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Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 1 Matrices
Exercise 1A Solutions
1 a 4 Number of rows number of columns =22 Number of rows number of columns =23 Number of rows number of columns =14 Number of rows number of columns =41 There will be 5 rows and 5 columns to match the seating. Every seat of both diagonals is occupied, and so the diagonals will all be ones, and the rest of the numbers, representing unoccupied seats, will all be 0. 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 If all seats are occupied, then every number in the matrix will be 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i = j for the leading diagonal only, so the leading diagonal will be all ones, and the rest of the numbers 0. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 We can present this as a table with the girls on the top row, and the boys on the bottom row, in order of year level, i.e. years 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 going from left to right. 200 180 135 110 56 28 110 117 98 89 53 33 Alternatively, girls and boys could be the two columns, and year levels could run down from year 7 to 12, in order. This would give:

2 a

200 180 135 110 56 28


5 a

110 117 98 89 53 33

Matrices are equal only if they have the same number of rows and columns, and all pairs of corresponding entries are equal. The first two matrices have the same dimensions, but the top entries are not equal, so the matrices cannot be equal. The last two matrices have the same dimensions and equal first (left) entries, so they will be equal if x = 4. Thus, [0 x] = [0 4] if x = 4. The first two matrices cannot be equal because corresponding entries are not equal, nor can the second and third for the same reason. The last matrix cannot equal any of the others because it has different dimensions. The only two that can be equal are the first and third. 4 7 = x 7 if x = 4 1 2 1 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

All three matrices have the same dimensions and all corresponding numerical entries are equal. They could all be equal. 2 x 4 = y 0 4 1 10 3 1 10 3 = 2 0 4 if x = 0, y = 2 1 10 3 The entry corresponding to x is 2, and the entry corresponding to y is 3, so x = 2 and y = 3. The entry corresponding to x is 3, and the entry corresponding to y is 2, so x = 3 and y = 2. The entry corresponding to x is 4, and the entry corresponding to y is 3, so x = 4 and y = 3. The entry corresponding to x is 3, and the entry corresponding to y is 2, so x = 3 and y = 2.

6 a

Let A, B, C and D be the columns and rows, in that order. There are no roads from A to A, so the top left entry will be 0. There are 3 roads from A to B, so the next entry right will be 3. There is 1 road from A to C and no roads directly from A to D, so the next two entries right will be 1 and 0. Continue to fill in the matrix. 0 3 1 0 3 0 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 Write it as set out, with each row representing players A, B, C, D and E respectively, and columns showing points, rebounds and assists respectively. 21 5 5 8 2 3 4 1 1 14 8 60 0 1 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1B Solutions
1

Add the corresponding entries. X+Y= 1+3 = 4 2 + 0 2 Double each entry. 2X = 2 1 = 2 2 2 4 Multiply each entry in Y by 4 and add the corresponding entry for X. 4Y + X = 4 3 + 1 = 13 4 0 + 2 2 Subtract corresponding entries. X Y = 1 3 = 2 2 0 2 Multiply each entry by 3. 3A = 3 1 3 1 = 3 3 3 2 3 3 6 9 Add B to the previous answer. 3A + B = 3 3 + 4 0 6 9 1 2 = 1 3 7 7 Double each entry. 3 2 6 2 2 2 = 6 12 4 4 2 2 2 1 2 8 4 2

Multiply each entry by the factor. 2A = 2 2 0 4 3A = 3 3 0 6 6A = 6 6 0 12

4 a

As the matrices have the same dimensions, corresponding terms can be added. They will simply be added in the opposite order. Since the commutative law holds true for numbers, all corresponding entries in the added matrices terms will be equal, so the matrices will be equal. As the matrices have the same dimensions, corresponding terms can be added. The first matrix will add the first two numbers, then the third, and the second matrix will add the second and third numbers first, then add the result to the first number. Since the associative law holds true for numbers, all corresponding entries in the added matrices terms will be equal, so the matrices will be equal. Multiply each entry by 2. 2A = 6 4 4 4 Multiply each entry by 3. 3B = 0 9 12 3 Add answers to a and b. 2A + 3B = 6 4 + 0 9 4 4 12 3 = 6 5 8 1

2 a

1 0 0 + 2 0 0 + 2 1 0 4 2 3 8 4 6 6 1 4 = 5 1 0 18 7 13
The average will be the total divided by 3, so divide each entry by 3. 5 1 0 5 3 1 3 0 3 = 3 3 18 3 7 3 13 3 6 7 13 3 3

5 a

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Subtract a from b. 3B 2A = 0 9 6 4 12 3 4 4 = 6 13 16 7 Add corresponding entries. 1 0 + 1 1 = 0 1 0 3 2 0 2 3 Triple entries in Q, then add to corresponding entries in P. 1 0 + 3 3 = 2 3 0 3 6 0 6 3 Double entries in P, then subtract Q and add R. 2 0 1 1 + 0 4 = 3 3 0 6 2 0 1 1 1 7 If 2A 3X = B, then 2A B = 3X 3X = 2A B X=2A1B 3 3 2 3 1 1 0 10 = 3 1 4 3 2 17 2 3 1 0 2 1 1 10 3 3 3 = 3 2 1 1 2 2 4 1 17 3 3 3 3 2 4 = 0 3

6 a

If 3A + 2Y = 2B then 2Y = 2B 3A Y=B11A 2 = 0 10 1 1 3 1 2 1 4 2 17 3 3 10 3 1 0 2 2 = 2 3 1 17 3 4 2 2 9 23 2 = 2 1 11 2
X + Y = 150 + 160 90 + 90 100 + 120 50 + 40 100 + 100 0 + 0 75 + 50 0 + 0 = 310 180 220 90 200 0 125 0 The matrix represents the total production at two factories in two successive weeks.

7 a

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1C Solutions
1

AX = 1 2 2 1 3 1 = 1 2 + 2 1 1 2 + 3 1 = 4 5 BX = 3 2 2 1 1 1 = 3 2 + 2 1 1 2 + 1 1 = 4 1 AY = 1 2 1 1 3 3 = 1 1 + 2 3 1 1 + 3 3 = 5 8 IX = 1 0 2 0 1 1 = 1 2 + 0 1 0 2 + 1 1 = 2 1 AC = 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 = 1 2 + 2 1 1 1 + 2 1 1 2 + 3 1 1 1 + 3 1 = 0 1 1 2 CA = 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 = 2 1 + 1 1 2 2 + 1 3 1 1 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 3 = 1 1 0 1

Use AC = 0 1 1 2 (AC)X = 0 1 2 1 2 1 = 0 2 + 1 1 1 2 + 2 1 = 1 0 Use BX = 4 1 C(BX) = 2 1 4 1 1 1 = 2 4 + 1 1 1 4 + 1 1 = 9 5 AI = 1 2 1 0 1 3 0 1 = 1 1 + 2 0 1 0 + 2 1 1 1 + 3 0 1 0 + 3 1 = 1 2 1 3 IB = 1 0 3 2 0 1 1 1 = 1 3 + 0 1 1 2 + 0 1 0 3 + 1 1 0 2 + 1 1 = 3 2 1 1 AB = 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 1 = 1 3 + 2 1 1 2 + 2 1 1 3 + 3 1 1 2 + 3 1 = 1 0 0 1 BA = 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 = 3 1 + 2 1 3 2 + 2 3 1 1 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 3 = 1 0 0 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2 A = AA = 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 = 1 1 + 2 1 1 2 + 2 3 1 1 + 3 1 1 2 + 3 3 = 3 8 4 11 2 B = BB = 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 = 3 3 + 2 1 3 2 + 2 1 1 3 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 1 = 11 8 4 3 Use CA = 1 1 0 1 A(CA) = 1 2 1 1 1 3 0 1 = 1 1 + 2 0 1 1 + 2 1 1 1 + 3 0 1 1 + 3 1 = 1 3 1 4 2 Use A = 3 8 4 11 2 A C = 3 8 2 1 4 11 1 1 = 3 2 + 8 1 3 1 + 8 1 4 2 + 11 1 4 1 + 11 1 = 2 5 3 7

AB = 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 = 2 0 + 0 3 2 0 + 0 2 0 0 + 0 3 0 0 + 0 2 = 0 0 0 0 No, because Q.2 part b shows that AB can equal O, and A O, B O.

LX = [2 1] 2 3 = [2 2 + 1 3] = [7] 2 XL = [2 1] 3 = 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 1 = 4 2 6 3 A product is defined only if the number of columns in the first matrix equals the number of rows of the second. This can only happen if m = n, in which case both products will be defined.

2 a

A product is defined only if the number of columns in the first matrix equals the number of rows of the second. A has 2 columns and Y has 2 rows, so AY is defined. Y has 1 column and A has 2 rows, so YA is not defined. X has 1 column and Y has 2 rows, so XY is not defined. X has 1 column and 2 rows, so X 2 is not defined. C has 2 columns and I has 2 rows, so CI is defined. X has 1 column and I has 2 rows, so XI is not defined.

= a d + b c a b + b a c d + d c c b + d a 0 = 1 0 = ad bc ad bc 0 1 0 For the equations to be equal, all corresponding entries must be equal, therefore ad bc = 1. When written in reverse order, we get d b a b c a c d = d a + b c d b + b d ca+ac cb+ad 0 = 1 0 = ad bc ad bc 0 1 0 Since ad bc = 1.

a b d b c d c a

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

We can use any values of a, b, c and d as long as ad bc = 1. For example, a = 5, d = 2, b = 3, c = 3 satisfy ad bc = 1 and give AB = 5 3 2 3 = 1 0 3 2 3 5 0 1 BA = 2 3 5 3 = 1 0 3 5 3 2 0 1 Other values could be chosen. One possible answer. A = 1 2 , B = 0 1 , C = 1 2 4 3 2 3 2 1 A + B = 1 + 0 2 + 1 = 1 3 4 + 2 3 + 3 6 6 B + C = 0 + 1 1 + 2 = 1 3 2 + 2 3 + 1 0 4 A(B + C) = 1 2 1 3 4 3 0 4 = 1 1 + 2 0 1 3 + 2 4 4 1 + 3 0 4 3 + 3 4 = 1 11 4 24 AB = 1 2 0 1 4 3 2 3 = 1 0 + 2 2 1 1 + 2 3 4 0 + 3 2 4 1 + 3 4 = 4 7 6 13 AC = 1 2 1 2 4 3 2 1 = 1 1 + 2 2 1 2 + 2 1 4 1 + 3 2 4 2 + 3 1 = 5 4 10 11 AB + AC = 4 7 + 5 4 6 13 10 11 = 4 + 5 7 + 4 6 + 10 13 + 11 = 1 11 4 24

(B + C)A = 1 3 1 2 0 4 4 3 = 1 1 + 3 4 1 2 + 3 3 01+44 02+43 = 11 7 16 12 9

5 12 1 = 5 1 + 12 2 2.50 3.00 2 2.50 1 + 3.00 2 = 29 850 1 5 min plus 2 12 min means 29 min for one milkshake and two banana splits. The total cost is $8.50. 5 12 1 2 0 2.50 3.00 2 1 1 = 5 1 + 12 2 5 2 + 12 1 5 0 + 12 1 2.5 1 + 3 2 2.5 2 + 3 1 2.5 0 + 3 1 = 29 22 12 8.50 8.00 3.00 The matrix shows that John spent 29 min and $8.50, one friend spent 22 min and $8.00 (2 milkshakes and 1 banana split) while the other friend spent 12 min and $3.00 (no milkshakes and 1 banana split).
0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

0 1 10 1 1 0

2.00 3.00 2.50 3.50

0 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50 1 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50 = 1 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 0 2.50 + 0 3.50 1 2.00 + 1 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50 0 2.00 + 1 3.00 + 0 2.50 + 1 3.50

This shows the total amount spent on magazines by each student. A spent $6.00, B spent $8.00, C spent $2.00, D spent $11.00 and E spent $6.50.

6.00 8.00 = 2.00 11.00 6.50

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11 a

c1 SC = s11 s12 s13 c2 s21 s22 s23 c3 = s11 c1 + s12 c2 + s13 c3 s21 c1 + s22 c2 + s23 c3
SC represents the income from car sales for each showroom.

c1 u1 SC = s11 s12 s13 c2 u2 s21 s22 s23 c3 u3 = s11 c1 + s12 c2 + s13 c3 s11 u1 + s12 u2 + s13 u3
SC now represents the income from each showroom for both new and used car sales.

s21 c1 + s22 c2 + s23 c3 s21 u1 + s22 u2 + s23 u3

CV gives the profit on each new car and each used car for the three models.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1D Solutions
1 a 3 det(A) = 2 2 1 3 =1
1 A = 1 2 1 = 2 1 1 3 2 3 2

b c

det(B) = 2 2 2 3 =2

B =1 2
1

The answer could also be given as 1 1 1 B = 1 1 1 2 2 a Determinant = 3 1 1 4 = 1 1 A = 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 Determinant = 3 4 1 2 = 14 1 A = 1 4 1 14 2 3 2 1 14 = 7 1 3 7 14 Determinant = 1 k 0 0 = k 1 0 1 A = 1 k 0 = 1 k 0 1 0 k Determinant = cos cos sin sin =1 since cos2 + sin2 = 1 1 A = 1 cos sin 1 sin cos cos sin = sin cos

2 2 3 2

det(A) = 2 1 1 0 = 2 1 A = 1 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 = 2 2 0 1 det(B) = 1 1 0 3 = 1 1 B = 1 1 0 1 3 1 1 0 = 3 1 AB = 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 = 21+13 20+11 0 1 + 1 3 0 0 + 1 1 = 5 1 3 1 det(AB) = 5 1 1 3 = 2 1 (AB) = 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 1 2 = 2 3 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 A B = 2 2 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 = 2 1 + 2 3 2 0 + 2 1 0 1 + 1 3 0 0 + 1 1 1 = 1 2 3 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10

1 1 1 1 B A = 1 0 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 + 0 0 1 1 + 0 1 1 2 2 = 3 1 + 1 0 3 1 + 1 1 2 2 1 1 = 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 1 1 (AB) = B A

If YA = 3 4 , multiply both sides 1 6 from the right by A 1 .


1 1 YAA = 3 4 A 1 6 YI = Y 1 3 = 3 4 2 2 1 6 1 2 1 + 4 1 3 3 + 4 2 3 2 2 = 1 1 + 6 1 1 3 + 6 2 2 2 5 7 2 = 2 11 21 2 2

4 a

det(A) = 4 1 3 2 = 2 1 A = 1 1 3 2 2 4 1 3 = 2 2 1 2

If AX = 3 4 , multiply both sides 1 6 from the left by A 1 . 1 1 A AX = A 3 4 1 6 IX = X 1 3 = 2 2 3 4 1 6 1 2 1 3 1 3 = 2 3 + 2 1 2 4 + 2 6 1 3 + 2 1 1 4 + 2 6 = 0 7 1 8

5 a

If AX + B = C then AX = C B AX = 3 4 4 1 2 6 2 2 = 1 5 0 4 det(A) = 3 6 2 1 = 16 1 A = 1 6 2 16 1 3 3 1 8 = 8 1 3 16 16 If AX = 1 5 , multiply both sides 0 4 from the left by A 1 . 1 1 A AX = A 1 5 0 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11

IX = X

3 1 8 1 5 = 8 1 3 0 4 16 16 3 1+ 1 0 3 5 + 1 4 8 8 8 = 8 1 1 + 3 0 1 5 + 3 4 16 16 16 16 3 11 = 8 8 1 7 16 16
b If YA + B = C then YA = C B YA = 3 4 4 1 2 6 2 2 = 1 5 0 4

A must be a11 0 . 0 a22 det(A) = a11 a22 0 0 = a11a22 det(A) 0 since a11 0 and a22 0 and the product of two non-zero numbers cannot be zero. A is regular. 1 A = 1 a22 0 a11 a22 0 a11 1 0 = a11 0 1 a22

From part a, A =

3 1 8 8 1 3 16 16

7 If A is regular, it will have an inverse, A 1 . Multiply both sides of the equation AB = 0 from the left by A 1 . 1 1 A AB = A 0 IB = 0 B=0 8 Let A be any matrix a b . c d If the determinant is n, then the inverse of A is given by 1 d b . n c a 1 d b a b = c d n c a a = d and d = a n n a Substituting for d, a = a n = 2 n n 2 This gives n = 1 , or n = 1. If n = 1, a = d and b = b, which gives b = 0 and similarly c = 0. det(A) = ad = a 2 = 1 This leads to two matrices, 1 0 and 0 1 1 0 . 0 1

If YA = 1 5 , multiply both sides 0 4 from the right by A 1 . 1 1 YAA = 1 5A 0 4 YI = Y 3 1 1 5 8 8 = 0 4 1 3 16 16 1 3 + 5 1 1 1 + 5 3 8 16 8 16 = 3 0 +4 1 0 1+4 3 16 16 8 8 11 17 X = 16 16 1 3 4 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12

If n = 1, a = d; there are no restrictions on b and c but the determinant = ad bc = 1. 2 a + bc = 1 (since a = d) If b = 0, a = 1, giving 1 0 , which c 1 can be written 1 0 or 1 0 . k 1 k 1 If b 0, a 2 + bc = 1 gives b 2 a , which c = 1 a , giving 2 1 a b a b includes the cases 1 k and 1 k 0 1 0 1 when a = 1.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13

Exercise 1E Solutions
1

First find the inverse of A. det(A) = 3 1 1 4 = 1 1 A = 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 1 1 If AX = K then A AX = A K 1 IX = X = A K X = 1 1 1 4 3 2 = 1 1 + 1 2 4 1 + 3 2 = 3 10

If AX = K then A AX = A K 1 IX = X = A K X = 1 1 2 4 3 3 = 1 2 + 1 3 4 2 + 3 3 = 5 17
First find the inverse of A. det(A) = 3 4 1 2 = 14 2 1 1 1 4 1 = 7 14 A = 14 2 3 1 3 7 14

If AX = K then A AX = A K 1 IX = X = A K 2 1 14 2 X = 7 1 3 0 7 14 2 2 + 1 0 14 = 7 1 2+ 3 0 14 7 4 = 7 2 7

3 a

Determinant = 2 1 4 3 = 14 Inverse = 1 1 4 14 3 2 1 2 = 14 7 3 1 14 7

2 4 x = 6 3 1 y 1

If AX = K then A AX = A K 1 IX = X = A K 2 1 14 0 X = 7 1 3 1 7 14 2 0 + 1 1 14 = 7 1 0+ 3 1 14 7 1 = 14 3 14

x = y

1 2 14 7 6 3 1 1 14 7 1 6 + 2 1 14 7 = 3 6+1 1 7 14 1 = 7 10 7 x = 1, y = 10 7 7

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

14

Determinant = 1 4 2 1 = 2 Inverse = 1 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 = 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 x = 1 1 y 2 2 2 2 1 + 1 2 = 1 1 1 + 2 2 2 4 = 3 2 x = 4, y = 3 or 1.5 2


c

1 2 x = 1 1 4 y 2

Inverse =

2.7 1.3 2.7 1.2 x 1.3 11.4 y = 1 4.6 1.2 + 2.7 11.4 15.43 3.5 1.2 + 1.3 11.4 1 36.3 = 15.43 10.62 x 2.35, y 0.69

1 15.43 = 1 15.43

4.6 3.5 4.6 3.5

Convert the second equation to x + y = 4, giving 2 5 x = 10 1 1 y 4 Determinant = 2 1 5 1 = 7 Inverse = 1 1 5 7 1 2 x = 1 1 5 10 7 y 1 2 4 = 1 1 10 + 5 4 7 1 10 + 2 4 1 30 = 7 2 30, y = 2 x= 7 7 Re-write the second equation as 3.5x + 4.6y = 11.4, giving 1.3 2.7 x = 1.2 3.5 4.6 y 11.4 Determinant = 1.3 4.6 2.7 3.5 = 15.43

Solve the simultaneous equations 2x 3y = 7 3x + y = 5 2 3 x = 7 3 1 y 5 Determinant = 2 1 3 3 = 11 Inverse = 1 1 3 11 3 2 x = 1 1 3 7 11 y 3 2 5 = 1 17+35 11 3 7 + 2 5 1 22 = 11 11 x = 2, y = 1 The point of intersection is (2, 1). If x is the number of books they are buying and y is the number of CDs they are buying, then the following equations apply. 4x + 4y = 120 5x + 3y = 114 4 4 x = 120 5 3 y 114 Determinant = 4 3 4 5 = 8 Inverse = 1 3 4 = 1 3 4 8 5 4 8 5 4 1 3 4 120 x = 8 y 5 4 114 = 1 3 120 + 4 114 8 5 120 + 4 114 1 96 = 8 144 x = 12, y = 18 One book costs $12, a CD costs $18.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

15

6 a 2 3 x = 3 4 6 y 6 b det(A) = 2 6 3 4 = 0, so the matrix is singular. c Yes. For example x = 0, y = 1 is an obvious solution. d You should notice that the second equation is simply the first with both sides multiplied by 2. There is an infinite number of solutions to these equations, just as there is an infinite number of ordered pairs that make 2x 3y = 3 a true equation.

Enter the 4 4 matrix A and the 4 1 matrix B into the graphics calculator. Fill in missing coefficients with zeros, so that r + s = 1 becomes 0p + 0q + 1r + 1s = 1 1 1 1 1 5 A = 0 0 1 1 ; B = 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 A B= 4 1 2 p = 2, q = 4, r = 1, s = 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The dimension is number of rows by B number of columns, i.e. 4 2. The matrices cannot be added as they E have different dimensions.
D C = 1 3 2 3 = 1 2 2 1 = 1 0 1 3

A + B will have the same dimension as A and B, i.e. m n. A

The number of columns of Q is not the same as the number of rows of P, so E they cannot be multiplied. Determinant = 2 1 2 1 =4 Determinant = 1 2 1 1 = 1 1 2 1 Inverse = 1 1 1 2 1 = 1 1

1 2 3 1 1 1 0 2 3 3 1 1 3 0 1 2 0 C 1

Multiply every entry by 1. M = 4 0 2 6 = 4 0 2 6

2M 2N = 2 0 2 2 0 4 3 1 3 0 = 0 4 0 8 6 2 6 0 = 0 4 C 12 2

10 NM = 0 2 0 2 3 1 3 1 = 0 0 + 2 3 0 2 + 2 1 3 0 + 1 3 3 2 + 1 1 = 6 2 D 3 5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

17

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a
A+B= = AB= = (A + B)(A B) = =

1 0 + 1 2 3 0 0 0 2 4 1 0 1 2 3 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 2 4 2 2 0 0 12 8

0 1

0 1

Thus if x = a, 3a + 4y = 8 4y = 8 3a y = 2 3a 4 The matrices may be expressed as a 2 3a . 4 3 a

2 A = AA = 1 0 1 0 2 3 2 3 = 1 0 8 9 2 B = BB = 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 = 1 0 0 1 2 2 A B = 1 0 1 0 8 9 0 1 = 0 0 8 8

For a product to exist, the number of columns of the first matrix must equal the number of rows of the second. This is true only for AC, CD and BE, so these products exist.
DA = [2 4] 1 2 3 1 = 2 1 + 4 3 2 2 + 4 1 = 14 0 det(A) = 1 1 2 3 = 7 1 A = 1 1 2 7 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 or 7 7 = 7 3 1 3 1 7 7
1 4 AB = 1 2 1 1 6 5 1 2 3 8 = 1 1 + 2 1 + 1 3 1 4 + 2 6 + 1 8 5 1 + 1 1 + 2 3 5 4 + 1 6 + 2 8 = 2 0 2 2 det(C) = 1 4 2 3 = 2 1 C = 1 4 2 2 3 1 2 1 = 3 1 2 2

Find the inverse of 3 4 . 6 8 Determinant = 3 8 4 6 = 0 This is a singular matrix. x If A = , then this corresponds to the y simultaneous equations: 3 x + 4y = 8 6x + 8y = 16 The second equation is equivalent to the first, as it is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first by 2.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

18

Find the inverse of 1 2 . 3 4 Determinant = 1 4 2 3 = 2 Inverse = 1 4 2 2 3 1 1 4 2 = 2 3 1 Multiply by the inverse on the right: A = 5 6 1 4 2 12 14 2 3 1 = 1 2 3 5
2 2 A = 0 0 4 = 0 0

The determinant must be zero. 1x24=0 x8=0 x=8 i MM = 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 = 3 5 5 8 ii MMM = MM(M) = 3 5 2 1 5 8 1 3 = 1 18 18 19 iii Determinant = 2 3 1 1 = 7 1 M = 1 3 1 7 1 2
1 1 M M x = M 3 y 5 x = 1 3 1 3 7 1 2 5 y = 1 14 7 7 2 = 1 x = 2, y = 1

8 a

0 0 2 0 4 0

0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 4

A =

1 2 0 0

0 0

0 1 2 1 0 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

19

Chapter 2 Algebra I
Exercise 2A Solutions
1 a m Multiply indices: Add indices: 3 4 3+4 7 =x x x =x Add indices: 5 3 5+ a a =a n
3 2
1 10 5 10 1 5 2

(n ) = n

=n

=a

Multiply the coefficients and add the indices:


2x 4x = (2 4)x
1 2 3 1+3 2

Add indices: 2 1 2 2+ x x x =x Subtract indices: 3 y = 3 7 = 4 y y 7 y Subtract indices: 8 x = 8 4 = 12 x x 4 x Subtract indices: 5 p = 5 2 = 7 p p 2 p Subtract indices:
a a =a
1 2 2 3 34 6 6

= 8x

7 2

1 + 2

=x

Multiply the first two indices and add the third:


(a ) a = a a 5 + 4 =a 1 =a =a
5 2 2 4 25 2 4

1 4 = x x

11 4

=x

=a

1 6

Multiply indices:

r
8

(a ) = a
i
2 7

2 4

2 4

=a

2 25 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 5 2n (4 n ) = 2 n ((2 ) n ) 5 2 6 4 = 2 n (2 n ) 5 6 2 4 =2 n 1 6 1 =2 n = 6 2n Multiply the coefficients and add the indices.

Multiply indices:

x 2x 4x
=y
14

1 2

3 2

(y )
j
5 3

=y

2 7

= (1 2 4)x 2 = 8x
2 3

3+1+ 3 2 2

Multiply indices:

(ab ) a b

3 2

2 4

(x ) = x
k
3 20 5

53

=x

15

Multiply indices:

2 6 2 4 2 3 1 =ab a b a b ab 2 + 2 + 2 6 + 4 + 3 =a b 2 5 =a b

(a
l

) =a

20 3 5

=a

12

(2 p 4 p ((6p )) = 1 Anything to the power zero is 1.

Multiply indices: 4 1 1 4 2 2 = 2 =x x x

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

20

2 a b
25 = 25 = 5 64 = 64 = 4
1 16 2

1 2

23 = 1 5
1 7 128 = 128 3 =2 =8 3 7 3

1 3

9 =

16

1 2

9 = 16 = 4 3 9

1 2

3 a b c

4.35 = 18.9225 18.92 2.4 = 79.62624 79.63


34.6921 = 5.89
5

16

1 2

1
1 2

16 = 1 =1 16 4
e
49 2 = 1 36 1 49 2 36
1

d e f

0.02 = 125 000


3

0.729 = 0.9 2.3045 = 1.23209. . . 1.23


1 3

(345.64)
2 5

= 0.14249. . . 0.14

49 36 = 36 = 6 49 7
f g
27 = 27 = 3 144 = 144 = 12
1 2 1 3 3

(4.558) = 1.83607. . . 1.84


1
1 3

1 = (0.064) = 0.4 3

(0.064)

4 a
2

1 3 64 = 64 2 = 4 = 16
2 3

2 2 3 4 ab b 2 4 = a a b 4 7 =ab

2 3

9 = 9 3 = 3 = 27
3 2
1 81 4

13 2

16 =

81

1 4 1 4

2a 2 b 2a (2b) 2 4 = 2 2 4 (2a) b 2 a b 4 2 3 2 = 2 a b 4 2 2 a b 4 2 2 2 3 4 =2 a b 6 4 7 4 7 = 2 a b = 64a b

16 =3 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

21

2 2 3 4 a b b 2 4 = a a b 0 1 =ab =b

2 3

7 a

In each case, add the fractional indices.

2 2 2

1 3

1 6

2 3

=2 =2

2+1+ 4 6 6 6 1 6

ab a b ab 2 4 1 1 = 2 + 1 4 + 1 a b a b a b 3 4 = a b5 3 a b 3 3 4 5 6 9 =a =ab b
(2a) 8b 4a 8b 2 4 = 2 4 16a b 16a b 2 3 32a b = 2 4 16a b 2 2 3 4 = 32 a b 16 4 7 = 2a b
2 3 2 3

2 3

2+1 3+1

= 16 2

a a a

1 4

2 5

1 10

=a =a

5 + 8 + 2 20 20 20 11 20

2 2 2

2 3

5 6

2 3

=2

4+5+ 4 6 6 6 5 6

=2
2 5

2 5 1 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 = 2 2

=2
f

4 + 15 6 6

=2

19 6

16ab 2a b 2a b (2a) b 2 4 1 1 = 2 4 16ab (2a) b 8a b 8a b 2 3 1 1 1 2a = 2b4 2 a b 16ab 8a b 1 + 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 2 a b = 2 + 1 4 + 1 8 16 a b 0 1 2 2 ab = 1 3 128a b 2 5 1 1 2 3 = 1 a =ab b 128 128
2 (2 ) 2 8 = 2 2n n 4 2 16 2 2 n 3n 2 2 = 2n 4 2 2 n + 3n 2 n 2n 4 2 = =2 2 4 2
n n n

2 3

2 3

1 1

1 2 1 2 2 1 23 23 2 5 = 23 23 2 5

=2
8 a
3

2+1+ 2 3 3 5

=2

3 5

ab

3 2

ab

2 1

= (a b ) (a b ) =ab ab =a b
2 1 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 12 2 1 3 3 3

1 3 2 3

1 2 1 3

=ab

3 n

ab ab

3 2

2 1

= (a b ) (a b ) =ab ab =a b
3 2 1 1 1 2 3+1 1+ 1 2 2

1 3 2 2

1 2 1 2

=ab

5 1 2 2

3 6 3 2 x 2x 2x = (2 3) 6 (2 3) x 2x 2x =6 6 6 x + 2x + 2x =6 3x =6

2x

2x

2x

ab

3 2

ab

2 1

= (a b ) (a b ) =ab ab =a b
3 2 5 5 2 1 5 5 3+2 2+ 1 5 5 5 5

1 3 2 5

1 2 1 5

= ab

1 5

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22

a b ab

4 2

3 1

= (a b ) (a b ) =a b ab =a =a = b b
1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 + 3 1 + 1 2 2

1 4 2 2

1 3 1 2

ab

3 2

ab

2 1

= (a b ) (a b ) =ab ab =a b
3 2 5 5 2 1 5 5 32 2 1 5 5 5 5

1 3 2 5

1 2 1 5

=ab

1 3 5 5

b2 1 = a 2 a

1 2

g
1

3 1 ab a b 2 1 5 3 1 a b ab c ab 3 1 2 (a b ) (a b ) 2 1 5 3 1 (a b ) ab c ab 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 4 2 2 1

3 2

4 2

abc

3 2 3

ab c
1 3 2 3 2

2 1 5 1 2 1 5 2

= (a b c ) (a b c ) =abc =a
3 3 2 1 2

2 b = 2a 1 5 a3 b a b 1 ab c ab

ab c

1 5 2 2

=a =a =a

32 2 1 1 0 5

2 3 1 1

ab

3 1 2 2

3+1 1+ 1 3+ 5 2 2 2 2

1 2 2 5

bc a b ab b

5 2

3 1 2 2

=abc

5 1 2 2 4

1 + 5 + 3 2 + 2 + 1 2 2 2 5

=a bc

7 4 2 5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

23

Exercise 2B Solutions
1 a b c d e f g h

47.8 = 4.78 10 = 4.78 10 6728 = 6.728 10


3

3 a b

The decimal point move 13 places to the right = 75 684 000 000 000 The decimal point move 8 places to the right = 270 000 000 The decimal point move 13 places to the left = 0.000 000 000 000 19
324 000 0.000 000 7 = 3.24 10 7 10 3 4000 4 10 5 + 7 3 = 3.24 7 10 4 5 = 5.67 10 = 0.000 056 7
5 7

79.23 = 7.923 10 = 7.923 10


c

43 580 = 4.358 10 0.0023 = 2.3 10


3

4
7

0.000 000 56 = 5.6 10

a
1

12.000 34 = 1.200 034 10 = 1.200 034 10


Fifty million = 50 000 000 7 = 5.0 10

b
10

5 240 000 0.8 = 5.24 10 8 10 7 42 000 000 4.2 10 41.92 10 7 4.2 10 3 4192 10 = 3 42 000 10 = 4192 = 262 42 000 2625 =
5

i j k

23 000 000 000 = 2.3 10 0.000 000 0013 = 1.3 10


165 thousand = 165 000 5 = 1.65 10

l 2 a

0.000 014 567 = 1.4567 10

5 a
3

The decimal point moves 8 places to the 8 right = 1.0 10 The decimal point moves 23 places to 23 the right = 1.66 10 The decimal point moves 5 places to the 5 right = 5.0 10 The decimal point moves 3 places to the 3 left = 1.853 18 10 The decimal point moves 12 places to 12 the left = 9.463 10 The decimal point moves 10 places to 10 the right = 2.998 10

a = 3 2 10 4 4 3.215 b

3 3 = 2 10 106.8375. . . 3 = 1.2599. . . 10 106.8375. . . 3 = 0.011 792. . . 10 11.8 4 2 10 a = 4 4 4 0.05 4b 12

2 4 10 4 0.000 006 25 3 1.189 2. . . 10 = 6 4 6.25 10 9 7 = 0.047 568. . . 10 4.76 10 =


4

12

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24

Exercise 2C Solutions
1 a g
3x + 7 = 15 3x = 15 7 =8 x=8 3

3x + 5 = 8 7x 3x + 7x = 8 5 10x = 3 x = 3 = 0.3 10

h b
8 x = 15 2 x = 15 8 2 =7 x 2 = 7 2 2 x = 14

2 + 3(x 4) = 4(2x + 5) 2 + 3x 12 = 8x + 20 3x 10 = 8x + 20 3x 8x = 20 + 10 5x = 30 x = 30 = 6 5
2x 3 = 5x 5 4 2x 20 3 20 = 5x 20 5 4 8x 15 = 100x 8x 100x = 15 92x = 15 x = 15 92 6x + 4 = x 3 3 6x 3 + 4 3 = x 3 3 3 3 18x + 12 = x 9 18x x = 9 12 17x = 21 x = 21 17

42 + 3x = 22 3x = 22 42 = 20 x = 20 3 2x 15 = 27 3 2x = 27 + 15 3 = 42 2x 3 = 42 3 2 3 2 x = 63 5(2x + 4) = 13 10x + 20 = 13 10x = 13 20 = 7 x = 7 = 0.7 10

2 a
x + 2x = 16 2 5 x 10 + 2x 10 = 16 10 5 2 5x + 4x = 160 9x = 160 x = 160 9

3(4 5x) = 24 12 + 15x = 24 15x = 24 + 12 = 36 x = 36 15 = 12 = 2.4 5

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25

3x x = 8 4 3 3x 12 x 12 = 8 12 3 4 9x 4x = 96 5x = 96 x = 96 = 19.2 5
3x 2 + x = 18 2 4 3x 2 4 + x 4 = 18 4 2 4 2(3x 2) + x = 72 6x 4 + x = 72 7x = 72 + 4 = 68 x = 68 7 5x 4 = 2x 4 3 5 5x 60 4 60 = 2x 60 4 3 5 75x 80 = 24x 75x 24x = 80 51x = 80 x = 80 51

3 x 2(x + 1) = 24 4 5 3 x 20 2(x + 1) 20 = 24 20 4 5 5(3 x) 8(x + 1) = 480 15 5x 8x 8 = 480 13x = 480 15 + 8 = 487 x = 487 13 2(5 x) + 6 = 4(x 2) 7 3 8 2(5 x) 168 + 6 168 = 4(x 2) 168 8 7 3 42(5 x) + 144 = 224(x 2) 210 + 42x + 144 = 224x 448 42x 224x = 448 + 210 144 182x = 382 x = 382 = 191 182 91

3 a

x 4 + 2x + 5 = 6 4 2 x 4 4 + 2x + 5 4 = 6 4 2 4 2(x 4) + (2x + 5) = 24 2x 8 + 2x + 5 = 24 4x = 24 + 8 5 = 27 x = 27 = 6.75 4 3 3x 2(x + 5) = 1 10 6 20 3 3x 60 2(x + 5) 60 = 1 60 10 6 20 6(3 3x) 20(x + 5) = 3 18 18x 20x 100 = 3 38x = 3 18 + 100 = 85 x = 85 38

3x + 2y = 2; 2x 3y = 6 Use elimination. Multiply the first equation by 3 and the second equation by 2. 9x + 6y = 6 4x 6y = 12 + : 13x = 18 x = 18 13 Substitute into the first equation: 3 18 + 2y = 2 13 54 + 2y = 2 13 2y = 2 54 13 28 = 13 y = 14 13

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

26

5x + 2y = 4; 3x y = 6 Use elimination. Multiply the second equation by 2. 5x + 2y = 4 6x 2y = 12 + : 11x = 16 x = 16 11 Substitute into the second, simpler equation: 3 16 y = 6 11 48 y = 6 11 y = 6 48 11 18 y= 11 2x y = 7; 3x 2y = 2 Use substitution. Make y the subject of the first equation. y = 2x 7 Substitute into the second equation: 3x 2(2x 7) = 2 3x 4x + 14 = 2 x = 2 14 x = 12 Substitute into the equation in which y is the subject: y = 2 12 7 = 17
x + 2y = 12; x 3y = 2 Use substitution. Make x the subject of the first equation. x = 12 2y Substitute into the second equation: 12 2y 3y = 2 5y = 2 12 = 10 y=2 Substitute into the first equation: x + 2 2 = 12 x + 4 = 12 x=8

7x 3y = 6; x + 5y = 10 Use substitution. Make x the subject of the second equation. x =10 5y Substitute into the first equation: 7(10 5y) 3y = 6 70 35y 3y = 6 38y = 6 70 = 76 y = 76 = 2 38 Substitute into the second equation: x + 5 2 = 10 x + 10 = 10 x=0 15x + 2y = 27; 3x + 7y = 45 Use elimination. Multiply the second equation by 5. 15x + 2y = 27 15x + 35y = 225 : 33y = 198 y = 198 = 6 33 Substitute into the second equation: 3x + 7 6 = 45 3x + 42 = 45 3x = 45 42 =3 x=1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

27

Exercise 2D Solutions
1 a 2

4(x 2) = 60 4x 8 = 60 4x = 60 + 8 = 68 x = 17 The length of the square is 2x + 7. 4 2 2x + 7 = 49 4 2x + 7 = 7 4 2x + 7 = 7 4 = 28 2x = 28 7 = 21 x = 10.5


3

Let the value of Bronwyns sales in the first week be $s. ) ) s + (s + 500) + (s + 1000 + (s + 1500 + (s + 2000) = 17 500 5s + 5000= 17 500 5s = 12 500 s = 2500 The value of her first weeks sales is $2500. Let d be the number of dresses bought and h the number of handbags bought. 65d + 26h = 598 d + h = 11 Multiply the second equation by 26 (the smaller number). 65d + 26h = 598 26d + 26h = 286 : 39d = 312 d = 312 = 8 39 h + 8 = 11 h=3 Eight dresses and three handbags. Let the courtyards width be w metres. 3w + w + 3w + w = 67 8w = 67 w = 8.375 The width is 8.375 m. The length = 3 8.375 = 25.125 m. Let p be the full price of a case of wine. The merchant will pay 60% (0.6) on the 25 discounted cases. 25p + 25 0.6p = 2260 25p + 15p = 2260 40p = 2260 p = 56.5 The full price of a case is $56.50.

The equation is length = twice width. x 5 = 2(12 x) x 5 = 24 2x x + 2x = 24 + 5 3x = 29 x = 29 3


4

y = 2((2x + 1) + (x 3)) = 2(2x + 1 + x 3) = 2(3x 2) = 6x 4 Q = np If a 10% service charge is added, the total price will be multiplied by 110%, or 1.1. R = 1.1pS Using the fact that there are 12 lots of 5 min in an hour (60 12 = 5), 60n = 2400 5
a = circumference 60 360 60 = 2(x + 3) 360 = 2(x + 3) 1 6 (x + 3) = 3
5

e f

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

28

Let x be the number of houses with an $11 500 commission and y be the number of houses with a $13 000 commission. We only need to find x. x + y = 22 11 500x + 13 000y = 272 500 To simplify the second equation, divide both sides by 500. 23x + 26y = 545 Using the substitution method: 23x + 26y = 545 y = 22 x 23x + 26(22 x) = 545 23x + 572 26x = 545 3x = 545 572 = 27 x=9 He sells nine houses with an $11 500 commission. It is easiest to let the third boy have m marbles, in which case the second boy will have 2m marbles and the first boy will have 2m 14. (2m 14) + 2m + m = 71 5m 14 = 71 5m = 85 m = 17 The first boy has 20 marbles, the second boy has 34 and the third boy has 17 marbles, for a total of 71. Let Belindas score be b. Annies score will be 110% of Belindas or 1.1b. Cassies will be 60% of their combined scores: 0.6(1.1b + b) = 0.6 2.1b = 1.26b 1.1b + b + 1.26b = 504 3.36b = 504 b = 504 3.36 = 150 Belinda scores 150 Annie scores 1.1 150 = 165 Cassie scores 0.6 (150 + 165) = 189

Let r km/h be the speed Kim can run. Her cycling speed will be (r + 30) km/h. Her time cycling will be 48 + 48 3 = 64 min. Converting the times to hours ( 60) and using distance = speed time gives the following equation: r 48 + (r + 30) 64 = 60 60 60 48r + 64(r + 30) = 60 60 48r + 64r + 1920 = 3600 112r + 1920 = 3600 112r = 1680 r = 1680 = 15 112

10 Let c g be the mass of a carbon atom and x g be the mass of an oxygen atom. (o is too confusing a symbol to use) 22 2c + 6x = 2.45 10 x=c 3 Use substitution. 22 2c + 6 c = 2.45 10 3 22 2c + 2c = 2.45 10 22 4c = 2.45 10 22 c = 2.45 10 4 23 = 6.125 10 x=c 3 23 = 6.125 10 3 23 2.04 10 The mass of an oxygen atom is 23 2.04 10 g.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

29

Exercise 2E Solutions
1

Let k be the number of kilometres travelled in a day. The unlimited kilometre alternative will become more attractive when 0.32k + 63 > 108. Solve for 0.32k + 63 = 108: 0.32k = 108 63 = 45 k = 45 = 140.625 0.32 The unlimited kilometre alternative will become more attractive when you travel more than 140.625 km. Let g be the number of guests. Solve for the equality. 300 + 43g = 450 + 40g 43g 40g = 450 300 3g = 150 g = 50 Company A is cheaper when there are more than 50 guests. Let a be the number of adults and c the number of children. 45a + 15c = 525 000 a + c = 15 000 Multiply the second equation by 15. 45a + 15c = 525 000 15a + 15c = 225 000 : 30a = 300 000 a = 10 000 10 000 adults bought tickets. Let $m be the amount the contractor paid a man and $b the amount he paid a boy. 8m + 3b = 2240 6m + 18b = 4200 Multiply the first equation by 6. 48m + 18b = 13 440 6m + 18b = 4200 : 42m = 9240 m = 220

Substitute in the first equation: 8 220 + 3b = 2240 1760 + 3b = 2240 3b = 2240 1760 = 480 = 160 b He paid the men $220 each and the boys $160.
5

Let the numbers be x and y. x + y = 212 x y = 42 + : 2x = 254 x = 127 127 + y = 212 y = 85 The numbers are 127 and 85. Let x L be the amount of 40% solution and y L be the amount of 15% solution. Equate the actual substance. 0.4x + 0.15y = 0.24 700 = 168 x + y = 700 Multiply the second equation by 0.15. 0.4x + 0.15y = 168 0.15x + 0.15y = 105 : 0.25x = 63 x = 63 4 = 252 252 + y = 700 y = 448 Use 252 L of 40% solution and 448 L of 15% solution.
Form two simultaneous equations. x + y = 220 x x = y 40 2 x y = 40 2 + : 3x = 180 2 x = 120 120 + y = 220 y = 100 They started with 120 and 100 marbles and ended with 60 each.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

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Let $x be the amount initially invested at 10% and $y the amount initially invested at 7%. This earns $31 000. 0.1x + 0.07y = 31 000 When the amounts are interchanged, she earns $1000 more, i.e. $32 000. 0.07x + 0.1y = 32 000 Multiply the first equation by 100 and the second equation by 70. 10x + 7y = 3 100 000 4.9x + 7y = 2 240 000 : 5.1x = 860 000 x = 860 000 168 627.451 5.1 10 168 627.451 + 7y = 3 100 000 1 686 274.51 + 7y = 3 100 000 7y = 1 413 725.49 y = 201 960.78 The total amount invested is x + y = 168 627.45 + 201 960.78 = $370 588.23

Let a be the number of adults and s the number of students who attended. 30a + 20s = 37 000 a + s = 1600 20a + 20s = 1600 20 = 32 000 : 10a = 5000 a = 500 500 + s = 1600 s = 1100 500 adults and 1100 students attended the concert.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

31

Exercise 2F Solutions
1 a

v = u + at = 15 + 2 5 = 25
I = PrT 100 600 5.5 10 = 100 = 330

c =a +b 2 2 = 8.8 + 3.4 = 89 c = 89 9.43 v = u + 2as 2 = 4.8 + 2 2.25 13.6 = 91.04 v = 91.04 9.54
2 2

V = r h 2 = 4.25 6 340.47

2 a

S = 2r(r + h) = 2 10.2 (10.2 + 15.6) 1653.48


V = 4 r h 3 2 = 4 3.58 11.4 3 612.01
2

v = u + at v u = at a=vu t S = n(a + l) 2 2S = n(a + l) a + l = 2S n 2S a l= n


A = 1 bh 2 2A = bh b = 2A h

s = ut + 1 at 2

2 = 25.6 3.3 + 1 1.2 3.3 2 77.95

T = 2 = 2

l g

1.45 9.8 = 2 0.3846. . . 2.42


h

P=IR P = I2 R I= P R
2

1=1+1 f v u = 1 + 1 = 10 3 7 21 f = 21 10 = 2.1

s = ut + 1 at 2 1 at2 s ut = 2 2 2(s ut) = at 2(s ut) a= 2 t

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

32

E = 1 mv 2 2 2E = mv 2 v = 2E m v=

3 a

2E m
b

F = 9C + 32 5 9 28 + 32 = 5 = 82.4 F = 9C + 32 5 9C F 32 = 5 9C = 5(F 32) C = 5(F 32) 9 Substitute F = 135. C = 5(135 32) 9 515 = 9 57.22

Q = 2gh 2 Q = 2gh 2 h=Q 2g xy z = xy + z xy xy = z + z 2xy = 2z x = 2z 2y = z y ax + by = x b c ax + by = c(x b) ax + by = cx bc ax cx = bc by x(a c) = b(c + y) x = b(c + y) ac = b(c + y) ca mx + b = c xb mx + b = c(x b) mx + b = cx bc mx cx = bc b x(m c) = b(c + 1) x = b(c + 1) mc

4 a

S = 180(n 2) = 180(8 2) = 1080


S = 180(n 2) S =n2 180 n= S +2 180 1260 + 2 = 180 =7+2=9 Polygon has 9 sides (a nonagon).

5 a

V = 1 r h 3 2 = 1 3.5 9 3 3 115.45 cm
2

V=1 h 3 2 3V = r h 3V h= 2 r 3 210 = 2 4 12.53 cm


2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

33

V = 1 r h 3 2 3V = r h 2 r = 3V h
2

r= =

3V h

3 262 10 5.00 cm
6 a
S = n (a + l) 2 = 7(3 + 22) 2 = 66.5

S = n (a + l) 2 2S = n(a + l) 2S = a + l n a = 2S l n 2 1040 156 = 13 =4 S = n (a + l) 2 2S = n(a + l) n = 2S a+l = 2 110 25 + 5 = 11 There are 11 terms.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

34

Exercise 2G Solutions
1 a
2x + 3x = 4x + 9x 3 2 6 13x = 6 3a a = 6a a 2 4 4 5a = 4 3h + 5h 3h = 6h + 5h 12h 4 8 2 8 h = 8 3x y x = 9x 2y 4x 4 6 3 12 5x 2y = 12

2x 4x 3 x+3 x3 2 = 4x(x 3) 8x(x + 3) 3(x + 3)(x 3) 2(x + 3)(x 3) 2 2 2 = 4x 12x 8x 24x 3(x 9) 2(x + 3)(x 3) 2 2 2 = 4x 12x 8x 24x 3x + 27 2(x + 3)(x 3) 2 = 7x 36x + 27 2(x + 3)(x 3)
3 4(x + 1) + 3 4 + = 2 x + 1 (x + 1) 2 (x + 1) 4x + 4 + 3 = 2 (x + 1) = 4x + 72 (x + 1)

j e f

3 + 2 = 3y + 2x xy x y
5 + 2 = 5x + 2(x 1) x1 x x(x 1) 5x + 2x 2 = x(x 1) = 7x 2 x(x 1) 3 + 2 = 3(x + 1) + 2(x 2) (x 2)(x + 1) x2 x+1 3x + 3 + 2x 4 = (x 2)(x + 1) 5x 1 = (x 2)(x + 1)

a 2 + a + 3a = 8(a 2) + 2a + 3a 8a 4 8 a 2 = 5a + 8a 16 8a
2x 6x 4 = 10x (6x 4) 5x 5x 2 2 = 10x 6x + 4 5x 2 = 4x + 4 5x 2 = 4(x + 1) 5x
2 2 2

3 3 2 = 2 x + 4 x2 + 8x + 16 x + 4 (x + 4) 2 = 2(x + 4) 3 2 (x + 4) = 2x + 8 23 (x + 4) 2x + 5 = 2 (x + 4)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

35

3 + 2 = 3(x + 4) + 2 x 1 (x 1)(x + 4) (x 1)(x + 4) = 3x + 12 + 2 (x 1)(x + 4) = 3x + 14 (x 1)(x + 4)


3 2 + 4 x 2 x + 2 x2 4 4 = 3 2 + x 2 x + 2 (x 2)(x + 2) = 3(x + 2) 2(x 2) + 4 (x 2)(x + 2) 3x + 6 2x + 4 + 4 = (x 2)(x + 2) x + 14 = (x 2)(x + 2)

2 a

x 4y = 4y x 2y 2yx x 2 = 2xy
2 2

3 2

3x y = 3x y 4y 6x 24yx = xy 8
3

2 2

4x 12 = 48x 4 4 3 8x 24x =2 x

d o

3 5 + 2 x 2 x2 + 5x + 6 x + 3 3 = 5 + 2 x 2 (x + 2)(x + 3) x + 3 = 5(x + 3)(x + 2) 3(x 2) + 2(x 2)(x + 2) (x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3) 2 2 = 5(x + 5x + 6) 3x + 6 + 2(x 4) (x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3) 2 2 = 5x + 25x + 30 3x + 6 + 2x 8 (x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3) 2 = 7x + 22x + 28 (x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x y 1 = ( x y)( x y) 1 xy xy 2 = ( x y) 1 xy
3 4x = 3 + 4x x1 1x x1 x1 = 4x + 3 x1

x 3xy = x 6 6 2y 2y 3xy 2 = 6x 2 6xy = x2 y 4 x a = a (4 x) 3a 4 x 3a(4 x) =a 3


2x + 5 = 2x + 5 2 4x + 10x 2x(2x + 5) = 1 2x
(x 1) = (x 1) 2 x + 3x 4 (x 1)(x + 4) = x1 x+4
x x 6 = (x 3)(x + 2) x3 x3 =x+2
2

h r
3 + 2 = 3 2x x2 2x x2 x2 = 3 2x x2

x 5x + 4 = (x 1)(x 4) 2 x(x 4) x 4x x1 = x

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

36

5a 10a = 5a 6b 2 6b 12b2 10a 12b 2 30a b = 2 120ab = a 4b

x 2 x 4 = x 2 2x 2 2 x x 2x x 4 2x =x2 (x 2)(x + 2) x 2 = 2x x(x + 2) = 2x x+2


2

3x 6x 2 9x 6 x 2 x + 5 x2 3x = 2 3(3x 2) 6x2 x + 5 2x(x 2) = 2 6x (3x 2)(x + 5) x2 = 3x(3x 2)(x + 5)

3 a b

1 + 2 = 3 x3 x3 x3
2 + 2 = 2(x 3) + 2(x 4) (x 4)(x 3) x4 x3 2x 6 + 2x 8 = 2 x 7x + 12 4x 14 = 2 x 7x + 12 3 + 2 = 3(x 3) + 2(x + 4) (x + 4)(x 3) x+4 x3 3x 9 + 2x + 8 = 2 x + x 12 5x 1 = 2 x + x + 12

x + 2 4x + 8 x(x 3) x2 4x + 3 = x + 2 4(x + 2) x(x 3) (x 1)(x 3) = x + 2 (x 1)(x 3) 4(x + 2) x(x 3) 1x1 = 4 x x1 = 4x


2 2

4x 1 m 2x 2 = 2x x 2 x1 x 1 x1 4x 2x (x 1)(x + 1) = 2 x1 4x 2x(x + 1) = 2 4x =x+1 2x


n

2x + 2 = 2x(x + 4) + 2(x 3) (x 3)(x + 4) x3 x+4 2 2x + 8x + 2x 6 = 2 x + x 12 2 2x + 10x 6 = 2 x + x + 12


1 2 = 1 + 2(x 5) 2 + 2 x5 (x 5) (x 5) 1 + 2x 10 = 2 x 10x + 25 = 2 2x 9 x 10x + 25 3x 2 = 3x + 2(x 4) 2 + 2 x4 (x 4) (x 4) 3x + 2x 8 = 2 x 8x + 16 = 2 5x 8 x 8x + 16

x 9 3x + 6 9 x3 x x+2 (x 3)(x + 3) 3(x + 2) x = 9 x3 x+2 3x(x 3)(x + 3)(x + 2) = 9(x + 2)(x 3) x(x + 3) = 3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

37

1 2 = 1 x3 x3 x3 = 1 3x 2 5 = 2(x + 4) 5(x 3) (x 3)(x + 4) x3 x+4 2x + 8 5x + 15 = 2 x + x 12 23 3x = 2 x + x 12

4 a
1x + 2 = 1x 1x +2 1x 1x 1x+2 = 1x 3x = 1x

2 +2=2 x4 +6 3 x4 x4 3

2x + 3x = 2x(x + 3) + 3x(x 3) (x 3)(x + 3) x3 x+3 2 2 2x + 6x + 3x 9x = 2 x 9 2 5x 3x = 2 x 9


1 2 = 1 2(x 5) 2 2 x5 (x 5) (x 5) 1 2x + 10 = 2 x 10x + 25 = 2 11 2x x 10x + 25 2x 2 2x 2(x 6) 3 2 = 3 (x 6) (x 6) (x 6) 2x 2x + 12 = 3 (x 6) = 12 3 (x 6)

3 + 2 = 5 x+4 x+4 x+4


3 + x+4 =3+ x+4 x+4 x+4 x+4 3+x+4 = x+4 x+7 = x+4

3x 3x2 x + 4 = 3x 3x x + 4 x + 4 x+4 x+4 3 2 3x 3x (x + 4) = x+4 3 3 2 = 3x 3x 12x x+4 2 = 12x x+4


2 3x + 3x x + 3 = 3x + 6x x + 3 x + 3 2 x+3 x+3 3 2 = 3x + 6x (x + 3) x+3 3 3 2 = 3x + 6x + 18x x+3 3 2 = 9x + 18x x+3 2 = 9x (x + 2) x+3 3 3 2

f l

2x + 3 2x 4 x3 x4 (2x + 3)(x 3) (2x 4)(x 4) = (x 4)(x 3) 2 2 (2x 3x 9) (2x 12x + 16) = 2 x 7x + 12 2 2 2x 3x 9 2x + 12x 16 = 2 x 7x + 12 9x 25 = 2 x 7x + 12

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38

5 a

(6x 3) (6x 3)
1 3

1 3

2 3

(3 x) 2x(3 x) = (3 x)
1 3

1 3

2 3

2x (3 x)
2 3

= (6x 3)
1 3

1 (6x 3)
2 3 2 3

(6x 3) (6x 3) 1 (6x 3) 6x 3 1 (6x 3) 6x 4 (6x 3)


2 3 2 3

(3 x) (3 x) 2x (3 x) 3 x 2x (3 x) 3 3x
2 3 2 3 2 3

1 3

2 3

2 3

(2x + 3) 2x(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)


1 3 1 3

1 3

2 3

(3 x) 2 2 Since (3 x) = (x 3) , the answer is 3 3x equivalent to 2 .

(x 3)
2x
2 3

(2x + 3)
2 3

(2x + 3) (2x + 3) 2x (2x + 3) 2x + 3 2x (2x + 3) 3 (2x + 3)


2 3 2 3 2 3

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39

Exercise 2H Solutions
1 a

ax + n = m ax = m n x=mn a
ax + b = bx ax bx = b x(a b) = b x= b ab This answer is correct, but to avoid a negative sign, multiply numerator and denominator by 1. x = b 1 a b 1 = b ba

1 =b x+a x Take reciprocals of both sides: x+a=x b x= a x b xx=a b x xb = a b x xb b = ab b x xb = ab x(1 b) = ab x = ab ab b = 2b xa x+a Take reciprocals of both sides: xa=x+a 2b b x a 2b = x + a 2b 2b b 2(x a) = x + a 2x 2a = x + a 2x x = a + 2a x = 3a
x +n=x+m n m x mn + n mn = x mn + m mn m n 2 2 nx + mn = mx + m n 2 2 nx mx = m n mn x(n m) = mn(m n) x = mn(m n) nm Note that n m = m + n = 1(m n) mn(n m) x= nm = mn

g c

ax + c = 0 b ax = c b ax = bc x = bc a
px = qx + 5 px qx = 5 x(p q) = 5 x= 5 pq mx + n = nx m mx nx = m n x(m n) = m n x= mn mn m+n = nm

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b(ax + b) = a(bx a) 2 2 abx b = abx a 2 2 abx abx = a + b 2 2 2abx = a + b 2 2 x= (a +b ) 2ab 2 2 =a b 2ab

p (1 x) 2pqx = q (1 + x) 2 2 2 2 p p x 2pqx = q + q x 2 2 2 2 p x 2pqx q x = q p 2 2 2 2 x(p + 2pq + q ) = q p 2 2 (q p ) x= 2 2 p + 2pq + q 2 2 = p q2 (p + q) (p q)(p + q) = 2 (p + q) = pq p+q


x1=x+2 a b x ab ab = x ab + 2ab a b bx ab = ax + 2ab bx ax = 2ab + ab x(b a) = 3ab x = 3ab ba

p qx + p = qx 1 p t pt(p qx) + p pt = pt(qx 1) t p 2 p(p qx) + p t = t(qx 1) 2 2 p pqx + p t = qtx t 2 2 pqx qtx = t p p t 2 2 qx(p + t) = (t + p + p t) 2 2 2 2 x = t + p + p t or p + p t + t q(p + t) q(p + t)

1 + 1 = 2 x + a x + 2a x + 3a Multiply each term by (x + a)(x + 2a)(x + 3a). (x + 2a)(x + 3a) + (x + a)(x + 3a) = 2(x + a)(x + 2a) 2 2 2 2 2 2 x + 5ax + 6a + x + 4ax + 3a = 2x + 6ax + 4a 2 2 2 2 2x + 9ax + 9a = 2x + 6ax + 4a 2 2 2 2 2x 9ax 2x 6ax = 4a 9a 2 3ax = 5a 2 x = 5a 3a = 5a 3
ax + by = p ; bx ay = q Multiply the first equation by a and the second equation by b. 2 a x + aby = ap 2 b x aby = bp + : 2 2 x(a + b ) = ap + bq ap + bq x= 2 2 a +b Substitute into ax + by = p: ap + bq + by = p a 2 2 a +b 2 2 2 2 a(ap + bq) + by(a + b ) = p(a + b ) 2 2 2 2 2 a p + abq + by(a + b ) = a p + b p 2 2 2 2 2 by(a + b ) = a p + b p a p abq 2 2 2 by(a + b ) = b p abq b(bp aq) y= 2 2 b(a + b ) = bp aq 2 2 a +b

x + 2x = 1 a b a + b a2 b2 x(a b)(a + b) + 2x(a + b)(a b) = (a + b)(a b) 2 2 a+b ab a b x(a + b) + 2x(a b) = 1 ax + bx + 2ax 2bx = 1 3ax bx = 1 x(3a b) = 1 x= 1 3a b

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x + y = 1; x + y = 1 b a a b First, multiply both equations by ab, giving the following: bx + ay = ab ax + by = ab Multiply the first equation by b and the second equation by a: 2 2 b x + aby = ab 2 2 a x + aby = a b : 2 2 2 2 x(b a ) = ab a b 2 2 ab a b x= 2 2 b a = ab(b a) (b a)(b + a) = ab a+b Substitute into bx + ay = ab: b ab + ay = ab a+b 2 ab (a + b) + ay(a + b) = ab(a + b) a+b 2 2 2 ab + ay(a + b) = a b + ab 2 2 2 ay(a + b) = a b + ab ab 2 ay(a + b) = a b 2 y= ab a(a + b) = ab a+b
Multiply the first equation by b. abx + by = bc x + by = d : x(ab 1) = bc d x = bc d ab 1 = d bc 1 ab

It is easier to substitute in the first equation for x: a bc d + y = c ab 1 a(bc d)(ab 1) + y(ab 1) = c(ab 1) ab 1 abc ad + y(ab 1) = abc c y(ab 1) = abc c abc + ad y(ab 1) = c + ad y = ad c ab 1 = c ad 1 ab
b

4 a

Multiply the first equation by a and the second equation by b. 2 3 a x aby = a 2 3 b x aby = b : 2 2 3 3 x(a b ) = a b 3 3 a b x= 2 2 a b 2 2 = (a b)(a + ab + b ) (a b)(a + b) 2 2 = a + ab + b a+b In this case it is easier to start again, but eliminate x. Multiply the first equation by b and the second equation by a. 2 2 abx b y = a b 2 2 abx a y = ab : 2 2 2 2 y( b + a ) = a b ab 2 2 y(a b ) = ab(a b) ab(a b) y= 2 2 a b = ab(a b) (a b)(a + b) = ab a+b

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Add the starting equations: ax + by + ax by = t + s 2ax = t + s x=t+s 2a Subtract the starting equations: ax + by (ax by) = t s 2by = t s y=ts 2b Multiply the first equation by a and the second equation by b. 2 3 2 2 a x + aby = a + 2a b ab 2 2 3 b x + aby = a b + b : 2 2 3 2 2 3 x(a b ) = a + a b ab b 3 2 2 3 a + a b ab b x= 2 2 a b 2 2 (a + b) b (a + b) =a 2 2 a b 2 2 (a b )(a + b) = 2 2 a b =a+b Substitute into the second, simpler equation. 2 2 b(a + b) + ay = a + b 2 2 2 ab + b + ay = a + b 2 2 2 ay = a + b ab b 2 ay = a ab 2 y = a ab a =ab

Rewrite the second equation, then multiply the first equation by b + c and the second equation by c. (a + b)(b + c)x + c(c + c)y = bc(b + c) acx + c(b + c)y = abc : x((a + b)(b + c) ac) = bc(b + c) + abc 2 x(ab + ac + b + bc ac) = bc(b + c + a) 2 x(ab + b + bc) = bc(a + b + c) xb(a + b + c) = bc(a + b + c) x = bc(a + b + c) b(a + b + c) =c Substitute into the first equation. (It has the simpler y term.) c(a + b) + cy = bc ac + bc + cy = bc cy = bc ac bc cy = ac y = ac c = a First simplify the equations. 3x 3a 2y 2a = 5 4a 3x 2y = 5 4a + 3a + 2a 3x 2y = a + 5 2x + 2a + 3y 3a = 4a 1 2x + 3y = 4a 1 2a + 3a 2x + 3y = 5a 1 Multiply by 3 and by 2. 9x 6y = 3a + 15 4x + 6y = 10a 2 + : 13x = 13a + 13 x=a+1 Substitute into : 2(a + 1) + 3y = 5a 1 2a + 2 + 3y = 5a 1 3y = 5a 1 2a 2 3y = 3a 3 y=a1

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43

5 a

s = ah = a(2a + 1)

Make h the subject of the second equation. h = a(2 + h) = 2a + ah h ah = 2a h(1 a) = 2a h = 2a 1a Substitute into the first equation. s = ah = a 2a 1a 2 = 2a 1a h + ah = 1 h(1 + a) = 1 1 = 1 (1 + a) a + 1 as = a + h =a+ 1 a+1 a(a + 1) + 1 = a+1 2 =a +a+1 a+1 2 s=a +a+1 a(a + 1) h=

s = h + ah 2 2 2 = (3a ) + a(3a ) 4 3 = 9a + 3a 3 = 3a (3a + 1) as = a + 2h = a + 2(a s) = a + 2a 2s as + 2s = 3a s(a + 2) = 3a s = 3a a+2

s = 2 + ah + h 2 = 2 + a a 1 + a 1 a a 2 2 1 =2+a 1+a 2+ 2 a 2 1 = 2a 1 + 2 a Make h the subject of the second equation. as + 2h = 3a 2h = 3a as h = 3a as 2 Substitute into the first equation. 2 3s ah = a 2 3s a(3a as) = a 2 2 6s a(3a as) = 2a 2 2 2 6s 3a + a s = 2a 2 2 2 a s + 6s = 2a + 3a 2 2 s(a + 6) = 5a 2 5a s= 2 a +6

Make h the subject of the second equation. ah = a + h ah h = a h(a 1) = a h= 1 a1 Substitute into the first equation. as = s + h as = s + a a1 a as s = a1 s(a 1) = a a1 a(a 1) s(a 1)(a 1) = a1 2 s(a 1) = a a s= 2 (a 1)

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44

Exercise 2I Solutions
Use your CAS calculator to find the solutions to these problems. The exact method will vary depending on the calculator used. 1 a x=ab
b 3 a

x=7

x = a a + 4ab 4b 2 x=a+c 2

d 2 a b c d

axy + b = (a + c)y bxy + a = (b + c)y Dividing by y yields: ax + b = a + c y a=b+c bx + y let n = 1 and the equations become: y ax + bn = a + c bx + an = b + c x=a+b+c a+b a+b y= c
x(b c) + by c = 0 y(c a) ax + c = 0 (b c)x + by = c ax + (c a)y = c x = (a b c) a+bc ab+c y= a+bc

(x 1)(x + 1)(y 1)(y + 1) (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)

(a 12b)(a + 4b)
(a c)(a 2b + c)

