\u `fd
kyM_p gpc DW$phuA.

VVZ_ Ap` S> rhspfg R>, ep `Z (A kr$dp) Adpfy kh L$pf_p


D`hp\u fnZ L$fp. {d_`V Ap`\u Ae (rc_) rh A\ps kh
S>Ns S> kde Ap`_p kpde\u (gedp) {Z {deVo hi L$f R> (kh L$pe
L$pfZpdL$ b_ R>) s kdedp `Z Ap` Adpfu fnp L$fp. `XoO{V S> kde
Ap S>Ns Ap`_p kpde\u Qrgs (Nrsdp_) \C_ D`_ \pe R>
(L$pfZ$`\u L$pe$`dp Aph R>), s kde `Z Ap` Adpfu kh `uX$pAp\u
fnp L$fp. {dmhmnmo {dmhm S> L$pC rh_p lsp (vy$:M Ap`_pf) R> s_p
Ap` _pi L$fp, L$pfZ L$ Ap`_p kpde\u kh S>Ns_u D`r, [\rs A_
ge \pe R>. Ap`_u kpd L$pC fpnk (vy$$S>_) iy L$fu iL$ sd R> ? L$pfZ
L$ Ap` kh S>Nsdp Dqv$s (L$pidp_) \C fp R>p. L$`p L$fu_ Adpfp
v$edp k|e kdp_ L$pris \pAp L$ S>\u Adpfp Arhp$`u A^L$pf_p
kh_pi \C e.
(48) d|m syrs

Xodmo XodmZm_{g {_mo AX^Vmo dgdgyZm_{g Mmadao &


e_`m_ Vd gWV_o@o g`o _m {afm_m d` Vd &&
F$0 1.6.32.13

(47) d|m p\_p

gm _m g`mop$: n{a nmV {dVmo mdm M ` VVZhm{Z M &


{d_`{ {deVo `XoO{V {dmhmnmo {dmhmoXo{V gy`: &&
F$0 7.8.12.2
epep_ : l kh_p ArcfnL$ Cf ! gm _m g`mop$: Ap`_u
ke Apop L$ S>_y Ad `pg_ L$fuA R>uA, s {dV: n{anmV Z: Ad_
kds kkpf\u b^u S fus `pg_ L$f A_ kh vy$$ L$dp\u Ad_ kv$p `\L$
(v|$f) fpM L$ S>\u Ad_ L$pC `Z kde A^d L$fhp_u BR>p `Z D`_
_ \pe, mdm M A_ qv$e kyM\u kv$p eys L$fu_ Adpfu kpfu fus fnp L$f.
` S> qv$e krdp Ahm{Z k|e Apqv$_ qv$hk hNf \hp_p r_rd $`
Apep r crh_e

37

epep_ : l d_yep ! s `fdpdp L$hp R> L$ S>_u Ap`Z syrs


L$fuA ? l Ar_ `fdf ! Ap` Xod: XodmZm_{g v$hp (`fd rhp_p)_p
`Z v$h (`fd rhp_) R>p s\p sAp (rhp_p)_ `fd Ap_v$ Ap`_pf R>p
s\p AX^V: Aes Ape$` rd, kh kyML$pfL$ kh_p kMp R>p. dg0
`hu hNf hkyAp_ `Z hpk L$fph_pf R>p s\p Adao op_ Apqv$ eodp
Mm: Aes ipcpedp_ A_ ipcp Ap`_pf R>p.
l `fdpd_ ! gWV_o g`o e_{U Vd Ap`_p Ars rhspf
`pdgp, Ap_v$ h$` kMp (rdp)_p L$pepdp Ad kv$p [\f fluA, L$ S>\u
Ad_ L$v$u `Z vy$:M ps _ \pe A_ Ap`_p A_yNl (v$ep)\u Ad `f`f
Aurseys L$v$u `Z _ b_uA.
38

Apep r crh_e

(49) d|m p\_p

_m Zmo dYr{a _m nam Xm _m Z: {`m ^moOZm{Z _mofr: &


AmS>m _m Zmo _KdN>H$ {Z^}_m Z: nmm ^oghOmZfm{U &&
F$0 1.7.19.8
epep_ : l B `fd Aeeys Cf ! _m Zmo dYr: Adpfp
h^ _ L$fp, A\ps Ad_ Ap`_p\u AgN _ `pX$p. _m nam Xm: Ap`
Adpfp\u L$v$u `Z Sy>v$p _ \pAp. _m Z: {`m0 Adpfp re cpNp_u Qpfu
_ L$fp A_ Qpfu _ L$fphp (A\ps s_p\u Ad_ `\L$ _ L$fp). AmS>m _m0
Adpfp Ncp_p _pi _ L$fp. l _KdZ khi[sdp_, eH$ kd\ Adpfp
`yp_y rhv$pfZ (_pi) _ L$fp. _m Z: nmm Adpfp cpS>_ Apqv$_p kyhZ
hNf `pp_ Adpfp\u v|$f _ L$fp. ghOmZfm{U Adpfp S> klS> A_yjs
(A_yfpNu) hcph_ A_yL|$m rdp R> sAp_p Ap` _pi _ L$fp. A\ps L$`p
L$fu_ `|hps kh `v$p\p_u epe fus fnp L$fp.

_m Z: VmoHo$ _p_p, hQgp A_ dpV$p Ahp ksp_p, Am`m Adpfu


Apey, Jmof Npe Apqv$ `iyAp, Aof OpX$p hNf $ hpl_ s\p Adpfu k_p_p
i|fhufp `f s\p h{d_V: eo L$f_pfpAp `f ^m{_V: $pr^s A_ _m ar{af:
fpjeys L$v$u `Z _ \pAp. Ad Ap`_ gX{_dm hdm_ho (kv$p) khv$p S>
Aplhp_ L$fuA R>uA, l cNh_ fy `fdpd_ ! Ap`_u `pk AV$gu S>
p\_p R> L$ Adpfu, Adpfp ksp_p_u A_ Adpfp ^_-Ae_u fnp L$fp.
(52-53) d|m p\_p

CXJmVod eH$Zo gm_ Jm`{g ~nBd gdZof eg{g &


dfod dmOr {ee_Vranr`m gdVmo Z: eH$Zo ^_m dX
{dVmo Z: eH$Zo n`_m dX &&
AmdXd eH$Zo ^_m dX VyUr_mgrZ: g_{V {M{H${ Z: &
`XnVdX{g H$H${a`Wm ~hXo_ {dXWo gdram: &&
F$0 2.8.12.2,3

(50-51) d|m p\_p

epep_ : l vy$$ rh_piL$ Cf ! Ap` Adpfp `f L$`p L$fp.


_m Zmo d0 Adpfp op_h A_ heph r`sp_ _$ L$fip _rl s\p _m Zmo
A^H$_ _p_p bpmL$p A_ CjV_ hue kQ_dp kd\ Ahp eyhp_p_ s\p
Ncdp S> hue kQ_ L$fg R> s_p (Nc_p) rh_pi L$fip _rl s\p Adpfp
r`sp, dpsp A_ re s_yAp (ifufp)_p _m ar{af: _pi L$fip _rl.

epep_ : l eH$Zo khi[sdp_ Cf ! Ap` kpdhv$_y kv$p


Np_ L$fp R>p (Np_rhpeys kpdhv$ Apqv$ hv$p_p L$piL$ R>p), shu S> fus
Adpfp v$edp kh rhpAp_y Np_ L$pris L$fp. S>hu fus eodp dlp`qX$s
kpdNp_ L$f R>, shu S> fus Ap` `Z Adpfu Av$f kpdpqv$ rhp_p L$pi
L$fp. ~n Bd gdZof Ap` L$`ph^L$ kh_ (`v$p\ rhpAp)_u eg{g
ikp L$fp R>p sd Ad_ `Z e\phs irks L$fp. S>d ~n Bd hv$p_p
hp (Z_pf) rhop_`|hL$ kh `v$p\p_u ikp L$f R> sd Ap` `Z
Adpfp `f L$`p L$fp. Ap` dfod dmOr khi[sdp_, A_pqv$ `v$p\p_p v$psp,
dlp bmhp_ s\p hNhp_ lphp\u "hp' R>p. S>hu fus Dd NyZ A_
Dd `v$p\p_u hjc (dO)_u kdp_ hr$ L$f_pf R>p shu fus Adpfp `f
s_u hr$ L$fp. {ee_Vr: Ad gpL$p Ap`_u L$`p\u Dd riiy (ksp_pqv$)_
Anr` ps L$fu_ Ap`_y S> dfZ-D`pk_p L$fuA. Am gdVmo Z: eH$Zo

Apep r crh_e

40

_m Zmo _hmV_V _m Zmo A^H$ _m Z CjV_V _m Z C{jV_ &


_m Zmo dYr: {nVa _moV _mVa _m Z: {`mVdmo ar{af: &&
_m ZVmoHo$ VZ`o _m Z Am`m _m Zmo Jmof _m Zmo Aof ar{af: &
dram_m Zmo ^m{_Vmo dYrh{d_V: gX{_dm hdm_ho &&
F$0 1.8.6.7,8

39

Apep r crh_e

! l iLy$_ ! kh kpdehp_ Cf ! kh \m Adpfp dpV$ ^_ L$epZ_


Am dX kpfu fus L$lp A\ps L$epZ_u Apop A_ L$\_ L$fp, S>\u
AL$epZ_u hpsp `Z Ad L$v$u kpcmuA _rl. {dVmo Z: l kh_ kyM
Ap`_pf Cf ! kh S>Nsdp n`_ ^dpdp_p (^prdL$) L$d L$fhp_p Am
dX D`v$i L$fp, S>\u L$pC d_ye A^d L$fhp_u BR>p `Z _ L$f A_ kh
\m ke^d_u S> hr \pe.
AmdXd l iLy$_ S>Nv$uf ! Ap` kh ^_ L$epZdp `Z dlp
L$epZ A\ps ephlpqfL$ kyM\u D`f h^u_ dpn kyM_p r_fsf D`v$i
Ap`p. VyUr_mgrZ: g0 l Aseprd_ ! Adpfp v$edp kv$p [\f flp
A_ dp_`|hL$ g_{V_ khpd op_ Ap`p. {M{H${ Z: L$`p L$fu_ Ad_
S> Ap`_p flhp dpV$ Of b_php (A\ps Ad Ap`_ Adpfpdp ep`L$ rhdp_ A_ych L$fuA) A_ Ap`_u `fd rhp_ Ad ps L$fuA.
`XnVdX0 Dd ehlpfdp `lpQpX$sp Ap`_p `Wm S> L$pf H$H${adX{g
L$se L$d A_ ^d_ S> Aes `yfyjp\\u L$fp, AL$se A_ vy$$ L$dp L$v$u
_ L$fp - Ahp D`v$i Ap`_p R> L$ `yfyjp\ A\ps e\pepe Dd_p L$pCA L$v$u
epN L$fhp _rl. S>hu fus ~hXo_ {dXWo rhop_pqv$ eo A\hp ^deys
eypdp gdram: Aes i|fhuf b_u_ (lphp R>sp) bls(kh\u dlp_) Ahp
Ap` `fb_u dXo_ syrs, Ap`_p D`v$i, Ap`_u p\_p s\p D`pk_p
L$fuA A_ Ap`_y Ap dlp_ AMX$ kpdpe A_ kh d_yep_y rls khv$p
L$luA A_ kpcmuA sd S> Ap`_p A_yNl\u (L$`p\u) `fdp_v$_ cpNhuA.

Amo_ _hmamOm{YamOm` na_m_Zo Z_mo Z_: &&


B{V lr_na_hgn{admOH$mMm`mUm _hm{dXfm
lr`V{daOmZXgadVrdm{_Zm {e`oU
X`mZXgadVrdm{_Zm {da{MV
Am`m{^{dZ`o W_: H$me:
ny{m_mJ_V &

Vgna_m_Zo Z_:

AW {Vr`: H$me:
Amo3_ gh ZmddV gh Zm ^Z$ &
gh dr` H$admdh &
VoOpd ZmdYrV_V _m {d{fmdh &
Amo3_ empV: empV: empV: &&
V{mar`ma`Ho$ ~mZXdr nm0 10 & W_mZdmH$: &&
epep_ : l kl_iug Cf ! Ap` (Adpfp fnL$ R>p) A_ Ad
gpL$p `f`f k_sp\u fnL$ b_uA. Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad ldip Ap`_u
syrs, p\_p A_ D`pk_p L$fuA s\p Ap`_ S> r`sp, dpsp, b^y, fp,
hpdu, klpeL$, kyM Ap`_pf, kv$ (rd) A_ `fd Nyfy hNf ZuA.
nZcf `Z Ap`_ c|guA _rl. Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad kh `f`f urseys,
fnL$, klpeL$ A_ `fd `yfy$jp\} b_uA. AL$ bu_y vy$:M _ C iL$uA
(`f`f_p vy$:Mdp klpeL$ b_uA). hv$idp fl_pfp d_yep_ `f`f
hffrls, Aes dpm A_ `pMX$frls L$fuA.
gh Zm ^Z$ Ap` (Ad_ `fd Ap_v$_p cpsp b_php) A_ Ad
`f`f `fdp_v$ cpNhuA. Ad gpL$p Afk`fk rlsL$pd_p`|hL$ Ap_v$
cpNhuA. Ap` Ad_ Ap`_p `fd Ap_v$_p cpNuv$pf b_php. s Ap_v$\u
Ad_ AL$ nZ `Z Sy>v$p _ fpMp.
gh dr` H$admdh Ap`_u klpesp\u `fd hue L$ S> kerhp
R>, s_ (Ad) `f`f `fd `yfyjp\ pfp ps L$fuA.

g_mmo@` W_: H$me: &&


Apep r crh_e

&& Amo _ &&

41

42

Apep r crh_e

VoOpdZmdYrV_V l A_s rhpde cNh_ ! Ap`_u L$`pr$\u


Adpfy `W$_-`pW$_ `fd rhpeys b_ A_ kkpfdp kh\u Ar^L$ L$pris
b_. hmu AL$-bu kp\ urs`|hL$ `fd hue-`fp$d\u L$V$L$frls Q$hs}
fpe cpNhuA. Adpfpdp kh _ursdp_ A_ kS>_ `yfyj b_ A_ Ap`
Adpfp `f Aes L$`p L$fp L$ S>\u Ad gpL$p A_L$ L$pf_p `pMX$, Ake
A_ hv$rhfy dsp_p S>gv$u epN L$fu AL$ ke k_ps_ dshpmp b_uA,
S>\u L$fu_ kds hfcph_y d|m S> `pMX$ds R>, s kh_p sL$pm ge
(_pi) \pe.
_m {d{fmdh l S>Nv$uf ! Ap`_p kpde\u Adpfpdp `f`f
rhj (rhfp^) A\ps Aurs _ fl, S>\u Ad gpL$p L$v$u `Z AL$bu e
rhj (A_ rhfp^) _ L$fuA. `fsy Ad kh s_, d_, ^_ A_ rhp_p
`f`f kh_p kyM A_ D`L$pfdp `fd urs`|hL$ D`epN L$fuA.
Amo$_ empV: empV: empV: l cNh_ ! S>Nsdp Z L$pf_p
ksp` (vy$:M) R> : (1) Apep[dL$ - S> (ipfuqfL$) sph hNf fpNp_u
`uX$p\u \pe R>, (2) Apr^cprsL$ - S> iy, k`, hpp A_ Qpf hNf\u \pe
R>, A_ (3) Apr^v$rhL$ - S> d_, B[e (Apqv$_p rhL$pfp), Ar_, hpey,
Arshr$, A_phr$, ArsW$X$u A_ Ars Nfdu hNf\u \pe R>. l L$`pkpNf
! Ap` A Z sp`p\u Ad_ sL$pm r_h L$fp (R>pX$php) L$ S>\u Ad
Aes Ap_v$dp fluA A_ r_e Ap`_u AMX$ D`pk_pdp fluA.
l rh_p Nyfy ! d_ Aks (rdep) A_ Ar_e (_pihp_)
`v$p\p\u s\p Aks L$pe\u R>pX$phu_ ke s\p r_e (Arh_piu) `v$p\p
A_ $ ehlpfdp [\f L$fp.

