Shalom Wenceslao



Data Communication

1. Define data communication. The processes, facilities and equipment used to transport encode information from one point to another. Other term for data communication. 2. What are organizational standards of data communication? (indicate what organization and the set standards)  American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI is an organization of U.S. industry and business groups dedicated to the development of trade and communication standards. ANSI defines and publishes standards for: o Codes. o Alphabets. o Signaling schemes. o Communications protocols. ANSI also represents the United States in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). ANSI in Microcomputers In the microcomputer field, ANSI is commonly encountered in the areas of programming languages and the SCSI interface. Programming languages, such as C, conform to ANSI recommendations to eliminate problems in transporting a program from one type of computer system or environment to another. ANSI Specifications Major ANSI specifications and standards include: o ANSI 802.1-1985/IEEE 802.5: Token Ring access, protocols, cabling, and interface. o ANSI/IEEE 802.3: Coaxial-cable carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) for Ethernet networks. o ANSI X3.l35 : Structured query language (SQL) database query methods for frontend clients and back-end database services. o ANSI X3.92 : A privacy and security encryption algorithm. o ANSI X12 : Electronic data interchange (EDI) defining the exchange of purchase orders, bills of lading, invoices, and other business forms. o ANSI X3T9.5 : Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) specification for voice and data transmission over fiber-optic cable at 100 Mbps. o SONET : Synchronous Optical Network, a fiber-optic specification defining a global infrastructure for the transmission of synchronous and isochronous (time-sensitive data such as real-time video) information.  Comité Consultatif lnternationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie (CCITT). The CCITT, which is also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, is based in Geneva, Switzerland. It was established as part of the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and ITU remains its parent organization. The CCITT studies and recommends use of communications standards that are recognized

700 (ISO 9595) : Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP). o SG 9 : Television and sound transmission. . o V. o Facsimile transmission (faxes). o SG 11 : Signaling requirements and protocols. o SG 5 : Protection against electromagnetic effects from the environment. The V Series The recommendations for standardizing modem design and operations (transmission over telephone networks) are collectively called the V series.throughout the world.25 (ISO 7776) : Packet-switching network interface.22bis : 2400 bps full-duplex modem standard.28 : Defines circuits in RS-232 interface. o V. o V. o SG 6 : Outside plant.22 : 1200 bps full-duplex modem standard. The CCITT Study Groups The CCITT has been divided into study groups for the 1997-2000 study period.400 bps.32bis : Asynchronous and synchronous standard up to 14. o V. and publishes its recommendations every four years. o V. o SG 7 : Data networks and open system communications.42 : Defines error-checking standards. o SG 10 : Languages and general software aspects for telecommunication systems. o SG 4 : TMN and network maintenance. These subject areas include: o SG 2 : Network and service operation.90 : Defines a standard for 56Kbps modem communication The X Series The X series covers Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards including: o X. o X. These include: o V. o Networks.500 (ISO 9594) : Directory services.400 (ISO 10021): Message handling (e-mail). systems. including related telecommunications economic and policy issues. Each update is distinguished by the color of its cover. o X. o V. o X. o SG 12 : End-to-end transmission performance of networks and terminals. o V. CCITT Protocols CCITT protocols apply to: o Modems. and equipment.200 (ISO 7498) : OSI reference model. o SG 13 : General network aspects. each study group is preparing recommendations for standards in a different subject area. o X. o SG 16 : Multimedia services and systems.35 : Defines high data-rates over combined circuits.32 : Asynchronous and synchronous 4800/9600 bps standard. o SG 3 : Tariff and accounting principles. o SG 15 : Transport networks. o SG 8 : Characteristics of telematic systems.