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

5x + 2y = 0 2y = 5x y= 5 2 x Multiply both sides of the second equation by 2. 3x + 2y = 36 6x 2y = 24 + : 9x = 60 x = 20 3 20 y = 12 3 3 20 y = 12 y=8


t 9 = 3t 17 t 3t = 9 17 2t = 8 t=4

6 A

9x y 15(xy) =

2 3

9x y 3 15(xy) 2 3 9x y = 3 3 15x y = 9 15x = 3 5x

2 3

V = 1 h(l + w) 3 3V = h(l + w) 3V = hl + hw hl = 3V hw l = 3V hw h 3V w = h

8 C

m= np n+p + p) = n p m(n mn + mp = n p mp + p = n mn p(m + 1) = n(1 m) p = n(1 m) 1+m


3 2 = 3(x + 3) 2(x 3) (x 3)(x + 3) x3 x+3 3x + 9 2x + 6 = 2 x 9 + 15 = x2 x 9

9x y (3x y ) = 2 2 2x y 2x y 2 5 = 9x y 2 2 5 =9x y 2
Y = 80% Z = 4 Z 5 X = 150% Y = 3 Y 2 3 4Z = 2 5 12Z = 10 = 1.2 Z = 20% greater than Z

2 3 2

4 6

9 A

B 10 Let the other number be n. x + n = 5x + 4 2 x + n = 2(5x + 4) = 10x + 8 n = 10x + 8 x = 9x + 8

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

46

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a
(x ) = x 12 =x
3 12 4 3 4 34

(y

) =y 9 =y
4

12 3 4

5x + 4x 5 = 10x(x 2) + 8x(x + 4) 5(x + 4)(x 2) 2(x + 4)(x 2) x+4 x2 2 2 2 2 = 10x 20x + 8x + 32x 5(x + 2x 8) 2(x + 4)(x 2) 2 2 2 = 10x 20x + 8x + 32x 5x 10x + 40 2(x + 4)(x 2) 2 = 37x + 2x + 40 2(x + 4)(x 2) 6 3(x 2) 6 3 2 = 2 x 2 (x 2) (x 2) = 3x 6 6 x2 = 3x 12 x2 3(x 4) = x2
2

3x 5x = (3 5)x = 15x
4 3 3 5 34 3

3 2

3+4 2

11 2

(x ) x = x x 45 =x 1 =x
11 5

4
11 5

32 10 12 10 = (32 12) 10 6 = 384 10 8 = 3.84 10

3 a
3x + y 2x = 6x + y 4x 10 5 10 5 2x + y = 10

x + 5 x + 5x = x + 5 4x 12 2x 6 4x 12 2x 6 x2 + 5x = x + 5 4(x 3) 2(x 3) x(x + 5) = 4 =2 2x x 3x 12x = 3x x 16 2 x + 4 x2 16 x + 4 12x (x 4)(x + 4) = 3x 2 x+4 12x 3x(x 4) = 2 12x =x4 4x x 4 3x 9 9 = x 4 3x 9 x + 2 9 x3 x+2 x+2 x3 x+2 (x 2)(x + 2) 3(x 3) x + 2 = 9 x3 x+2 2 = (x + 2)(x 2) = x 4 3 3 4x + 20 6x 2 = 4(x + 5) 6x 3x 2 9x 6 x + 5 3x 2 3(3x 2) x + 5 2 2 2 = 4 6x = 4x 32
2 2 2 2

b c

4 7 = 4y 7x x y xy
5 + 2 = 5(x 1) + 2(x + 2) (x + 2)(x 1) x+2 x1 5x 5 + 2x + 4 = (x + 2)(x 1) 7x 1 = (x + 2)(x 1) 3 + 4 = 3(x + 4) + 4(x + 2) (x + 2)(x + 4) x+2 x+4 3x + 12 + 4x + 8 = (x + 2)(x + 4) 7x + 20 = (x + 2)(x + 4)

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Let t seconds be the required time. The number of red blood cells to be 12 12 replaced is 1 5 10 = 2.5 10 2 6 12 2.5 10 t = 2.5 10 12 2.5 10 t= 6 2.5 10 6 = 10 6 Time = 10 seconds 6 = 10 3600 24 days 11.57 or 11 31 days 54
2 1.5 10 6 = 0.5 10 3 10 = 50 times further 8

9 a

V = r h 2 = 5 12 3 = 300 942 cm
h= V 2 r 585 = 2 5 = 117 7.4 cm 5

2 r = V h

r= = =

V (use positive root) h 786 6 128 40.7 cm

Let g be the number of games the team lost. They won 2g games and drew one third of 54 games, i.e. 18 games. g + 2g + 18 = 54 3g = 54 18 = 36 g = 12 They have lost 12 games. Let b be the number of blues CDs sold. The store sold 1.1b classical and 1.5(b + 1.1b) heavy metal CDs, totalling 420 CDs. b + 1.1b + 1.5 2.1b = 420 5.25b = 420 b = 420 5.25 = 80 1.1b = 1.1 80 = 88 1.5 2.1b = 1.5 2.1 80 = 252 80 blues, 88 classical and 252 heavy metal (totalling 420)

10 a xy + ax = b x(y + a) = b

x=
b

b a+y

a+b=c x x ax + bx = cx x x a + b = cx x=a+b c
x=x+2 a b xab = xab + 2ab a b bx = ax + 2ab bx ax = 2ab x(b a) = 2ab x = 2ab ba

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a dx + b = ax + d d b bd(a dx) + bd b = bd(ax + d) d b 2 b(a dx) + b d = d(ax + d) 2 2 ab bdx + b d = adx + d 2 2 bdx adx = d ab b d 2 2 x(bd + ad) = (ab + b d d ) 2 2 x = (ab + b d d ) (bd + ad) 2 2 = ab + b d d bd + ad

11 a

p + q = p(p q) + q(p + q) (p + q)(p q) p+q pq 2 2 p qp + qp + q = 2 2 p pq + pq q 2 2 p +q = 2 2 p q


1 2y = (xy y ) 2xy 2 x xy y2 x(xy y ) xy y 2 2 x y xy = y( x y) xy(x y) = xy x(x y) = x+y x(y x) =
2 2

12 Let As age be a, Bs age be b and Cs age be c. a = 3b b + 3 = 3(c + 3) a + 15 = 3(c + 15) Substitute for a and simplify: b + 3 = 3(c + 3) b + 3 = 3c + 9 b = 3c + 6 3b + 15 = 3(c + 15) 3b + 15 = 3c + 45 3b = 3c + 30 b = c + 10 = : 3c + 6 = c + 10 3c c = 10 6 2c = 4 c= 2 b= 32+6 = 12 a = 3 12 = 36 A, B and C are 36, 12 and 2 years old respectively. 13 a Simplify the first equation: a 5 = 1 (b + 3) 7 7(a 5) = b + 3 7a 35 = b + 3 7a b = 38 Simplify the second equation: b 12 = 1 (4a 2) 5 5(b 12) = 4a 2 5b 60 = 4a 2 4a + 5b = 58 Multiply the first equation by 5, and add the second equation. 35a 5b = 190 4a + 5b = 58 + : 31a = 248 a=8 Substitute in the first equation: 7 8 b = 38 56 b = 38 b = 56 38 = 18

x + x 6 2x + x 1 x+1 x+3 (x 2)(x + 3) (x + 1)(2x 1) = x+1 x+3 = (x 2)(2x 1)

2a 2ab + b = 2a b(2a + b) 2 2 2a + b 2a + b ba ba 2ab = 2 ba 2 = a

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

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Multiply the first equation by p. 2 (p q)x + (p + q)y = (p + q ) 2 p(p q)x + p(p + q)y = p(p + q ) Multiply the second by (p + q). 2 qx py = q pq 2 q(p + q)x p(p + q)y = (p + q)(q pq)
+ :

(p(p q) + q(p + q))x = p(p + q) + (p + q)(q pq) 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 (p pq + pq + q )x = p(p + 2pq + q ) + pq p q + q pq 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 (p + q )x = p + 2p q + pq p q + q 3 2 2 3 = p + p q + pq + q 2 2 = p (p + q) + q (p + q) 2 2 = (p + q)(p + q ) x=p+q
Substitute into the second equation, factorising the right side. 2 q(p + q) py = q pq 2 2 pq + q py = q pq 2 2 py = q pq pq q py = 2pq y = 2pq p = 2q
14 Time = distance speed Remainder = 50 7 7 = 36 km 7 + 7 + 36 = 4 x 4x 6x + 3 7 + 7 + 12 = 4 x 4x 2x + 1 (4x(2x + 1)) 7 + 7 + 12 = 4 4x(2x + 1) x 4x 2x + 1 28(2x + 1) + 7(2x + 1) + 48x = 16x(2x + 1) 2 56x + 28 + 14x + 7 + 48x = 32x + 16x 2 56x + 28 + 14x + 7 + 48x 32x 16x = 0 2 32x + 102x + 35 = 0 2 32x 102x 35 = 0 (2x 7)(16x + 5) = 0 2x 7 = 0 or 16x + 5 = 0 x > 0, so 2x 7 = 0 x = 3.5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

50

15 a
2 2 2n 6nk 3n = 2n 6nk 3n 3 2 = 12n k 3n 2 2 = 4n k 2 2

1 xy 2 3 2 3 8c 8c x y 2 = 2 x3 y3 xy 2 2 3 3 2 6a b c 15abc 6a b c 30abc 2 3 2 8c = 2 x3 y3 30abc xy 6a b c 4 3 240abc x y = 2 3 3 6a b c xy 2 40cx = 2 ab x + 5 x 5 = 1 + 2x 15 10 15 30(x + 5) 30(x 5) = 30 1 + 2x 10 15 15 2(x + 5) 3(x 5) = 30 + 4x 2x + 10 3x + 15 = 30 + 4x 2x 3x 4x = 30 10 15 5x = 5 x = 1

16

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

51

Chapter 3 Number systems and sets


Exercise 3A Solutions
1 c d e 4 A B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12} (A B)' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} A' B' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

a b c d e 2

A' = {4} B' = {1, 3, 5} A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, or (A B)' = A' B' =

a b c d e

P' = {10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25} Q' = {11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24} P Q = {10, 12, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25} (P Q)' = {11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23} P' Q' = {11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23}

a b c d e 3

P' = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16} 5 Q' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} P Q = {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16} (P Q)' = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13} a P' Q' = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13} b c d e A' = {R} B' = {G, R} A B = {L, E, A, N} A B = {A, N, G, E, L} (A B)' = {R} A' B' = {G, R}

a b

A' = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11} B' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

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a a b c d e X' = {p, q, u, v} Y' = {p, r, w} X' Y' = {p} X' Y' = {p, q, r, u, v, w} X Y = {q, r, s, t, u, v, w} c b

f (X Y)' = {p} c and f are equal. d 7

e a b c d e X' = {5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} Y' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} X' Y' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} X' Y' = {5, 7, 9, 11} X Y = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12} a b c d e f A' = {E, H, M , S} B' = {C, H, I, M} A B = {A, T} (A B)' = {H, M} A' B' = {C, E, H, I, M, S} A' B' = {H, M} f 9

f (X Y)' = {5, 7, 9, 11} d and f are equal.

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Exercise 3B Solutions
1 a Yes, because the sum can be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal. For instance, 1 + 1 = 3 . 10 20 20 Yes, because the product can be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal. For instance, 1 1 = 1 . 10 20 200 Yes, because the quotient can be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal, so long as the denominator 0. For instance, 1 1 = 1 20 = 2. 10 20 10 No, because the sum cannot be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal. For instance, 2 + 3 . No, because the sum cannot be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal. For instance, 2 3 = 6 . No, because the sum cannot be expressed as a terminating or recurring decimal. For instance, 2 . 3

. . 0.285714 = 0.285714285714 . . . . . 6 0.285714 10 = 285714.285714 . . . . . 6 0.285714 (10 1) = 285714 . . 0.285714 = 285714 = 2 999999 7

.. . . 0.36 = 0.363636. . . 0.36 . 100 = 36.3636. . . . 0.36 99 = 36 .. 0.36 = 36 = 4 99 11 . 0.2 = 0.22222. . . . 0.2 . 10 = 2.2222. . . 0.2 9 = 2 . 0.2 = 2 9

2 a

f 4 a

0.45 = 45 = 9 100 20
2 = 7 2.000000. . . 7 = 0.2857142857. . . . . = 0.285714
5 = 11 5.000000. . . 11 = 0.454545. . . .. = 0.45

3 a

.. . . 0.27 = 0.272727. . . 0.27 . 100 = 27.272727. . . . 0.27 99 = 27 .. 0.27 = 27 = 3 99 11

7 = 20 7.00 20 = 0.35 4 = 13 4.000000. . . 13 = 0.30769230. . . . . = 0.307692 1 = 17 1.00000000000000000. . . 17 = 0.0588235294117647058. . . . . = 0.0588235294117647

0.12 = 12 = 3 100 25
e

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54

Assume 3 is a rational number, so

3 is a fraction in its simplest form, a . b a 3 = b 2 3 = a2 b 2 2 3b = a a is a multiple of 3. a = 3k, where k is an integer. 2 2 3b = (3k) 2 2 3b = 9k 2 2 b = 3b b is a multiple of 3. But this contradicts the assumption that a is a fraction in its simplest form, b as a and b are both multiples of 3. Therefore the initial assumption must be incorrect and 3 is not a rational number.

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55

Exercise 3C Solutions
1 a

8 = 4 2 =2 2

28 + 175 63 = 4 7 + 25 7 9 7 =2 7 +5 7 3 7 =4 7

12 = 4 3 =2 3 27 = 9 3 =3 3 50 = 25 2 =5 2 45 = 9 5 =3 5
1210 = 121 10 = 11 10 98 = 49 2 =7 2

1000 40 90 = 100 10 4 10 9 10 = 10 10 2 10 3 10 = 5 10

512 + 128 + 32 = 256 2 + 64 2 + 16 2 = 16 2 + 8 2 + 4 2 = 28 2

24 3 6 216 + 294 = 4 6 3 6 36 6 + 49 6 =2 6 3 6 6 6 +7 6 =0

108 = 36 3 =6 3

3 a

75 + 108 + 14 = 25 3 + 36 3 + 14 = 5 3 + 6 3 + 14 = 11 3 + 14

i j

25 = 5
75 = 25 3 =5 3 512 = 256 2 = 16 2
c
8 + 18 2 2 = 42 + 92 2 2 =2 2 +3 2 2 2 =3 2

847 567 + 63 = 121 7 81 7 + 9 7 = 11 7 9 7 + 3 7 =5 7

2 a

720 245 125 = 144 5 49 5 25 5 = 12 5 7 5 5 5 =0

d b
75 + 2 12 27 = 25 3 + 2 4 3 9 3 =5 3 +4 3 3 3 =6 3

338 288 + 363 300 = 169 2 144 2 + 121 3 100 3 = 13 2 12 2 + 11 3 10 3 = 2 + 3

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12 + 8 + 18 + 27 + 300 = 43 + 42 + 92 + 9 3 + 100 3 = 2 3 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 3 3 + 10 3 = 5 2 + 15 3

2 6 2=2 6 4 64 6 +2 6 2 =2 6 4= 6 2 2 1 5 + 3 = 5 + 3 53 5 3 5 + 3 = 5 + 3 2 1 6 + 5 = 6 + 5 65 6 5 6 + 5 = 6 + 5 1 3+2 2 =3+2 2 98 32 2 3+2 2 =3+2 2 2 3+2 2 =6+4 2 98 32 2 3+2 2 =6+4 2

2 18 + 3 5 50 + 20 80 = 2 9 2 + 3 5 25 2 + 4 5 16 5 =6 2 +3 5 5 2 +2 5 4 5 = 2 + 5

4 a
1 5 = 5 5 5 5 1 7 = 7 7 7 7
1 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 3 =2 3 3 3 3 3 6 =3 6 6 6 6 1 2 = 2 4 2 2 2

5 a

( 5 + 2) = ( 5 ) + 4 5 + 4 =5+4 5 +4 =9+4 5
(1 + 2 )(3 2 2 ) = 3 2 2 + 3 2 4 = 1 + 2

( 3 1) = 3 2 3 + 1 =42 3
1 1 = 1 27 1 3 3 27 3 27 27 3 3 3 3 = 9 =2 3 9 3 +2 = 3 +2 2 3 +1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 +1 =6+ 3 +4 3 +2 12 1 =8+5 3 11

1 2 1= 2 1 21 2 +1 2 1 = 2 1= 2 1 1
1 2+ 3 =2+ 3 43 2 3 2+ 3 =2+ 3
4 + 10 = 4 + 10 16 10 4 10 4 + 10 = 4 + 10 6 1

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5 +1= 5 +1 5 +1 5 1 5 1 5 +1 =5+2 5 +1 51 =6+2 5 4 =3+ 5 2

6 a

(2 a 1) = (2 a 1)(2 a 1) = 4a 2 a 2 a + 1 = 4a 4 a + 1
( x+1 + x+2) = ( x + 1 + x + 2 )( x + 1 + x + 2 ) = x + 1 + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) + x + 2 = 2x + 3 + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2)
2

8 +3 =2 2 +3 18 + 2 3 2 + 2 =2 2 +33 2 2 3 2 +2 3 2 2 = 12 4 2 + 9 2 6 18 4 =6+5 2 14

7 a

(5 3 2 ) (6 2 8) = 5 3 2 6 2 + 8 = 13 9 2 = 169 162 >0 5 3 2 is larger. (2 6 3) (7 2 6 ) = 2 6 3 7 + 2 6 = 4 6 10 = 96 100 <0 7 2 6 is larger.

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58

Exercise 3D Solutions
1 a d
2 68 640 2 34 320 2 17 160 2 8580 2 4290 3 2145 715 5 11 143 13 13 1 Prime decomposition 5 = 2 3 5 11 13

2 2 2 2 2 7 11 13 17

544 544 272 272 136 136 68 068 34 034 17 017 2431 221 17 1 Prime decomposition 5 = 2 7 11 13 17

2 b
2 2 2 2 2 3 7 11 13 96 096 48 048 24 024 12 012 6006 3003 1001 143 13 1 Prime decomposition 5 = 2 3 7 11 13

For each part, first find the prime decomposition of each number. 2 4361 = 7 89 Neither 7 nor 89 are factors of 9281. HCF = 1
999 = 3 37 4 3 2160 = 2 3 5 3 HCF = 3 = 27
3

5255 = 5 1051 716 845 is divisible by 5 but not 1051. HCF = 5


1271 = 31 41 3 3875 = 5 31 HCF = 31
804 = 2 3 67 2 2358 = 2 3 131 HCF = 2 3 = 6
2

2 32 032 2 16 016 2 8008 2 4004 2 2002 7 1001 11 143 13 13 1 Prime decomposition 5 = 2 7 11 13

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59

Exercise 3E Solutions
1 a
H 9 5 x E
x y 6

4
C (25) D (16)

Since all students do at least one of these subjects, 9 + 5 + x = 28 x = 14

i 5 + 14 = 19 ii 9 iii 9 + 14 = 23 or 28 5 = 23 5

Since 40 25 = 15 dont own a cat, y + 6 = 15 y=9 Since 16 own a dog, x + 9 = 16 x=7 Seven students own both.

2 a
14 A B

E (70)

F (50)

a
a

3 6

5 2 7 C 4

i n(A' C') = 9 + 14 = 23 ii n(A B') = 3 + 6 + 5 + 2 + 7 + 14 = 37 iii n(A' B C') = 9

J (50)

3
B (60%) G

We must assume every delegate spoke at least one of these languages. If 70 spoke English, and 25 spoke English and French, 45 spoke English but not French. 45 + 50 = 95 spoke either English or French or both. 105 95 = 10 spoke only Japanese. If 50 spoke French, and 15 spoke French and Japanese, 35 spoke French but not Japanese. 35 + 50 = 85 spoke either French or Japanese or both. 105 85 = 20 spoke only English. If 50 spoke Japanese, and 30 spoke Japanese and English, 20 spoke Japanese but not English. 20 + 70 = 90 spoke either Japanese or English or both. 105 90 = 15 spoke only French.

y 20%

Since 40% dont speak Greek, y + 20% = 40% y = 20% Since 40% speak Greek, x + 20% = 40% x = 20% 20% speak both languages.

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We can now fill in more of the Venn diagram.


E (70) F (50)

Insert the given information on a Venn diagram. Place y as the number taking a bus only, and z as the number taking a car only.
C B ( 33 )

20 b

a x 10 J (50) c

15
4 z 2 8 x x y

c is the number who dont speak English. 105 70 = 10 + c + 15 c + 25 = 35 c = 10 x + c = 15 x=5 5 delegates speak all five languages.
b
We have already found that 10 spoke only Japanese. Enter the information into a Venn diagram.
P G

T ( 20 )

Using n(T ) = 20, 2x + 10 = 20 x=5 Using n(B) = 33 and x = 5, 12 +5 + y = 33 y = 16 Assume they all used at least one of these forms of transport. z + 4 + 8 + 16 + 2 + 5 + 5 = 40 z=0

8 a

50 10

30 40 60 45

70

Number having no dessert = 350 50 30 70 10 40 45 60 = 45

i (X Y Z) = intersection of all sets = 36 (from diagram) ii n(X Y) = number of elements in both X and Y = 5 (from diagram)

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The following information can be placed on a Venn diagram.


R G

a 5
10 5 2 3 x 3 x

5 1 b 5 0 a + b = 12

F
B

The additional information gives 5 > x and x > 3. x = 4 Number of students = 10 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 = 31 20 bought red pens, 12 bought green pens and 15 bought black pens.

b = a + 10

n(M F B) = n(F')

Substitute in a + b = 12: a + (a + 10) = 12 2a = 12 a=6 b = a + 10 = 16

n(M F) = b + 0 = 16

10 Enter the given information as below. B M is shaded.


B M

11 Enter the given information as below.


A (23) S (22)

a b x r c

5 x

12 y 5 F

46

F (18)

5 + 12 + 5 + 5 + x + y + z = 28 27 + x + y + z = 28 x+y+z=1 This means that exactly one of x, y and z must equal 1, and the other two will equal zero. Since n(F B) > n(M F), the Venn diagram shows that this means x > y. x = 1, y = z = 0

a + x = n(A S) = 10 The shaded area is given by n(A S ) = n(A) (a + x) = 23 10 = 13 n(A U S) = 10 + 22 = 32 r + 46 = 80 32 = 48 r=2 Use similar reasoning to show c + r = 18 (b + x) = 18 11 = 7 Since r = 2, c = 5 Since x + c = n(S U F) = 6 and c = 5, x = 1 One person plays all three sports.

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12 Enter the information into a Venn diagram.


I F

13 Enter the given information into a Venn diagram.


M P

x 5

3 2

x 4

1.5x 7

25 4 35 20

x+1

Since they are all proficient in at least one language, x + 3 + x + 5 + 2 + 4 + x + 1 = 33 3x + 15 = 33 3x = 18 x=6 The number proficient in Italian =6+3+2+5 = 16

1.5x + 25 + x + 7 + 4 + 20 + 35 = 201 2.5x + 91 = 201 2.5x = 110 x = 110 2.5 = 44 The number studying Mathematics = 1.5x + 25 + 7 + 4 = 66 + 25 + 7 + 4 = 102

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63

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1
4 4 = 32 2 3+2 2 3+2 2 32 2 = 12 8 2 98 = 12 8 2

X Y Z = set of numbers that are multiples of 2, 5 and 7 LCM = 2 5 7 B = 35

Draw a Venn diagram.


F ( 50 % ) T ( 40 % )

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5

86 400 43 200 21 600 10 800 5400 2700 1350 675 225 75 25 5 1 Prime decomposition 7 3 2 =2 3 5

x 30 %

Since 50% dont play football, x + 30% = 50% x = 20% Since 40% play tennis, it can be seen that 20% play both sports.

9 D

( 6 + 3)( 6 3) 2 =( 6) +3 6 3 6 9 =69 = 3

7 6 = 7 6 7 6 7 + 6 7 + 6 7 6 = 7 2 42 + 6 76 = 13 2 42

10 Draw a Venn diagram. D


L E

B' A = numbers in set A that are not also in set B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8} D

15

x 0

( 3, ) ( , 5] cancels out the middle = (3, 5]

The next time will be both a multiple of 6 and a multiple of 14. LCM = 6 14 3 = 42 D The next time is in 42 minutes.

15 + 5 + x = 40 x = 20 20 students take only Economics.

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64

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a
. 0.07 = 0.07777. . . . 0.07 10 = 0.7777. . . . 0.07 9 = 0.7 = 7 10 . 7 0.07 = 90

3 a
2 3 1=2 3 1 2 2 2 2 =2 6 2 2

.. . . 0.45 = 0.454545. . . 0.45 . 100 = 45.4545. . . . 0.45 99 = 45 .. 0.45 = 45 = 5 99 11

5 +2= 5 +2 5 +2 5 2 5 2 5 +2 =5+4 5 +4 54 =4 5 +9 3 + 2 = 3 + 2 3 + 2 3 2 3 2 3 + 2 =3+2 6 +2 32 =2 6 +5

c d e

0.005 = 5 = 1 1000 200 0.405 = 405 = 81 1000 200


. . 0.26 = 0.26666. . . 0.26 10 = 2.6666. . . . 0.26 9 = 2.4 = 24 10 . 24 4 0.26 = = 90 15

. . 0.1714285 = 0.1714825714. . . . . 6 0.1714285 10 = 171 428.5714285. . . . . 6 0.1714285 (10 1) = 171 428.4 = 1 714 284 10 . . 1 714 284 0.1714285 = 9 999 990 = 6 35
2 2 2 3 3 7 504 252 126 63 21 7 1 3 2 504 = 2 3 7

3 + 2 75 = 3 + 2 25 3 3 12 3 43 =3+25 3 32 3 3 + 10 3 3 + 2 3 = 32 3 3+2 3 = 9 + 6 3 + 30 3 + 60 9 12 = 69 + 36 3 3 = 23 12 3

5 a
6 2 6 2 = 3 2 +2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 +2 3 = 36 + 12 6 18 12 = 36 + 12 6 6 =6+2 6

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65

a+b ab a+b + ab = a+b ab a+b ab a+b + ab a+b ab = a + b 2 ( a + b)( a b) + a b ( a + b) ( a b)


= 2a 2 a b 2b =a a b b
2 2 2 2

Fill in a Venn diagram.


E M

2 4

14 2 2

First enter the information on a Venn diagram.


G ( 55 ) B E ( 45 )

30 2 14 5 4 2 2 = 1 (since all received at least one prize.) 14 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 22 2 + 14 + 4 + 2 = 22 Enter the given information on a Venn diagram as below.
X ( 23 ) Y ( 25 )

b c

15 20 5 10

B l ( 40 )

3 9 2 6

It is obvious to make up the 40 blonds that 5 must be blond only, so the number of boys (not girls) who are blond is 5 +10 = 15. The rest of the Venn diagram can be filled in the same way:
G ( 55 ) B E ( 45 )

Z ( 19 )

The numbers liking X only, Y only and Z only are 9, 14 and 2 respectively. The number who like none of them = 50 9 3 14 9 2 6 2 =5

15 20

15 5 5 10

15

B l ( 40 )

Boys not blond or blue-eyed = 100 15 15 15 20 5 10 5 = 15

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66

The rectangles can be represented by circles for clarity. Enter the data:
A ( 20 ) B ( 10 )

12

p b

a x q c

1+ 2 + 1 2 5 + 3 5 3 = 1+ 2 5 3 + 1 2 5 + 3 5 + 3 5 3 5 3 5 + 3 = 5 5 + 10 6 + 5 + 5 10 6 53 53 2 5 2 6 = 2 = 5 6 27 12 + 2 75 48 25

C ( 16 )

13

Note: a + x = 3, b + x = 6 and c + x = 4 p + b + a + x = 20 p + b + 3 = 20 p + b = 17 q + (p + b) + n(B) = 35 q + 17 + 10 = 35 q=8 q + (b + x) + c = n(C) = 16 8 + 6 + c = 16 c=2 c+x=4 x=2 There is 2 cm2 in common.

= 9 3 4 3 + 2 25 3 16 3 25 = 3 3 2 3 + 10 3 4 3 5 = 15 3 10 3 + 50 3 4 3 5 51 3 = 5

14 a A B = 32 + 7 + 15 + 3 = 57 b
C=3 B' A = 32

10

112 63 224 28 = 16 7 9 7

224

= 4 7 = 4 7 = 4 7 = 15

47 3 7 224 7 2 7 7 3 7 224 7 14 3 7 16 7 7

11 Cross multiply: 2 ( 7 3 )( 7 + 3 ) = x 2 73=x 2 4=x x=2

15 17 + 6 8 = 17 + 2 9 8 = 17 + 2 72 a + b = 17; ab = 72 a = 8, b = 9 (or a = 9, b = 8, giving the same answer.) 2 ( 8 + 9 ) = 17 + 6 8 So the square root of 17 + 6 8 = 8 + 9 =2 2 +3

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67

Chapter 4 Variation
Exercise 4A Solutions
1 a
y = kx 2 8=k2 8 = 4k k=2 2 x = 6: y=26 = 72 2 y = 128: 2x = 128 2 x = 64 x = 8 (take the positive root) 8 x 2 4 6 y 8 32 72 128
2

y = kx

1 5 1

1 = k 1 5 32 5 1=k1 2 5 2 k= 5
1

x = 32:

5 y = 2 32 5 =4 5 1

y = kx 1=k1 2 6 1 = 3k k=1 3

5 y= 8: 2x =8 5 5 5

y=11 3 1 = 3 2: 1x=2 y= 3 3 3 x=2 3 1 1 2 x 2 2 1 1 1 2 y 6 3 2 3 x = 1:


c

x y
2

x =4 5 1 5 5 x = 4 x = 1024 1 1 32 1024 32 1 2 4 8 5 5 5 5
3

1 5

y=k x 6=k 4 6 = 2k k=3 x = 49: y = 3 49 = 21 y = 90: 3 x = 90 x = 30 x = 900 x 4 9 49 900 y 6 9 21 90

V = kr 3 125 = k 2.5 125 = 15.625k k = 125 15.625 =8 3 V = 8 3.2 = 262.144


200 = 8r 3 r = 25
3

r = 3 25 2.924

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68

a=b

2 3 2

2 = k 13 3 k=2 3
2

3 a=22 3 1.058

W = kL 2 18 = k 20 18 = 400k k = 18 400 = 9 200 L = 225 = 15 2 W = 9 15 200 = 10.125 kg

3 2=2b 3

b =23=3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 b = 3 b 5.196
4

2 3

A = kh 60 = k 10 k=6 A = 6 12 2 = 72 cm
120 = 6h h = 20 cm

V = kr 3 4188.8 = k 10 k = 4.1888 3 3 1 m = 1 000 000 cm 3 1 000 000 = 4.1888r 3 r = 1 000 000 4.1888 238 731.85 r 62.035 cm

E = kw 3.2 = k 452 k = 3.2 452 = 8 1130 8 810 E= 1130 648 cm = 113 10 = 8 w 1130 w = 10 1130 8 2825 = 2 = 1412.5 g

T=k L 1.55 = k 60 k = 1.55 60 1.55 90 T= 60 = 1.55 1.5 1.898 seconds

9 a

d=k h 4.8 = k 1.8 k = 4.8 1.8 Persons height above ground = 4 + 1.8 = 5.8 m 4.8 d= 5.8 1.8 8.616 km
Height difference between person and yacht = 5.8 + 10 = 15.8 m d = 4.8 15.8 1.8 14.221 km

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10 In each case set the initial value of x to 1. Initial value of y = k (when x = 1). 2 a i y=k2 = 4k (300% increase) ii y = k 2 1.41k (41% increase) 3 iii y = k 2 = 8k (700% increase) b i y = k 0.5 = 0.25k (75% decrease) ii y = k 0.5 0.71k (29% decrease) 3 iii y = k 0.5 = 0.125k (87.5% decrease) i y = k 0.8 = 0.64k (36% decrease) ii y = k 0.8 0.89k (11% decrease) 3 y = k 0.8 iii = 0.512k (48.8% decrease) i y = k 1.4 = 1.96k (96% increase) ii y = k 1.4 1.18k (18% increase) 3 iii y = k 1.4 = 2.744k (174.4% increase)
2 2 2

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70

Exercise 4B Solutions
1 a
y=2 x k 2= 1 k=2 y=2=1 6 3 1 : 2= 1 y= 16 x 16 x = 2 16 = 32 x = 6:

k 2 x 3 = k2 1 k=3 y= 3 1 2 = 3 3 3 y= 1 : 2= 1 12 x 12 x = 3: y =

x 2 y 1

4
1 2

6
1 3

8
1 16

16

x = 36 x = 6 (take the positive root)

1 32

x 1 y 3
k x k
1 3

2
3 4

3
1 3

6
1 12

y= k x 1= k 2 1 1 k= 2 y= 1 2 x 1: 1 =1 y= 4 2 x 4 2 x =4 x=4 x = 9: y= 1 2 9 =1 6
1 4

y= 1= 3

1 k=1 3 1 y= 1 3x
3

1 3

1 y= 1: 1=1 9 9 3 3x x =3 3 x = 3 = 27 1 x =125: y = 1 3 125 = 1 15 x y


3 1 3

x y

1
1 2

4
1 4

9
1 6

1 8
2 3

1
1 3

27 125
1 9 1 15

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71

a = k3 b k 3 ( 2) 2 k=4( 2) 2 =8 2 8 2 a= 3 b 8 2 = 3 (2 2 ) = 8 2 8 8 = 1 =1 4 2 4=

V= k P 22.5 = k 1.9 k = 1.9 22.5 = 42.75 15 = 42.75 P 42.75 P= 15 2 = 2.85 kg/ cm


I=k R 3= k 80 k = 3 80 = 240 I = 240 100 = 2.4 amperes

8 2 3 b 1 =8 2 3 16 b 3 b = 8 2 16 = 128 2 181.01 b 5.657 a=


k 4 b 5 = k4 2 4 k = 5 2 = 80 80 a= 4 4 = 80 = 0.3125 256 a=

80% of 3 = 2.4 2.4 = 240 R 240 R= 2.4 = 100 ohms

k 2 d 100 = k 2 20 k = 100 400 = 40 000 40 000 I= 2 25 = 64 candela I= r= k h 5.64 = k 10 k = 5.64 10 r = 5.64 10 12 = 5.15 cm

20 =

80 4 b 4 b = 80 20 2 =4=2 b = (2 )
1 2 1 2 4

=2 = 2

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8 a

In each case set the initial value of x to 1. Initial value of y = k (when x = 1). i y=k 4 = 0.25k (75% decrease) ii y = k 2 0.71k (29% decrease) k iii y = 3 2 = 0.125k (87.5% decrease)
i y=

k 2 0.5 = 4k (300% increase) ii y = k 0.5 1.41k (41% increase) k iii y = 3 0.5 = 8k (700% increase) k 2 0.8 = 1.5625k (56.25% increase) ii y = k 0.8 1.12k (12% increase) k iii y = 3 0.8 1.95k (95% increase)
i y=

i y=

k 2 1.4 0.51k (49% decrease) ii y = k 1.4 0.85k (15% decrease) k iii y = 3 1.4 0.36k (64% decrease)

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Exercise 4C Solutions
1 a

From the table, y = 2 x, 3 which is a direct relationship. From the table, y = 4x , which is a direct square relationship. From the table, y = 1 , x/5 which is an inverse relationship. From the table, y = 2 x , which is a direct square root relationship.
2

Gradient = 2 = 2 1 y = 2x Gradient = 9 = 3 3 y = 3x Gradient = 6 = 6 1 y = 6x

4 2, x which is an inverse square relationship.


From the table, y = If direct variation exists, then the graph of y vs xn will be a straight line through the origin. Graphs b and e fit this criteria. Graph f is a straight line but does not pass through the origin. If inverse variation exists, then the graph 1 of y vs n will be a straight line that is x undefined at the origin. Graphs a, b and e fit this criteria. Graph a is a curve when showing y vs x, but will 1 straighten out when showing y vs n . x Gradient = 3 = 3 1 y = 3x Gradient = 6 = 3 2 y = 3x
Gradient = 10 3 10 x y= 3

The graph is a straight line through the origin. Gradient = 21.6 = 2.4 9 2 y = 2.4x Note: Any point can be used to calculate the gradient.
6

4 a

The graph is a straight line through the origin. Gradient = 7.5 = 1.5 5 y = 1.5 x Note: Any point can be used to calculate the gradient.

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9 a

Use your calculator's power regression function to determine a and b. a = 100 b = 0.2
C = at 0.2 = 100 10 158.49
b

The graph is a straight line through the origin. Gradient = 2 = 2 1 2 y= 2 x Note: Any point can be used to calculate the gradient.
8 a

10 a Use your calculator's power regression function to determine a and b. a = 1500 b = 0.5 b
I = at 0.5 = 1500 10 474.34
b

Methods will vary depending on the calculator used. y=1 x 4


y = 2x
5 4

b c

y = 3.5x
y = 10x

0.4

2 3

e f

y = 2x

5 2

y = 3.2x

0.4

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Exercise 4D Solutions
1
y = kx z 2k 1= 10 k=5

When y = 1 and z = 60: 2 1 = 5x 2 60 x=6 When x = 10 and y = 4: 4 = 5 10 z 50 = 12.5 z= 4 6 10 x 2 4 z 10 2 60 12.5 4 y 1 10 0.5


2

When y = 6 and z = 50: 3 50 6 = 2 x 2 150 = 25 x = 6 x=5 When x = 10 and y = 4: 3z 4= 2 10 3z = 400 z = 400 3

x z y

2 10
15 2
2

3 4
4 3

5 50 6

10 400 3 4

y = kxz 10 = k 2 10 k=1 2 When y = 25 and z = 50: 25 = 50x 2 x=1 When x = 10 and y = 15: 15 = 10z 2 z=3
x z y 2 10 10 4 8 16 1 50 25 10 3 15

a = kb c 2 0.54 = k 1.2 2 0.54 2 k= 2 1.2 = 0.75 2 a = 0.75 2.6 3.5 1.449

kz 2 x 15 = 10k 2 2 2 k = 15 4 2 10 =3 y=

k x 3 y 5 k 146 = 3 1.5 3 k = 1.46 1.5 5 4.9275 = 5 4.9275 x z= 3 y 5 4.9275 4.8 = 3 2.3 5 0.397 z=

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I = krt 130 = k 6.5 2 k = 130 = 10 13 I = 10 5.8 3 = $174

E = kmv 2 281.25 = k 25 15 k = 281 2.5 225 = 0.5 2 E = 0.5 1.8 20 = 360 joules In both cases, set the initial length and diameter to 1. Initial value of y = k (when l = 1, d = 1). k 1.5 y= 2 0.5 = 6k (500% increase)

W = k (2a) 3L 2 = 4ka 3L 4C = 3 The weight has increased by a factor of 4 1.33 or approximately 33%. 3

10 In both cases, set the initial values of p and q to 1. Initial value of y = k (when p = 1, q = 1). 2 a y=k2 2 = 2.83k (183% increase) b
y=k2 0.5 = 5.66k (466% increase)
2

k 0.5 y= 2 1.5 0.22k (78% decrease)


2

11 a

T = kx l
For the first spring, T = k 1 = k 3 3 k 0.9 = k For the second spring, T = 2.7 3 The tensions will both be the same.

9 a
W = kd L Let the diameter be a and the length b for a supported weight of C. 2 C = ka L Let the new diameter be x. If the length doubles and the weight remains the same, then 2 C = kd 2L 2 2 kx = ka 2L L 2 2 x = ka 2l k L 2 = 2a x = 2a The diameter has increased by a factor of 2 1.41 or approximately 41%.

T = kx l

For the first spring, T = k 1 = k 3 3 For the second spring, 2 T = k 0.9 = 3k 10 2.7 The ratio of tension = T (second spring) T (first spring) 0.3k = k 3 = 3k 3 10 k = 9 = 0.9 10 This is a 10% decrease; the tension in the second spring is 90% that in the first.

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Exercise 4E Solutions
1

C = b + kd 42.4 = b + 22k 47.8 = b + 25k : 5.4 = 3k k = 1.8 42.4 = b + 22 1.8 42.4 = b + 39.6 b = 2.8 C = 2.8 + 1.8 17 = $33.40

C = k1 n + k2 n 32 = 200k1 + k2 200 61 = 400k1 + k2 400 Multiply by 0.5: 16 = 100k1 + k2 400 61 = 400k1 + k2 400 : 45 = 300k1 k1 = 45 = 0.15 300
32 = 200 0.15 + k2 200 k2 32 = 30 + 200 k2 = 2 200 k2 = 400 C = 0.15 360 + 400 360 $55.11

2 a

C = b + kd 2625 = b + 50k 3575 = b + 70k : 950 = 20k k = 47.5 2625 = b + 50 47.5 2625 = b + 2375 b = 250 The fixed charge is $250 and the cost per guest is $47.50

C = b + kd = 250 + 4.75 100 = $5000

5 a

p = k1 x + k2 y 14 = 3k1 + 16k2 14.5 = 5k1 + 9k2 Multiply by 5 and by 3: 70 = 15k1 + 80k2 43.5 = 15k1 + 27k2 : 26.5 = 53k2 k2 = 0.5 14 = 3k1 + 16 0.5 14 = 3k1 + 8 3k1 = 6 k1 = 2 p = 2 4 + 0.5 25 = 20.5

s = k1 t + k2 t 142.5 = 3k1 + 9k2 262.5 = 5k1 + 25k2 Multiply by 5 and by 3: 712.5 = 15k1 + 45k2 787.5 = 15k1 + 75k2 : 75 = 30k2 k2 = 75 = 2.5 30 142.5 = 3k1 + 9 2.5 3k1 = 120 k1 = 40 s = 40 6 + 2.5 36 = 330 m
The sixth second is the time from t = 5 to t = 6. Distance travelled = 330 262.5 = 67.5 m

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t = k1 b + k2 m 45 = 10k1 + k2 1 45 = 10k1 + k2 30 = 8k1 + k2 2 Multiply by 2: 45 = 10k1 + k2 60 = 16k1 + k2 : 15 = 6k1 k1 = 15 = 2.5 6 45 = 10 2.5 + k2 k2 = 20 t = 2.5 16 + 20 4 = 45 minutes

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

y = kx 3=k9 k=1 3
y=k x 1=k 4 2 k=2=1 4 2

6 C 7

Gradient = 4 = 4 1 y=4 x
kx 2 z 1=k2=k 2 3 2 2 k=2 3 y=

A 8

a = kb 32 = k 8 k=4 a = 4 64 = 256
p = k2 q 1=k 3 9 k=9=3 3 3 1= 2 q 2 q =3 q= 3

a = kp q k4 8= 5 40 = 10 k= 4 10 9 a= 6 = 15 Set the initial value of q to 1. Initial value of p = k 2 p = k 1.1 = 1.21k 21% increase

Gradient = 6 = 3 2 2 y = 3x

10 Set the initial value of q to 1. Initial value of p = k p= k 0.8 = 1.25k 25% increase

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

a = kb 3 = k 22 2 k=3 8 b = 4: a=34 8 =6
2

x= 1: 2

y= =

4 2 3x

4 2 3 0.5 = 16 3 4 : 4 = 4 y= 27 3x2 27 3x = 27 2 x =9 x=3


d
2

2 a = 8: 3 b = 8 8 2 b = 64 3

b= 8 3
b

y = kx

1 3 1 3

10 = k 2 10 k= 1 2
3

x = 27:

y=

10 2 30 2
1 3 1 3

27

1 3

=
1 3

a = kb c 1=k1 4 4 2=1 k= 4 2 a= b 2 c 4 9 = 2 16 9 413 = 9 2 4 =1 6

10 y= 1: 1 x =1 8 3 8 2 x =2 80 2 x= 3 80 =
k 2 x 1= k 3 22 k=4 3 y=
1 3 1 3

2 a

1 256 000
b

d = kt 2 78.56 = k 4 k = 78.56 16 = 4.91 2 d = 4.91t

d = 4.91 10 = 491 m

78.56 = 19.64 t 2 t = 78.56 = 4 19.64 = 2 seconds t

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3 a

v=k s 7 = k 2.5 7 k = 2.5 v= 7 s 2.5 =7 s 2.5 = 7 10 2.5 = 14 m/s

y1 2 x x2 y x is doubled.

C = ktRI 9 = k 2.5 60 16 k = 0.00375 C = 0.00375 1.5 80 9 = 4.05 cents C = a + kn 20 = a + 100k 30 = a + 500k : 10 = 400k k = 10 = 1 400 40 20 = a + 100 40 20 = a + 2.5 a = 17.5 C = 17.5 + 700 40 = $35 v = kI 24 = k 6 k=4 72 = 4I I = 18 amps

28 = 7 s =4 2.5 s = 16 2.5 s = 40

s 2.5

t=k v 4= k 30 k = 4 30 = 120 t = 120 50 = 2.4 hours

5 a

y1 x
y 1 2x y is halved.

2y 1 x 1 x 2y x is halved.

1 x 2 2y 1 x y is doubled. y

k 2 d Let the initial distance be d1. The final distance will be d2. I1 = k 2 (d1) k I2 = 2 (2d1) = k 2 4(d1) = 1 I1 4 I=

10 Set the initial values of x and z to 1. Initial value of y = k 2 y = k 1.1 0.9 1.34 (34% increase)

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Chapter 5 Sequences and series


Exercise 5A Solutions
1 a
t1 = 3 t2 = 3 + 4 = 7 t3 = 7 + 4 = 11 t4 = 11 + 4 = 15 t5 = 15 + 4 = 19

tn = n + 1 2 t1 = 1 + 1 = 2 2 t2 = 2 + 1 = 5 2 t3 = 3 + 1 = 10 2 t4 = 4 + 1 = 17 tn = 2n t1 = 2 1 = 2 t2 = 2 2 = 4 t3 = 2 3 = 6 t4 = 2 4 = 8

t1 = 5 t2 = 3 5 + 4 = 19 t3 = 3 19 + 4 = 61 t4 = 3 61 + 4 = 187 t5 = 3 187 + 4 = 565 t1 = 1 t2 = 5 1 = 5 t3 = 5 5 = 25 t4 = 5 25 = 125 t5 = 5 125 = 625


t1 = 1 t2 = 1 + 2 = 1 t3 = 1 + 2 = 3 t4 = 3 + 2 = 5 t5 = 5 + 2 = 7

tn = 2 1 t1 = 2 = 2 2 t2 = 2 = 4 3 t3 = 2 = 8 4 t4 = 2 = 16
tn = 3n + 2 t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 5 t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 8 t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 11 t4 = 3 4 + 2 = 14 tn = (1) n 1 3 t1 = (1) 1 = 1 2 3 t2 = (1) 2 = 8 3 3 t3 = (1) 3 = 27 4 3 t4 = (1) 4 = 64 tn = 2n + 1 t1 = 2 1 + 1 = 3 t2 = 2 2 + 1 = 5 t3 = 2 3 + 1 = 7 t4 = 2 4 + 1 = 9 tn = 2 3 0 t1 = 2 3 = 2 1 t2 = 2 3 = 6 2 t3 = 2 3 = 18 3 t4 = 2 3 = 54
n1 n

t1 = 1 t2 = 3 t3 = 2 3 + 1 = 7 t4 = 2 7 + 3 = 17 t5 = 2 17 + 7 = 41

2 a
tn = 1 n t1 = 1 = 1 1 t2 = 1 2 t3 = 1 3 t4 = 1 4

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3 a

t1 = 3 = 3 1 t2 = 6 = 3 2 t3 = 9 = 3 3 t4 = 12 = 3 4 tn = 3n t2 = t1 + 3 ii t3 = t2 + 3 tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 3 t1 = 1 = 2 1 t2 = 2 = 2 2 t3 = 4 = 2 3 t4 = 8 = 2 n1 tn = 2 t2 = 2t1 ii t3 = 2t2 tn = 2tn 1, t1 = 1


1 2 1 1 t2 = 1 = 2 4 2 1 t3 = 1 = 2 9 3 1 t4 = 1 = 2 16 4 1 tn = 2 n ii t2 = 1 t1 4 t3 = 4 t2 9 t4 = 9 t3 16 2 (n 1) tn = tn 1 , t1 = 1 2 n
i
0

t1 = 4 = 3 1 + 1 t2 = 7 = 3 2 + 1 t3 = 10 = 3 3 + 1 t4 = 13 = 3 4 + 1 tn = 3n + 1 t2 = t1 + 3 ii t3 = t2 + 3 tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 4
i

f b i

t1 = 4 = 5 1 1 t2 = 9 = 5 2 1 t3 = 14 = 5 3 1 t4 = 19 = 5 4 1 tn = 5n 1 t2 = t1 + 5 ii t3 = t2 + 5 tn = tn 1 + 5, t1 = 4
i
tn = 3n + 1 tn + 1 = 3(n + 1) + 1 = 3n + 4 t2n = 3(2n) + 1 = 6n + 1
tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 15

t1 = 1 =

5 a b

t1 = 15 t2 = 15 + 3 t3 = (15 + 3) + 3 = 15 + 2 3 tn = 15 + (n 1) 3 = 3n + 12

c 6 a

t13 = 3 13 + 12 = 51
4% reduction is equivalent to 96% of the original. tn = 0.96tn 1
t1 = 94.3 t2 = 0.96 94.3 t3 = 0.96 (0.96 94.3) 2 = 0.96 94.3 n1 tn = 94.3 0.96

t1 = 3 = 3 (2) 1 t2 = 6 = 3 (2) 2 t3 = 12 = 3 (2) 3 t4 = 24 = 3 (2) n1 tn = 3 (2) t2 = 2 t1 ii t3 = 2 t2 tn = 2tn 1, t1 = 3

t9 = 94.3 0.96 68.03 seconds

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7 a b

tn = 1.8tn 1 + 20

t1 = 1.8 100 + 20 = 200 t2 = 1.8 200 + 20 = 380 t3 = 1.8 380 + 20 = 704 t4 = 1.8 704 + 20 = 1287 t5 = 1.8 1287 + 20 = 2336
c

un = 1 (n n) 2 2 u1 = 1 (1 1) 2 2 u2 = 1 (2 2) 2 2 u3 = 1 (3 3) 2
2

+1 +1=1 +1=2 +1=4

8 a

t1 = 2000 1.06 = $2120 t2 = (2120 + 400) 1.06 = $2671.20 t3 = (2671.2 + 400) 1.06 = $3255.47

The sequences are the same for the first three terms. t1 = u1 t2 = u2 t3 = u3

tn = (tn 1 + 400) 1.06 = 1.06(tn 1 + 400), t1 = 2120


Method will depend on the calculator or spreadsheet used. t10 = $8454.02 Method will depend on the calculator used. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 3, 1, 1, 3, 5, 7
11

t4 = 2 = 8 2 u4 = 1 (4 4) + 1 = 7 2 The sequences diverge after the first three terms.


S1 = a 1 + b 1 = a + b 2 S2 = a 2 + b 2 = 4a + 2b 2 S3 = a 3 + b 3 = 9a + 3b 2 2 Sn + 1 Sn = a(n + 1) + b(n + 1) an bn 2 2 = a(n + 2n + 1) + bn + b an bn 2 2 = an + 2an + a + b an = 2an + a + b
2

9 a b c d e f g h

1 , 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 2
32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 1.1, 1.21, 1.4641, 2.144, 4.595, 21.114 27, 18, 12, 8, 16 , 32 3 9 1, 3, 11, 27, 59, 123 3, 7, 3, 7, 3, 7

12 t2 = 1 1 + 2 = 3 2 1 2 1 3 + 2 = 17 t3 = 2 2 3/ 2 12 1 17 + 2 = 577 t4 = 2 12 17/ 12 408 Comparing the terms to real numbers between 1 and 1.5, it can be seen that the sequence gives an approximation of 2 . 13

10 n1 a tn = 2 0 t1 = 2 = 1 1 t2 = 2 = 2 2 t3 = 2 = 4

t3 = t 2 + t1 =1+1=2 t4 = t 3 + t2 =2+1=3 t5 = t 4 + t3 =3+2=5 tn + 2 = t n + 1 + tn tn + 1 = t n + t n 1 tn + 2 = (tn + tn 1) + tn = 2tn + tn 1

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Exercise 5B Solutions
1 a
tn = a + (n 1)d t1 = 0 + (1 1) 2 = 0 t2 = 0 + (2 1) 2 = 2 t3 = 0 + (3 1) 2 = 4 t4 = 0 + (4 1) 2 = 6

t1 = 3 + (1 1) t2 = 3 + (2 1) t3 = 3 + (3 1) t4 = 3 + (4 1)

5 = 3 5=2 5=7 5 = 12

a + (1 1)d = 5 5 a=5 5 (5 5 ) + (2 1)d = 5 d = 5 (5 5 ) = 5 tn = (5 5 ) + 5 (n 1) = 5 n+52 5


t13 = a + 12d = 5 + 12 3 = 31 t10 = a + 9d = 12 + 9 4 = 24 t9 = a + 8d = 25 + 8 2.5 = 5

t1 = t2 = t3 = t4 =

5 5 5 5

+ (1 1) + (2 1) + (3 1) + (4 1)

3 a

5 5 5 5

= = 2 = 3 = 4

5 5 5 5

t1 = 11 + (1 1) t2 = 11 + (2 1) t3 = 11 + (3 1) t4 = 11 + (4 1)

2 = 11 2 = 9 2 = 7 2 = 5

2 a

a + (1 1)d = 3 a=3 3 + (2 1)d = 7 d=73=4 tn = 3 + 4(n 1) = 4n 1 a + (1 1)d = 3 a=3 3 + (2 1)d = 1 d = 1 3 = 4 tn = 3 + 4(n 1) = 7 4n


a + (1 1)d = 1 2 a= 1 2 1 + (2 1)d = 3 2 2 d=3 1=2 2 2 tn = 1 + 2(n 1) 2 = 2n 5 2

t5 = a + 4d =2 3 +4 3 =6 3

4 a

a = 4, d = 2 t6 = a + 5d = 4 + 5 2 = 14
t10 = a + 9d = 4 + 9 4 = 22

tn = 4 + 2(n 1) = 10 2(n 1) = 6 n1=3 n=4 The fourth day. P is the 16th row. a = 25, d = 3 t16 = a + 15d = 25 + 15 3 = 70 seats X is the 24th row. a = 25, d = 3 t24 = a + 23d = 25 + 23 3 = 94 seats

5 a

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tn = 25 + 3(n 1) = 40 3(n 1) = 15 n1=5 n=6 Row F a = 6, d = 4 t5 = 6 + 4 4 = 22 a = 5, d = 3 t12 = 5 + 11 3 = 28 a = 16, d = 3 tn = 16 3(n 1) = 41 3(n 1) = 57 n 1 = 19 n = 20 a = 7, d = 4 tn = 7 + 4(n 1) = 227 4(n 1) = 220 n 1 = 55 n = 56
t30 = 7 + 29d = 108 1 2 1 29d = 101 2 1 d=3 2
t6 = 3 + 5d = 98 5d = 95 d = 19 t7 = t6 + 19 = 117
a + 2d = 18 a + 5d = 486 : 3d = 468 d = 156 a + 2 156 = 18 a + 312 = 18 a = 294 tn = 294 + 156(n 1) = 156n 450

10

6 a

a + 4d = 24 a + 9d = 39 : 5d = 15 d=3 a + 4 3 = 24 a + 12 = 24 a = 12 t15 = 12 + 14 3 = 54 a + 6d = 0.6 a + 11d = 0.4 : 5d = 1.0 d = 0.2 a + 6 0.2 = 0.6 a 1.2 = 0.6 a = 1.8 t20 = 1.8 + 19 0.2 = 2

11

12 4 + 9d = 30 9d = 26 d = 29 9

t2 = 4 + 1 26 = 62 9 9 26 = 88 t3 = 4 + 2 9 9 26 = 38 t4 = 4 + 3 9 3 t5 = 4 + 4 26 = 140 9 9 26 = 166 t6 = 4 + 5 9 9 26 = 64 t7 = 4 + 6 9 3 26 = 218 t8 = 4 + 7 9 9 26 = 244 t9 = 4 + 8 9 9


13 5 + 5d = 15 5d = 10 d=2 t2 = 5 + 1 2 = 7 t3 = 5 + 2 2 = 9 t4 = 5 + 3 2 = 11 t5 = 5 + 4 2 = 13

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14 a + (m 1)d = 0 (m 1)d = a
a m1 tn = a a(n 1) m1 This could be simplified as follows: tn = a(m 1) a(n 1) m1 a(m 1 + n + 1) = m1 a(m n) = m1 d=

17 3x 2 = 5x + 1 + 11 2 6x 4 = 5x + 12 x = 16 18 Use the fact that the difference is constant. (8a 13) (4a 4) = (4a 4) a 8a 13 4a + 4 = 4a 4 a 4a 9 = 3a 4 a=5 19 tx = a + (x a)d = y ty = a + (y a)d = x Subtract: (x y)d = y x = 1(x y) d = 1(x y) xy = 1 Substitute: a + (x a) 1 = y a=y+x1 tx + y = a + (x + y 1)d = y + x 1 + (x + y 1) 1 =y+x1xy+1 =0 20 Use the fact that the difference is constant. 2 a 2a = 2a a 2 a 3a = 0 a(a 3) = 0 a = 3 (since a 0)

15 a + 14d = 3 + 9 3 a + 19d = 38 3 : 5d = 35 10 3 d=72 3 a + 14 (7 2 3 ) = 3 + 9 3 a + 98 28 3 = 3 + 9 3 a = 37 3 95 t6 = 37 3 95 + 5 (7 2 3 ) = 37 3 95 + 35 10 3 = 27 3 60 16 a


c=a+b 2 8 + 15 = 11.5 = 2

c=a+b 2 1 =1 + 2 2 2 1 2 = 2 2 +1+2 2 2(2 2 1)(2 2 4 2 = 2 (8 1) =2 2 7

1 2 + 1 1 + 1)

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Exercise 5C Solutions
1 a 4

a = 8, d = 5, n = 12 t12 = 8 + 11 5 = 63 S12 = 12 (8 + 63) 2 = 6 71 = 426


a = 3.5, d = 2, n = 10 t10 = 3.5 + 9 2 = 14.5 S10 = 10 (3.5 + 14.5) 2 = 5 11 = 55

a = 5, d = 5, n = 16 S16 = 16 (10 + 15 5) 2 = 680 There will be half of 98 = 49 numbers: a = 2, d = 2, n = 49 S49 = 49 (4 + 48 2) 2 = 2450


a=6 t15 = 6 + 14d = 27 14d = 21 d = 1.5 t8 = 6 + 7 1.5 = 16.5 km S5 = 5 (12 + 4 1.5) 2 = 45 km Total distance: S15 = 15 (12 + 14 1.5) 2 = 247.5 Distance missed = 18 + 19.5 + 21 = 58.5 km (8th day = 16.5 km) Distance Dora walks = 247.5 58.5 = 189 km a = 30, d = 5
Sn = n (60 + (n 1) 5) 2 = 500 n(60 + 5n 10) = 1000 2 5n + 50n 1000 = 0 2 n + 10n 200 = 0 (n 10)(n + 20) = 0 n = 10, as n > 0 10 days

6 a

a = 1 , d = 1 , n = 15 2 2 t15 = 1 + 14 1 2 2 15 = 2 S15 = 15 1 + 15 2 2 2 = 60 2
a = 4, d = 5, n = 8 t8 = 4 + 7 5 = 31 S8 = 8 (4 + 31) 2 = 108

a = 7, d = 3, n = 7 S7 = 7 (14 + 6 3) 2 = 112

7 a

Sn = n (30 + (n 1) 1) 2 = 110 n(30 n + 1) = 220 2 n + 31n 220 = 0 2 n 31n + 220 = 0 (n 11)(n 20) = 0 n = 11 or n = 20 Reject any value of n > 15, as this would involve a negative number of logs in a row. There will be 11 layers.

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a = 50, n = 5 S5 = 5 (100 + 4d) 2 = 500 100 + 4d = 200 d = 200 100 4 = 25 pages per day
Sn = n (8 + (n 1) 4) 2 = 180 n(8 + 4n 4) = 360 2 4n + 4n 360 = 0 2 n + n 90 = 0 (n 9)(n + 10) = 0 n = 9 as n 10 a = 5, d = 4
Sm = m (10 + (m 1) 4) 2 = 660 m(10 + 4m 4) = 1320 2 4m 14m 1320 = 0 (m 20)(4m + 66) = 0 m = 20 as m > 0

11 Total members S12 = 12 (80 + 11 15) 2 = 1470 Total fees = 1470 $120 = $176 400 12
a + d = 12 6(2a + 11d) = 18 2a + 11d = 3 Substitute a = 12 d: 24 2d + 11d = 3 9d 24 = 3 d=3 a + 3 = 12 a = 15 t6 = 15 + 5 3 =0 S6 = 6 (30 + 5 3) 2 = 45

13

10 a Row J = t10 = 50 + 9 4 = 86 b

S26 = 26 (100 + 25 4) 2 = 2600 50 + 54 + 58 + 62 = 224 2600 224 = 2376 Sn = n (100 + (n 1) 4) 2 = 3410 n(100 + 4n 4) = 6820 2 4n + 96n 6820 = 0 2 n + 24n 1705 = 0 (n 31)(n + 55) = 0 n = 31 as n 55 There are 5 extra rows (from 26 to 31).

5(2a + 9d) = 120 2a + 9d = 24 10(2a + 19d) = 840 2a + 19d = 84 : 10d = 60 d=6 2a + 9 6 = 24 a = 15 S30 = 30 (30 + 29 6) 2 = 2160

c d e

14 a = 54, d = 6, n = 19 (9 + 9 + 1) S19 = 19 (108 + 18 6) 2 =0 You may also observe that every positive term will be balanced by a negative term, so the sum will be zero.

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15

a + 5d = 16 a + 11d = 28 : 6d = 12 d=2 a + 10 = 16 a=6 S14 = 14 (12 + 13 2) 2 = 266


a + 2d = 6.5 4(2a + 7d) = 67 a + 3.5d = 67 = 8.375 8 : 1.5d = 1.875 d = 1.25 a + 1.25 2 = 6.5 a=4 tn = 4 + 1.25(n 1) = 2.75 + 1.25n = 5 n + 11 4 4

16 a

a + 2 10 5 = 16 5 5 5 16 5 a= 5 = 36 5 5 tn = 36 5 5 = 46 5 5 = 46 5 5
17 a tn + 1 tn = b(n + 1) bn =b b

+ 20 5 5

10 5 (n 1) 5 10 5 n 5 2 5n

Sn = n (2b + (n 1)b) 2 n (2b + nb b) = 2 = n (nb + b) 2 This can be factorised to nb( n + 1) . 2

a + 3d = 6 5 = 6 5 5 5 =6 5 5 5 (2a + 4d) = 16 5 2 5(a + 2d) = 16 5 a + 2d = 16 5 5 : d = 6 5 16 5 5 5 = 10 5 5

18 a = 10, d = 5 t5 = 10 + 4 5 = 10 S25 = 25 (20 + 24 5) 2 = 1250 19


S20 = 10(2a + 19d) = 25a 20a + 190d = 25a 190d = 5a a = 38d S30 = 15 (76d + 29d) = 1575d

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20 2 a Sn 1 = 17(n 1) 3(n 1) 2 = 17n 17 3(n 2n + 1) 2 = 17n 17 3n + 6n 3 2 = 23n 3n 20 b


t n = Sn S n 1 2 2 = 17n 3n 23n + 3n + 20 = 20 6n tn + 1 tn = 20 6(n + 1) (20 6n) = 20 6n 6 20 + 6n = 6 The sequence has a constant difference of 6 and so is arithmetic. a = t1 = 20 6 1 = 14 d = 6

21 Let the terms be a, a + d, a + 2d. Sum = 3a + 3d = 36 a + d = 12 Product = a(a + d)(a + 2d) = 1428 Substitute d = 12 a. a(a + 12 a)(a + 24 2a) = 1428 12a(24 a) = 1428 a(24 a) = 119 2 24a a = 119 2 a 24a + 119 = 0 (a 7)(a 17) = 0 a = 7 or a = 17 d = 12 7 = 5 or d = 12 17 = 5 The three terms are either 7, 12, 17 or 17, 12, 7. Note: in cases like this, it is sometimes easier to call the terms a d, a, a + d. 22 The middle terms will be tn and tn + 1. tn = a + (n 1)d tn + 1 = a + nd tn + tn + 1 = 2a + (2n 1)d n(tn + tn + 1) = n(2a + (2n 1)d) S2n = 2n (2a + (2n 1)d) 2 = n(2a + (2n 1)d) = n(tn + tn + 1)

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Exercise 5D Solutions
1 a

tn = ar 11 =3 t1 = 3 2 21 =6 t2 = 3 2 31 = 12 t3 = 3 2 41 = 24 t4 = 3 2
=3 t1 = 3 2 21 = 3 2 = 6 t2 31 = 12 t3 = 3 2 41 = 24 t4 = 3 2 = 10 000 t1 = 10 000 0.1 21 = 1000 t2 = 10 000 0.1 31 = 100 t3 = 10 000 0.1 41 = 10 t4 = 10 000 0.1 =3 t1 = 3 3 21 =9 t2 = 3 3 31 = 27 t3 = 3 3 41 = 81 t4 = 3 3
11 11 11

n1

3 a

a=3 r=2 3
n1 tn = 3 2 3

a=2 r = 4 = 2 2 n1 tn = 2 2

a=2 r=2 5 = 5 2 n1 tn = 2 ( 5 )

a = 25

t5 = 25r = 16 25 4 16 r = 625 r=2 5


4

2 a

a = 15 7 1 r= 3 15 t6 = 7
a=1 r= 1 4

1 = 5 3 567

1 2n 1 = 64 4 n1 = 64 4 2 8 =2 n=9

6 a

4 t5 = 1 1 = 1 4 256

a= 2 r= 2 9 t10 = 2 ( 2 ) = 32

a = 2, r = 3 n1 23 = 486 n1 3 = 243 5 =3 n=6

a=a r=a x 5 x+5 t6 = a a = a

a = 5, r = 2 n1 52 = 1280 n1 2 = 256 8 =2 n=9

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a = 768, r = 1 2 n1 768 1 =3 2 1 3 n 1 = 768 2 1 = 1 = 8 256 2 n=9

8 a

At the end of 7 days, it will have increased 7 times. 7 2 10 3 = 2187 m 10 3 200 000 n 3 20 000 nlog10 3 log10 20 000 n 9.014. . . It will cover the lake early in the tenth day.
2 0.75 0.4746 m 47.46 cm
5

a=8, r=3 9 2 n1 83 = 27 9 2n 1 4 n1 3 27 9 n1 = 4 8 2 5 = 35 2 n=6 a= 4, r= 1 3 2 n1 4 1 = 1 3 2 96 n1 1 = 1 3 2 96 4 1 = 32 4 7 1 = 7 = 1 2 2 n=8


At the end of 10 years, it will have increased 10 times. 9 2500 1.08 = $5397.31 2500 1.08 100 000 n 1.08 100 000 = 40 2500 nlog10 1.08 log10 40 n 47.93. . . It will take 48 years until the value exceeds $100 000.
n

10 7 a 120 0.9 57.4 km b

= 30.5 0.9 = 30.5 120 = 0.251. . . ( n 1)log10 0.9 = log10 0.251. . . n 1 = 13.0007. . . n = 14 The 14th day.
n1

120 0.9

n1

11 0.01 2 = $5 369 000 12 a


5

29

7 a

ar = 768 2 ar = 96 3 r = 768 = 8 96 r=2 2 a 2 = 96 a = 24 fish

24 2 = 12 888 fish

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13

ar = 54 11 ar = 2 3 r = 54 = 27 2 r=3 11 a3 =2 2 a = 11 3 6 2 t7 = 11 3 3 2 = 5 3
1 ar = 1 2 2 3 ar = 2

14

16 a = 3, r = 3 n1 33 > 500 n 3 > 500 5 6 3 = 243 and 3 = 729 The sixth term. 17 a At the end of 10 years: 6 value = 5000 1.06 = $7092.60 b

14

1.06 2 nlog10 1.06 log10 2 n 11.89. . . In the 12th year.