Ap`_pf R>, s_ S>gv$u ps L$fphp.


l `fd h ! (gdamoJmnWH$` Zamo`Xo{h) d_ kh\p kh
fpNp\u bQphu_ `fd hpe Ap`p.

(l khpseprd_ kvy$`v$iL$, iyqv$ ! _Zgm dmMm H$_Um AkmZoZ


_mXoZ dm `nmn H$V _`m Vmgd H$n`m j_d, kmZnydH$
nmnH$aUm{dV`V _m_) d_, hpZu A_ L$d\u Aop_ (AZsp) A\hp
dpv$_p L$pfZ S> L$C `p` L$ey lpe A\hp \hp_y lpe, s dpfp kh `p`p_
ndp L$fp (e\pepe epe Ap`p) A_ op_`|hL$ (Zu C_) `p` L$fhp\u
`Z d_ fpL$p (bQphp) L$ S>\u ly `rh b_u_ Ap`_u khpdp [\f b_y.
(l epep^ui ! H$H$m_H$bmo^H$_moh ^`emoH$mb`o`mof _mX
{df`VUmZ>`m{^_mZX>^mdm{dm`mo {Zdma`, EVo`mo {dofym_of JUof
gWmn` _m_) l Cf ! Ap` L$`p L$fu_ Ly$L$pd, Ly$gpc Apqv$ `|hps
(Ly$dpl, ce, Apmk, Cjp, j, dpv$, rhjepdp sZp, r_y$fsp,
Arcdp_, vy$$cph A_ Arhp hNf) vy$ v$pjp_ Ap`_u L$`p\u R>pX$phu_
d_ $ L$pepdp kpfu fus [\f L$fp. ly Aes v$u_ cph AV$gy S> dpNy
Ry> L$ ly Ap`\u (rc_) s\p Ap`_u Apop\u rhfy `v$p\pdp L$v$u `Z
urs _ L$fy.
l pZ`s, pZre, pZr`s:, pZp^pf, pZh_, hfpe_
Ap`_pfp ! Ap` S> dpfp pZ`rs hNf R>p. Ap`_p rh_p Ae L$pC dpfp
klpeL$ _\u.

l S>Ns_p dNgL$pfu Cf ! (gdX:Io`mo _moM{`dm gdgIm{Z


mn`) d_ kh L$pf_p vy$:Mp\u R>pX$phu_ kh kyMp_ ps L$fphp.

l dlpfpr^fpS> ! S>hy Ap`_y ke, epeeys AMqX$s fpe R>,


shy Ap`_p sfa\u Adpfy `Z epeeys fpe [\f \pAp. Ap`_p
L$`pL$V$pn\u Ad_ Ap`_p fpe_p Ar^L$pfu, qL$L$f (QpL$f L$ khL$) S>gv$u
b_php.

(ho OmnVo ! gO`m ne{^~dMgoZ na_`}U g`moO`) l


`rs ! d_ `ypqv$ kpfu (kyksp_), lp\u, ppX$p, Npe hNf Dd
`iy, khpL$$ rhp A_ Q$hs} fpe hNf `fd Ae L$ S> [\f `fdkyM

l epere ! Ad_ `Z epe fus epere b_php. l ^dp^ui


! Ad_ ^ddp [\f fpMp. l L$fy$Zpde r`sp ! S>d dpsp A_ r`sp `psp_p
ksp_p_y `pg_ L$f R>, sd S> Ap` Adpfy `pg_ L$fp.

Apep r crh_e

43

44

Apep r crh_e

(2) d|m syrs

g n`JmN>H$_H$m`_dU_Zm{da_ e_nmn{d_ &


H${d_Zrfr n{a^y: d`^y`mWmV`Vmo@WmZ
`XYmN>mVr`: g_m`: &&
`Od}X0 A`m` 40, _ 8
epep_ : g n`JmV s `fdpdp ApL$pi_u kdp_ kh \m
`qf`|Z (ep`L$) R>. eH$_ kh S>Ns_p kS>_lpf `Z s S> R>.
AH$m`_ s L$v$u `Z ifuf (Ahspf) ^pfZ L$fsp _\u; L$pfZ L$ s AMX$,
A_s A_ r_rhL$pf lphp\u L$v$u `Z v$l ^pfZ L$fsp _\u. s_p\u Ar^L$
(dpV$p A\hp h^pf) L$pC `Z `v$p\ _\u. AV$g Cf_y ifuf ^pfZ L$fhy
L$v$u `Z b_hy kchu iL$sy _\u. AdU_ s AMX$, AL$fk, R>v$u _
iL$pe, cv$u _ iL$pe, L$`frls A_ AQm R>. AV$gp dpV$ Aipricph
`Z sdp _\u (h Cf_p Ai R> A_ Cf Aiu R>, A kch _\u).
L$pfZ L$ sdp L$pC `Z L$pf\u rR> \C iL$sy _\u. AZm{da_ _pX$u
hNf_p `rsb^ (r_Nl) `Z s_ \C iL$sp _\u. Ars k|d lphp\u
Cf_ L$pC AphfZ (`X$v$p) lpC iL$sp S> _\u. e_ s `fdpdp ldip
r_dm, Arhpqv$, S>d, dfZ, lj, ipL$, ny^p A_ sjpqv$ v$pjD`pr^Ap\u frls R>. Ahp iy (`fdpdp)_u D`pk_p L$f_pf (hpdp)
iy S> fl R> A_ drg__p D`pkL$ drg_ S> fl R>. Anmn{d_
`fdpdp L$v$u `Z Aepe L$fsp _\u, L$pfZ L$ s ldip epeL$pfu R>.
H${d: qL$pg_y op_ ^fph_pf (b^y Z_pf) dlprhp_ L$ S>_u rhp_p
As L$pC `Z `pdu iL$sy _\u. _Zrfr kh hp_p d_ (rhop_)_p kpnu
s\p kh_p d__y v$d_ L$f_pf R>. n{a^y: kh qv$ip A_ kh \p_pdp
`qf`|Z (ep`L$) \C flg R>. kh_u D`f rhfpS>dp_ R>. d`^y: S>_y
Apqv$ L$pfZ dpsp, r`sp, D`pv$L$ L$pC _\u, `fsy s S> kh_y Apqv$ L$pfZ
(A\ps kr$_y r_rd L$pfZ) R>. `mWmV`VmoWm`XYmN>mVr`:
g_m`: s Cf `psp_u _ e\phs ke, kerhp S> Qpf hv$ R>
Apep r crh_e

45

s_p kh d_yep_p `fdrls dpV$ D`v$i L$ep R>. s Ap`Zp v$epde r`sp
`fdf dlp_ L$`p L$fu_ Arhp$`u A^L$pf_p _pi L$f_pf, hv$rhp$`u
k|e L$pris L$ep R>. A Ahe dp_hy CA L$ kh_y Apqv$ (d|m) L$pfZ
`fdpdp R> A_ rhp-`ysL$ (op_)_y Apqv$ L$pfZ `Z Cf_ S>
r_qs$` dp_hp CA. rhp_p D`v$i Cf `psp_u L$`p\u Apep R>,
L$pfZ L$ Ap`Zp dpV$ sZ kh `v$p\p_y v$p_ Ap`g R> sp rhpv$p_ L$d _
Ap` ? `fdpdpA S> khpL$$ rhp kp\ `v$p\p_y v$p_ Ahe Ap`g R>.
kkpfdp hv$ rkhpe buSy> L$pC `ysL$ Cfps _\u. S>d Cf `|Z
rhphp_ A_ epeL$pfu R>, shy S> hv$ `ysL$ `Z R>. buSy> L$pC `ysL$
CfL$s, hv$ kdp_ A\hp s_p\u Dd _\u. Ap rhje_p h^pf rhQpf
dpfp fQgp "kep\L$pi' N\ dp C gip.
(3) d|m p\_p

Vo h _m {_` _m Mjfm gd{U ^yVm{Z g_rjVm_ &


{_`mh Mjfm gdm{U ^yVm{Z g_rjo &
{_` Mjfm g_rjm_ho &&
`O0 36.18
epep_ : l A_s bmhp_ dlphuf Cf ! Vo l vy$$ hcph_p
_pi L$f_pf ! d_ rhv$uZ L$d A\ps rhop_ Apqv$ iyc NyZp_p _pi L$f_pf
_ b_php, `fsy s_p\u dpfp Apdpqv$_ `\L$ (v|$f) fpMp; sd S> Ap`_u
L$`p A_ kpde\u rhp, ke, ^d hNf iyc NyZpdp ldip [\s L$fp.
_m l `fd Aehp_ cNh_ ! d_ ^d, A\, L$pd A_ dpnpqv$ s\p
rhp-rhop_pqv$_y v$p_ L$fu_ dpfu Aes D_rs L$fp.
{_`o`m{X0 l kh kyv$ - rd Cf ! kh_p Asepdu ! d_
kh c|s A_ pZudp rd r$\u e\phs Sy>A, b^p S> dpfp rd b_u
e, dpfu kp\ L$pC`Z gidp `Z hf _ L$f. {_`mh Mo`m{X l
`fdpd_ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u ly `Z hffrls b_u_ kh c|s - pZuAp A_
46

Apep r crh_e

(5) d|m p\_p

ApZu - QfpQf S>Ns_ rd_u r$\u `psp_p Apdp_u kdp_, `psp_p


pZ_u kdp_ . A\ps {_` Mjfo`m{X kh h, kds v$l^pfuAp
`n`ps frls b_u_, Aes d`|hL$ `f`f hsph L$f, Aepeeys \C_
L$pC _p `f `Z hsph _ L$f. Ap `fd ^d_p kh d_yep_ `fdpdpA
D`v$i Ap`g R> A_ khA A S> D`v$i dp_hp epe R>.
(4) d|m syrs

VXodm{ZVXm{X`Vm`VX M_m: &


VXod eH$ VX ~ Vm@Amn: g Omn{V: &&
`O0 32.1
epep_ : S> kh S>Ns_y (r_rd) L$pfZ AL$ Cf R>, s_y
_pd "Ar_' R>. (~ {Z: - eVnWo) Ar_ iv$_p A\ khpd
op_ h$`, Zhp epe, S>_y h$` p L$fhp_ epe A_ `|esd
hNf \pe R>. Am{X`mo d ~, dm`d ~, M_m d ~, eH$ {h ~,
gdOJH$V ~, ~ d ~hV, Amnmo d ~o`m{X - Ap is`\ A_
Asfe bpZ N\_p dpZp R>. VXm{X`: S>_p L$v$u `Z _pi \sp _\u
A_ S> he L$pi h$` R>, A\u `fdpdp_y _pd "Apqv$e' R>. Vm`:
kh S>Ns_ ^pfZ L$f_pf, A_s bmhp_, S> pZp\u `Z re h$`
R>, dpV$ Cf_y _pd "hpey' R>. D`f gMg dpZ dyS>b VX M_m: S>
Ap_v$ h$` A_ `psp_p khL$p-csp_ `fd Ap_v$ Ap`_pf R>, AV$gp
dpV$ `|hps L$pf\u `fdpdp_ "Qdp' Zhp. VXod eH$_ s S> Qs_
h$` b kh S>Ns_p L$sp R>. VX~ s A_s, Qs_, kh\u dlp_
R> A_ `psp_p ^dpdp csp_p kyMp_u rhpqv$ kv$NyZp\u Aes hq
L$f_pf R>. Vm Amn: s S> kho, Qs_ A_ kh ep`L$ lphp\u "Ap`'
_pd `Z `fdpdp_y kdS>hy CA. g: Omn{V: s S> kh S>Ns_p
`rs (hpdu) A_ `pg_ L$f_pf R>, buSy> L$pC _\u. s_ S> Ap`Z
B$v$h A_ `pg_ L$f_pf dp_hp CA, bu_ _rl.
Apep r crh_e