It defines the serial connections between DTE (Data Terminal Equipment—transmitting equipment) devices and DCE (Data Communications Equipment— receiving equipment) devices. The 802 Committees A subgroup of the IEEE.4 : Token Bus NETWORK.6 : Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). o 802. o RS-449 : A serial interface with DB-37 connections that defines the RS-422 and RS423 as subsets. o 802.-based society that publishes a variety of standards including those for data communications. o 802. o 802. o 802. the society established committees that were to be responsible for defining standards in different networking areas. is also the CCITT V.1 : Internetworking. manufacturers of electronic parts and equipment. o RS-422 : Defines a balanced multipoint interface.8 : Fiber-Optic Technical Advisory Group. EIA Serial Interface Standards The EIA standards for the serial interface between modems and computers include: o RS-232 : A standard for serial connections using DB-9 or DB-25 connectors and maximum cable lengths of 50 feet. CCITT Equivalents BIA standards often have CCITT equivalents. It develops industry standards for the interface between data processing and communications equipment and has published many standards associated with telecommunications and computer communication.S. Electronics Industries Association (EIA). These specifications are passed on to the ANSI for approval and standardization within the United States. o 802. o RS-423 : Defines an unbalanced digital interface. The EIA is an organization founded in 1924 by U.3 : CSMA/CD NETWORK (Ethernet). o 802. Shortly after the 802 project began.2 : Logical Link Control (LLC).5 : Token Ring NETWORK. They are also forwarded to the ISO. The 802 Committees The 802 committees are: o 802.7 : Broadband Technical Advisory Group. the IEEE realized that a single network standard would be inadequate because it would not be able to account for the diverse hardware and emerging architectures. RS-232. the 802 committees began developing network specifications in 1980 to ensure low-cost interfaces.S. .24 standard. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a U.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). for example. The EIA works closely with other associations such as ANSI and ITU (CCITT). To adequately cover the wide range of subjects.

State Department. o Businesses. o Research organizations. 802. The ISO works to establish international standardization of all services and manufactured products. The OMG architecture has been adopted by the Open Software Foundation (OSF). 802. Other organizations represented at the ISO include: o Governmental bodies such as the U.  Object Management Group (OMG). The OMG consists of almost 300 organizations involved in developing a suite of languages. o Educational institutes. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). a model for object-oriented applications and environments. 802. o CCITT. each of which is represented by its leading standard-setting organization. ANSI represents the United States. interfaces. the ISO's goal is to establish global standards for communications and information exchange. The OMG certifies products designed to meet the standards and specifications agreed upon by the OMG members. known as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model which defines standards for the interaction of computers connected by communications networks. The ISO Model The ISO's major achievement in the area of networking and communications has been to define a set of standards. and the British Standards Institution (BSI) represents the United Kingdom.10 : Network Security. The standards will promote open networking environments that let multivendor computer systems communicate with one another using protocols that have been accepted internationally by the ISO membership. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a Paris-based organization of member countries.S.9 : Integrated Voice/Data Networks. ISO Computer Communication Goals In the area of computing.o o o o o  802.11 : Wireless Network. For example. 802.12 : Demand Priority Access NETWORK (100VG-AnyLAN). and protocol standards that vendors can use to create applications that will operate in multivendor environments. . the OMG developed the Object Management Architecture (OMA). In working toward its goals. which is developing portable software environments called the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and the Distributed Management Environment (DME).13 : Cable TV Access Method and Physical Layer Specification.

Digital. and Sun Microsystems. o The Open Software Foundation/1 (OSF/1) This is a UNIX operating system.  SQL Access Group (SAG). SAG is a consortium of 39 companies that was founded in 1989 by Hewlett-Packard. can be used to create a collection of open systems technologies in which users can incorporate software and hardware from several sources. based on the Mach kernel. enhanced security features. o SQL Remote Database Access This specification defines communication between a remote database server and an SQL-based client.The OMG standards are similar to elements in Microsoft object linking and embedding (OLE). referred to as the Open System Software Environment. These vendor-neutral environments. o OSF Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format (ANDF) Developers can use this environment to create a single version of an application that can be used on different hardware architectures. that supports symmetric multiprocessing. . SAG's purpose is to promote interoperability among structured query language (SQL) standards so that several SQL-based relational databases and tools can work together in a multivendor database environment. The following components comprise the OSF software environment: o Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) This platform simplifies the development of products in a mixed environment.and back-end systems. creates computing environments by acquiring and combining technologies from other vendors and distributing the results to interested parties. Its charter is to work with the ISO to create standards covering the interoperability of front. SAG Technical Specifications SAG has developed three technical specifications: o Structured query language This is a specification that follows international specifications in implementing the SQL language. This will make it possible for different database applications running on different platforms to share and exchange data.  Open Software Foundation (OSF). o OSF/Motif This is a graphical user interface that creates a common environment with links to IBM's Common User Access (CUA). and dynamic configuration. A part of the ANSI standards. The OSF. o Distributed Management Environment (DME) The DME makes tools available for managing systems in distributed and multivendor environments. part of the Open Group. Oracle Corporation.