A 1.085 = 8000 A 2.6616. . . = 8000 A = $3005.61
12

2 r = 2 1 2 2 =4 r=2 a2= 1 2 2 a= 1 4 2 7 t8 = 1 2 4 2 = 32 2 Rationalise the denominator: t8 = 32 2 2 2 = 32 2 = 16 2 2

18

19 Let the rate be r. 10 r =3 0.1 r = 3 = 0.11612. . . Approximately 11.6%. 20 Let the number of weeks be n. n1 n1 40 960 1 = 40 2 2 40 960 = 2n 1 2n 1 40 2n 2 10 1024 = 2 =2 2n 2 = 10 n=6 21 a b c

15 a = 4, r = 2 n1 42 > 2000 n1 > 500 2 9 2 = 512 The tenth term.

5 720 = 3600 = 60 1 6.25 = 6.25 = 2.5


1 3 = 1 =1 3

xy xy

2 3

6 11

= xy 4 7 =xy

8 14

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22

r = t7 = t16 t4 t7 a + 6d = a + 15d a + 3d a + 6d 2 (a + 6d) = (a + 15d)(a + 3d) 2 2 2 2 a + 12ad + 36d = a + 18ad + 45d 2 9d + 6ad = 0 3d(3d + 2a) = 0 3d + 2a = 0 d= 2a 3 a + 6d r= a + 3d a 4a = a 2a = 3a = 3 a Note: d = 0 gives the trivial case r = a = 1. a (All the terms are the same.)

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Exercise 5E Solutions
1 a
Sn = a(r 1) r1 a=5 r = 10 = 2 5 10 S10 = 5(2 1) 21 = 5115
n

a=1 r = 3 = 3 1 6 S6 = 1(3 1) 3 1 = 182

a = 6250 r = 1250 = 0.2 6250 n1 tn = 2 = 6250 (0.2) n1 (0.2) = 2 = 1 6250 3125 n=6 6 S6 = 6250 ((0.2) 1) 0.2 1 = 7812 a = 600, r = 1.1 6 t7 = 600 1.1 = 1062.9366 About 1062.9 mL

3 a

a= 4 3 2 4= 1 r= 3 2 3 9 4 1 1 3 2 S9 = 11 2 57 = 64 a=2 r = 6 = 3 2 n1 tn = 1458 = 2 3 n1 3 = 729 n=7 7 S7 = 2 (3 1) 3 1 = 1094 a = 4 r = 8 = 2 4 n1 tn = 1024 = 4 2 n1 2 = 256 n=9 9 S9 = 4 (2 1) 2 1 = 684

S7 = 600 (1.1 1) 1.1 1 = 5692.3026 About 5692.3 mL


a = $15 000, r = 1.05 4 t5 = 15 000 1.05 = 18 232.593. . . $18 232.59

4 a

2 a

S5 = 15 000 (1.05 1) 1.05 1 = 82 844.4686 $82 884.47


a = 20, r = 25 = 2.5 20 4 t5 = 20 1.25 = 48.828125 49 minutes (to the nearest minute)

5 a

S5 = 20 (1.25 1) 1.25 1 = 164.140625 164 minutes, or 2 hours and 44 minutes

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Sn > 15 60 = 900 20 (1.25 1) > 900 0.25 n 1.25 1 > 900 0.25 = 11.25 20 n 1.25 > 12.25 nlog10 1.25 > log10 12.25 n > 11.228 12 7 = 5, so Friday.
n

8 a

a = 15, r = 2 3 10 15 1 2 3 S10 = 2 1 3 10 10 3 2 = 3 15 10 3 10 10 3 2 =5 8 3 = 5 58 025 6561 290 125 = 6561 The bounces will all be doubled (up and down) except for the first (down only). Distance = 2 290 125 15 6561 481 835 = 6561 = 73 2882 m 6561
Andrew: Interest = 1000 0.20 10 = $2000 His investment is worth $1000 + $2000 = $3000. Bianca's investment is worth 10 1000 1.125 = $3247.32 Biancas investment is worth more.

ar = 20 5 ar = 160 3 r = 160 = 8 20 r=2 2 a 2 = 20 a=5 5 S5 = 5 (2 1) 21 = 155 ar = 2 7 ar = 8 5 r = 8 2 = 64 2 5 = 32 = ( 2 ) r= 2 2 a( 2) = 2 a= 1 2 1 (( 2 ) 8 1) S8 = 2 2 1 1 15 2 = 2 +1 2 1 2 +1 15 ( 2 + 1) = 2 21 = 15 + 15 2 2


2

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9 a

a = 1, r = 2 Sn = 255 n 1 (2 1) = 255 21 n 2 1 = 255 n 2 = 256 n=8


Sn > 1 000 000 1 (2 1) > 1 000 000 21 n 2 1 > 1 000 000 n 2 > 1 000 001 nlog10 2 > log10 1 000 001 n > 19.931. . . {n: n > 19} or {n: n 20}, since n is a positive integer.
n

10 a = 1, r = x Note that there are (m + 1) terms. 2 m+1 1 1(x ) Sm + 1 = 2 x 1 2(m + 1) 1 = x 2 x 1 2m + 2 +1 =x 2 x +1

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99

Exercise 5F Solutions
1 a

S = a 1r a=1 r=11=1 5 5 1 S = 11 5 5 = 4
r= 21= 2 3 3 1 S = 1 2 3 3 = 5 Each side, and hence each perimeter, will be half the larger side. r = 1, a = p 2 n1 Perimeter of nth triangle = p 1 2 p = n1 2 p S = 11 2 = 2p Find original area using A = s(s a)(s b)( s c) For first triangle, s = 3p 2
A= 3p 3p p 3p p 3p p 2 2 22 3p p p p = 2 2 2 2 2 =p 3 4

Area of nth triangle (r = 1 ): 4 2 2 n1 3 p 3 1 =p n 4 4 4


p 3 n 4 S = 11 2 2 =2p 3 4 2 =p 3 2
2

a=1

a = 200, r = 0.94 S = 200 1 0.94 = 3333 1 m 3 a = 450, r = 0.65 S = 450 1 0.65 1285.7 Yes, it will kill him. a = 3, r = 0.5 S = 3 = 6 1 0.5 He can only make the journey if he walks for an infinite time (which isn't very likely). a = 2, r = 3 4 2 =8 S = 1 0.75 The frog will approach a limit of 8 m.

a = 1 ,r = 1 3 3 1 3 S = 11 3 1 or 50% = 2

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r = 70% = 0.7 S = a = 40 1 0.7 a = 0.3 40 = 12 m Note: all distances will be double (up and down) except the first (down only). Use a = 30, r = 2 and subtract 15 m 3 from the answer. 30 = 90 S = 12 3 Distance = 90 15 = 75 m

11 S4 = a(1 r ) = 30 1r a = 32 s = 1r a = 32(1 r) Substitute for a: 4 32(1 r)(1 r ) = 30 1r 4 32(1 r ) = 30 4 1 r = 30 32

10 a a = 0.4, r = 0.1 S = 0.4 = 4 1 0.1 9 b

a = 0.03, r = 0.1 S = 0.03 1 0.1 = 3 = 1 90 30 a = 0.3, r = 0.1 S = 0.3 1 0.1 3=1 = 9 3 Decimal = 10 1 3 a = 0.035, r = 0.01 S = 0.035 1 0.01 = 35 = 7 990 198 a = 0.9, r = 0.1 S = 0.9 1 0.1 9=1 = 9 a = 0.1, r = 0.1 S = 0.1 = 1 1 0.1 9 Decimal = 4 1 9

r = 1 30 32 = 2 = 1 32 16 r=1 2 a = 32 1 1 2 = 16 The first two terms are 16 and 8.


4

12 S =

1+1 4 4a = 8 = 5 a = 10

2 t3 = 10 1 4 5 = 8

13

5 = 15 1r 5 = 15(1 r) 1r=1 3 r=11 3 2 = 3

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Exercise 5G Solutions
1 a i x1 = 3 x2 = 3 + 2 = 2.75 4 x3 = 2.75 + 2 = 2.688 4 2.688 + 2 = 2.672 x4 = 4 2.672 + 2 = 2.668 x5 = 4 2.668 + 2 = 2.667 x6 = 4 ii x1 = 1 2 x2 = 1 3 = 2 2 x3 = 2 3 = 1 2 x4 = 1 3 = 2 2 x5 = 2 3 = 1 2 x6 = 1 3 = 2 iii x1 = 2 2 x2 = 3 2 + 1 = 13 2 x3 = 3 13 + 1 = 508 2 x4 = 3 508 + 1 = 774 193 2 12 x5 = 3 774 193 + 1 = 1.8 10 2 12 24 x6 = 3 (1.8 10 ) + 1 = 9.7 10 iv x1 = 3 x2 = 3 + 2 + 1 = 3.236 x3 = 3.236 + 2 + 1 = 3.288 x4 = 3.288 + 2 + 1 = 3.300 x5 = 3.300 + 2 + 1 = 3.302 x6 = 3.302 + 2 + 1 = 3.303 i and iv converge. 2 a

f(x) = x + 4x 3 = 0 3 4x = 3 x 3 x=3x 4 Successive iterations: 1 0.5 0.71875 0.657173157 0.67904558 0.671722529 0.674227825 0.673376846 0.673666611 0.673568026 0.673601576 0.67359016 0.673594045 0.673592723 Solution is 0.6736 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x + x 1 = 0 3 x =1x 3 3 2x = 1 x + x 3 3 x =1x+x 2 x=3 1x+x 2 Successive iterations: 0.793701 0.706838 0.686232 0.682893 0.682408 0.682339 0.682329 0.682328 0.682328 Solution is 0.6823 (to 4 decimal places).
3

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f(x) = x x 1 = 0 3 2 x=x 1 3 Successive iterations: 1 0.666666667 0.851851852 0.758116141 0.808419972 0.782152383 0.796079217 0.788752627 0.792623098 0.790582875 0.791659573 0.791091707 0.791391304 0.791233268 0.791316638 0.791272659 0.79129586 Solution is 0.7913 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = 2 4x = 0 x 4x = 2 x x=2 4 Successive iterations: 0.5 0.353553391 0.319425942 0.311958482 0.310347942 0.310001681 0.309927286 0.309911305 0.309907872 0.309907134 0.309906976 Solution is 0.3099 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x x 2 = 0 4 x =x+2 x=4x+2 Successive iterations: 1 1.316074013 1.349447689 1.352830232 1.353171652 1.353206099 1.353209574 1.353209925 1.35320996
Solution is 1.3532 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x + log10 x + 2 x = log10 x + 2 Successive iterations: 5 2.698970004 2.431198058 2.38582034 2.377637737 2.376145685 2.375873064 2.375823234 2.375814125 2.37581246 2.375812156 2.3758121

Solution is 2.3758 (to 4 decimal places).

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f(x) = 4x 2 3 = 0 3 4x = x 2 3 x= x 42 Successive iterations: 1 0.375 0.57832906 0.502304269 0.52948372 0.519601961 0.523173198 0.521879741 0.522347845 0.522178389 0.522239726 0.522217523 0.52222556 0.522222651

f(x) = x 3x + 1 = 0 3 3x = x + 1 3 x=x +1 3 Successive iterations: 0.5 0.375 0.350911 0.347737 0.34735 0.347303 0.347297 0.347296 0.347296 0.347296 Solution is 0.3473 (to 4 decimal places).

Solution is 0.5222 (to 4 decimal places).

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 5 t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 8 t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 11
t2 = 3 + 3 = 6 t3 = 6 + 3 = 9 t4 = 9 + 3 = 12

7 D

a = 10 d = 8 10 = 2 t10 = 10 + (9 2) = 8
a = 10, d = 2 S10 = 10 (10 + 8) 2 = 10 a=8 d = 13 8 = 5 tn = 8 + 5(n 1) = 58 5(n 1) = 50 n 1 = 10 n = 11

a=8 r=4=1 8 2 6 8 1 1 2 S6 = 1 1 2 = 15 3 4 a=8 r=4=1 8 2 8 S = 11 2 = 16

8 A

A 9

C
6

Value = 2000 1.055 = $2757.69


a 11 3 = 37.5

10 B

a = 12 r= 8 =2 12 3
5 t6 = 12 2 3 128 = 81

a = 37.5 2 3 = 25

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a 4
t1 = 3 t2 = 3 4 = 1 t3 = 1 4 = 5 t4 = 5 4 = 9 t5 = 9 4 = 13 t6 = 13 4 = 17

t1 = 5 t2 = 2 5 + 2 = 12 t3 = 2 12 + 2 = 26 t4 = 2 26 + 2 = 54 t5 = 2 54 + 2 = 110 t6 = 2 110 + 2 = 222

a + 3d = 19 a + 6d = 43 : 3d = 24 d=8 a + 3 8 = 19 a = 5 t20 = 5 + 19 8 = 147


a + 4d = 0.35 a + 8d = 0.15 : 4d = 0.2 d = 0.05 a + 4 0.05 = 0.35 a = 0.35 + 0.2 = 0.55 t14 = 0.55 + 13 0.55 = 0.1 a + 5d = 24 a + 13d = 6 : 8d = 30 d = 3.75 a + 5 3.75 = 24 a = 24 18.75 = 42.75 S10 = 5 (85.5 + 9 3.75) = 258.75

2 a

t1 = 2 1 = 2 t2 = 2 2 = 4 t3 = 2 3 = 6 t4 = 2 4 = 8 t5 = 2 5 = 10 t6 = 2 6 = 12 t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 1 t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 4 t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 7 t4 = 3 4 + 2 = 10 t5 = 3 5 + 2 = 13 t6 = 3 6 + 2 = 16 End of first year: $5000 1.05 = $5250 Start of second year: $5250 + $500 = $5750 End of second year: $5750 1.05 = $6037.50
tn = 1.05(tn 1 + 500)

3 a

a = 5, d = 7
Sn = n (10 + 7(n 1)) 2 = 402 n(10 + 7(n 1)) = 804 2 7n 10n 7n = 804 2 7n 17n 804 = 0 (7n + 67)(n 12) = 0 n = 12 (since n > 0)

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ar = 9 9 ar = 729 4 r = 81 r=3 5 a3 =9 a= 9 = 1 243 27 3 t4 = 1 3 = 1 27


a = 1000 r = 1.035 n tn = ar n = 1000 1.035
2

12 Sn = a(r 1) r1 8 S8 = 6 (3 1) 3 1 = 9840 13 a = 1, r = 1 3 1 S = 1 1 3 3 = 4 14

10 9r = 4 2 r =4 9

r=2 3 t2 = ar = 6 3 t4 = ar = 8 3 8 or 6, 8 Terms = 6, 3 3
11
a + ar + ar = 24 3 4 5 ar + ar + ar = 24 3 2 r (a + ar + ar ) = 24 3 r =1 r=1
2

x + 4 = 2x + 2 x x+4 2 (x + 4) = x(2x + 2) 2 2 x + 8x + 16 = 2x + 2x 2 2 2x + 2x x 8x 16 = 0 2 x 6x 16 = 0 (x 8)(x + 2) = 0 x = 8 or x = 2

All terms will be the same: tn = 24 = 8 3 S12 = 12 8 = 96

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Chapter 6 Algebra II
Exercise 6A Solutions
1
ax + bx + c = 10x 7 2 = 10x + 0x 7 a = 10, b = 0, c = 7
2 2

2a b = 4 a + 2b = 3 4a 2b = 8 + : 5a = 5 a=1 a1b=4 b = 2

(x + 1) + a(x + 1) + b(x + 1) + c 3 2 = x + 3x + 3x + 1 + ax + a + bx + b + c 3+a=0 a = 3 3 + 2a + b = 0 36+b=0 b=3 1+a+b+c=0 c = 1 3 3 2 x = (x + 1) 3(x + 1) + 3(x + 1) 1


ax + 2ax + a + bx + c = x a=1 2a + b = 0 b = 2 a+c=0 c = 1
3 3 2 2 3
2 2

2a 3b = 7 3a + b = 5 +3 : 11a = 22 a=2 32+b=5 b = 1 c=7


a(x + b) + c = ax + 2abx + ab + c a=2 2ab = 4 b=1 2 ab + c = 5 2+c=5 c=3
2 2 2

8 a

a(x + b) + c = ax + 3abx + 3ab x + ab + c 3 2 = 3x 9x + 8x + 12 a=3 3ab = 9 3 3 b = 9 b = 1 Equating x terms: 2 3ab = 8 2 2 3ab = 3 3 (1) = 9 The equality is impossible. Clearly this expression can be expressed in this form, if a = 3, b = 1 and 3 ab + c = 2 3 + c = 2 c=5

c(x + 2) + a(x + 2) + 2 2 = cx + 4cx + 4c + ax + 2a + d c=1 4c + a = 0 a = 4 4c + 2a + d = 0 48+d=0 d=4 2 2 x = (x + 2) 4(x + 2) + 4

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Expanding gives the following: 3 3 2 2 n = an + 6an + 11an + 6a + bn + 3bn + 2b + cn + c + d a=1 6a + b = 0 b = 6 11a + 3b + c = 0 11 18 + c = 0 c=7 6a + 2b + c + d = 0 6 12 + 7 + d = 0 d = 1

11 2 2 2 2 a a(x + 2bx + b ) + c = ax + 2abx + ab + c b


ax + bx + c = A(x + B) + C 2 2 = Ax + 2ABx + AB + C A=a 2AB = b B= b 2a 2 AB + C = c 2 b + = a 2 C c 4a 2 C=c b 4a 2 2 2 ax + bx + x = a x + b + 4ac b 4a 2a
2 2
2 2

10 a Expanding gives the following: 2 2 2 n = an + 3an + 2a + bn + 5bn + 6b a+b=1 3a + 5b = 0 2a + 6b = 0 a + 3b = 0 : 2b = 1 b= 1 2 1=1 a+ 2 a=11 2 These do not satisfy the second equation, as 3 1 1 + 5 1 = 2. 2 2 b
n = an + 3an + 2a + bn + b + c a=1 3a + b = 0 b = 3 2a + b + c = 0 23+c=0 c=1 2 n = (n + 1)(n + 2) 3(n + 1) + 1
2 2

12 (x 1) (px + q) = (x 2x + 1)(px + q) 3 2 = px + (q 2p)x + (p 2q)x + q Equating x 3 and x 2 terms: p=a q 2p = b q 2a = b q = 2a + b Equating x and constant terms: q=d p 2q = c p = c + 2d Equating the two different expressions for p and q gives: (q) d = 2a + b b = d 2a (p) a = c + 2d c = a + 2d

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13 c(x a)(x b) = cx acx bcx + abc =3 c=3 ac bc = 10 3a 3b = 10 abc = 3 3ab = 3 ab = 1 b=1 a 3 = 10 3a a 2 3a + 3 = 10a 2 3a + 10a + 3 = 0 (3a + 1)(a + 3) = 0 a = 1 , b = 3, c = 3 3 or a = 3, b = 1 , c = 3 3 14 n = a(n 1) + b(n 2) + c(n 3) 2 2 2 = an 2an + a + bn 4bn + 4b + cn + 9c a+b+c=1 2a 4b 6c = 0 a + 2b + 3c = 0 a + 4b + 9c = 0 : b + 2c = 1 : 2b + 6c = 0 b + 3c = 0 : c=1 b+31=0 b = 3 a+b+c=1 a3+1=1 a=3
2 2 2 2

15 (x a) (x b) = (x 2ax + a )(x b) 3 2 2 2 2 = x 2ax bx + a x + 2abx a b 2a b = 3 2 a + 2ab = 9 Substitute b = 2a 3: 2 a + 2a(2a 3) = 9 2 2 a 4a 6a = 9 2 3a 6a + 9 = 0 2 a + 2a 3 = 0 (a + 3)(a 1) = 0 a = 3 or a = 1 b = 2a 3 b = 3 or b = 5 Comparing the constant terms: 2 c= a b 2 c = (3) 3 = 27 2 or c = (1) 5 = 5

So a = 1, b = 5, c = 5 or a = 3, b = 3, c = 27

n = 3(n 1) 3(n 2) + (n 3)

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Exercise 6B Solutions
1 a

x 2x = 1 2 x 2x + 1 = 0 2 (x 1) = 0 x=1

6x + 13x + 1 = 0 x = 13 169 4 6 1 12 = 13 145 12

x 6x + 9 = 0 2 (x 3) = 0 x=3 Divide both sides by 5: 2 x 2x = 1 5 2 x 2x + 1 = 6 5 2 6 = 30 (x 1) = 5 25 x 1 = 30 5 x = 1 30 5


Divide both sides by 2: 2 x 2x = 1 2 2 1 x 2x + 1 = 2 2 (x 1) = 1 = 2 2 4 x1= 2 2 x=1 2 2

2 a

2x x 4t = 0
x = 1 1 4 2 4t 4 = 1 32t + 1 4 32t + 1 0 32t 1 t 1 32

4x + 4x t 2 = 0
x = 4 16 4 4 (t + 2) 8 = 4 16 + 32 + 16t 8 = 4 16t + 48 8 4 4 t + 3 = 8 = 1 t + 3 2 t+30 t 3

Divide both sides by 2: 2 x + 2x = 7 2 2 9 x + 2x + 1 = 2 2 (x + 1) = 9 = 9 2 2 4 x+1=3 2 2 x = 1 3 2 2

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5x + 4x t + 10 = 0
x = 4 16 4 5 ( t + 10) 10 4 16 + 20t 200 = 10 = 4 20t 184 10 = 4 4(5t 46) 10 = 4 2 5t 46 10 = 2 5t 46 5 5t 46 0 5t 46 t 46 5

3 a

x = 3 9 4 1 9 2 3 45 = 2 = 3 3 5 2 = 3(1 5 ) 2

x = p p 4 1(16) 2
2

tx + 4tx t + 10 = 0
x = 4t 16t 4 t ( t + 10) 2t = 4t 16t + 4t 40t 2t = 4t 20t 40t 2t = 4t 2 5t 10t 2t = 2t 2t(t 5) t 2t(t 5) 0 This is a quadratic with a minimum and solutions t = 0, t = 5. t < 0, t 5 Note: t = 0 gives denominator zero, so it must be checked by substituting t = 0 in the original equation. In this case it gives 10 = 0, and so is not a solution, but it should be checked. 2 (e.g. tx + 5x + 4 = t gives a solution with t on the denominator, but substituting t = 0 gives 5x + 4 = 0, which has a solution.)
2 2 2 2 2

= p p + 64 2 ii p = 0 gives x = 0 + 64 = 4 2 p = 6 gives x = 6 + 100 = 2 2


4

Use Pythagoras Theorem: 2 2 (8 x) + (6 + x) = 100 2 2 64 16x + x + 36 + 12x + x = 100 2 2x 4x = 0 2x(x 4) = 0 x = 2 since x 0

5 a b

6(x + 3) 6x = 18 x(x + 3) x(x + 3)


18 = 1 x(x + 3) 18 x(x + 3) = 0 x(x + 3) 18 x(x + 3) = 0 2 18 x 3x = 0 Re-arrange and divide by 1: 2 x + 3x 18 = 0 (x 3)(x + 6) = 0 x = 3 or x = 6

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Let the numbers be n and n + 2. 1 + 1 = 36 n n + 2 323 1 + 1 36 = 0 n n + 2 323 323(n + 2) + 323n 36n(n + 2) = 0 323n(n + 2) 2 323n + 646 + 323n 36n 72n = 0 Re-arrange and divide by 1: 2 36n 574n 646 = 0 2 18n 287 323 = 0 (n 17)(18n + 19) = 0 n = 17 The numbers are 17 and 19.

Let his average speed be x km/h. His time for the journey is 108 h. x 108 4 1 = 108 2 x+2 x 1 2x(x + 2) = 108 2x 108 2(x + 2) 4 2 2 216x + 432 9x 18x = 216x 2 9x 18x + 432 = 0 2 x + 2x 48 = 0 (x 6)(x + 8) = 0 x = 6 since x > 0 His average speed is 6 km/h. Usual time = 75 h. x
75 18 = 75 x 60 x + 12.5 75 3 = 75 x 10 x + 12.5 75(x + 12.5) 0.3x(x + 12.5) = 75x 2 75x + 937.5 0.3x 3.75x = 75x 2 0.3x 3.75x + 937.5 = 0 Divide by 0.15: 2 2x + 25x 6250 = 0 (x 50)(2x + 125) = 0 x = 50

10 7 a
Car = 600 km/h x 600 + 220 km/h Plane = x

600 + 220 = 600 x 5.5 x 600(x 5.5) + 220x(x 5.5) = 600x 2 600x 3300 + 220x 1210x = 600x 2 220x 1210x 3300 = 0 2 2x 11x 30 = 0 (2x 15)(x + 2) = 0 x = 7.5 600 = 80 km/h Average speed of car = 7.5 Average speed of plane = 80 + 220 = 300 km/h

Average speed = x + 12.5 = 62.5 Time = 75 = 1.2 h, 62.5 or 1 hour 12 minutes, or 72 minutes. Let the speed of the slow train be x km/h. The slow train takes 3 1 10 = 7 1 2 60 2 6 = 20 = 10 hours longer. 6 3 Compare the times: 250 + 10 = 250 x x + 20 3 750x + 10x(x + 20) = 750(x + 20) 2 750x + 10x + 200x = 750x + 15 000 2 10x + 200x 15 000 = 0 2 x + 20x 1500 = 0 (x 30)(x + 50) = 0 x = 30 Slow train: 30 km/h Fast train: 50 km/h

11 Time taken by car = 200 h x Time taken by train = 200 h = 200 2 h x x+5 200 = 200 2 x x+5 200 x(x + 5) = 200 x(x + 5) 2 x(x + 5) x+5 x 200x = 200(x + 5) 2x(x + 5) 2 = 200x + 1000 2x 10x 2 2x + 10x 1000 = 0 2 x + 5x 500 = 0 (x 20)(x + 25) = 0 x = 20 since x > 0

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12 Let the original speed of the car be x km/h. Compare the times: 105 = 105 1 4 x x + 10 420x = 420(x + 10) x(x + 10) 2 420x = 420x + 4200 x 10x 2 x + 10x 4200 = 0 (x 60)(x + 70) = 0 x = 60 km/h 13 Let x min be the time the larger pipe takes, and C the capacity of the tank. Form an equation using the rates: C+ C = C x x + 5 11 1 9 C + C = 9C x x + 5 100 1+ 1 = 9 x x + 5 100 100(x + 5) + 100x = 9x(x + 5) 2 100x + 500 + 100x = 9x + 45x 2 200x + 500 = 9x + 45x 2 9x 155x 500 = 0 (x 20)(9x + 25) = 0 x = 20 since x > 0 The larger pipe takes 20 min and the smaller pipe takes 25 min. 14 Let x min be the original time the first pipe takes, and y min be the original time the second pipe takes. Let C be the capacity of the tank. The original rates are C and C. x y C + C. The combined rate is x y Total time taken = capacity rate C C + C = C Cy + Cx x y xy xy =C Cx + Cy xy = 20 = 3 x+y

C and C . x1 y+2 C + C . The combined rate is x1 y+2 C C + C = C C(y + 2) + C(x 1) x 1 y + 2 (x 1)(y + 2) (x 1)(y + 2) =C Cx + Cy + C (x 1)(y + 2) = 7 = x+y+1 Solve the simultaneous equations: xy = 20 x+y 3 (x 1)(y + 2) = 7 x+y+1 Multiply both sides of the first equation by 3(x + y): 3xy = 20x + 20y 3xy 20y = 20x y(3x 20) = 20x y = 20x 3x 20 Substitute into the second equation, after multiplying both sides by x + y + 1: (x 1)(y + 2) = 7x + 7y + 7 20x + 2 = 7x + 140x + 7 (x 1) 3x 20 3x 20 20x + 2(3x 20) = 7x + 140x + 7 (x 1) 3x 20 3x 20 26x 40 = 7x + 140x + 7 (x 1) 3x 20 3x 20 (x 1)(26x 40) = 7x(3x 20) + 140x + 7(3x 20) 2 2 26x 66x + 40 = 21x 140x + 140x + 21x 140 2 5x 87x + 180 = 0 (5x 12)(x 15) = 0 x = 2.4 or x = 15 20x < 0 if x = 2.4 y= 3x 20 x = 15 y = 20 15 = 12 3 15 20 The first pipe now takes one minute less, i.e. 15 1 = 14 minutes. The second pipe now takes two minutes more, i.e. 12 + 2 = 14 minutes.
New rates are

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15 Let the average speed for rail and sea be x + 25 km/h and x km/h respectively. Time for first route = 233 + 126 hours. x x + 25 405 + 39 hours. Time for second route = x + 25 x 233 + 126 = 405 + 39 + 5 x x + 25 x 6 x + 25 233 6x + 126 6(x + 25) = 405 6x + 39 6(x + 25) + 5x(x + 25) 2 1398x + 756x + 18 900 = 2430x + 234x + 5850 + 5x + 125x 2 5x 635x + 13 050 = 0 2 x + 127x 2625 = 0
x = 127 + 127 4 1 2625 2 18.09 (Ignore negative square root as x > 0.) Speed by rail is 18 + 25 = 43 km/h and by sea is 18 km/h.
2

16 After 15 min, the freighter has travelled 3 km, bringing it to 12 km from where the cruiser was. Let x km be the distance the cruiser has travelled in 15 minutes and y km the original distance apart of the ships. The distance the cruiser has travelled can be calculated using Pythagoras theorem.

Multiply the first equation by 4 and subtract: 2 2 4(y 3) (y 6) = 400 169 2 2 4y 24y + 36 y + 12y 36 = 231 2 3y 12y 231 = 0 2 y 4y 77 = 0 (y 11)(y + 7) = 0 y = 11 2 2 2 x + 8 = 10 x=6 The speed of the cruiser is 6 0.25 = 24 km/h. The cruiser will be due east of the freighter when the freighter has travelled 11 km. This will take 11 hours. During that 12 time the cruiser will have travelled 24 11 = 22 km. 12 They will be 22 km apart.

x + (y 3) = 10 = 100 After a further 15 minutes, the distances will be 2x km and (y 6) km. 2 2 2 (2x) + (y 6) = 13 2 2 4x + (y 6) = 169

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17 Let x be the amount of wine first taken out of cask A.

After water is added, the concentration of wine in cask B is x . 20 x. If cask A is filled, it will receive x litres at concentration 20 2 The amount of wine in cask A will be (20 x) + x x = 20 x + x . 20 20

20 x + x 2 20 = 1 x + x . The concentration of wine in cask A will be 20 400 20 2 The amount of wine in cask B will be (20 x) x = x x . 20 20 Mixture is transferred again.

The amount of wine transferred is 1 x + x 20 = 20 x + x . 3 3 60 20 400 3


2 2

Amount of wine in A = 20 x + x 20 x + x . 20 3 3 60 2 20 x x2 Amount of wine in B = x x + + 20 3 3 60


2 2

2 2 2 2 20 x + x 20 x + x = x x + 20 x + x 20 3 3 60 20 3 3 60

20 x + x 20 + x x = x x + 20 x + x 20 3 3 60 20 3 3 60 2 4x 4x + 20 = 0 3 60 3 2 x + 4x 20 = 0 15 3 3 2 x + 20x 100 = 0 2 (x 10) = 0 10 litres was first taken out of cask A.

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Exercise 6C Solutions
1

5x + 1 = A + B a (x 1)(x + 2) x 1 x + 2 = A(x + 2) + B(x 1) (x 1)(x + 2) Ax + Bx + 2A B = (x 1)(x + 2) A+B=5 2A B = 1 + : 3A = 6 A=2 2+B=5 B=3 5x + 1 = 2 + 3 (x 1)(x + 2) x 1 x + 2
b

4x + 7 = A + B (x + 3)(x 2) x + 3 x 2 = A(x 2) + B(x + 3) (x + 3)(x 2) Ax + Bx 2A + 3B = (x + 3)(x 2) A+B=4 2A + 2B = 8 2A + 3B = 7 + : 5B = 15 B=3 A+3=4 A=1 4x + 7 = 1 + 3 (x + 3)(x 2) x + 3 x 2
7x = A + B (x 4)(x + 1) x 4 x + 1 = A(x + 1) + B(x 4) (x 4)(x + 1) Ax + Bx + A 4B = (x 4)(x + 1) A + B = 1 A 4B = 7 : 5B = 8 B= 8 5 8 = 1 A 5 A=3 5 7x 3 8 = (x 4)(x + 1) 5(x 4) 5(x + 1)

1 = A + B (x + 1)(2x + 1) x + 1 2x + 1 = A(2x + 1) + B(x + 1) (x + 1)(2x + 1) 2Ax + Bx + A + B = (x + 1)(2x + 1) 2A + B = 0 A + B = 1 : A=1 1 + B = 1 B = 2 1 = 1 2 (x + 1)(2x + 1) x + 1 2x + 1


3x 2 = A + B (x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2 = A(x 2) + B(x + 2) (x + 2)(x 2) Ax + Bx 2A + 2B = (x + 2)(x 2) A+B=3 2A + 2B = 6 2A + 2B = 2 + : 4B = 4 B=1 A+1=3 A=2 3x 2 = 2 + 1 (x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2

2 a

2x + 3 A + B 2 = x 3 (x 3) 2 (x 3) A(x 3) + B = 2 (x 3) 3A + B = Ax 2 (x 3) A=2 3A + B = 3 6 + B = 3 B=9 9 2x + 3 = 2 + 2 x 3 (x 3) 2 (x 3)

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9 A + B + C 2 = 1 + 2x 1 x (1 x) 2 (1 + 2x)(1 x) 2 + B(1 + 2x)(1 x) + C(1 + 2x) = A(1 x) 2 (1 + 2x)(1 x) 2 2 2Ax + Ax + B + Bx 2Bx + C + 2Cx =A 2 (1 + 2x)(1 x) A 2B = 0 2A + B + 2C = 0 A+B+C=9 2A + 2B + 2C = 18 : 4A + B = 18 4: 4A 8B = 0 9B = 18 B=2 4A + 2 = 18 A=4 4+2+C=9 C=3 3 9 4 + 2 + 2 = 1 + 2x 1 x (1 x) 2 (1 + 2x)(1 x)

2x 2 A + B + C 2 = x + 1 x 2 (x 2) 2 (x + 1)(x 2) 2 2) + B(x + 1)(x 2) + C(x + 1) = A(x 2 (x + 1)(x 2) 2 2 4Ax + 4A + Bx Bx 2B + Cx + C = Ax 2 (x + 1)(x 2) A+B=0 4A B + C = 2 4A 2B + C = 2 : 8A B = 4 + : 9A = 4 A= 4 9 A+B=0 B=4 9 4A 2B + C = 2 16 8 + C = 2 9 9 C = 2 + 24 = 2 9 3 2 2x 2 4 4 2 = 9(x + 1) + 9(x 2) + 2 3(x 2) (x + 1)(x 2)

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3 a

3x + 1 Bx + C = A + 2 2 x+1 x +x+1 (x + 1)(x + x + 1) 2 + + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) = A(x x 2 (x + 1)(x + x + 1) 2 2 + + + + + + = Ax Ax A Bx Bx Cx C 2 (x + 1)(x + x + 1) A+B=0 A+B+C=3 A+C=1 : C=3 A+3=1 A = 2 A+B+C=3 2 + B + 3 = 3 B=2 2x + 3 3x + 1 = 2 + 2 2 x+1 x +x+1 (x + 1)(x + x + 1)

3x + 2x + 5 + = Ax B + C 2 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1 2 (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) = 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) 2 2 + + + + + 2C = Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx (x + 2)(x + 1) A+C=3 A+B=2 B + 2C = 5 : CB=1 + : 3C = 6 C=2 A+2=3 A=1 1+B=2 B=1 2 3x + 2x + 5 = x + 1 + 2 2 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1

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Factorise the denominator: 3 2 2 2x + 6x + 2x + 6 = 2x (x + 3) + 2(x + 3) 2 = 2(x + 1)(x + 3) The 2 factor can be put with either fraction.
x + 2x 13 Ax + B C = 2 + 2 2(x + 3) 2(x + 1)(x + 3) x + 1 2 = 2(Ax + B)(x + 3) + C(x + 1) 2 2(x + 1)(x + 3) 2 2 = 2Ax + 6Ax + 2Bx + 6B + Cx + C 2 2(x + 1)(x + 3) 2A + C = 1 6A + 2B = 2 9A + 3B = 3 6B + C = 13 : 2A 6B = 14 A 3B = 7 + : 10A = 10 A=1 2+C=1 C = 1 3A + B = 1 A+B=1 B = 2 2 x + 2x 13 1 = x2 2 2 2(x + 3) 2(x + 1)(x + 3) x + 1
2

(x 1)(x 2) = x 3x + 2 First divide:


3x 4x 2 = 3(x 3x + 2) + 5x 8 2 3x 4x 2 = 5x 8 (x 1)(x 2) (x 1)(x 2) 5x 8 = A + B (x 1)(x 2) x 1 x 2 = A(x 2) + B(x 1) (x 1)(x 2) Ax + Bx 2A B = (x 1)(x 2) A+B=5 2A B = 8 + : A = 3 A=3 3+B=5 B=2 5x 8 = 3 + 2 (x 1)(x 2) x 1 x 2
2 2

2x + 10 C A 2 = + 1 + 2 x (x + 1)(x 1) (x 1) 2 1) + C(x + 1) = A(x 2 (x + 1)(x 1) 2 2Ax + A + Cx + C = Ax 2 (x + 1)(x 1) A=0 2A + C = 2 C=2 A + C = 10 0 + 2 10 It is impossible to find A and C to satisfy this equation.

Use the previous working: 2 3x 4x 2 = 3 + 3 + 2 (x 1)(x 2) x1 x2

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6 a

1 = A + B (x 1)(x + 1) x 1 x + 1 = A(x + 1) + B(x 1) (x 1)(x + 1) Ax + Bx + A B = (x 1)(x + 1) A+B=0 AB=1 + : 2A = 1 A=1 2 1+B=0 2 B= 1 2 1 1 1 = (x 1)(x + 1) 2(x 1) 2(x + 1)

3x + 1 = A + B (x 2)(x + 5) x 2 x + 5 = A(x + 5) + B(x 2) (x 2)(x + 5) Ax + Bx + 5A 2B = (x 2)(x + 5) A+B=3 2A + 2B = 6 5A 2B = 1 + : 7A = 7 A=1 1+B=3 B=2 3x + 1 = 1 + 2 (x 2)(x + 5) x 2 x + 5 1 = A + B (2x 1)(x + 2) 2x 1 x + 2 = A(x + 2) + B(2x 1) (2x 1)(x + 2) Ax + 2Bx + 2A B = (2x 1)(x + 2) A + 2B = 0 2A + 4B = 0 2A B = 1 + : 5B = 1 B= 1 5 A + 2B = 0 A=2 5 1 2 1 = (2x 1)(x + 2) 5(2x 1) 5(x + 2)
3x + 5 = A + B (3x 2)(2x + 1) 3x 2 2x + 1 = A(2x + 1) + B(3x 2) (3x 2)(2x + 1) = 2Ax + 3Bx + A 2B (3x 2)(2x + 1) 2A + 3B = 3 A 2B = 5 2A 4B = 10 : 7B = 7 B = 1 A 2 1 = 5 A=3 3x + 5 = 3 1 (3x 2)(2x + 1) 3x 2 2x + 1

x = A + B (x 2)(x + 3) x 2 x + 3 = A(x + 3) + B(x 2) (x 2)(x + 3) Ax + Bx + 3A 2B = (x 2)(x + 3) A+B=1 2A + 2B = 2 3A 2B = 0 + : 5A = 2 A=2 5 2+B=1 5 B=3 5 2 3 x = + (x 2)(x + 3) 5(x 2) 5(x + 3)

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2 =A+ B x(x 1) x x 1 = A(x 1) + Bx x(x 1) Ax + Bx A = x(x 1) A+B=0 A=2 A = 2 2 + B = 0 B=2 2 = 2 2 x(x 1) x 1 x 3x + 1 + = A + Bx C 2 x x2 + 1 x(x + 1) 2 + 1) + x(Bx + C) = A(x 2 x(x + 1) 2 2 + + + = Ax A 2 Bx Cx x(x + 1) A+B=0 C=3 A=1 1+B=0 B = 1 3 3x + 1 =1+ 2 x 2 x(x + 1) x x + 1

1 =A+ B x(x 4) x x 4 = A(x 4) + Bx x(x 4) Ax + Bx 4A = x(x 4) A+B=0 4A = 1 A= 1 4 1+B=0 4 B=1 4 1 1 = 1 x(x 4) 4(x 1) 4x x+3 =A+ B x(x 4) x x 4 = A(x 4) + Bx x(x 4) Ax + Bx 4A = x(x 4) A+B=1 4A = 3 A= 3 4 3+B=1 4 B=7 4 7 x+3 = 3 x(x 4) 4(x 4) 4x

3x + 8 A Bx + C = + 2 2 x(x + 4) x x + 4 2 + 4) + x(Bx + C) = A(x 2 x(x + 4) 2 2 + 4A + Bx + Cx = Ax 2 x(x + 4) A+B=3 C=0 4A = 8 A=2 2+B=3 B=1 2 3x + 8 2 = + 2x 2 x(x + 4) x x + 4

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First divide x x 1 by x x. You might observe a pattern in the question. 3 2 2 x x 1 = x(x x) 1 = 1 x 2 2 2 x x x x x x 1 Express 2 in partial fractions. x x
1 =A+ B x(x 1) x x 1 = A(x 1) + Bx x(x 1) Ax + Bx A = x(x 1) A+B=0 A = 1 A=1 1+B=0 B = 1 1 =1 1 x(x 1) x x 1 3 2 x x 1 =x+1 1 2 x x1 x x

First divide (x x 6) by ( x + 2x). x1


x + 2x x x 6 3 2 x 2x 2 x 6 2 x 2x 2x 6
3 2 2 (x x 6) ( x + 2x) = x 1 + 2x 6 x(2 x) 2x 6 into partial fractions. Separate x(2 x) 2x 6 = A + B x(2 x) x 2 x = A(2 x) + Bx x(2 x) Ax + Bx + 2A = x(2 x) A+B=2 2A = 6 A = 3 3+B=2 B = 1 2x 6 = 3 1 x 2x x(2 x) 3 2 x x 6= 13 1 x 2 x 2x 2x x
2 3 2

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Bx + C x x = A + 2 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2 2 A(x + 2) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) = 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) 2 2 = Ax + 2A + Bx +2 Bx + Cx + C (x + 1)(x + 2) A+B=1 B + C = 1 2A + C = 0 : AC=2 + : 3A = 2 A=2 3 2+B=1 3 B=1 3 1 + C = 1 3 C= 4 3 2 x x x4 2 = + 2 3(x + 1) 3(x2 + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2)

x 3x 2 can be factorised into ( x 2)(x + 1) . 2 x +2 C A B 2 = x2 + x + 1 + 2 (x 2)(x + 1) (x + 1)


= = A+B 2A B + C 4A 2B + 2C A 2B 2C + : 5A 4B 4 : 9A = = = = A(x + 1) + B(x + 1)(x 2) + C(x 2) 2 (x 2)(x + 1) 2 2 Ax + 2Ax + A + Bx Bx 2B + Cx 2C 2 (x 2)(x + 1) 1 0 0 2
2

=2

=6 A=2 3 A+B=1 B=1 3 41+C=0 3 3 C = 1 2 x +2 1 2 1 2 = 3(x 2) + 3(x + 1) 2 (x + 1) (x 2)(x + 1)

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2x + x + 8 A Bx + C = + 2 2 x x +4 x(x + 4) 2 + 4) + x(Bx + C) = A(x 2 x(x + 4) 2 2 + 4A + Bx + Cx = Ax 2 x(x + 4) A+B=2 C=1 4A = 8 A=2 2+B=2 B=0 2 2x + x + 8 = 2 + 1 2 x x2 + 4 x(x + 4)
2

2x + 7x + 6 = (2x + 3)(x + 2) 1 2x = A + B (2x + 3)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x + 2 = A(x + 2) + B(2x + 3) (2x + 3)(x + 2) Ax + 2Bx + 2A + 3B = (2x + 3)(x + 2) A + 2B = 2 2A + 4B = 4 2A + 3B = 1 : B = 5 A + 2 5 = 2 A=8 1 2x = 8 5 (2x + 3)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x + 2

3x 6x + 2 = A + B + C 2 2 (x 1) (x + 2) x + 2 x 1 (x 1) 2 1) + B(x + 2)(x 1) + C(x + 2) = A(x 2 (x 1) (x + 2) 2 2 2Ax + A + Bx + Bx 2B + Cx + 2C = Ax 2 (x 1) (x + 2) A+B=3 4A + 4B = 12 2A + B + C = 6 A 2B + 2C = 2 : 5A 4B = 14 + : 9A = 26 A = 26 9 26 + B = 3 9 B=1 9 52 + 1 + C = 6 9 9 C= 1 3 2 3x 6x + 2 1 1 = 26 + 2 2 (x 1) (x + 2) 9(x + 2) 9(x 1) 3(x 1)

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4 = A + B + C 2 (x 1) (2x + 1) 2x + 1 x 1 (x 1) 2 1) + B(2x + 1)(x 1) + C(2x + 1) = A(x 2 (x 1) (2x + 1) 2 2 2Ax + A + 2Bx Bx B + 2Cx + C = Ax 2 (x 1) (2x + 1) A + 2B = 0 2A B + 2C = 0 AB+C=4 2A 2B + 2C = 8 : 4A B = 8 8A 2B = 16 + : 9A = 16 A = 16 9 16 + 2B = 0 9 B= 8 9 16 + 8 + C = 4 9 9 C=4 3 4 4 16 8 = + 2 2 (x 1) (2x + 1) 9(2x + 1) 9(x 1) 3(x 1)
2

Divide:
x2 x 4 x 2x 3x + 9 3 2 x 0x 4x 2 2x + x 2 2x + 8 x+1
x 2x 3x + 9 = 2 + x + 1 x 2 2 x 4 x 4 x+1 = A + B (x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2 = A(x 2) + B(x + 2) (x + 2)(x 2) Ax + Bx 2A + 2B = (x + 2)(x 2)
3 2

A+B=1 2A + 2B = 2 2A + 2B = 1 + : 4B = 3 B=3 4 3=1 A+ 4 A=1 4 1 3 x+1 = + (x + 2)(x 2) 4(x + 2) 4(x 2) 3 2 x 2x 3x + 9 = 2 + 1 3 + x 2 4(x + 2) 4(x 2) x 4

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Divide:

x x 1 x +3 3 x x x+3 3 x +3 x+3 =x+ (x + 1)(x 1) (x + 1)(x 1) x+3 = A + B (x + 1)(x 1) x + 1 x 1 = A(x 1) + B(x + 1) (x + 1)(x 1) Ax + Bx A + B = (x + 1)(x 1) A+B=1 A+B=3 + : 2B = 4 B=2 A+2=1 A = 1 x+3 = 1 + 2 (x + 1)(x 1) x+1 x1 3 x +3 =x 1 + 2 (x + 1)(x 1) x+1 x1
2 3

2x 1 = A + B (x + 1)(3x + 2) x + 1 3x + 2 = A(3x + 2) + B(x + 1) (x + 1)(3x + 2) 3Ax + Bx + 2A + B = (x + 1)(3x + 2) 3A + B = 2 2A + B = 1 : A=3 9+B=2 B = 7 2x 1 = 3 7 (x + 1)(3x + 2) x + 1 3x + 2

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Exercise 6D Solutions
1 a

A simple start is often to subtract the equations. 2 x x=0 x(x 1) = 0 x = 0 or x = 1 If x = 0, y = 0 If x = 1, y = 1 The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (1, 1). Subtract the equations: 2 2x x = 0 x(2x 1) = 0 x = 0 or x = 1 2 If x = 0, y = 0 If x = 1 , y = 1 2 2 The points of intersection are (0, 0) and ( 1 , 1 ). 2 2 Subtract the equations: 2 x 3x 1 = 0
x = 3 9 4 1 1 2 = 3 13 2 3 + 13 or 3 13 = 2 2 If x = 3 + 13 , y = 2 3 + 13 + 1 2 2 = 4 + 13 If x = 3 13 , y = 2 3 13 + 1 2 2 = 4 13 The points of intersection are 3 + 13 , 4 + 13 and 2 3 13 , 4 13 . 2

2 a

Substitute y = 16 x into x + y = 178. 2 2 x + (16 x) = 178 2 2 x + 256 32x + x = 178 2 2x 32x + 78 = 0 2 x 16x + 39 = 0 (x 3)(x 13) = 0 x = 3 or x = 13 If x = 3, y = 16 x = 13 If x = 13, y = 16 x = 3 The points of intersection are (3, 13) and (13, 3). Substitute y = 15 x into x + y = 125. 2 2 x + (15 x) = 125 2 2 x + 225 30x + x = 125 2 2x 30x + 100 = 0 2 x 15x + 50 = 0 (x 5)(x 10) = 0 x = 5 or x = 10 If x = 5, y = 15 x = 10 If x = 10, y = 15 x = 5 The points of intersection are (5, 10) and (10, 5). Substitute y = x 3 into x + y = 185. 2 2 x + (x 3) = 185 2 2 x + x 6x + 9 = 185 2 2x 6x 176 = 0 2 x 3x 88 = 0 (x 11)(x + 8) = 0 x = 11 or x = 8 If x = 11, y = x 3 = 8 If x = 8, y = x 3 = 11 The points of intersection are (11, 8) and (8, 11). Substitute y = 13 x into x + y = 97. 2 2 x + (13 x) = 97 2 2 x + 169 26x + x = 97 2 2x 26x + 72 = 0 2 x 13x + 36 = 0 (x 4)(x 9) = 0 x = 4 or x = 9 If x = 4, y = 13 x = 9 If x = 9, y = 13 x = 4 The points of intersection are (4, 9) and (9, 4).
2 2 2 2 2 2

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Substitute y = x 4 into x + y = 106. 2 2 x + (x 4) = 106 2 2 x + x 8x + 16 = 106 2 2x 8x 90 = 0 2 x 4x 45 = 0 (x 9)(x + 5) = 0 x = 9 or x = 5 If x = 9, y = x 4 = 5 If x = 5, y = x 4 = 9 The points of intersection are (9, 5) and (5, 9).

Substitute y = 2x into the circle. 2 2 (x 5) + (2x) = 25 2 2 x 10x + 25 + 4x = 25 2 5x 10x = 0 5x(x 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = 2 If x = 0, y = 2x = 0 If x = 2, y = 2x = 4 The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (2, 4). Substitute y = x into the circle. x= 1 +3 x2 x(x 2) = 1 + 3(x 2) 2 x 2x = 1 + 3x 6 2 x 5x + 5 = 0
x = 5 25 4 1 5 2 =5 5 2 = 5 + 5 or 5 5 2 2 Since y = x, the points of intersection are 5 + 5 5 + 5 5 5 5 5 , , and 2 2 2 2

3 a

Substitute y = 28 x into xy = 187. x(28 x) = 187 2 28x x = 187 2 x 28x + 187 = 0 (x 11)(x 17) = 0 x = 11 or x = 17 If x = 11, y = 28 x = 17 If x = 17, y = 28 x = 11 The points of intersection are (11, 17) and (17, 11).

Substitute y = 51 x into xy = 518. x(51 x) = 518 2 51x x = 518 2 x 51x + 518 = 0 (x 14)(x 37) = 0 x = 14 or x = 37 If x = 14, y = 51 x = 37 If x = 37, y = 51 x = 14 The points of intersection are (14, 37) and (37, 14). Substitute y = x 5 into xy = 126. x(x 5) = 126 2 x 5x = 126 2 x 5x 126 = 0 (x 14)(x + 9) = 0 x = 14 or x = 9 If x = 14, y = x 5 = 9 If x = 9, y = x 5 = 14 The points of intersection are (14, 9) and (9, 14).

Substitute x = 3y into the circle. 2 2 9y + y 30y 5y + 25 = 0 2 10y 35y + 25 = 0 2 2y 7y + 5 = 0 (2y 5)(y 1) = 0 y = 5 or y = 1 2 If y = 5 , x = 3y = 15 2 2 If y = 1, x = 3y = 3 The points of intersection are ( 15 , 5 ) 2 2 and (3, 1).

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Make y the subject in y x = 1. 4 5 y=x+1 4 5 y = 4x + 4 5 Substitute into x + 4x + y = 12. 2 2 x + 4x + 4x + 4 = 12 5 2 2 16x + 32x + 16 = 12 x + 4x + 5 25 2 2 25x + 100x + 16x + 160x + 400 = 300 2 41x + 260x + 100 = 0
x = 260 67 600 4 41 100 82 260 51 200 = 82 = 260 25 600 2 82 = 260 160 2 82 = 130 80 2 41 If x = 130 + 80 2 , 41 4 (130 + 80 2 ) + 4 y= 5 41 4 (26 + 16 2 ) + 4 41 = 41 41 = 104 + 64 2 + 164 41 = 60 + 64 2 41 Likewise, if x = 130 80 2 , 41 y = 60 64 2 41 The points of intersection are 130 + 80 2 60 + 64 2 , and 41 41 130 80 2 60 64 2 , . 41 41
2 2

Subtract the second equation from the first. 1 3+x=0 x+2 1 3(x + 2) + x(x + 2) = 0 2 1 3x 6 + x + 2x = 0 2 x x5=0
x = 1 1 4 1 5 2 = 1 21 2 If x = 1 + 21 , y = x = 1 21 2 2 If x = 1 21 , y = x = 1 + 21 2 2 The points of intersection are 1 + 21 1 21 , and 2 2 1 21 1 + 21 , 2 2

Substitute y = 9x + 4 into the parabola. 4 2 9x + 4 = 9x 4 2 (9x + 4) = 9x 16 2 (9x + 4) = 9x 16 2 81x + 72x + 16 = 144x 2 81x 72x + 16 = 0 2 (9x 4) = 0 x=4 9 9x + 4 y= 4 =4+4=2 4 4 , 2 9 Note: Substitute into the linear equation, as substituting into the parabola introduces a second answer that is not actually a solution.

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10 Substitute y = 2x + 3 5 into the circle. 2 2 x + (2x + 3 5 ) = 9 2 2 x + 4x + 12 5x + 45 = 9 2 5x + 12 5x + 36 = 0 2 x + 12 5 x + 36 = 0 5 5 2 2 x + 2 6 5 x + (6 5 ) = 0 25 5

6 5 =0 x + 5
x= 6 5 5 y = 2x + 3 5 = 12 5 + 15 5 5 5 =3 5 5

12 Substitute y = x 1 into y = 2 . x2 2 x1= x2 (x 1)(x 2) = 2 2 x 3x + 2 = 2 2 x 3x = 0 x(x 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 If x = 0, y = x 1 = 1 If x = 3, y = x 1 = 2 The points of intersection are (0, 1) and (3, 2).

6 5 3 5 , 5 5
11 Substitute y = 1 x + 1 into y = 1. 4 x 1x+1= 1 4 x x+4= 1 4 x x(x + 4) = 4 2 x + 4x + 4 = 0 2 (x + 2) = 0 x = 2 y= 1 x 1 = 2 2, 1 2

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

x = (x + 1) + b(x + 1) + c 2 = x + 2x + 1 + bx + b + c b+2=0 b = 2 b+c+1=0 c=1 C x = a(x + 2) + b(x + 2) + c(x + 2) + d 3 2 = ax + 6ax + 12ax + 8a 2 + bx + 4bx + 4b + cx + 2c + d a=1 b + 6a = 0 b = 6 12a + 4b + c = 0 c = 12 8a + 4b + 2c + d = 0 d = 8 D a = 3, b = 6, c = 3
x = 6 36 4 3 3 23 6 0 = 6 =1
3 3 2

4 2x = 4(x + 1) + 2x(x + 3) 2 + 2 x+1 (x + 3) (x + 1) (x + 3) 3 2 4x + 4 + 2x + 12x + 18x = 2 (x + 3) (x + 1) 3 2x + 12x + 22x + 4 = 2 (x + 3) (x + 1) 3 2 2( + 6x + 11x + 2) = x 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 1) E

(x 4)(x + 6) = 0 2 x + 2x 24 = 0 2 x + 2x = 24 2 2x + 4x = 48

7x + 13 + = a + 2bx c 2 (x 1)(x + x + 2) x 1 x + x + 2 2 + + 2) + (bx + c)(x 1) = a(x x 2 (x 1)(x + x + 2) 2 2 + + 2a + bx bx + cx c = ax ax 2 (x 1)(x + x + 2) a+b=7 ab+c=0 2a c = 13 + : 3a b = 13 + : 4a = 20 a=5 5+b=7 b=2 ab+c=0 c = 3 C

C 8

3 5 = 3(x 2) 5(x + 4) (x + 4)(x 2) x+4 x2 3x 6 5x 20 = (x + 4)(x 2) = 2x 26 (x + 4)(x 2) = 2(x + 13) (x + 4)(x 2)

4x 3 A + B 2 = x 3 (x 3) 2 (x 3) 3) + B = A(x 2 (x 3) 3A + B = Ax 2 (x 3) A=4 3 4 + B = 3 B=9 4x 3 9 4 2= 3+ 2 x (x 3) (x 3)

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2x + 5x + 2 = (2x + 1)(x + 2) 8x + 7 = A + B (2x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 1 x + 2 = A(x + 2) + B(2x + 1) (2x + 1)(x + 2) Ax + 2Bx + 2A + B = (2x + 1)(x + 2) A + 2B = 8 2A + 4B = 16 2A + B = 7 : 3B = 9 B=3 A + 2B = 8 A=2 8x + 7 = 2 + 3 B (2x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 1 x + 2

10

3x + 2x 1 Ax + B = 2 + C 2 (x + 1)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 1 2 (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 1) = 2 (x + 1)(x + 1) 2 2 + + + + + = Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx C (x + 1)(x + 1) A + C = 3 A+B=2 B + C = 1 : C B = 5 2C = 6 C = 3 A + 3 = 3 A=0 0+B=2 B=2 3x + 2x + 5 2 = 2 3 2 B (x + 1)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 1

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

3a + b = 11 6a + 2b = 22 a 2b = 1 + : 7a = 21 a=3 3 3 + b = 11 b=2 2 + 2c = 4 c=1 x = (x 1) + a(x 1) + b(x 1) + c 3 2 2 = x 3x + 3x 1 + ax 2ax + a + bx b + c 3 + a = 0 a=3 323+b=0 b=3 1 + 3 3 + c = 0 c=1 3 3 1 x = (x 1) + 3(x 1) + 3(x 1) + 1
2

5 a

x + x 12 = 0 (x + 4)(x 3) = 0 x = 4 or x = 3 x x2=0 (x + 1)(x 2) = 0 x = 1 or 2


x 3x 11 = 1 2 x 3x 10 = 0 (x + 5)(x 2) = 0 x = 5 or x = 2
2 2

c 2
3 3 2

2x 4x + 1 = 0
x = 4 16 4 2 1 4 =4 8 4 =2 2 2

(x + 1) (px + q) 2 = (x + 2x + 1)(px + q) 3 2 = px + (q + 2p)x + (p + 2q)x + q a=p b = q + 2p c = p + 2q d=q 2a + d = 2p + q = b a + 2d = p + 2q = c (x 2) (px + q) = (x 4x + 4)(px + q) 3 2 = px + (q 4p)x + (4p 4q)x + 4q a=p b = q 4p c = 4p 4q d = 4q 4a + 1 d = 4p + q = b 4 4a d = 4p 4q = c
2 2

3x 2x + 5 t = 0
x = 2 4 4 3 (5 t) 6 = 2 4 60 + 12t 6 12t 56 =2 6 2 4(3t 14) = 6 = 2 2 3t 14 6 = 1 3t 14 3

tx tx + 4 = 0
x=t t 4t4 2t = t t 16t 2t
2 2

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2(x + 2) 3(x 1) = 1 (x 1)(x + 2) 2 2(2x + 4 3x + 3) = (x 1)(x + 2) 2 2( x + 7) = x + x 2 2 2x + 14 = x + x 2 2 x + 3x 16 = 0 a = 1, b = 3, c = 16

x = 3 9 4 1 16 2 = 3 73 2
7 a

3x + 4 = A + B (x 3)(x + 2) x 3 x + 2 = A(x + 2) + B(x 3) (x 3)(x + 2) Ax + Bx + 2A 3B = (x 3)(x + 2) A + B = 3 3A + 3B = 9 2A 3B = 4 + : 5A = 5 A = 1 1 + B = 3 B = 2 3x + 4 = 1 2 (x 3)(x + 2) x3 x+2 7x + 2 = A + B (x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2 = A(x 2) + B(x + 2) (x + 2)(x 2) Ax + Bx 2A + 2B = (x + 2)(x 2) A+B=7 2A + 2B = 14 2A + 2B = 2 + : 4B = 16 B=4 A+4=7 A=3 7x + 2 = 3 + 4 (x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2

7x = A + B (x 3)(x + 5) x 3 x + 5 = A(x + 5) + B(x 3) (x 3)(x + 5) Ax + Bx + 5A 3B = (x 3)(x + 5) A + B = 1 3A + 3B = 3 5A 3B = 7 + : 8A = 4 A=1 2 1 + B = 1 2 B= 3 2 7x 1 3 = (x 3)(x + 5) 2(x 3) 2(x + 5) 3x 9 = A + B (x 5)(x + 1) x 5 x + 1 = A(x + 1) + B(x 5) (x 5)(x + 1) Ax + Bx + A 5B = (x 5)(x + 1) A+B=3 5A + 5B = 15 A 5B = 9 + : 6A = 6 A=1 1+B=3 B=2 3x 9 = 1 + 2 (x 5)(x + 1) x 5 x + 1

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3x 4 C A + B + 2 = x + 3 x + 2 (x + 2) 2 (x + 3)(x + 2) 2 + 2) + B(x + 3)(x + 2) + C(x + 3) = A(x 2 (x + 3)(x + 2) 2 2 + 4Ax + 4A + Bx + 5Bx + 6B + Cx + 3C = Ax 2 (x + 3)(x + 2) A+B=0 8A + 8B = 0 4A + 5B + C = 3 12A + 15B + 3C = 9 4A + 6B + 3C = 4 : 8A + 9B = 13 : B = 13 A + 13 = 0 A = 13 4 13 + 5 13 + C = 3 C = 10 3x 4 13 + 13 10 2 = x + 3 x + 2 (x + 2) 2 (x + 3)(x + 2)
6x 5x 16 = A + B + C 2 2 (x 1) (x + 4) x + 4 x 1 (x 1) 2 1) + B(x + 4)(x 1) + C(x + 4) = A(x 2 (x 1) (x + 4) 2 2 2Ax + A + Bx + 3Bx 4B + Cx + 4C = Ax 2 (x 1) (x + 4) A+B=6 16A + 16B = 96 2A + 3B + C = 5 8A + 12B + 4C = 20 A 4B + 4C = 16 : 9A 16B = 4 + : 25A = 100 A=4 4+B=6 B=2 2 4 + 3 2 + C = 5 C = 3 2 3 6x 5x 16 = 4 + 2 2 2 (x 1) (x + 4) x + 4 x 1 (x 1)
2

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x 6x 4 = Ax + B + C 2 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1 2 (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) = 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) 2 2 + + + + + 2C = Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx (x + 2)(x + 1) A+C=1 A + B = 6 B + 2C = 4 : CB=7 + : 3C = 3 C=1 A+1=1 A=0 0 + B = 6 B = 6 2 x 6x 4 = 1 6 2 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 2 x+4 Bx + C = A + 2 2 x1 x +x+1 (x 1)(x + x + 1) 2 + + 1) + (Bx + C)(x 1) = A(x x 2 (x 1)(x + x + 1) 2 2 + + + + = Ax Ax A Bx Bx Cx C 2 (x 1)(x + x + 1) A+B=0 A B + C = 1 AC=4 + : 2A B = 3 + : 3A = 3 A=1 B = 1 1C=4 C = 3 +3 x+4 = 1 2x 2 x1 x +x+1 (x 1)(x + x + 1)

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4x + 5 = A + B (x + 4)(x 3) x + 4 x 3 = A(x 3) + B(x + 4) (x + 4)(x 3) Ax + Bx 3A + 4B = (x + 4)(x 3) A + B = 4 3A + 3B = 12 3A + 4B = 5 + : 7B = 7 B = 1 A 1 = 4 A = 3 4x + 5 = 3 1 (x + 4)(x 3) x+4 x3 1 3 = 3x x+4

2x + 8 = A + B (x + 4)(x 3) x + 4 x 3 = A(x 3) + B(x + 4) (x + 4)(x 3) Ax + Bx 3A + 4B = (x + 4)(x 3) A + B = 2 3A + 3B = 6 3A + 4B = 8 + : 7B = 2 B=2 7 2 = 2 A+ 7 A = 16 7 2x + 8 = 2 16 (x + 4)(x 3) 7(x 3) 7(x + 4)

8 a

14x 28 Bx + C = A + 2 2 (x 3)(x + x + 2) x 3 x + x + 2 2 + + 2) + (Bx + C)(x 3) = A(x x 2 (x 3)(x + x + 2) 2 2 + + 2A + Bx 3Bx + Cx 3C = Ax Ax 2 (x 3)(x + x + 2) A+B=0 9A + 9B = 0 A 3B + C = 14 3A 9B + 3C = 42 2A 3C = 28 + : 5A 9B = 14 + : 14A = 14 A=1 1+B=0 B = 1 1 3 3 + C = 14 C = 10 + 10 14x 28 = 1 + 2 x 2 x3 x +x+2 (x 3)(x + x + 2) 10 = 1 2x x3 x +x+2

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Bx + C 1 = A + 2 2 (x + 1)(x x + 2) x + 1 x x + 2 2 A(x x + 2) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) = 2 (x + 1)(x x + 2) 2 2 Ax Ax + 2A + Bx + Bx + Cx + C = 2 (x + 1)(x x + 2) A+B=0 A+B+C=0 2A + C = 1 : 3A B = 1 + : 4A = 1 A=1 4 1+B=0 4 B= 1 4 11+C=0 4 4 C=1 2 x+2 1 1 = + 2 2 (x + 1)(x x + 2) 4(x + 1) 4(x x + 2) x2 1 = 4(x + 1) 4(x 2 x + 2)

First divide 3x by x 5x + 4. 3x + 15
x 5x + 4 3x 3 2 3x 15x + 12x 2 15x 12x 2 15x 75x + 60 63x 60
3x = 3x + 15 + 63x 60 (factorising the denominator) 2 ( x 4)( x 1) x 5x + 4
63x 60 = A + B (x 4)(x 1) x 4 x 1 = A(x 1) + B(x 4) (x 4)(x 1) Ax + Bx A 4B = (x 4)(x 1) A + B = 63 A 4B = 60 + : 3B = 3 B = 1 A 1 = 63 A = 64 63x 60 = 64 1 (x 4)(x 1) x 4 x 1 3 3x = 3x + 15 + 64 1 2 x4 x1 x 5x + 4
3

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9 a

x = x x +x=0 x(x + 1) = 0 x = 0 or x = 1 If x = 0, y = 0 If x = 1, y = 1 The points of intersections are (0, 0) and (1, 1).
2

Substitute y = 4 x into x + y = 16. 2 2 x + (4 x) = 16 2 2 x + 16 8x + x = 16 2 2x 8x = 0 2 x 4x = 0 x(x 4) = 0 x = 0 or x = 4 If x = 0, y = 4 If x = 4, y = 0 The points of intersections are (0, 4) and (4, 0). Substitute y = 5 x into xy = 4. x(5 x) = 4 2 5x x 4 = 0 2 x 5x + 4 = 0 (x 4)(x 1) = 0 x = 4 or x = 1 If x = 4, y = 1 If x = 1, y = 4 The points of intersections are (4, 1) and (1, 4).