47

F$M dmM no _Zmo `O: no gm_ mU no


Mj: lmo no & dmJmoO: ghmOmo _{` mUmnmZm &&
`O0 36.1
epep_ : l L$fy$Zp_p cX$pf `fdpd_ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u ly
F$hv$pqv$_p op_\u eys (hZeys) \C_ s_p hsp b_y. eSy>hv$_p
(dp_p) kep\ krls Arcpe Zu_ s_y d__ L$fu iL$ Ahp d__
ps L$f.y A S> dpZ kpdhv$_p A\p_p r_e, r_qv$epk_ (hpfhpf
dfZ - rQs_ L$fu) krls Ahp pZ_ ldip ps L$f.y dmJmoO:
hpZu_u i[s, hsh - epep__u i[s Ap` d_ Ap`p. (s_ ly
Ap`) Asepdu_u L$`p\u e\phs - kpfu fus ps L$f.y ghmO: Ap`_p
A_yNl - L$`p\u ly ldi_ dpV$ ipfuqfL$ bm, Apfpe A_ Y$spqv$eys
b_y. _{` mUmnmZm l kh S>_p_p h__p Ap^pf ! pZ (S>_p\u D`f
sfa Nrs \pe R>) A_ A`p_ (S>_p\u _uQ sfa Nrs \pe R>) A b_
dpfp ifufdp kh B[ep A_ kh ^psyAp_u iy L$f_pfp s\p Apfpe,
bm, `yr$ A_ kfmsp\u Nrs L$f_pfp s\p dd\p_p_u fnp L$f_pfp
\pAp. s_ A_yL|$m pZpqv$_ ps L$fu_ l Cf ! (ly) Ap`_u L$`p\u
ldip kyMeys fly A_ Ap`_u Apop`pg_ A_ D`pk_pdp s`f fly.
(6) d|m syrs

g Zmo ~YO{ZVm g {dYmVm Ym_m{Z doX ^dZm{Z {dm &


` Xodm@A_V_mZemZmVVr`o Ym_Z`a`V &&
`O0 32.10
epep_ : s `fdf Ap`Zp ~Y: vy$:M_p _pi L$f_pf A_
klpeL$ R> s\p O{ZVm kh S>Ns s\p Ap`Zp kh_y `pg_ L$f_pf r`sp
`Z R>. hmu Ap`Zp L$pep_u rkq_p rh^psp (L$pep_ `|Z L$f_pf) `Z
48

Apep r crh_e

s S> R>. kh S>Ns_p rh^psp (fQ_p A_ ^pfZ L$f_pf) `Z AL$


`fdpdp S> R>, Ae L$pC _\u. Ym_m{Z doXo`m{X ... {dm kh ^pd
A\ps gpL$-gpL$ps fp_ fQu_ A_s khosp\u e\p\ fus Z R>. A
`fdf L$hp R> ? L$ S>_p\u v$h A\ps rhp_p ({dm gmo {h Xodm: eVnW ~m0) Ads - dfZpqv$ vy$:Mp\u frls dpn`v$dp kh vy$:Mp\u
R|>V$u_ khep`u `|Z Ap_v$ h$` `fdpdp_ ps \C_ ldip `fdp_v$dp
fl R>. VVr`o AL$ \|m (S>Ns, `hu hNf), buSy> k|d (Apqv$ L$pfZ),
uSy> S> kh v$pj frls, A_s Ap_v$h$` `fb$` ^pddp A`a`V
^dpdp rhp_p hR>v$sp\u (`psp_u BR>p_ykpf) fl R>. kh L$pf_u
bp^pAp - `uX$pAp\u dys \C_, rhop_eys iy \C_ v$i, L$pm A_
hsyAp_p `qfR>v$ frls - kudp frls khNs Ym_Z Ap^pf h$`
`fdpdpdp fl R>. Adp\u (dpnph\p v$frdep_) vy$:M kpNfdp - S>d
dfZpqv$ vy$:Mpdp L$v$u `Z `X$sp _\u.
(7) d|m p\_p

`Vmo`V: g_rhgo VVmo Zmo@A^` H$ &


e Z: H$ Om`mo@^` Z: ne`: &&
`O0 36.22
epep_ : l dlp_ Cf ! v$epmy ! S> S> \m\u Ap`
g_rhgo kpfu fus Q$p (hr) L$fp R>p, s kh \p_pdp Ad_ r_ce
L$fp A\ps ep ep\u Ad_ ce_p kch lpe ep ep\u Ad_
kh\p Ace (cefrls) L$fp s\p \u Ad_ kyMu L$fp. Adpfu
`Z kv$p kyMu fl, ce Ap`_pfu `Z _ b_ sd S> `iyAp\u `Z
Ad_ Ace L$fp. AV$gy S> _rl, `fsy Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad_ L$pC_p\u
L$pC`Z L$pf_p ce _ gpN. S>\u Ad r_ce b_u_ ldip `fd
Ap_v$ cpNhuA A_ r_fsf Ap`_p (Ap_v$de) fpedp Ap`_u
c[s L$fuA.
Apep r crh_e

49

(8) d|m syrs

doXmh_oV nf _hmV_m{X`dU V_g: naVmV &


V_od {d{Xdm{V _`_o{V Zm`: nWm {dVo@`Zm` &&
`O0 31.18
epep_ : kliuj hNf rhijZp\u L$lg s `yfyj kh
`qf`|Z (nyUdmn{a e`Zmm nf B{V {Z$moo$:) R>. (kds kkpfdp
`|Z \C_ fl_pfp, k|_pfp, hk_pfp lphp\u s Cf "`yfyj' `Z L$lhpe R>,
Ad r_fys_y hQ_ R>), s `yfyj_ ly Ry>; A\ps kh d_yep_ epe
R> L$ s `fdpdp_ Ahe Z, s_ L$v$u `Z c|g _rl. Ae L$pC _ `Z
Cf dp_ _rl. s L$hp R> ? _hmV_ dlp_\u `Z dlp_ R>. s_p kdp_
L$ s_p\u dlp_ - dpV$p bu L$pC _\u. Am{X`dU_ Apqv$e - A_L$
k|edX$mp_p fQ_pf A_ L$piL$ A S> AL$ `fdpdp R> s\p s kv$p
hL$pi h$` S> R>. AV$gy S> _rl, `fsy V_g: naVmV sd AV$g S>
A^L$pf, Arhp Apqv$ v$pjp\u frls R> A_ A `fdpdp S> `psp_p csp,
^dpdpAp A_ kedu S>_p_ sL$pm Arhp Apqv$ v$pjp\u frls - dys
L$f_pf R>. rhp_p_p Ahp r_e R> L$ `fb_p op_ A_ s_u L$`p rh_p
L$pC `Z h L$v$u `Z kyMu \C iL$sp _\u. V_od {d{Xdo`m{X s `fdpdp_
Zu_ S> h dey_ ApmNu iL$ R>, Ae\p _rl. Zm@`: nWm
{dVo@`Zm` `fdf_u c[s A_ s_p op_ rh_p dy[s_p bu L$pC dpN
_\u. Ahu `fdpdp_u Y$ Apop R>. kh d_yep_ A_u Apopdp hshy
CA (`pg_ L$fhy CA) A_ kh L$pf_p `pMX$ s\p S>m_p epN
L$fhp CA.
(9) d|m p\_p

VoOmo@{g VoOmo _{` Yo{h & dr`_{g dr` _{` Yo{h &
~b_{g ~b _{` Yo{h & AmoOmo@`moOmo _{` Yo{h &
50

Apep r crh_e

_`a{g _` _{` Yo{h & ghmo@{g ghmo _{` Yo{h &&


`O0 19.9

A{^g{ddoe ArcdyM \C_ sdp rh$ A\ps `fd Ap_v$h$` `fdpdpdp


hi L$f R> A_ kh L$pf_p vy$:Mp\u dys \C_ s `fd Ap_v$dp fl R>.
(11) d|m p\_p

epep_ : l hL$pi ! A_s sS> ! Ap` Arhp$`u A^L$pf\u


kv$p frls R>p. AV$gy S> _rl, `fsy ke, rhop_ A_ sS> h$` R>p. Ap`
L$`p L$fu_ dpfpdp A sS> ^pfZ L$fphp L$ S>\u ly r_sS>, v$u_ A_ cufy
L$pC `Z \p_, L$v$u `Z _ b_y.
l A_shue `fdpdp ! Ap` hue h$` R>p. Ap` dpfpdp `Z
khpd bm [\f fpMp. l A_s `fp$d ! Ap` ApS> (`fp$d-h$`)
R>p. dpfpdp `Z A `fp$d_ ldip ^pfZ L$fphp. l vy$$p `f $p^ L$f_pf !
d_ `Z vy$$p `f $p^ L$fhp_y kpde Ap`p. l A_s kl_ h$` ! dpfpdp
`Z Ap` kl_ L$fhp_u i[s ^pfZ L$fphp. A\ps ifuf, B[e, d_ A_
Apdp_p (D`fps) sS> Apqv$ NyZp dpfpdp\u L$v$u `Z v|$f _ \pe, S>\u
ly Ap`_u c[s_y Y$sp`|hL$ A_y$p_ L$fy A_ Ap`_u L$`p\u kkpfdp `Z
kv$p kyMu fly.
(10) d|m syrs

nar` ^y Vm{Z nar` bmo H$mZ nar` gdm : {Xemo {Xe &
CnWm` W_Om_V`m_Zm_mZ_{^ g{ddoe &&
`O0 32.11
epep_ : kh hp (pZudp)dp (A\ps ApL$pi A_ L$rs\u
gC_ `hu `es kds kkpfdp) s `fdf ep $` `qf`|Z \C_
cf`|f \C flg R> s\p kh gpL$p - bpX$, kh `|hpqv$ qv$ipAp, Cip_pqv$
D`qv$ipAp, D`f, _uQ, A\ps AL$ L$Z (`fdp) `Z s_p rh_p A`ep
(Mpgu) _\u. W_Om_ dye pZu (dydyny A\hp epNu) `psp_p Apdp\u
Aes ke ApQfZ, rhp, p A_ c[s\u F$V` e\p\ keh$`
`fdpdp_ CnWm` e\phs (kpfu fus) Zu_ D`[\s (r_L$V$ p)
Apep r crh_e

51

^J UoV^J g`amYmo ^Jo_m {Y`_Xdm XX: &


^J Zmo OZ` Jmo{^a^J Z{^ZdV: `m_ &&
`O0 34.36
epep_ : l cNh_ ! `fd Aehp_ ! ^J Ae_p v$psp !
Ap kkpf A\hp `fdp\ - dpn Ap` S> R>p s\p ^J UoV: kL$m Ae
Ap`_ S> hp^u_ R>, Ae L$pC_ Ap^u_ _\u. Ap` S>_ Qplp s_ Ae
Ap`u iL$p R>p. sp Ap` L$`p L$fu_ Adpfp v$pqf_p _pi L$fu_ Ad_ `fd
Aeeys L$fp, L$pfZ L$ Ae_p fL$ Ap` S> R>p.
l g`amY: cNh_ ! ke A_ Ae_u pr L$fph_pf Ap` S>
R>p. s\u Ap` Ad_ r_e - ldi_ dpV$ Ae Ap`p s\p S>_ dpn
L$lhpe R>, s ke Ae_p v$psp Ap` rkhpe buSy> L$pC _\u. l ke cN
! Ap` Ad_ `|Z Ae A_ kh$ byq Ap`p, S>\u Ad Ap`_p NyZ
A_ Ap`_u Apop_y A_y$p_ sd S> e\phs op_ ps L$fuA.
Ad_ ke byq, ke L$d A_ ke NyZp_ CXd (CXJ^`
mn`) ps L$fphp, S>\u Ad k|d\u `Z k|d `v$p\p_ e\phs ZuA.
^J Zmo OZ` l kh Ae_p D`pv$L$ ! Adpfp dpV$ Ae_ kpfu fus
D`_ L$fp; khpd Npe, OpX$p A_ d_ye krls Ars Dd Ae Ad_
kv$p_ dpV$ Ap`p.
l khi[sdp_ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad kv$p_ dpV$ Dd-Dd
`yfyjp, uAp, ksp_p s\p khL$ph pmp \CA. Ap`_u `pk Adpfu A S>
rhij p\_p R> L$ Adpfpdp L$pC d_ye vy$$ A_ d|M _ fl A_ shp
D`_ `Z _ \pe S>\u Ad epfe r_v$p_ `p _ b_uA, `fsy Ad_
kh kL$urs ps \pe.
52

Apep r crh_e

d`koZ H$nVm n> `koZ H$nVm `kmo `koZ H$nVm_ &


Vmo_ `O F$H$ M gm_ M ~hM aWVa M & dX}dm
AJ_m_Vm A^y_ OmnVo: Om A^y_ doQ> dmhm &&

(12) d|m syrs

VXoO{V VO{V VX Xyao VpVHo$ &


VXVa` gd` VX gd`m` ~mV: &&

`O0 18.29

`O0 40.5
epep_ : VX EO{V s `fdpdp kds S>Ns_ e\pepe fus
`ps`psp_u Qpg - Nrs dpZ Qgphu flg R>. L$V$gpL$ Arhp_ (d|M) gpL$p
s (`fdpdp) `f Nrs - lg_Qg__p Apfp` d|L$ R>, `fsy s kh \m
`qf`|Z R>. s\u (s) L$v$u `Z Qgpedp_ \sp S> _\u. AV$gp dpV$ VO{V
(Ap dpZ R> L$) hs: s `fdpdp L$v$u `Z Qpgsp _\u. AL$fk, r_g
A_ `qf`|Z R>. rhp_p b_ A dpZ S> Z R>. VX Xyao A^dpdp
(`p`u), Arhp_ (d|M), rhQpfi|e, ArS>s[e A_ Cfc[s frls
hNf v$pjp\u eys d_yep\u s Cf OZp S> v|$f R>, A\ps sAp L$fpX$p hj
`es Cf_ ps L$fu iL$sp _\u. ep ky^u s_ Zsp _\u, ep ky^u
sAp S>d-dfZpqv$ vy$:MkpNfdp Np\p Mpe R> (S>d-dfZ_p Q$fdp
aep L$f R>). VpVHo$ (s `fdpdp) kehpv$u, keL$pfu, kedp_u, rS>s[e,
khS>_ D`L$pfL$, rhp_ A_ rhQpfiug `yfyjp_u ApVHo$ Aes r_L$V$ R>.
AV$gy S> _rl, `fsy s kh ApdpApdp Asepdu$` ep`L$ b_u_ kh `|Z
\C flg R>. (AV$gp dpV$ S>) s ApdpAp_p `Z Apdp R>; L$pfZ L$ `fdpdp
k`|Z S>Nsdp Av$f, blpf A_ de (kh rhdp_ - ep`L$ R>) A\ps
AL$ sg S>V$gu S>ep `Z s_p rh_p Mpgu _\u. s AMX$, AL$fk khdp
ep`u fp R>. s_ Zhp\u S> kyM A_ dy[s dm R>, Ae\p dmsu _\u.
(13) d|m p\_p