a. Message . e. popular forms of information include text. video. Advantages of digital over analog signal. d. a. etc. is the device which sends the data messages.g. digital CD’s are much more robust than analog LP’s. sender . This is just another way to say you can cram more information (audio. Enables transmission of signals over a long distance. Again. Disadvantages of digital over analog signal. k. Codes are often used in the transmission of information. There is minimal electromagnetic interference in digital technology. g. It is also easier to translate human audio and video signals and other messages into machine language. you are sending a series of numbers that represent the signal of interest (i. etc. Transmission is at a higher rate and with a wider broadband width. which are cheap and easily produced in many components on a single chip. etc. c. it can be a computer. Digital signals do not get corrupted by noise etc. One of the major disadvantages of the analog signal is that they have power b. Analog signals have easy processing.o SQL Access Call-Level Interface (CLI) This group of APIs provides interfacing with SQL-based is information to be communicated. i. c. m. a. It is more secure.e. workstation. l. video. e. secure telephone etc. b. because each information component (byte etc) is determined by the presence or absence of a data bit (0 or none). The letters and numbers to be sent by a Morse code are coded into dots and dashes. Density of the analog signals is much higher as compared to digital ones. pictures. audio. 3. Define each. noise propagation through the demodulation system is minimized with digital techniques. Analog signals vary continuously and their value is affected by all levels of noise.) f.) h. It enables multi-directional transmission simultaneously. These codes can be used either as a means of keeping the information secret or as a means of breaking the information into pieces that are manageable by the technology used to transmit the code. Essential components of data communication. audio. . This means that digital signals are fairly immune to the imperfections of real electronic systems which tend to spoil analog signals. b. The main advantage of digital signals over analog signals is that the precise signal level of the digital signal is not vital. video) into the same space. telephone handset. Digital signals can be processed by digital circuit components. 4. Digital can be encrypted so that only the intended receiver can decode it (like pay per view video. As a result. Digital signals typically use less bandwidth. Digital signals can convey information with greater noise immunity.

But the simplest explanation is that a Bit Rate is how many data bits are transmitted per second. such as voltage. It also refers to the actual state of the connection. etc. or slightly more or less than one bit. receiver . etc. What are losses governing information capacity? Define each. Both are dependent and is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver.. e. Bit rates measure the number of data bits (that is 0′s and 1′s) transmitted in one second in a communication channel. transmission medium . coaxial cable. 6.” Individual characters (for example letters or numbers) that are also referred to as bytes are composed of several bits.g. routers or other devices) are connected to a local area network (LAN) or other network via links (e. The main difference between the two is that one change of state can transmit one bit. The term “change state” means that it can change from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0 up to X (in this case. Define information capacity. So the bit rate (bps) and baud rate (baud per second) have this connection: bps = baud per second x the number of bit per baud 7. A baud Rate is the number of times per second a signal in a communications channel changes. a 2400 baud rate means that the channel can change states up to 2400 times per second. twisted pair copper wire cable or optical fiber cable). is the device which receives the data messages.c. The difference between Bit and Baud rate is complicated and intertwining. without a protocol. d. A baud rate is the number of times a signal in a communications channel changes state or varies. 2400) times per second. protocol . frequency. 5. some examples include twisted-pair wire. hence the abbreviation “bps. A figure of 2400 bits per second means 2400 zeros or ones can be transmitted in one second. Differentiate bit rate from baud rate. telephone handset. printers. or phase level). . two devices may be connected but not communicating.. computer. it is the pattern in which nodes (i. For example. The maximum data rate that can be attained over a given channel. What is data network topology? Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of a network. workstation. that depends on the modulation technique used. it represents an agreement between the communicating devices. it can be a is a set of rules that governs the data communications.