10 Substitute x = 3y 1 into the circle. 2 2 (3y 1) + 2(3y 1) + y = 9 2 2 9y 6y + 1 + 6y 2 + y = 9 2 10y 10 = 0 2 y 1=0 (y + 1)(y 1) = 0 y = 1 or y = 1 If y = 1, x = 4 If y = 1, x = 2 The points of intersections are (2, 1) and (4, 1).

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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1 PP = 4I 1 PP = I 4 ( 1 P)P = I 4 7 det(S) = 3 2 5 1 = 1 1 S = 1 2 5 1 1 3 2 5 = 1 3 det = ad bc =4462 =4 det(X) = 5 2 7 2 = 4 1 X = 1 2 7 4 2 5 1 2 7 = 4 2 5

the inverse of P is 1 P
4
2

A 8

RS = [5 0 + 3 1 + 2 1] = [0 3 + 2] = [1]
det(A) = 9 5 8 11 = 133

A is a m n matrix = 3 1 matrix. B is a n r matrix = 1 3 matrix. AB is therefore a m r matrix = 1 1 matrix A AX = C B = 3 5 2 2 det(A) = 5 1 2 2 = 1 1 A = 1 1 2 = 1 2 1 2 5 2 5 1 X = A AX = 1 2 3 5 2 5 2 2 = 1 1 4 0

10 5 is seven less than 3 times (x + 1) 5 = 3 (x + 1) 7 5 = 3x + 3 7 5 = 3x 4 E 11


3 2 = 3(x + 3) 2(x 3) (x 3)(x + 3) x3 x+3 3x + 9 2x + 6 = 2 x 9 + 15 = x2 x 9

12 p =

PQR = 2 1 4 2 2 1 3 2 6 5 3 2 = 2 1 2 1 24 16 3 2 = 8 0 0 56 There are two zero elements. C Note that since the associative law applies for matrix multiplication, it does not matter which two matrices are multiplied first, as long as the order does not change.

kx 2 y Set both x and y = 1 so that p = k. When x and y are decreased, k 0.7 = 1.09375k p= 2 0.8 This has increased by approximately 9.4%. C

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13 This is an arithmetic progression with a = 1 and d = 2. Sn = n (2 + 2(n 1)) = 100 2 n(2 + 2n 2) = 200 2 n = 100 n = 10 terms tn = 1 + 2 (10 1) D = 19 14 a = S1 = 2 2 = 2 3 S2 = 2 2 = 6 t2 = S2 S1 = 4 r = t2 = 2 t1 n1 tn = ar n1 =22
2

20 x = ky x Set both x and y = 1 so that p = k. When y and z are changed, 2 p = k 1.25 = 1.953125k 0.8 This has increased by approximately 95%. D 21
4 3 + x = 4 + 3 + x x1 1x x1 x1 x1 x1 =x1 x1 =1 A

=2

22 x + 2 5 = 2x + 4 5 3 6 6 6 = 2x 1 6 23
a1= 1 1+b

15 m = kn 9 = 4k k= 9 4

16 A (B U C) = A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} = {2, 3, 4} C 17 In the case of the tank, P = krh. When r = 5 and h = 4, P = 60. 60 = 5 4 k k = 60 = 3 20 When r = 4 and h = 6, P=346 = $72 18 x = k y 8 = 2k k=4 x = 4 7 = 28 19

1 1=b a1

1 =1+b a1

b=
24

1 1 a1

.. . . 0.36 = 0.363636. . . 0.36 . 100 = 36.3636. . . . 0.36 99 = 36 .. 0.36 = 36 = 4 99 11 Numerator + denominator = 4 + 11 = 15 A

.. 0.72 = 0.727272. . . .. 0.72 . 100 = 72.7272. . . . 0.72 99 = 72 .. 0.72 = 72 99

25 Multiply both sides by 4(2x + y). 4(2x y) = 3(2x + y) 8x 4y = 6x + 3y 8x 6x = 3y + 4y 2x = 7y 2x = 7y 2y 2y x=7 y 2

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26 a = 1 , r = 1 2 2 a S = 1r 1 2 = 1 1 2 1 =2 3 2 =1 3 27 x =

31

2 46 200 2 23 100 2 11 550 3 5575 5 1925 385 5 77 7 11 11 1 3 2 = 2 3 5 7 11

ky 2 z When y = 4 and z = 14, x = 10. 4k 10 = 2 14 2 k = 10 14 = 490 4 When y = 16 and z = 7, 490 16 = 160 x= 2 7

32 The difference between terms is constant. (y 1) y = (2y 1) (y 1) y 1 y = 2y 1 y + 1 1 = y y = 1 A 33 Order is n 6, n 5, n 1, n + 1, n + 4. Middle number is n 1. B 34


x1 y y = 5y x 1 5y x x= 5

28 Multiply both sides by (3 + y). 3 = 4(3 + y) 3 = 12 + 4y 9 = 4y y= 9 4 29 Multiply the first equation by 5, then subtract. 15x + 5y = 35 2x + 5y = 4 : 13x = 39 x = 3 3 3 + y = 7 y=2 (3, 2) 30 Multiply both sides by 4. (m + 2) (2 m) = 2 m+22+m=2 2m = 2 m=1

35 B

t4 = a + 3d = 3 + 3d = 9 3d = 6 d=2 t11 = a + (n 1)d = 3 + 10 2 = 23

36

4 + 3 = 4(n 1) + 3(n + 1) (n + 1)(n 1) n+1 n1 4n 4 + 3n + 3 = 2 n 1 7n 1 = 2 n 1 7n 1 1 = 2 n 1 1 1 7n = B 2 1n

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37 Let the first number be x,


so the numbers are x, 2x and x . 2 x = 28 2x + x + 2 4x + 2x + x = 56 7x = 56 x=8 (8, 16, 4)

41

38 ( 7 + 3)( 7 3) = 7 9 = 2
2

39 2x 9x + 4 = (x 4)(2x 1) 13x 10 = P + Q (x 4)(2x 1) x 4 2x 1 = P(2x 1) + Q(x 4) (x 4)(2x 1) 2Px + Qx P 4Q = (x 4)(2x 1) 2P + Q = 13 P 4Q = 10 2P 8Q = 20 + : 7Q = 7 Q=1 2P + 1 = 13 2P = 12 P=6 C 40

5x = P + Q (x + 2)(x 3) x + 2 x 3 = P(x 3) + Q(x + 2) (x + 2)(x 3) Px + Qx 3P + 2Q = (x + 2)(x 3) P+Q=5 3P + 3Q = 15 3P + 2Q = 0 + : 5Q = 15 Q=3 P+3=5 P=2 A


2

42 Assuming n is an integer, and n = m , then the next largest perfect square 2 is ( m + 1) . 2 2 (m + 1) = m + 2m + 1 2 Since n = m , m = n 2 (m + 1) = n + 2 n + 1 The next largest perfect square is n + 2 n + 1. E 43 A = kb and A = 14 when b = 2.4 14 = 2.4k k = 14 2.4 = 140 = 35 24 6 35b A= 6 When A = 18, 18 = 35b 6 18 6 b= 35 3.086

a = 4a 1r
Multiply both sides by 1 r. a 1 = 4(1 r) 1 = 4 4r 4r = 4 1 r=3 4

44 0.4 and 4.125 are terminating decimals. 3 = 0.125 8 16 = 4 Only 5 cannot be expressed as a C rational number.

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45 x = b and y = 1 ab a b+ 1 x+y= a ab b(a b) + a = a(a b) 2 = ba b + a a(a b)

46 The perfect square could be 2 2 (3x 2) or (3x + 2) . The middle term of the expansion would be 12x or 12x respectively. This means m would be 3 or 3, i.e. 3. E 47 x = (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3), n > 0 When n = 1, x = (1 + 1) (1 + 2) (1 + 3) = 2 3 4 = 12 When n = 2, x = (2 + 1) (2 + 2) (2 + 3) = 3 4 5 = 60 1, 2, 3 and 6 are factors in both D equations, but not 5.

48 There are 8 terms, a = 4 and t8 = 10. a + 7d = 10 4 + 7d = 10 7d = 14 d=2 The required sum is S7 a. S7 a = 7 (8 + 6 2) 4 2 = 14 + 4 = 18 C 49 An odd number plus an odd number is always an even number, so n + p. A (The other options all produce odd numbers for all n and p.)

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Chapter 8 Transformations
Exercise 8A Solutions
1 a b c d e 2 a Image = ((3 + 4), (1 + 2)) = (7, 3) Image = ((4 + 2), (5 + 4)) = (6, 9) b Image = ((2 + 4), (4 + 3)) = (2, 7) Image = ((3 + 2), (2 + 3)) = (1, 5) Image = ((4 + 3), (5 + 2)) = (1, 7) 4 c 3 a

(a, b) (a + 2, b + 3) = (7, 9) a+2=7 b+3=9 a=5 b=6 A = (5, 6) (a, b) (a + 1, b + 4) = (3, 6) a+1=3 b+4=6 a=2 b=2 A = (2, 2) (a, b) (a + 2, b + 3) = (0, 6) a+2=0 b+3=6 a = 2 b=3 A = (2, 3)
Compare a single point in the first triangle to the corresponding point in the second triangle to find the vector. A = (2, 3); P = (2, 2) (2 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 2) 2+a=2 3 + b = 2 a=0 b = 5 Vector = 0 5
A = (2, 3); L = (4, 2) (2 + a, 3 + b) = (4, 2) 2 + a = 4 3+b=2 a = 6 b = 1 Vector = 6 1 X = (3, 3); A = (2, 3) (3 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 3) 3 + a = 2 3+b=3 a=5 b=6 Vector = 5 6 A = (2, 3); A = (2, 3) (2 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 3) 2+a=2 a=0 Vector = 0 0

(1 + a, 2 + b) = (5, 3) 1+a=5 a=4 Vector = 4 1 (3 + a, 8 + b) = (2, 9) 3+a=2 a = 1 Vector = 1 1 (1 + a, 2 + b) = (5, 4) 1+a=5 a=4 Vector = 4 2

2+b=3 b=1

8+b=9 b=1
b

2+b=4 b=2
c

(3 + a, 0 + b) = (4, 6) 3 + a = 4 0+b=6 a=7 b=6 Vector = 7 6 (4 + a, 3 + b) = (0, 0) 4 + a = 0 3+b=0 a=4 b=3 Vector = 4 3

3+b=3 b=0

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6 a b c

(2 + 3 + 1, 3 + 4 + 5) = (4, 12) (5 + 3 + 1, 6 + 4 + 5) = (3, 15) Add the two vectors: 3 + 1 = 2 4 5 9 Image = ((1 + 5), (3 + 3)) = (4, 6)

7 a

A = (2, 2); P = (1, 2) (2 + a, 2 + b) = (1, 2) 2+a=1 2 + b = 2 a = 1 b = 4 Vector = 1 4 P = (1, 2); A = (2, 2) (1 + a, 2 + b) = (2, 2) 1+a=2 2+b=2 a=1 b=4 Vector = 1 4 P = (1, 2); X = (3, 1) (1 + a, 2 + b) = (3, 1) 1 + a = 3 2+b=1 a = 4 b=3 Vector = 4 3 A = (2, 2); A = (2, 2) (2 + a, 2 + b) = (2, 2) 2+a=2 a=0 Vector = 0 0

(a, b) (a 5, b + 3) = (6, 7) a5=6 b+3=7 a = 11 b=4 (11, 4)

8 a

(x, y) (0, 0) (1, 1) (2, 4) (3, 9)

(x + 1, y) (1, 0) (2, 1) (3, 4) (4, 9)

2+b=2 b=0

Original graph: y = x 2 Image: y = (x 1)

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Exercise 8B Solutions
1

A(1, 2) A'(1, 2) B(3, 2) B'(3, 2) C(3, 5) C'(3, 5)

A(2, 1) B(5, 1) C(7, 3) D(4, 3)

A'(1, 2) B'(1, 5) C'(3, 7) D'(3, 4)

P(1, 1) P'(1, 1) Q(5, 1) Q'(5, 1) R(4, 0) R'(4, 0)


5 a

A(6, 2) A1(6, 2) B(3, 4) B1(3, 4) C(2, 1) C1(2, 1) A(6, 2) A2(2, 6) B(3, 4) B2(4, 3) C(2, 1) C2(1, 2) A(6, 2) A3(6, 2) B(3, 4) B3(3, 4) C(2, 1) C3(2, 1)

W(3, X(3, Y(5, Z(5,

1) 2) 2) 1)

W'(1, 3) X'(2, 3) Y'(2, 5) Z'(1, 5)

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6 a

(x, y) (y, x) (6, 2) (2, 6) (x, y) ( x, y) (6, 2) (6, 2) (x, y) (x, y) (6, 2) (6, 2) (x, y) (y, x) (0, 1) (1, 0) (x, y) ( x, y) (0, 1) (0, 1) (x, y) (x, y) (0, 1) (0, 1) (x, y) ( y, x) (0, 1) (1, 0)

7 a

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Exercise 8C Solutions
1 a

(x, y) (x, 3y) (1, 3) (1, 3 3) = (1, 9) (x, y) (2x, y) (1, 3) (2 1, 3) = (2, 3) (x, y) (4x, y) (1, 3) (4 1, 3) = (4, 3) The factor is 8 = 4. 2 (x, y) (x, 4y) The factor is 9 = 3. 3 (x, y) (3x, y)

4 a

(x, y) A(0, 0) B(0, 1) C(1, 1) D(1, 0) (x, y) A(0, 0) B(0, 1) C(1, 1) D(1, 0)

(x, 3y) A(0, 0) B'(0, 3) C'(1, 3) D(1, 0) (3x, y) A(0, 0) B(0, 1) C''(3, 1) D''(3, 0)

5 a

i A(0, 0) B(3, 0) C(3, 4) ii A(0, 0)

A(0, 0) B(3, 0) C'(3, 2) A(0, 0) B(3, 0) B'' 3, 0 2 3, 4 C(3, 4) C'' 2

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Exercise 8D Solutions
1 a i (x, y) (x + 5, y + 6) ii No invariant points. i (x, y) (x, 4y) ii The x-coordinate is invariant: {(x, 0): x R} i (x, y) 1 x, y 3 ii The y-coordinate is invariant: {(0, y): y R} i (x, y) (x 2, y + 3) ii No invariant points. i ( x, y) (y, x) ii The coordinates will be invariant when x = y: {(x, x): x R} i (x, y) ( x, y) ii The y-coordinate is invariant: {(0, y): y R} 4 a b 3

(x, y) (3 y, 4 x) = (x, y) 3y=x 4x=y These can be arranged as two simultaneous equations: x y = 3 x y = 4 No solution satisfies both equations, so an invariant point does not exist.

(4, 1) (3 2 4, 2 1 + 1) = (5, 3)
(x, y) (3 2x, 2y + 1) = (7, 12) 3 2x = 7 2y + 1 = 12 x = 2 y = 11 2 2, 11 2 (x, y) (3 2x, 2y + 1) = (x, y) 3 2x = x 2y + 1 = y x=1 y=1 3 1, 1 3

2 a b

(2, 3) (3 2, 2 3 + 1) = (1, 7)
(x, y) (3 x, 2y + 1) = (6, 12) 3 x = 6 2y + 1 = 12 x=9 y = 11 2 9, 11 2 (x, y) (3 x, 2y + 1) = (x, y) 3x=x 2y + 1 = y 3 x= y = 1 2 3, 1 2

5 a b

(1, 3) ( (1), 2 3) = (1, 6)


(x, y) ( x, 2y) = (0, 0) x=0 2y = 0 x=0 y=0 (0, 0) (x, y) ( x, 2y) = (x, y) x=x 2y = y x=0 y=0 (0, 0)

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Exercise 8E Solutions
1 a f i ( x, y) ii ( x, y) i ( x, y) ii ( x, y) i ( x, y) ii ( x, y) i ( x, y) ii ( x, y) i ( x, y) ii ( x, y) i Find the rule for reflection in x = 2.

(x + 2, y + 3) (x 1, y + 1) (x 3, y 2) (x 1, y + 1) (x, 2y) (2x, 2y) (2x, y) (2x, 2y) (x + 4, y + 5) (x + 4, 3(y + 5)) (x, 3y) (x + 4, 3y + 5) (x 1, y + 2) ( (x 1), y + 2) ( x, y) ( x 1, y + 2) (y, x) ( x, y) ( y, x) ( x, y)
h
x' = x 2(x 2) =4x y' = y ( x, y) (4 x, y) (4 x, y) ii ( x, y) (x, y) (4 x, y)

i (x, y) 1 x, y 2 1 x 1, y + 2 2 ii (x, y) (x 1, y + 2) 1(x 1), y + 2 2 i (x, y) ii ( x, y)

(2x, y) (2x + 2, y 3) (x + 2, y 3) (2(x + 2), y 3)

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Exercise 8F Solutions
1 a

(x, y) (x + 1, y + 4) x' = x + 1 y' = y + 4 x = x' 1 y = y' 4 y = x becomes y' 4 = x' 1 y' = x' + 3 The equation of the image is y = x + 3.

1 1 2 becomes y' 4 = 2 x (x' 1) 1 y' = 2+ 4 (x' 1) The equation of the image is 1 y= 2 + 4. (x 1) y=

y = x becomes y' 4 = (x' 1) 2 y' = (x' 1) + 4 The equation of the image is 2 y = (x 1) + 4.

x + y = 1 becomes 2 2 (x' 1) + (y' 4) = 1 The equation of the image is 2 2 (x 1) + (y 4) = 1.

y = 1 becomes y' 4 = 1 x x' 1 y' = 1 + 4 x' 1 The equation of the image is y = 1 + 4. x1


2

(x, y) (x, 2y) x' = x x = x'

y' = 2y y = y' 2

y = x becomes y' = x' 2 y' = 2x' Image: y = 2x

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2 2 y = x becomes y' = (x') 2 2 y' = 2(x') 2 Image: y = 2x

x + y = 1 becomes 2 2 (x') + y' = 1 2 2 2 (x') + (y') = 1 4 2 2 Image: x + y = 1 4

y = 1 becomes y' = 1 2 x' x y' = 2 x' 2 Image: y = x

(x, y) ( x, y) ( x + 3, y + 2) x' = x + 3 y' = y + 2 x = 3 x' y = y' 2 y = x becomes y' 2 = 3 x' y' = 5 x' Image: y = 5 x

b
d

1 1 y' 2 becomes 2 = 2 (x') x 2 y' = 2 (x') 2 Image: y = 2 x y=

y = x becomes y' 2 = (3 x') 2 = (x' 3) 2 y' = (x' 3) + 2


Image: y = (x 3) + 2
2

y = 1 becomes y' 2 = 1 3 x' x y' = 1 + 2 3 x' Image: y = 1 + 2 3x 1 1 2 becomes y' 2 = 2 x (3 x') 1 = 2 (x' 3) 1 y' = 2 + 2 (x' 3) 1 Image: y = 2+2 (x 3) y=

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x + y = 1 becomes 2 2 (3 x') + (y' 2) = 1 2 2 (x' 3) + (y' 2) = 1


Image: (x 3) + (y 2) = 1
2 2

(x, y) (2x, y) (2x 3, y + 2) x' = 2x 3 y' = y + 1 x' + 3 y = y' 1 x= 2 y = x becomes y' 1 = x' + 3 2 x' + 3 = 2 2 y' = x' + 5 2 2 1x+5 Image: y = 2 2
2 y = x becomes y' 1 = x' + 3 2 2 = (x' + 3) 4 2 y' = (x' + 3) + 1 4 1 (x + 3)2 + 1 Image: y = 4
2

(x, y) (y, xy) (y 4, x + 6) x' = y 4 y' = x + 6 y = x' + 4 x = y' 6 y = 2x + 3 becomes x' + 4 = 2(y' 6) x' + 4 = 2y' 12 + 3 2y' = x + 4 + 12 3 = x' + 13 y' = 1 (x' + 13) 2 1 (x + 13) y= 2

6 a

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 4) x' = x + 2 y' = y + 4 x = x' 2 y = y' 4 y = x + 2 becomes y' 4 = (x' 2) + 2 y' = x' + 4 {(x, y): y = x + 4}

y = 1 becomes y' 1 = 2 x' + 3 x y' = 2 + 1 x' + 3 2 +1 Image: y = x+3 1 4 2 becomes y' 1 = 2 (x' + 3) x 4 y' = 2 + 1 (x' + 3) 4 Image: y = 2 +1 (x + 3) y=

(x, y) (x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y = x + 2 becomes y' = x' + 2 y' = (x' + 2) {(x, y): y = (x + 2)}

x + y = 1 becomes 2 x' + 3 + (y' 1) 2 = 1 2 2 (x' + 3) + (y' 1) 2 = 1 4 2 2 Image: 1 (x + 3) + (y 1) = 1 4

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(x, y) (x, 4y) x' = x x = x'

y' = 4y y = 1 y' 4

y = x + 2 becomes 1 y' = x' + 2 4 y' = 4(x' + 2) {(x, y): y = 4(x + 2)}

(x, y) (x + 1, y + 4) x' = x + 1 y' = y + 4 x = x' 1 y = y' 4 2 2 x + y = 4 becomes 2 2 (x' 1) + (y' 4) = 4 2 2 {(x, y): (x 1) + (y 4) = 4}

(x, y) (y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' y = x + 2 becomes x' = y' + 2 y' = x' 2 {(x, y): y = x 2}

8 a

(x, y) (x, y) (x, 2y) x' = x y' = 2y x = x' y = y' 2 2 y' = (x') 2 y = x becomes 2 2 y' = 2(x') 2 {(x, y): y = 2x }
(x, y) (x + 5, y + 2) 1(x + 5), y + 2 2 1 (x + 5) y' = y + 2 x' = 2 y = y' 2 x + 5 = 2x' x = 2x' 5 2 2 y = x becomes y' 2 = (2x' 5) 2 y' = 2(2x' 5) + 2

(x, y) ( x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y = x + 2 becomes y' = x' + 2 {(x, y): y = x + 2}

{(x, y): y = (2x 5) + 2}

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(x, y) x, 1 y 2 x + 5, 1 y + 2 2 1y+2 x' = x + 5 y' = 2 2y' = y + 42 x = x' 5' y = 2y' 4 2 2 y = x becomes 2y' 4 = (x' 5) 2 2y' = (x' 5) + 4 2 y' = 1 (x' 5) + 2 2 1 (x 5) 2 + 2 (x, y): y = 2
(x, y) (x + 2, y + 1) ( (x + 2), y + 1) x' = x 2 y' = y + 1 x = x' 2 y = y' 1

y = x becomes y' 1 = ( x' 2) 2 = (x' + 2) 2 y' = (x' + 2) + 1 2 {(x, y): y = (x + 2) + 1}


e
(x, y) (y, x) (y, x + 2) x' = y y' = x + 2 y = x' x = y' 2

y = x becomes 2 x' = (y' 2) y' 2 = x ' y' = 2 x ' {(x, y): y = 2 x }


9 a

10 a (x, y) (x + 1, y) x' = x + 1 y' = y x = x' 1 y = y' x x' 1 y = 2 becomes y' = 2

{(x, y): y = 2
b

x1

(x, y) (x, y + 1) x' = x y' = y + 1 x = x' y = y' 1 x x' y = 2 becomes y' 1 = 2 x' y' = 2 + 1

{(x, y): y = 2 + 1)}

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(x, y) (2x, y) 2x, 1 y 3 x' = 2x x = 1 x' 2


x

y' = 1 y 3 y = 3y'
x' 2 x' 2

(x, y) (x, y + 2 1 x, y + 2 2 1 x, (y + 2) 2 1x y' = y 2 x' = 2 x = 2x' y = y' 2

y = 2 becomes 3y' = 2

y' = 1 2 3

y = 2 becomes y' 2 = 2 2x' y' = 2 + 2 {(x, y): y = (2


11 a
2x'

2x'

(x, y): y = 1 2 3
x 2

+ 2)}

(x, y) x, 1 y 3 2x, 1 y 3 x' = 2x x = 1 x' 2


x

y' = 1 y 3 y = 3y'
x' 2 x' 2

y = 2 becomes 3y' = 2

y' = 1 2 3
x (x, y): y = 1 22 3

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 4) ( (x + 2), y + 4) x' = x 2 y' = y + 4 x = x' 2' y = y' 4

y = 2 becomes y' = 2
y' = 2

x' 2

1
x' + 2

+4

(x, y): y = 1 + 4 x+2 2


d

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Exercise 8G Solutions
1 a g

Rearrange the image equation: 2 y' = 2x' y' = 2y (x, y) (x, 2y) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis. Alternatively: 2 y' = 2x' y' = x'2 2 x' = y' 2 x , y (x, y) 2 1 from the y-axis. A dilation of factor 2

(x, y) ( x, y) Reflection in the y-axis. (x, y) (x, y) Reflection in the x-axis.

2 a

x' + 2 = 2 x' = x 2 (x, y) (x 2, y). A translation by 2 . 0

Rearrange the image equation: y' = (x' 3) 2 2 y' = y x' 3 = x 2 x' = x + 3 y' = 2y (x, y) (x + 3, y) (x + 3, 2y) or (x, y) (x, 2y) (x + 3, 2y) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, and a translation by 3 . 0 In this case, they can be in either order. Rearrange the image equation: y' + 3 = x'2 2 y' + 3 = y x' = x 2 x' = x y' = 2y 3 (x, y) (x, 2y) (x, 2y 3) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, followed by a translation by 0 . 3
Rearrange the image equation: y' 1 = (x' 3) 2 2 y' 1 = y x' 3 = x 2 x' = x + 3 y' = 2y + 1 (x, y) (x, 2y) (x + 3, 2y + 1) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, followed by a translation by 3 . 1

( x, y) (y, x) Reflection in the line y = x.


x' = 2x x = x' 2 (x, y) 1 x, y 2 A dilation of factor 1 from the y-axis. 2

Rearrange the image equation: y' = 2x' 3 y' = 3y (x, y) (x, 3y) A dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis.

x' 3 = x x' = x + 3 (x, y) (x + 3, y) A translation by 3 . 0

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Rearrange the image equation: y' = 1 2 x' 3 y' = y x' 3 = x 2 x' = x + 3 y' = 2y (x, y) (x + 3, 2y) (x + 3, 2y) or (x, y) (x, 2y) (x + 3, 2y) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, and a translation by 3 , in any order. 0

Rearrange the image equation: y' 4 = 2 x' 1 = x y' 4 = y 3 x' = 3x + 1 y' = y + 4 (x, y) (3x, y) (3x + 1, y + 4) A dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis, and a translation by 1 . 4 Rearrange the image equation: 2y' = 1 3 x' 2 2y' = y x' 2 = x 3 x' = x + 2 y' = 3 y 2 x, 3y (x, y) 2 x + 2, 3y 2 3 from the x-axis A dilation of factor 2 followed by a translation by 2 . 0
x' 1 3

Rearrange the image equation: y' + 3 = 1 2 x' y' + 3 = y x' = x 2 x' = x y' = 2y 3 (x, y) (x, 2y) (x, 2y 3) A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, followed by a translation by 0 . 3 Rearrange the image equation: 1 y' = (x' 3) 1 = x' + 3 x' + 3 = x y' = y x' = x + 3 y' = y (x, y) ( x, y) ( x + 3, y) Reflection in the y-axis, followed by a translation by 3 . 0

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Exercise 8H Solutions
1 a

(x, y) (x 1, y + 3) x' = x 1 y' = y + 3 x = x' + 1 y = y' 3 y' 3 = |x' + 1| y' = |x' + 1| + 3 Image: {(x, y): y = |x + 1| + 3}

(x, y) (x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y' = |x'| Image: {(x, y): y = |x|}

e b

(x, y) ( y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' x' = |y'| Image: {(x, y): x = |y|}

(x, y) (x 1, y + 3) (y + 3, x 1) x' = y + 3 y' = x 1 y = x' 3 x = y' + 1 x' 3 = |y' + 1| x' = |y' + 1| + 3 Image: {(x, y): x = |y + 1| + 3}

(x, y) (4x, y) x' = 4x y' = y 1 x' y = y' x= 4 y' = x' 4 Image: (x, y): y = x 4

(x, y) (y, x) (y 1, x + 3) x' = y 1 y' = x + 3 y = x' + 1 x = y' 3 x' + 1 = |y' 3| x' = |y' 3| 1 Image: {(x, y): x = |y 3| 1}

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(x, y) (x, 2y) (x, 2y) x' = x y' = 2y x = x' 3 y = 1 y' 2 1 y' = |x'| 2 y' = 2|x'| Image: {(x, y): y = 2|x|}

3 a

(x, y) (2x, y) x' = 2x y' = y 1 x' y = y' x= 2 y' = x' 2 Image: (x, y): y = x 2

2 a

Rearrange the image equation: y' 3 = |x'| x' = x y' 3 = y x' = x y' = y + 3 (x, y) (x, y + 3) A translation by 0 . 3 Rearrange the image equation: y' 3 = |x' 3| y' 3 = y x' 3 = x x' = x + 3 y' = y + 3 (x, y) (x + 3, y + 3) A translation by 3 . 3 2x' = x y' = y 1 x y' = y x' = 2 (x, y) 1 x, y 2 A dilation of factor 1 from the y-axis 2

(x, y) (x + 2, y) x' = x + 2 y' = y x = x' 2 y = y' y' = [x' 2] Image: {(x, y): y = [x 2]}

(x, y) (x, y + 2) x' = x y' = y + 2 x = x' y = y' 2 y' 2 = [x'] Image: {(x, y): y = [x] 2}

Rearrange the image equation: y = |x| 2 1 y' = y x' = x 2 x' = x y' = 2y (x, y) (x, y) (x, 2y) A reflection in the x-axis followed by a dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis.

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(x, y) (y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' x' = [y'] Image: {(x, y): x = [y]}

(x, y) (2x, y) (2x, y) x' = 2x y' = y 1 x' y = y' x= 2 y' = x' 2 Image: (x, y): y = x 2

(x, y) ( y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' x' = [y'] Image: {(x, y): x = [y]}

(x, y) (x, y) (x, y + 2) x' = x y' = y + 2 x = x' y = y' + 2 y' + 2 = [x'] Image: {(x, y): x = [x] + 2}

(x, y) (x + 4, y) x' = x + 4 y' = y x = x' 4 y = y' y' = [x' 4] Image: {(x, y): y = [x 4]}

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Exercise 8I Solutions
1 a

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 3) x' = x + 2 y' = y + 3 x = x' 2 y = y' 3 y' 3 = f(x' 2) Image: y = f(x 2) + 3 (x, y) (y, x) x' = y y = x' x' = f(y') Image: x = f(y)

4f x = 4 x 2 2 2 2 = 4 x = x 4 2 2 y = x is mapped to y = x No transformation is necessary.


f(2x 3) + 4 = 1 +4 2x 3

y' = x x = y'

(x, y) 1 x, y 2 1x y' = xy x' = 2 x = 2x' y = y' y' = f(2x') Image: y = f(2x)


(x, y) (x, 2y) x' = x x = x' 1 y' = f(x') 2 Image: y = 2f(x)

y' = 2y y = 1 y' 2

y = 1 is mapped to y = 1 + 4 2x 3 x 1 y' 4 = 2x' 3 1= 1 x 2x' 3 x = 2x' 3 x' = 1 x + 3 2 2 y = y' 4 y' = y + 4 The translation is a dilation of factor 1 from 2 3 the y-axis, followed by a translation of 2 . 4

2 a

f( x) = 2 x=x+3 x x+3 2 =2
x = 2x x 2x 2 =x x =4

x=x 2 2 =x
x x 2

3f(2 x) = 3(2 x) 2 2 y = x is mapped to y = 3(2 x) 2 y' = (2 x') 3 x = (2 x') x' = 2 x y = y' 3 y' = 3y The translation is a reflection in the x-axis, followed by a dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis, followed by a translation of 2 .

x=x3 x x3 42 =42 2 x3 =2 2 x1 =2

A reflection in the y-axis also occurs, but is irrelevant since the graph of f(x) is symmetrical about the y-axis.

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Exercise 8J Solutions
1 a

2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 2 5 4 2 5 1 + 4 2 = 8 3

2 0 1 = 2 1 + 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 + 1 0 = 2 0

3 1 a = 3a + 1b 1 3 b 1a + 3b = 3a b a + 3b

(1, 0) (2, 0) 2 0 1 = 2 1 + 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 + 1 2 = 2 2 (1, 2) (2, 2)


c

2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 0 4 3 0 4 1 + 3 0 = 2 4
(1, 0) (2, 4) 2 1 0 = 2 0 + 1 1 4 3 1 4 0 + 3 1 = 1 3 (0, 1) (1, 3) 2 1 3 = 2 3 + 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 + 3 2 = 4 6 (3, 2) (4, 6)

2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 0 3 1 0 3 1 + 1 0 = 2 3

(1, 0) (2, 3) 2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 2 3 1 2 3 1 + 1 2 = 4 5 (1, 2) (4, 5)


4 a

3 a

2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 + 1 0 = 2 1

(1, 0) (2, 1) 2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 + 1 2 = 4 1 (1, 2) (4, 1)

Let the matrix be a b . c d a b 1 = a 2b c d 2 c 2d = 4 5 a 2b = 4; c 2d = 5 2a 4b = 8; 2c 4d = 10 a b 3 = 3a + 4b c d 4 3c + 4d = 18 5 3a + 4b = 18; 3c + 4d = 5 + : 5a = 10 5c = 15 a=2 c=3 2 2b = 4; 3 2d = 5 b = 3; d = 1 The matrix is 2 3 . 3 1

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166

Let the matrix be a b , the points c d (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), and the images (m, n) and (p, q). a b x1 = x1 a + y1 b c d y1 x1 c + y1 d = m n x1 a + y1 b = m; x1 c + y1 d = n a b x2 = x2 a + y2 b c d y2 x2 c + y2 d = p q x2 a + y2 b = p; x2 c + y2 d = q These two simultaneous equations will give a unique solution for a, b, c and d, provided the discriminant is not zero. = 0 if x1 y2 y1 x2 = 0 x1 y2 = y1 x2 y2 = y1 x2 x1 This means the gradient of the line from the origin to (x1, y1) will be the same as the gradient of the line from the origin to (x2, y2). This means the two points and the origin will all lie on the same straight line.
The information will be sufficient, provided the two points are not collinear with the origin.

The matrix is 1 2 . 1 2 1 2 x = x + 2y 1 2 y x + 2y = x' y' Clearly, all points will be mapped somewhere on the line y = x. The range of the transformation is y = x.
5

Use the fact that the image of (1, 0) gives the values of a11 and a21 (a and c in the matrix above), and the image of (0, 1) gives the values of a12 and a22 (b and d.) (1, 0) (1, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 1) 1 0 0 1 (1, 0) (0, 1) and (0, 1) (1, 0) 0 1 1 0 (1, 0) (0, 1) and (0, 1) (1, 0) 0 1 1 0 (1, 0) (1, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 2) 1 0 0 2 (1, 0) (3, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 3) 3 0 0 3 (1, 0) (3, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 1) 3 0 0 1

Let the matrix be a b . c d a b 1 = a c d 0 c = 1 1 a = 1, c = 1 a b 0 = b c d 1 d = 2 2 b = 2, d = 2

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167

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

y = f(x) points: (0, 3) and (3, 0) y = g(x) points: (0, 3) and (3, 0) (x, y) ( x, y) This is reflection in the y-axis.

(x, y) (x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y' = f(x') Image: g(x) = f(x) f(x) = g(x)
Rewrite the equation as 2 y + 2 = (x 5) y' + 2 = y x' 5 = x x = x' + 5 y = y' 2 (x, y) (x + 5, y 2) 5 2

(x, y) ( x, y) ( x + 2, y + 3) x' = x + 2 y' = y + 3 x = x' + 2 y = y' 3 y' 3 = x' + 2 Image: y = x + 2 + 3

7 B

(x, y) (x, y) (x, 2y) x' = x y' = 2y x = x' y = y' 2 1 y' = 2 2 x 2 Image: y = 2 x
(x, y) 1 x, y 3 1 x 5, y + 2 3 1x5 y' = y + 2 x' = 3 x = 3x' + 15 y = y' 2 y' 2 = |3x' + 15| Image: y = |3x + 15| + 2 = 3|x + 5| + 2

Find the translation that maps g(x) onto f(x). Rewrite the equation as 2 g(x) 8 = (x + 2) x' + 2 = x y' 8 = y x = x' 2 y = y' + 8 (x, y) (x 2, y + 8) 2 8 The translation that maps f(x) onto C g(x) is 2 . 8
y = 3f(x) 3 = 2 x This will be a similar curve to y = f(x) but with a larger y-value at every point. Only D fits this criteria. D

[4.6] + [7.2] + [8.7] = 5 + 7 + 8 = 10 B (x, y) (x, y) (x + 5, y 4) x' = x + 5 y' = y 4 x = x' 5 y = y' 4 y' 4 = [x' 5] Image: y = [x 5] 4

10

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168

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

(x, y) (3x, y) (3, 1) (9, 1) (x, y) (x, 2y) (3, 1) (3, 2) (x, y) (x 3, y + 2) (3, 1) (0, 1) (x, y) ( x, y) (3, 1) (3, 1) (x, y) (x, y) (3, 1) (3, 1) (x, y) (y, x) (3, 1) (1, 3) (x, y) (x 2, y + 3) x' = x 2 y' = y + 3 x = x' + 2 y = y' 3 2 y' 3 = (x' + 2) 2 Image: y = ( x + 2) + 3 (x, y) (y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' 2 x' = (y') 2 Image: x = y or y = x (x, y) (x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' 2 y' = (x') 2 Image: y = x (x, y) (y, x) (y 2, x + 3) (x, y) (x, 5y) (x, 5y)

(x, y) (4x, y) (4x 2, y + 3) (x, y) (x 2, y + 3) (x 2, 4(y + 3)) (x, y) (3x, y) x' = 3x y' = y 1 x' y = y' x= 3 y = 2 x' 1 3 Image: y = 2 x 1 3 (x, y) (x, 2y) x' = x x = x' 1 y' = 2x' 1 2 Image: y = 4x 2

4 a

2 a

y' = 2y y = 1 y' 2

(x, y) (x 3, y + 2) x' = x 3 y' = y + 2 x = x' + 3 y = y' 2 y' 2 = 2(x' + 3) 1 = 2x' + 6 1 Image: y = 2x + 7


(x, y) ( x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y' = 2 x' 1 Image: y = 2x 1 or 2x + y + 1 = 0

3 a

( x, y) (x, y) x' = x y' = y x = x' y = y' y' = 2x' 1 Image: y = 2x + 1 or 2x + y = 1

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(x, y) (y, x) x' = y y' = x y = x' x = y' x' = 2y' 1 Image: y = 1 (x + 1) 2

6 a

y = |x|

5 a

y' = x + 3 x' = y 2 y = x' + 2 x = y' 3 2 x' + 2 = 2 (y' 3)

y = |2x| + 3

Image:

x = (y 3) y3= x y=3 x

(x, y) (x, 5y) x' = x y' = 5y x = x' y = 1 y' 5 2 1.5 y' = 2 (x') 2 Image: y = 5x 10 2 = 5(x 2)

y = 4 |2x|

(x, y) (4x 2, y + 3) x' = 4x 2 y' = y + 3 x' + 2 y = y' 3 x= 4 2 y' 3 = 2 x' + 2 4 1 (x + 2) 2 Image: y = 5 16


(x, y) (x 2, 4(y + 3)) x' = x 2 y' = 4(y + 3) x = x' + 2 y = y' 3 4 y' 3 = 2 (x' + 2) 2 4 y' = 5 (x' + 2) 2 4 2 Image: y = 20 4( x + 2)

7 a

Rearrange the image equation: y' 4 = 1 2 x' 3 y' 4 = y x' 3 = x 2 x' = x + 3 y' = 2y + 4 (x, y) (x + 3, 2y + 4) Rearrange the image equation: y' 3 = (x' 4) 2 2 y' 3 = y x' 4 = x 2 x' = x + 4 y' = 2y + 3 (x, y) (x + 4, 2y + 3) Rearrange the image equation: y' + 4 = |3x'| 3x' = x y' + 4 = 4 y' = y 4 x' = x 3 (x, y) x , y 4 3

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170

Rearrange the image equation: y=x+1=x1+2 x1 x1 2 =1+ x1 2 y1= x1 y1= 1 2 x1 y' 1 = y x' 1 = x 2 x' = x + 1 y' = 2y + 1 (x, y) (x + 1, 2y + 1)
Rearrange the image equation: 2 y + 3 = (x 2) y' + 3 = y x' 2 = x x' = x + 3 y' = y + 3 (x, y) (x + 3, y + 3) (x + 3, 3 y)

x' 2 = x x' = x + 2 (x, y) x, y 3

3(y' + 2) = y y' = y 2 3

x + 2, y 2 3
2 Dilate the graph of y = x a factor 1 3 from the x-axis then translate it two units right and two units down.

4x' = x x' = x 4

y' = y y' = y

8 a

x' = x y' 1 = y x' = x y' = y + 1 (x, y) (x, y + 1)


Translate the graph of y = x one unit up.
2

(x, y) x, y 4 Dilate the graph of y = [x] a factor 1 4 from the y-axis.

y' + 2 = y x' 1 = x x' = x + 1 y' = y 2 (x, y) (x + 1, y 2)


Translate the graph of y = x one unit right and two units down.
2

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Rearrange the image equation: y' = 6 x' 1 2 y' = x' = 1 6 2 y' = y 1=x x' 6 2 1 x' = x + y' = 6y 2 (x, y) (x, 6y) (x, 6y) x + 1, 2y 2 Dilate y = |x| by a factor 6 from the x-axis, reflect in the x-axis and translate the result 1 a unit right. 2

Rearrange the image equation: y' 2 = |x' 2| 3 y' 2 = y x' = x 2 3 x' = x + 2 y' = 3y + 2 (x, y) (x, 3y) (x, 3y) (x + 2, 3y + 2) Dilate y = |x| by a factor 3 from the x-axis, reflect in the x-axis and translate two units right and two units up.

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172

Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity


Exercise 9A Solutions
1 One part = 9000 9 = 1000 Two parts = 1000 2 = 2000 Seven parts = 1000 7 = 7000 One part = 15 000 5 = 3000 Two parts = 3000 2 = 6000
x= 9 6 15 x = 9 6 = 3.6 15

Seven parts = 56 One part = 56 7 = 8 green beads Two parts = 8 2 = 16 white beads

10 One part = 45 mm 125 000 parts = 45 mm 125 000 = 5 625 000 mm = 5.625 km 11 One part = $5200 13 = $400 Eight parts = $400 8 = $3200 (mother) Five parts = $400 5 = $2000 (daughter) Difference = $1200 12 If BC is one part, AB and CD are each two parts. AD is 5 parts and BD is 3 parts, so BD = 3 AD. 5 13 The ratio will be : 1, as for any circle. 14 One part = 30 5 = 6 Two parts = 6 2 = 12 (boys) Three parts = 6 3 = 18 (girls) After six boys join the class, there are 18 boys and 18 girls, so the ratio is 1 : 1. 15

144 = 6 11 p p = 11 144 6 p = 11 144 = 264 6


x = 15 3 2 x = 15 3 = 22.5 2

6 : 5 : 7 = 180 One part = 180 18 = 10 Six parts = 10 6 = 60 Five parts = 10 5 = 50 Seven parts = 10 7 = 70 Suppose they receive $x, $y and $z respectively. x+2=3 2 x 2(x + 2) = 3x 2x + 4 = 3x x=4 X receives $4 and Y receives $6. Two parts = $4 One part = $2 Seven parts = $14 Z receives $14. One part = 10 g Three parts = 10 g 3 = 30 g (zinc) Four parts = 10 g 4 = 40 g (tin)

4 and b + c = 5 3 2 a 5 2 5 2 5 2 54 2 3 = 15 8 = 7 6 6 a : c = 6 : 7 b= a b+c= a b+c= a a 4+c= 3 a c= a

16 One part = 3.5 cm 250 000 parts = 3.5 cm 250 000 = 875 000 cm = 8.75 km

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173

Exercise 9B Solutions
1 a c

AAA x=9 5 4 x = 9 5 = 11.25 cm 4 AAA Note that E corresponds with B, so x corresponds with 14 cm. x = 10 14 12 x = 10 14 = 11 2 cm 3 12 AAA x=6 2 4 x = 6 2 = 3 cm 4 AAA Note that Q corresponds with B and R corresponds with C, so x corresponds with 6 cm. x = 10 6 8 x = 10 6 = 7.5 cm 8 AAA x + 12 = 24 = 3 16 2 12 2x + 24 = 36 2x = 12 x = 6 cm AAA x+2=5 3 2 3x + 6 = 10 3x = 4 x = 1 1 cm 3
d

AAA x+8=8=4 2 x x + 8 = 4x 3x = 8 x = 2 2 cm 3 AAA x + 1.5 = 12 = 6 10 5 x 5x + 7.5 = 6x x = 7.5 cm

AC = 15 = 5 14 12 4 AC = 5 14 = 17.5 cm 4 AE + 4 = 5 4 AE 4AE + 16 = 5AE AE = 16 cm AB = AE + EB = 20 cm

2 a

tree = 30 = 15 33 224 112 Tree height = 15 33 = 4.42 m 112 Note: It is valid to leave the measurements of the stick and its shadow in cm, as you are comparing the ratio of measurements with the same units.
h = 20 = 1 15 40 2 h = 15 = 7.5 m high 2 h = 1 300 20 h = 300 = 15 m high 20 CY = 15 = 1 45 30 2 CY = 45 = 22.5 m 2

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h = 2 32 6.2 h = 64 = 10 10 m high 31 6.2

13

x = 20 x 8 4 2x = 20 x 8 8 2x = 20 x 3x = 20 x = 20 = 6 2 cm high 3 3

h= 9 8 10 h = 72 = 7.2 m high 10

10 Let x be the height of A above the 80 cm leg of the table. x = 12 30 100 h = 12 30 = 3.6 100 Height = 80 cm + 3.6 cm = 83.6 cm 11

x = 1.5 = 15 1.3 x 0.8 8 8x = 19.5x 15x 23x = 19.5 x = 19.5 = 39 m 46 23

14 Taking the heights above the spotlight, h 0.6 = 0.5 = 1 3 6 8 6 =8=4 h 10 6 3 h=4+3 3 5 = 20 + 9 15 14 m high =1 15 15 a Vertically opposite angles at C are equal: B = D = 90 The third angles in the triangle must be equal: A = E ABC ~ EDC b
x=5 4 2 x = 20 = 10 2

12

x = 1.3 100 3.5 x = 1.3 100 3.5 1300 = 3.5 260 37.1 = 7 Height 37.1 m + 1.7 m = 38.6 m

y =2 +4 = 4 + 16 = 20 y = 20 = 45 =2 5 2 2 z = 10 + 5 = 100 + 25 = 125 z = 125


2

= 25 5 = 5 5

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y: z=2 5 : 5 5 =2: 5 ED : AB = 2 : 5 y : z = ED : AB
a + 12 = 10 7 12 120 a + 12 = 7 120 12 a= 7 36 = 5 1 = 7 7

19

16

17 h = 1.8 3 0.76 h = 1.8 3 7.11 m 0.76 18 In TRN, TRN = 90 T In RST, S = 90 T TRN = S SRN = T TRN ~ TSR NT = RT RT ST = 4 =2 10 5 NT = 2 4 5 NT = 2 4 = 1.6 m 5

In APQ and ACB, AQ = 3 AB 14 AP = 1.5 = 3 7 14 AC AQ = AP AB AC A is common to both triangles. APQ ~ ACB PQ = AQ BC AB PQ = 3 10 14 PQ = 30 = 2 1 m 7 14


20 Note that the three triangles are all similar, as shown in Q.18. x+4=6=3 4 2 6 x+4=36=9 2 x=5 y=4 x y 2 y = 4x = 4 5 y=2 5 a=6=3 y 4 2 a = 3y = 3 5 2

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176

Exercise 9C Solutions
1 a b c 6

Area ratio = 16 : 25 Side ratio =

2:4:6:8=1:2:3:4 2 : 8 : 18 : 32 = 1 : 4 : 9 : 16 The second ratio is the square of the first.


7

16 25 4 2 = 4:5 5
2

2 a b c

2:4:6:8=1:2:3:4 1 : 4 : 9 : 16 The second ratio is the square of the first.


8 a b c d 9 a

30 9 = 22.5 cm 12
1:2:3 1:2:3 1 : 8 : 27 The third ratio is the cube of the first.
i 8 : 12 = 2 : 3 ii 4 : 6 = 2 : 3 iii 3 : 4 1 = 2 : 3 2

A'B' = 5 AB 3
2 Area A'B'C'D' = 7 5 3 7 25 = 9 2 = 19 4 cm 9

20 2.1 = 20 4.41 2 = 88.2 cm

8 4 3 : 12 6 4 1 = 96 : 324 2 = 8 : 27 The ratio in b is the cube of the ratios in a.

5 a

F is the midpoint of AC, so AF = 1 cm. 2 2 2 BF = BA AF 2 2 =2 1 =3 BF = 3 cm


A'C' = B'F' AC BF a= 2 2 3 a= 4 =4 3 3 3
Area A'B'C' = B'F ' 2 Area ABC BF 2 2 = 4 = 3 3

10 a 3:2:5 b

Sphere 1: V = 4 3 = 36 3 3 Sphere 2: V = 4 2 = 32 3 3 3 Sphere 3: V = 4 5 = 500 3 3 32 : 500 = 108 : 32 : 500 36 : 3 3 = 27 : 8 : 125 The second ratio is the cube of the first.
3

11 (2 : 1) = 2 : 1 =8:1

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12 (3 : 4) = 3 : 4 = 27 : 64 13
3

19 a Length ratio = 1 : 2500 = 1 : 50

8 : 27 = 3 8 : =2:3

27
b

14 Volume ratio = 64 : 27 a

Capacity ratio = (area ratio) 3 = (1 : 50) = 1 : 125 000 Width = 150 1 50 = 3 cm


Area = 3 1 2500 2 = 3 2500 = 7500 cm

Height ratio = 3 64 : 27 =4:3 Radius ratio = 3 64 : 27 =4:3

15 Height ratio = 2 : 1 2 a Area ratio = (2 : 1) =4:1 b

Capacity ratio = (2 : 1) =8:1

20 a Height ratio = 144 : 169 = 12 : 13 b

16 2 a (1 : 10) = 1 : 100 b c d

Capacity ratio = (12 : 13) = 1728 : 2197

(1 : 10) = 1 : 1000 (1 : 10) = 1 : 10


Both models will have the same number of wheels, so 1 : 1.
1

21 a Ratio of sides = 1 : 2 2 2 Ratio of areas = 1 : 2 = 1 : 4 Four times b

Area AKM = 15 = 3.75 4

3 3 17 1 12 = 1 3 8 2 2 2 = 27 litres 16 3 1 16 = 1 23 2 8 2 = 4 litres 3 3 18 343 7.5 = 343 5 10.5 7 = 125 mL 3 3 343 9 = 343 6 10.5 7 = 216 mL

22 BDE ~ CAF and AB = AC = 2AD 2 2 2 BD = BA AD 2 2 = (2AD) AD 2 = 3AD 2 Ratio of areas = BD2 AC 2 3AD = 2 (2AD) 2 3AD 3 = 2 = 4AD 4 Note: It is easier to express lengths in terms of AD as fractions are avoided.

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178

Exercise 9D Solutions
1

Construct a line OB of length 4 units, and draw a circle of radius 2 units from the centre of OB (2 units from either end). Mark point A 3 units from O. Construct a line through A perpendicular to OB which cuts the circle at D. The line AD will be 3 units long.

Draw a line AB 20 cm long. Draw any line AX. Mark any point C on AX and replicate the line segment AC nine times. Join DB and draw lines through C, C', C'' parallel to DB. These will divide AB into nine equal line segments. The diagram will be the same as in Q.3, except that there will be eight circles instead of three. Take 1 cm to be a unit. Draw OB 14 cm long and OA 4 cm long. Join AB. Mark OD 1 cm along OB from O and draw a line through D parallel to BA. OC will be 4 = 2 units (cm) long. 14 7

Construct a line OB of length 6 units, and draw a circle of radius 3 units from the centre of OB (3 units from either end). Mark point A 5 units from O. Construct a line through A perpendicular to OB which cuts the circle at D. The line AD will be 5 units long.

Take 1 cm to be a unit. Draw OB 13 cm long and OA 9 cm long. Join AB. Mark OD 1 cm along OB from O and draw a line through D parallel to BA. OC will be 9 units (cm) long. 13 The diagram will be like the one for Q.5, except that OA will be longer and OB will be slightly shorter. Draw OB 3 units long and OA 10 units long. Join AB. Mark OD 1 unit along OB and draw a line through D parallel to BA. OC will be 10 units long. 3 The diagram will be like the one for Q.5, except that OA will be just over three times as long as OB. Make three copies of the 4 unit length (below) or four copies of the 3 unit length. AB will be 3 4 units long.

Draw a line AB 10 cm long. Draw any line AX. Mark any point C on AX and replicate the line segment AC four times as shown below. Join DB and draw lines through C, C', C'' parallel to DB. These will divide AB into four equal line segments.

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179

Exercise 9E Solutions
1 a
1=1+ 5 1 2 1+ 5 2 = 2 = 5 1 2 1=1

2 a

In ACX, ACX = 90 BCX In CBX, B = 90 BCX ACX = B A = BCX ACX ~ CBX AX = CX CX BX

= (1 + 5 ) (1 + 5 ) 8 (1 + 2 5 + 5)(1 + 5 ) = 8 (6 + 2 5 )(1 + 5 ) = 8 = 6 + 8 5 + 10 8 = 16 + 8 5 = 2 + 5 8 2 + 1 = 1 + 5 + 1 =2+ 5 3 = 2 + 1


3

Multiply both sides of the above equation by CXBX 2 i CX = AXBX = 2 8 = 16 CX = 4


ii CX = AXBX = 1 10 = 10 CX = 10
2

As shown above, 1 = 1. 2 1 ( 1) = 2 2=21+ 5 2 =41 5 2 =3 5 2


2 ( 1) = 1 + 5 2 2 2 ( 5 1) = 4 =52 5 +1 4 =3 5 =2 2 2 1 2 = ( 1) = 2 2

Join AB and BC. This will produce a rightangled triangle with an altitude. In Q.2 we proved that the altitude was the geometric mean of the two segments that divided the base. Therefore, as in Q.2: AD = BD BD CD DE EC = DE DE + EC Since BD = DE, AD = EC and CD = DE + EC DE = DE + EC DE EC = 1 + EC DE DE x= EC =1+1 x 2 x x1=0 Using the quadratic formula:
x = 1 + 1 4 1 1 2 = 1 + 5 = 2 (Rejecting the negative root as x > 0)

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EC = 1 = 1 DE AD = EC = 1 BD DE AD = BD BD CD =1
4 a i AOB = 360 = 36 10 180 36 ii OAB = 2 = 72 i

XB = 1 AB =1 = 1 + 5 2 (Refer to Q.1 part a.) XB = AB AB OB = AB = 1 since OB = 1 AB = 1 + 5 0.62 2


d i Draw a circle of radius 1 unit. Use the construction in section 9.5 of the textbook to find , then cut off a length of 1 unit to obtain a length of 1. Mark off this length around the circumference of the circle to divide the circumference into ten equal parts. Join these points to produce a regular decagon. ii Repeat i but join every second point.

XAB = 72 = 36 2 ABO = OAB = 72 AXB = 180 36 72 = 72 ABO = AXB AX = AB ii XAO = 72 2 = 36 = AOX AX = OX iii Corresponding angles are equal, so the triangles must be similar. AOB ~ XAB OB = AB AB XB OX + XB = AB XB AB OX = XA = AB AB + XB = AB AB XB XB = AB 1+ AB XB x = XB AB =1+1 x 2 x x1=0 Using the quadratic formula:
x = 1 + 1 4 1 1 2 = 1 + 5 = 2 (Rejecting the negative root as x > 0)

=1 ==1+ 5 2 1 1= =1+1 2 = 1 + 1 3+ 5 =1+= 2 3 = (1 + ) 2 = + = (1 + ) + = 1 + 2 =4+2 5 =2+ 5 2 4 = (1 + 2) 2 = + 2 = + 2(1 + ) = 2 + 3 = 4 + 3(1 + 5 ) = 7 + 3 5 2 2


1

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=1 =1 = 1 + 5 2 = 1 + 5 2 2 2 1 ( 1) = = 1 ( 1) =2 = 4 (1 + 5 ) = 3 5 2 2 3 1 (2 ) = = 2 1 1 = 2( 1) 1 = 2 3 =2+2 5 6= 5 2 2 4 1 (2 3) = =23 = 2 3( 1) = 5 3 = 10 3 3 5 = 7 3 5 2 2 Alternatively, the surd expressions can be multiplied and simplified, for the same answers: 1=1 =1+1 n+1 n = b = 1 + 1 n n1 = +
1

tn > tn 1 tn + 1 = 1 + tn 1 tn tn Since the Fibonacci sequence is increasing, 1 < tn + 1 < 2. tn This means the sequence is not diverging to infinity, and has a limit between 1 and 2. If there is a limit, then when n is large, tn + 1 tn 1 tn tn = 1 + tn 1 tn 1 =1+ tn 1 tn tn + 1 x= tn tn 1 tn =1+1 x

x x1=0 Using the quadratic formula:


x = 1 + 1 4 1 1 2 = 1 + 5 = 2 (Rejecting the negative root as x > 0.) Thus the sequence will approach as n .

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182

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1
x=3 7 5 x=37 5 21 = 5

10 parts = 50 One part = 5 Largest part is 6 parts = 30 Ratio of lengths = 10 : 30 = 1 : 3 3 3 Ratio of volumes = 1 : 3 = 1 : 27 Ratio of lengths = 4 : 5 3 3 Ratio of volumes = 4 : 5 = 64 : 125
XY = 12 = 6 3 10 5 XY = 6 3 5 = 3.6 cm

100 parts = 400 kg One part = 4 kg 85 parts = 85 4 = 340 kg (copper)


3

8 B 9

Cost of one article is Q. P QR Cost of R articles = P QR = P 100 parts = 3.2 m 1 part = 3.2 100 = 0.032 m = 3.2 cm 75 parts = 9 seconds 1 part = 9 = 3 seconds 75 25 100 parts = 3 100 25 = 12 seconds

10 XY ' = 2 XY 3 Area of triangle XY 'Z ' = 4 area of triangle XYZ 9 4 60 = 80 cm2 = 9 3

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183

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a 5

The triangles are similar (AAA). x7=3 4 7 4x 28 = 21 4x = 49 x = 12.25

Both triangles share a common angle X. XPQ = XYZ XQP = XYZ (alternate angles on parallel lines) XPQ ~ XYZ (AAA)
b i XQ = ZP XZ XY XQ = 24 = 2 30 36 3 XQ = 20 cm ii QZ = XZ XQ QZ = 30 20 = 10 cm

c 2 a

XP : PY = 24 : 12 = 2 : 1 PQ : YZ = 2 : 3 Ratio of areas ABC : DEF = 12.5 : 4.5 = 25 : 9 AB : DE = 5 : 3 DE = 3 cm AC : DF = 5 : 3 EF : BC = 3 : 5


h = 1 21 2.3 h = 21 = 210 m 2.3 23

If the two sloping lines were extended to form a triangle, then the left side of the top triangle would be given by: x = 7.2 x + 8.8 26.4 = 72 = 3 264 11 11x = 3x + 26.4 8x = 26.4 x = 3.3 Now compare the top two triangles: y = 5.5 = 5 7.2 3.3 3 y = 5 7.2 3 = 12
7 a

b c 3

BC = 5 (3-4-5 triangle) So YB = 2.5 BAC ~ BYX XY = CA YB AB XY = 3 2.5 4 XY = 3 2.5 = 15 8 4

Volume of block = 64 cm3 8 parts = 64 cm3 1 part = 8 cm3 5 parts = 40 cm3 3 parts = 24 cm3 Mass of X = 40 8 = 64 g 5 4 = 32 g Mass of Y = 24 3 Total mass = 96 g X : Y = 64 : 32 = 2 : 1 (by mass)

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Volume (cm3) : mass (g) = 64 : 96 =2:3 = 1000 : 1500 Volume of 1500 g block is 1000 cm3.
3

d 8 a

1000 = 10 cm

10 a Ratio of radii = 101 : 100 = 1.01 : 1 2 Ratio of areas = 1.01 : 1 = 1.0201 : 1 = 102.01 : 100 Percentage increase = 2.01% 2% b

Consider BMA and PAD. B = P = 90 BAM = PDA = 90 PAD BMA = PAD = 90 BAM BMA ~ PAD (AAA)

Ratio of volumes = 1.01 : 1 = 1.030301 : 1 = 103.0301 : 100 Percentage increase 3%

11 a
XY = AX BC AB =3=1 9 3 AY = AX AC AB =3=1 9 3

BM = 30 cm AM = 50 cm (3-4-5 triangle) Comparing corresponding sides AM and AD: AM : AD = 50 : 60 = 5 : 6 2 2 Ratio of areas = 5 : 6 = 25 : 36


PD = AD BA MA PD = 60 = 6 40 50 5 PD = 6 40 = 48 cm 5

c d

CY = 2 AC 3
YZ = CY AD AC =2 3
area AXY = 1 area ABC 32 =1 9 area CYZ = 2 area ACD 32 =4 9
2 2

9 a

The same units (cm) must be used to compare these quantities. 200 : 30 = 20 : 3

A = 20 = 400 360 32 9 400 360 A= 9 2 2 = 16 000 cm = 1.6 m


V = 20 = 8000 27 1000 33 V = 8000 1000 27 8 000 000 cm3 = 27 8 m3 = 27
3

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12

13 a

Consider AOB and COD AOB = COD (vertically opposite angles) ABO = CDO (alternate angles on parallel lines) OAB = OCD (alternate angles on parallel lines) AOB ~ COD (AAA) CO = CD AO AB =3=3 1 CO = 3AO CO + AO = 4AO AC = $AO AO = 1 AC 4

PQ = YQ AB XB (corresponding sides of similar triangles) B = Q (corresponding angles of similar triangles) ABX ~ PQY (PAP)
b

AX = AB PY PQ (similar triangles proven above) AB = BC PQ QR (ABC and PQR are similar) AX = BC PY QR

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Chapter 10 Circular functions I


Exercise 10A Solutions
1 a
60 = 60 180 = 3 144 = 144 180 = 4 5 240 = 240 180 = 4 3 330 = 330 180 11 = 6 420 = 420 180 7 = 3 480 = 480 180 8 = 3
2 = 2 180 3 3 = 120 5 = 5 180 6 6 = 150 7 = 7 180 6 6 = 210

0.9 = 9 180 10 = 162 5 = 5 180 9 9 = 100 9 = 9 180 5 5 = 324 11 = 11 180 9 9 = 220 1.8 = 18 180 10 = 324

3 a b c d e f g h

Methods will vary depending on the calculator used. 0.6 = 34.38 1.89 = 108.29 2.9 = 166.16 4.31 = 246.94 3.72 = 213.14 5.18 = 296.79 4.73 = 271.01 6.00 = 343.77

2 a

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4 a b c d e f g h 5 a

Methods will vary depending on the calculator used. 38 = 0.66 73 = 1.27 107 = 1.87 161 = 2.81 8410' = 1.47 228 = 3.98 13640' = 2.39 329 = 5.74
= 1 180 3 3 = 60 4 = 4 180 = 720 3 = 3 180 = 540 = 1 180 = 180 5 = 5 180 3 3 = 300 11 = 11 180 6 6 = 330 23 = 23 180 6 6 = 690 23 = 23 180 6 6 = 690

6 a
360 = 360 180 = 2 540 = 540 180 = 3 240 = 240 180 4 = 3 720 = 720 180 = 4 330 = 330 180 11 = 6 210 = 210 180 7 = 6

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Exercise 10B Solutions


1 a sin 0 = y-coordinate of (1, 0) = 0 cos 0 = x-coordinate of (1, 0) = 1
sin 3 = 1 2 cos 3 = 0 2 sin 3 = 1 2 cos 3 = 0 2
2 + 2 = sin = 1 2 cos 5 = cos 2 + 2 2 = cos = 0 2

sin 4 = sin 0 = 1 cos 4 = cos 0 = 1 Methods will vary depending on the calculator used. sin 1.9 = 0.95 sin 2.3 = 0.75 sin 4.1 = 0.82 cos 0.3 = 0.96 cos 2.1 = 0.50 cos (1.6) = 0.03 sin (2.1) = 0.86 sin (3.8) = 0.61 sin 27 = sin (26 + ) = sin = 0 cos 27 = cos (26 + ) = cos = 1

2 a b

c d e f g h 3 a

sin 5 = sin 2

sin 3 = sin (2 ) = sin = 0 cos 3 = cos (2 ) = cos = 1


sin 9 = sin 4 + 2 2 = sin = 1 2 cos 9 = cos 4 + 2 2 = cos = 0 2
2 + 3 2 = sin 3 = 1 2 cos 7 = cos 2 + 3 2 2 = cos 3 = 0 2

sin 5 = sin 2 2 2 = sin = 1 2 cos 5 = cos 2 2 2 = cos = 0 2


sin 27 = sin 12 + 3 2 2 = sin 3 = 1 2 cos 27 = cos 12 + 3 2 2 = cos 3 = 0 2

sin 7 = sin 2

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4 2 = sin = 1 2 cos 9 = cos 4 2 2 = cos = 0 2

sin 9 = sin 2

4 + 3 2 = sin 3 = 1 2 cos 22 = cos 4 + 3 2 2 = cos 3 = 0 2

sin 11 = sin 2

sin 57 = sin (56 + ) = sin = 0 cos 57 = cos (56 + ) = cos = 1 sin 211 = sin (210 + ) = sin = 0 cos 211 = cos (210 + ) = cos = 1 sin 53 = sin (52 ) = sin = 0 cos 53 = cos (52 ) = cos = 1

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Exercise 10C Solutions


1 a b c d e f g 2 a

Methods will vary depending on the calculator used. tan 1.6 = 34.23 tan (1.2) = 2.57 tan 136 = 0.97 tan (54) = 1.38 tan 3.9 = 0.95 tan (2.5) = 0.75 tan 239 = 1.66

sin 5 2 tan 5 = 2 cos 5 2 sin 2 = cos 2 1 = undefined = 0

tan = sin cos = 0 =0 1 tan = sin cos = 0 =0 1


sin 7 2 tan 7 = 2 cos 7 2 sin 3 2 = cos 3 2 1 = undefined = 0

sin 2 = tan 2 cos 2 = 1 = undefined 0


tan 180 = sin 180 cos 180 = 0 =0 1 tan 360 = sin 360 cos 360 =0=0 1 tan 0 = sin 0 cos 0 =0=0 1 tan 180 = sin 180 cos 180 = 0 =0 1 tan 540 = sin 540 cos 540 = 0 =0 1 tan 720 = sin 720 cos 720 =0=0 1

3 a

tan (2) = sin (2) cos (2) = 0 =0 1

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Exercise 10D Solutions


1 a

cos = 3 = 0.375 8 = 6759'

x = sin 70 7 x = 7 0.9396. . . 6.5778


5 = cos 40 x 5 x= cos 40 5 = 0.7660. . . 6.5270

x = cos 25 5 x = 5 0.9063. . . 4.5315 x = sin 25 6 x = 6 0.4226. . . 2.5357


x = cos 50 10 x = 10 0.642787. . . 6.4279

2 a

a = cos 40 = 0.7660 b = sin 40 = 0.6428


c = a = 0.7660 d = b = 0.6428
i cos 140 = 0.7660 sin 140 = 0.6428 cos 40 = 0.7660 ii cos 140 = cos 40

tan = 6 = 1.2 5 = 5012'


x = sin 20 10 x = 10 0.342020. . . 3.4202
5 = tan 65 x x= 5 tan 65 5 = 2.1445. . . 2.3315

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Exercise 10E Solutions


1 a b c d e f g h 2 a b c d e f g h

sin ( + ) = sin = 0.42 cos ( x) = cos x = 0.7 sin (2 ) = sin = 0.42 tan ( ) = tan = 0.38 sin ( ) = sin = 0.42 tan (2 ) = tan = 0.38 cos ( + x) = cos x = 0.7 cos (2 x) = cos x = 0.7

3 a

a = cos ( ) = cos = 1 2

b = sin ( ) = sin = 3 2 c = cos ( ) = cos =1 2 d = sin ( ) = sin = 3 2


tan ( ) = tan =

3 2 1 2

f
sin (180 + x) = sin x = 0.7 cos (180 + ) = cos = 0.6 tan (360 ) = tan = 0.4 cos (180 ) = cos = 0.6 sin (360 x) = sin x = 0.7 sin ( x) = sin x = 0.7 tan (360 + ) = tan = 0.4 cos ( ) = cos = 0.6

tan ( ) = tan = 3
d = sin ( + ) = sin = 3 2 c = cos ( + ) = cos =1 2
tan ( + ) = tan 3 2 = = 3 1 2

4 a

sin (2 ) = sin = 3 2
cos (2 ) = cos = 1 2

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Exercise 10F Solutions


1 a

Use symmetry to evaluate each value. sin 2 = sin 3 3 3 = 2


cos 3 = cos 4 4 1 = 2 tan 5 = tan 6 6 1 = 3

2 a

120 = 2 3 sin 2 = sin = 3 3 2 3 cos 2 = cos = 1 3 2 3 tan 2 = tan = 3 3 3


135 = 3 4 sin 3 = sin = 1 4 4 2 cos 3 = cos = 1 4 4 2 3 = tan = 1 tan 4 4

sin 7 = sin 6 6 1 = 2
c

cos 5 = cos 4 4 1 = 2
tan 4 = tan 3 3 = 3

210 = 7 6 sin 7 = sin = 1 6 6 2 cos 7 = cos = 3 6 6 2 1 tan 7 = tan = 6 6 3 240 = 4 3 sin 4 = sin = 3 3 3 2 cos 4 = cos = 1 3 3 2 4 = tan = 3 tan 3 3 135 = 7 4 sin 7 = sin = 1 4 4 2 cos 7 = cos = 1 4 4 2 7 = tan = 1 tan 4 4

d g
sin 5 = sin 3 3 = 3 2 cos 7 = cos 4 4 1 = 2 tan 11 = tan 6 6 1 = 3

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3 f

390 = 13 = 2 + 6 6 sin 13 = sin = 1 6 6 2 cos 13 = cos = 3 2 6 6 tan 13 = tan = 1 6 6 3 420 = 7 = 2 + 3 3 sin 7 = sin = 3 2 3 3 cos 7 = cos = 1 3 3 2 7 = tan = 3 tan 3 3 135 = 7 4 sin 7 = sin = 1 4 4 2 cos 7 = cos = 1 4 4 2 7 = tan = 1 tan 4 4

sin 2 = sin 3 3 = 3 2 cos 11 = cos 4 4 1 = 2 tan 13 = tan 6 6 1 = 3 tan 15 = tan 3 6 6 = undefined = tan 2 cos 14 = cos 2 4 4 = cos = 0 2 cos 3 = cos 4 4 1 = 2 sin 11 = sin 4 4 1 = 2 cos 21 = cos 7 3 = cos = 1

300 = 5 3 sin 5 = sin = 3 3 3 2 cos 5 = cos = 1 3 3 2 tan 5 = tan = 3 3 3 60 = 3 sin = sin = 3 3 3 2 cos = cos = 1 3 3 2 tan = tan = 3 3 3

h j

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Exercise 10G Solutions


1 a i Period = 2 = 2 = 2 1 n ii Amplitude = a = 2 i b

Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2

Period = 2 = 2 = 2 n ii Amplitude = a = 3
i Period = 2 = 2 3 n ii Amplitude = a = 1 2

2 = 4 1 2 Amplitude = 4 Period =

2 Period = 2 = = 4 1 n 2 ii Amplitude = a = 3
i Period = 2 = 2 3 n ii Amplitude = a = 4 i Period = 2 = 2 = 4 2 n ii Amplitude = a = 1 2 d

Period = 2 3
Amplitude = 1 2

2 Period = 2 = = 4 1 n 2 ii Amplitude = a = 2
e

2 a

Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3

Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 4

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Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 5

3 a

Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 1

2 = 4 1 2 Amplitude = 3 Period =

2 = 6 1 3 Amplitude = 2 Period =

Period = 2 = 4 2 Amplitude = 2

Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2

2 = 6 1 3 Amplitude = 2 Period =

Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2

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2 2 3 6 = 3 = 2 Amplitude = 5 2 5 cos 0 f(0) = 2 =5 2 5 cos 4 f(2) = 3 2 5 = 4 Period =

5 a

Period (f) = 2 = 2 1 Amplitude (f) = 1 Period (g) = 2 = 2 1 Amplitude (g) = 1

The lines intersect at and 5 . 4 4

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Exercise 10H Solutions


1 a

Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 4 Greatest/least y = 4

2 a

Start with y = 3 sin Period = 2 = 2 1 Amplitude = 3 Greatest/least y = 3 Translate graph units to the right. 2

Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 2 Greatest/least y = 2

Start with y = sin 2 Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 1 Greatest/least y = 1 Translate graph units to the left.

Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2 Greatest/least y = 2

Start with y = 2 sin 3 Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2 Greatest/least y = 2 Translate graph units to the left. 4

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Start with y = 3 sin 2 Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3 Greatest/least y = 3 Translate graph units to the right. 2

Start with y = 2 cos 2 Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 2 Greatest/least y = 2 Translate graph units to the right. 2

Start with y = 3 sin 2x Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3 Greatest/least y = 3 No translation.

Start with y = 3 sin 2x Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3 Greatest/least y = 3 Reflect graph in the x-axis.

Start with y = 2 cos 3 Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 2 Greatest/least y = 2 Translate graph units to the left. 4

Start with y = 3 cos 2 Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3 Greatest/least y = 1 Reflect graph in the x-axis and translate units to the left. 2

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3 a
f(0) = cos 3 = cos = 1 3 2 f(2) = cos 2 3 = cos = 1 3 2

5 a

f( ) = sin 3 + 4 = sin 3 = 1 4 2 + f() = sin 3 4 = sin 5 = 1 4 2 Start with y = sin 3x Period = 2 3 Amplitude = 1 Greatest/least y = 1 Translate graph units to the left. 4

Start with y = cos x Period = 2 = 2 1 Amplitude = 1 Greatest/least y = 1 Translate graph units to the right. 3

4 a

f(0) = sin 2 3 = sin 2 = 3 3 2 2 f(2) = sin 2 3 = sin 2 = 3 2 3 Start with y = sin 2x Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 1 Greatest/least y = 1 Translate graph units to the right. 3

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Exercise 10I Solutions


1 a 3

sin x = 1 2 , sin x = 1 When x = 4 2 x = + and 2 4 4 5 and 7 = 4 4


cos x = 1 2 and 2 x= 4 4 = and 7 4 4

cos = 3 2

When = 30, cos = 3 2 = 180 30 and 180 + 30 = 150 and 210


b
sin = 1 2 = 30 and 180 30 = 30 and 150

cos = 1 2 When = 60, cos = 1 2 = 180 60 and 180 + 60 = 120 and 240

2 a

cos x = 1 2 , cos x = 1 When x = 4 2 x = and + 4 4 3 and 3 = 4 4


sin x = 3 2 and x= 3 3 = and 2 3 3

2 cos = 1 cos = 1 2 When = 60, cos = 1 2 = 180 60 and 180 + 60 = 120 and 240
2 sin = 3 sin = 3 2 = 60 and 180 60 = 60 and 120 2 sin = 1 sin = 1 2 = 45 and 180 45 = 45 and 135

cos x = 1 2 When x = , cos x = 1 3 2 and + x= 3 3 2 and 2 = 3 3

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4 a

Make sure your calculator is set to radians for these questions. sin x = 0.8 x 0.927 and 0.927 0.93 and 2.21
cos x = 0.4 When x = 0.4, cos x = 1.159. . . x 1.159 and + 1.159 4.30 and 1.98 sin x = 0.35 When x = 0.35, sin x 0.357 x + 0.357 and 2 0.357 3.50 and 5.93

sin x = 3 2 , , 2 + and 3 x= 3 3 3 3 = , 2 , 7 and 8 3 3 3 3

6 a

2 [0, 4] sin 2 = 1 2

sin x = 0.4 x 0.411 and 0.411 0.41 and 2.73


cos x = 0.7 When x = 0.7, cos x 0.795 x 0.795 and + 0.795 2.35 and 3.95 cos x = 0.2 When x = 0.2, cos x 1.369 x 1.369 and + 1.369 1.77 and 4.51
sin x = 0.6 x 0.643, 0.643, 2 + 0.643 and 4 0.643 0.64, 2.498, 6.73 and 8.871

When sin 2 = 1 , 2 = 6 2 2 = + , 2 , 3 + and 4 6 6 6 6 7 , 11 , 19 and 23 = 6 6 6 6 = 7 , 11 , 19 and 23 12 12 12 12


b
2 [0, 4] cos 2 = 3 2 2 = , 2 , 2 + and 4 6 6 6 6 , 11 , 13 and 23 = 6 6 6 6 , 11 , 13 and 23 = 12 12 12 12
2 [0, 4] sin 2 = 1 2 2 = , , 2 + and 3 6 6 6 6 = , 5 , 13 and 17 6 6 6 6 , 5 , 13 and 17 = 12 12 12 12

5 a

sin x = 1 2 , sin x = 1 When x = 4 2 x = + , 2 , 3 + and 4 4 4 4 4 5 , 7 , 13 and 15 = 4 4 4 4

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3 [0, 4]

sin 3 = 1 2

2 [0, 4] sin 2 = 0.6

When sin 3 = 1 , 3 = 4 2 3 = + , 2 , 3 + , 4 , 4 4 4 4 and 6 5 + 4 4 = 5 , 7 , 13 , 15 , 21 and 23 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 , 7 , 13 , 15 , 21 and 23 = 12 12 12 12 12 12


e

When sin 2 = 0.6, 2 0.643 2 + 0.643, 2 0.643, 3 + 0.643 and 4 0.643 3.783, 5.639, 10.068 and 11.922 1.892, 2.820, 5.034 and 5.961
c

2 [0, 4] cos 2 = 3 2
d

2 [0, 4] cos 2 = 0.4 2 1.159, 2 1.159, 2 + 1.159 and 4 1.159 1.159, 5.124, 7.443 and 11.408 0.580, 2.562, 3.721 and 5.704 3 [0, 3] cos 3 = 0.6 3 0.927, 2 0.927, 2 + 0.927, 4 0.927, 4 + 0.927 and 6 0.927 .927, 5.354, 7.210, 11.641, 13.494 and 17.922 0.309, 1.785, 2.403, 3.880, 4.498 and 5.974

When cos 2 = 3 , 2 = 2 6 , + , 3 and 3 + 2 = 6 6 6 6 5 , 7 , 17 and 19 = 6 6 6 6 = 5 , 7 , 17 and 19 12 12 12 12


f

8 a

2 [0, 4]

Period = 2 = 2 1 Amplitude = 1

sin 2 = 1 2

When sin 2 = 1 , 2 = 4 2 2 = + , 2 , 3 + and 4 4 4 4 4 = 5 , 7 , 13 and 15 4 4 4 4 5 , 7 , 13 and 15 = 8 8 8 8


7 a

2 [0, 4] sin 2 = 0.8 When sin 2 = 0.8, 2 0.927 2 + 0.927, 2 0.927, 3 + 0.927 and 4 0.927 4.067, 5.353, 10.347 and 11.633 2.034, 2.678, 5.176 and 5.820

Solve cos x = 1 for x [2, 2]. 2 1 cos x = 2 x = , 2 , and 2 + 3 3 3 3 5, , and 5 = 3 3 3 3 Mark the points 5, 1 , , 1 , , 1 and 5, 1 . 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2

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Solve cos x = 1 for x [2, 2]. 2 , + , + and x= 3 3 3 3 = 4, 2, 2 and 4 3 3 3 3 Mark the points 4, 1 , 2, 1 , 2, 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 and 4, 1 . 2 3

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Exercise 10J Solutions


1 a

x-axis intercepts occur when y = 0 The graph is y = 2 sin x raised by 1 unit. sin x = 1 2 When sin x = 1 , x = 2 6 , 2 x=+ 6 6 7 and 11 = 6 6

The graph is y = 2 cos x raised by 1 unit. cos x = 1 2 When cos x = 1 , x = 4 2 x = , + 4 4 = 3 and 5 4 4

The graph is y = 2 sin 2x (amplitude 2, period ) lowered by 3 units. 2x [0, 4] sin 2x = 3 2 , , 2 + and 3 2x = 3 3 3 3 = , 2, 7 and 8 3 3 3 3 , , 7 and 4 x= 6 3 6 3

The graph is y = 2 sin 2x (amplitude 2, period ) moved down 2 units. 2x [0, 4] 2 sin 2x = 2 sin 2x = 1 2x = and 2 + 2 2 x = and 5 4 4

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The graph is y = 2 sin x raised by 1 unit and moved units right. 4 sin x = = 1 for x , 7 4 4 4 2

When sin x = 1 , x = 4 4 2 x = , + , 2 4 4 4 4 3 and 2 x = 0, 2

2 a

The graph of y = 2 sin 3x (period 2 , amplitude 2) translated 2 units down. 3

The graph of y = 2 cos 3x (period 2 , amplitude 2) translated units to the left. 3 3

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The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated 3 units down.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the right and 1 unit 3 down.

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the left and 1 unit up. 6

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3 a

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the 3 left and 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) reflected in the x-axis and then translated units to the left and 6 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the 4 left and 3 units up.

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Exercise 10K Solutions


1 a

cos sin 6 6 A= sin cos 6 6 3 1 2 = 2 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 1 = 2 1 3 0 1 2 2 2


3 1 , 2 2

cos 2 sin 2 3 3 A= sin 2 cos 2 3 3 1 3 = 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 0= 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2


3 1 , 2 2

cos sin 4 4 A= sin cos 4 4

=
c

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2

A=

= 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 = 0 1 0 0 1 (0, 1)

cos 2 sin 2

sin 2 cos 2

cos 5 sin 5 4 4 A= sin 5 cos 5 4 4 1 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 = 1 1 1 2 2 2


(0, 1)

1 + 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

= 0 1

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A=

cos sin

5 6 5 6 1 2
1 2

sin 5 6 cos 5 6

3 a R
4

3 = 2 1 2

3 2

3 2 1 2

3 2 1 2

3 2

=
=

1 3 , 2 2
2 a

3+1 4 4 3 4 1 2

3 4

cos sin 4 4 = sin cos 4 4 1 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 2


1 2 1 2

3 2

1 2 1 2

3 2 1 2

anticlockwise. 6
b

1 cos sin 2 = 6 6 3 sin cos 2 6 6

1, 3 2 2

2 2 = 2 1 2 + 2 1 = 2 3 2

1 2 1 2

i R3 4

Both the cosine and sine of the angle are negative, so the angle is in the third quadrant. cos = 1 2 = + = 4 3 3

ii R
2

1 2 3 2
c

1 2
3 2

cos 4 3 sin 4 3

sin 4 3 cos 4 3

cos 3 sin 3 4 4 = sin 3 cos 3 4 4 1 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 2 cos sin 2 2 = sin cos 2 2


= 0 1 1 0

4 anticlockwise. 3
The angle is in the first quadrant and cos = 4. 5 1 4 anticlockwise. cos 5

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iii R

5 6

iv R
4

cos 5 sin 5 6 6 = sin 5 cos 5 6 6 3 1 2 2 = 1 3 2 2 cos sin 4 4 = sin cos 4 4 1 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 2

Use Pythagoras theorem for the unit circle triangle with hypotenuse 1 and sides cos and sin . 2 2 2 sin + 4 = 1 5 2 sin = 1 16 25 9 = 25 sin = 3 5 (since is in the first quadrant) R = cos sin sin cos 4 3 5 = 5 3 4 5 5

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Exercise 10L Solutions


1 a i d = 12 + 12 cos 1 (5.7 + 0.3) 6 = 12 + 12 cos =0 ii d = 12 + 12 cos 1 (2.7 + 0.3) 6 = 12 + 12 cos 2 =6 c

This would occur half an hour each side of the maximum. The maximum occurs when t = 3. w = 10 + 3 sin 2.5 6 = 12.9 The period is the time from high tide to low tide to high tide = 6 + 6 = 12 hours. 360 = 12 r r = 360 = 30 12 Amplitude = 7 3 = 2 2 q=2 At high tide, D = p + q 1 7=p+2 p=5 The graph is of D = 5 + 2 cos(30t). It has amplitude 2, period 12, and is the cosine curve raised 5 units.

3 a

5 = 12 + 12 cos 1 t + 1 6 3 1 t + 1 = 7 cos 6 12 3 1 t + 1 = 2.1936 or 4.0896 6 3 1 = 4.1895 or 7.8106 t+ 3 t = 3.856 or 7.477 3.856 30 = 116 days, 26th April 7.477 30 = 224 days, 14th August Sketch the graph of y = 3 sin t 6 (period 12, amplitude 3) translated 10 units up.

2 a

Solve 10 + 3 sin t = 8.5 for 6 0 t 24 t = 0 t 4t 6 6 6 sin t = 8.5 10 = 1 6 3 2 t = + , 2 , 3 + , 4 6 6 6 6 6 t = 7, 11, 19, 23 From the graph: {t: 0 t 7}{t: 11 t 19} {t: 23 t 24}

t = 0 is a maximum, therefore a high tide. The low tide occurs when t = 6. Solve for D = 4, then find the first solution where t > 6. 4 = 5 + 2 cos 30t cos 30t = 1 2 30t = 150 or 210 t = 5 or 7 Since low tide occurs at t = 6, the ship can enter one hour after low tide.

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4 a

This occurs when sin 3t = 1 x=3+2=5m This occurs when sin 3t = 1 x=32=1m sin 3t = 1 for 0 3t 15 3t = , 5, 9 2 2 2 , 5, 9 t= 6 6 6 = 0.524, 2.618, 4.712 s sin 3t = 0 for 0 3t 9 3t = 0, , 2 t = 0, , 2 3 3 = 0, 1.047, 2.094 s t=4
AC = 21 3 cos 3 C = 19.5

t=0 3 6 t= 3 6 t = 2 am 6 + 4 cos t = 2 3 6 cos = 1 6 3 t = , 3 6 3 t 2 = 6, 18 t = 8 or t = 20 8 am and 8 pm

7 a

5 a

D=AB
= 1 + 2 cos t 12

The graph is of y = 1 + 2 cos t . 12 It has amplitude 2, period 24, and is the cosine curve moved 1 unit down.

i Amplitude = 5 2 = 1.5 m 2 ii Period = 12 hours iii From graph, the shape is a cosine curve reflected in the x-axis. Graph will be of the form d(t) = 1.5 cos kt + 3.5 Period = 2 = 12 k 2 = k= 12 6 d(t) = 1.5 cos t + 3.5 6 iv 1.5 m

3.5 is the middle of the hour hands path. From the graph, this will occur from 3 am to 9 am and from 3 pm to 9 pm. Use the information given, starting at noon.

8 a

1 + 2 cos t < 0 12 cos t < 1 12 2 < t < 5 3 12 3 4 < t < 20 From 4 am to 8 pm.

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In this case, it is easiest to make t = 0 at noon, which is the reference point. D = 4 + cos kt Period = 2 = 16 k 2 = k= 16 8 D = 4 + cos t 8 D = 4 cos t = 0 8 t = or 8 2 2 t = 4 or 4 It can enter after 8 am and must leave by 4 pm.
D = 4 + cos t 8 d = 3.5 cos t = 0.5 8 t = 2 or 2 8 3 3 16 or 16 t= 3 3 1 or 5 1 =5 3 3 It can enter after 6:40 am and must leave by 5:20 pm.

ii

i 3000 sin ( t 10) + 4000 = 7000 26 sin ( t 10) = 1 26 ( t 10) = 26 2 t = 13 + 10 = 23 t = 23 and t = 75, since the period is 52 weeks. ii 3000 sin ( t 10) + 4000 = 1000 26 sin ( t 10) = 1 26 ( t 10) = 3 26 2 t = 39 + 10 = 49 This is the only value since the period is 52 weeks.

9 a i
2 = 2 26 26 = 52 weeks (1 year) ii 3000 iii 4000 3000 = [1000, 7000]

i N(0) = 3000 sin 10 + 4000 26 = 1194.95 (1195 ants, more or less) N(100) = 3000 sin 90 + 4000 26 = 1021.87 (1022 ants, more or less)

3000 sin (t 10) + 4000 > 5500 26 sin (t 10) > 1 26 2 < (t 10) < 5 and 6 6 26 13 < (t 10) < 17 26 6 6 13 < t 10 < 65 and 3 3 169 < t 10 < 221 3 3 1, 31 2 66 1, 83 2 14 3 3 3 3

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The given population varies between 10 000 and 40 000, a = 15 000 and d = 25 000. Maximum to minimum is half a period, so the period = 20. 2 = 20 b 2 = 20 b 20 = 10 b= 2 Maximum at t = 10 means (10 c) = 2 10 10 c = 5 c=5

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

Pythagoras rule gives AC = a + b cos x = AB AC 2 b = B 2 2 a +b

y = 2 sin (3x ) = 2 sin 3(x 3 Period = 2 3


y = 5 cos 5x + 3 Amplitude = |5| = 5

x 5, 23 12 12 3x 5 , 23 4 4 sin 3x = 2 = 1 2 2 3x = + , 2 , 3 + , 4 4 4 , 5 + , 6 4 4 4 4 Omit the first and last as they are not in the interval. 3x = 7, 13, 15, 21 4 4 4 4 x = 7, 13, 5, 7 D 12 12 4 4

5 sin (2x ) + 2 = 0 Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 5 Maximum and minimum y values are y = 7 and y = 3. Since y = 0 is within the range of the function, the function will pass through the line twice each cycle. The function covers two cycles over the given domain, and so will pass through y = 0 four times. There are four solutions. D

cos 13 = cos 6

2 6 = cos 6 2 = sin 3

3 = 3 180 11 11 540 = 11 = 49.09

tan (180 ) = sin (180 ) cos (180 ) = sin cos = cos (90 + ) sin (90 + ) cos (90 + ) = sin (90 + )
Period = 2 4 3 = 2 =2

10 Both cos and sin are positive, so the angle is in the first quadrant. cos = 1 2 = 60 An anticlockwise rotation of 60 B about the origin.

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a b c d e f g h i 2 a b c d e f
5 = 5 180 = 150 6 6 7 = 7 180 = 315 4 4 11 = 11 180 = 495 4 4 3 = 3 180 = 45 12 12 15 = 15 180 = 1350 2 2 3 = 3 180 = 135 4 4 = 180 = 45 4 4

330 = 330 = 11 180 6 810 = 810 = 9 180 2 1080 = 1080 = 6 180 1035 = 1035 = 23 180 4 135 = 135 = 3 180 4 405 = 405 = 9 180 4 390 = 390 = 13 180 6 420 = 420 = 7 180 3 80 = 80 = 4 180 9

h i 3 a

11 = 11 180 = 495 4 4 23 = 23 180 = 1035 4 4

sin 11 = sin 4

2 + 3 4 = sin 3 = 1 4 2 2 + 4 = cos = 1 4 2

cos 7 = cos 4

sin 11 = sin 6

2 6 = sin = 1 6 2

cos 7 = cos 2 + 5 6 6 = cos 5 = 3 6 2 cos 13 = cos 6


2 + 6 = cos = 3 6 2

sin 23 = sin 4 6 6 = sin = 1 2 6


cos 23 = cos 6 + 3 3 = cos = 1 3 2

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sin 17 = cos 4

4 4 = cos = 1 4 2

4 a

2 = 4 1 2 Amplitude = 2 Period =

The graph of y = 3 cos x has period 3 2 = 6 and amplitude 3. It is 1 3 y = 3 cos x reflected in the x-axis. 3

Period = 2 = 4 2 Amplitude = 3 Period = 2 3


Amplitude = 1 2
c

The graph of y = 2 sin 3x (period 2 , amplitude 2), reflected in 3 the x-axis.

Period = 2 = 2 Amplitude = 3
2 = 6 1 3 Amplitude = 4 Period = 2 = 3 2 3 Amplitude = 2 3 Period = The graph of y = 2 sin 4x has period 2 = and amplitude 2. 4 2

The graph of y = 2 cos x has period 3 2 = 6 and amplitude 3. 1 3

5 a

The graph of y = sin x, translated units to the right. 4

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The graph of y = sin x, translated 2 units to the left. 3

2 [2, 2] sin 2 = 3 2 = 2 3 , + , + and 2 2 = 3 3 3 3 = , 2 , 4 and 5 3 3 3 3 , , 2 and 5 = 3 3 6 6

The graph of y = 2 cos x, translated 5 units to the right. 6

, 5 3 3 3 sin = 1 = 3 2 3 6 = and + 3 6 6 and 7 = 6 6 and 3 = 6 2

The graph of y = 3 cos x, reflected in the x-axis and translated units to the right. 6

+ , 7 3 3 3 sin + = 1 3 + = 3 3 2 = 3 = 7 2 3 6
=0 = 3 3 = 2 = 5 3 5 , 3 3 3 sin = 1 = 3 6 3 2 = and + 3 6 6 and 5 = 6 6 = and 7 2 6 and 7 = 2 6

6 a
sin = 3 2 3 = sin = 2 3 = and + 3 3 and 2 = 3 3

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7 a

The graph of y = 2 sin 4x (period , amplitude 2) translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos x reflected in the x-axis and translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 3 cos x translated units to the left. 3

The graph of y = cos x reflected in the x-axis and translated units to the left 3 and 2 units up.

The graph of y = 2 sin 4x (period 2 , 3 amplitude 2) reflected in the x-axis and translated 1 unit up.

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Chapter 11 Circular functions II


Exercise 11A Solutions
1 a

cos ( ) = cos = 0.6


sin + = cos 2 = 0.6

cos + x = sin x 2 = 0.3 sin = cos 2 = 0.6

tan ( ) = tan = 0.7


cos x = sin x 2 = 0.3
sin ( x) = sin x = 0.3

sin 3 + = sin + 2 2 = cos = 0.6


cos 3 x = cos x 2 2 = sin x = 0.3

tan = 2

sin 2

cos 2 cos = sin = 1 = 7 tan 10

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Exercise 11B Solutions


1 a
y1 = 2 sin y2 = cos y = y1 + y2 =0 y=0+1=1 = y=1+1=2 2 = y = 0 + 1 = 1 = 3 y = 2 + 0 = 2 2 = 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

y1 = 1 sin 2 2 y2 = cos y = y1 + y2 = 0 y = 0 + 1 = 1 = y=0+0=0 2 = y=0+1=1 = 3 y = 0 + 0 = 0 2 = 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

d b
y1 = 3 cos 2 y2 = 2 sin 2 y = y1 + y 2 =0 y=3+0=3 = y=0+2=2 4 y = 3 + 0 = 3 = 2 3 y = 0 + 2 = 2 = 4 = y=3+0=3

y1 = 3 sin y2 = cos 2 y = y1 + y 2 =0 y=0+1=1 = y = 3 + 1 = 2 2 = y=0+1=1 = 3 y = 3 + 1 = 4 2 = 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

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y1 = 4 sin y2 = 2 cos y = y1 y2 = 0 y = 0 2 = 2 = y=40=4 2 = y = 0 2 = 2 = 3 y = 4 0 = 4 2 = 2 y = 0 2 = 2

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Exercise 11C Solutions


1 a d The graph will repeat itself every units (period = ). 2 2 The graph will be three times as steep and translated 1 unit up.

e b The graph will repeat itself every units (period = ). It will be twice as 3 3 steep.

The graph will be twice as steep, and translated units left and 1 unit up. 2

f c The graph of y = tan x, translated units left. 4

The graph will repeat itself every units. It will be twice as steep and 2 translated units left and 2 units down. 4

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Exercise 11D Solutions


1 a

sin x = 0.5 1 x = 2n + sin (0.5) or 1 (2n + 1) sin (0.5) = 2n + or (2n + 1) 6 6 = 12n + or 6(2n + 1) 6 6 6 6 (12n + 1) or (12n + 5) = 6 6
cos 3x = 3 2 3x = 2n 6 2n x= 3 18 12n = 18 = (12n 1) 18

cos 3x = 3 2 3x = 2n 6 2n x= 3 18 = 12n 18 (12n 1) = 18 , 2 = 6 6 , 11 = 6 6

tan x = 3 = 3 3 x = n 3 3n = 3 (3n 1) = 3
x = 2n + 6 12n + = 6 (12n + 1) = 6 or x = (2n + 1) 6 12n + 6 + = 6 (12n + 7) = 6 , x= 6 6 , 5 = 6 6

tan x = 3 = 3 3 x = n 3 = 3n 3 (3n 1) = 3 = , 2 3 3 2 , 5 = 3 3 cos 2x + = 2 = 1 2 4 2 = 2n 2x + 4 4 2x = 2n 4 4 (8n 1 1) = 4 x = (8n 1 1) 8 6, 14, 2, 8, 10 = 0, 8 8 8 8 8 5, , , 0, 3, , 7 = 4 4 4 4

2 a

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Note: If the values of x = (8n 1 1) 5 8 are taken separately, then the solution becomes x = (8n 1 + 1) 8 = n or x = (8n 2) 8 (4n 1) = 4
4
tan 3x = 1 6 3 3x = n + 6 6 2x = n x = n 3

sin 4x = 3 2 4 = 2n 3 x 6n = 3 = (6n 1) 3 or 4x = (2n + 1) 3 = 6n + 3 + 4 (6n + 4) = 3 6n 1 or 3n + 2 x= 6 12 2, 7 , 1, 1 , 1, 5 , 5, 11 = 3 12 6 12 3 12 6 12

This is equivalent to x = n where x Z. 3 2, , 0 x = , 3 3

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Exercise 11E Solutions


1 a

cos 3 4 cot 3 = 4 sin 3 4 1 1 = 2 2 = 1 cos 5 4 5 = cot 4 sin 5 4 1 1 = 2 2 =1


1 sec 5 = 6 cos 5 6 1 = 3 2 = 2 = 2 3 3 3
1 cosec = 2 sin 2 1=1 = 1

cos 7 3 cot 7 = 3 sin 7 3 =1 3 2 2 = 1 = 3 3 3 1 sec 5 = 3 cos 5 3 1 = =2 1 2


cot 135 = cos 135 sin 135 = 1 1 2 2 = 1

2 a

sec 150 =

1 cos 150 1 = 3 2 = 2 = 2 3 3 3
1 sin 90 =1=1 1

1 sec 4 = 3 cos 4 3 1 = = 2 1 2
1 cosec 13 = 6 sin 13 6 1 = sin 6 1 = =2 1 2

cosec 90 =

d cot 240 = cos 240 sin 240 = 1 3 2 2 1 = 3 = 3 3

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sec 225 =

1 cos 225 1 = 1 2 = 2

sec x = 2 cos x = 1 2 3, 5 x= 4 4
cosec x = sec x sin x = cos x tan x = 1 x = , 5 4 4
1 sec = 8 17
2

sec 330 =

1 cos 330 1 = 3 2 = 2 =2 3 3 3

4 a

cos =

cot 315 = cos 315 sin 315 = 1 1 2 2 = 1 cosec 300 = 1 sin 300 1 = 3 2 = 2 = 2 3 3 3

cos + sin = 1 64 + sin2 = 1 289 2 sin = 225 289 15 sin = 17

cot 420 = cos 420 sin 420 cos 60 = sin 60 =1 3 2 2 = 1 = 3 3 3

tan = sin cos = 15 8 17 17 15 = 8


1 + tan = sec 2 sec = 1 + 49 = 625 576 576 25 (since cos > 0) sec = 24 cos = 24 25 sin = tan = 7 24 cos 7 24 sin = 24 25 = 7 25
2 2

3 a

cosec x = 2 sin x = 1 2 x = , 5 6 6

cot x = 3 tan x = 1 3 , 7 x= 6 6

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1 + tan = sec 2 sec = 1 + 0.16 = 1.16 sec = 116 100 = 29 25 = 29 5 cot = 3 4 2 2 1 + tan = sec 2 sec = 1 + 16 = 25 9 9 5 (cos < 0) sec = 3 cos = 3 5 sin = tan = 4 3 cos 4 3 sin = 5 3 4 = 5 4 6 5 sin 2 cos = 5 3 4 cot sin 4 5 2 31 = 5 20 = 2 20 = 8 5 31 31

cos + sin = 1 4 + sin2 = 1 9 2 sin = 5 9 sin = 5 3 < < 2 3 2 tan = 5 2 = 5 3 3 2 2 cot = 5


tan 3 sin = cos 2 cot 5 5 2 2 4 3 5 2 5 + 12 = 5 2 3 5 = 5 3 5 2 2 5 + 12 15 = 6 5 4( 5 + 6) 6 5 = 15(6 5 ) 4 (36 5) = 15(6 5 ) 124
2 2 2

9 a

(1 cos )(1 + cot ) = sin cot t h 2 2 cos = sin 2 sin 2 = cos , provided sin 0 If sin = 0, cot would be undefined.

cos tan + sin cot 2 2 2 2 2 sin cos + sin = cos 2 2 cos sin 2 2 = sin + cos = 1, provided sin 0 and cos 0

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In cases like this, it is a good strategy to start with the more complicated expression. sin + cos cos sin tan + cot = cot + tan cos + sin sin cos sin sin + cos cos cos sin = cos cos + sin cos cos sin sin sin + cos cos = cos sin cos sin cos cos + sin cos
tan + cot = cos sin cot + tan cos sin = sin cos cos sin = sin sin cos cos = tan tan This is provided tan + tan 0 and the tangent and cotangent are defined.

1 + cot = cosec cot cosec cot cosec = cosec cot = 1 sin sin cos = 1 cos = sec Conditions: sin 0, cos 0

1 + sin cos cos = 1 + sin 1 sin 1 sin cos = (1 + sin )(1 sin ) cos (1 sin ) 2 1 sin = cos (1 sin ) 2 cos = cos (1 sin ) = cos 1 sin Conditions: cos 0 (includes sin 1) sec + tan =

(sin + cos ) + (sin cos ) 2 2 = sin + 2 sin cos + cos 2 2 + sin 2 sin cos + cos 2 2 = 2 sin + 2 cos =2 There are no restrictions on .

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Exercise 11F Solutions


1 a

Different angles may be used. cos 15 = cos(45 30) = cos 45 cos 30 + sin 45 sin 30 = 1 3 + 1 1 2 2 2 2 = 3 +1 2 2 = 6 + 2 4 cos 105 = cos (45 + 60) = cos 45 cos 60 sin 45 sin 60 = 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 =1 3 2 2 = 2 6 4

3 a

Different angles may be used. cos 5 = cos + 12 4 6 = cos cos sin sin 4 6 4 6 1 3 1 1 = 2 2 2 2 = 3 1 2 2 = 6 2 4
sin 11 = sin 12 12 = sin 12 sin = sin 12 3 4 = sin cos cos sin 3 4 3 4 = 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 = 2 2 = 6 2 4 tan = tan 12 4 3 tan tan 3 4 = 1 + tan tan 4 3 = 1 3 1 3 1+ 3 1 3 = 1 2 3 + 3 = 2 + 3 13

2 a

Different angles may be used. sin 165 = sin (180 15) = sin 15 sin 15 = sin (45 30) = sin 45 cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 = 1 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 = 3 1 2 2 = 6 2 4
tan 75 = tan (45 + 30) = tan 45 + tan 30 1 tan 45 tan 30 1+ 1 3 3 = 1 3 1 3 = 3 +1 3 +1 3 1 3 +1 =3+2 3 +1=2+ 3 31

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cos u = 1 sin u = 1 144 = 25 169 169 5 cos u = 13 2 2 cos v = 1 sin v = 1 9 = 16 25 25 4 cos v = 5 sin (u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v = 3 5 4 12 5 13 5 13 15 48 = 65 There are four possible answers: 63, 33, 33, 63 65 65 65 65

6 a b 7

sin (v + (u v)) = sin v cos ((u + v) v) = cos u


cos = 1 sin = 1 9 = 16 25 25 4 cos = 5 2 2 sin = 1 cos = 1 25 = 144 169 169 12 sin = 13 2 2 cos 2 = cos sin = 25 144 169 169 = 119 169
2 2

5 a

sin + = sin cos + cos sin 6 6 6 = 3 sin + 1 cos 2 2


cos = cos cos + sin sin 4 4 4 1 cos + 1 sin = 2 2 1 (cos + sin ) = 2

sin 2 = 2 sin cos =2 3 4 5 5 24 = 25

tan + tan 3 tan + = 6 1 tan tan 3 = tan + 3 1 3 tan


sin = sin cos cos sin 4 4 4 1 sin 1 cos = 2 2 1 (sin cos ) = 2

tan = sin cos = 3 = 3 4 4 2 tan tan 2 = 2 1 tan 3 2 = 1 9 16 3 16 = 2 7 = 24 7 sec 2 = 1 cos 2 = 169 119

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sin ( + ) = sin cos + cos sin = 3 5 + 4 12 5 13 5 13 14 48 = 65 = 33 65 cos ( ) = cos cos + sin sin = 4 5 + 3 12 5 13 5 13 20 36 = 65 = 16 65 cosec ( + ) = 1 sin ( + ) = 65 33

sec u = 1 + tan u = 1 + 16 = 25 9 9 2 9 cos u = 25 cos u = 3 (since u is acute ) 5 2 2 sec v = 1 + tan v = 1 + 25 = 169 144 144 2 144 cos v = 169 cos v = 12 (since v is acute ) 13 cos ( u v) = cos u cos v + sin u sin v = 3 12 + 4 5 5 13 5 13 = 56 65
sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u =243 5 5 24 = 25

cot 2 = 1 tan 2 = 7 24
tan (u + v) = tan u + tan v 1 tan u tan v = 4 + 5 1 4 5 3 12 3 12 = 21 4 12 9 = 21 9 12 4 = 63 16
tan 2u = 2 tan u 2 1 tan u 8 3 = 1 16 9 8 9 = 3 7 = 24 7

8 a

cos = 1 sin = 1 9 = 16 25 25 4 cos = 5 2 2 cos = 1 sin = 1 576 = 29 625 625 7 cos = 25 2 2 cos 2 = cos sin = 16 9 25 25 = 7 25 sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin = 3 7 4 24 5 5 25 25 75 = 3 = 125 5

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tan = sin cos = 3 4 sin tan = cos = 24 7 tan + tan tan ( + ) = 1 tan tan 3 + 24 4 7 = 3 24 1 4 7 117 7 = 28 11 117 = 44 sin 2 = 2 sin cos = 2 7 24 25 25 336 = 625

12 a

2 sin = 2 sin cos cos sin 4 4 4 = 2 1 sin 1 cos 2 2 = sin cos


cos = cos cos + sin sin 3 3 3 = 1 cos + 3 sin 2 2 cos + = 1 cos = 3 sin 2 3 2 Add the last two equations: cos + cos + = cos 3 3
tan + tan 4 4 tan tan tan + tan 4 4 = 1 tan tan 1 + tan tan 4 4 tan + 1 tan 1 = 1 tan 1 + tan = 1 cos + = cos cos sin sin 6 6 6 = 3 cos 1 sin 2 2 cos + = sin cos + cos sin 3 3 3 1 sin = 3 cos + 2 2 Add the two equations: cos + + sin + = 3 cos 6 3

10 a sin 2 = 2 sin cos =2 3 1 2 2 = 3 2 b

cos 2 = cos sin =13 4 4 = 1 2

11 2 2 2 a (sin cos ) = sin 2 sin cos + cos = 1 sin 2 b

sin cos = (sin cos )(sin + cos ) = cos 2 1 = cos 2

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tan + tan 4 tan + = 4 1 tan tan 4 tan + 1 = 1 tan 1 + tan = 1 tan sin (u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v cos u cos v cos u cos v sin u cos v + cos u sin v = cos u cos v cos u cos v = tan u + tan v

cos 2 + 2 sin = cos sin + 2 sin 2 2 = cos + sin =1

sin 4 = sin 2 2 = 2 sin 2 cos 2 2 2 = 2 2 sin cos (cos sin ) 3 3 = 4 sin cos 4 cos sin

sin ( u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v sin ( u v) sin u cos v cos u sin v Divide numerator and denominator by cos u cos v. sin ( u + v) = tan u + tan v sin ( u v) tan u tan v

1 sin 2 = 1 sin 2 sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos (1 sin 2)(sin cos ) = 2 2 sin 2 sin cos + cos = (1 sin 2)(sin cos ) 1 2 sin cos (1 sin 2)(sin cos ) = 1 sin 2 = sin cos

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Exercise 11G Solutions


1 a b

Maximum = 4 + 3 = 5 Minimum = 5 Maximum = 3 + 1 = 2 Minimum = 2 Maximum = 1 + 1 = 2 Minimum = 2 Maximum = 1 + 1 = 2 Minimum = 2 Maximum = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 3 Minimum = 2 3 Maximum = 1 + 3 = 2 Minimum = 2 Maximum = 1 + 3 + 2 = 4 Minimum = 1 + 3 + 2 = 0 Maximum = 5 + 3 + 2 = 5 + 13 Minimum = 5 3 + 2 = 5 13
2 2 2 2

r= 3+1 =2 cos = 3 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 6 2 sin x + = 1 6 sin x + = 1 6 2 x + = , 5, 7 6 6 5 6 x = 0, 2, 2 3 r= 3+1 =2 cos = 1; sin = 3 2 2 = 3 2 sin x = 1 3 sin c = 1 3 2 x = , 7 3 6 6 , 3 x= 6 2
r = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 3 cos = 3 = 3 2 2 3 sin = 3 = 1 2 3 2 = 6 2 3 cos x + = 3 6 cos x + = 3 = 3 2 6 2 3 x + = , 11, 13 6 6 6 6 5 , 2 x = 0, 3

2 a

r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 4 2 sin x = 1 4 sin x = 1 4 2 = , 3 x 4 4 4 x = , 2

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r = 4 + 3 = 25 = 5 cos = 4; sin = 3 5 5 36.87 5 sin ( + 36.87) 5 sin ( + 36.87) 1 + 36.87 90 53.13

5 a

r = 8 + 4 = 12 = 2 3 cos = 2 2 = 2 3 2 3 2 = 1 sin = 2 3 3 35.26 2 3 sin ( 35.26) 3 sin ( 35.26) 3 = 3 2 2 3 35.26 60, 120 95.26, 155.26
b

r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 4 f(x) = 2 sin x 4 The graph will have amplitude 2 , period 2, and be translated units right. 4

r= 3+1 =2 cos = 3 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 6 2 cos 2x + 6 r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 4 2 sin 3x 4

r= 3+1 =2 cos = 3 ' sin = 1 2 2 = 6 f(x) = 2 sin x + 6 The graph will have amplitude 2, period 2, and be translated units left. 6

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r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 4 f(x) = 2 sin x + 4 The graph will have amplitude 2 , period 2, and be translated units left. 4

r= 1+3 =2 cos = 1; sin = 3 2 2 = 3 f(x) = 2 sin x 3 The graph will have amplitude 2, period 2, and be translated units right. 3

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1
cosec x sin x = 1 sin x sin x 2 = 1 sin x sin x 2 = cos x sin x = cos x cos x sin x = cos x cot x

cos x = 1 3 2 2 cos x + sin x = 1 2 1 + sin2 x = 1 3


2

sin x = 1 1 = 8 9 9 sin x = 8 9 = 2 2, 2 2 3 3
5 A

ABC = u; XBC = v tan u = x + 4; tan v = x 2 2 tan = tan (u v) = tan u tan v 1 + tan u tan v x+4x 2 2 = x+4x 1+ 2 2 4 4 + x(x + 4) = 4 2 4 =2 2 x + 4x + 4 8 = 2 (x + 2)
sin A = 1 cos A 2 =1t sin A = 1 t 2 2 cos B = 1 sin B 2 =1t
2 2 2

sec = b a 2 2 tan + 1 = sec 2 2 tan = b2 = 1 a 2 2 = b 2a a

cos B = 1 t sin (B + A) = sin B cos A + cos B sin A =tt+ 1t 2 2 = t (1 t ) 2 = 2t 1


2

1t

tan = b a a

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A cos 2A 1 cos2A sin2A 1 2 sin A cos A = 2 2 sin A (1 cos A) 2 sin A cos A = 2 2 sin A sin A 2 sin A cos A = 2 2 sin A = cos A sin A = cot A E

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Check the symmetry properties: sin x = sin + x 2 2 = sin 3 + x 2 = cos x = cos ( x) cos ( x) = cos (2 x) sin x sin x 2

C 10

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A m = 2 sin A n sin A = m 2n tan A = sin A cos A = m 1 2n n = m2 2n


r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 A positive angle must be chosen, = 7 4 2 sin x + 7 4

(1 + cot x) + (1 cot x) 2 = 1 + 2 cot x + cot x + 1 2 2 cot x + cot x 2 = 2 + 2 cot x 2 = 2(1 + cot x)

= 2 cosec x

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

sec + cosec cot = 1 + 1 cos cos sin sin = 1 1 + cos cos cos sin sin 2 = 1 (1 + cot ) cos 2 = sec cosec
tan + cos = tan + 1 sin sec + sin sec + sin 2 2 = sec sin sec + sin (sec sin )(sec + sin ) = sec + sin = sec sin
Maximum = 5, minimum = 1 Maximum = 4, minimum = 2 Maximum = 4, minimum = 4 Maximum = 2, minimum = 0 Maximum = 1 (when cos = 1), minimum = 1 3
sin = 1 4
2

cos 3 = 3 2 3 = , 11, 13, 23, 25, 35 6 6 6 6 6 6 , 11, 13, 23, 25, 35 = 18 18 18 18 18 18


sin 2 = 1 sin 2 = 1 2 = , 3, 2 2 = , 3, 4 4
tan = 1 3
2

5, 2 5, 4

7 2 7 4

2 a b c d e

tan = 1 3 , 5, 7, 11 = 6 6 6 6

tan 2 = 1 2 = 3, 4 = 3, 8

7, 4 7, 8

11, 4 11, 8

15 4 15 8

3 a

sin 3 = 1 3 = 3, 7, 11 2 2 2 , 7, 11 = 2 6 6
cos 2 = 1 2 2 = , 7, 4 4 , 7, = 8 8

sin = 1 2 , 5, 7, 11 = 6 6 6 6

sin 2 = 1 2 2 = , 5, 13, 17 6 6 6 6 , 5, 13, 17 = 12 12 12 12

9, 4 9, 8

15 4 15 8

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sin 2 sin = 0 cos sin 1 2 = 0 cos sin = 0 or cos = 1 2 = 60, 300, 0, 180, 360
5

tan = 2 sin sin = 2 sin cos

6 a

Expression = cos (80 20) = cos 60 = 1 2 Expression = tan (15 + 30) = tan 45 = 1 Expression = sin (A + B) = sin = 1 2 Expression = cos (A + B) = cos = 0 2
Maximum = 5, minimum = 1 Maximum = 9, minimum = 1
2 2 2 2

7 a

cos A = 1 sin A = 1 25 = 144 169 169 12 cos A = 13 2 2 cos B = 1 sin B = 1 64 = 225 289 289 15 cos B = 17 cos ( A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B = 12 15 5 8 13 17 13 17 = 140 221
sin ( A + B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B = 5 15 12 8 13 17 13 17 = 21 221

8 a b 9 a

sin A cos B cos A sin B 2 2 2 2 = sin A(1 sin B) (1 sin A)sin B 2 2 2 2 2 2 = sin A sin A sin B sin B + sin A sin B 2 2 = sin A sin B

tan A = sin A = 5 cos A 12 tan B = sin B = 8 cos B 15 tan ( A + B) = tan a + tan B 1 tan A tan B = 5 + 8 1 5 8 12 15 12 15 57 7 = 60 9 = 19 9 20 7 = 171 140

Left side = sin + (1 + cos ) sin (1 + cos ) 2 2 = sin + 1 + 2 cos + cos sin (1 + cos ) 2 + 2 cos = sin (1 + cos ) = 2(1 + cos ) sin (1 + cos ) = 2 sin

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Left side =

sin (1 2sin ) 2 cos (2 cos 1) 2 2 sin (1 sin sin ) = 2 2 cos (cos + cos 1) 2 2 sin (cos sin ) = 2 2 cos (cos (1 cos )) 2 2 sin (cos sin ) = 2 2 cos (cos sin ) = sin cos = tan
2

11

1
a

Left side = 1+ 1 = 1+

sin 2 cos sin 2 cos sin 2 cos


2 2 2

10 cos A = 1 sin A =15=4 9 9 2 cos A = 3 a sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A =2 5 2 3 3 = 4 5 9 b

sin 2 cos 2 2 cos sin = 2 2 cos + sin = cos 2 = cos 2 1


2

cos 2 cos

cos 2A = cos A sin A =45 9 9 = 1 9 sin 4A = 2 sin 2A cos 2A =2 4 5 1 9 9 =8 5 81

Left side = sin A + (1 + cos A) sin A (1 + cos A) 2 2 = sin A + 1 + 2 cos A + cos A sin A (1 + cos A) 2 + 2 cos A = sin A (1 + cos A) = 2 (1 + cos A) sin A (1 + cos A) = 2 sin A

12 a tan 15 = tan (60 45) = tan 60 tan 45 1 + tan 60 tan 45 = 3 1 1+ 3 = 3 1 3 1 1+ 3 3 1 =32 3 +1 31 =2 3 b

sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y Add the two equations: sin (x + y) + sin (x y) = 2 sin x cos y

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13 a x=0 y=2 3 0=2 3 (0, 2 3 ) b

Solve 2 3 cos x 2 sin x = 0. Express in the form r cos (x + ) r = 12 + 4 = 4 cos = 2 3 = 3 4 2 2=1 sin = 4 2 = 6 4 cos x + = 0 6 x + = , 3 6 2 2 x = , 4 3 3 x-intercepts: , 0 and 4, 0 3 3 Maximum = 4 11, 4 6 Minimum = 4 5, 4 6 The graph will be y = 4 cos x, translated units left. 6

14 a Express in the form r sin (x + ) = 1. r= 1+1 = 2 cos = 1 ; sin = 1 2 2 = 4 2 sin x + = 1 4 sin x + = 1 4 2 x + = , 3, 9 4 4 4 4 x = 0, , 2 2 b

2 sin x cos x = 1 2 2 2 sin 2 x = 1 2 2 1 sin x = 2 7, 11 x= 6 6

2 tan x 2 = 2 tan x 1 tan x 3 2 tan x 2 1 = 0 1 tan x 3 2 tan x

3 (1 tan2 x) = 0 2 1 tan x

tan x = 0 (since 2 + tan x 0) x = 0, , 2


d

sin x cos x = 1 cos 2x = 1 2x = , 3 x = , 3 2 2

sin (3x x) = 3 2 sin 2x = 3 2 , 2, 7, 8 2x = 3 3 3 3 , , 7, 4 x= 6 3 6 3

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cos 2x = 3 3 2 = 5, 7, 2x 3 6 6 2x = 7, 9, 6 6 7, 3, x= 12 4

16

17, 6 19, 6 19, 12

19 6 21 6 7 4

15 2 a y = 2 cos x 2 2 = cos x + (1 sin x) 2 2 = cos x sin x + 1 2 = cos x + 1 The graph of y = cos 2x (amplitude 1, period ) raised 1 unit.

tan ( + A) = 4 tan + tan A = 4 1 tan tan A tan + 2 = 4 1 2 tan tan + 2 = 4(1 2 tan ) = 4 8 tan 9 tan = 2 tan = 2 9

17 a

r = 4 + 81 = 85 cos = 2 ; sin = 9 85 85 85 cos ( + ), where 1 2 = cos 85


i 85 ii cos ( + ) = 1 +=0 = cos = cos ( ) = cos = 2 85 iii Solve 85 cos ( + ) = 1. The first positive solution will be when + = 2. = + 2 1 = 2 cos 2 85

The graph is y = 1 2 sin x . 2 x (period 4) reflected in It is y = sin 2 the x-axis and raised 1 unit.

The normal tangent graph, but with period . 2

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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications


Exercise 12A Solutions
1 a
x = cos 35 5 x = 5 0.8191 = 4.10 cm
x = sin 45 10 x = 10 0.0871 = 0.87 cm x = tan 20.16 8 x = 8 0.3671 = 2.94 cm

20 = sin 60 x 20 = x 3 2 40 = 40 3 cm x= 3 3
3

x = tan 3015' 7 x = 7 0.9661 = 4.08 cm

tan x = 10 15 = 0.666 x = 33.69


10 = tan 40 x 10 = x 0.8390 x = 10 0.8390 = 11.92 cm

cos x = 6 = 0.4 15 x = 66.42 The third angle = 180 2 66.42 = 47.16


4

h = tan 49 20 x = 20 1.1503 23 m tan x = 1 6 = 0.8333. . . x = 9.59 Keep this number in your calculator for the next question.

5 a

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BC = 6 1 = 35 BC = 35 m = 5.92 m cos = 10 = 0.5 20 = 60


PQ = sin 60 20 x = 20 0.866 = 17.32 m

12 Find the vertical height, h cm.

6 a

h = cos 15 90 h = 90 0.9659 h = 86.93 cm x = 90 86.93 = 3.07 cm

3 = sin 26 L 3 = L 0.4383 L= 3 0.4383 = 6.84 m

13

sin = 13 = 0.21666. . . 60 = 12.51


h = sin 66 200 x = 200 0.9135 = 182.7 m

15 = sin 52.5 L 2 15 = L 0.7933 2 L = 30 0.7933 = 37.8 cm

14 w = tan 32 50 w = 50 0.6248 = 31.24 cm 15 h + 1.7 = 4.7 2 2 2 h = 4.7 1.7 = 19.2 h = 4.38 m 16 50 = sin 60 d 50 = d 0.866 d = 50 0.866 = 57.74 m
2 2 2

10 400 = sin 16 d 400 = d 0.2756 d = 400 0.2756 = 1451 m 11 BC = BA = AD = CD 2 2 2 2 a AC = BC + BA = 2BC 2 100 = 2BC 2 BC = 50 BC = 50 = 5 2 cm b
cos CBD = 10 = 1 10 2 2 CBD = 45

ABC = 2 45 = 90

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Exercise 12B Solutions


1 a

x = 10 sin 50 sin 70 x = 10 sin 50 sin 70 = 8.15 cm y = 6 sin 37 sin 65 x = 6 sin 37 sin 65 = 3.98 cm x = 5.6 sin 100 sin 28 x = 5.6 sin 100 sin 28 = 11.75 cm

sin = sin 108 10 8 sin = 8 sin 108 10 = 0.7608 = 49.54 In this case cannot be obtuse.

sin B = sin 38 9 8 sin B = 9 sin 38 8 = 0.6929 B = 43.84 or 180 43.84 = 131.16 = 180 43.84 38 = 98.16 or 180 136.16 38 = 5.84
A = 180 59 73 = 48 b = 12 sin 59 sin 48 b = 12 sin 59 sin 48 = 13.84 cm c = 12 sin 73 sin 48 c = 12 sin 73 sin 48 = 15.44 cm C = 180 75.3 48.25 = 56.45 5.6 a = sin 48.25 sin 75.3 a = 5.6 sin 75.3 sin 48.25 = 7.26 cm 5.6 c = sin 48.25 sin 56.45 c = 5.6 sin 56.45 sin 48.25 = 6.26 cm

3 a

X = 180 38 90 = 52 x = 12 sin 52 sin 90 x = 12 sin 52 sin 90 = 9.46 cm


sin = sin 72 8 7 7 sin 72 sin = 8 = 0.8321 = 56.32 In this case cannot be obtuse. sin = sin 42 9.4 8.3 sin = 8.3 sin 42 9.4 = 0.5908 = 36.22 In this case cannot be obtuse.

2 a

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B = 180 123.2 37 = 19.8 b = 11.5 sin 19.8 sin 123.2 b = 11.5 sin 19.8 sin 123.2 = 4.66 cm c = 11.5 sin 37 sin 123.2 c = 11.5 sin 37 sin 123.2 = 8.27 cm C = 180 23 40 = 117 b = 15 sin 40 sin 23 b = 15 sin 40 sin 23 = 24.68 cm c = 15 sin 23 sin 117 c = 15 sin 117 sin 23 = 34.21 cm C = 180 10 140 = 30 a = 20 sin 10 sin 140 a = 20 sin 10 sin 140 = 5.40 cm c = 20 sin 30 sin 140 c = 20 sin 30 sin 140 = 15.56 cm

4 a

sin B = sin 48.25 15.3 17.6 17.6 sin 48.25 sin B = 15.3 = 0.8582 B = 59.12 or 180 59.12 = 120.88 A = 180 48.25 59.12 = 72.63 or 180 48.25 120.88 = 10.87 15.3 = a a or sin 72.63 sin 10.87 sin 48.25 a = 15.3 sin 72.63 or 15.3 sin 10.87 sin 48.25 sin 48.25 = 19.57 cm or 3.87 cm

sin C = sin 129 7.89 4.56 sin C = 4.56 sin 129 7.89 = 0.4991 C = 26.69 A = 180 129 26.69 = 24.31 a = 7.89 sin 24.31 sin 129 a = 7.89 sin 24.31 sin 129 = 4.18 cm sin B = sin 28.35 8.5 14.8 14.8 sin 28.35 sin B = 8.5 = 0.8268 B = 55.77 or 180 55.77 = 124.23 C = 180 55.77 28.35 = 95.88 or 180 124.23 28.35 = 27.42 8.5 c c = or sin 95.88 sin 27.42 sin 28.35 c = 8.5 sin 95.88 or 8.5 sin 27.42 sin 28.35 sin 28.35 = 178.1 cm or 8.24 cm

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A = 180 68 70 = 42 b = 400 sin 68 sin 42 b = 400 sin 68 sin 42 = 554.26 m


6

C = 180 69 74 = 37 b = 1070 sin 69 sin 37 b = 1070 sin 69 sin 37 = 1659.86 m


8 a

APB = 46.2 27.6 = 18.6 (exterior angle property) 34 a = sin 27.6 sin 18.6 PB = a = 34 sin 27.6 sin 18.6 = 49.385 m h = sin 46.2 PB h = 49.385 0.7217 = 35.64 m

X = 180 120 20 = 40 AX = 50 sin 20 sin 40 = 50 sin 20 sin 40 = 26.60 m Y = 180 109 32 = 39 AY = 50 sin 109 sin 39 AY = 50 sin 109 sin 39 = 75.12 m

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Exercise 12C Solutions


1

BC = a 2 2 = b + c 2bc cos A 2 2 = 15 + 10 2 15 10 cos 15 = 325 300 cos 15 = 35.222 BC = 5.93 cm

b = a + c 2ac cos B 2 2 = 17 + 63 2 17 63 cos 120 = 4258 2142 cos 120 = 5329 b = 73


c = a + b 2ab cos C 2 2 = 31 + 42 2 31 42 cos 140 = 2642 2604 cos 140 = 4719.77 c 68.70
2 2 2

ABC = B 2 2 2 cos B = a + c b 2ac 2 2 2 = 5 + 8 10 258 = 0.1375 ABC 97.90 ACB = C 2 2 2 cos C = a + b c 2ac 2 2 2 = 5 + 10 8 2 5 10 = 0.61 ACB 52.41
2 2 2

BCA = C 2 2 2 cos C = a + b c 2ab 2 2 2 = 10 + 12 9 2 10 12 = 0.6791 BCA 47.22


c = a + b 2ab cos C 2 2 = 11 + 9 2 11 9 cos 43.2 = 202 198 cos 43.2 = 57.6642 c 7.59
2 2 2

3 a

a = b + c 2bc cos a 2 2 = 16 + 30 2 16 30 cos 60 = 1156 960 cos 60 = 676 a = 26


b = a + c 2ac cos B 2 2 = 14 + 12 2 14 12 cos 53 = 340 336 cos 53 = 137.7901 a 11.74
2 2 2

CBA = B 2 2 2 cos B = a + c b 2ac 2 2 2 = 8 + 15 10 2 8 15 = 0.7875 ABC 38.05


c = a + b 2ab cos C 2 2 = 4 + 6 2 4 6 cos 20 = 52 48 cos 20 = 6.8947 c 2.626 km
2 2 2

ABC = B 2 2 2 cos B = a + c b 2ac 2 2 2 = 27 + 46 35 2 27 46 = 0.6521 ABC 49.29

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AB = a + b 2ab cos O 2 2 = 4 + 6 2 4 6 cos 30 = 52 48 cos 30 = 10.4307 AB 3.23 km

B = 180 88 43.0045 = 48.9954 b = 7.3263 sin 48.9954 sin 88 b = 7.3263 sin 48.9956 sin 88 5.53 cm
9 a
2 2 2

6 a

B = 180 48 = 132 2 2 2 AC = a + c 2ac cos B 2 2 = 5 + 4 2 5 4 cos 132 = 41 40 cos 132 = 67.7652 AC 8.23 cm BD = b + d 2bd cos A 2 2 = 5 + 4 2 5 4 cos 48 = 41 40 cos 48 = 14.2347 BD 3.77 cm
2 2 2

cos AO'B = 6 + 6 8 266 = 0.111 AO'B 83.62


2 2

cos AOB = 7.5 + 7.5 8 2 7.5 7.5 = 0.43111 AOB 64.46

Label the points suitably: A and B are the hooks, and C is the 70 angle. 2 2 2 c = a + b 2ab cos C 2 2 2 BD = 42 + 54 2 42 54 cos 70 = 4680 4536 cos 70 = 3128.5966 BD 55.93 cm Use ABD. 2 2 2 BD = b + d 2bd cos A 2 2 = 6 + 4 2 6 4 cos 92 = 52 48 cos 92 = 53.6751 BD 7.326 cm
D = BDC sin D = sin 88 5 7.3263 sin D = 5 sin 88 7.3263 = 0.6820 D = 43.0045

10 a Treat AB as c. 2 2 2 c = a + b 2ab cos O 2 2 2 AB = 70 + 90 2 70 90 cos 65 = 13 000 12 600 cos 65 = 7675.0099 AB 87.61 m b

8 a

cos B = a + c b 2ac 2 2 2 = 70 + 87.6071 90 2 70 87.6071 = 0.3648 AOB 68.6010 Now use OCB. Let CB = a, OB = b, OC = c. CB = AB = 43.80 2 2 2 2 c = a + b 2ab cos O 2 2 2 OC = 43.8035 + 70 2 43.8035 70 0.3648 = 4581.24 OC 67.7 m

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Exercise 12D Solutions


1 a

Area = 1 ab sin C 2 1 6 4 sin 70 = 2 2 = 11.28 cm Area = 1 yz sin X 2 1 5.1 6.2 sin 72.8 = 2 2 = 15.10 cm Area = 1 nl sin M 2 1 3.5 8.2 sin 130 = 2 2 = 10.99 cm

Use the sine rule to find C. sin C = sin 100 9 7 sin C = 7 sin 100 9 = 0.7659 C = 49.992 A = 180 100 49.992 = 30.007 Area = 1 bc sin A 2 = 1 9 7 sin 30.007 2 2 15.754 cm

C = 180 25 25 = 130 Area = 1 ab sin C 2 1 5 5 sin 130 = 2 2 = 9.58 cm Use the cosine rule to find B. (Any angle will do.) 2 2 2 cos B = a + c b 2ac 2 2 2 3.2 + 4.1 5.9 = 2 3.1 4.1 = 0.2957 B = 107.201 Area = 1 ac sin B 2 = 1 3.2 4.1 sin 107.201 2 2 6.267 cm

2 a

E = 180 65 66 = 60 e = 6.3 sin 60 sin 55 e = 6.3 sin 60 sin 55 = 6.6604 cm Area = 1 ef sin D 2 1 6.6604 6.3 sin 65 = 2 2 19.015 cm Use the cosine rule to find D. 2 2 2 cos D = e + f d 2ef 2 2 2 = 5.1 + 5.7 5.9 2 5.1 5.7 = 0.4074 D = 65.95 Area = 1 ef sin D 2 = 1 5.1 5.7 sin 65.95 2 2 13.274 cm

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sin I = sin 24 5 12 12 sin 24 sin I = 5 = 0.9671 I = 77.466 or 180 74.466 = 102.533 I is obtuse, so must be 102.533 G = 180 24 108.533 = 53.466 Area = 1 hi sin G 2 = 1 5 12 sin 53.466 2 2 24.105 cm I = 180 10 19 = 151 i = 4 sin 151 sin 19 i = 4 sin 151 sin 19 = 5.9564 Area = 1 ih sin G 2 1 5.9564 4 sin 10 = 2 2 2.069 cm

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Exercise 12E Solutions


1
l = 105 2r 360 = 105 2 25 360 45.81 cm

A represents the interior of a circle of radius 4, centre the origin.