Am``koZ H$nVm mUmo `koZ H$nVm Mj`koZ H$nVm


lmo `koZ H$nVm dm`koZ H$nVm _Zmo `koZ H$nVm_m_m
`koZ H$nVm ~m `koZ H$nVm `mo{V`koZ H$nVm
Apep r crh_e

53

epep_ : (`kmo d {dU:, `km d ~o`mVao` eVnW ~mU


l0) eo - eo_ue S> kh d_yep_p `|e A_ B$v$h `fdf R>, s_p
dpV$ Ars p`|hL$ kh d_yepA khh e\phs kd`Z L$fhy CA. Ap
ddp A S> D`v$i A_ p\_p R> L$ l kh hpdr_ Cf ! Ap`_u Apop R> L$ kh d_yep kh `v$p\
(khh) Ap`_ A`Z L$f. AV$gp dpV$ Ad Am`: he, pZ, ApM, L$p_,
hpZu, d_, Apdp (h A\hp hpdp), b (A\ps) hv$rhp, rhp_,
eprs (k|epqv$ gpL$, Ar_ Apqv$ `v$p\), hN (kyM-kp^_), `$ (`hu
Apqv$ kh gpL$p_p Ap^pf) s\p `y{$jp\, eo (Ad S> S> kpfp L$pep L$fuA
R>uA), spd, syrs, eSy>hv$, F$hv$, kpdhv$, M-L$pf\u A\hhv$, blv$
f\sf, dlp f\sf A_ kpd hNf kh `v$p\p Ap`_ kd`Z L$fuA R>uA.
Ad sp L$hm Ap`_ S> ifZ R>uA. S>hu Ap`_u BR>p lpe sd Adpfp
dpV$ L$fp. `fsy Ad Ap`_p ksp_ Ap`_u L$`p\u daJ_ Dd kyM_ p
L$fuA. Ad ep ky^u huA ep ky^u Q$hs} fpepqv$_p cpN cpNhu_
kyMu fluA A_ dey `R>u `Z Ad kyMu fluA.
l dlpv$h ! Ads ! Ad v$h (`fd rhp_) b_uA s\p Adsdpn S> Ap`_u prs R>, s_ p L$fuA. dmhm Ap`_u Apop_y `pg_
L$fhpdp A_ S>\u Ap`_u prs \pe s dpV$_u q$epdp kv$p s`f fluA
s\p l Asepdu ! Ap` v$edp Apop L$fp A\ps Adpfp v$edp S>hy op_
lpe shy ldip bpguA (d_dp lpe shy S> hpZudp gphuA). s_p\u
rh`fus L$v$u `Z bpguA _rl. l L$`pr_^ ! Adpfy epNnd (kh L$pf_p
r_hpl) Ap` kv$p_ dpV$ L$fp. Ap`_u klpesp\u Ad_ kh rhS>e A_
kyM dm.
54

Apep r crh_e

(14) d|m syrs

`_mZ OmV: namo@A`mo@ApV `@Am{ddoe ^dZm{Z {dm &


Omn{V: O`m g a amUr{U `moVt{f gMVo g fmoS>er &&
`O0 8.36
epep_ : S>_p\u dpV$p, kdp_ A\hp $ L$pC \ep _\u,
(hsdp_dp) R> _rl A_ L$v$u \i `Z _rl, s_ S> `fdpdp L$lhpe R>.
S> {dm ^dZm{Z kh cyh_ (gpL$), kh `v$p\p_p r_hpk\p_ Ake
gpL$-gpL$ps fpdp Am{ddoe hi L$fu_ `|Z \C fp R>, s S> Cf
_p `rs (hpdu) R>. s kh _ fdpX$u fp R> A_ kh dp fdu
fp R>. rUr`m{X Z eprs - Ar_, hpey A_ k|e_ S>Z fQgp
R>, A Z `v$p\p_ S>Ns_p ehlpf A_ `v$p\ rhp_u D`r dpV$
dye kdS>hp CA. g fmoS>er S>Z kpm L$pf_u L$mp D`_ L$fg
R>, s\u s_ kpm L$mp\u `|Z Cf L$lhpdp Aph R>. s kpm L$mpAp
r__ R> :
(1) CnZ (rhQpf), (2) pZ, (3) p, (4) ApL$pi, (5) hpey,
(6) Ar_, (7) S>m, (8) `r\hu, (9) B[e, (10) d_, (11) A_,
(12) hue (`fp$d), (13) s` (^d_y A_y$p_), (14) d (hv$rhp),
(15) L$d (Q$p) A_ (16) gpL$ (gpL$pdp _pd). Ap L$mpApdp kds
kkpf kdpegp R> A_ `fdfdp A_s L$mp R>. s_u D`pk_p R>pX$u_ S>
bu_u D`pk_p L$f R>, s L$v$u `Z kyM ps L$fu iL$sp _\u, `fsy kv$p_
dpV$ vy$:Mdp S> `X$p fl R>.
(15) d|m syrs

g Z: {nVod gyZdo@Zo gynm`Zmo ^d &


gMdm Z: dV`o &&
`O0 3.24
Apep r crh_e

55

epep_ : (~ {Z: B`m{X eVnWm{X m_m`mX


~dmm{Jm:) l rhop_ h$` Ar_ Cf ! Ap` Adpfp dpV$ gynm`Z:
L$`p L$fu_ kyM\u ps, $ D`pep_p Ap`_pf, Ars Dd \p__p v$psp
khv$p b_p sd S> Ap` S> Adpfp fnL$ R>p. l h[sv$ (L$epZ L$f_pf)
`fdpdp ! Adpfp kh vy$:Mp_p _pi L$fu_ kv$p_ dpV$ kyM$` b_php, S>\u
Adpfp hsdp_ `Z $ b_. g Z: {nVod gyZdo S>d L$fyZpde r`sp `psp_p
ksp_p_ kyMu S> fpM R>, sd Ap` Ad_ kv$p kyMu fpMp, L$pfZ L$ Ad
Mfpb \Ciy sp A Ap`_u ipcp$` _rl b_. AV$gp dpV$ ksp_p_
ky^pfhp\u S> r`sp_u ipcp A_ dpV$pC - dlh h^ R>, Ae\p _rl.
(16-17-18) d|m syrs

{d^ya{g dmhU: & d{a{g h`dmhZ: &


mmo@{g MoVm: & VWmo@{g {ddoXm: &&
C{eJ{g H${d: & Am{aa{g ~^m{a: & Ad`ya{g XddmZ &
e `y a{g _mOmbr`: & g_mS>{g H$emZ : & n{afmo@{g nd_mZ: &
Z^mo@{g Vm & _>mo@{g h`gyXZ: & F$VYm_m{g d`m}{V: &&
g_mo@{g {d`Mm: & AOmo@`oH$nmV & A{ha{g ~`: &
dmJ`_{g gXmo@{g & F$V` mam _m _m gVm_ &
AdZm_dnVo _m {Va dpV _o@p_Z n{W Xod`mZo ^y`mV &&
`O0 5.31,32,33
epep_ : l ep`L$ Cf ! Ap` rhcy R>p, A\ps kh L$pris,
hch A_ Aeeys R>p; (Ap`_p kdp_) Ae L$pC _\u. Ap` rhcy
lphp\u kh S>Ns_p hplZ (`ps`psp_p r_ed A_ykpf Qgph_pf) R>p
s\p kh_p r_hpl L$f_pf `Z R>p. l hL$piL$ ! kh fkhplL$ Cf ! Ap`
Ar_ h$` R>p, A\ps kh L$pf_p le - lh_ L$fhp epe DL$$
56

Apep r crh_e

`v$p\p_p fkp_p cv$L$ - rR>_rc_ L$f_pf, ApL$jL$ (ApL$jZ L$f_pf) s\p


e\phs \p`L$ (ep ep S>_u S>$f R> ep `lpQpX$_pf) Ap` S> R>p. l
Apd_ ! Ap` iuO ep`_iug - S>gv$u agphp_u i[seys (A\ps
khep`u) R>p. sd S> L$$ - Dd op_ h$` A_ L$$ op_ Ap`_pf
R>p. l khrhs - kh_ Z_pf ! Ap` "sy\' A_ "rhhv$p' R>p. VWmo d
~ (Ap is`\_u yrs R>). kh S>Nsdp rhdp_, ps \_pf A_ gpc
Ap`_pf R>p.
l khre ! Ap` C{eH$ L$d_ue h$` (kyv$f L$ BR>hp epe) R>p,
A\ps kh Ap`_ Qpl R>, L$pfZ L$ Ap` H${d: `|Z rhp_ R>p. Ap`
Am{a: R>p A\ps `psp_p csp_p "AO' (`p`)_p "Aqf' (iy) R>p,
kds `p`_p _piL$ R>p. ~^m{a: `psp_p csp A_ kh S>Ns_y `pg_
s\p ^pfZ L$f_pf R>p. Ad`ya{g XddmZ `psp_p csp A_ ^dpdpAp_
A_pqv$ `v$p\ Ap`hp_u kv$p BR>p L$fp R>p s\p `qfQfZue - khp L$fhp
epe rhp_p pfp Ap` kh_uesd R>p. e`ya{g _mOmbr`: iy h$`,
S>Ns_p ip^L$ - iy L$f_pf s\p `p`p_y dpS>_ (r_hpfZ) L$f_pf Ap` S>
R>p, Ae L$pC _\u. g_mS>{g H$emZ: kh fpAp_p dlpfp s\p Ly$i v$u_ S>_p_p pZ_p kyMv$psp Ap` S> R>p. n{afmo@{g nd_mZ: l epeL$pqf_
! `rh `fdf ! kcp_ Apop Ap`_pf, ke, kcp`rs, kcpre,
kcpfnL$ Ap` S> R>p s\p `rh h$`, `rhL$pfL$ kcp\u `Z kyMv$peL$
A_ `rh re Ap` S> R>p. Z^mo@{g Vdm l r_rhL$pf ! Ap` ApL$pi
kdp_ npc (lg_Qg_) frls A_ Ars k|d lphp\u Ap`_y _pd "_c'
R> s\p Vdm kh_ Z_pf, ke A_ Ake L$f_pf d_yep_p L$dp_p
kpnuc|s L$ S>Z S>hy `p` A\hp `ye L$ey lpe s_ shy am dm, Ae_y
`ye A\hp `p` Ae_ L$v$u `Z dm _rl. _>mo@{g h`gyXZ: d$ - iy
h$`, kh `p`p_p dpS>L$ A_ ip^L$ s\p h`gyXZ: d^yf, kyN^u,
fpN_piL$, `yr$L$pfL$ Ahp ep\u hpey-hfkpv$_u iyq L$f_pf - L$fph_pf
Ap` S> R>p. A dpV$ Ap` S> kh ep_p rhcpNL$sp (Sy>v$p `pX$_pf) R>p.
S>\u Ap`_y _pd "lek|v$_' R>. F$VYm_m{g d`m}{V: l cNh_ ! Ap`_y
Apep r crh_e

57

S> ^pd - \p_, khNs, ke A_ e\p\ h$` R>. e\p\ (ke)


ehlpfdp Ap` S> r_hpk L$fp R>p. d: Ap` kyM h$` A_ kyML$pfL$ s\p
`mo{V: hL$pi A_ kh_p L$piL$ Ap` S> R>p.
g_mo@{g {d`Mm: l hZue (Apdpv$-Ap_v$) h$` ! kh
c|sdp Ap`_pdp S> h R> (pZudp Ap`dp S> Apdpv$-Ap_v$ L$f R>),
L$pfZ L$ L$pe L$pfZdp S> dm R>. Ap` kh_p (Apqv$ d|m) L$pfZ R>p A_
(Ap`) klS>sp\u kh S>Ns_p rhspf L$fg R>. A\u Ap` {d`Mm: R>p.
AOmo`oH$nmV Ap`_p S>d L$v$u `Z \sp _\u. Ap kh S>Ns Ap`_p
\pX$pL$ S> AL$ v$idp (Aidp) kdpC flgy R>. Ap` A_s R>p. A{ha{g
~`: Ap`_u lu_sp - A`sp L$v$u `Z \su _\u. Ap` kh S>Ns_y d|m
L$pfZ s\p Asqfndp `Z kv$p `|Z flp R>p. dmJ`_{g gXmo{g kh
ip_p D`v$i v$psp A_ A_s rhp h$` lphp\u Ap` "dmH$' R>p. `fd
Ae A_ kh rhp_pdp Aes ipcpedp_ lphp\u Ap` "Eo' R>p.
kds kkpf Ap`_pdp [\s lphp\u Ap` "gX:' (kcp-h$`) R>p.
F$V` mam _m _m gVm_ kerhp A_ ^d A dpnh$` Ap`_u
prs_p pf R>. s_ Adpfp dpV$ L$v$u ksp`eys _ L$fp, `fsy kyMh$` b_u
fl s dpV$ Mygp fpMp, S>\u Ad klS> fus Ap`_ ps L$fu iL$uA.
AdZm{_`m{X l Ah`s ! (dpN-kp^_p_p hpdu) d_ `fdp\ A_
ehlpf_p dpNpdp L$pC L$gi (`uX$p) _ \pe, `fsy s dpNpdp Ap`_u L$`p\u
d_ h[s (Ap_v$) dmsp fl. Ad_ L$pC `Z L$pf_y vy$:M _ \pe.
(19) d|m syrs

XodH$V`Zgmo@d`OZ_{g & _Z`H$V`Zgmo@d`OZ_{g &


{nVH$V`Zgmo@d`OZ_{g & Am_H$V`Zgmo@d`OZ_{g &
EZg EZgmo@d`OZ_{g & `mh_oZmo {dmH$ma &
`m{dmV` gd`Zgmo@d`OZ_{g &&
`O0 8.13
58

