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A-Hng dn tnh ton bi tp di mn hc: Bo v cc h thng in

S liu ban u:
115 kV

Y0/Y0

24 kV

MC 1

P1
BI 1

MC 2

BI 2

HT
BV1

BV2

H thng: Smax=1000 MVA, Smin=0,8 Smax, X0=1,1 X1


TBA: S=2*15 MVA, U1/U2=115/24 kV, Uk%=15%;
ng dy: D1: L1=25 km, AC-175; D2: L2=10 km, AC-175,
Bit AC-175: z1=0,15+j0,37 ;z0=0,35+j0,97
Ph ti: P1=3 MW, cos=0,9; tp1=0,5 s
P2=5 MW, cos=0,8; tp2=0,75 s
c tnh thi gian: t=120*Tp/(I*-1)
Ni dung tnh ton cho bi tp di:
1. Chn t s bin dng ca my bin dng dng cho bo v ng dy
c chn theo cng thc: n=Isdd/Itdd
IsddIptmax : dng ph ti ln nht chy qua s cp ca BI
Itdd=1 A;
Dy BI: 10-12,5-15-20-25-30-40-50-60 v bi s 10, 100 hoc1000 ca nhng s ny
Ch t cng thc trn ta cn tnh Isdd v cn c vo Isdd v dy BI trn chn t s BI
V d nu Isdd=158 A, ta c th chn n=200
V d: i BV2, dng ph ti ln nht qua s cp BI2 bng:
IBI2=

2. Tnh ton ngn mch phc v bo v r le


a) Bin i thng s ca cc phn t trong h thng

P2

Chn h n v tng i c bn: Scb=15 MVA


Ucbi=Utbi
H thng: X1ht=Scb/SN, X0ht=1,1*X1ht
Ch cc i: SN=Smax
Ch cc tiu: SN=Smin
V d:
Ch cc i:
X1ht=X2ht=15/1000=0,015; X0ht=1,1*0,015=.....
+My bin p lm vic song song:
Mt my bin p: X1b=Uk%*Scb/(100*Sm Ba)=0,015
Do 2 mba lm vic ss: Xb=0,5*0,015
+ng dy
D1: Xd1=L1*0,37*Scb/242
X0d1=L1*0,97*Scb/242
Tng t vi ng dy D2
b) Chn v tr im ngn mch:
X
ht

X
td

Xd1/4

N1

Xd1/4

N2

Xd1/4

N3

Xd1/4

N4

Xd2/4

N5

Xd2/4

N6

Xd2/4

N7

Xd2/4

N8

N9

Chia hai on ng dy lin tip thnh 4 phn bng nhau, do vy chng ta s phi tnh 9
im ngn mch N1 n N9
V d tnh ngn mch ti N1, ta s phi tnh in khng t ngun n im N1:
XN1=X1ht+Xtd
X0N1=X0ht+Xtd
Tnh ngn mch ti N6, ta tnh in khng t ngun n im N6:
XN6=X1ht+Xtd+Xd1+Xd2/4

X0N6=X0ht+Xtd+Xd1+Xd2/4
Ti N4:
XN4=X1ht+Xtd+3*Xd1/4;
X0N4=X0ht+Xtd+3*Xd1/4;
Tng t cho cc im khc.
***i vi tng im ngn mch, ta tnh vi 3 dng ngn mch (i ch cc i)
-Ngn mch 3 pha i xng
-Ngn mch 1 pha
-Ngn mch 2 pha chm t
Xt ch ngn mch ko i xng: tnh ton ngn mch ko i xng ta s dng phng
php cc thnh phn i xng. in p v dng in c chia thnh 3 thnh phn: th t
thun, th t nghch v th t khng.
Dng in ngn mch th t thun ca mi dng ngn mch u c th tnh theo cng thc:
*(n)
INa1=

Trong

l in khng ph ca cc loi ngn mch n

Tr s dng in ngn mch tng hp ti cc pha c th tnh theo cng thc:


)

Bng tm tt sau:
Dng ngn mch
N(1)
N(2)
N(1,1)