2 a

= 50 = 5 radians 30 3 = 5 180 degrees 3 = 95.4929 = 9530'

cos = 2 = 1 2 4 2 = 2 3 = 2 3 A B is a segment where r = 4, = 2 3 1 r2( sin ) A= 2 2 = 1 4 2 sin 2 2 3 3 2 = 9.83 cm


5

sin = 25 = 0.8333 2 30 = 56.4426 2 = 112.885 = 11253'


3 a

Set your calculator to radian mode. sin = 3 = 0.4285 2 7 = 0.4429 2 = 0.8858 l = r = 7 0.8858 = 6.20 cm This represents the minor segment area. 2 A = 1 r ( sin ) 2 2 = 1 7 (0.8858 sin 0.8858) 2 2 = 2.73 cm

cos = cos 2 2 2 2 = cos sin 2 2 2 2 cos = 1 sin 2 2 2 2 cos = 1 sin sin 2 2 2 = 1 2sin 2
2r (1 cos ) = = =
2 2 2 2r 1 1 2 sin 2 2 2 2r 1 1 + 2sin 2

2 2 2r 2sin 2 2 2 = 4r sin 2 = 2r sin 2

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Proportion visible = 2.6362 2 = 0.41956 41.96%


8 a

Altitude CD = 5 tan 60 = 5 3 cm OD = 5 tan 30 = 5 = 5 3 cm 3 3

Use fractions of an hour (minutes). l = 25 2r 60 25 2 4 = 60 = 10 10.47 m 3 Angle = 25 2 = 5 60 6 2 Area = 1 r 2 1 42 5 = 2 6 20 20.94 m2 = 3

Radius = 5 3 5 3 3 = 15 3 5 3 3 10 3 cm = 3 AOD = 60 AOB = 120

Area = 3 segment area 2 = 3 r ( sin ) 2 = 3 300 2 sin 2 2 9 3 3 = 50 2 sin 2 3 3 2 = 61.42 cm


7 a

C = 2r = 2 20 = 40 125.66 cm

cos =

20 = 0.25 20 + 60 = 1.3181 2 = 2.6362

The required area is the sum of two segments. Let the left area be A1 and the right area A2. tan = 4 3 = 0.9272 2 = 1.8545 2 A1 = 1 3 (1.8545 sin 1.8545) 2 = 4.0256 tan = 3 4 = 0.6435 2 = 1.2870 2 A2 = 1 4 (1.2870 sin 1.2870) 2 = 2.6160 Total area = 4.0256 + 2.6160 2 = 6.64 cm

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10

A = 1 r = 63 2 2 r = 126 126 = 2 r P = r + r + r = 32 126 2r + r 2 = 32 r 126 = 32 2r + r 2 2r + 126 = 32r 2 2r 32r + 126 = 0 2 r 16r + 63 = 0 (r 7)(r 9) = 0 r = 7 or 9 cm 126 = 2 r c 126 When r = 7, = 2 = 18 7 7 c 126 When r = 9, = 2 = 14 9 9
2

12 a

The balls can be enclosed as in the diagram above. 2 = 360 90 60 90 = 120 = 60 x = tan 60 = 3 5 x=5 3 Perimeter = 6 5 3 + 3 10 81.96 cm
b

11 The following diagram can be deduced from the data:

Height of large triangle = (2x + 10) sin 60 = (10 3 + 10) 3 2 = 15 + 5 3 cm Area of large triangle = 1 (10 3 + 10)(15 + 5 3 ) 2 2 173.2050 cm Area of three discs = 10 cm triangle half a circle Height of 10 cm triangle = 10 sin 60
= 5 3 cm 1 10 5 3 1 52 Area = 2 2 = 50 3 12.5 2 4.03 cm

x = 60 10 = 3500 x = 10 35 cos = 10 = 1 60 6 = 1.4033 2 = 2.8066 2 2 = 3.4764 Length of belt on left wheel: l = r = 15 2.8066 = 42.1004 Length of belt on right wheel: l = r = 25 3.4764 = 86.9122 Total = 12 10 25 + 42.1004 + 86.9112 247.33 cm

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Exercise 12F Solutions


1 5

130 = tan 18 d d = 130 tan 18 = 400.10 m


2

h = tan 41 40 h = 40 0.869 = 34.77 m

50 = tan 20 AB AB = 50 tan 20 = 137.373 m 50 = tan 18 AC AC = 50 tan 18 = 153.884 m d = AC AB = 153.884 137.373 16.51 m

500 = tan 41 d d = 500 tan 41 = 575.18 m


4

tan = 15 = 1.5 10 56 The bearing is 056.


7 a

40 = tan 20 d d = 40 tan 20 = 109.90 m

tan = 22 = 1.466 15 = 55.713 The bearing is 90 034.


b
180 + 34 = 214

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Use the cosine rule, where C = 180 40 35 = 105 2 2 AB = c 2 2 = a + b 2ab cos C 2 2 = 2500 + 2000 2 2500 2000 cos 105 = 12 838 190.4510 AB = 3583.04 m
9 10
207 180 = 027

First, use the cosine rule to find LK. 2 2 LK = m 2 2 = k + l 2kl cos M 2 2 = 12 + 9 2 12 9 cos 128 = 357.9829 LK = 18.920 It is easier to use the sine rule to find MLK. sin L = sin 128 18.920 9 sin L = sin 128 9 18.920 = 0.3748 MLK = L 22.01
12 a BAN = 360 346 = 14 BAC = 14 + 35 = 49 b

Use the cosine rule: 2 2 BC = a 2 2 = b + c = 2bc cos A 2 2 = 340 + 160 2 340 160 cos 49 = 69 820.7776 BC = 264.24 km

13

SAB = 90 55 = 35 SBA = 302 270 = 32 ASB = 180 35 32 = 113


11

LMK = 360 90 142 = 128

Use the cosine rule: PSQ = 115 2 2 PQ = s 2 2 = p + q 2pq cos A 2 2 = 5 + 7.5 2 5 7.5 cos 115 = 112.9464 PQ = 10.63 km

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Exercise 12G Solutions


1 a

FH = 12 + 5 = 169 FH = 13 cm
2 2

BH = 13 + 8 = 233 BH = 233 15.26 cm


tan BHF = 8 13 = 0.615 BHF = 31.61

VAD = VAE tan VAE = VE EA = 4 10 4 = 10 3.162 VAE = 72.45 Area of a triangular face = 1 AD VE 2 1 8 4 10 = 2 2 = 16 10 cm 2 Area of base = 8 8 = 64 cm Surface area = 4 16 10 + 64 2 266.39 cm First, sketch the square base, and find the height h of the tree. Mark M as the mid-point of TC and O as the centre of the square.

BGH = 90 and BH = 233 cos BGH = 12 233 = 0.786 BGH = 38.17


AB = 2EF EF = 4 cm tan VEF = VE EF = 12 = 3 4 VEF = 71.57

2 a

VE = 4 + 12 = 160 VE = 160 = 4 10 12.67 cm All sloping sides are equal in length. Choose VA. 2 2 2 VA = VE + EA 2 = 160 + 4 = 176 VA = 176 = 4 11 13.27 cm

OM = TM = 50 m 2 2 2 OT = 50 + 50 = 5000 OT = 5000 m h = tan 20 5000 h = 5000 tan 20 = 25.7365 At A and C, tan = 25.7365 = 0.2573 100 = 14.43 At B, TB = 2 OT = 2 5000 m tan = 25.7365 = 0.1819 5000 = 10.31

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4 a

ABC = 180 90 45 = 45 ABC is isosceles, and CB = AC = 85 m.

XB = sin 32 BC XB = sin 32 85 XB = 85 sin 32 = 45.04 m

For the second buoy: 160 = tan 5 d d = 160 tan 5 = 1828.808 m From the cliff:

5
C = 337 308 = 29 Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 c = 3052.981 + 1828.808 2 3052.981 1828.808 cos 29 = 2 898 675.1436 c = 1702.55 m

50 = tan 26 x x = 50 tan 26 = 102.515 m 2 2 2 y = x + 120 = 24 909.364 y = 24 909.364 = 157.827 m tan = 50 = 0.316 y = 17.58
6

7 a

AC = 12 + 5 = 169 AC = 13 cm tan ACE = 6 13 = 0.4615 ACE = 24.78 Triangle HDF is identical (congruent) to triangle AEC. HFD = ACE HDF = 90 24.28 = 65.22
CH = 12 + 6 = 180 CH = 180 tan ECH = EH CH = 5 = 0.3726 180 ECH = 20.44
2 2 2

From the top of the cliff:


c

For the first buoy: 160 = tan 3 d d = 160 tan 3 = 3052.981 m

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Looking from above, the following diagram applies.

The distance of B from the balloon may be calculated in the same way: 750 = tan 20 d d = 750 tan 20 = 2060.608 m Draw the view from above and use the cosine rule.

Because the angle of elevation is 45, AT will equal the height of the tower, h m. Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 BT = h + 100 2 h 100 cos 60 2 2 = h + 100 200h 1 2 2 2 = h 100h + 100 From point B:

x = 893.815 + 2060.608 2 893.815 2060.608 cos 70 = 3 785 143.5836 x = 1945.54 m


10 a Find the length of an altitude:

h = tan 26 d d= h tan 26 = 2.050h 2 2 2 2 2.050 h = h 100h + 100 2 2 4.2037h = h 100h + 10 000 2 3.2037h + 100h = 10 000 Using the quadratic formula: h 42.40 m

Find the horizontal distance of A from the balloon.


b

a = 2.5 + 6 = 42.45 a 6.5 cm The sloping edges are also the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle. 2 2 2 s = 2.5 + 6.5 = 48.5 s 6.96 cm
Area = 1 5 6.5 2 2 = 16.25 cm

750 = tan 40 d d = 750 tan 40 = 893.815 m

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11 a b

Distance = 300 1 = 5 km 60
Looking from above:

Let the angle of elevation be . 2 2 2 OC = 3535.533 + 2535.533 = 18 928 932 OC = 4350.739 tan = 500 4350.739 = 0.1149 = 6.56 = 633'

AE = 5000 sin 45 = 5000 3535.433 2 CE = 5000 sin 45 = 5000 3535.433 2 CD = CE DE = 3535.533 1000 = 2535.533 tan COD = 2535.533 3535.533 = 0.7171 COD = 35.65 Bearing = 180 + 35.65 = 215.65

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1 Use the sine rule.
sin Y = sin X x y sin Y = sin 62 18 21 sin Y = 18 sin 62 21 = 0.7568

First find the angle at the centre using the cosine rule.
cos C = 6 + 6 5 266 = 0.6527 c C = 49.248 = 0.8595 2 Segment area = 1 r ( sin ) 2 1 62 (0.8595 sin 0.8595) = 2
2 2 2

Y = 49.2 2 Use the cosine rule.


c = a + b 2ab cos C
2 2 2 2 2

1.8 cm

= 30 + 21 2 30 21 51 53 = 128.547 c 11

7 C

Use the cosine rule.


cos C = a + b c 2ab 2 2 2 = 5.2 + 6.8 7.3 2 5.2 6.8 = 0.2826 C 74
2 2 2

C 8

500 = tan 20 d d = 500 tan 20 1374 m tan = 80 1300 = 0.0615 = 3.521 4

Area = 1 bc sin A 2 = 1 5 3 sin 30 2

= 3.75 cm

The other angles in the (isosceles) triangle are both


180 130 = 25. 2

Use the sine rule.


10 = r sin 130 sin 25 r = 10 sin 25 sin 130 5.52 cm tan = 7 = 1.4 5 = 54

Bearing = 270 + 54 = 324 10 215 180 = 035

C A

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

a = b + c 2bc cos A
2 2 2 6 = x + 10 2x 10 3 2 2 x 10 3 x + 64 = 0

x = 10 3 300 4 1 64 2 = 10 3 44 2 = 10 3 2 11 2 = 5 3 11
b

QR = 12 + 20 2 12 20 cos 60 = 144 + 400 240 = 304 QR = 304 = 16 19 = 4 19 km

sin y = sin 30 6 10 sin y = 10 sin 30 6 10 = 5 = 12 6 1 y = sin 5 6


1 or sin 5 6 Since both answers to a are positive, this must be an ambiguous case.

Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 AC = 5 + 5 2 5 5 cos 120 = 25 + 25 + 25 = 75 AC = 75 = 5 3 cm Area = 1 5 5 sin 120 2 2 = 25 3 cm 4 In isosceles triangle ABC, ACB = BAC = 1 (180 120) = 30 2 ACD = 90 30 = 60 Area of ADC = 1 7 AC sin 60 2 =175 3 3 2 2 105 cm2 = 4

2 a

Triangle is isosceles, so B = 30 and C = 150. Area = 1 40 40 sin 150 2 2 = 400 cm = 1 bh 2 20h = 400 h = 20 cm CM = sin 30 40 CM = 40 sin 30 = 20 cm

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Total area = 25 3 + 105 4 4 25 3 + 105 = 4 5(5 3 + 21) cm2 = 4


x = 180 37 = 143

9 a

i TAB = 90 60 = 30 ii ATB = 180 30 (90 + 45) = 15


AT = 300 sin 135 sin 15 AT = sin 135 300 = 1 1200 2 6 2 1200 = 12 2 = 1200 = 600 2 3 2 3 1 600 3 + 1 = 3 1 3 +1 = 600( 3 + 1) 31 = 300( 3 + 1) m 4 6 2

5 6

cos S = 10 + 7 8 2 10 7 85 = 17 = 140 28

10

sin B = sin A b a sin B = sin 60 6 5 sin ABC = sin B = 6 sin 60 5 = 6 3 52 =3 3 5


A=1r 2 1 62 33 = 2 = 18 = 33 = 11 (radians) 18 6
2

Use the cosine rule. 2 2 AC = b 2 2 = a + c 2ac cos B 2 2 = 11 + 15 2 11 15 cos 60 = 121 + 225 165 = 181 AC = 181 km
11

Draw a line AD in an easterly direction from A (parallel to BC.)

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13

DAC = 30 ACB = DAC = 30 ABC = 180 30 30 = 120 BC = 2.4 km Use the cosine rule to find AC. 2 2 AC = b 2 2 = a + c 2ac cos B 2 2 = 2.4 + 2.4 2 2.4 2.4 cos 120 = 5.76 + 5.76 + 5.76 = 17.28 AC = 17.28

l = r 30 = 12 c = 30 = 5 2 12 2 A = 1 12 5 2 2 2 = 180 cm

14 The reflex angle = 2 2 2 3.14 2 4.28 radians Arc length 5 4.28 = 21.4 cm 15 First calculate the distance of each boat from the cliff. The first boat will form a right-angled isosceles triangle and is 11 m from the cliff.

= 5.76 3 = 2.4 3 or 12 3 km 5
12 a Draw a perpendicular from O to bisect AB. sin AOD = 12 13 1 AOD = sin 12 13 1 12 AOB = 2 sin 13 arc AB = r 1 = 13 2 sin 12 13 1 12 = 26 sin 13 b
ReflexAOB = 2 2 sin 12 13 1 132 2 2 sin1 12 area = 2 13 1 2 = 169 sin 12 cm 13 Note: the perpendicular distance from O to AB can be calculated to be 5 cm using Pythagoras theorem, and so 1 1 1 sin 12 = cos 5 = tan 12. 13 13 5 Either of these three angles may be used interchangeably.
1

For the second boat, 11 = tan 30 = 1 d 3

d = 11 3 m

Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 x = 11 + (11 3 ) 2 11 11 3 cos 30 = 121 + 363 363 = 121 x = 11 m

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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

cos = 2.1 2.6 = 0.8076 36


Maximum = 2 Minimum = 4 Amplitude = 2 4 2 =2

The sine and cosine rules allow us to find the unknown quantities: Area = 1 bc sin A 2 2 2 2 a = b + c 2bc cos A sin B = sin A b a D All three statements are correct.
AG = 15 = 3 DG 5 AG = 3DG = 18 AE = 18 9 = 9 BG = AG FG EG FG + 6 = 18 = 2 9 FG FG + 6 = 2FG FG = 6 x =6=2 FG 9 3 x = 2 FG 3 26=4 = 3

c = a sin C sin A c = 58 sin 38 sin 130 c = 58 sin 38 sin 130

Convert both to mm. The scale is 45 : 17 100 Divide both parts of the ratio by 45. Scale = 1 : 380 C

( x, y) (y, x) (5, 2) (2, 5)


cos A = 1 sin A = 1 25 169 =
2

D 9

(x, y) ( y, x) (2, 6) (6, 2)

144 = 12 169 13
2

10 The graph is y = cos (a) raised 1 unit, i.e. y = cos (a) + 1 E 11 cos A = 1 sin A = 1 25 169
2

cos B = 1 sin B = 1 64 289 =

225 = 15 289 17 sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B = 5 15 12 8 13 17 13 17 75 96 = 221 = 21 B 221

144 = 12 169 13
2

cos B = 1 sin B = 1 64 289 =

225 = 15 289 17

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tan A = sin A cos A = 5 12 13 13 = 5 13 = 5 13 12 12 tan B = sin B cos B = 8 15 17 17 = 8 17 = 8 17 15 15 tan (A + B) = tan A + tan B 1 tan A tan B 5 + 8 12 15 = 1 5 8 12 15 Multiply numerator and denominator by 12 15. tan (A + B) = 5 15 + 8 12 12 15 5 8 = 75 + 96 180 40 171 = E 140
12 The image after translation is (5 + 2, 4 + 3) = (7, 7) The y-ordinate, 7, is 8 units below y = 1. After reflection, it will be 8 units above y = 1, i.e. 9. The x-ordinate will be unchanged. B The final image will be (7, 9). 13 Write both in cm. The ratio is 8 : 320 = 1 : 40 14 sin x = 3 2 6 = or x 3 6 3 x = + or 2 + 3 6 3 6 or 5 = 6 2 15 Area = 1 bc sin A 2 1 6 7 sin 48 = 2 E

16 sin = 1 c cot = cos sin c = 2 1c

17 When a = 0, y = 1. This must mean that the equation is a sine function (since sin 0 = 0), where the result is then reduced by 1 (0 1 = 1).

Only C fits that description.

18 Start with the point in the first quadrant, left of x = m. The y-ordinate will be unchanged. The x-ordinate initially will be (m a) left of x = m. After reflection, it will be (m a) to the right of x = m, i.e. m + (m a). A The point will be (2m a, b). 19 = l r 3 radians = 4 This is 3 180 = 135 4 4258

20 y = a sin b Amplitude = a = 1 for both graphs Period = 2 b 2 = 2 for first equation = 1 2 = = 4 for second equation 1 2 y = sin 1 has the same amplitude 2 A but double the period.

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21 Refer to Q.18 regarding reflection in the line x = 4. (x, y) 1 x, y 2 8 1 x, y 2 y' = y y = y' x' = 8 1 x x = 16 2x' 2 x + y = 4 (16 2x') + y' = 4 y' = 4 (16 2x') = 2x' 12 Image: {(x, y): y = 2x 12} E 22 cos A cos B sin A sin B = cos (A + B) = cos 2 =0 D 23 cos A = 1 sin A =15=4 9 9 2 cos A = 3 sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A =2 5 2 3 3 = 4 5 9 24
2 2

25 y = 0 when x = and 2 12 3 Since sin 0 = 0, this is a sine function where y = sin a x . 12 The graph is positive between 0 and , so the function will be positive. Only y = sin 2 x fits these 12 A criteria. 26
DE = 10 = 2.5 AB 4 DE = 2.5 AB 2 Area = 2.5 24 2 = 150 cm

27 Period = 180 = 60 3 The tangent graph does not have an amplitude. The graph is y = 2 tan (3x) reflected in the x-axis. A Only i and iv are correct.
28

(x, y) (x + 3, y + 2) (x + 3, y 2) x' = x + 3 x = x' 3 y' = y 2 y = y' 2 2 y=x 2 y' 2 = (x' + 3) 2 y' + 2 = (x' + 3) 2 Image: {( x, y): (x + 3) = y + 2} B

29

60 r2 = 1 52 360 6 2 13.09 cm
KO : KN = 1 : 3 area KOP = 1 area MLK 9 area KOP =11= 1 area (MLK + MNK) 9 2 18 area KOP = 1 area KLMN 18

Use similar triangles. x = 1.6 2 5.6 = 16 = 2 56 7 4 x= 7 0.57 m

30

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31

OE = 40 mm tan = VO OE = 100 = 2.5 40 68

32

sin = 1 c sin 2 = 2 sin cos


= 2c 1 c
2

36 110 = 110 180 c c = 11 1.9198 18 1 r2( sin ) A= 2 1 452 (1.9198 sin 1.9198) = 2 2 992 cm B 37 8 sin cos 8 sin cos 2 2 = 8 sin cos (cos sin ) = 4 sin 2 cos = 2 sin 4 C 38 The graph has asymptotes at 2 and 3, so the graph is not shifted left 2 or right (no addition or subtraction after the tan function). (0, 3) is an x-intercept, so the equation must produce y = 3 when x = 0. Only C fills these criteria. C
3 2 2 39 2 R : 1 r = 27 : 4 3 3 3 3 2R : r = 27 : 4 3 3 R : r = 27 : 4 2 = 27 : 8
3 3

33 (x, y) 1 x, y 3 1 x, 2y 3 1 x x = 3x' x' = 3 y' = 2y y = 1 y' 2 x =2 y 1 y' = 23x' 2 3x' y' = 2 2 3x Image: y = 2 2 34 Write in the form R cos ( x + ).

R= 4 +3 =5 cos = 4 5 = 36.869 5 cos (x + 36.869) = 1 cos (x + 36.869) = 1 = 0.2 5 x + 36.869 = 78.463 or 360 78.463 = 281.536 x 41.59 C or 244.67
35

R : r = 3 27 : 3 8 R:r=3:2

A + B = 5 = 125 3 27 A 3 A + 49 = 125 27 A 27A + 49 27 = 125A 98A = 49 27 A = 49 27 98 3 = 27 = 13.5 cm 2

40 TS means S followed by T. If the x-ordinate is on the right of x = 2, its distance from x = 2 after reflection will be x 2 units to the left of x = 2. The new x-ordinate will be 2 (x 2) = 4 x. The y-ordinate will be unchanged. (x, y) (4 x, y) (4 x + 2, y + 3) TS(x, y) (6 x, y + 3) D

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41 The net transformation is 0 1 1 0 = 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 = 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 = 1 2 1 1 3 0 1 0 = 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 = 0 2 1 0 2 These points correspond to E.

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Chapter 14 Circle theorems


Exercise 14A Solutions
1 a 2

50 = 1 x 2 x = 100 y=1x 2 = 50

The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. x + 112 = 180 x = 68 y + 59 = 180 y = 121
x + 68 = 180 x = 112 y + 93 = 180 y = 87 x + 130 = 180 x = 50 y + 70 = 180 y = 110 Let the equal angles be x. 2x + 40 = 180 2x = 140 x = 70 The angles in the minor segments will be the opposite angles of cyclic quadrilaterals. 180 70 = 110 180 70 = 110 180 40 = 140

y = 360 108 = 252 x = 1 290 = 1451 2 x = 1 108 = 54 2


Acute O = 2 35 = 70 z = 360 70 = 290 y = 1 290 = 145 2

O = 180 x = 360 180 = 180 y = 90 (Theorem 3)


3x + x = 180 4x = 180 x = 45 z = 2 3x = 2 3 45 = 270 y = 360 270 = 90

x + y + 25 + 125 = 360 x + y = 210 A line from x to the 125 angle will create two isosceles triangles one with angles 25, 25 and x1, and angles 100, y and x2. The base angles in an isosceles triangle are complementary, so y = 100. x = 210 100 = 110

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4
A

6
B C

28 E

70

B
A D

20 D

C
E

In cyclic quadrilateral ABDE, DEA = 110 On arc DC, DBC = 28 ABC = 70 + 28 = 98 Join EB. Equal chords will subtend equal angles at the circumference. ABE = EBD = 35 EAD = 35 (also on equal arcs ) On arc BC, BAC = BDC = 20 EAB = 35 + 28 + 20 = 83 In cyclic quadrilateral ABDE, EDB = 180 83 = 97 EDC = 97 + 20 = 117 In cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, BCD = 180 (28 + 20) = 132
5

ADE + ADC = 180 ABC = ADC (opposite angles in a parallelogram) ADE + ABC = 180 AED + ABC = 180 (opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral) ADE = AED AE = AD

7
C

B 120

D A

BAC = BDC (subtended by the same arc) DAC = BDA (subtended by equal arcs) BAC + DAC = BDC + BDA BAD = ADC ADC + ABC = 180 (opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral) BAD + ABC = 180 BC and AD are thus parallel, as co-interior angles are supplementary

ADC = 120 = 60 2 If B and D are on opposite sides of AOC, then ADC = 240 = 120. 2 (Reflex angle ADC = 360 120 will be used.)
8

The opposite angles in a parallelogram are equal. In a cyclic parallelogram, the opposite angles will add to 180. the opposite angles equal 90 . all angles are 90 , i.e. the parallelogram is a rectangle (subtended by the same arc).

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9
C B Q R P A D

In triangle BCS, BSC = 180 SBC BCS = 180 1ABC 1BCD 2 2 Likewise, AQD = 180 1BAC 1CDA 2 2 BSC + ACD = 180 1ABC 1BCD + 180 1BAD 1CDA 2 2 2 2 1(ABC + BCD + BAD + CDA) = 360 2 ABC + BCD + BAD + CDA = 360 (angle sum of quadrilateral) BSC + AQD = 360 180 = 180 both pairs of opposite angles in PQRS will add to 180. PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral.

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Exercise 14B Solutions


1 a 4

x = 73 (alternate segments) y = 81 (alternate segments)


T = 90 x = 90 33 = 57 q = 57 (alternate segment theorem)

116 A E

y = 74 (alternate segments) z = 180 74 2 = 53 x = 53 (alternate segments)


x = 180 80 40 = 60 Use the alternate segment theorem to find the other angles. y = 180 60 60 = 60 w = 180 40 40 = 100 z = 180 80 80 = 20

w = z = x = 54 (alternate segment, alternate angles and isosceles triangle PTS) y = 180 54 54 = 72


BCX = 40 CBD = 40 ABC = 2 40 = 80

Triangle ABC is isosceles; ABC = ACB = 180 116 = 32 2 Using the alternate angle theorem, BDC = ACB = 32. BEC + BDC = 180 (opposite angles in cyclic quadrilateral BCED) BEC = 180 32 = 148
5
E D

2 a b c 3

In CAT, ACB = 180 30 110 = 40 The alternate segment theorem shows BAT = 40. CAB = 110 40 = 70 In CAB, ABC = 180 40 70 = 70

There are multiple ways of proving this result. ADB = DCB (alternate segment theorem) DCB = DCE (subtended by equal arcs) ADB = DCE DBA + DBC = 180 DEC + DBC = 180 DBA = DEC triangles ABD and CDE are similar, since two pairs of opposite angles are equal.

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6
C T

8
T A

P
A B

TCB = CBA (alternate angles) TCB = CAB (alternate segment) CBA = CAB ABC is an isosceles triangle with CA = CB.
7
A B T P Q

Let T be the point where the perpendicular from P meets the tangent at A Let O be the centre of the circle. Join PA and PB. Consider triangles OAN and OBN: ANO = BNO = 90 OA = OB (radii) ON is common to both triangles. AON BON (RHS) AN = BN Now consider triangles PAN and PBN: AN = BN PNA = PNB = 90 PN is common to both triangles. PAN PBN (SAS) PAN = PBN
Now consider triangles PAT and PAN: PBN = PAT (alternate segment theorem) PAT = PAN PTA = PNA = 90 PA is common to both triangles. PAT PAN (AAS) PT = PN

TAP = AQP (alternate segment) AQP = BAQ (alternate angles) TAP = BAQ APT + APQ = 180 (adjacent angles) AQB + APQ = 180 (opposite angles) APT = ABQ Triangles PAT and BAQ are similar, since two pairs of opposite angles are equal.

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Exercise 14C Solutions


1
A P D
C
7 cm

O 5c m

B P D

B
A

APPB = CPPD 5 4 = 2PD PD = 10 cm


APPB = CPPD 4PB = 3 8 PB = 6 cm

2
B P 5 cm C

PD = 7 cm 5 cm = 2 cm Let PB = x cm PA = 4x cm APPB = CPPD 4x x = 12 2 2 x =6 x= 6 AB = 4 6 + 5 = 5 6 cm


4
A

8 cm

3 cm O
Q

B R

Let the centre of the circle be O and the length of the radius r cm. Extend OP to meet the circumference of the circle at C and D. CP = r 3 and PD = r + 3 CPPD = APPB (r 3)(r + 3) = 8 5 2 r 9 = 40 2 r = 49 r = 7 cm

Use theorem 9: 2 PQ = PAPB 2 PR = PAPB 2 2 PQ = PR PQ = PR

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5
C S P O B A Q R

6
A

B E

Let the centre of the circles be O. Let the radii of the larger and smaller circles be R and r respectively. Let QP produced meet the larger circle at S. By symmetry, SP = RQ. Extend OQ to meet the larger circle at A and C, and the smaller circle at B. Since SP = RQ, SP + PQ = RQ + PQ SQ = PR Using the large circle, SQRQ = AQCQ PRRQ = (R + r)(R r), which is constant

Let P be a point on BC such that AP is perpendicular to BC. Because ABC is isosceles, AP will bisect AB. Let AP = x and PC = PB = y. DP = y BD CD = 2y BD Using Pythagoras theorem twice, we 2 2 2 get AB = x + y in triangle ABP and in triangle ADP. 2 2 2 AD = x + (y BD) 2 2 2 = x + y 2y BD + BD 2 = AB BD(2y BD) 2 = AB BDCD BDCD = DEAD 2 2 AD = AB DEAD 2 2 AB = AD + DEAD = AD(AD + DE) = ADAE

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280

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

In isosceles triangle ABD, ABD = ADB = 180 70 = 55 2 ACD is subtended by the same arc, so B ACD = 55. In quadrilateral OAPB, OAP = OBP = 90 APB = 360 150 90 90 = 30 The angle subtended at the circumference on minor arc AB is 150 = 75. 2 This angle is opposite Q in a cyclic quadrilateral. A AQB = 180 75 = 105 There are multiple ways to solve this problem. OAB = 68 BAT = 90 68 = 22 ABT = 180 20 68 = 92 E ATB = 180 22 92 = 66
BAC = 60 Reflex BOC = 360 120 = 240 In quadrilateral ABOC, ABO = 360 240 42 60 = 18

BAD = 50 (alternate segment theorem) ABD = 50 (alternate segment theorem) In triangle ABD, ADB = 180 50 50 = 80 A

7
A P D

APPB = CPPD 12 6 = 2PD PD = 36 cm


8

DAB = 180 65 = 115 Corresponding angles on parallel lines C CBE = 115

NB = 13 5 = 8 cm NQ = PN ANNB = PNNQ 2 = PN 2 18 8 = PN PN = 144 = 12cm 2 2 2 PB = 12 + 8 = 208 PB = 208


= 16 13 = 4 13 cm
B

In triangle BAX, BAX = 180 40 105 = 35 Angles are subtended by the same arc A XSC = BAX = 35

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10 CDA = 90 (angle subtended by a diameter) In triangle ACD, CAD = 180 90 25 = 65 CBD = ACD = 65 BCD = 180 75 = 105 In triangle BCD, BDC = 180 105 65 = 10 A

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a 2

Theorem 1: y = 140 = 70 2 Theorem 4: x + y = 180 x = 180 70 = 110 Name the quadrilateral ABCD, in which y is at A and x is at B. Let P be the point of intersection of AC and BD. In triangle XCD, CDX = 180 50 75 = 55 BCD = 90 (angle subtended by a diameter) In triangle BCD, x = BDC = 180 90 55 = 35 y = x = 35 (angles subtended by the same arc)

Using angles on arc AP, POA = 2CBA Using alternate angles, POA = CAB CAB = 2CBA Using angles on arc AP, POA = 2CBA Using alternate angles, OPC = CBA Using the exterior angle of triangle OCP, PCA = POC + OPC = POA + OPC PCA = 2CBA + CBA = 3CBA

Angles in the same segment are equal: x = 47 y = 53 z = 360 (180 53 47) (180 53 47) 2 360 160 = 2 = 100

First note that y = x. Consider the concave quadrilateral containing the 30 angle. Its angles are 30, 180 70 = 110, x + 70 and x + 70, using supplementary angles, vertically opposite angles and exterior angles of a triangle. x + 70 + x + 70 + 110 + 30 = 260 2x + 280 = 260 x = 40 y = 40 z = 180 (x + 70) = 70

OBC = OAB + AOB (exterior angle of triangle AOB) OBC = OAB + AOB (exterior angle of triangle AEB) BAE = 1OAB 2 BEA = 1AOB (angles on arc AB) 2 1 (OAB + AOB) EBC = 2 = 1OBC 2 i.e. EB bisects OBC.

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4
A D P

Make a construction as shown below.

48

B Q

PBD = BAP (alternate segment) BAP = BDQ (angles on arc BQ) PBD = BDQ These are alternate angles on BP and QD. BP is parallel to QD.
5 a 6

Marked angle = 180 48 2 = 66 x = 66(alternate segment) y = 180 66 = 114 (cyclic quadrilateral)

The base angle of the isosceles triangle is 57 (alternate segment theorem) x = 180 57 57 = 66 Make a construction as shown below.
x 64

y = 64 (alternate segment theorem) x = 180 64 = 116 (cyclic quadrilateral)

Consider triangles MNQ and NPM. MQN = NMP (alternate segment) MNQ = NPM (alternate segment) the triangles are similar and MN = QM . NP MN 2 Cross multiplying gives MN = NPQM
7
AEEB = CEED 15 5 = 25ED ED = DE = 3 cm

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Chapter 15 Vectors
Exercise 15A Solutions
1 a 4

1 is the vector "1 across to the right 5 and 5 up."

OA = 1 0 = 1 2 0 2 AB = 3 1 = 2 0 2 2

BC = 2 3 = 1 3 0 3 CO = OC = 2 3 CB = BC = 1 3

0 is the vector "2 down." 2

1 is the vector "1 across to the left 2


and 2 down."

5 a

b d

4 is the vector "1 across to the left 3


and 3 up."

c 2

u = 6 1 = 5 6 5 1 a = 5, b = 1
v = 2 1 = 3 10 5 15 a = 3, b = 15

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f e

7 6 a

From the graphs above it can be seen that a and c are parallel.

8 a&b

d d

AB = 1 1 40 DC = 4 2 3 1 AB = DC ii BC = 4 1 34 AD = 2 1 1 0 BC = AD
i

= 2 4 = 2 4
= 3 1 = 3 1

ABCD is a parallelogram.

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9 a i a + b = 1 + 1 2 3 = 1+1 = 2 2 + 3 1 ii 2c a = 2 2 1 1 2 4 1 = 5 = 22 0 iii a + b c = 2 2 1 1 = 2 2 = 4 1 1 2

MN = AB (both are equal to b)

12 a CB = CA + AB = a+b MN = MA + AN = 1b+1a 2 2 1 ( a + b) = 2 b

MN is half the length of CB , is parallel to CB and in the opposite direction to CB.

a+b= 2 = c 1 a + b is parallel to c.

13 a b c

CD = AF = a ED = AB = b
The regular hexagon can be divided into equilateral triangles, showing that

10 m 3 + n 2 = 3m + 2n 3 4 3m 4n = 3m + 2n = 19 3m + 4n 61 3m + 2n = 19 6m + 4n = 38 3m + 4n = 61 : 9m = 99 m = 11 33 + 2n = 19 2n = 19 + 33 = 14 n=7 11 a i MD = MA + AD = 1 BA + b 2 = 1 AB + b 2 =b1a 2 ii MN = MA + AD + DN = 1 BA + b + 1 DN 2 2 1 AB + b + 1 DC = 2 2 1a+b+1a = 2 2 =b

BE = 2AF = 2a.
d e f

Likewise, FC = 2AB = 2b

FA = AF = a
FB = FA + AB = a+b=ba
FE = FA + AB + BE = a + b + 2a =a+b

14

a b c

DC = AB = a DA = BC = b AC = AB + BC = a + b

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d e

CA = AC = a b
b

QS = QR + RS = v + w
PS = PQ + QR + RS =u+v+w

BD = BA + AD = a+b=ba

15 17

a b

BA = BO + OA = a b
AB = BA = b a PB = 1 AB = 1 (b a) 3 3
AP = 2 AB = 2 (b a) 3 3 OP = OA + AP = a + 2 (b a) 3 1a+2b = 3 3 1 (a + 2b) = 3
PQ = 1 OP 3 = 1 1 (a + 2b) 3 3 1 (a + 2b) = 9
BP = PB = 1 (a b) 3 BQ = BP + OA = 1 (a b) + a 3 = 1 (4a b) 3

OB = OA + AB = u + v AM = MB = 1 AB = 1 v 2 2 OM = OA + AM =u+1v 2

CM = CB + BM = u + 1 BA 2 1v =u 2
CP = 2 CM 3 = 2 u 1 v 2 3 2u1v = 3 3

16 e

OP = OC + CP = v + 2 u 1 v 3 3 2u+2v = 3 3 2 (u + v) = 2 AB = 3 3 Since OP is parallel to OB and they share a common point O, OP must be on the line OP. Hence P is on OB.

Using the result from part d, OP : PB = 2 : 3.

PR = PQ + QR = u + v

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Exercise 15B Solutions


1

AB = (3i 5j) (i + 2j) = 3i 5i i 2j = 2i 7j

OP = OA + AP = 5i + 6j AB = AO + OB = 5i + 6j BA = AB = 5i 6j

xu + yv = x(7i + 8j) + y(2i 4j) = 7xi + 8xj + 2yi 4yj = 44j 7x + 2y = 0 14x + 4y = 0 8x 4y = 44 + : 22x = 44 x=2 7 2 + 2y = 0 2y = 14 y = 7

3 a b c

5i = 5 = 5 2j = (2) = 2
3i + 4j = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 5 5i + 12j = (5) + 12 = 25 + 144 = 13
2 2 2 2

AB = AO + OB = OA + OB = 10i + (4i + 5j) = 6i + 6j AM = 1 AB 2 = 3i + 5 j 2 OM = OA + AM = 10i + 3i + 5 j 2 5j = 7i + 2


6

4 a

u v = (7i + 8j) (2i 4j) = 7i + 8j 2i + 4j = 5i + 12j |u v| = |5i + 12j| = 25 + 144 = 13

i OM = 1 OP 5 2i = 5 ii MQ = MO + OQ = OM + OQ = 2i+j 5

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iii MN = 1 MQ 6 = 1 2 i + j 6 5 1 i+1j = 15 6 iv ON = OM + MN = 2 i + 1 + 1 j 15i 6 5 1i+1j = 3 6 v OA = OP + PA = 2i + j b i ON = 1 i + 1 j 3 6 1 (2i + j) = 6 1 OA = 6 Since ON is parallel to OA and they share a common point O, ON must be on the line OA. Hence N is on OA. ii 1 : 5

x+y=6 xy=0 + : 2x = 6 x=3 3+y=6 y=3


k = 3 + 2l k = 2 l 3 + 2l = 2 l 3l = 5 l= 5 3 k = 2 5 3 5 = 2 + 3 1 = 3

9 a
AB = 5 2 1 3 = 3 2 = 3i 2j

OA = 1 = i + 3j 3 OB = 5 = 5i j 1 AB = OA + OB = i 3j + 5i j = 4i 4j

AB = 3 + (2) = 9+4 = 13

AB = 4 + (4) = 16 + 16 = 32 = 4 2 units

10 a

AB = i + 4j 3i = 2i + 4j AC = 3i + j 3i = 6i + j
BC = AC AB = 6i + j (2i + 4j) = 4i 3j

8 a

b
2i + 3j = 2li + 2kj 2j = 2 l=1 2k = 3 k=2 3

x1=5 x=6 y=x4 =2

BC = (4) + (3) = 16 + 9 =5

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11 a Let D = (a, b). AB = 5i + 3j CD = ( a + 1)i + bj a + 1 = 5 a = 6 b=3 D is (6, 3). b

13

i 2i j ii 5i + 4j iii i + 7j iv 6i + 3j v AD = BC = 6i + 3j

Let F = (c, d). BC = i 4j AF = (c 5)i + (d 1)j c 5 = 1 c=4 d 1 = 4 d = 3 F is (4, 3). Let G = (e, f). AB = 5i + 3j 2GC = 2(1 e)i + 2( f)j 2(1 e) = 5 e=3 2 2f = 3 f= 3 2 3, 3 . G is 2 2

AD = OD OA OD = AD + OA = 6i + 3j + 2i j = 8i + 2j D is (8, 2).

14 a OP = 12i + 5j PQ = OQ OP = 18i + 13j 12i 5j = 6i + 8j b


RQ = OP = 12 + 5 = 13
2 2

OR = PQ = 6 +8 = 10
2 2

12 OA = AO = i 4j A is (1, 4).

B is (2, 2).
BC = OC OB OC = BC + OB = 2i + 8j + (2i + 2j) = 10j C is (0, 10)

15 a i ii

AB = |2i 5j| = 2 + 5 = 29
2 2

BC = |10i + 4j| = 10 + 4 = 116 = 2 29


2 2

iii CA = |12i j|
= 12 + 1 = 145
2 2

AB + BC = 29 + 116 2 = 145 = AC ABC is a right-angled triangle.

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16 a i AB = i 3j ii BC = 4i + 2j iii CA = 3i + j b i ii

17 a i OA = 3i + 2j ii OB = 7j iii BA = 3i 5j iv BM = 1 BA 2 1 (3i 5j) = 2 b


OM = OB + BM OD = 7j + 3 i 5 j 2 2 3i+9j = 2 2 3, 5 M= 2 2

AB = 1 + 3 = 10

BC = 4 + 2 = 20 = 2 5

iii CA = 3 + 1 = 10 c

AB = CA = 10 2 2 AB + CA = 10 + 10 2 = 20 = BC ABC is an isosceles right-angled triangle.

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292

Exercise 15C Solutions


1 a

a b = (i + j + 2k) (2i j + 3k) = i + 2j k


3b 2a + c = 3(2i j + 3k) 2(i + j + 2k) + ( i + k) = 6i 3j + 9k 2i 2j 4k i + k = 3i 5j + 6k
|b| = 2 + (1) + 3 = 4+1+9 = 14
2 2 2

|a| = 1 + 1 + 5 = 27 = 3 3
2 2

|b| = 2 + 1 + 3 = 14 c = |a| a |b| = 14 (i j + 5k) 3 3 = 42 (i j + 5k) 9


4 a b

|b + c| = |(2i j + 3k) + ( i + k)| = |i j + 4k| = 1 + (1) + 4 = 18 = 3 2


2 2 2

PQ = i 3j

PQ = 1 + 3 + 0 = 10

3(a b) + 2c = 3((i + j + 2k) (2i j + 3k)) + 2( i + k) = 3( i + 2j k) 2i + 2k = 3i + 6j 3k 2i + 2k = 5i + 6j k

OM = OP + PM = OP + 1 PQ 2
= i + 2j k + 1 i 3 j 2 2 3i+1jk = 2 2

2 a i |a| = 3 + 1 + 1 = 11 ^ = 1 (3i + j k) a 11 = 3 i+ 1 j 1 k 11 11 11 6 i 2 j+ 2 k a ii 2^ = 11 11 11
2 2 2

5 a

OB = OA + OC = 2j + 2k OE = OA + OD = i + 2j OG = OC + OD = i + 2k OF = OA + OC + OD = i + 2j + 2k ED = OA = 2j EG = OA + OC = 2j + 2k

5^ = 15 i + 5 j 5 k a 11 11 11

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CE = OC + OA + OD = i + 2j 2k BD = OC OA + OD = i 2j 2k

6 a

OE = OA + AE = i + 3j OM = 1 OE 3 1i+j = 3 BF = OD =i BN = 1 BF 2 1i = 2 ON = OC + CB + BN = 1 i + 3j + 2k 2 MN = ON OM = 1 i + 3j + 2k 1 i + j 3 2 1 i + 2j + 2k = 6

MN = = =

1 + 22 + 22 6

1 + 144 + 144 36 289 36

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294

Exercise 15D Solutions


1 a i OR = 4 OP 5 4p = 5 1 OP ii RP = 5 1p = 5 iii PQ = q p iv PS = 1 PQ 5 1 ( q p) = 5 v RS = RP + PS = 1 p + 1 (q p) 5 5 1q = 5 b c d b

OPQ is a straight line if OP = nOQ. 1 a + 2 b = n k a + 6 b 7 3 3 7 = nk a + 6n b 7 7 2 = 6n 3 7 n = 14 = 7 18 9 1 a + 2 b = 7 k a + 6 b 3 9 7 7 3 ka+2b = 9 3 k=1 9 3 k=3

3 a i OD = 1 OB 3 1 (6i 1.5j) = 3 = 2i 0.5j AB = 3i 6j AE = 1 (3i 5j) 4 = 0.75i 1.25j OE = OA + AE = 3i + 3.5j + 0.75i 1.25j = 3.75i + 2.25j = 15 i + 9 j 4 4 ii ED = 2i 0.5j 15 i + 9 j 4 4 6 i 11 j = 4 4 2 2 7 + 11 ED = 4 4 = 49 + 121 16 = 170 16 170 = 4

They are parallel (and OQ = 5RS). A trapezium (one pair of parallel lines). The area of triangle POQ is 25 times the area of PRS = 125 cm2. area of ORSQ = 125 5 = 120 cm2

2 a

AP = 2 AB and CQ = 6 CB. 3 7

OP = OA + AP = OA + 2 AB 3 2 (b a) =a+ 3 1a+2b = 3 3 OQ = OC + CQ = OC + 6 CB 7 6 (b ka) = ka + 7 ka+6b = 7 7

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i OX = 15p i + 9p j 4 4 ii AD = 2i 0.5j (3i + 3.5j) = i 4j XD = qi 4qj OD = OX + OD OX = OD XD = 2i = 0.5j ( qi 4qj) = (q + 2)i + (4q 0.5)j
(q + 2)i + (4q 0.5)j = 15p i + 9p j 4 4 15p q+2= 4 4q + 8 = 15p 4q 0.5 = 9p 4 51p : 8.5 = 4 8.5 4 p= 51 2 = 3 q + 2 = 15p 4 10 = 5 = 4 2 1 q= 2

It can be seen from the parallelogram formed by adding a and b that a + will lie on the bisector of angle POQ. Hence any multiple, (a + b), will also lie on this bisector. ii If p = ka and q = lb, then OM = p + q + = ka + lb an + If M is the bisector of POQ , OM = a + b l = k Divide both sides by l: =k l
5

4 a

PQ = q p = PM + MQ MQ = PM PQ = PM + PM + PM = PQ PM = + OM = OP + PM = p + (q p) + ba + p + (q p) = + + ba =+p+ q + + p + q = +

s = OS = OR + RS = OR + OT =r+t
ST = OT OS =ts v = OV = OS + SV = OS + 1 ST 2 1 (t s) =s 2 1 (s + t) = 2

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Similarly: u = OU = OS + SU = OS + 1 SR 2 1 (r s) =s 2 1 (s + r) = 2 u + v = 1 (s + r) + 1 (s + t) 2 2 1 (2s + r + t) = 2 2u + 2v = 2s + r + t We may also express u as u = OR + RU = OR + 1 RS 2 = OR + 1 OT 2 =r+1t 2 u + v = 1 + 1 t + 1 (s + t) 2 2 1 (s + 2r + 2t) = 2 2u + 2v = s + 2r + 2t


Add the two expressions for 2u + 2v: 4u + 4v = 3s + 3r + 3t = 3(s + r + t)

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297

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

v = 3 1 = 2 5 1 4 a = 2, b = 4
CB = CA + AB = AC + AB =uv

6 C 7 C 8 E

|3i 5j| = 3 + (5) = 9 + 25 = 34

AB = OA + OB = (i 2j) (2i + 3j) = i 5j


a+b= 1+2 2 + 3 = 3 1
2a 3b = 2
3 1 3 3 2

AB = | i 5j| = (1) + (5) = 1 + 25 = 26


2 2

= 6 3 4 9 = 9 13

| a| = 2 + 3 = 13 ^ = 1 (2i + 3j) a 13

10 |a| = 3 + 1 + 3 = 19 ^ = 1 (3i + j + 3k) a 19

SQ = SR + RQ = PQ + QR =pq

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298

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a 3

a is parallel to b if a = kb, where k is a constant. 7i + 6j = k(2i + xj) 2k = 7 k=7 2 kx = 6 7x = 6 2 x = 12 7

|a| = 7 + 6 = 85
2

|b| = 2 + x = |a| = 85 2 x + 4 = 85 2 x = 81 x=9


2

a + pb + qc = (2 + 2p q)i + (3 4p 4q)j + (1 + 5p + 2q)k To be parallel to the x-axis, a + pb + qc = ki 1 + 5p + 2q = 0 2 + 10p + 4q = 0 3 4p 4q = 0 + : 1 + 6p = 0 p=1 6 5 + 2q = 0 1+ 6 2q = 11 6 11 q= 12

4 a

PQ = (3i 7j + 12k) (2i 2j + 4k) = i 5j + 8k PQ = 1 + 5 + 8 = 90 = 3 10

1 ( i 5j + 8k) 3 10
AB = 4i + 8j + 16k AC = xi + 12j + 24k For A, B and C to be collinear, we need

A = (2, 1)

OB = OA + AB = 5i + 3j B = (5, 3) AC = AB + BC = AB + AD = i + 9j OC = OA + AC = 2i j + i + 9j = 3i + 8j C = (3, 8) OD = OA + AD = 4j D = (0, 4)

AC = kAB . xi + 12j + 24k = k(4i + 8j + 16k) 8k = 12 k = 1.5 x = 4k =6


6 a
OA = 4 + 3 =5
2 2

Unit vector = 1 (4i + 3j) 5

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OC = 16 OA 5 16 1 (4i + 3j) = 5 5 16 (4i + 3j) = 25

7 a i SQ = b + a = a + b ii TQ = 1 SQ 3 1 (a + b) = 3 iii RQ = 2a + b + a = b a iv PT = PQ + QT = PQ TQ = a 1 (a + b) 3 1 (2a b) = 3 v TR = TQ + QR = TQ RQ = 1 (a + b) (b a) 3 = 1 (4a 2b) 3 2 (2a b) = 3 b

Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 |p + q| = 7 + 12 2 7 12 cos 60 = 109 |p + q| = 109


10 a a + 2b = (5i + 2j + k) + 2 (3i 2j + k) = 11i 2j + 3k b
| a| = 5 + 2 + 1 = 30
2 2 2

c d

^ = 1 (5i + 2j + k) a 30
a b = (5i + 2j + k) (3i 2j + k) = 2i + 4j

2PT = TR P, T and R are collinear.


a=b i sj = 2j s = 2 ii 5i = ti t=5 iii 2k = uk u=2 ^ = 52 + 22 + 22 a
= 25 + 4 + 4 = 33

11 a

8 a

OC = OA OB = (3i + 4j) (4i 6j) = i + 10j C = (1, 10)


i + 24j = h(3i + 4j) + k(4i 6j) 3h + 4k = 1 4h 6k = 24 Multiply the first equation by 3 and the second equation by 2. 9h + 12k = 3 8h 12k = 48 + : 17h = 51 h=3 9 + 4k = 1 k = 2

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12 mp + nq = 3mi + 7mj + 2ni 5nj = 8i + 9j 3m + 2n = 8 7m 5n = 9 Multiply the first equation by 5 and the second equation by 2. 15m + 10n = 40 14m 10n = 18 + : 29m = 58 m=2 6 + 2n = 8 n=1

13 a

b = OB = OA + AB = OA + OC =a+c
b

AB = b a BC = c b AB : BC = 3 : 2 AB = 3 BC 2 2AB = 3BC 2(b a) = 3(c b) 2b 2a = 3c 3b 5b = 2a + 3c b=2a+3c 5 5

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301

Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers


Exercise 16A Solutions
1 a g

2 a

e d

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3 a

e The point is in the first quadrant.

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r = 6 + (5) = 36 + 25 = 61 sin = 5 61 40
1 (6, 5) = 61 , sin 5 61 ] [ 61 , 40 2 2

r= 4 +4 = 32 = 4 2 cos = 4 = 1 2 4 2 = = 45 4 (4, 4) = 4 2 , 4 = [4 2 , 45]


b

f
2

The point is in the third quadrant. r= ( 3) +1 = 3+1 =4 cos = 3 2 = = 30 6 ( 3 , 1) = 2, 6 = [2, 30]


2 2

The point is in the fourth quadrant.

r= 1 +( 3) = 4 =2 cos = 1 2 = = 60 3 2, (1, 3 ) = 3 = [2, 60]


c

g
2

The point is in the second quadrant.


r = 5 + 12 = 169 = 13 cos = 5 13 = + cos
1 2 2

The point is in the fourth quadrant.

r = (2 3 ) + (2) = 12 + 4 = 4 cos = 2 3 = 3 4 2 = 30 = 6 (2 3 , 2) = 4, 6 = [4, 30]


d

113 1 (5, 12) = 2, + cos 5 13 [2, 113]


h

5 13

The point is in the first quadrant.

The point is in the first quadrant.


r= 4 +3 = 25 = 5 cos = 4 5 37 1 (4, 3) = 5, cos 4 5 [5, 37]
2 2

r = (5) + 12 = 169 = 13 cos = 5 12 113 1 (5, 12) = 13, cos 5 13 [13, 113]

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4 a

x = 2 cos 30 = 2 3 = 3 2 y = 2 sin 30 = 2 1 = 1 2 ] = ( 3 , 1) [2, 30

x = 5 cos 240 =5 1= 5 2 2 y = 5 sin 240 =5 3 = 5 3 2 2 [5, 240] = 5, 5 3 2 2

x = 4 cos 2 = 4 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 = 4 1 = 4 4, = (0, 4) 2


x = 1 cos 5 4 = 1 1 = 2 y = 1 sin 5 4 1 = = 1 2 1, 5 = 1 , 1 4 2 2

x = 2 cos 180 = 2 1 = 2 y = 2 sin 180 =20=0 ] = (2, 0) [2, 180


x = 1 cos 120 =1 1= 1 2 2 y = 1 sin 120 =1 3 = 3 2 2 [1, 120] = 1, 3 2 2

1 2 1 2

5 a

Use your calculator to plot these graphs.

x = 4 cos 2 =41=4 y = 4 sin 2 =40=0 [4, 2] = (4, 0)


x = 2 cos 7 6 3 = 3 =2 2 y = 2 sin 7 6 1=1 =2 2 2, 7 = ( 3 , 1) 6

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j e

f l

g 6 a

r =x +y = 16 r=4

b h

x+y=6 r cos + r sin = 6 r (cos + sin ) = 6 r=


2

6 cos + sin

x =y 2 2 r cos = r sin 2 r cos = sin sin r= 2 cos

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d
2 2

x + y2 = 1 4

r cos + r2sin2 = 1 4 2 2 2 2 r cos + 4r sin = 4 2 2 2 2 r (cos + sin + 3sin ) = 4 2 2 r (1 + 3 sin ) = 4 r =


7 a
2
2

a 1 + cos r + r cos = a r= x +y +x=a x +y =ax 2 2 2 2 x + y = a 2ax + x 2 2 y = a 2ax = a(a 2x)


2 2 2 2

4 2 1 + 3 sin
f

r=2 x +y =2 2 2 x +y =4
2

a 1 + sin r + r sin = a r= x +y +y=a x +y =ay 2 2 2 2 x + y = a 2ay + y 2 2 x = a 2ay 2 2 2ay = a x 2 2 y = 1 (a x ) 2a


2 2 2 2

b
2

r = a(1 + cos ) 2 r = a(r + r cos ) x + y = a x + y + ax x + y ax = a x + y


2 2 2 2 2 2 2

r = a cos 2 r = ar cos 2 2 x + y = ax
r = 2a(1 + sin 2) = 2a(1 + 2 sin cos ) 3 2 r = 2a(r + 2(r sin )(r cos )) (x + y ) = 2a(x + y + 2xy) 2 = 2a(x + y)
2 3 2 2 2 2

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Exercise 16B Solutions


1 a d

Re(z) = a = 2 Im(z) = b = 3 Re(z) = a = 4 Im(z) = b = 5 Re(z) = a = 1 2 Im(z) = b = 3 2


3 a

3a = 2 a=2 3 ab=1 2b=1 3 b=21= 1 3 3

(2 3i) + (4 5i) = 2 + 4 3i 5i = 6 8i (4 + i) + (2 2i) = 4 + 2 + i 2i =6i


(3 i) (3 + i) = 3 3 i i = 6 2i

Re(z) = a = 4 Im(z) = b = 0 Re(z) = a = 0 Im(z) = b = 3 Re(z) = a = 2 Im(z) = b = 2 2


2a 3bi = 4 + 6i 2a = 4 a=2 3bi = 6i b = 2

2 a

(2 2 i ) + (5 8 i ) = 2 + 5 2 i 8 i =7 2i 2 2i =73 2i
(1 i) (2i + 3) = 1 3 i 2i = 2 3i

(2 + i) (2 i) = 2 + 2 + i + i = 4 + 2i
4(2 3i) (2 8i) = 8 2 12i + 8i = 6 4i

a+b=5 b=5a 2ab = 12 ab = 6 a(5 a) = 6 2 5a a = 6 2 a + 5a + 6 = 0 (a 2)(a 3) = 0 When a = 2 b=52=3 When a = 3 b=53=2


2a + bi = 10 = 10 + 0i 2a = 10 a=5 b=0

(5 4i) + (1 + 2i) = 5 + 1 + 4i + 2i = 4 + 6i 5(i + 4) + 3(2i 7) = 20 21 + 5i + 6i = 1 + 11i

1 (4 3i) 3 (2 i) = 2 3 3 i + 3 i 2 2 2 2 = 1

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4 a

16 = 16 1 = 4i
2 9 = 2 9 1 = 6i
2 = 2 1 = 2i

5 a

i(2 i) = 2i i = 2i 1 = 1 + 2i i (3 4i) = 1(3 4i) = 3 + 4i


2

2 i (i 2 ) = 2 i 2i = 2 2i
3 ( 3 + 2 ) = 3 ( 3 i + 2 ) = 3i 6 = 6 3i

i =i i = i
i =i = 1 i =i =1
20 14 43+2

45

2i i = 2i = 2
4 2

4i 3i = 4 3 i i 6 = 12i = 12
5 4

8 i 2 = 8 i i 2 i = 16 1 1 = 4

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308

Exercise 16C Solutions


1 a

i = 1 2 2 (4 + i) = 16 + 8i + i = 15 + 8i
(2 2i) = 4 8i + 4i = 8i
2 2

z 1 z 2 = (2 + i)(3 2i) 2 = 6 4i 3i 2i = 4 7i

f g h 4 a
2

z1 + z2 = (2 i) + (3 + 2i) = 1 + i
z1 + z2 = 1 i

(3 + 2i)(2 + 4i) = 6 + 12i + 4i + 8i = 2 + 16i (1 i) = 1 + 2i + i = 2i


2 2

z 1 + z 2 = (2 + i) + (3 2i) = 1 i
z = 2 4i z = 2 + 4i zz = (2 4i)(2 + 4i) 2 = 4 16i = 20

( 2 3 i )( 2 + 3 i ) = 2 3i =2+3=5 (5 2i)(2 + 3i) = 10 + 15i + 4i 6i = 4 + 19i


z = a bi z = 2 5i z = 2 + 5i z = 1 + 3i z = 1 3i
2

c d e

2 a

z + z = (2 4i) + (2 + 4i) =4 z(z + z) = 4z = 8 16i z z = (2 4i) (2 + 4i) = 8i


i(z z) = i 8i 2 = 8i = 16
z =
1

z = 5 2i z = 5 + 2i
z = 0 5i z = 0 + 5i = 5i z1 = 2 + i z 2 = 3 2i
z1 z2 = (2 i)(3 + 2i) 2 = 6 + 4i + 3i 2i = 4 + 7i z1 z2 = 4 7i

3 a b c

1 2 4i = 1 2 + 4i 2 4i 2 + 4i 2 + 4i = 2 4 16i = 2 + 4i 20 1 (1 + 2i) = 10

z=zi i i i = i(2 4i) 1 2 = 1 (2i 4i ) = 4 2i

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(a + bi)(2 + 5i) = 2a + 5ai + 2bi 5b =3i 2a 5b = 3 5a + 2b = 1 Multiply the first equation by 2 and the second equation by 5. 4a 10b = 6 25a + 10b = 5 + : 29a = 1 a= 1 29 2 5b = 3 29 5b = 2 3 29 = 85 29 b = 17 29
2i = 2i 4i 4+1 4+1 4i 2 = 8 2i 4i2 + i 16 i 7 6i = 17 7 6 i = 17 17

2 2i = 2 2i i 4i 4i i 2 = 2i 2i 4 2 + 2i = 4 1 i = 2 = 11i 2 2

1 = 1 2 + 3i 2 3i 2 3i 2 + 3i 2 + 3i = 2 4 9i = 2 + 3i 13 2 + 3 i = 13 13 i = i 2 6i 2 + 6i 2 + 6i 2 6i 2i + 6 = 2 4 36i = 2i + 6 40 3 + 1 i = 20 20

6 a

3 + 2i = 3 + 2i 2 + 3i 2 3i 2 3i 2 + 3i 2 6 + 9i + 4i + 6i = 2 4 9i = 13i = i 13 4 + 3i = 4 + 3i 1 i 1+i 1+i 1i 2 = 4 4i + 3i 3i 2 1i 7i = 2 71i = 2 2

(3 i)(a + bi) = 3a + 3bi ai + b = 6 7i 3a + b = 6 a + 3b = 7 3a + 9b = 21 + : 10b = 15 b= 3 2 3=6 3a 2 3a = 6 + 3 = 15 2 2 5 a= 2

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8 a

z = 4 + 2i 2i 4 + 2i 2 + i = 2i 2+i 2 8 + 4i + 4i + 2i = 2 4i 6 + 8i = 5 2 (3 + 4i) = 5 z = 2 i 1 + 3i = 2 i 1 3i 1 + 3i 1 3i 2 2 + 6i i + 3i = 2 1 9i = 5 + 5i 10 = 1 (1 i) 2 z= 1+i 5 + 3i = 1 + i 5 3i 5 + 3i 5 3i 2 5 3i + 5i 3i = 2 25 9i = 8 + 2i 34 1 (4 + i) = 17

z = 5 + 2i 2(4 7i) = 5 + 2i 4 + 7i 2(4 7i) 4 + 7i 2 20 + 35i + 8i + 14i = 2 2(16 49i ) = 6 + 43i 130 1 (6 + 43i) = 130
z= 4 1+i = 4 1i 1+i 1i 4 4i = 2 1i = 4 4i 2 = 2 2i

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Exercise 16D Solutions


1

A: 3 + i B: 2i C: 3 4i D: 2 2i E: 3i F: 1 i

d e

z = (1 + 3i) = 1 3i 1= 1 z 1 + 3i = 1 1 3i 1 + 3i 1 3i 1 3i = 2 1 + 9i = 1 3 i 10 10

3 a

z1 + z2 = (6 5i) + (3 + 4i) =3i

5 a b

z = 2 5i zi = i(2 5i) 2 = 2i 5i = 5 + 2i

z1 z2 = (6 5i) (3 + 4i) = 9 9i

c d

zi = z = 2 + 5i
zi = iz = (5 + 2i) = 5 2i
3

zi = z = 2 5i

4 a b c

z = 1 + 3i z = 1 3i

z = 1 + 6i + 9i = 8 + 6i

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Exercise 16E Solutions


1 a

z +4=0 2 z 4i = 0 (z 2i)(z + 2i) = 0 z = 2i


2

2x + 18 = 0 2 z +9=0 2 2 z 9i = 0 (z 3i)(z + 3i) = 0 z = 3i

Use the quadratic formula. z = 5 25 32 4 5 7 = 4 1 (5 7 i ) = 4 Use the quadratic formula. 2 3z z + 2 = 0 z = 1 1 24 6 1 23 = 6 1 (1 23 i ) = 6


Complete the square. 2 z 2z + 5 = 0 2 z 2z + 1 + 4 = 0 2 2 (z 1) 4i = 0 (z 1 2i)(z 1 + 2i) = 0 z = 1 2i Use the quadratic formula. 2 2z 6z + 10 = 0 2 z 3z + 5 = 0 z = 3 9 20 2 = 3 11 2 1 (3 11 i ) = 2 Complete the square. 2 z 6z + 14 = 0 2 z 6z + 9 + 5 = 0 2 2 (z 3) 5i = 0 (z 3 5 i )(z 3 + 5 i ) = 0 z=3 5i

3z + 15 = 0 2 z +5=0 2 2 z 5i = 0 (z 5 i )(z + 5 i ) = 0 z= 5i

(z 2) = 16 z 2 = 4i z = 2 4i (z + 1) = 49 z + 1 = 7i z = 1 7i
Complete the square. 2 z 2z + 1 + 2 = 0 2 2 (z 1) 2i = 0 (z 1 2 i )(z 1 + 2 i ) = 0 z=1 2i Use the quadratic formula. z = 3 9 12 2 = 3 3 2 1 (3 3 i ) = 2
l
2

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Exercise 16F Solutions


1 a e

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r = 12 + 12 3 = 4 144 = 24 cos = 12 24 = 1 2 = 3 12 12 3 i = 24 cis 3
2 2

The point is in the first quadrant.


r= 1 +( 3) = 1+3 =2 cos = 1 2 = 3 1 + 3 i = 2 cis 3
2 2

The point is in the fourth quadrant.

r= 1 +1 = 2 cos = 1 2 = 4

The point is in the second quadrant. 2 2 r = 1 + 1 2 2

1 i = 2 cis 4
c

The point is in the second quadrant. r = (2 3 ) + 2 = 16 = 4 cos = 2 3 = 3 4 2 = 5 = 6 6 2 3 + 2i = 4 cis 5 6


2 2

1 = 1 2 2 1 1 cos = 2 2 = 1 2 = 1 2 2 = = 3 4 4 1 + 1 i = 1 cis 3 4 2 2 2 =
2 a
3 cis = 3 cos + 3i sin 2 2 2 = 3i

The point is in the third quadrant.


r= 4 +4 = 32 = 4 2 cos = 4 = 1 2 4 2 = + = 3 4 4 4 4i = 4 2 cis 3 4
2 2

2 cis = 2 cos + 2 i sin 3 3 3 = 2 + 6 i 2 2 = 2 (1 + 3 i ) 2


2 cis = 2 cos + 2i sin 6 6 6 = 3 +i

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5 cis 3 = 5 cos 3 + 5i sin 3 4 4 4 5 + 5 i = 2 2 = 5 (1 i) 2


12 cis 5 = 12 cos 5 + 12i sin 5 6 6 6 = 6 3 + 6i = 6( 3 i)

4 cis 3 cis = 12 cis + 12 4 12 4 = 12 cis 3 = 12 cos + 12i sin 3 3 =6+6 3i = 6(1 + 3 i )


5 5 cis 5 cis = 5 cis + 4 12 4 12 = 5 cis 2 3 = 5 cos 2 + 5i sin 2 3 3 5+5 3 i = 2 2 = 5 (1 3 i ) 2
12 cis 3 cis 2 = 36 cis + 2 3 3 3 3 = 36 cis 3 = 36 cos + 36i sin 3 3 = 18 + 18 3 i = 18(1 + 3 i )

3 2 cis = 3 2 cos + 3 2 i sin 4 4 4 = 3 3i = 3(1 i) 5 cis 4 = 5 cos 4 + 5i sin 4 3 3 3 = 55 3 i 2 2 5 (1 + 3 i ) = 2 5 cis 2 = 5 cos 2 + 5i sin 2 3 3 3 = 55 3 i 2 2 5 (1 + 3 i ) = 2

3 a

z1 z2 = r 1 r2 cis(1 + 2) 2 cis 3 cis = 6 cis + 6 12 6 12 = 6 cis 4 = 6 cos + 6i sin 4 4 6 + 6 i = 2 2 = 3 2 (1 + i)

5 5 12 cis 3 cis = 36 cis + 6 2 6 2 = 36 cis 4 3 = 36 cos 4 + 36i sin 4 3 3 = 18 18 3 i = 18(1 + 3 i )


( 2 cis ) 3 cis 3 = 6 cis 3 4 4 = 6 cis 4 = 6 cos + 6 i sin 4 4 = 3 + 3i = 3 (1 + i)

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10 cis 4 10 = cis 5 4 12 5 cis 12 = 2 cis 6 = 2 cos + 2i sin 6 6 = 3 +i


12 cis 3 12 = cis 2 3 2 3 3 3 cis 3 = 4 cis = 4 cos + 4i sin = 4 + 0 = 4 12 8 cis 3 4 12 8 = cis 3 4 12 3 2 3 2 cis 12 = 8 cis 2 3 = 8 cos 2 + 8i sin 2 3 3 = 4 + 4 3 i = 4(1 3 i )
20 cis 6 20 = cis 5 8 5 6 6 8 cis 6 = 5 cis 2 5 cos + 5 i sin = 2 2 5+0= 5 = 2 2

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316

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

30 180 = 150 [3, 30] = [3, 150] 180 40 = 140 Coordinates are [2, 140]. The point is in the third quadrant.
r = (1) + ( 3 ) = 1+3 =2 cos = 1 2 = + = 2 3 3 2, 2 3 This is equivalent to 2, . 3
2 2

3, = (0, 3) 2 The Cartesian equation is 2 2 x + (y 3) = 9 2 2 x + y 6y + 9 = 9 2 2 x + y = 6y 2 r = 6r sin r = 6 sin

Since x = r cos , it is the graph of x = 2.


x + y = 16 2 r = 16 r=4 1 = 1 2u 1i = 1 1+i 1i 1+i =1+i 2 1+1i = 2 2
i = cis , so the point will be 2 rotated by . 2
|z| = 5
1 = 1 z |z|
2 2

B 8

x = 3 cos 6 3 3 = 2 y = 3 sin 6 3 = 2 3 3 3 , 2 2

9 D

10

=1 5

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a d

x = 3 cos 11 6 = 3 3 2 y = 3 sin 11 6 3 = 2 3, 11 = 3 3 , 3 2 2 6

3 a

{[r, ] : r = 3}

d b
[r, ] : = 3

2 a

x = 3 cos = 3 y = 3 sin =0 [3, ] = (3, 0) x = 2 cos 3 =1 y = 2 sin 3 = 3 2, = (1, 3 ) 3


x = 2 cos 210 = 3 y = 2 sin 210 =1 ] = ( 3 , 1) [2, 210

{[r, ] : r = 4}

[r, ] : = 5 4

4 a

The point is in the first quadrant. r= 3 +3 = 18 = 3 2 cos = 3 = 1 3 2 2 = 4 (3, 3) = 3 2 , 4


2 2

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The point is in the fourth quadrant. r= 3+1 4 4 = 1 =1 cos = 3 2 = 6 3 , 1 = 1, 2 6 2 The point is in the third quadrant. r = 25 + 75 4 4 = 25 = 5 cos = 5 = 1 2 25 = + 3 2 = 3 5, 5 3 = 5, 2 2 2 3 The point is in the fourth quadrant. r = 32 + 32 = 64 = 8 cos = 4 2 = 2 8 2 = 4 8, (4 2 , 4 2 ) = 4
2 2 2

y = 8x 2 (r sin ) = 8r cos 2 2 r sin = 8r cos 2 r sin = 8 cos 8 cos r= 2 sin = 8 cot cosec x = 4y 2 (r cos ) = 4r sin 2 2 r cos = 4r sin 2 r cos = 4 sin 4 sin r= 2 cos = 4 tan sec
2

x + 4y = 64 2 2 (r cos ) + 4(r sin ) = 64 2 2 2 2 2 2 r cos + r sin + 3r sin = 64 2 2 2 r + 3r sin = 64 2 2 r (1 + 3 sin ) = 64 r = r=


2

64 2 1 + 3sin 8 1 + 3 sin
2

2x y + 2 = 0 2r cos r sin + 2 = 0 r(2 cos sin ) = 2 r=

2 2 cos sin

5 a

r =x +y = 16 r=4 r =x +y =9 r=3
2 2

6 a
2

r=5 x +y =5 2 2 x + y = 25
2

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r = 3 sin 2 r = 3r sin 2 2 x + y = 3y This is correct, but it is possible to go on and complete the square. 2 2 x + y 3y = 0 2 2 2 x + y 3y + 3 = 9 2 4 2 2 x + y 3 = 9 4 2
r cos 2 = 9 2 r (cos sin ) = 9 2 2 2 2 r cos r sin = 0 2 2 x y =9
2 2 2

r(1 sin ) = 1 r r sin = 1 x +y y=1 x +y =y+1 2 2 2 x + y = (y + 1) 2 = y + 2y + 1 2 x = 2y + 1 2 2y = x 1 2 y = 1 (x 1) 2


2 2 2 2

7 a

2z1 + 3z2 = 2m + 2ni + 3p + 3qi = 2m + 3p + (2n + 3q)i


z 2 = p qi z1 z 2 = (m + ni)(p qi) 2 = mp + npi mqi nqi = mp + nq + (np mq)i

b d

r(1 2 cos ) = 8 r 2r cos = 8 x + y 2x = 8 x + y = 2x + 8 2 2 2 x + y = (2x + 8) 2 = 4x + 32x + 64 2 2 3x + 32x y + 64 = 0 2 2 2 3 x + 32 x + 16 y = 64 + 3 256 3 5 9 2 2 3 x + 16 y = 64 + 256 3 3 2 2 x x + 16 y = 64 3 3


2 2 2 2

z1 = m + ni z2 p + qi = m + ni p qi p + qi p qi 2 + = = mp npi2 mqi nqi 2 p +q + + (np mq)i = mp nq 2 2 p +q z1 + z 1 = (m + ni) + (m ni) = 2m (z1 + z2)(z1 z2) = (m + p + (n + q)i))m p + (n q)i) = (m + p)(m p) + (m + p)(n q)i 2 + (n + q)(m p)i + (n + q)(n q)i 2 2 = m p + (mn mq + pn pq)i 2 2 + (mn pn + mq pq)i (n q ) 2 2 2 2 = m n p + q + (2mn 2pq)i 1= 1 z1 m + ni = 1 m ni m + ni m ni = m ni2 2 m +n

r(2 cos ) = 7 2r r cos = 7 2 x +y x=7 2 x +y =x+7 2 2 2 4x + 4y = (x + 7) 2 = x + 14x + 49 2 2 3x 14x + 4y = 49 2 2 14 2 3 x x + 7 + 4y = 49 + 3 49 3 3 9 2 2 3 x 7 + 4y = 196 3 3


2 2 2 2

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z2 = p + qi z1 m + ni = p + qi m ni m + ni m ni + + (mq np)i = mp nq 2 2 m +n 3z1 = 3(m + ni) z2 p + qi 3(m + ni) p qi = p + qi p qi 2 3(mp + npi mqi nqi ) = 2 2 p +q 3(mp + nq + nq mq)i = 2 2 p +q
9 a

The point is in the first quadrant. r= 1 +1 = 2 cos = 1 2 = 4 1 + i = 2 cis 4


2 2

8 a b

z=1 3i
z = (1 3 i ) 2 = 1 2 3 i + 3i = 2 2 3 i
2 2

z =z z = (2 2 3 i )(1 3 i ) 2 = 2 + 2 3 i 2 3 i + 6i = 8

The point is in the fourth quadrant. r= 1+3 =2 cos = 1 2 = 3 1 3 i = 2 cis 3


The point is in the first quadrant. r = 12 + 1 = 13 tan = 1 3 3 2 3 = 3 6

1 1= z 1 3i 1+ 3i 1 3i 1+ 3i =1+ 3i 4 = 1

e f

z=1+ 3i
1 1= z 1+ 3i 1 3i 1+ 3i 1 3i =1 3i 4 = 1

2 3 + i = 13 cis tan

3 6

The point is in the first quadrant. r = 18 + 18 = 36 = 6 cos = 3 2 = 1 6 2 = 4 3 2 + 3 2 i = 6 cis 4

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The point is in the third quadrant. r = 18 + 18 = 36 = 6 cos = 3 2 = 1 6 2 = 3 = + 4 4 3 2 3 2 i = 6 cis 3 4

x = 3 cos 3 4 3 2 = 2 y = 3 sin 3 4 =3 2 2 z= 3 2 +3 2 i 2 2 x = 3 cos 3 4 3 2 = 2 y = 3 sin 3 4 =3 2 2 3 2 +3 2 i z= 2 2

The point is in the fourth quadrant. r= 3+1 =2 cos = 3 2 = 6 3 i = 2 cis 6


x = 2 cos 3 = 1 y = 2 sin 3 = 3 z = 1 3 i

10 a e

x = 3 cos 4 =3 2 2 y = 3 sin 4 3 2 = 2 3 2 +3 2 i z= 2 2

x = 3 cos 5 6 = 3 3 2 y = 3 sin 5 6 3 = 2 3 3 3i z= 2 2
x = 2 cos 4 =1 y = 2 sin 4 = 1 z=1i

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Chapter 17 Loci
Exercise 17A Solutions
1 a d The line is equidistant from A and B. y=0 x=3+6=9 2 2

For an area of 12 square units, a triangle with a base of 4 units must have a height of 6 units. This can be above or below the axis, so its equation will be y = 6.