Apep r crh_e

epep_ : l kh `p`_piL$ Cf ! XodH$V0 B[e, rhp_ A_


qv$eNyZeys d_yep_p vy$:M_p _pi L$f_pf AL$ Ap` S> R>p, Ae L$pC
_\u. d_ye (de\ - kpdpe d_ye), r`s (`fd rhpeys d_ye)
A_ Am_H$V0 hp_p `p`p s\p EZg0 `p`p\u `Z dpV$p `p`p\u Ap`
S> Ad`OZ R>p, A\ps kh `p`p\u AgN R>p A_ Ad_ kh d_yep_
`Z `p`p\u v|$f fpM_pf AL$ Ap` S> v$epde r`sp R>p. l dlp A_s
rhphp_ ! S> S> `p`p d rhp_ (op_\u) A\hp Arhp_ b_u_
(Aop_\u) L$ep lpe, s kh `p`p\u R>pX$ph_pf (`p`hq_p _pi L$f_pf)
Ap` rh_p Ap kkpfdp Adpfy$ Ae L$pC ifZ _\u. s\u Adpfp Arhpqv$
kh `p`p R>pX$phu_ Ad_ sL$pm iy L$fp.
(20) d|m syrs

Bmo {d` amO{V &


eZmo@AV {nXo e MVnXo &&
eZmo dmV: ndVm_ eZVnV gy`: &
eZ: H${ZH$Xod: nO`mo@A{^dfV &&
Ahm{Z e ^dV Z: e amr: {V Yr`Vm_ &
eZ@BmZr ^dVm_dmo{^: eZ@BmdUm amVh`m &
eZ@BmnyfUm dmOgmVm e{_mgmo_m g{dVm` e`mo: &&
`O0 36.8,10,11

{ha`J^: g_dmVmJo ^yV` OmV: n{VaoH$ @ AmgrV &


g XmYma n{Wdt m_Vo_m H$_ Xodm` h{dfm {dYo_ &&
`O0 13.4
epep_ : epf (L$pe$`) kr$ b_u _ lsu s kde AL$
Aqsue {ha`J^: (S> k|epqv$ sS>hu `v$p\p_p Nc AV$g D`r \p_
sd S> D`pv$L$) R>, s S> \d lsp. s kh S>Ns_p k_ps_ pvy$c|s kh \d fl_pf rk `rs R>. s S> `fdpdp `hu\u gC_ L$rs `es
S>Ns_ fQu_ ^pfZ L$f_pf R>. H$_ (OmnV`o, H$: Omn{V:,
Omn{VdH$V_ Xodm` - eVnWo) S> `rs `fdpdp R>, s_u `| Ap
Apdpqv$ `v$p\p_p kd`Z\u e\pepe L$fuA. s_ R>pX$u_ Ad bu L$pC _u
D`pk_p gidp `Z _ L$fuA. S> `fdpdp_ R>pX$u_ A\hp s_p \p_ s_p bv$g bu L$pC_u `| L$f R>, s_u A_ sd_p k`|Z v$i_u Aes
vy$v$ip \pe R>, A rk R>. dpV$ l d_yep ! sd_ kyM_u BR>p lpe
sp AL$ r_fpL$pf `fdpdp_u e\phs c[s L$fp, _rlsf sd_ L$v$u `Z kyM
ps \i _rl.
Apep r crh_e

(21-22-23) d|m p\_p

59

epep_ : l B ! Ap` `fd Aeeys A_ kds kkpf_p


fp A_ kh L$piL$ R>p. l fnL$ ! Ap` L$`p L$fu_ Adpfp {nXo S> `y Apqv$
R>, Ad_ dpV$ `fd kyMv$peL$ b_p s\p MVnXo lp\u, ppX$p A_ Npe Apqv$
`iyAp dpV$ `Z `fd kyMv$peL$ b_p, S>\u Ad gpL$p kv$p Ap_v$dp fluA.
l kh r_esp ! Adpfp dpV$ hpey kv$p kyML$pfL$, kyN^u, iusm A_
dv$-dv$ Nrs\u Qpg. Ad_ kyM \pe A dpZ k|e s` s\p dO `Z
kv$p_ dpV$ kyM_p iv$p_u kp\ A\ps NS>_p_u kp\ kde kde `f
kyML$pfL$ hjp L$f, S>\u Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad b^p kv$p_ dpV$ kyM A_
Ap_v$dp fluA.
l nZ Apqv$ L$pm_p Ar^`rs ! Adpfp dpV$ kh qv$hkp Ap`_p
r_ed\u kyM$` S> \pAp. Adpfp dpV$ kh fpqAp `Z Ap_v$\u esus
\pe. l cNh_ ! qv$hk A_ fpqAp_ Ap` kyMv$peL$ b_php S>\u Ad kh
L$pmdp kyMu S> fluA. l kh_p hpdu ! BmZr k|e s\p Ar_ A b_
Ap`_u L$`p\u s\p A_L$ L$pf_u fnpAp\u kyML$pfL$ b_. BmdUm
amVh`m l pZp^pf ! lpd-lh_\u iy NyZeys \egp hpey A_ Q
60

Apep r crh_e

(qL$fZp) Ap`_u fZp\u Adpfp dpV$ kv$p kyM$` b_p. BmnyfUm


dmOgmVm l pZ`rs ! Ap`_u fnp hX$ Ad kv$p `|Z Apey A_ bmhp_
pZhpmp \C_ Ad Adpfp Aes `yfyjp\eys eydp [\f fluA, S>\u
Ad iyAp_u kpd L$v$pr` r_bm _ b_uA. Bmgmo_m g{dVm` e`mo:
(mUmnmZm dm BmZr B`m{X - eVnWo) l dlpfpS> ! Ap`_p b^\u
fp A_ `f`f rhpqv$ keNyZeys b_u_ `ps`psp_p Ae_
D`_ L$f s\p Ap`_u L$`p\u `f`f urseys b_u_ Aes kyM_ ps
L$f. Ap` Ad `yp_ kyMu C_ Aes k_ \pAp A_ Ad `Z
k_sp\u Ap` A_ Ap`_u ke Apop_p `pg_dp s`f fluA.
(24) d|m syrs

VmoMXo _V Z {dmZ JYdm} Ym_ {d^V Jhm gV &


r{U nXm{Z {Z{hVm Jhm` `Vm{Z doX g {nV: {nVm@gV &&

gd_ empV: empVaod empV: gm _m empVao{Y &&


`O0 36.17
epep_ : l kh L$pf_p vy$:Mp_u iprs L$f_pf (Cf) ! kh
gpL$p_ u D`f S> ApL$pi R>, s Adpfp dpV$ kv$p ips (D`h frls) A_
kyML$pfL$ S> fl. Asqfn - degpL$ A_ sdp flgp hpey Apqv$ `v$p\p, `hu
A_ `hudp flgp `v$p\p, S>m A_ S>mdp flgp `v$p\p, Apjr^ A_ sdp
flgp NyZp, h_`rs A_ sdp flgp `v$p\p, rhv$h (S>Ns_p kh
rhp_p) s\p rh_p L$pi L$f_pf hv$dp, B[ep, k|e Apqv$, s_p qL$fZp
A_ sdp flgp NyZp, b=`fdpdp s\p hv$ ip, \|m A_ k|d
QfpQf S>Ns - A sdpd `v$p\p Adpfp dpV$ l khi[sdp_ `fdpdp !
Ap`_u L$`p\u ips (D`h frls), kv$p A_yL|$m A_ kyML$pfL$ fl, d_ `Z
s iprs p \pe, S>\u ly `Z Ap`_u L$`p\u ips, vy$$ $p^pqv$ D`hp\u frls
b_y s\p kds kkpf_p hp `Z $p^ Apqv$ vy$$ D`hp\u frls b_.

`O0 32.9
epep_ : l hv$pqv$ ipp A_ rhp_p pfp rs`pv$_ L$fhp_
epe ! S> Ads (dfZ Apqv$ v$pjp\u frls) dysp_y ^pd (r_hpk\p_),
khNs (khep`u), kh_y ^pfZ A_ `pjZ L$f_pf, kh_u byqAp_p
kpnu b R>, s Ap`_p D`v$i A_ ^pfZ-i[s_ S> rhp_ Z R>, s
"N^h' L$lhpe R> (JN>Vr{V J=~, VaVr{V g JYd:). khNs
b_ S> ^pfZ L$f_pf (R>), s_y _pd N^h R>, s\p `fdpdp_p Z `v$
R> : S>Ns_u D`r, [\rs A_ ge L$fhp_y kpde - (s_) A_ Cf_
S> `psp_p v$edp Z R> (^pfZ L$f R>) s r`sp_p `Z r`sp R>, A\ps
rhp_pdp `Z rhp_ R>.
(25) d|m p\_p

m: empVaV{aj_ empV: n{Wdr empVamn: empVamofY`:


empV: & dZnV`: empV{do Xodm: empV~ empV:
Apep r crh_e

61

(26) d|m syrs

Z_: e^dm` M _`mo^dm` M


Z_: eLH$am` M _`H$am` M
Z_: {edm` M {edVam` M &&
`O0 16.41
epep_ : l L$epZ h$` ! L$epZ L$f_pf ! Ap` e^d R>p,
(dpnkyM h$` A_ dpnkyM_p L$fhphpmp R>p), Ap`_ _dL$pf R>. Ap`
_`mo^d R>p, kpkpqfL$ kyM_p L$fhphpmp Ap`_ ly _dL$pf L$fy$ Ry>. Ap`
eLH$a R>p, Ap`_p pfp S> hp_y L$epZ \pe R>, bu\u _ql, s\p
_`H$a A\ps d_, B[e, pZ A_ Apdp_ kyM Ap`_pf Ap` S> R>p.
Ap` {ed (dNgde) R>p s\p {edVa (Aes L$epZ h$` A_
L$epZL$pfL$) R>p, A\u Ad Ap`_ hpfhpf _dL$pf L$fuA R>uA. (Z_mo Z_
62

Apep r crh_e

B{V `k: - eVnWo) S> d_ye p A_ c[s`|hL$ Cf_ _dL$pf Apqv$


L$f R>, s `Z dNgde S> b_ R>.
(27) d|m p\_p

^ H$U}{^: mU`m_ Xodm ^ n`o_mj{^`Om: &


pWaaL JV>dmgVZy{^`eo_{h Xod{hV `Xm`: &&
`O0 25.21
epep_ : l v$hf ! v$h-rhp_p ! Ad L$p_p pfp ldip
L$epZ_ S> kpcmuA, AL$epZ_u hps `Z Ad epfe _ kpcmuA. l
eS>_ue Cf ! l eo L$fph_pfpAp ! Ad ApMp pfp ldip L$epZ(dNm
kyM)_ S> CA. l S>_p ! l S>Nv$uf ! Adpfp kh AN-D`pN (ppqv$
B[ep s\p k_pqv$ D`pNp) ldip [\f (Y$) fl, S>\u Ad [\fsp`|hL$
Ap`_u syrs A_ Ap`_u Apop_y ldip `pg_ L$fuA, s\p Ad Apdp,
ifuf, B[e A_ rhp_p_y rlsL$pfL$ Apey rhrh^ kyM`|hL$ ps L$fuA,
A\ps kv$p kyMdp S> fluA.
(28) d|m syrs

~ OkmZ W_ naVm{ gr_V: gMmo doZ@Amd: &


g ~`m@Cn_m@A` {d>m: gV `mo{Z_gV {dd: &&
`O0 13.3

doZ: Ap` Ap_v$h$` lphp\u kkpfdp Ahp L$pC d_ye _\u L$ S> Ap`_u
L$pd_p (BR>p) _ L$f. `fsy b^p S> Ap`_ dmhp (ps L$fhp) BR> R>.
Ap` A_s rhpeys R>p. Ap` S> kh fus fnL$ R>p. s S> `fdpdp ~`m:
Asqfn AsNs qv$ip hNf `v$p\p_ {dd: rhhs (rhcs) L$f R>. s Asqfn
Apqv$_p Cn_m kh ehlpfpdp D`epN \pe R> A_ s Ap rhrh^ S>Ns_p
r_hpk\p_ R>. gV rhdp_ (hsdp_) \|m S>Ns, AgV Arhp, Qny
hNf B[ep\u ANpQf (_ Zu iL$pe) Ahp, rhrh^ S>Ns_u `mo{Z Apqv$
L$pfZ hv$, ip A_ rhp_p Ap`_ S> L$l R>. A\u Ap S>Ns_p dpspr`sp Ap` S> R>p. Adpfp cS>_ue - D`pk_ue B$v$h Ap` S> R>p.
(29) d|m p\_p

g{_{`m Z @ Amn @ AmofY`: gV &


X{_{`mV_ gV `mo@_mZ o{> ` M d` {_: &&
`O0 36.23
epep_ : l kh rd k`pv$L$ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u pZ, S>m, rhp
A_ Apjr^ g{_{`m: Adpfp dpV$ kv$p kyMv$peL$ b_p, L$v$u rsL|$m _ b_p
A_ S> Adpfp e j, Aurs A_ iysp L$f R> s\p S> vy$$ e Ad
j L$fuA R>uA, l epeL$pqf_ ! s_ dpV$ X{_{`m: `|hps pZpqv$ rsL|$m
- vy$:Mv$peL$ S> b_p, A\ps S> A^d L$f s_ Ap`_p fQgp S>Ns_p `v$p\p
vy$:Mv$peL$ S> b_p. S>\u sAp (A^d _ L$f A_) Ad_ vy$:M _ Ap`u iL$.
`y_: (p\_p R> L$) Ad kv$p kyMu S> fluA.

epep_ : l dlue `fdf ! Ap` dlp_\u `Z dlp_ R>p.


Ap`_p\u dlp_ A\hp Ap`_u kdp_ buSy> L$pC _\u. OkmZ_ Ap` k`|Z
S>Nsdp ep`L$ (pvy$c|s) R>p. Ap` S> kh S>Ns_p \d (Apqv$ L$pfZ)
R>p. k|epqv$ gpL$ gr_V: kudp\u eys (depv$p krls) gM: Ap`_p pfp
L$pris R>. naVmV A_ \d fQu_ Ap` S> ^pfZ L$fu fp R>p. `md:
A kh gpL$p_ rhrh^ r_edp\u Sy>v$p-Sy>v$p e\pepe hs_ L$fphu fp R>p.