N
1
2
1,1

X2+X0
X2
X2 X0

N(3)

*V d, tnh ngn mch ti im N1:

-Ngn mch 3 pha i xng:


XN1=X1ht+Xtd
Trong h n v tng i:
*(3)
IN1*=1/XN1
Trong h n v c tn:
)

kA

*(1) (ngn mch 1 pha)

Theo cng thc trong bng:


)
)

Dng in ngn mch tng hp:


Trong h n v c tn:

kA

Thnh phn dng in th t khng:


)

Trong h n v c tn:

kA

*(1,1) (ngn mch 2 pha chm t)


)

Tnh trong h n v tng i:


)
)

Dng in ngn mch th t khng trong h n v tng i:


)

Trong h n v c tn:

Dng in ngn mch tng hp


)

Trong h n v c tn:
)

kA

*** Tnh ton tng t cho cc im khc (iu duy nht thay i y khi ta thay i cc
im l gi tr in khng th t thun, th t nghch v th t khng t ngun n im
ngn mch)
*** Sau khi tnh ht cc im ta c bng tng hp nh sau:
N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

N6

N7

N8

N9

INmax
(kA)
IN0max
(kA)
3*IN0max
(kA)
CH : i vi dng ngn mch th t khng, ta so snh hai gi tr dng ngn mch th t
khng khi ngn mch 1 pha v ngn mch 2 pha chm t ri chn gi tr ln hn v a vo
bng.
3. Tnh ton thng s cho cc bo v ct nhanh, qu dng v th t khng
a. Bo v qu dng ct nhanh (50)
Tr s dng khi ng ca bo v qu dng ct nhanh:
Ikd=kat*INmax

Chn kat=1,2
INmax: dng ngn mch ngoi cc i l dng ngn mch ln nht thng ly bng gi tr
dng ngn mch trn thanh ci cui ng dy.
V d, chn dng khi ng cho bo v ct nhanh trn on D2:
Ikd2=kat * IN9max
Bo v ct nhanh trn on ng dy D1:
Ikd1=kat*IN5max
b. Bo v qu dng th t khng ct nhanh (50N)
Tr s dng khi ng ca bo v qu dng th t khng ct nhanh c chn nh sau:
Iokd=kat*3*IN0max
Vi bo v cho ng dy D1, gi tr IN0max phi c xc nh ti im N5
I0kd=kat*3*IN0max (ti N5)
Vi ng dy D2, gi tr IN0max phi c xc nh ti im N9
c. Bo v qu dng c thi gian (51)
-Dng khi ng ca bo v qu dng c thi gian c la chn theo cng thc:
Ikd=k*Ilvmax
H s chnh nh k=1,6
Ilvmax: dng in lm vic ln nht (gi tr ny c tnh bng gi tr s cp qua BI,
c tnh phn la chn t s ca BI)
-Thi gian lm vic ca bo v
T c tnh thi gian rle: t=

(3.4)

Trong I*=I/Ikd vi I: l gi tr ngn mch ti im tnh ton, Ikd: gi tr dng khi ng


ca bo v
V d, vi bo v 2: ti im ngn mch N9:
I9*=IN9max/Ikd2, Ikd2: gi tr dng khi ng ca bo v 2

Ti N9: t2(N9)=tpt2+t= 0,75+0,3=1,05 s


Nh vy ti N9: 1,05=120*Tp2/(I*N9-1), t tnh c thi gian ci t cho bo v 2
+i vi cc im ngn mch N5 n N8, ln lt tnh I* v s dng cng thc (3.4) vi
gi tr Tp2 va tnh c ta s xc nh c thi gian tc ng ca bo v 2 vi cc im
t N5 n N8
+i vi bo v s 1: ta cng phi xy dng c tnh thi gian lm vic tng t vi cc
im t N1 n N5
Ch ti N5: t1(N5)=max(tpt1,t2(N5))+t
Vn p dng cng thc 3.4, vi I*=IN5max/Ikd1 vi Ikd1 gi tr dng khi ng ca bo v 1
Ta tnh c thi gian t ca bo v 1, Tp1
Tnh ton tng t cho cc im ngn mch t N1 n N4
Nh vy thi gian tc ng ca rle t N1 n N9 ca hai bo v 1 v 2 c xc nh
t ta s v c c tnh thi gian tc ng ca rle