2 b

PA = PO (x + 2) + (y 5) = (x 0) + (y 0) 2 2 2 2 x + 4x + 4 + y 10y + 25 = x + y 4x + 4 10y + 25 = 0 4x 10y + 29 = 0 10y = 4x + 29


2 2 2 2

The line is equidistant from A and B. x=0 y = 8 + 12 = 10 2

3
2

PA = PB (x 0) + (y 6) = (x + 2) + (y 4) 2 2 2 x + y 12y + 36 = x + 4x + 4 + y 8y + 16 12y + 36 = 4x + 4 8y + 16 4x + 4y 16 = 0 x+y4=0 x+y=4


2 2 2

The line must be a circle of radius 3 with the centre as the origin. r=3 2 r =9 2 2 x +y =9

Distance of P from (2, 0) is


(x + 2) + y Distance of P from (2, 0) is (x 2) + y 2 2 2 2 (x + 2) + y + (x 2) + y = 26 2 2 2 2 x + 4x + 4 + y + x 4x + 4 + y = 26 2 2 2x + 2y = 18 2 2 x +y =9
2 2 2 2

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Distance of P from (2, 5) is

Distance of P from (0, 20) is

(x 2) + (y 5) Distance of P (x, y) from x = 1 is |x 1| (x 2) + (y 5) = 2|x 1| Square both sides: 2 2 2 (x 2) + (y 5) = 4(x 1) 2 2 2 x 4x + 4 + (y 5) = 4x 8x + 4 2 2 3x 4x (y 5) = 0 2 2 2 2 3 x 4x + 2 (y 5) = 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 x 2 (y 5) = 4 3 3 Multiply both sides by 3: 2 2 9 x 2 3(y 5) = 4 3 2 2 (3x 2) 3(y 5) = 4 2 2 (3x 2) 3(y 5) = 1 4 4
7
2 2

x + (y 20) Distance of P from (4, 5) is (x + 4) + (y 5)


2

2
2 2 2

x + (y 20) = 2 (x + 4) + (y 5) 2 2 2 2 x + (y 20) = 4((x + 4) + (y 5) ) 2 2 2 x + y 40y + 400 = 4x + 32x + 64 2 + 4y 40y + 100 2 2 3x + 32x + 3y = 236 2 2 x + 32 x + y = 236 3 3 2 2 32 2 236 256 + x + x + 16 + y = 3 3 3 9 16 2 + y2 = 964 x + 9 3

(x 1) + (y 2) = (x + 2) + (y + 1) 2 2 2 2 x 2x + 1 + y 4y + 4 = x + 4x + 4 + y + 2y + 1 6x + 6y = 0 y= x
(x 4) + (y + 2) = 2 x + y 2 2 2 2 x 8x + 16 + y + 4y + 4 = 4x + 4y 2 2 3x + 8x + 3y 4y = 20 2 2 2 2 2 x + 8 x + 4 + y + y 4 y + 2 = 20 + 16 + 4 3 3 3 3 3 9 9 2 2 x + 4 + y 2 = 80 3 3 9 Distance of P from (4, 0) is
(x 4) + y
2 2 2 2

Distance of P from (4, 0) is (x + 4) + y 2 2 2 2 (x 4) + y ((x + 4) y ) = 16 or 2 2 2 2 x 8x + 16 + y x 8x 16 y = 16 16x = 16 x = 1

(x + 4) + y ((x 4) y ) = 16 2 2 2 2 x + 8x + 16 + y x + 8x 16 y = 16 16x = 16 x=1

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10

x +y =x+y 2 1 + y2 y + 1 = 1 + 1 x x+ 4 4 4 4 2 2 x 1 + y 1 = 1 2 2 2
PA = 2PB x + y = 2 (x 4) + y 2 2 2 2 x + y = 4((x 4) + y ) 2 2 = 4x 32x + 64 + 4y 2 2 3x 32x + 3y = 64 2 2 2 x 32 x + 16 + y = 64 + 256 3 3 3 9 2 x 16 + y2 = 64 3 9
2 2 2 2

11

12

(x 1) + (y 2) = (x + 1) + y 2 2 2 2 x 2x + 1 + y 4y + 4 = x + 2x + 1 + y 4x 4y + 4 = 0 xy+1=0 x+y=1
15 PM is the distance of P from the line x = 4. 2 2 2 (x 2) + y = (x 4) 2 2 2 x 4x + 4 + y = x + 8x + 16 2 y = 12x + 12 = 12(x + 1) 16 PM is the distance of P from the line y = 2. 2 2 2 x + (y + 4) = (y 2) 2 2 2 x + y + 8y + 16 = y 4y + 4 2 x = 12y 12 = 12(y + 1) 2 y+1= 1 x 12 2 y= 1 x 1 12

13 Slope of AB = 5 1 = 2 20 y5=2 Slope of BP = x2 y 5 = 2(x 2) = 2x 4 y = 2x + 1 14

y = 1 or y = 5

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17 The graph will have a vertex at the origin, and will consist of the set of points equidistant from the point (a, 0) and the line x = k.

(x a) + y = (x + k) 2 2 2 2 2 x 2ax + a + y = x + 2kx + k 2 2 2 y = 2ax + 2kx + k a 2 Since y = 3x, 2a + 2k = 3 a+k=3 2 2 2 k a =0 2 2 k =a k=a (If k = a, k = a and the line goes through the point, so k a.) a+k=3 2 2a = 3 2 a=k=3 4 2 y = 3x is therefore the graph of all points that are equidistant from the point 3, 0 and the line x = 3. 4 4

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Exercise 17B Solutions


1 a
x + y =1 9 64 This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre, and axes of length 3 2 and 8 2 along the x- and y-axes respectively.
2 2

2 a

x + y =1 25 100 This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre, and axes of length 5 2 and 10 2 along the x- and y-axes respectively.

Centre (3, 4). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x 3) + (4) = 1 9 64 2 (x 3) = 1 16 = 3 64 4 9 2 39 (x 3) = 4 x3=3 3 2 x=33 3 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (3) + (y 4) = 1 9 64 2 (y 4) = 1 9 = 0 64 9 2 (y 4) = 0 y=4

y + x =1 9 64 This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre, and axes of length 8 2 and 3 2 along the x- and y-axes respectively.

25x + 9x = 225 2 2 25x + 9y = 1 225 225 2 2 x + y =1 9 25 This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre, and axes of length 3 2 and 5 2 along the x- and y-axes respectively.

Centre (3, 4). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x + 3) + 4 = 1 9 25 2 (x + 3) = 1 16 = 9 9 25 25 2 99 (x + 3) = 25 x+3=9 5 x = 3 + 9 = 6 or 5 5 9 = 24 x = 3 5 5

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y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 3 + (y + 4) = 1 9 25 2 (y + 4) = 1 9 = 0 9 25 2 (y + 4) = 0 y = 4

Divide both sides by 225: 2 2 25(x 5) + 9y = 1 225 225 2 2 (x 5) + y = 1 9 25

25( x 5) 2 9 y 2 + =1 225 225 ( x 5) 2 y 2 + =1 9 25


Centre (5, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 (x 5) = 9 x5=3 x = 8 or 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 25 (5) + 9y = 225 2 625 + 9y = 225 2 9y = 400 There are no y-intercepts.

Centre (3, 2). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (3) + (x 2) = 1 16 4 2 (x 2) = 1 9 = 7 16 16 4 2 (x 2) = 7 4 = 7 16 4 x2= 7 2 x=2 7 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (y 3) + (2) = 1 16 4 2 (y 3) = 1 4 = 0 4 16 2 (y 3) = 0 y=3

The graph will be an ellipse with axes 3 2 and 5 2. 2 2 x y Its equation will be 2 + 2 = 1 3 5 2 2 x + y =1 9 25

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(x 4) + y + (x + 4) + y = 10 (x 4) + y = 10 (x + 4) + y
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x 8x + 16 + y = 100 20 x + 8x + 16 + y + x + 8x + 16 + y 20 x + 8x + 16 + y = 100 + 16x 5 x + 8x + 16 + y = 25 + 4x 2 2 2 25(x + 8x + 16 + y ) = 625 + 200x + 16x 2 2 2 25x + 200x + 400 + 25y = 625 + 200x + 16x 2 2 9x + 25y = 225 2 2 9x + 25y = 1 225 225 2 2 x +y =1 25 9
5
2 2 2 2

The graph will be an ellipse with axes 4 2 and 8 2. 2 2 x y Its equation will be 2 + 2 = 1 4 8 2 2 x + y =1 16 64

(x 2) + y = 1 |x 4| 2 2 2 2 (x 2) + y = 1 (x + 4) 4 2 2 2 4(x 4x + 4 + y ) = x + 8x + 16 2 2 2 4x 16x + 16 + 4y = x + 8x + 16 2 2 3x 24x + 4y = 0 2 2 2 3(x 8x + 4 ) + 4y = 3 16 Divide both sides by 48: 2 2 (x 4) + y = 1 16 12


2 2

x + (y 8) = 1 |y 4| 2 2 2 2 x + (y 8) = 1 (y 4) 4 2 2 2 4(x + y 16y + 64) = y 8y + 16 2 2 2 4x + 4y 64y + 256 = y 8y + 16 2 2 4x + 3y 56y = 240 2 2 2 4x + 3 y 56 y + 28 = 240 + 3 784 3 3 9 2 2 y 28 = 64 4x + 3 3 3 3: Multiply both sides by 64 2 3x + 9 y 28 2 = 1 3 16 64 2 2 3x + (3y 28) = 1 16 64
2 2

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Exercise 17C Solutions


1 a

x y =1 9 64 2 2 y =x 1 64 9 2 2 9 y = 64x 1 2 9 x y 8x 3 Axis intercepts are (3, 0) and (3, 0).

25x 9y = 225 2 2 25x 9y = 1 225 225 2 2 x y =1 9 25 2 2 y =x 1 25 9 2 2 9 y = 25x 1 2 9 x y 5x 3 Axis intercepts are (3, 0) and (3, 0).

x y =1 25 100 2 2 y = x 1 100 25 2 2 25 y = 100x 1 2 25 x y 2x Axis intercepts are (5, 0) and (5, 0).

2 a

y x =1 9 64 2 2 x =y 1 64 9 2 2 9 x = 64y 1 2 9 y x 8y 3 Axis intercepts are (3, 3) and (0, 3).

Centre (3, 4). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x 3) (4) = 1 9 64 2 (x 3) = 1 + 16 = 5 64 4 9 2 (x 3) = 5 9 4 3 5 x3= 2 x=33 5 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (3) (y 4) = 1 9 64 2 (y 4) = 1 9 = 0 9 64 2 (y 4) = 0 y=4

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Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a 8 (x 3) y4= 3 y = 4 8 (x 3) 3 8x 4 and 8x + 12 = 3 3


c

Centre (3, 4). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x + 3) 4 = 1 9 25 2 (x + 3) = 1 + 16 = 41 9 25 25 2 9 41 (x + 3) = 25 x + 3 = 3 41 5 x = 3 3 41 5 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 3 (y + 4) = 1 9 25 2 (y + 4) = 1 9 = 0 9 25 2 (y + 4) = 0 y = 4 Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a y + 4 = 5 (x + 3) 3 y = 4 5 (x + 3) 3 5x + 1 and 5x 9 = 3 3

Centre (3, 2). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (3) (x 2) = 1 16 4 2 (x 2) = 1 9 = 7 16 16 4 2 7 (x 2) = 4 There are no x intercepts. y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (y 3) (2) = 1 16 4 2 (y 3) = 1 + 4 = 2 4 16 2 (y 3) = 2 16 y=34 2 Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a y 3 = 4 (x 2) 2 y = 3 2(x 2) = 2x 1 and 2x + 7

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Divide both sides by 225. 2 2 25(x 5) 9y = 1 225 225 2 2 (x 5) y = 1 9 25 Centre (5, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 25(x 5) = 225 2 (x 5) = 9 x 5 = 3 x = 8 or 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 25 (5) 9y = 225 2 625 9y = 225 2 9y = 400 y = 20 3 Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a 5 (x 5) y= 3 5x 25 and 5x + 25 = 3 3 3 3

Asymptotes: y=bx a =2x 2 =x

Divide both sides by 4. 2 2 x y =1 4 4 Centre (0, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 x =1 4 2 x =4 x=4 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 y =1 4 2 y = 4 No y-intercepts.

Divide both sides by 4. 2 2 x y =1 2 4 Centre (0, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 x =1 2 2 x =2 x= 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 y =1 4 2 y = 4 No y-intercepts. Asymptotes: y=bx a = 2 x 2 = 2x

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Complete the square. 2 2 x 4x 4y 8y = 16 2 2 x 4x + 4 4(y + 2y + 1) = 16 + 4 4 2 2 (x 2) 4(y + 1) = 16 2 2 (x 2) (y + 1) = 1 16 4 Centre (2, 1). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x 2) 1 = 1 16 4 2 (x 2) = 1 + 1 = 5 16 4 4 x2= 5 2 4 x2=2 5 x=22 5 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (2) (y + 1) = 1 16 4 2 (y + 1) = 1 4 = 3 4 16 4 2 (y + 1) = 3 There are no y-intercepts. Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a y + 1 = 2 (x 2) 4 y = 1 1 (x 2) 2 x 2 and x = 2 2

Complete the square. 2 2 9x 90x 25y + 150y = 225 2 2 9(x 10x + 25) 25(y 6y + 9) = 225 + 225 225 2 2 9(x 5) 25(y 3) = 225 2 2 (x 5) (y 3) = 1 25 9 Centre (5, 3). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 2 (x 5) (3) = 1 25 9 2 (x 5) = 1 + 9 = 2 25 9 2 (x 5) = 2 25 x5=5 2 x=55 2 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (5) (y 3) = 1 25 9 2 (y 3) = 1 = 25 = 0 9 25 2 (y 3) = 0 y=3 Asymptotes: y k = b (x h) a y 3 = 3 (x 5) 5 y = 3 3 (x 5) 5 3x and 3x + 6 = 5 5

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(x 4) + y (x + 4) + y = 6 (x 4) + y = 6 + (x + 4) + y
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x 8x + 16 + y = 36 + 12 x + 8x + 16 + y + x + 8x + 16 + y 12 x + 8x + 16 + y = 36 + 16x 3 x + 8x + 16 + y = 9 + 4x 2 2 2 9(x + 8x + 16 + y ) = 81 + 72x + 16x 2 2 2 9x + 72x + 144 + 9y = 81 + 72x + 16x 2 2 7x + 9y = 63 2 2 x y =1 9 7


2 2 2 2

(x 2) + y = 2|x 4| 2 2 2 (x 2) + y = 4(x + 4) 2 2 2 x 4x + 4 + y 4(x + 8x + 16) 2 = 4x + 32x + 64 2 2 3x + 36x y = 60 2 2 3(x + 12x + 36) y = 60 + 3 36 2 2 3(x + 6) y = 48 2 2 (x + 6) y = 1 16 48

x + (y 8) = 4|y 4| 2 2 2 x + (y 8) = 16(y 4) 2 2 2 x + y 16y + 64 = 16(y 8y + 16) 2 = 16y 128y + 256 2 2 x 15y + 112y = 192 2 2 2 112 x 15 y y + 56 = 192 15 3136 15 15 225 2 56 2 = 256 x 15 y 15 15 15 : Multiply both sides by 256 2 2 15x + 225 y 56 = 1 15 256 256 2 2 (15y 56) 15x = 1 256 256

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334

(x + 3) + y (x 3) + y = 4 (x + 3) + y = 4 + (x 3) + y
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x + 6x + 9 + y = 16 + 8 x 6x + 9 + y + x 6x + 9 + y 8 x 6x + 9 + y = 16 12x 2 x 6x + 9 + y = 4 3x 2 2 2 4(x 6x + 9 + y ) = 16 24x + 9x 2 2 2 4x 24x + 36 + 4y = 16 24x + 9x 2 2 5x + 4y = 20 2 2 x y =1 4 5


2 2 2 2

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The vertical axes of the ellipse look about 5 units long (just over 2). 2 2 x +y =1 25 5 2 2 x + 5y = 25 C
x =x 2 25 a a=5 x-axis intercepts = (a, 0) and (a, 0) = (5, 0) and (5, 0) D
x + y = 1 9 4
2 2
2 2

y-axis intercept is 2. 2 b2 =8 b=2 The graph goes through 1, 1 10 . 2 2 2 1 10 = 8 a 1 + 2 2 a+5=8 a=3 D

y x 2 + 2 = 1 9 4 This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre, and axes of length 9 2 and 9 2 along the x and y axes respectively. B
4

If its centre is on the y-axis, then a = 0. It passes through (4, 4), so 2 2 x + (y b) = 16 2 2 4 + (4 b) = 16 2 (4 b) = 0 4b=0 A b=4 The first two transformations will give 2 2 x +y =1 16 9 The next two transformations will give 2 2 (x 4) + (y 3) = 1 B 16 9 The centre is (2, 0) and the length of half the axis is 9, so the graph is 2 2 (x 2) y = 1 2 81 b One asymptote has gradient 4 = 2 2 b=2 a b=2 Since a = 9, 9 b = 18 The equation of the graph is 2 2 (x 2) y = 1 D 81 324

The y-intercept(s) occur when x = 0: 2 (y + 2) = 1 4 2 (y + 2) = 4 y+2=2 y = 0 or 4

( y + 2) 2 =1 4 ( y + 2) 2 = 4 y + 2 = 2 y = 0 or 4
Intercepts are (0, 0) and (0, 4).
D

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9
2

PA = PB (x 2) + (y + 5) = (x + 4) + (y + 1) 2 2 2 2 x 4x + 4 + y + 10y + 25 = x + 8x + 16 + y 0 = 12x 12y 12 12y = 12x 12 y=x1 A PA = 2PB (x 2) + (y + 5) = 2 (x + 4) + (y 1) 2 2 2 2 x 4x + 4 + y + 10y + 25 = 4(x + 8x + 16 + y 2y + 1) 2 2 = 4x + 32x + 64 + 4y 8y + 4 2 2 3x + 36x + 3y 18y + 39 = 0 2 2 x + 12x + y 6y + 13 = 0 2 2 x + 12x + 36 + y 6y + 9 = 13 + 36 + 9 2 2 (x + 6) + (y 3) = 32 This is a circle. C
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

10

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337

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

Complete the square. 2 2 x + 4x + 4 + y + 8y + 16 = 0 + 4 + 16 2 2 (x + 2) + (y + 4) = 20 The circle has centre (2, 4) and radius 20 = 2 5 . Complete the square. 2 2 x + 4x + 4 + 2y = 0 + 4 2 2 (x + 2) + 2y = 4 2 2 (x + 2) + y = 1 4 2 The ellipse has centre (2, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 x + 4x = 0 x(x + 4) = 0 x = 0 and 4 x-intercepts are (0, 0) and (4, 0) y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2y = 0 y=0 y-intercept is (0, 0). PA = PB x + (y 2) = (x 6) + y 2 2 2 2 x + y 4y + 4 = x 12x + 36 + y 4y = 12x + 32 y = 3x 8
2 2 2 2

6
2

PA = 2PB x + (y 2) = 2 (x 6) + y 2 2 2 2 x + y 4y + 4 = 4(x 12x + 36 + y ) 2 2 = 4x 48x + 144+ 4y 2 2 3x 48x + 3y + 4y + 140= 0 2 2 2 3(x 16x + 64) + 3 y + 4 y + 2 = 140+ 3 64 + 3 4 3 3 9 2 2 3(x 8) + 3 y + 2 = 160 3 3 2 2 (x 8) + y + 2 = 160 3 9
2 2 2

Centre (2, 0). x-intercept(s) when y = 0: 2 (x 2) = 1 9 2 (x 2) = 9 x2=3 x = 1 or 5 y-intercept(s) when x = 0: 2 2 (2) + y = 1 9 4 2 y =14=5 9 9 4 2 y =45 9
y= 20 9 =2 5 3

This is clearly a circle with centre (3, 2) and radius 6. 2 2 (x 3) + (y 2) = 36 Asymptotes: y=bx a =2x 3 = 2x, 2x 3 3

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Let k be the constant. 2 2 2 2 k = ((x + 4) + y ) ((x 4) + y ) 2 2 2 2 = (x + 8x + 16 + y ) (x 8x + 16 + y ) 2 2 2 2 = x + 8x + 16 + y x + 8x 16 y = 16x x= k 16 If the subtraction is done in reverse order, we would get x = k . 16 The is necessary, as the locus will be the two parallel lines x = k and x = k. x = k , where k is the constant 16 difference.

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Chapter 18 Revision of chapters 1417


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1 The angle subtended at the top of the circle by QT = 150 = 75. 2 By the alternate segment theorem, B QTS = 75. Join LN. Using the alternate segment theorem, MLN = 40. In triangle LMN, ML = MN MNL = MLN = 40 LMN = 180 40 40 = 100 C Using the alternate segment theorem, ZYX = ZXT ZXT = ZXY ZYX = ZXY Triangle ZXY is isosceles, with YZ = XZ. B
QOS = 180 70 = 110 Reflex QOS = 360 110 = 250 QRS = 250 2 = 125

Join AB. Since TA = TB, TBA = 45. Since AC is perpendicular to tangent TA, it must be a diameter. CBA = 90 TBC = 90 + 45 = 135 TB is parallel to AC, since co-interior angles BTA and CAT are supplementary. BCA = 180 135 = 45 C

RTP = 30 (alternate segments) TRS = 40 + 30 = 70 (exterior angle of RTP) RTS = 180 70 30 = 80 B

AB = AC ADC = 60 ACD = 180 60 50 = 70(angle sum of RTS) ABD = 180 70 = 110 D


|a| = 3 + (4) = 25 = 5 ^=3i4j a 5 5 = 1 (3i 4j) 5
2 2

9 D

Let the diameter be CE. If AD = DB = 4 cm, then ADDB = CDDE 4 4 = 2(2r 2) 2r 2 = 8 2r = 10 r = 5 cm

10 AB = OB OA = i + 8j 11 a b = (2i + 4j) (3i 2j) = 2i 3i + 4j + 2j = i + 6j 12 |a| = 2 + (1) + 4 = 4 + 1 + 16 = 21


2 2 2

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13 Since they have the same magnitude and direction,

AB = OC = c CD = OB = b AD = c b + c b = 2(c b)

18 CB = 1 OA 3 =1a 3

AB = a + c + 1 a 3 2a =c 3

14 2r s = 2(2i j + k) ( i + j + 3k) = 4i + i 2j j + 2k 3k = 5i 3 j k D 15
QR = OR OQ = i + 5j PQ = 2QR = 2i + 10j = OQ OP OP = OQ PQ = 2i 3j (2i + 10j) = 4i 13j

19

AB = OB OA =ba CA = 2AB = 2b 2a = OA OC OC = OA CA = a (2b 2a) = 3a 2b

16 u and v are parallel only if u = nv, where n is a constant. Comparing k components: 5 = 6n n= 5 6 Comparing i and j components: 1= 5b 6 6 b= 5 a = 5 3 6 5 = 2 17

20 Arg z = Arg v + Arg w = Argv Arg w = 0.3 0.6 = 0.9 21 x = 2 cos 2 3 = 1 y = 2 sin 2 3 = 3

2 cis 2 = 1 + 3 i 3
22 The angle is in the third quadrant. tan = 1 3 2 2 = 1 3 Arg z = = + 6 5 = 6 (because Arg z ) 23 a + bi = 2 3i b = 3

sa + yb = x 3si + 4sj + 2ti tj = i + 5j 3s + 2t = 1 4s t = 5 8s 2t = 10 + : 11s = 11 s=1 4t=5 t = 1

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24 uv = 3 5 cis + 2 2 3 = 15 cis 7 6 = 15 cis 2 7 6 = 15 cis 5 6 25 |(12 5i)| = 12 + 5 = 169 = 13


2 2 2
2 2

31 The point is in the fourth quadrant.

r = (4 2 ) + (4 2 ) = 32 + 32 = 8 cos = 4 2 = 1 8 2 = 4 The point is 8, . 4

26 z = x + 2ixy y This still has a non-real (i) component, so is not necessarily a real number. A 27 z = 14 7i z = 14 + 7i 28 3z + 9 = 3(z + 3) 2 2 = 3(z 3i ) = 3( z + 3 i )( z 3 i ) 29 (1 + 2i) = 1 + 4i + 4i = 1 + 4i 4 = 3 + 4i 30 x = r cos = 2 cos 4 = 1 3 y = r sin = 2 sin 4 = 3 3 (1, 3 )
2 2
2 2

32 2, = (0, 2) 2 The equation of the circle is 2 2 x + (y 2) = 4 2 2 x + y 4y + 4 = 4 2 2 x + y 4y = 0 2 r 4r sin = 0 2 r = 4r sin r = 4 sin

33 Since x = r cos , this will be the graph of x = 4, a vertical line through C [4, 0]. 34 x + y = 9 2 2 2 r =x +y =9 r=3 35
2 2

B
2

r =x +y 2 = 1 (r sin ) 2 2 2 x +y =1y 2 2 x + 2y = 1

D 36 When = 0, r =
1 1 + cos 0 =1 2 Curve will be a parabola with intercept E at 1, 0 . 2

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Chapter 19 Kinematics
Exercise 19A Solutions
1 a 2 When t = 0, x = 12. 12 cm to the right of O When t = 5, x = 5 7 5 + 12 =2 2 cm to the right of O b c
2

v = dx dt = 2t 7 v = 0 when 2t 7 = 0 t = 3.5 s
a = dv dt 2 = 2 m/s

v = dx dt = 2t 7 When t = 0, v = 7. 7 cm/s to the left v = 0 when 2t 7 = 0 t = 3.5 When t = 3.5, 2 x = 3.5 7 3.5 + 12 = 0.25 t = 3.5; the particle is 0.25 cm to the left of O.
Average velocity = change in position change in time 2 12 = 5 = 2 cm/s Average speed = distance travelled change in time For the first 3.5 s, the particle has travelled 12.25 cm. From 3.5 s to 5 s, the particle has travelled 2 0.25 = 2.25 cm. Average speed = 12.25 + 2.25 5 14.5 = 5 = 2.9 cm/s

When t = 0, x = 10. 2 When t = 3.5, x = 3.5 7 3.5 + 10 = 2.25 For the first 3.5 s, the particle has travelled 12.25 m. 2 When t = 5, x = 5 7 5 + 10 =0 From 3.5 s to 5 s, the particle has travelled 2.25 m. Distance travelled = 12.25 + 2.25 = 14.5 m v = 2t 7 = 2 2t = 5 t = 2.5 2 x = 2.5 7 2.5 + 19 = 1.25 After 2.5 s, when the particle is 1.25 m left of O. When t = 0, x = 3. v = dx dt 2 = 3t 22t + 24 When t = 0, v = 24. 3 cm to the left and 24 cm/s to the right.
v = dx dt 2 = 3t 22t + 24

3 a

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v = 0 when 2 3t 22t + 24 = 0 (3t 4)(t 6) = 0 t = 4 or 6 3 4 s and after 6 s After 3 When t = 4 , 3 4 3 11 4 2 + 24 x= 3 3 64 176 3 + 32 3 = 9 27 3 = 464 + 29 27 = 11 22 27 When t = 6, 3 2 x = 6 11 6 6 3 = 39

4 3 3

3 2 x = 11 = 11 11 + 24 11 3 3 3 3 1331 1331 3 + 88 3 = 9 27 3 16 = 13 27 The acceleration is zero after 11 s, when 3 2 cm/s to the left and its the velocity is 16 3 16 cm left of O. position is 13 27

4 a

39 cm to the left of O and 11 22 cm to 27 the right of O


e

v < 0 when (3t 4)(t 6) = 0 This is a parabola with a minimum value. v < 0 when 4 < t < 6 3 4 =6 3 14 = 4 2 s = 3 3
a = dv dt 2 = 6t 22 m/s

v = 6t 10t + 4 When v = 0: 2 6t 10t + 4 = 0 2 3t 5t + 2 = 0 (3t 2)(t 1) = 0 t = 2 or 1 3 a = 12t 10 t = 2: 3 a = 12 2 10 3 = 2 t = 1: a = 12 1 10 =2 Velocity is zero after 2 s when the 3 acceleration is 2 cm/s2 to the left, and after 1 s when the acceleration is 2 cm/s2 to the right.
a = 12t 10 =0 t = 10 = 5 12 6 Find v when a = 5 : 6 2 v = 6t 10t + 4 2 = 6 5 10 5 + 4 6 5 25 50 + 4 = 1 = 6 6 6

6t 22 = 0 t = 22 = 11 3 6 2 v = 3t 22t + 24 2 = 3 11 22 11 + 24 3 3 121 242 + 24 = 3 3 2 = 16 3

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Acceleration is zero after 5 s, at which 6 1 cm/s to the left. time the velocity is 6 The particle passes through O when x = 0. 3 2 t 13t + 46t 48 = 0 Trial and error will give x = 0 when t = 2. This means (t 2) is a factor of 3 2 t 13t + 46t 48. 3 2 2 t 13t + 46t 48 = ( t 2)( t 11t + 24) =0 Factorising the quadratic gives (t 2)(t 3)(t 8) = 0 t = 2, 3 or 8

6 a

They will be at the same position when 2 t 2t 2 = t + 2 2 t 3t 4 = 0 (t 4)(t + 1) = 0 t = 4 or 1 After 4 s, or 1 s before the start. Note: In some cases, motion is not considered before t = 0, and negative values of t may be discarded.
The velocities are 1 cm/s and 2t 2 m/s. 2t 2 = 1 2t = 3 t=3 2 After 3 s. 2

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345

Exercise 19B Solutions


1 a

x = 2t 6t + c When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+c c=0 2 x = 2t 6t


t=3 2 x=23 63 =0 It will be at the origin, O.

Consider when v = 0: 4t 6 = 0 t=3 2 2 x = 2 3 6 3 2 2 1 = 4 2 The particle will travel 4 1 cm to the 2 left of the origin and back, for a total of 9 cm.

3t 8t + 5 = 0 (3t 5)( t 1) = 0 t = 5 or 1 3 5, When t = 3 3 2 x = 5 4 5 + 5 5 + 4 3 3 3 125 100 + 25 + 4 = 27 9 3 23 =5 27 When t = 1, 3 2 x=1 41 +51+4 =6


When t = 5 , 3 a=658 3 2 = 2 cm/s When t = 1, a=618 2 = 2 cm/s
v = 10t + c 2 x = 5t + ct + d When t = 2: 2 x = 5 2 + 3c + d = 0 2c + d = 20 When t = 3: 2 x = 5 3 + 3c + 2 = 25 3c + d = 20 : c=0 d = 20 2 x = 5t 20 When t = 0, x = 20 20 m to the right of O

Average velocity = change in position change in time 0 = 0 cm/s = 3 Average speed = distance travelled change in time 9 = 3cm/s = 3
3 2

2 a

x = t 4t + 5t + c When t = 0, x = 4. 4=00+0+c c=4 3 2 x = t 4t + 5t + 4 a = dv dt = 6t 8

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a = 2t 3 2 v = t 3t + c When t = 0, v = 3. 3=00+c c=3 2 v = t 3t + 3 3 2 x = t 3t + 3t + d 3 2 When t = 0, x = 2. 2=00+0+d d=2 3 2 x = t 3t + 3t + 2 3 2 When t = 10, 3 2 x = 10 3 10 + 3 10 + 2 3 2 2000 900 + 32 = 6 1 = 215 3 2 v = t 3t 3 2 = 10 3 10 + 3 = 73

When t = 2.5, 2 x 5t + 25t 2 = 5 2.5 + 25 2.5 = 31.25 m

x = 5t + 25t = 0 5t(t 5) = 0 t = 5 (t = 0 is the start)


Define t = 0 as the moment the lift passes the 50th floor. a=1t5 9 9 1 t2 5 t + c v= 9 18 8 = 0 0 + c c = 8 2 v= 1 t 58 9 18 1 t3 5 t2 8t + d x= 18 54 50 6 = 0 0 0 + d d = 300 v = 0 when 1 t2 5 t 8 = 0 9 18 2 t 10t 8 18 = 0 (t 18)(t + 8) = 0 t = 18 3 2 x = 1 t 5 t 8t + 300 18 54 3 2 = 1 18 5 18 8 18 + 300 54 18 = 174 174 = 29 6 It will stop on the 29th floor.

5 a

a = 10 v = 10t + c When t = 0, v = 25. 25 = 0 + c c = 25 v = 10t + 25


v = 10t + 25 2 x = 5t + 25t + d When t = 0, x = 0. (Define the point of projection as x = 0, the origin.) 0=0+0+d d=0 2 x = 5t + 25t

Maximum height occurs when v = 0. v = 10t + 25 = 0 t = 25 = 5 10 2 2.5 s after projection

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Exercise 19C Solutions


1
s = 30, u = 0, a = 1.5 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 1 1.5 t2 30 = 2 2 t = 40 t = 40 = 2 10 s
u = 25, v = 0, t = 3 s = 1 (u + v)t 2 1 (25 + 0) 3 = 2 = 37.5 m

4 a

45 km/h = 45 3.6 = 12.5 m/s For constant acceleration, acceleration = change in velocity change in time 2 = 12.5 = 2.5 m/s 5
s = ut + 1 at 2 1 2.5 52 = 2 = 31.25 m
2

3 a

5 a

For constant acceleration, acceleration = change in velocity change in time 27 = 3 m/s2 = 9


u = 30, v = 50, a = 3 v = u + at 50 = 30 + 3t 3t = 20 t = 20 = 6 2 s 3 3

90 km/h = 90 3.6 = 25 m/s u = 0, v = 25, a = 0.5 v = u + at 25 = 0 + 0.5t 0.5t = 25 t = 25 = 50 s 0.5


s = ut + 1 at 2 2 = 1 0.5 50 2 = 625 m
2

s = ut + 1 at 2 1 3 152 = 2 = 337.5 m
2

6 a

200 km/h = 200 3.6 = 500 m/s 9 500, a = 3 u = 0, v = 9 v = u + at 500 = 0 + 3t 9 3t = 500 9 500 t= 27 = 18 14 s 27

54 km/h = 54 3.6 = 15 m/s u = 15, a = 0.25, s = 250 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 250 = 15t + 1 0.25t 2 Multiply both sides by 8: 2 2000 = 120t t 2 t 120t + 2000 = 0 (t 20)(t 100) = 0 t = 100 represents the train changing velocity and returning to this point. t = 20 s

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v = u + at = 15 + 0.25 20 = 10 m/s = 10 3.6 = 36 km/h

10 a v = u + at = 4.9 9.8t = 4.9(1 2t) b

7 a

v = u + at = 20 + 9.8 4 = 19.2 m/s


s = ut + 1 at 2
2 2

= 20 4 + 1 9.8 4 2 = 1.6

s = ut + 1 at 2 2 = 4.9t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 = 4.9t 4.9t = 4.9t(1 t) This is his displacement from the initial 3 m height. h = 4.9t(1 t) + 3
2

8 a

v = u + at = 20 + 9.8 4 = 59.2 m/s


s = ut + 1 at 2
2 2

11 a Maximum height occurs when v = 0. u = 19.6, a = 9.8, v = 0 v = u + at 0 = 19.6 9.8t t = 19.6 = 2 s 9.8 b
s = ut + 1 at 2
2 2

= 20 4 + 1 9.8 4 2 = 158.4 m

9 a

= 19.6 2 + 1 9.8 2 2 = 19.6 m

u = 49, s = 0, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 49t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 0 = 49t 4.9t 0 = 4.9t(10 t) t = 10 s

u = 49, s = 102.9, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 102.9 = 49t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 102.9 = 49t 4.9t 2 0 = 4.9t 49t + 102.9 Divide by 4.9: 2 t 10t + 21 = 0 (t 3)(t 7) = 0 At both 3 s (going up) and 7 s (going down)

u = 19.6, s = 0, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 19 0= 4.9t 6t 0 = 4.9t(4 t) t=4s

u = 19.6, s = 24.5, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 24.5 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 24.5 = 19.6t 4.9t 2 0 = 4.9t 19.6t 24.5 Divide by 4.9: 2 t 4t 5 = 0 (t 5)(t + 1) = 0 t=5s

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12 Let the distance between P and Q be x m. u = 20, v = 40, s = x 2 2 v = u + 2as 1600 = 400 + 2ax 2ax = 1200 a = 1200 2x 600 = x At the halfway mark, u = 20, a = 600, s = x 2 x 2 2 v = u + 2as = 400 + 2 600 x 2 x = 1000 v = 1000 = 10 10 m/s

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Exercise 19D Solutions


1

Draw the velocitytime graph.

Distance travelled = area under graph = 1 10 13 2 = 65 m


2

Draw the velocitytime graph.

The area can be calculated using the trapezium formula, or as the sum of two triangles and a rectangle. A = 1 (a + b)h 2 1 (25 + 50) 15 = 2 = 562.5 m
A = 1 (a + b)h 2 1 (25 + 35) 15 = 2 = 450 m

Since the total distance travelled is 1 km or 1000 m, the combined areas of the two triangles will equal a distance of 500 m. 1 5 h + 1 10 h = 500 2 2 5h + 10h = 1000 15h = 1000 h = 1000 15 = 66 2 3 2 m/s Maximum speed = 66 3
4

36 km/h = 36 3.6 = 10 m/s. 72 km/h = 20 m/s.

Let the halfway point be at time T as below.

Distance = A = 18 10 + 1 6 10 2 = 210 m

1 10 15 + 15(T 10) = 562.5 2 2 75 + 15T 150 = 281.25 15T = 356.25 T = 23.75 s

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60 km/h = 60 3.6 = 50 m/s 3

Let the common time be T s and the distance x m.

Distance = A = 1 60 50 3 2 = 500 m Distance = A = 1 50 + 25 30 2 3 3 = 375 m Let the required time be T s.

For the first car, x = 15t For the second car, x = 1 10 25 + 25(t 10) 2 = 125 + 25t 250 = 25t 125 = 15t 10t = 125 t = 12.5 s x = 15t = 15 12.5 = 187.5 m
Convert the speeds to km/min. 60 km/h = 1 km/min 80 km/h = 4 km/min 3 Treat each train separately. The first train:

It is easier to work with the triangle on the right. This triangle will have area = 500 2 = 250 Its base = (60 T) The sloping line has gradient= 50 60 3 = 50 = 5 180 18 5 (60 T) the triangles height = 18 1 (60 T) 5 (60 T) = 250 18 2 5 (60 T) 2 = 250 26 2 (60 T) = 250 36 5 = 1800 60 T = 1800 42.43 T 15.57 s

The second train:

First train distance = 5 1 + 1 2.5 1 2 = 6.25 km Second train distance = 1 9 4 3 2 = 6 km Since the trains have together travelled less than 14 km, they will not crash.

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8 a

The maximum speed will be the height of the triangle.

1 100 h = 800 2 50h = 800 h = 16 Maximum speed = 16 m/s = 16 3.6 = 57.6 km/h

The slope of the deceleration is twice as steep as the slope of the acceleration. Since the heights are equal, the acceleration run will be twice as long as the deceleration run. T = 2 100 3 = 66 2 s 3 = 1 min 6 2 seconds 3 Taking the acceleration section, the gradient = a = 16 66 2 3 48 = 200 2 = 0.24 m/s

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

When t = 0, x = 0 = 0 cm

6 A

When t = 0, x = 0. 3 2 When t = 2, x = 2 + 7 2 12 2 = 4 Average velocity = change in position change in time = 4 2 = 2 cm/s E

60 km/h = 60 3.6 = 50 m/s 3 50, t = 4 u = 0, v = 3 1 (u + v)t s= 2 1 50 4 = 2 3 = 100 m 3

v = 4t 3t + c When t = 0, v = 1 1 = 0 0 + c c = 1 2 v = 4t 3 t 1 2 When t = 1, v = 4 1 3 1 1 = 0 m/s


u = 0, s = 90, a = 1.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 90 = 1 1.8 t 2 2 90 = 0.9t 2 t = 100 t = 10 s 60 km/h = 60 3.6 = 50 m/s 3 50, t = 4 u = 0, v = 3 v = u + at 50 = 4a 3 2 a = 50 = 25 m/s 12 6

Distance = area under graph = triangle + trapezium + triangle = 1 4 10 + 1 (10 + 25) 2 + 1 9 25 2 2 2 = 20 + 25 + 112.5 = 167.5 m D

u = 0, a = 9.8, s = 40 2 2 v = u + 2as = 0 + 2 9.8 40 = 784 v = 784 = 28 m/s


u = 20, v = 0, a = 4 v = u + at 0 = 20 4t t=5 s = 1 (u + v)t 2 = 1 20 5 2 = 50 m
2

10 v = 6t 5t + c When t = 0, v = 1. 1=00+c c=1 2 v = 6t 5t + 1

When t = 1, v = 6 1 5 1 + 1 = 2 m/s D

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

When t = 0, x = 5. 5 cm to the left of O When t = 3, x = 3 4 3 5 = 8 8 cm to the left of O v = dx dt = 2t 4 When t = 0, v = -4. v = 0 when 2t 4 = 0 t=2 2 When t = 2, x = 2 4 2 5 = 9 At 2 s, 9 cm to the left of O Average velocity = change in position change in time 9 5 = 2 cm/s = 2 2 cm/s to the left Distance travelled = distance from t = 0 to t = 2 (when v = 0), plus distance from t = 2 to t = 3 = 4 + 1 = 5 cm Average speed = distance travelled change in time 5 = 1 2 cm/s = 3 3 Note: Average velocity has a direction and hence a sign, but average speed does not.
2

v = 0 when 3t 4t = 0 t(3t 4) = 0 t = 0 or 4 3 At the start and after 4 s 3


3 2

3 a

Solve 2t + 3t + 12t + 7 = 0 Using factors of 7, t = 1 gives 3 2 2 (1) + 3 (1) + 12 1 + 7 = 0 Dividing by (t + 1), 3 2 2 2t + 3tg + 12t + 7 = (t + 1)(2t 5t 7) = (t + 1)(t + 1)(2t 7) =0 t = 3.5, as t = 1 is usually discarded. v = dx dt 2 = 6t + 6t + 12 a = dv = 12t + 6 dt When t = 3.5 2 v = 6 3.5 + 6 3.5 + 12 = 40.5 cm/s a = dv dt = 12 3.5 + 6 2 = 36 cm/s
v=0 2 6t + 6t + 12 = 0 2 t t2=0 (t + 1)(t 2) = 0 t=2 After 2s (discarding t = 1) Distance travelled in first 2 seconds 3 2 = |(2 2 + 3 2 + 12 2 + 7) (0 + 0 + 0 + 7)| = 20 m Distance travelled from t = 2 to t = 3 is 2 |(2 3 + 3 32 + 12 3 + 7) 3 2 (2 2 + 3 2 + 12 2 + 7)| = |16 27| = 11 m Distance travelled in first 3 s = 20 + 11 = 31 m

2 a

v = dx dt 2 = 3t 4t a = dv = 6t 4 dt When t = 0, x = 8, v = 0 and a = 4. 8 cm to the right of O, stationary and accelerating at 4 m/s2 to the left.

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4 a i x1 1 = 1 1 2 2 2 11 = 8 4 = 1 8 1 cm to the left 8 2 ii a1(t) = d x 2 dt = 6t 2 1 = 6 1 2 a1 2 2 2 = 1 cm/s iii v2(t) = dx = 2t dt v2 = 2 1 2 = 1 cm/s i


3 2

5 a

a = 6t 2 v = 3t + c When t = 0, v = 0. 0=0+c c=0 2 v = 3t When t = 2, v = 3 4 = 12 m/s

v = 3t 3 x=t +d When t = 0, x = 0. 0=0+d d=0 3 x=t Since the particle starts at the origin, its 3 displacement s = x = t .
a = 3 2t 2 2 v = 3t t + c When t = 0, v = 4. 4=00+c c=4 2 v = 3t t + 4 = 0

x1(t) = x2(t) 3 2 2 t t =t 3 2 t 2t = 0 2 t (t 2) = 0 t = 0 and 2 The particles will have the same position at the start and after 2 s. ii Let the distance between the particles 3 2 be y = |t 2t |. 3 2 Define y = t 2t : dy = 3t2 4t dt = t(3t 4) = 0 when t = 0 and 4 3 When t = 0, y = 0. When t = 4 , y = 64 32 27 9 3 = 1 5 27 When t = 2, y = 8 2 4 =0 The maximum distance the particles are apart in the first 2 s is 32 = 1 5 cm 27 27

6 a

(t 3t 4) = 0 (t 4)(t + 1) = 0 t=4 After 4 s


b

v = 3t t + 4 2 3 x = 3t t + 4t + d 2 3 When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+0+d d=0 2 3 x = 3t t + 4t 2 3 2 3 When t = 4, x = 3 4 4 + 4 4 2 3 = 18 2 3 2 m to the right 18 3

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c d

When t = 4, a = 3 2 4 = 5 m/s2 a = 3 2t = 0 t = 1.5 s When t = 1.5, 2 v = 3t t + 4 2 = 3 1.5 1.5 + 4 = 6.25 m/s


3 4

7 a

s = 2t 3t + c 3 4 When t = 0, s = 0. 0=00+c c=0 3 4 s = 2t 3t 3 4 3 4 When t = 1, x = 2 1 3 1 3 4 =23= 1 3 4 12 1 m to the left. 12

v=1t 2 1 s= 1t +c 2 When t = 1, s = 0. 1 0= 11 +c 2 0= 1+c 2 1 c= 2 1 1 s= 2 2t


2

9 a
a = dv dt 2 = 3t 22t + 24

When t = 1, v = 2 3 = 1 m/s
a = dv dt 2 = 4t 9t 2 When t = 1, a = 4 1 9 1 2 = 5 m/s
2

Solve for v = 0. 3 t 11t + 24t = t(t 3)(t 8) Since motion is only defined for t 0, it cannot be said to change direction at t = 0. t=3 2 a = 3 3 22 3 + 24 2 = 15 m/s v = t 11t + 24t 4 3 2 x = t 11t + 12t + c 4 3 When t = 0, s = 0 0=00+0+c c=0 4 3 2 x = t 11t + 12t 4 3 4 3 2 When t = 5, x = 5 11 5 + 12 5 4 3 = 2 1 2 When t = 3, x = 3 11 3 + 12 3 4 3 1 = 29 4 When t = 0, x = 0. Total distance = 29 1 + 29 1 + 2 1 4 4 12 7 m = 60 12 2 1 m left of O, 60 7 m 12 12
4 3 2 3 2

8 a

v = 2t a = dv dt

= 4t =

4 3 t

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10 u = 20, v = 0, t = 4 s = 1 (u + v)t 2 = 1 20 4 2 = 40 m 11 a
u = 0, v = 30, t = 12 v = u + at 30 = 12a a = 30 12 2 = 2.5 m/s u = 30, v = 50, a = 2.5 v = u + at 50 = 30 + 2.5t 2.5t = 20 t=8s s = ut + 1 at 2 2 = 0 + 1 2.5 20 2 = 500 m
2

s = 1 (u + v)t 2 1 50 125 = 2 3 3 2m = 347 9

13 a

u = 35, s = 0, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 3.5t 4.9t 0.7t(50 7t) = 0 t = 50 = 7 1 s 7 7

100 km/h = 100 3.6 = 250 m/s 9 250, a = 2.5 u = 0, v = 9 v = u + at 250 = 2.5t 9 t = 250 9 2.5 = 11 1 s 9

u = 35, s = 60, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 60 = 35t 49t 2 4.9t 35t + 60 = 0 49t 250t + 600 = 0 (7t 20)(7t 30) = 0 t = 2 6 or 4 2 7 7 6 s (going up) and 4 2 s (going After 2 7 7 down)

14 a Maximum height occurs when v = 0. u = 19.6, a = 9.8, v = 0 v = u + at 0 = 19.6 9.8t t = 19.6 = 2 s 9.8 b
s = ut + 1 at 2
2 2

12 a 100 km/h = 100 3.6 = 50 m/s 3 u = 0, v = 50, a = 0.4 3 v = u + at 50 = 0.4t 3 t = 50 3 0.4 = 41 2 s 3

= 19.6 2 + 1 9.8 2 2 = 19.6 m With respect to ground level, height = 19.6 + 20 = 39.6 m

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u = 19.6, s = 0, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 0 = 19.6t 4.9t 0 = 4.9t(4 t) t=4s u = 19.6, s = 20, a = 9.8 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 20 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t 2 2 20 = 19.6t 4.9t 2 4.9t 19. t 20 = 0 2 49t 196t 200 = 0 2 = b 4ac 2 = 196 4 49 200 = 77 616
278.596 Since the discriminant is irrational, solve using the quadratic formula: t = 196 278.596 98 4.84 or 0.84 4.84 s (since t > 0)

= 1 (33 + 15) 12 2 = 288 m Halfway point is 144 m. The car has travelled 1 8 12 = 48 m 2 in the first 8 s. It must travel 144 48 = 96 m at 12 m/s. This will take 96 12 = 8 s. Total of 16 s.

17

Since the vehicle travels 1 km = 1000 m, adding the two triangles together should give an area equal to a distance of 200 m. The triangles have a combined base of 25. A = 1 25 V 2 = 200 V = 200 2 25 = 16 m/s
18 After 3 s, the first car has travelled 12 3 = 36 m.

15

Distance = area = 1 35 25 2 = 437.5 m


16

Distance = trapezium area

Let the second cars final velocity be V m/s. The two areas will be equal. 1 27 V = 12 30 2 = 360 V = 2 360 27 80 = 3 For constant acceleration, acceleration = change in velocity change in time 2 = 80 = 80 m/s 3 27 81

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19 a

v = 10 3 10 + 5 4 = 0 m/s

a = dv dt 2t 3 = 4 t 3 = 2 When t = 0, a = 3 m/s2. Minimum velocity occurs when a = 0. t 3=0 2 t=6 When t = 6, 2 v=6 36+5 4 = 4 m/s

When t = 3, 3 2 x= 3 33 +53 12 2 9 27 + 15 = 4 2 =33m 4 Distance travelled in the third second =4233 3 4 11 m (to the left) = 12

20 a a = 2 2t 2 v = 2t = t + c When t = 3, v = 5. 2 5=233 +c 5 = 3 + c c=8 2 v = 2t t + 8 b

v = t 3t + 5 4 3 2 x = t 3t + 5t + c 12 2 When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+0+c c=0 3 2 x = t 3t + 5t 12 2 Check for change of direction of velocity. 2 v = 0 if t 3t + 5 = 0 4 2 t 12t + 20 = 0 (t 2)(t 10) = 0 t = 2 or 10 There will be no change of direction of velocity in the first 2 s. When t = 2, 2 3 x= 2 32 +52 12 2 2 6 + 10 = 3 =42m 3

v = 2t t + 8 3 2 x = t t + 8t + d 3 When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+0+d d=0 3 2 x = t t + 8t 3

21 a a = 4 4t 2 v = 4t 2t + c When t = 0, v = 6. 6=00+c c=6 2 v = 4t 2t + 6 2 = 6 + 4t 2t b

Minimum velocity occurs when a = 0. i 4 4t = 0 t=1 2 v = 6 + 4t 2t 2 =6+4121 = 8 m/s

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ii 6 + 4t 2t = 6 2 4t 2t = 0 2t(2 t) = 0 2 iii 6 + 4t 2t = 0 2 2t + 4t + 6 = 0 2 t 2t 3 = 0 (t 3)(t + 1) = 0 t=3


x = 2t + 2t + 6t + d 3 x = 0 when t = 0 d=0 3 2 x = 2t + 2t + 6t 3 When t = 3, 3 2 x= 23 +23 +63 3 = 18 m
2 3

23 a a = 3 3t 2 v = 3t = 3t + c 2 When t = 0, v = 2. 2=00+c c=2 2 v = 3t 3t + 2 2

When t = 4, v = 3 4 3 4 + 2 2 = 10 m
b

22 a When t = 0, a = 27 m/s2. b

a = 27 4t 3 v = 27t 4t + c 3 When t = 0, v = 5. 5=00+c c=5 3 v = 27t 4t + 5 3 When t = 3, v = 27 3 4 3 + 5 3 = 50 m/s


3

v = 3t 3t + 2 2 2 3 x = 3t t + 2t + d 2 2 When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+0+d d=0 2 3 x = 3t t + 2t 2 2 2 3 When t = 4, x = 3 4 4 + 24 2 2 = 24 32 + 8 = 0 m/s

24 2 a t 10t + 24 = 0 (t 4)(t 6) = 0 t = 4 and 6 b

v = 27t 4t + 5 = 5 3 3 27t 4t = 0 3 3 81t 4t = 0 2 t(81 4t ) = 0 t(9 2t)(9 + 2t) = 0 t = 4.5 s

v = t 10t + 24 3 2 x = t 5t + 24t + c 5 When t = 0, x = 0. 0=00+0+c c=0 3 2 x = t 5t + 24t 3 3 2 When t = 3, x = 3 5 3 + 24 3 3 = 36 m a = 2t 10 < 0 2t < 10 t<5 Since t 0, 0 t 5

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361

Chapter 20 Statics of a particle


Exercise 20A Solutions
1 Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Using trigonometry, T1 = T2 = 5 sin 45

= 5 2 kg wt 2
2

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

ACB = ACD + ADC These angles can be calculated using the cosine rule, but the student should notice that ACD is a 'doubled' 3-4-5 triangle with CAD = 90. ACB = ACD + ADC = 180 90 = 90
3

cos CAB = 15 + 10 12 2 15 10 = 0.6033 CAB = 52.89 ADC = 90 CAB = 37.11 2 2 2 cos CBA = 15 + 12 10 2 15 12 = 0.7472 CBA = 41.65 ACD = 90 CBA = 48.35 CAD = 180 37.11 48.35 = 94.54 Use the sine rule to find T1 and T2. 20 T1 = sin ACD sin CAD T1 = 20 sin 48.35 sin 94.54 14.99 kg wt 20 T2 = sin ADC sin CAD T2 = 20 sin 37.11 sin 94.54 12.10 kg wt
4

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Using the cosine rule in the triangle in the original diagram, it is clear that:

Using the cosine rule, 2 2 2 F = 40 + 30 2 30 40 cos 45 = 802.94 F 28.34 kg wt Using the cosine rule, 2 2 2 cos x = F + 40 30 2 F 40 = 0.663 x 48.5 W 48.5 S or S 41.5 W

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The angle between the plane and the horizontal is given by tan x = 5 12 = 0.4167 x 22.619 Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

T = 104 sin x = 40 kg wt Note: The hypotenuse is 13, so sin x = 5 and cos x = 12. 13 13 N = 104 cos x = 96 kg wt

Use the cosine rule to calculate the magnitude of the third force. 2 2 2 F = 10 + 6 2 10 6 cos 100 = 156.837 F 12.52 kg wt This is not the force in the diagram, so these forces will not be in equilibrium.
b

Note that F will be acting at 50 to the horizontal and 70 to N, which becomes 110 when the force vectors are joined head to tail. Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Use the cosine rule to calculate the magnitude of the third force. 2 2 2 F = 4 + (2 3 ) 2 4 2 3 cos 30 =4 F = 2 kg wt It has the same magnitude as the third force in the diagram.

Use the sine rule.

F 12 = sin 30 sin110 12 sin 30 F= 6.39 kg wt sin110


7

In each case, the particle will be in equilibrium if the forces add to zero. Draw the first two forces, and calculate the third force required for equilibrium.

Use the sine rule to find x. sin x = sin 30 4 2 sin x = 0.5 4 = 1 2 x = 90 This vector is at the same angle with the 2 3 vector as in the original diagram. the vectors will be in equilibrium.

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Draw the triangle of forces and use the cosine rule to find the three angles. When the vectors are placed tail to tail, the angles between them will be the supplements of the angles in the triangle.

The angle between T and N is now 80.

Draw the triangle of forces.

cos x = 7 + 4 10 274 = 0.625 x 12841' Angle between vectors is 180 12841' = 5119' 2 2 2 cos y = 10 + 4 7 2 10 4 = 0.8375 y 337' Angle between vectors is 180 337' = 14653' z 180 12841' 337' = 1812' Angle between vectors is 180 1812' = 16148'

Use the sine rule. T = 15 sin 30 sin 100 T = 15 0.5 sin 100 7.62 kg wt
10

9 a

Draw the triangle of forces for point B.

Draw the triangle of forces.

T = 15 sin 30 = 7.5 kg wt

The situation will be the same, except that the 30 angle will now be 40. T = 15 sin 40 9.64 kg wt

Use the sine rule to find T1 and T2. T1 = 12 sin 110 sin 20 T1 = 12 sin 110 sin 20 32.97 kg wt T2 = 12 sin 50 sin 20 T2 = 12 sin 50 sin 20 26.88 kg wt

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Now draw the triangle of forces for point C.

Use the sine rule to find T3. T3 = T 2 sin 70 sin 40 T3 = 26.88 sin 70 sin 40 39.29 kg wt Since the triangle is isosceles, W = T3 39.29 kg wt The mass of W is 39.29 kg.