` @ B_m {dm ^dZm{Z OX{fhm}Vm `grXV {nVm Z: &


g @ Am{efm {dU{_N>_mZ: W_N>Xdam 2 @ Am{ddoe &&

Apep r crh_e

64

63

(30) d|m p\_p

`O0 17.17
Apep r crh_e

epep_ : hmoVm (S>Ns_u) D`r kde Ap`_pf A_ ge


kde kh_ g_pf `fdpdp S> R>. F${f: kho Ap kh gpL$ gpL$psf
cyh_p_p `psp_p kpde\u L$pfZdp lpd (ge) L$fu_ `grXV r_e
Ah[\s fl R>. s S> Adpfp r`sp R>. afu\u epf {dU_ e$` S>Ns_
hR>p\u D`_ L$fhp ^pf R>, epf s `psp_p kpde\u (D`pv$p_ L$pfZ
A_pqv$ "d|m L$rs' dp\u) e\pepe rhrh^ S>Ns_ klS> hcph\u fQ
R>. Ap QfpQf W_N>V rhsuZ S>Ns_ fQu_ - b_phu_ A_s
h$`\u ApR>pqv$s L$f R> A_ sdp Asepdu kpnu h$` \C_ rh$ \C
fp R>, A\ps blpf A_ Av$f `qf`|Z \C_ flg R>. s S> r_qs`Z
Ap`Zp r`sp R>. s_u khp R>pX$u_ S> d_ye Ae d|rs Apqv$_u khp-`|
L$f R>, s L$s_sp Apqv$ dlpv$pjeys b_u_ kv$p vy$:M_p cpNu b_ R>. S>
d_ye `fd v$epde r`sp_u Apopdp fl R>, s kh L$pf_p Ap_v$_p khv$p
cpN L$f R>.
(31) d|m syrs

s\p Ad L$v$u `Z `fp^u_ _ b_uA (_ fluA).


l hN A_ `hu_p Ci ! mdmn{Wdr`m_ hN (`fd DL$$
dpn kyM) (A_) `hu (kkpf kyM) A b_ dpV$ Ad_ kd\ L$fp.
l kyy$ ^diug ! Ap` ^d L$f_pf R>p s\p ^d h$` `Z R>p, dpV$
L$`p L$fu_ Ad_ ^dpdp b_php. A_o{Z Ap` hffrls R>p, Ad_ `Z
hffrls b_php s\p L$`p L$fu_ A_o (A_`_) Adpfp dpV$ ZUm{Z
rhp, `yfyjp\, lp\u, OpX$p, kyhZ, lufp hNf f_p, DL$$ fpe, Dd
`yfy$j A_ urs hNf `v$p\p_ p L$fphp, S>\u Ad L$pC `v$p\_p Acph
vy$:Mu _ \CA. l kh_p Ar^`rs ! "bpZ' (`|Z rhpqv$ kv$NyZeys),
"n' (byq, rhp A_ ipe Apqv$ NyZeys), "rhi' (he) A_L$ rhpd
- Dd_u r_`yZsp, byq, rhp, ^_ A_ ^pe Apqv$ (hsy)\u bmeys,
s\p "i|pqv$' `Z khp Apqv$ Dd NyZeys (d_yep) Adpfp fpedp
\pAp. A kh_y Ap` S> ^pfZ L$fp, S>\u Ap`_u L$`p\u Adpfy AMX$
Ae kv$p b_u fl.

Bfo {ndd & D O} {ndd & ~Uo {ndd & jm` {ndd &
mdmn{Wdr`m {ndd & Y_m{g gY_ & A_o`_o ZUm{Z Yma`
~ Yma` j Yma` {de Yma` &&

(32) d|m syrs

{H$ pdXmgrX{Y>mZ_ma^U H$V_V pdH$WmgrV &


`Vmo ^y{_ OZ`pdH$_m {d m_mUm}_{hZm {dMjm: &&

`O0 38.14
epep_ : l kh kpev$f (kyM Ap`_pf Cf) ! Ad_ Bfo
Dd A_\u `y$ L$fp, A__p A`pQ_\u A\hp Ly$`pQ_\u \sp fpNp\u
bQphp s\p Ad L$v$pr` A_ rh_p vy$:Mu _ \CA. l dlpbm ! D O} Ad_
Aes `fp$d dpV$ `y$ - Y$ L$fp. l hv$p_ D`_ L$f_pfp !~Uo Ad_ ke
hv$rhp (p \pe AV$gp) dpV$ byq Apqv$ bm\u kv$p `y$ A_ bmeys L$fp.
l dlpfpr^fpS> `fb_ ! jm` AMX$ Q$hs} fpe dpV$ ipe,
^e, _urs, rh_e, `fp$d A_ bm Apqv$ Dd NyZp\u eys L$fu L$`p L$fu_
Ad_ e\phs `y$ L$fp. Ae v$ihpku fp Adpfp v$idp L$v$u `Z _ lpe
Apep r crh_e

65

`O0 17.18
epep_ : (pf-rhp\u) : Ap kkpf_y Ar^$p_ - Ap^pf iy R> ? L$pfZ A_ D`pv$L$
L$pZ
R> ? L$hu fus R> ? s\p fQ_p L$f_pf Cf_y Ar^$p_ Apqv$ iy R> ?
s\p S>Ns A_ Cf_p r_rd L$pfZ A_ kp^_ L$ep R> ?
Df : `V: Ap kds qh (S>Ns_u fQ_p_y L$pe ) S>Z L$fg
R>, s {dH$_m `fdpdpA A_s kpde\u (A_pqv$ "d|m L$rs'dp\u) Ap
S>Ns fQgy R>. s (`fdpdp) S> kds S>Ns_y Ar^$p_ - Ap^pf,
66

Apep r crh_e

r_rd A_ kp^_pqv$ R>. sZ `psp_p A_s kpde\u Ap kh hpqv$


S>Ns_ (A\ps A_pqv$ hp_p ifuf krls kds S>X$ kr$_) e\pepe
fQg R> A_ c|rd\u gC_ hN ky^u fQu_ `psp_p drldp\u AmUm}V
ApR>pqv$s L$fu fpey R>. A_ `fdpdp_p Ar^$p_ Apqv$ `fdpdp (he)
S> R>, Ae L$pC _\u. s S> kh_y D`pv$_, fnZ A_ ^pfZ Apqv$ L$f R>
A_ Ap_v$de R>.
: A Cf L$hp R> ?
Df : {dMjm: kh kkpf_p $p R>. S> s_ R>pX$u_ Ae_p
Ape L$f R>, s vy$:M kpNfdp L$d _ X|$b ?
(33) d|m p\_p

VZynm@ AZoo@{g Vd _o nm{h & Am`Xm@ AZo@`m`_} Xo{h &


dMm}Xm@ AZo@{g dMm} _o Xo{h & AZo `_o
Vdm@ D Z V_@AmnU &&
`O0 3.17
epep_ : l khfnL$ Cf A_ ! Ap` Adpfp ifuf_p fnL$
R>p, s\u L$`p L$fu_ A ifuf_y `pg_ L$fp. l dlph ! Ap` Apey (he)
h^pf_pf R>p. d_ kyM$` $ Apey Ap`p. l A_s rhp sS>eys ! Ap`
dM: rhpqv$ sS> A\ps e\p\ rhop_ Ap`_pf R>p, dpV$ Ad_ kh$
rhpqv$ sS> Ap`p. `|hps ifufpqv$_u fnp\u Ad_ kv$p Ap_v$dp fpMp A_
ifuf Apqv$dp S> L$C D Z_ e|_sp lpe s_ L$`pr$\u kyM A_ Ae_u
kp\ kh L$pf Ap` `qf`|Z L$fp, S>\u Ad_ L$pC L$pf_p Ap_v$ A\hp $
`v$p\_u e|_sp _ fl. l r`sp ! Ad Ap`_p `y - ksp_ epf `|Z
Ap_v$dp fluA sdp S> Ap`_u ipcp R>, L$pfZ L$ ksp_ _p_u-dpV$u hsy
A\hp kyM dpsp-r`sp rkhpe bu L$p_u `pk\u dpN ? Ap` sp Adpfp
khi[sdp_ r`sp R>p. kh Ae A_ kyM Ap`_pfpApdp (Ap`) `|Z R>p.
Apep r crh_e

67

(34) d|m syrs

{dVjV {dVmo_Imo {dVmo ~mhV {dVnmV &


g ~mh`m Y_{V gnmdm^y_r OZ`Z Xod EH$: &&
`O0 17.19
epep_ : rh (kds S>Ns)dp S>_p QnyAp (r$) R>,
S>_p\u A$ L$pC hsy _\u (S>_u r$ blpf L$pC _\u), S>_p dyM, lp\,
`N s\p Ae L$Z Apqv$ `Z kh R>, S>_u r$dp (b^y S> R>) A\ps S>
khL$ (b^y S> _pf), khhsp (b^p_u kp\ Asepdu$` hps L$f_pf),
kh^pfL$ (kh_ ^pfZ L$f_pf) A_ khNs (ep`L$) Cf R>. S> s_p\u
X$fu_ (rhQpfu_) Qpg s S> ^dpdp b_u iL$ R>, Ae\p L$v$u `Z ^dpdp
b_u iL$sp _\u. s S> rhL$dp `fdpdp AL$ S> Aqsue R>. `hu\u gC_
hN ky^u kh S>Ns_p L$sp R>. S>Z S>Z S>hp S>hp `p` A\hp `ye L$ep
R>, s_ s_ s epeL$pfu, v$epmy S>Ns r`sp `n`ps R>pX$u_ `psp_p A_s
bm A_ `fp$d$`u A b_ lp\p pfp keL$ fus nV: ps \hphpmp
kyM-vy$:M $`u am ps L$f_pf kh hp_ Y_{V (^d_-L$`_) e\pepe
S>d-dfZ Apqv$_ ps L$fphu fp R>. s S> r_fpL$pf, AS> (S>dfrls),
A_s, khi[sdp_, epeL$pfu, v$epde Cf_ R>pX$u_ Ae L$pC_ L$v$u `Z
dp_hp CA _rl. s S> Ap`Zp epQ_ue (epQ_p L$fhp epe), `|S>_ue,
cy, hpdu A_ B$v$h R>. s_p\u S> Ap`Z_ kyM ps \i, Ae\p L$v$u
`Z _rl.
(35) d|m syrs

^y^d: d: gOm: Om{^: `m_ gdramo dra: gnmof: nmof: &


Z` Om _o nm{h e` ney_o nm{h AW` {nV _o nm{h &&
`O0 3.37
epep_ : l kh dNgL$pfL$ Cf ! Ap` ^y: kv$p hsdp_ 68

Apep r crh_e

rhdp_ R>p. ^d: hpey Apqv$ `v$p\p_p fQ_pf R>p. d: kyM$` gpL$
(S>Ns)_p fQ_pf R>p. Ad_ Z gpL$p_y kyM Ap`p. l kh_p Aen
Ar^`rs ! Ap` L$`p L$fp L$ S>\u ly `y-`ppqv$ Dd NyZeys \u $
hpmp b_y. khpL$$ huf eppAp pfp gdra: eydp kv$p rhS>eu b_y.
l dlp `yr$v$ ! Ap`_p A_yNl\u (L$`p\u) Aes rhpqv$ s\p kpd,
Apjr^, kyhZpqv$ A_ Apfpepqv$\u kh L$pf `yr$eys b_y. l Z` d_yep_
rlsL$pfL$ ! Ap` dpfu _u fnp L$fp. l e` syrs L$fhp epe Cf ! Ap`
lp\u, OpX$p Apqv$ `iyAp_y `pg_ L$fp. l AW` ep`L$ Cf ! {nV_ dpfp
A__u fnp L$fp. l v$epr_^ ! Ad_ kh Dd `v$p\p\u `qf`|Z L$fp s\p
kv$p Ap_v$dp fpMp.
(36) d|m syrs

{H$ pdZ H$@C g dj@Amg `Vmo mdmn{Wdr {Z>Vj: &


_Zr{fUmo _Zgm nN>VoX VX`{V>X ^dZm{Z Yma`Z &&

n`o_ eaX: eV Ordo_ eaX: eV mU`m_ eaX: eV


~dm_ eaX: eV_XrZm: `m_ eaX: eV ^y` eaX: eVmV &&
`O0 36.24
epep_ : s b Mj: kh $p Qs_ R> s\p "v$h' A\ps
rhp_p_ dpV$ A\hp d_ Apqv$ B[ep_ dpV$ rlsL$pfL$ dpn hNf kyM_p
v$psp R>. naVmV kh_y Apqv $- \d (r_rd) L$pfZ s S> R>. eH$_
kh_p fQresp A\hp iy h$` R>. CaV ge `R>u s S> (`psp_p r_e
L|$V$\ h$`dp) fl R>. s_u L$`p\u Ad kp hj ky^u CA, huA,
kpcmuA, bpguA A_ L$v$u`Z `fp^u_ _ b_uA, A\ps bop_, byq
A_ `fp$d krls B[ep s\p kh ifuf (kv$p) h\ fl. Ap` Ahu L$`p
L$fp L$ dpfy L$pC AN r_bm (nuZ) A_ fpNeys _ b_ s\p kp hj\u
Ar^L$ kde ky^u `Z Ap`_u L$`p\u Ad CA, huA, kpcmuA,
bpguA A_ hp^u_ S> fluA.