th trn l v d v ng c tnh thi gian tc ng ca rle (s d c hai ng v


ng di xt vi trng hp cc tiu h thng)
d. Bo v qu dng th t khng c thi gian
-Tnh tr s dng in khi ng
c chn theo cng thc: I0kd=k0*IsddBI
Vi k0=0,3 v IsddBI: dng danh nh s cp ca BI ( c chn phn tnh t s BI)

Nh vy, mi bo v s c gi tr I0kd khc nhau


-Thi gian lm vic ca bo v qu dng th t khng c thi gian chn theo c tnh c
lp:
t02=tpt2+t
t01=max (tpt1, t02) + t
4. Kim tra s lm vic ca bo v
+V th gi tr dng ngn mch ca cc im t N1 n N9, ng gi tr khi ng
ca bo v 1 v bo v 2

V th vi cc gi tr dng ngn mch t N1 n N9, c kt hp vi ng gi tr Ikd c


chn cho bo v ct nhanh
V d, i vi th trn, th t cc ng ngang l (trn xung di): Ikd1 (50) (bv qu dng
ct nhanh cho BV1), I0kd1 (50) (bo v qu dng ct nhanh th t khng cho BV1), Ikd2 (50)
(BV qu dng ct nhanh cho BV2), I0kd2 (50) (bo v qu dng ct nhanh th t khng cho
BV2)
ng cong (trn di): ng gi tr ngn mch INmax, IN0max
-T th xc nh c phm vi bo v ca bo v 1 v 2 i bo v qu dng ct nhanh
V d, t th trn, phm vi bo v ca qu dng ct nhanh cho BV1 l on ng dy t
N1 n N4 vi chiu di bng l1= ..... km, cho BV2 l on ng dy t N1 n N7, di
bng l2=........km

T nhn xt c BV1 bo v c bao nhiu phn trm ng dy D1, BV2 c bao


nhiu phn trm ng dy D2
-Xc nh phm vi bo v ca BV1 v BV2 i qu dng th t khng ct nhanh, a ra
nhn xt
B-Mt s cu hi n tp
1.My bin dng in: chc nng, s ng tr, cch nh du u cc cun dy, sai s, ph
ti tnh ton
2.My bin in p: chc nng, s ng tr, sai s v cc loi my bin in p thng gp
3.Nguyn l qu dng in chn dng in khi ng bo v qu dng in c thi gian v
bo v dng ct nhanh
4.Nguyn l so lch dng in v so lch dng in c hm
5.Nguyn l so snh pha dng in
6.Bo v qu dng c nh hng cng sut. Phm vi s dng
7.Nguyn l tng tr
8.Bo v ng dy ti in bng bo v qu dng in c c tnh thi gian c lp v ph
thuc. Phi hp cc c tnh thi gian
9.S dng bo v qu dng c hng bo v cc ng dy ti in. Cch phi hp thi
gian tc ng gia cc bo v.
10.Lnh vc ng dng ca bo v ct nhanh c hng.
11.S dng bo v so lch c hm bo v cc ng dy ti in
12.Bo v cc ng dy ti in bng r le khong cch. Phi hp tng tr, thi gian tc
ng gia cc cp ca bo v khong cch nh th no?
13.Cc yu t nh hng n s lm vic ca r le khong cch.
14.Bo v chng chm t trong li in c dng chm t b (trung tnh cch in)
15.Nhim v ca bo v rle, cc yu cu c bn ca mch bo v
16.Cc s ni my bin dng vi rle, u nhc im v kh nng lm vic ca tng s

17.nh gi bo v dng cc i lm vic c thi gian


18.nh gi bo v so lch dc
19.nh gi bo v khong cch
Bi tp thi tng t nh bi tp di song khi lng tnh ton t hn