the operating characteristics of these network resources.  tree topology . the network backbone may have a bus topology. this topology is the most preferred and popular model. 8.Local Area Network . What is network configuration? A specific set of network resources that form a communications network at any given point in time.Define and illustrate each topology.  LAN . physically.all the nodes in the network are connected to a central device like a hub or switch via cables. Define each type.  Bus topology . which themselves are connected hierarchically to sub-level nodes. forming a ring. this redundancy makes the network highly fault tolerant but the escalated costs may limit this topology to highly critical networks. but its single point or failure presents a risk.the topology in each node is directly connected to some or all the other nodes present in the network. and the physical and logical connections that have been defined between them.all network devices are connected sequentially to a backbone as in bus topology except that the backbone ends at the starting node.  mesh topology . low-cost topology.  Ring topology . this is a simple.all the devices/nodes are connected sequentially to the same backbone or transmission lines. the tree topology is similar to bus and star topologies. while the low-level nodes connect using star topology. failure of individual nodes or cables does not necessarily create downtime in the network but the failure of a central device can.  Star topology .a root node is connected to two or more sub-level nodes. ring topology shares many of bus topology's disadvantages so its use is limited to networks that demand high throughput.

and managed by a single person or organization. WAN . the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address. MAN . Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. Server Area Network.Wireless Local Area Network AWLAN provides wireless network communication over short distances using radio or infrared signals instead of traditional network cabling. Technologies like WEP raise the level of security on wireless networks to rival that of traditional wired networks.Storage Area Network. LANs are also typically owned. and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.25 for connectivity over the longer distances. System Area Network. Random wireless clients must usually be prohibited from joining the WLAN. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. A networked office building. A WLAN typically extends an existing wired local area network. spanning the Earth. Network security remains an important issue for WLANs.  WLAN . They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies.Metropolitan Area Network A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). WANs tend to use technology like ATM. or home usually contains a single LAN. In IP networking. controlled. a WAN spans a large physical distance. though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room). Clients communicate with the AP using a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional Ethernet adapter. It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. or sometimes Small Area Network    . In TCP/IP networking. A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. WLANs are built by attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge of the wired network. Frame Relay and X. A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. In addition to operating in a limited space. SAN . The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). school. primarily Ethernet and Token Ring. The Internet is the largest WAN.A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance.Wide Area Network As the term implies.

A SAN typically supports data storage. there is a "console" that lets the user make individual connections.Campus Area Network. there is a list of presets that can be selected.A storage area network (SAN) is a type of local area network (LAN) designed to handle large data transfers.Desk Area Network A system to enable the control of interconnections among A/V Components in a room. or sometimes Cluster Area Network A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network interconnecting a few local area networks (LANs) within a university campus or corporate campus. PANs can be viewed as a special type (or subset) of local area network (LAN) that supports one person instead of a group. Finally. For the normal(novice) user. Controller Area Network. Give examples of data communication equipment/processing hardware. Personal area networks can be constructed with cables or be wireless. USB and FireWiretechnologies often link together a wired PAN. there is an interface that permits the definition and editing of presets. each for a different kind of use and user. a cell phone and/or a handheld computing device such as a PDA. Consists of a computer controlled A/V switch and software. digital photos and music. PAN . You can use these networks to transfer files including email and calendar appointments. retrieval and replication on business networks using high-end servers. for the administrator. The software has four layers. Personal area networks typically involve a mobile computer. Bluetooth PANs are also sometimes called piconets. A campus area network is larger than a local area network but smaller than a metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide area network (WAN). Next.Personal Area Network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network organized around an individual person. Campus area network may link a variety of campus buildings including departments. Personal area networks generally cover a range of less than 10 meters (about 30 feet). multiple disk arrays and Fibre Channel interconnection technology. For the more expert user. the university library and student halls of residence.  CAN . CAN can also stand for corporate area network.   DAN .  ISDN adapters  satellites (including base stations)  microwave stations  NIC (network interface cards) . 9. there is an interface for specifying the configuration of the components with respect to the switch. while wireless PANs typically use Bluetooth or sometimes infrared connections.

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