`O0 17.20
epep_ : : rhp AV$g iy ? h_ A_ hn L$p_ L$l R> ?
Df : S> kpde\u (kr$_p D`pv$p_ L$pfZ A_pqv$ "d|m
L$rs'dp\u) rhL$dp Cf, S>hu fus snp (ky\pf) A_L$ L$pf_u fQ_p
L$fu_ - OpV$ Ap`u_ A_L$ `v$p\p fQ R>, shu fus hN (kyM rhij) A_
c|rd, de (kyMhpmp gpL$) s\p _fL$ (vy$:M rhij) A_ kh gpL$p_ fep
R>, s_ h_ A_ hn L$l R>. l _Zr{fU: rhp_p ! S> kh cyh_p_ ^pfZ
L$fu_ kds S>Nsdp A_ kh_u D`f rhfpS>dp_ \C fp R>, s_p
rhjedp s\p s_p r_e (Df) sd gpL$p L$fp. _Zgm s_p rhop_\u
hp_y L$epZ \pe R>, Ae\p _rl.
(37) d|m p\_p

VMjX}d{hV naVmN>H$_aV &


Apep r crh_e

69

(38) d|m p\_p

`m Vo Ym_m{Z na_m{U `md_m `m _`_m {dH$_Vo_m &


{ejm g{I`mo h{d{f dYmd: d` `Od Vd dYmZ: &&
`O0 17.21
epep_ : l khrh^peL$ rhL$dp Cf ! S> Ap`_p hfrQs
Dd, ded A_ r_L$$ qrh^ ^pd (gpL$) R>, s kh gpL$p_ u rinp S> Ad
Ap`_p rdp R>uA s\u Ad_ p L$fphp. s e\p\ rhp (op_) lphp\u
(s_ ps L$fhp\u) Ad kh gpL$pd p kv$p kyMu fluA s\p A gpL$p_ph{d{f
v$p_ A_ NlZ ehlpfdp Ad Qsyf b_uA. l dYmd: h kpde Apqv$
^pfZ L$f_pf ! Adpfp ifuf Apqv$ `v$p\p_u hq L$f_pf Ap` S> R>p. `Od
Ad_ rhpqv$ NyZp_y v$p_ Ap` he L$fp (L$ S>\u) Ad rhp_p_p kL$pf
A_ kh kS>_p_ dpV$ kyM Apqv$_u kNrs (kdpNd) L$fu iL$uA. Ap`
70

Apep r crh_e

Ap`_u Dv$pfsp\u S> Ad_ kh kyM Ap`p R>p, R>sp `Z Ad Ap`_


k_ L$fhpdp S>fp `Z kd\ _\u. Ap`_ A_yL|$m kh\p hsdp_ (hsph
L$ L$pe) L$fu iL$uA sd _\u. `fsy Ap` sp A^d (`rssp_p) DpfL$ R>p,
S>\u Ad_ hL$`p\u kyMu L$fp.
(39) d|m syrs

`_o {N> Mjfmo X`` _Zgmo dm{VVU ~hn{V_} VYmV &


e Zmo ^dV ^dZ` `n{V: &&
`O0 36.2
epep_ : l kh k^peL$ Cf ! dpfp Qny (_), v$e
(pZpdp), d_, byq, rhop_, rhp A_ kh B[ep A_ s_p rR>p,
r_bmsp, fpN, j, QQmsp A\hp dv$sp Apqv$ rhL$pfp_y r_hpfZ(r_v$pjsp)
L$fu_ Ap` S> ke^d Apqv$dp \p`_ L$fp; L$pfZ L$ Ap` ~hn{V: (kh\u
dpV$p) R>p. s Ap`_u dpV$pC sfa C_ Ap dpVy$ L$pd Ap` Ahe L$fp, S>\u
Ad Ap` A_ Ap`_u Apop `pg_dp e\p\ s`f fluA. Adpfp kh
rR>p_ Ap` S> Y$pL $p. Ap` kds cyh_p_p `rs (hpdu) R>p. S>\u Ad
Ap`_ hpfhpf p\_p L$fuA R>uA L$ Adpfp `f kv$p L$`pr$ fpMu
L$epZL$pfL$ b_p. l `fdpd_ ! Ap`_p rkhpe Adpfy L$epZ L$f_pf buSy>
L$pC _\u. Ad_ b^u fus Ap`_p S> cfpkp R>. S> Ap` S> `|Z L$fip.

A_ ApL$pi kdp_ r_rhL$pf, npcfrls A_ kh Ar^L$fZ R>. s S> kh


S>Ns_p YmVm ^pfZL$sp R>. {dYmVm rhrh^ rhrQ S>Ns_p D`pv$L$ R> s\p
na_ CV khpL$$ R>. gH$ kh_p `p` A_ `ye_ e\phs _pf R>. S>
d_yep s Cf_u S> c[s, s Cf `f S> rhpk A_ s_p S> kL$pf
(`|) L$f R>, s_ R>pX$u_ Ae L$pC_ gidp `Z dp_sp _\u, s d_yep_
S> B[R>s kyM p \pe R>, buAp_ _rl. s Cf `psp_p csp_
kyMdp S> fpM R> A_ s csp keL$ hR>p`|hL$ _XpV kv$p `fd
Ap_v$dp S> fl R>, vy$:M_ ps \sp _\u. s `fdpdp AL$ - Aqsue R>.
S> `fdpdp_p kpde\u ks (gpL$) A\ps `pQ pZ, As:L$fZ A_ h
A kh ge_p kde L$pfZc|s S> fl R>, s S> (`fdpdp) S>Ns_u
D`r, [\rs A_ gedp r_rhL$pf A_ Ap_v$h$` fl R>. s_u S>
D`pk_p L$fhp\u Ap`Z kv$p kyMu flu iL$uA R>uA.
(41) d|m syrs

MV: p$Zm{^F$V` gWm: g Zmo {dm`: gWm: g


Z: gdm`: gWm: & An ofmo@An amo@`dV` g{_ &&
`O0 38.20

epep_ : kho khfQL$ Cf {dH$_m (rhrh^ S>Ns D`pv$L$)


R> s\p {d_Zm: rhrh^ (A_s) rhop_eys R> s\p Am{hm`m khep`L$

epep_ : l dlph ! kh fpN_piL$ Cf ! Qpf M|Zphpmu


_prc (dd\p_) F$s (fk)\u cfgu, Apfpeeys A_ rhop__y Of
(rhop_\u k`|Z) gWm: Ap`_u L$`p\u rhss kyMeys \pAp, s\p
Ap`_u L$`p\u {dm`: `|Z Apey \pAp. S>d Ap` kh kpde\u rhsuZ
R>p sd S> Ad_ rhss - rhspfhpmy kyMeys kh Apey Ap`p. l
ipsh$` ! Ad Anof: Ap`_u L$`p\u jfrls s\p Ana: Qg_
(L$`_) frls b_uA. Ap`_u Apop A_ Ap`_p rkhpe bu L$pC _
gidp `Z Cf dp_uA _rl, A S> Adpfy hs R>. A\u buSy> hs Ad
L$v$u `Z _ dp_uA. `fsy Ap`_y g{_ kv$p kh_ L$fuA. A S> Adpfp `fd
r_e R>. Ap` L$`p L$fu_ A `fd r_e_u fnp L$fp - `pg_ L$fphp.

Apep r crh_e

72

(40) d|m p\_p

{dH$_m {d_Zm @ Am{hm`m YmVm {dYmVm na_moV gH$ &


Vofm{_>m{Z g{_fm _XpV `m g@F$frZ na@ EH$_mh: &&
`O0 17.26

71

Apep r crh_e

(42) d|m p\_p

`mo Z: {nVm O{ZVm `mo {dYmVm Ym_m{Z doX ^dZm{Z {dm &
`mo XodmZm Zm_Ym@EH$@Ed V g
^dZm ```m &&
`O0 17.27
epep_ : l d_yep ! S> Ap`Zp r`sp (r_e `pg_ L$f_pf),
O{ZVm (S>_L$) D`pv$L$ {dYmVm kh dpnkyMpqv$_p rh^peL$ (rkqL$sp)
{dm kh cyh_ - gpL$gpL$ps f Ym_ A\ps [\rs_p \p_p_ e\phs
Z_pf, kh D`_ \egp c|sdpdp rhdp_ (D`[\s) R>, S> Xodm0
qv$e k|e Apqv$ gpL$p (`v$p\p), Ae (B[epqv$ Apdp_p kp^_p) s\p
rhp_p_p _pd_u eh\pqv$ L$f_pf AL$ Aqsue s S> (`fdpdp) R>, Ae
L$pC _\u. s S> Ap`Zp hpdu A_ r`spqv$ R>. sdp L$pC iL$p fpMhu _rl
s\p s S `fdpdp_p (rhjedp) kpfu fus -Df L$fhpdp rhp_, hv$pqv$
ip A_ pZudp s`f fl R>. L$pfZ L$ `fdpdp s_u Apop A_ sZ
fQgp S>Ns_y e\p\ r_e`|hL$ (op_) L$fhy A S> Aes `yfyjp\ R>. s_p
(op_)\u S> ^d, A\, L$pd A_ dpn A Qpf L$pf_p `yfyjp\_p am_u
rkq (prs) \pe R>, Ae\p _rl. AV$gp dpV$ S> kh d_yepA ^dpqv$
`v$p\p_u e\phs rkq s_, d_, ^_ A_ Apdp_p `|Z e_\u s\p
Cf_u klpesp\u Ahe L$fhu CA.
(43) d|m syrs

`mmJVmo Xya_X{V Xd VX g` VWd{V &


Xya_ `mo{Vfm `mo{VaoH$ V_o _Z: {edgH$n_V &&

v|$f-v|$f S>_pf-Aph_pf (cV$L$_pf) R>. S>_p v|$f S>hp_p (cV$L$hp_p)


hcph S> R>. Ar_, k|epqv$, pspqv$ B[ep, A eprs-L$piL$p_ y `Z
eprs-L$piL$ R>. A\ps d_ rh_p L$pC `v$p\_p L$pi - op_ L$v$u `Z \sy
_\u. s AL$ dlpQQm, hNhp_ d_ Ap`_u L$`p\u S> [\f, iy, ^dpdp
A_ rhpeys b_u iL$ R>. Xod_ v$h (Apdp)_y dye kp^L$, c|s, crhe
A_ hsdp_L$pm_ Z_pfy R>. s Ap`_p (khr_esp_p) S> hidp R>. s_
Ap` Adpfp hidp e\phs kpfu fus L$fp, S>\u Ad L$v$pr` Ly$L$ddp akpCA
_rl A_ ldip rhp, ^d A_ Ap`_u khpdp s`f fluA.
(44) d|m p\_p

Z V {dXmW ` B_m OOmZm`_mH$_Va ~^yd &


ZrhmaoU mdVm O`m MmgVn CWemgapV &&
`O0 17.31
epep_ : l hp ! S> `fdpdp Ap kh cyh_p (S>Ns)_
b_ph_pf rhL$dp R>, s_ sd Zsp _\u. AV$gp dpV$ sd ZrhmaoU Aes
Arhp\u Ofpeg, rdephpv$, _p[sL$sp A_ bL$hpv$ L$fp R>p. S>\u sd_
vy$:M S> dmi, kyM _rl dm. sd AgVn: L$hm hp\_u kp^_pdp A_
pZ (`psp_p r`X$) `pjZ dpdp h \C fp R>p. CWemgapV
L$hm rhjep-cpNp dpV$ S> Ahqv$L$ L$d L$fhpdp h \C fp R>p A_ S>Z
Ap kh cyh_p_u fQ_p L$fu R> s khi[sdp_ A_ epeL$pfu `fb\u
rh`fus Qpgp R>p, dpV$ S> sd s_ Zsp _\u.
: s b A_ Ap`Z (hpdp) A b_ AL$ R>uA L$ _rl ?

epep_ : l ^er_fy`h - ^prdL$p dpV$ D`hfrls `fdpdp


! Ap`_u L$`p\u dpfy d_ kv$p {edgH$n ^d A_ L$epZL$pfu kL$`hpmy
b_. L$v$u `Z A^dL$pfu _ b_. s d_ L$hy R> ? d_ye_u Ns Ah\pdp

Df : `_mH$_Va b A_ h_u AL$sp hv$ A_ ey[s\u


L$v$u rk \C iL$su _\u, L$pfZ L$ h A_ b_u `|h A_pqv $L$pm\u
rc_sp flgu R>. h Arhp Apqv$ v$pjp\u eys R>. b Arhp Apqv$
v$pj p\u eys _\u - v$pjfrls R>. Ap\u A r_qs \pe R> L$ h A_ b
AL$ _ lsp, _ \i A_ _ R>. `fsy h A_ b_p kb^ epe-ep`L$,

Apep r crh_e

74

`O0 34.1

73

Apep r crh_e

Ap^pf-Ap^e A_ ke-khL$pqv$ R>. S>\u L$pC`Z d_ye h A_


b_u AL$sp dp_hu epe _\u.
(45) d|m syrs

^J Ed ^Jdm 2 @ AV XodmVoZ d` ^JdV: `m_ &


V dm ^J gd Bmmohdr{V g Zmo ^J na EVm ^doh &&
`O0 34.38
epep_ : l kh_p Ar^`rs ! dlpfpS>f ! Ap` ^J: `fd
Ae h$` lphp\u cNhp_ R>p. l (Xodm:) rhp_p ! VoZ (^JdVm
goaghm`oZ) s cNhp_ - k_ (Ap_v$h$`) Cf_u klpesp\u
Ap`Z `fd Aeeys b_uA. l ^J `fdf ! kds kkpf Vdm
Ap`_ S> NlZ L$fhp_u Aes BR>p L$f R>, L$pfZ L$ Ahp L$pZ cpelu_
- lscpNu d_ye lpe L$ S> Ap`_ ps L$fhp_u BR>p _ L$f ? Ap` sp
Ad_ \d\u S> p \ep R>p. `R>u L$pC`Z kde Ap` A_ (Ap`_y)
Ae Adpfp\u v|$f _ \pAp. Ap` Ad_ Ap`_u L$`p\u Ap S>ddp `fd
Ae_p e\pepe cpN L$fphp A_ Ad Ap`_u khpdp r_e s`f fluA.
(46) d|m p\_p

JUmZm dm JUn{V_ hdm_ho {`mUm dm {`n{V_


hdm_ho {ZYrZm dm {Z{Yn{V_ hdm_ho dgmo __ &
Amh_Om{Z J^Y_m d_Om{g J^Y_ &&

Ap`_ ly r_qs$` "r_r^`rs' . l dgmo kh S>Ns_ S> kpde\u


D` L$fg R>, s Ap`_p kpde_y ^pfZ A_ `pjZ L$f_pf Ap`_ S> ly
. kh_y L$pfZ Ap`_y kpde R>. A S> kds S>Ns_y ^pfZ A_
`pjZ L$f R>. A hpqv$ - pZu S>Ns sp S>d ^pfZ L$f R> A_ dfZ
`pd R>, `fsy Ap` sp kv$p_ dpV$ AS>dp A_ Ads h$` R>p. Ap`_u
L$`p\u A^d, Arhp, vy$$cph Apqv$_ AOm{Z v|$f aL$u v$J s\p Ad kh
Ap`_u S> hdm_ho Aes `^p (pr_u BR>p) L$fuA R>uA. sp lh Ap`
Ad_ sL$pm p \pAp. Ap` Ad_ p \hpdp (dmhpdp) S>fp `Z
rhgb L$fip (\pX$y `Z dpXy$ L$fip) sp Adpfy epe L$pC W$L$p _rl fl.
(47) d|m p\_p

AZo dVnVo dV M{a`m{_ VN>Ho$` V_o am`Vm_ &


BX_h_ZVmg`_n{_ &&
`O0 1.5
epep_ : l k[Qv$p_v$, hL$pih$` Cf-A_ ! ly
bQe, Nl\, hp_\ A_ kepk Apqv$ kehsp_y ApQfZ L$fui. sp
Ap` L$`p L$fu_ A hsp_ kpfu fus rk - kam b_php s\p ly A_s Ar_e v$lpqv$ `v$p\p\u Sy>v$p flu_ A e\p\ ke L$ S>_p L$v$pr` ercQpf
(rhL$pf) - rh_pi \sp _\u, Ahp rhpqv$ gnZhpmp ^d_ p L$fy Ahu
dpfu BR>p_ Ap` `|Z L$fp, S>\u ly ke, rhp_, ke ApQfZeys b_u
Ap`_u c[s\u eys flu ^dpdp b_y.
(48) d|m syrs

`O0 23.19

` Am_Xm ~bXm `` {d@CnmgVo {ef `` Xodm: &


`` N>m`m_V `` _`: H$_ Xodm` h{dfm {dYo_ &&

epep_ : l kd|l_p Ar^`rs ! Ap` dpfp kh kd|lp_p `rs


lphp\u Ap`_ "NZ`rs' _pd\u NlZ - kbp^_ L${$ Ry> s\p Ap` S> dpfp
re L$dL$pfu `v$p\p A_ d_yep_p `pgL$ R>p. A\u Ap`_ ly "re`rs'
Ahe . Ahu S> fus dpfp kh r_r^ - cX$pf_p `rs - hpdu lphp\u
Apep r crh_e

75

`O0 25.13
76

Apep r crh_e

epep_ : l d_yep ! S> `fdpdp Ap`Z_ Am_Xm: Apdp_p


Ap`_pf (A\ps L$dp_ykpf rhrc_ ifuf kp\ Apdp_ keys L$f_pf)
s\p Apdop_ Apqv$_p v$psp R>, hpZv$psp (h_ A_ pZ Ap`_pf)
s\p ~bXm: qrh^bm - AL$ dp_k rhop_bm, buSy> B[ebm A\ps
ppqv$_u h\sp, shq A_ uSy> ifufbm - dlp`yr$, ANp_u Y$sp
A_ hue Apqv$_u hq, Ap Z bmp_p v$psp R>. S>_p {ef_ A_yipk_
(rinpdepv$p)_ rhp_p e\phs dp_ R>. kh pZu A_ ApZu, S>X$ A_
Qs_, rhp_ A\hp d|M L$pC L$v$u`Z `fdpdp_p r_edp_y DgO_ L$fu
iL$sp _\u. S>d L$, L$p_\u kpcmhy, ApM\u hy A_p\u rh`fus L$pC_p\u
L$fu iL$psy _\u. S>_u R>pep - Ape S> Ads - rhop_u d_yep dpV$ dpn
- L$lhpe R> A_ S>_u AR>pep (AL$`p) vy$$ d_yep dpV$ hpfhpf dfZ A_
S>d$` dlpgiv$peL$ R>. l kS>$_ rdp ! s S> AL$ `fd kyMv$peL$ r`sp
R>. Aphp, Ap`Z kh dmu_ d, rhpk A_ c[s L$fuA. L$v$u `Z s
(`fdpdp)_ R>pX$u_ bu_ D`pk_p epe _ dp_uA. s S> Ap`Z_
Aes kyM Ap`i Adp L$pC`Z L$pf_p kv$l _\u.
(49) d|m syrs

CnhyyVm@ Bh Jmd@ CnhyVm@ AOmd`: &


AWmo@A` H$rbmb@ CnhyVmo Jhof Z: &
jo_m` d: em` no {ed e_ e`mo: e`mo: &&
`O0 3.43
epep_ : l `iy Apqv$_p `rs ! dlpd_ ! Ap`_u L$`p\u S>
Dd-Dd Npe, ck, OpX$p, lp\u, bL$fu, OV$ p s\p D`gnZ\u Ae
kyMv$peL$ kh `iyAp A_ A_, kh fpN_piL$ Apjr^Ap_p $ fkp Z:
Adpfp Ofpdp r_e [\f - ps L$fphp, S>\u Ad_ L$pC `v$p\ rh_p
vy$:M _ \pe. l rhp_p ! d: (`_mH$_) Ap`_p kN\u A_ Cf_u
L$`p\u nd, Ly$imsp, iprs s\p kh L$pf_p D`h_p rh_pi dpV$ {ed_
Apep r crh_e

77

dpn_y kyM e__ A_ kkpf_p kyM_ ly e\phs ps L$fy$. ly dpn_p


kyM_u s\p Apqv$_p kyM_u L$pd_p L$fy Ry>. sp dpfu A b_ L$pd_pAp
Ap` e\phs S>gv$u `|fu L$fp. `psp_p csp_u L$pd_pAp Ahe `|fu
L$fhp_p sp Ap`_p hcph S> R>.
(50) d|m p\_p

V_remZ OJVVWfn{V {Y`pOd_dgo hy_ho d`_ &


nyfm Zmo `Wm doXgm_gX dYo a{jVm nm`aXY: dV`o &&
`O0 25.18
epep_ : l kyM A_ dpn_u BR>p L$f_pf d_yep ! s
`fdpdp_ S> hy_ho p L$fhp dpV$ Ap`Z Aes `^p (BR>p) L$fuA
R>uA, L$ s Ap`Z_ epf dmi. L$pfZ L$ s BemZ_ (kh S>Ns_p hpdu)
R> A_ Ci_ (D`pv$_) L$fhp_u BR>p L$f_pf R>. S>Ns b L$pf_y R> Qf A_ AQf. A b_ L$pf_p S>Ns_y `pg_ L$f_pf s S> R>. {Y`pOd_
rhop_de, rhop_v$ A_ srL$pfL$ Cf rkhpe bu L$pC _\u. s_y Adgo
Ap`Zu fnp dpV$ Ap`Z `^p (BR>p) `|hL$ Aplhp_ L$fuA R>uA. S>hu
fus s Cf nyfm Ap`Zp dpV$ `pjZ L$f_pf R>, shu S> fus doXgm_ ^_
A_ rhop_p_u hq_p a{jVm fnL$ R> s\p dV`o D`h _ fl AV$gp dpV$
Ap`Zp nm`: `pgL$ `Z s S> R> A_ AXY: rlkpfrls R>. AV$gp dpV$ l
d_yep ! Cf S> r_fpL$pf, kh Ap_v$v$ R>, s_ c|gip _rl. s_p rh_p
kyM_y buSy> L$pC W$L$p (\p_) _\u.
(51) d|m syrs

_`rX{_@ Bp` XYmd_mZ am`mo _KdmZ: gMVm_ &


A_mH$ gdm{ef: g`m Z: gdm{ef: &&
`O0 2.10
78

Apep r crh_e

epep_ : l B `fd Aehp_ Cf ! _{` dpfpdp rhop_pqv$


iy B[ep, am`: A_ Dd ^__ _KdmZ: Ap` `fd ^_hp_ R>p
gMVm_ sL$pm p L$fphp. l kh L$pd `|Z L$f_pf Cf ! Ap`_u L$`p\u
Adpfu ApipAp ke (amuc|s) S> \hu CA (`y_fys `pW$ Aes d
A_ hfp S>Zph R>). l cNh_ ! Adpfu BR>p Ap` sL$pm ke L$fp,
S>\u epeeys BR>p rk \hp\u Ad kv$p `fdp_v$dp fluA.

epep_ : l kho A ! `fdpd_ ! S> rhop_eys A_ e\p\


^pfZphpmu byq_ v$hp_p (rhp_p_p) kd|l CnmgVo ^pfZ L$f R>, s\p
e\p\ `v$p\ rhop_hpmp {nVa: S> byq_ D`-Apqs R>, A byq\u L$`p
L$fu_ Ap S> kde - Aepf S> d_ d^phu b_php. dmhm Ap (rh_e)_
Ap` A_yNl A_ urs\u huL$pfp L$ S>\u dpfu kh S>X$sp (Aop_Arhp) v|$f \C e.

(52) d|m p\_p

(54) d|m p\_p

gXgn{V_X^V {`{_` H$m`_ &


g{Z _oYm_`m{gf_ dmhm &&

_oYm _o dUmo XXmV _oYm_{Z: Omn{V: &


_oYm{_ dm` _oYm YmVm XXmV _o dmhm &&

`O. 32.13

`O0 32.15

epep_ : l kcp`s ! rhpde, epeL$pfu, kcpkv$, kcpre


! kcp S> Adpfp epeL$pfu fp b_ Ahu BR>phpmp Ap` Ad_ L$fp (Ad
A S> BR>p L$fuA). L$pC AL$ d_ye_ Ad fp L$v$u _ b_phuA. `fsy
(kcp\u `Z kyMv$peL$) Ap`_ S> Ad kcp`rs, kdpen, fp dp_uA.
Ap` Av$cys Apede, rhrQ, i[s_p cX$pf A_ reh$` S> R>p. B
Ap` S> hp_p L$d_ue (L$pd_p L$fhp epe) R>p. g{Z_ Ap` S> hp_p
keL$ cS>_ L$fhp epe s\p kh_ue `Z R>p. l cNh_ ! ly d^p A\ps
rhp, ke, ^dpqv$ ^pfZphpmu byq_u epQ_p L$fy$ Ry>, S> Ap` L$`p L$fu_
Ap`p. dmhm A S> dpfu hpZu L$l R> L$ AL$ Cf rkhpe bu L$pC `Z
hp_p kh_ue _\u. hv$dp Cf_u A S> Apop R>. s\u kh d_yepA
dp_hp epe R>.

epep_ : l kh DL$$ Cf ! Ap` dU: hf (hfZue)


Ap_v$h$` R>p. L$`p L$fu_ d_ d^p, kh rhpk`_ byq Ap`p s\p
A{Z: rhop_de, rhop_v$ Omn{V: kds kkpf_p Ar^$psp, `pgL$,
B: `fd Aehp_, dm`: rhop_hp_ A_sbm, YmVm k`|Z S>Ns_y
^pfZ A_ `pjZ L$f_pf Ap` d_ Ars Dd d^p (byq) Ap`p.1

BX _o ~ M j Mmo^o {l`_ZVm_ &


_{` Xodm XYV {l`_m_m V` Vo dmhm &&
`O0 32.16
epep_ : l dlprhphp_, dlpfpS>, khf ! Adpfp ~
(rhp_) A_ j_ (fp s\p fpe, dlpQsyf, epeL$pfu, i|fhuf fpqv$

(53) d|m syrs

`m _oYm XodJUm: {nVamonmgVo &


V`m _m_ _oY`mZo _oYm{dZ H$ dmhm &&
`O0 32.14
Apep r crh_e

(55) d|m syrs

79

1. Cf `pk A_L$ hpf dpNhy A Aes urs_y psL$ A_ sL$pm v$p_ L$f AV$gp dpV$ R>. byq\u
$ L$pC `v$p\ _\u. s_p lphp\u h_ kh kyM dm R>. AV$gp dpV$ `fdpdp `pk hpfhpf
byq_u epQ_p L$fhu $ hps R>.

80

Apep r crh_e

nqe) A b_ Ap`_u A_s L$`p\u e\phs (A_yL|$m) b_p. {l`_ Ad_


khpd rhpqv$ gnZeys dlpfpeu p \pAp. l Xodm: rhp_p ! qv$e
Cf-NyZ, `fd L$`p Apqv$, Dd rhpqv$ gnZeys u dpfpdp AQmsp
([\fsp)\u ^pfZ L$fphp. ly s_ Aes urs\u huL$pf Lfy$ A_ A u_p
rhpqv$ kv$NyZ A\hp kh kkpf_p rls dpV$ s\p fpe Apqv$_u eh\p
dpV$ ee L$fy.

dlrj v$ep_v$ kfhsu frQs N\

1. kep\L$pi

17. cprsr_hpfZ

2. kL$pfrhr^

18. L$piu ipp\

3. F$hv$pqv$cpec|rdL$p

19. lyNgu ipp\ (rsdp`|S>_ rhQpf)

B{V lr_na_hgn{admOH$mMm`mUm

4. F$hv $cpe

20. ke ^d rhQpf (Qpv$p`yf_p dmp)

lr`V{daOmZXgadVrdm{_Zm _hm{dXfm {e`oU

5. eSy>hv$ cpe

21. g^f ipp\

X`mZXgadVrdm{_Zm {da{MV

6. `Qdlpeorhr^

22. kepkerhhL$ (bfgu ipp\)

Am`m{^{dZ`o {Vr`:

7. Apeprcrh_e

23. Apepef_dpgp

8. kL$s hpe bp^

24. NpL$fyZpr_r^

9. ehlpfcp_y

25. Qsyhv$rhjek|rQ

10. hv$pNL$pi (14 MX$)

26. ApdQqf

11. cpNhsMX$_ A\hp `pMX$MX$_

27. A$pepeu cpe

12. hv$prshpsr_hpfZ

28. kep (Ape)

13. hv$rhfydsMX$_

29. AsdsMX$_ (Ape)

14. rinp`uhpsr_hpfZ

30. Nv$cspr`_u D`r_jv$ (Ape)

15. cdpR>v$_

31. Npsd-Alep L$u L$\p (Ape)

H$me: gnyU: &&


g_mm@`L JW: &&

16. A_ycdpR>v$_

Apep r crh_e

81

82

Apep r crh_e