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Exercise 20B Solutions


1

F cos 40 = 10 kg wt F = 10 cos 40 13.05 kg wt


Resolve in the direction of F. F 10 cos 55 = 0 F = 5.74 kg wt First resolve vertically to find N. N cos 25 8 = 0 8 N= cos 25 8.83 kg wt Keep the exact value of N in your calculator. Resolve horizontally. F N sin 25 = 0 F = N sin 25 3.73 kg wt

Resolve vertically: T cos 30 12 = 0


T= 12 cos 30

Resolve horizontally: F T sin 30 = 0 F = T sin 30 = 12 sin 30 cos 30 6.93 kg wt


6

F N sin 25 = 0 F = N sin 25 3.73 kg wt

Resolve parallel to the plane, i.e. perpendicular to N. F is at an angle of 34 to the plane. F cos 34 10 sin 20 = 0 F = 10 sin 20 cos 34 4.13 kg wt

Resolve parallel to the plane. 20 W sin 40 = 0 W = 20 sin 40 31.11 kg wt The force W exerts on the plane is the part of its weight resolved perpendicular to the plane. F = W cos 40 = 20 cos 40 sin 40 = 23.84 kg wt

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First resolve horizontally so only one unknown is involved. 30 sin x 20 sin 35 = 0 sin x = 20 sin 35 30 = 0.382 x 2229' Keep the exact value in your calculator and resolve vertically. 0 = W 20 cos 35 30 cos 22.481 W = 20 cos 35 + 30 cos 22.481 44.10
8

First find the angle between the string and the vertical. sin x = 9 15 + 9 = 0.375 x = 22.024 Resolve vertically. T cos x 3 = 0 3 T= cos 22.024 3.24 kg wt

Pressure of body on plane = 10 cos 50 6.43 kg wt Resolve parallel to the plane. T 10 sin 50 = 0 T = 10 sin 50 7.66 kg wt Resolve parallel to the second plane. T W sin 40 = 0 W= T sin 40 = 10 sin 50 sin 40 11.92 kg wt

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

50 cos 60 = 50 1 2 = 25 N

Resolve perpendicular to the plane. N 20 cos 30 = 0 N = 20 cos 30 = 20 3 2 = 10 3 kg wt E Resolve parallel to the plane. F 20 sin 30 = 0 F = 20 sin 30 = 20 1 2 = 10 kg wt Use Pythagoras theorem.
Resultant = 5 + 4 = 41 kg wt
2 2

a +7 =9 2 a = 81 49 = 32 a = 32 = 4 2
7

The angle between the forces when they are head to tail will be 120. Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 F = 20 + 20 2 20 20 cos 120 = 400 + 400 800 1 2 = 1200 F = 1200 = 20 3 kg wt B
The angle between the forces when they are head to tail will be 120. Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 F = 300 + 200 2 300 200 cos 120 = 90 000 + 40 000 120 000 1 2 = 190 000 F = 190 000 = 100 19 kg wt A
R = 16 + 30 = 1156 = 34 kg wt
2 2

For the particle to be in equilibrium, B must equal the sum of the forces on A and C. B = A cos 60 + C cos 30 (since 180 150 = 30). As this is true, C cannot be true. C

6 10 The forces will be at right angles to each other. 2 2 2 a + 8 = 12 2 a = 144 64 = 80 a = 80 = 4 5 B

Since the forces are perpendicular,

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368

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

Note that the two strings form a 3-4-5 triangle. Draw the triangle of forces.

The force exerted on the body by the plane will be perpendicular to the plane. Resolve parallel to the plane, so the component of this force will be zero. The hypotenuse of the marked triangle is

Note:

sin x = 6 = 3; cos x = 8 = 4 10 5 10 5 T1 = 15 sin x = 15 3 = 9 kg wt 5 T2 = 15 cos x = 15 4 = 12 kg wt 5


2

Draw the triangle of forces.

Use the cosine rule. 2 2 2 F = 10 + 10 2 10 10 cos 120 = 100 + 100 200 1 2 = 300 F = 300 = 10 3 kg wt Since the triangle is isosceles, x = 180 120 2 = 30

h = 12 + 6 = 180 = 6 5 cm If x is the angle of the plane to the horizontal, sin x = 6 = 1 6 5 5 12 = 2 cos x = 6 5 5 Resolving, T 70 sin x = 0 T = 70 sin x = 70 1 5 70 5 = 14 5 kg wt = 5 Resolving perpendicular to the plane, N 70 cos x = 0 N = 70 cos x = 70 2 5 = 140 5 = 28 5 kg wt 5
4

10 3 kg wt, at 150 to each 10 kg wt force.

The force exerted on the body by the plane will be perpendicular to the plane. Resolve parallel to the plane, so the component of this force will be zero. F cos 30 15 sin 30 = 0 F 3 = 15 1 2 2 F = 15 3 = 15 3 = 5 3 kg wt 3

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Draw the triangle of forces and use the cosine rule.

cos x = 12 + 5 8 2 15 5 105 = 7 = 120 8 Since the required angle is 180 x, the cosine is 7. 8

F cos 30 = 20 F 3 = 20 2 20 2 F= 3 = 40 3 kg wt 3 Resolve parallel to the plane. F 15 sin 45 = 0 F = 15 sin 45 = 15 2 kg wt 2

Resolve parallel to the plane. W sin 30 14 = 0 W = 14 sin 30 = 14 = 28 kg wt 0.5 Resolve perpendicular to the plane. N 28 cos 30 = 0 N = 28 cos 30
= 28 3 2 = 14 3 kg wt

Calculate F by resolving parallel to the plane. F cos 30 12 sin 30 = 0 F 3 = 12 1 2 2 2 F=6 3 12 3 = 3 = 4 3 kg wt

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370

Chapter 21 Revision of chapters 19 and 20


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

x = at + bt + c c = 12
v = dx = 4t 5 dt When t = 0, v = 5 cm/s a = dv = 4 dt When t = 0, a = 4 cm/s2
v=0 4t 5 = 0 t = 5 = 1.25 s 4
x=0 2t 5t 12 = 0 (2t + 3)(t 4) = 0 t=4s
2

9 D

Average speed = distance travelled change in time 9.25 = 3 = 3 1 cm/s C 12

10 v = u + at = 15 10 3 = 15 cm/s 11 v = u + at 0 = 15 10t t = 15 = 1.5 s 10

t=3 2 x = 2 3 5 3 12 = 9 cm

12 Maximum height occurs when v = 0, i.e. when t = 1.5 s 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 = 15 1.5 1 10 1.5 2 = 11.25 m D 13
s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 15t 5t 5t(t 3) = 0 After 3 s, since t = 0 is the initial projection.
2

Average velocity = change in position change in time = 9 12 3 = 1 cm/s A The direction of velocity changes at t = 1.25. Position at t = 1.25 2 = 2 1.25 5 1.25 12 = 15.125 cm Distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 1.25 = 12 15.125 = 3.125 cm Distance travelled from t = 1.25 to t = 3 = 9 15.125 = 6.125 cm Distance travelled in the first 3 seconds = 3.125 + 6.125 = 9.25 cm D

14 Distance = area of trapezium = 1 (14 + 6) 20 2 = 200 m 15 For constant acceleration, acceleration = change in velocity change in time 20 = 5 = 4 m/s2

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16 Resolve perpendicular to F2. The angle between F1 and F2 extended back is 100 + 120 180 = 40. F1 sin 40 8 sin 60 = 0 F1 = 8 sin 60 sin 40 10.78 kg wt A 17 Resolve perpendicular to F1. The angle between F2 and F1 extended back is 100 + 120 180 = 40. The angle between the 8 kg wt force and F1 extended back is 120 40 = 80. F2 sin 40 8 sin 80 = 0 F2 = 8 sin 80 sin 40 12.26 kg wt D 18 Resolve perpendicular to the plane. N 10 cos 25 = 0 N = 10 cos 25 9.06 kg wt B 19 Resolve parallel to the plane. F 10 sin 25 = 0 F = 10 sin 25 4.23 kg wt

20 Draw the triangle of forces. = 180

Use the cosine rule to find . 2 2 2 cos = 12 + 10 14 2 12 10 = 0.2 78 180 78 = 102


21 Draw the triangle of forces. = 180

Use the cosine rule to find . 2 2 2 cos = 12 + 17.5 15 2 12 17.5 = 0.536 57 180 57 = 122
22 60 cos 30 51.96 kg wt 23 60 sin 30 = 30 kg wt

C E B

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Chapter 22 Describing the distribution of a single variable


Exercise 22A Solutions
1 a b c d e 'Type of toy' is categorical data. 'Number of students' is numerical data. b 'Favourite colour' is categorical data. 'Weight' is categorical data Although derived from numbers, 'light', 'medium' and 'heavy' are not numerical values, so this is categorical data. 'Level of enthusiasm' is categorical data. c 3 a Discrete the number of pages can only be an integer. Discrete the cost can only be a whole number of cents. Continuous the volume could take any value, including fractional values. Continuous any amount of time could pass, including seconds and fractions of seconds. Discrete the number of tosses can only be an integer. While it uses number for labelling, the survey is actually checking attitudes, so this is categorical data. 2 a IQ is a numerical value, so this is numerical data.

b f

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Exercise 22B Solutions


1 a 3 a

b b Hamburgers are the most popular, with 23 students selecting them. 4 a

Music is the least popular type of film, with only 15 rentals.

2 a

From the table, 21 + 11 = 32 respondents.

Watching TV was the most common activity, chosen by 42% of students.

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Exercise 22C Solutions


1
Number Frequency 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1

4 a, b Divide each frequency by the total number of cities, 32, to get the relative frequency
Temp. (C) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Freq. 1 0 1 9 4 5 7 4 0 1 Relative Freq. 0.03 0 0.03 0.28 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.13 0 0.03

2 a

'Only child' equates to family size = 1. Reading from the graph, the answer is 4 students. The most common number is the column with the greatest height. 2 children (height = 10). Add up the heights of the columns for family size = 6 and higher. 2 + 1 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 5 students Add the heights of all the columns. 4 + 10 + 5 + 4 + 0 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 28 students

3 a

Read the height of the 10-19 column. Zero (0) students. Add all the heights of the columns. 2 + 3 + 3 + 7 + 9 + 10 + 8 + 4 + 2 = 48 students The modal class is the column with the greatest height. 6069 students. Count all the columns to the right of 50. 9 + 10 + 8 + 4 + 2 = 33 students d Count these cities using the values in the table. 1 + 1 + 9 + 4 = 15 out of a total 32 cities. 15 100 47% 32

5 a

The modal class is the column with the greatest height. $5.00$5.99

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c
Prices ($) less than 5 less than 10 less than 15 less than 20 less than 25 less than 30 less than 35 less than 40 less than 45 Cumulative Freq. 3 9 12 15 19 19 20 20 21

The students' estimates ranged from 28.9 cm to 33.3 cm, with most students (86%) over-estimating the 30 cm measure.

7 a

b
Marks less than 10 less than 20 less than 30 less than 40 less than 50 less than 60 less than 70 less than 80 less than 90 less than 100 Cumulative Freq. 0 0 1 3 8 16 22 26 27 30

6 a

b
Measurement (cm) less than 28 less than 29 less than 30 less than 31 less than 32 less than 33 less than 34 Cumulative Freq. 0 1 3 11 20 27 28

The students' marks ranged from 21 to 99, with most students (over 70%) scoring more than 50% on the test.

8 a

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b
Length of hole (m) less than 240 less than 260 less than 280 less than 300 less than 320 less than 340 less than 360 less than 380 less than 400 less than 420 Cumulative Freq. 0 1 6 8 17 30 33 45 47 50

i From the graph, there are about 8 out of 50 = 4 25 ii From the graph, there are about 17 holes longer than 360 m = 17 50 iii 90% of 50 holes is 45 holes. From the graph, 90% of holes are longer than 270 m.

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377

Exercise 22D Solutions


1 a 3 Both distributions have the same spread, but the one on the left has a lower centre than the one on the right. Differ in centre. Both distributions have the same spread and the same centre. Differ in neither. The distribution on the right has a higher centre and a wider spread than the one on the left. Differ in both. While not perfectly symmetric, this histogram is still approximately symmetric. While not perfectly symmetric, this histogram is still approximately symmetric. While not perfectly symmetric, this histogram is still approximately symmetric.

2 a

The histogram has a short tail to the left and a long tail to the right, so it is positively skewed. The histogram has a long tail to the left and a short tail to the right, so it is negatively skewed. While not perfectly symmetric, this histogram is still approximately symmetric.

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378

Exercise 22E Solutions


1 a 4 a

There are 2 leaves on the '6' stem, so two months.

2 a

There are 7 leaves on the '3' stem, and 2 leaves on the '4' stem. 7 + 2 = 9 batteries.

The distribution is approximately symmetric. There are outliers at the high end, but these can be ignored.

3 a

5 a

There are 2 leaves on the '6' stem and one leaf on the '7' stem, so 3 students. As a histogram, this would have a short tail to the left and a long tail to the right, so the distribution is positively skewed.

Both distributions are approximately symmetric and have a similar spread. Fathers tend to have ages centred in the late 40s, compared to mothers who tend to have aged centred in the early 40s.

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6 a

Marks less than 50% are on stems 1 through 4. Six students from Class A and 2 students from Class B scored less than 50%. Class B performed better, as more students scored in the higher 70% to 90% levels.

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380

Exercise 22F Solutions


1 a Mean = 29 + 14 + 11 + 24 + 14 + 14 + 28 + 14 + 18 + 22 + 14 11 202 = 11 18.36 Arrange the data in order: 11 14 14 14 14 14 18 22 24 28 29 The median is the middle number: 14. Mean = (Sum of numbers) n = 147 9.19 16 Arrange the data in order: 3 3 5 5 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 12 13 13 15 15 The median is the average of the two middle numbers: 9 + 11 = 10 2 c Mean = (Sum of numbers) n = 74.1 = 7.41 10 Arrange the data in order: 5.6 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.5 7.8 7.9 8.2 8.2 8.3 The median is the average of the two middle numbers: 7.5 + 7.8 = 7.65 2 d Mean = (Sum of numbers) n = 38.9 1.62 24 Arrange the data in order: 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.7 2.0 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.4 4.6 5.8 After putting the data in order, the two middle numbers are 1.1 and 1.2. Median = 1.1 + 1.2 = 1.15 2 Mean = (Sum of numbers) n Sum of numbers = (1 6) + (2 3) + (3 10) + (4 7) + (5 8) = 110 Total data (n) = 6 + 3 + 10 + 7 + 8 = 34 110 3.24 Mean = 34 The middle two data would be the 17th and 18th scores, which are both be 3. Median = 3 b Sum of numbers = (2 5) + (1 8) + (0 11) + (1 3) + (2 2) = 11 Total data (n) = 5 + 8 + 11 + 3 + 2 = 29 11 0.38 Mean = 29 The median is the 15th score, which is 0.

2 a

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Mean = (Sum of numbers) n = $2 707 400 $193 386 14 The median is the average of the two middle numbers. After putting the data in order, the two middle numbers are both $140 000. Median = $140 000 The median is a better measure, as it is more like a typical price for a house. To find the mean, add a third row to calculate the products, or partial sums.
No. of days missed No. of students Product 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 21

8.39 8.51 8.51 8.54 8.56 8.58 8.62 8.82 8.96 Range = 8.96 8.39 = 0.57 Exclude the median. The median of the first four points is 8.51. The median of the last four points is 8.62 + 8.82 = 8.72. 2 Interquartile range = 8.72 8.51 = 0.21 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 Range = 22 15 =7 The median of the first six points is 16 + 17 = 16.5. 2 The median of the last six points is 20. Interquartile range = 20 16.5 = 3.5 First put the data in order. 159 161 189 190 192 193 196 199 203 206 209 209 224 225 231 238 244 248 276 304 Range = 304 159 = 145 The median of the first ten points is 192 + 193 = 192.5. 2 The median of the last ten points is 231 + 238 = 234.5. 2 Interquartile range = 234.5 192.5 = 42

4 0

2 2

14 28

10 30

16 64

18 90

10 60

2 18

1 21

Mean = 0 + 2 + 28+ 30+ 64+ 90+ 60+ 28+ 21 4 + 2 + 14+ 10+ 16+ 18+ 10+ 2 + 1 313 = 77 = 4.06 The median is the 39th score, which is 4. Both measures are reasonable. 5 a In each case, first put the data in order. 510 560 630 715 718 750 1002 1085 1093 1112 Range = 1112 510 = 602 The median of the first five points is 630. The median of the second five points is 1085. Interquartile range = 1085 630 = 455 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.2 0.7 0.8 3.4 3.7 Range = 3.7 1.6 = 5.3 The median of the first four points is 1.2 + 1.0 = 1.1. 2 The median of the second four points is 0.8 + 3.4 = 2.1. 2 Interquartile range = 2.1 1.1 = 3.2

7 a b

Range = 4.5 2.1 = 2.4 kg There are 20 data points here. The median of the first ten points is 2.9 + 3.1 = 3.0 kg. 2 The median of the second ten points is 3.9 + 4.1 = 4.0 kg. 2 Interquartile range = 4.0 3.0 = 1.0 kg

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8 a

Mean = 276 = 23 12 Construct a table. xi xi x


30 16 22 23 18 18 14 56 13 26 9 31 7 7 1 0 5 5 9 33 10 3 14 8

(xi x)

Mean = 3740 = 374 10 Construct a table. xi xi x


200 300 950 200 200 300 840 350 200 200 174 74 576 174 174 74 466 24 174 174

(xi x)

49 49 1 0 25 25 81 1089 100 9 196 64

30 276 5476 331 776 30 276 30 276 5476 217 156 576 30 276 30 276

(xi x) = 1688 The standard deviation s = 1688 11 12.39


b

xi = 276

(xi x) = 711 840 The standard deviation s = 711 840 9 281.24


d

xi = 3740

Mean = $73.21 = $4.07 18 Construct a table. xi xi x


2.52 4.38 3.60 2.30 3.45 5.40 4.43 2.27 4.50 4.32 5.65 6.89 1.98 4.60 5.12 3.79 4.99 3.02 1.55 0.31 0.47 1.77 0.62 1.33 0.36 1.80 0.43 0.25 1.58 2.82 2.09 0.53 1.05 0.28 0.92 1.05

Mean = 1493 78.58 19 Construct a table. xi xi x


86 74 75 77 79 82 81 75 78 79 80 75 78 78 81 80 76 77 82 7.42 4.58 3.58 1.58 0.42 3.42 2.42 3.58 0.58 0.42 1.42 3.58 0.58 0.58 2.42 1.42 2.58 1.58 3.42

(xi x)

(xi x)

2.4025 0.0961 0.2209 3.1329 0.3844 1.7689 0.1296 3.2400 0.1849 0.0625 2.4964 7.9524 4.3681 0.2809 1.1025 0.0784 0.8464 1.1025

55.0564 20.9764 12.8164 2.4964 0.1764 11.6964 5.8564 12.8164 0.3364 0.1764 2.0164 12.8164 0.3364 0.3364 5.8564 2.0164 6.6564 2.4964 11.6964

(x1 x) = 29.8503 The standard deviation s = 29.8503 17 $1.33

xi = 73.21

(x1 x) = 166.6316 The standard deviation s = 166.6316 18 3.04

xi = 1493

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9 a i Mean = 634 17.61 36 Construct a table. xi xi x


41 16 6 21 1 21 5 31 20 27 17 10 3 32 2 48 8 12 21 44 1 56 5 12 3 1 13 11 15 14 10 12 18 64 3 10 23.39 1.61 11.61 3.39 16.61 3.39 12.61 13.39 2.39 9.39 0.61 7.61 14.61 14.39 15.61 30.39 9.61 5.61 3.39 26.39 16.61 38.39 12.61 5.61 14.61 16.61 4.61 6.61 2.61 3.61 7.61 5.61 0.39 46.39 14.61 7.61

(xi x)

ii Mean = 4687 195.29 24 Construct a table. xi xi x


141 260 164 235 167 266 150 255 168 245 258 239 152 141 239 145 134 150 237 254 150 265 140 132 54.29 64.71 31.29 39.71 28.29 70.71 45.29 59.71 27.29 49.71 62.71 43.71 43.29 54.29 43.71 50.29 61.29 45.29 41.71 58.71 45.29 69.71 55.29 63.29

(xi x)

547.0921 2.5921 134.7921 11.4921 275.8921 11.4921 159.0121 179.2921 5.7121 88.1721 0.3721 57.9121 213.4521 207.0721 243.6721 923.5521 92.3521 31.4721 11.4921 696.4321 275.8921 1473.7921 159.0121 31.4721 213.4521 275.8921 21.2521 43.6921 6.8121 13.0321 57.9121 31.4721 0.1521 2152.0321 213.4521 57.9121

2947.4041 4187.3841 979.0641 1576.8841 800.3241 4999.9041 2051.1841 3565.2841 744.7441 2471.0841 3932.5441 1910.5641 1874.0241 2947.4041 1910.5641 2529.0841 3756.4641 2051.1841 1739.7241 3446.8641 2051.1841 4859.4841 3056.9841 4005.6241

xi = 4687
The standard deviation s = 64 394.9584 23 52.91 b

(x1 x) = 64 394.9584

(x1 x) = 8920.5556 The standard deviation s = 8920.5556 35 15.96

xi = 634

i Interval = [17.61 2 15.96 , 17.61 + 2 15.96] = [0, 49.53] 34 out of 36 = 34 100 = 94% 36 ii Interval = [195.29 2 52.91 , 195.29 + 2 52.91] = [89.47, 301.11] 24 out of 24 = 100%

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10 a
Age 17 or less 18 or less 19 or less 20 or less 21 or less 24 or less 25 or less 31 or less 41 or less 44 or less 45 or less Cmlt. Freq. 7 23 26 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Cmlt. Rel. Freq. 0.194 0.639 0.722 0.806 0.833 0.861 0.889 0.917 0.944 0.972 1.0

ii Using a table or calculator,


6.02875 0.93 7 The median of the first four points is 5.9 + 6.0 = 5.95 2 The median of the last four points is 7.4 Interquartile range = 7.4 5.95 = 1.45 s=

i Mean = 108.3 13.54 8 Sort the data from lowest to highest. 5.8 5.9 6.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 8.3 The median is 7.3 + 7.4 = 7.35 2 ii Using a table or calculator,
2472.47875 18.79 7 The median of the first four data is 5.9 + 6.2 = 6.05 2 The median of the last four data is 7.4 + 8.3 = 7.85 2 Interquartile range = 7.85 6.05 = 1.7 s=

60

Read off the 50%, 25% and 75% mark from the vertical axis. From the data, the median is 18. The middle of the top half is the first quartile, also 18. The middle of the bottom row is 20. Interquartile range = 20 18 = 2 b

Mean = 755 20.97 36 Using a table or calculator,


s= 1901 7.37 35

The error has little effect on the median or interquartile range. It doubles the mean and increases the standard deviation by a factor of 20.

Interval = [20.97 2 7.37, 20.97 + 2 7.37] = [6.23, 35.71] 33 out of 36 = 33 100 = 92% 36 i Mean = 54.3 6.79 8 Sort the data from lowest to highest. 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 The median is 6.2 + 7.3 = 6.75 2

12 This interval would be two standard deviations each side of the mean. Interval = [$50 2 $3, $50 + 2 $3] = [$44, $56] 95% of the shares lie between $44 and $56. 13 Note that $150 = $550 2 $200 and $950 = $550 + 2 $200. As these values are two standard deviations each side of the mean, it would be on 95% of days. 8.3

11 a

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385

Exercise 22G Solutions


1 a Write the heights in order from lowest to highest. 123 123 132 133 135 140 140 143 143 145 149 150 154 154 154 156 157 157 157 159 160 163 165 167 167 168 176 180 Median m = 154 Q1 = 140 + 143 = 141.5 2 Q = 160 + 163 = 161.5 2 3 Minimum = 123 Maximum = 180 d The distribution is positively skewed, centred at 3. While 75% of people borrowed 13 books or less, one student borrowed 38 books and another borrowed 52 books.

3 a

The winnings are already in order. Median m = $854 533 Q1 = $748 662 + $755 795 2 = $752 228.50 Q3 = $1 639 171 + $1 697 155 2 = $1 668 163 Minimum = $704 105 Maximum = $6 357 547

The distribution is slightly negatively skewed, centred at 154 cm, with the middle 50% of heights ranging from 141.5 cm to 161.5 cm. Write the numbers in order from lowest to highest. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 5 7 8 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 18 27 28 28 38 52 Median m = 3 Q1 = 0

2 a

Interquartile range = $1 668 163 $752 228.50 = $915 934.50 Outliers could only be greater than $1 697 155 + 1.5 $915 934.50 = $3 071 057 The new maximum for the boxplot becomes $2 766 051. Use this information to draw the boxplot.

Q3 = 13
Minimum = 0 Maximum = 52 b Interquartile range = 13 0 = 13 Outliers can only be greater than 13 + 1.5 13 = 32.5 There are two outliers, 38 and 52. The new maximum for the boxplot becomes 28.

The distribution is extremely positively skewed, with a median value of $854 533. The middle 50% of players won from $75 228.50 to $1 573 674. There is one clear outlier, Roger Federer, winning $6 357 547. Lleyton Hewitt is a marginal outlier, winning $2 766 051.

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4 a

Write the amounts in order from lowest to highest. $4.75 $6.25 $6.75 $7.90 $8.40 $8.50 $8.50 $8.89 $9.00 $10.00 $10.00 $10.80 $10.90 $11.65 $11.69 $12.00 $12.34 $12.46 $13.00 $17.23 Median m = $10.00 Q1 = $8.40 + $8.50 = $8.45 2 $11.69 + $12.00 = $11.85 Q3 = 2 Minimum = $4.75 Maximum = $17.23 Interquartile range = $11.85 $8.45 = $3.40 Outliers can be greater than $11.85 + 1.5 $3.40 = $16.95 or less than $8.45 1.5 $3.40 = $3.35 There is one outlier, $17.23 The new maximum for the boxplot becomes $13.00. Use this information to draw the boxplot.

The circulations are already in order, just read them from the bottom to the top. Median m = 212 770 Q1 = 77 500 + 98 158 = 87 879 2 258 700 + 273 248 = 265 974 Q3 = 2 Minimum = 17 398 Maximum = 570 000 Interquartile range = 265 974 87 879 = 178 095 Outliers can only be greater than 265 974 + 1.5 178 095 = 533 116. There is one outlier, 570 000. The new maximum for the boxplot becomes 327 654. Use this information to draw the boxplot.

The distribution is symmetric, centred at $10.00. The middle 50% of students earn $8.15$11.85 per hour.

The distribution is approximately symmetric, centred at roughly 210 000, with an outlier at 570 000. The middle 50% of papers have circulations of about 88 000 to 270 000.

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387

Exercise 22H Solutions


1 a 2

In both cases, put the data in order and find the five figure summary. Before: 12 17 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 26 26 28 29 29 30 30 31 34 46 Median m = 26 Q1 = 22 Q3 = 29 + 30 = 29.5 2 Minimum = 12 Maximum = 46 Interquartile range = 29.5 22 = 7.5 In this case, outliers can be greater than 29.5 + 1.5 7.5 = 40.75 or less than 22 1.5 7.5 = 10.75 There is one outlier, 46. The new maximum for the boxplot becomes 34. After: 15 19 21 24 25 25 26 28 29 30 30 32 33 34 34 35 36 43 50 54 Median m = 30 Q1 = 25 Q3 = 34 + 35 = 34.5 2 Minimum = 15 Maximum = 54 Interquartile range = 34.5 25 = 9.5 Outliers can be greater than 34.5 + 1.5 9.5 = 48.75 or less than 25 1.5 9.5 = 10.75 There are two outliers, 50 and 54. The new maximum for the boxplot becomes 43.

In both cases, put the data in order and find the five figure summary. Year 8: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 7 7 7 Median m = 3 Q1 = 1 + 2 = 1.5 2 Q3 = 4 Minimum = 0 Maximum = 7 Interquartile range = 4 1.5 = 2.5 Outliers can only be greater than 4 + 1.5 2.5 = 7.75 There are no outliers.

Year 12: 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 Median m = 5 + 6 = 5.5 2 2 + 3 = 2.5 Q1 = 2 Q3 = 7 Minimum = 1 Maximum = 9 Interquartile range = 7 2.5 = 4.5 Outliers can only be greater than 7 + 1.5 4.5 = 13.75 There are no outliers.

From the boxplot, it can be seen that Year 12 students do the most homework. From the boxplot, it can be seen that the Year 12 group has a larger variance than the Year 8 group.

b b

The distribution is negatively skewed before the course, centred on 26. After the course, the distribution is more symmetric, centred on 30, which suggests that the course was effective.

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3 a

In both cases, put the data in order and find the five figure summary. 1970: 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 29 30 31 31 32 33 34 36 36 37 37 39 Median m = 24 + 25 = 24.5 2 Q1 = 21 Q3 = 30 + 31 = 30.5 2 Minimum = 16 Maximum = 39 Interquartile range = 30.5 21 = 9.5 Inspecting the data, it is clear there are no outliers.

1990: 17 18 18 19 19 20 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 26 26 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 38 39 41 43 44 Median m = 28 Q1 = 23 + 24 = 23.5 2 Q3 = 33 Minimum = 17 Maximum = 46 Interquartile range = 33 23.5 = 9.5 Outliers can be greater than 33 + 1.5 9.5 = 47.25, or less than 23.5 1.5 9.5 = 9.25 There are no outliers.

23 28 33 46

The distributions of ages in both groups are slightly positively skewed, with the mothers in 1970 (median = 24.5) generally younger than the mothers in 1990 (median = 28). The variability in both groups is the same (IQR = 10 for both groups).

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389

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

'Level of Exercise' is not numerical, so therefore it must be categorical. D The vertical scale is 2% for each dotted line. There is 2% in the 2030 column. B The median is in the interval that contains 50%, as you add the percentages. 4% + 2% + 33% = 39% of the employees work less than 40 hours per week. 39% + 39% = 78% % of the employees work less than 50 hours per week. the median will be in the interval D 4050. There are 19 employees, listed in order. The median will be the 10th in this list, which corresponds to 7 meetings. C Ignore the median, and find the medians of the first 9 and the last 9 data points. This will be the 5th and 15th employee, corresponding to 4 and 14 meetings respectively. The interquartile range is D 14 4 = 10.

Reading from the graph, the number is closest to 150. (It is a little less than 150.) C
7

The boxplot has a short tail to the left and a long tail to the right, so it is A positively skewed. Reading from the boxplot, the interquartile range is about 17 5 = 12.

The typical wage is shown by the black bar in each boxplot. Company 3 has the lowest wage, C approximately $30 000 per year.

10 Variation is shown by the length of the boxplot, not including outliers. Company 1 has the largest variance. A

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390

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a

This can be expressed as a number, so it is numerical data. Although the scale is numerical, the actual data is not, so it is categorical.

Mean = 3970 $283.57 14 Sort the data from lowest to highest. 185 190 210 210 215 245 265 270 280 285 300 315 320 680 Median = 265 + 270 = $267.50 2 Interval = [179 2 14, 179 + 2 14] = [151, 207] By counting, 26 out of 28 = 26 100 92.9% 28 Since about 95% of data are usually within two standard deviations of the mean, this is the kind of percentage you would expect. Using the information provided:

2 a

This is not expressed as a number, so it is categorical data. From the graph, the 'self-employed' group is roughly halfway between 5% and 10%, or 7.5%. Given the spread of data, an appropriate class interval width would be 5. Count the number in each class interval, and draw the graph.

6 a

4 a

Use the stem and leaf plot from part a. There are 22 data points, so the mean is the average of the 11th and 12th times, which are both 52. The median is 52 minutes. The first quartile will be the middle score of the first 11 scores, and the second quartile will be the middle score of the second 11 scores. These are the 6th and 17th times respectively, i.e. 47 min and 57 min.

First list the numbers from lowest to highest. 0 0 2 3 3 4 7 7 7 8 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 21 21 21 22 23 23 23 30 31 44 Median m = 14 + 15 = 14.5 2 7 + 8 = 7.5 Q1 = 2 Q3 = 21 Minimum = 0 Maximum = 44 Interquartile range = 21 14.5 = 6.5 In this case, outliers could only be greater than 21 + 1.5 6.5 = 30.75 There is one outlier, 44. 31 is technically an outlier, but is so close to the limit it can be considered normal data. The new maximum for the boxplot becomes 31.

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391

Chapter 23 Investigating the relationship between two numerical variables


Exercise 23A Solutions
1 a 3 a

Larger values of y are associated with smaller values of x, so the association is negative. The scatterplot does not show any significant outliers.

Larger values of y are associated with larger values of x, so the association is positive. The scatterplot shows an outlier at (122, 378), which suggests an aircraft much slower than its size would suggest.

2 a

4 a

Larger values of y are associated with larger values of x, so the association is positive. The scatterplot does not show any significant outliers.

Larger values of y are associated with smaller values of x, so the association is negative. The scatterplot shows an outlier at (10, 8700), which suggests a caravan much more expensive than its age would suggest.

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392

Exercise 23B Solutions


1 a b c d e f g h i j k l 2 a Read from the table to determine the correlation. q = 0.20 = no correlation q = 0.30 = weak negative correlation q = 0.85 = strong negative correlation q = 0.33 = weak positive correlation q = 0.95 = strong positive correlation q = 0.75 = strong negative correlation q = 0.75 = strong positive correlation q = 0.24 = no correlation q = 1 = strong negative correlation q = 0.25 = weak positive correlation q = 1 = strong positive correlation q = 0.50 = moderate negative correlation Count the points. There are 9. Draw a vertical line through the 5th from the left, and through the 5th from the bottom. c
q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 8 1 0.78 = 9

Count the points. There are 11. Draw a vertical line through the 6th from the left, and through the 6th from the bottom.

Count the points. There are 15. Draw a vertical line through the 8th from the left, and through the 8th from the bottom.

Ignore the extra points on the vertical dotted line. q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 11 1 0.82 = 12

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 6 1 0.71 = 7

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Count the points. There are 27. Draw a vertical line through the 14th from the left, and through the 14th from the bottom.

4 a

There are 12 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 6th and 7th from the left and midway between the 6th and 7th from the bottom.

Ignore the extra point on the horizontal dotted line. q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 23 1 0.92 = 24 3 a b There are 10 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 5th and 6th from the left, and midway between the 5th and 6th from the bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 10 2 0.67 = 12

q = 0.67 = moderate positive relationship There are 16 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 8th and 9th from the left and midway between the 8th and 9th from the bottom.

5 a

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 2 8 = 0.6 = 10

q = 0.6 = moderate negative relationship

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 16 0 = 1 = 16

q=
b

(a + c) (b + d ) 16 0 = =1 a+b+c+d 16

q = 1 = strong positive relationship.

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6 a

There are 14 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 7th and 8th from the left and midway between the 7th and 8th from the bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 4 10 0.43 = 14

q=
b

(a + c) (b + d ) 4 10 = = 0.43 a+b+c+d 14

q = 0.43 = weak negative relationship

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395

Exercise 23C Solutions


1 a b c d e f g h i j k l 2 a Read from the table to determine the relationship. r = 0.20 = no linear relationship r = 0.30 = weak negative linear relationship r = 0.85 = strong negative linear relationship r = 0.33 = weak positive linear relationship r = 0.95 = strong positive linear relationship r = 0.75 = strong negative linear relationship r = 0.75 = strong positive linear relationship r = 0.24 = no linear relationship r = 0.50 = moderate negative linear relationship r = 0.25 = weak positive linear relationship r = 1 = perfect positive linear relationship r = 1 = perfect negative linear relationship 4 This scatterplot is nearly a mirror-image of the plot of 'age convicted' against 'testosterone'. That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot. This scatterplot is roughly a mirrorimage of the plot of 'age convicted' against 'testosterone', although not as close a match as the plot in part a. That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot. a b 3 a b f d c This scatterplot is reasonably similar to the scatterplot of 'mortality' against 'smoking ratio', although with fewer points. That scatterplot has r = 0.716, so we can estimate that r = 0.7 for this plot. This scatterplot is roughly a mirrorimage of the plot of 'age convicted' against 'testosterone', although not as close a match as the plot in part a. That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot. This scatterplot is roughly a mirror-image of the scatterplot of 'mortality' against 'smoking ratio', although with more points. That scatterplot has r = 0.716, so we can estimate that r = 0.7 for this plot. This scatterplot is roughly a mirror-image of the scatterplot of verbal' against 'mathematics'. That scatterplot has r = 0.275, so we can estimate that r = 0.2 for this plot. Use your calculator to determine r in this question. r = 0.86 This is a strong negative linear relationship. Use your calculator to determine r in this question. r = 0.95 This is a strong positive linear relationship. Use your calculator to determine r in this question. r = 0.77 This is a strong positive linear relationship.

5 a b

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6 a b

Use your calculator to determine r in this question. r = 0.77 This is a strong negative linear relationship.

There are 9 points. Draw a vertical line through the 5th from the left, and through the 5th from the bottom.

7 a

There appears to be a strong positive linear relationship. b Yes; the data is numeric and the relationship is linear. There are no outliers. d

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 6 1 0.71 = 7 Using a calculator, r = 0.87

q = 0.71 = moderate positive linear relationship r = 0.87 = strong positive linear relationship i The point will move down (shown on the horizontal axis, although it will be well below this axis.) The median of Test 1 will be unaffected. The median of Test 2 will move down to the next point below.

8 a

There appears to be a strong positive linear relationship. b Yes; the data is numeric and the relationship is linear.

ii q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d 5 2 0.43 = 7 Using a calculator, r = 0.004 The error in the data has a much greater effect on Pearsons correlation coefficient.

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Exercise 23D Solutions


Note: Answers will vary for lines drawn by eye. 1 4 a

b 2

3 a c

One possible line goes through (40, 88) and (60, 96). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 88 = 96 88 x 40 60 40 = 8 20 = 0.4 y 88 = 0.4(x 40) y = 72 + 0.4x Other lines are possible and will give different answers. The intercept (72 cm) is the predicted height at age 0. The slope predicts an increase of 0.4 cm in height each month. If your equation differs slightly from the one given here, so will your answers. i y = 72 + 0.4x = 72 + 0.4 42 89 cm ii 18 years = 18 12 = 216 months. y = 72 0.4x = 72 + 0.4 216 158 cm
Part i is reasonable as it is a value close to the data. Part ii is not reliable as the relationship may no longer be linear at this age.

One possible line goes through (2000, 2012) and (5200, 6040). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 2000 = 5200 2000 x 2012 6040 2012 = 3200 4028 0.794 y 2012 = 0.794(x 2000) y = 424 + 0.794x Other lines are possible and will give different answers.

The positive slope indicates that districts with high rates in Year 1 also had high rates in Year 2.

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5 a

The fixed cost is the constant in y = 1300 + 13x, or $1300. The cost of production is the constant multiplier in y = 1300 + 13x, or $13. Draw a scatterplot to assist you.
80 70 Resp o n se tim e (m in ) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 Drug dose (mg) 4 5 6

7 a b

One possible line goes through (159, 163) and (181, 183). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 163 = 183 163 x 159 181 159 = 20 22 0.91 y 163 = 0.91(x 159) = 18.3 0.91x Other lines are possible and will give different answers.

y = 18.3 + 0.91x = 18.3 0.91 170 = 173.0 cm If your equation differs slightly from the one given here, so will your answer.

6 a

One possible line goes through (4.0, 14) and (0.5, 63). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 14 = 63 14 x 4.0 0.4 4.0 = 49 3.5 = 14 y 14 = 14(x 4.0) y = 70 14x Other lines are possible and will give different answers.
b

The intercept is the predicted time taken to experience pain relief if no drug is given. From the slope we predict a reduction of 14 minutes in time taken to experience pain relief for each mg of drug administered.

One possible line goes through (100, 2600) and (200, 3900). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 2600 = 3900 2600 200 100 x 100 1300 = 100 = 13 y 2600 = 13(x 100) y = 1300 + 13x Other lines are possible and will give different answers.

y = 70 14x = 70 14 6 = 14 min This isn't realistic, as relief would be experienced 14 minutes before the drug was given!

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8 a

Draw a scatterplot to assist you.


14000 12000 Business ($) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Advertising ($)

One possible line goes through (160, 2900) and (600, 10 900). y y1 = y2 y1 x x1 x2 x1 y 2900 = 10 900 2900 600 160 x 160 8000 = 440 18.2 y 2900 = 18.2(x 160) 18.2x Other lines are possible and will give different answers.
b

The intercept predicts zero sales if


nothing is spent on advertising. The slope means that on average, each $1 spent on advertising is associated with an increase of $18.20 in sales.

i y = 18.2 1000 = $18 200 ii y = 18.2 0 = $0

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Exercise 23E Solutions


Use your CAS/graphics calculator in this exercise to determine the least squares line. Methods will differ depending on the calculator used. 1 a Using a calculator, y = 68.2 + 0.46x
b 4 a

Using a calculator, y = 1330 + 12x The fixed cost is the constant in y = 1330 + 12x, or $1330 The cost of production is the constant multiplier in y = 1330 + 12x, or $12. Using a calculator, response time = 57.0 10.2 drug dose The intercept of 57.0 minutes is the predicted time for pain relief when no drug is given. From the slope, we predict a 10.2 minute decrease in response time for each 1 mg of drug given.
c y = 57.0 10.2x = 57.0 10.2 6 = 4.4 min This isn't realistic, as relief would be experienced 4.4 minutes before the drug was given.

The y-intercept is the predicted height at birth. From the slope, we predict an increase in height of 0.46 cm each month.
i y = 68.2 + 0.46x = 68.2 + 0.46 42 88 cm ii 18 years = 18 12 = 216 months y = 68.2 + 0.46x = 68.2 + 0.46 216 168 cm

5 a

The height at 42 months is reliable, since this is within the range of data given (interpolation). The height at 18 years is less reliable since this is outside the range of data given (extrapolation). Using a calculator, y = 487.6 + 0.77x Using a calculator, y = 50.2 + 0.72x An increase of 1 cm in the mothers height is associated with an increase of 0.72 cm in the daughters height, on average. y = 50.2 + 0.72x = 50.2 + 0.72 170 172 cm
6 a

Using a calculator, business = 1123.8 + 18.9 advertising Intercept is the volume of business with no advertising, From the slope we predict an increase in business of $18.90 for every dollar spent on advertising.
i y = 1123.8 + 18.9x = 1123.8 + 18.9 1000 = $20 044 ii y = 1123.8 + 18.9x = 1123.8 + 18.9 0 = $1123.80

3 a

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Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

Both variables must be numeric. This applies to D only. 'Year 9' and 'Year 11', while appearing to be numerical, are really categorical. D The data should be linear with no outliers. In B, there is no relationship between the variables; C has an outlier, and A and D are not linear. E Refer back to the table; q = 0.32 is a A weak positive relationship. There are 18 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 9th and 10th from the left and midway between the 9th and 10th from the bottom.

Looking at the graph, it's clear that there is a strong positive correlation, but not a perfect positive correlation. 0.75 r 1 is the range for a strong positive correlation, so r = 0.8 is the closest fit. B The data suggest a strong positive correlation, since food expenditure generally increases with weekly income. r = 0.8 is the closest fit (this can be confirmed using a calculator). E

7 Using a calculator to determine the least squares regression line, it is closest to 42.864 + 0.482 weekly income. C 8
y = 40 + 0.10x = 40 + 0.10 600 = $100

The amount spent on entertainment is the constant modifier of the x-value. This is 0.10, so for every dollar (x), 10 cents are spent on entertainment. A

q = (a + c) (b + d) a+b+c+d = 2 16 18 = 14 = 7 9 18

10 First, note that the slope is negative. Taking the ends of the data, slope = rise run = 75 225 21 10 = 150 11 13.6 The slope is closest to 10. D

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Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1 a 4

Larger values of y are generally associated with larger values of x, so the association is positive. There are 12 points. Draw a vertical line midway between the 6th and 7th from the left and midway between the 6th and 7th from the bottom.
5 a

One possible line goes through (160, 120) and (190, 180) Gradient = rise run 180 120 190 160 = 60 = 2 30 Run from (160, 120) = 160, so rise is 160 2 = 320 Intercept with vertical axis = 120 320 = 200 Equation is approximately weight = 200 + 2 height
Other lines are possible and will give different answers. Using a calculator or computer, Errors = 14.9 0.533 time Intercept: there's no sensible interpretation, since no-one could complete the task in negative time. Slope: For each additional second taken to complete the task, the number of errors is reduced by about 1 an error. 2
Errors = 14.9 0.533 time = 14.9 0.53310 9.6 Since the number of errors must be a whole number, you would predict 10 errors, maybe 9.

6 a

b
q = ( a + c ) ( b + d) a+b+c+d =66=0 12

r= 1 n1

n i=1

xi x yi y sx sy

Although r can be calculated by hand, it is much easier and faster to use a calculator, which shows that r = 0.927.

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Chapter 24 Revision of chapters 22 and 23


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1 Bar charts are used to display frequency distributions of categorical data. The only categorical data in this question is option C. C Histograms are used to display frequency distributions of numerical data. The only numerical data in this question is weight measured in kg. A The histogram has a short tail to the left and a long tail to the right, so it is positively skewed. It has an outlier at x = 14. E 17 students travel 20 or less 20 km to school, while 16 travel more than 20 km, so option D is true. D Adding up the number of leaves on the right gives 30 students. C There are 7 'leaved' in the 2, 3 and 4 'stems', so 7 students failed. B 10% of 30 students is 3 students. The top three marks are 86, 90 and 93, of which the lowest is 86. D If turned on its side, the plot would be a histogram with a short tail to the right and a slightly longer tail to the right, so it is negatively skewed. C Most scores on the left are on the 2 'stem', while most scores on the right are on the 2 and 3 stems. This shows that, in general, scores improved after the test. B 10 The scores on the left are spread more widely up and down the range, while the scores on the left are more tightly centred on the 6 and 7 stems. This suggests that the pulse rates of those who exercise are less variable than those who don't exercise. D 11 The new mark will go next to the median, or could replace the median, which will still be 50. B 12 Neither the maximum nor the minimum will change, so the range will still be 70 20 = 50. B 13 Since the mean is 50, it will not be changed by adding another score of 50. B 14 Old variance = 12.0 12.0 = 144.0 Old sum of squared deviations from mean = 144.0 (99 1) = 14 112 Variation of 50 from the mean = 0 new sum of squared deviations from mean = 14 112 + 0 = 14 112 Standard deviation = 14 112 100 1 = 142.545 11.9 B 15 The width of each boxplot shows its variation. Since Y is wider than X, Class Y scores are more variable than Class X scores. D

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16 If the median is less than the mean, the ages in the second half of the data are likely to be higher than those in the first half. This suggests the data may be negatively skewed. C 17 The boxplot shows that there is significantly more data above the mean than below it. This means the distribution is positively skewed. B 18 The histogram is positively skewed, which generally means that the mean is larger than the median. E 19 The boxplot shows a negatively skewed distribution with much more variability towards the left. Option B is the closest fit to this description. B 20 The third quartile is the median of the upper half of the distribution. If the woman is in this quartile, it means that about 75% of women are shorter than her. B 21 Scatterplots are used to display bivariate numerical data. Both sets must be numerical, and this is only the case in B and D. However, D is not bivariate, as the data cannot realistically be arrayed as a unique set of points. B 22 The first scatterplot shows a strong non-linear relationship. The q-correlation is only used to test for a linear relationship, so it would not be useful here. A 23 Gradient = rise run = 20 0 0 10 = 2 This is closest to 1.

24 Calculate the gradient. Using (1, 10) and (10, 30), m 30 10 10 1 2 The y-intercept is around 10. Therefore a good approximation could be y = 2x + 10.

25 r = 0.7 is a moderate positive linear relationship, so an increase in the first variable will usually mean an increase in the second variable. Therefore we can say that countries with high smoking rates also tend to have high rates of heart disease. C

26 r = 0.35 is a weak positive linear relationship. The scatterplot is a curve rather than a line, so there probably is a relationship, but since r is low then it is unlikely to be linear. C 27 A negative correlation means that as values of x increase, values of y tend to decrease. C 28 Use typical points such as (98, 100) and (78, 80). m 98 78 100 80 = 20 = 1 20 Extending the line back to the y-axis gives a y-intercept of about 0. The equation is roughly y = x. A 29 Since the equation uses positive numbers and addition, the cost of production will increase as the number of units produced increases. Since N is the number of units, the total cost of production increases by $35 for each unit produced. C 30 The least squares regression line is used to minimise vertical deviations from the data (deviations along the y-axis). D

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Chapter 25 Proof and number


Exercise 25A Solutions
1 a c If p is even, it is a multiple of 2, and pq will also be even. If pq is even and q is even, then p may be odd. p is even pq is even d b If p + q is odd, p and q cannot both be odd, so pq will be even. If pq is even, p and q could both be even, meaning p + q could be even. p + q is odd pq is eve If x = 0, then xy = 0 If xy = 0, x could be non-zero if y = 0. x = 0 xy = 0 If ab = ac and a = 0, then b may not be equal to c. If b = c, then ab = ac, whether or not a = 0. ab = ac b = c This is only true if A and B have no common elements. If there is any overlap, the union will be smaller. For instance, if A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} and B = {6, 8, 10}, n (A B) = 5. Since it's not always true, the statement is false. Consider the element x, which is an element of A. Since A is a subset of B, x is also an element of B. This is true for every x, so the set of elements that are in both A and B will be the same as every element in A. xAxB xABxA and x A x A B The statement is therefore true. b 3 a A B = is actually true whenever A and B have no elements in common. For instance, if A = {2, 4, 6} and B = {8, 10}, A B = . The statement is therefore false. If A' = , then it contains all the elements under consideration. A' therefore contains no elements, as all the elements are in A, so A' = . The statement is therefore true. n (A B) = 8 n (A) = 5 and n (B) = 3 This would mean that if the union of A and B has 8 elements, A would have 5 elements and B would have 3 elements. However, there are many other possible combinations that would fit; for instance, if A had 8 elements and B = , their union would also have 8 elements. The statement is therefore false. AB=AAB This would mean that if the intersection of A and B is equal to A, then A is an element of B. Since the intersection contains all the elements the two sets have in common, and it is equal to A, then all the elements of A are elements of B, which means A is an element of B. The statement is therefore true. A = or B = A B = The empty set contains no elements, so it therefore has no elements in common with any other set. This means that the intersection of an empty set and any other set will also be an empty set. The statement is therefore true.

2 a

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A = A' = If A' = , then it has no elements, which means A contains all the elements. The identity set contains all the elements, so A = . The statement is true. Swap the sides to find the converse: n2 is odd implies n is odd. Odd numbers can never have even factors, so the root of an odd number must always be an odd number. Therefore the statement is true (assuming that n is an integer). Swap the sides to find the converse: N 2 is divisible by 9 N is divisible by 3. Since 32 = 9, this is the same as saying N 2 is divisible by 32 N is divisible by 3. A number's factors are squared if the original number is squared. Therefore the statement is true (assuming that N is an integer). Swap the sides to find the converse: x2 > 4 x < 2 x2 will be greater than 4 if x is less than 2, but it will also be true if x is greater than 2. Since the first part does not only lead to the second part, the statement is false. Let the three odd numbers be 2n + 1, 2n + 3 and 2n + 5. Their sum = 2n + 1 + 2n + 3 + 2n + 5 = 6n + 9, which will be divisible by 3 if n is an integer. We can therefore say "The sum of three consecutive odd numbers is divisible by 3." Let the four odd numbers be 2n + 1, 2n + 3, 2n + 5 and 2n + 7. Their sum = 2n + 1 + 2n + 3 + 2n + 5 + 2n + 7 = 8n + 16, which will be divisible by 8 if n is an integer. We can therefore say "The sum of four consecutive odd numbers is divisible by 8."

The sum of the squares is 2 2 2 2 2 (n 2) + (n 1) + n + (n + 1) + (n + 2) 2 2 2 2 2 = n 4n + 4 + n 2n + 1 + n + n + 2n + 1 + n + 4n + n 2 = 5n + 10 2 = 5(n + 2), which is divisible by 5. There are many possible counterexamples for these statements. The order of operation changes from multiplication addition to multiplication addition, so this is false. 2 2 2 3 +4 =5 2 2 (3 + 4) = 7 Any even number multiplied by 7 will give an even number divisible by 7, so this is false. 2 7 = 14. The order of operation changes from addition division to division addition, so this is false. 1+4 = 5 1 + 4 =3

4 a

7 a

5 a

The order of operations is different, so this will be false if a, b and c have different values. 1 1 + 2 + 4 = 2 2 2 1 1 + 2 + 4 = 11 2 2 4 All prime numbers (other than 2) are odd, and the sum of two odd numbers is an even, non-prime number, so this is false. 3 + 7 = 10 (The result could be a prime number if one of the original numbers is 2, e.g. 2 + 3 = 5, but you only need one counter-example to prove that the rule is false.) The order of operation changes from addition division to division addition, so this is false. 1 = 1 100 + 10 110 1 + 1 = 1 + 10 = 11 100 10 100 100 100

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8 a

The converse is: a > b implies a b is positive. Subtracting a smaller number from a larger number always gives a positive result, e.g. 10 3 = 7, so this is true. The converse is: x = y implies x = 0 and y = 0. x and y could be any numbers, not just zero, e.g. 10 = 10, so this is false. The converse is: x = y implies x + y = 0. Subtracting any number from itself always gives a result of zero, e.g. 10 10 = 0, so this is true. The converse is: xy is even implies x is even and y is odd. If x and y were both even, xy would also be even, e.g. 8 6 = 48, so this is false. The converse is: A perfect square being even implies its square root is even. Multiplying two even numbers always produces an even number, while multiplying two odd numbers always produces an odd number. An even perfect square will thus always be created by multiplying an even number by the same even number, e.g. 64 = 8 8, so this is true. For any natural number N, if a is a divisor, there will be a corresponding natural number divisor N . This will be a distinct from a in every case except N = a2. Thus if N is not a perfect square, there will be an even number of factors. If N is a perfect square, there will be a set of pairs of factors as above, and an additional factor equal to the square root of N. Thus N will have an odd number of divisors if and only if it is a perfect square. The statement is true.
10 a c

Consider the powers of 2. The only N 2 N1 N ,2 . factors of 2 are 1, 2, 2 , . . . 2 N Thus 2 will have exactly N + 1 factors, N1 will have exactly N factors. and 2 Thus numbers can be found with any number of factors, including 1, since 20 = 1 has exactly one factor. The statement is true for all odd numbers. The same argument used in part b applies to all numbers, not just odd numbers, so the statement is true. Since the above argument works for any prime number, and there is an infinite number of prime numbers, there will be an infinite number of numbers with exactly N divisors, for all natural number values of N. The statement is true.
2

(a b) 0 2 2 a 2ab + b 0 Add 2ab to both sides of the inequality: 2 2 a + b 2ab If u 0 and v 0, then u and v can be 2 2 written as a and b respectively and a = u ,b = v . 2 2 u+v=a +b 2 2 2 2 a + b 2ab 2 2 ab u v uv u + v uv 2

9 a

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11 (a + b) 1 + 1 = (a + b) b + a a b ab 2 = (a + b) ab 2 2 = a + 2ab + b ab 2 2 = 2ab + a + b ab ab 2 2 = 2 + 2(a + b ) 2ab In Q.10a we showed that 2 2 a + b 2ab. 2 2 2 + 2(a + b ) > 2 + 2 2ab 1 + 1 > 4 (a + b) a b 12 a If a and b are even, then they can be written as a = 2n and b = 2m. a + b = 2n + 2m = 2(m + n), which must be an even number. b

If a + b is even, then a + b = 2n. b = 2n a If a b is even, then a b = 2n. b = a 2n a + b = b + 2n + b = 2b + 2n = 2(b + n), which must be an even number. This proves the conjecture. If a + b is even, then a + b = 2n. If a b is even, then a b = 2n. n = a + b is an integer and m = a b is also an integer. 2 2 a+b+ab n+m= 2 2 2a = a = a a+bab nm= 2 2 2b = b = 2 ab = (n + m)(n m) 2 2 = n m , the difference of squares.

If a and b are odd, then they can be written as a = 2n + 1 and b = 2m + 1. a + b = 2n + 1 + 2m + 1 = 2n + 2m + 2 = 2(m + n + 1), which must be an even number. If a is even and b is odd, then they can be written as a = 2n and b = 2m + 1. a + b = 2n + 2m + 1 = 2(m + n) + 1, which must be an odd number. If a and b are odd, then they can be written as a = 2n + 1 and b = 2m + 1. ab = (2n + 1)(2m + 1) = 2mn + 2m + 2m + 1 = 2(mn + m + n) + 1, which must be an odd number.

13 The total number of tiles is mn. The number of tiles on the perimeter is n + n + (m 2) + (m 2) = 2n + 2m 4 We are told 2n + 2m 4 = 1 mn 2 4n + 4m 8 = mn Make n the subject. mn 4n = 4m 8 n(m 4) = 4m 8 n = 2m 8 m4 4m 16 + 8 = m4 =4+ 8 m4 n will only be an integer if m 4 is a factor of 8. m 4 = 1, 2, 4 or 8 m = 5, 6, 8 or 12 These values give n = 12, 8, 6 and 5 respectively. You should notice that the last two solutions are equivalent to the first two solutions. Since m n, there will be two solutions m = 5, n = 12 and m = 6, n = 8.

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14 This is one proof. There may be others. Any number (except 1) that consists of all 1s can be written as 100n + 11, where n is an integer. All integers can be written as 10m + a, where m is any integer and a is any integer from 0 to 9 inclusive. 2 2 2 (10m + a) = 100m + 20am + a 2 Since this is a multiple of 10 plus a ,

the last digit of a must be 1. The only values of a that satisfy this requirement are a = 1 and a = 9. If a = 1, 2 2 (10m + a) = 100m + 20m + 1 2 = 100m + 10 2m + 1 In this case, the second last digit must be even and cannot equal 1. If a = 9, 2 2 (10m + a) = 100m + 180m + 81 2 = 100m + 100 + 10 8m + 81 Again, the second last digit must be even and cannot equal 1. Therefore, if any number ending in 1 is a perfect square, its second last digit must be even, and it therefore cannot consist of all 1s, unless it is 1.

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Exercise 25C Solutions


1 a e

If a solution is not readily seen, use trial and error on the variable with the largest coefficient, as you will expect fewer trials until you find a multiple of the other variable. Try x = 0: 3y = 1 has no integral solutions. Try x = 1: 11 + 3y = 1 has no integral solutions. Try x = 2: 22 + 3y = 1 has the solution y = 7. The HCF of this solution is 1. The general solution will be x = 2 + 3t, y = 7 + 11t, t Z An obvious solution is x = 1, y = 0. The HCF of this solution is 1. The general solution will be x = 1 + 7t, y = 2t, t Z Any even value of y will give a solution. If y = 2, x = 8. x = 8 + 7 t, y = 2 2 t, t Z 2 2 To get integer solutions, replace t by 2t. x = 8 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z

Any even value of y will give a solution. If y = 2, x = 4. The HCF of this solution is 2. The general solution will be x = 4 + 7 t, y = 2 2 t, t Z 2 2 To get integer solutions, replace t by 2t. x = 4 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z This is the same equation as in part e, hence the solution will be the same. x = 4 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z If x and y are both positive, then the left side must be at least 11 + 3 > 1. There are no solutions such that x and y are both positive. If x and y are both positive, then the left side must be at least 24 + 63 = 87. Any increase in either x or y will make the left side too large. There are no solutions such that x and y are both positive. Write the equation as 2x = 22 7y x = 11 7 2y If y = 2, x = 4. If y = 4, x = 3, and any larger values of y will make the left side of the equation negative. There is one solution: x = 4, y = 2. Let h be the highest common factor of a and b. a, b and c can be written as a = hp, b = hq, c = hr + k, where 0 < k < h. The equation becomes hpx + hqy = hr + k. For all integer values of x and y, the left side of the equation will be a multiple of h, while the right side will not. Therefore the equation can have no integral solutions.

2 a

This equation is equivalent to 8x + 21y = 33. It is also obvious that y must be odd, and x must be a multiple of 3. y = 5 gives the solution x = 9. x = 9 + 21t, y = 5 8t, t Z This is the same equation as in part a, hence the solution will be the same. x = 2 + 3t, y = 7 + 11t, t Z

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4 a

Let s be the number of spiders and b the number of beetles. Equating the numbers of legs gives 8s + 6b = 54. This equation simplifies to 4s + 3b = 27. 4s = 27 3y = 3(9 b) s = 3(9 b) 4 Solutions will only exist when 9 b is a multiple of 4, and b > 0, 9 b > 0. This occurs when b = 1, s = 6 and when b = 5, s = 3. The answer could be written '3 spiders and 5 beetles, or 6 spiders and 1 beetle.'
Equating the value of the coins, 20x + 50y = 500 2x + 5y = 50 5y = 50 2x = 2(25 x) y = 2(25 x) 5 5 x =2 5 This gives the results as in the table below.
7

For 19x + 98y = 1998, one obvious solution is x = 100, y = 1. x = 100 + 98t, y = 1 19t 100 + 98t > 0 98t > 100 t > 100 98 1 19t > 0 19t > 1 t< 1 19 Since t is an integer, 1 t 0. The second solution occurs when t = 1. x = 100 98 =2 y = 1 + 19 = 20 Equating the value of the notes, 10x + 50y = 500 x + 5y = 50 x = 50 5y = 5(10 y) This gives the results as in the table below.

All solutions can be given by x = 100 + 83t, y = 1 19t 100 + 83t > 0 83t > 100 t > 100 83 1 19t > 0 19t > 1 t< 1 19 Since t is an integer, 1 t 0. The second solution occurs when t = 1. x = 100 83 = 17 y = 1 + 19 = 20

Total number of pieces of fruit = 63x + 7. y = 63x + 7 23 7(9x + 1) = 23

y=

63 x + 7 7(9 x + 1) = 23 23

9x + 1 must be a multiple of 23. 9x + 1 = 23n 9x = 23n 1 x = 23n 1 9 If n = 2, x = 5 and y = 14.

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If n = 9t + 2, x = 23n 1 9 23(9t + 2) 1 = 9 = 23t + 23 2 1 9 = 23t + 5 y = 7(9x + 1) 23 7((23n 1) + 1) = 23 = 7n = 7(9t + 2) The next solution will be x = 28, y = 112. The general solution is x = 5 + 23t, y = 14 + 63t; t 0 and t Z.
9

11 Let x be the number of 5-litre jugs used and y the number of 3-litres jugs used. 5x + 3y = 7 5x = 7 3y x = 7 3y 5 Solutions will only exist when 7 3y is a multiple of 3. This occurs when y = 1: x = 7 + 3 = 2 5 To measure exactly 7 litres, you would pour two full 5-litre jugs into a container and then remove one 3-litre jugful. 12 Obviously the post office can't sell 1c or 2c worth of postage. Nor can it sell 4c or 7c worth, because there's no way to arrange 3c and 5c to get those values. It can sell 6c worth (3 + 3 = 6) and 8c worth (3 + 5 = 8).

Consider the value of the two types of cattle. 410x + 530y = 10 000 41x + 53y = 1000 Using a graphics calculator, a spreadsheet, or trial and error, x = 5, y = 15. 5 of the $410 cattle and 15 of the $530 cattle.

So the problem can be rephrased as 3x + 5y = n, n 8 where x is the number of 3c stamps and y the number of 5c stamps. If n = 8, 3x + 5y = 8; the obvious solution is x = 1, y = 1. If n = 9, 3x + 5y = 9; the obvious solution is x = 3, y = 0. If n = 10, 3x + 5y = 10; the obvious solution is x = 0, y = 2. Since this set of three can be made using 3x + 5y, the next set of three amounts (11, 12, 13) can be made as 3x + 5y + 3, or by adding another 3c stamp. Similarly, every set of three consecutive amounts can be made by adding an additional 3c stamp. Therefore it's possible to create all amounts in excess of 3c, except for 4c and 7c.
13 Consider total cost. 1.7a + b = 29.6 17a + 10b = 296 Using a graphics calculator, a spreadsheet, or trial and error, a = 8, b = 16. 8 of type A and 16 of type B.

10 Let the required number be x. If it leaves a remainder of 6 when divided by 7, then x = 7n + 6. If it leaves a remainder of 9 when divided by 11, then x = 11m + 9. 7n + 6 = 11m + 9 7n 11m = 3 One solution is n = 2, m = 1. The general solution is n = 2 + (11)t, m = 1 7t. Replacing t with t gives n = 2 + 11t, m = 1 + 7t. t = 0 gives n = 2, m = 1, x = 7 2 + 6 = 20. The smallest positive number is 20. The general form is x = 7n + 6 = 7(2 + 11t) + 6 = 77t + 20 for t N {0}

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Exercise 25D Solutions


1 a
b = aq + r, 0 r < a 43 = 5q + r =58+3 (5, 43) = (5, 3) by theorem 2 5=31+2 (3, 5) = (3, 2) by theorem 2 3=21+1 (2, 3) = (2, 1) by theorem 2 2=21+0 (43, 5) = (5, 3) = 1 b = aq + r, 0 r < a 39 = 13q + r = 13 3 + 0 (39, 13) = (13, 0) = 13

3 a

9284 = 4361 2 + 562 (4361, 9284) = (4361, 562) 4361 = 562 7 + 427 (4361, 562) = (427, 562) 562 = 427 1 + 135 (427, 562) = (135, 427) 427 = 135 3 + 22 (135, 427) = (22, 135) This process could continue, but at this point it is quicker and easy to notice that the two numbers have no common factor other than 1, so (4361, 9284) = 1.

b = aq + r, 0 r < a 37 = 17q + r = 17 2 + 3 (17, 37) = (17, 3) by theorem 2 17 = 3 5 + 2 (3, 17) = (3, 2) by theorem 2 3=21+1 (2, 3) = (2, 1) by theorem 2 2=21+0 (37, 17) = (17, 3) = 1 b = aq + r, 0 r < a 128 = 16q + r = 16 8 + 0 (128, 16) = (16, 0) = 16

2160 = 999 2 + 162 (999, 2160) = (162, 999) 999 = 162 6 + 27 (162, 999) = (27, 162) 162 = 27 6 + 0 (999, 2160) = 27 (372, 762) = (372, 762) 762 = 372 2 + 18 (372, 762) = (372, 18) 372 = 18 20 + 12 (372, 18) = (12, 18) 18 = 12 1 + 6 (12, 18) = (6, 12) 12 = 6 2 + 0 (372, 762) = 6
716 485 = 5255 136 + 1805 (716 485, 5255) = (1805, 5255) 5255 = 1805 2 + 1645 (1805, 5255) = (1805, 1645) 1805 = 1645 1 + 160 (1805, 1645) = (160, 1645) 1645 = 160 10 + 45 (160, 1645) = (45, 160) This process could continue, but at this point it is quicker and easy to notice that the two numbers have a highest common factor of 5, so (716 485, 5255) = 5.

If d is a common factor of a and b, then a = nd and b = md. a + b = nd + md = d(n + m) d is a divisor of a + b. If d is a common factor of a and b, then a = nd and b = md. a b = nd md = d(n m) d is a divisor of a b.

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4 a

Apply the division algorithm to 804 and 2358. 2358 = 804 2 + 750 804 = 750 1 + 54 750 = 54 13 + 48 54 = 48 1 + 6 48 = 6 8

The algorithm is still useful. 5 = 3 2 + 1 1 = 3 2 + 5 1=3251 38 = 3 76 5 38 A solution is x = 76, y = 38


The general solution is x = 76 + 5t y = 38 + 3t This can be simplified. If t 15 is used instead of t, then x = 76 + 5(t 15) = 1 + 5t y = 38 + 3(t 15) = 7 + 3t, t R

Working backwards with these results, 6 = 54 48 1 6 = 54 (750 54 13) 6 = 54 750 + 54 13 6 = 54 14 750 6 = (804 750 1) 14 750 6 = 804 14 750 14 750 6 = 804 14 750 15 6 = 804 14 (2358 804 2) 15 6 = 804 14 2358 15 + 804 30 6 = 804 44 2358 15 A solution is x = 44, y = 15.
The general solution is x = 44 + 2358 t 6 = 44 + 393t y = 15 804 t 6 = 15 134t, t Z
b

Apply the division algorithm to 804 and 2688. 2688 = 804 3 + 276 804 = 276 2 + 252 276 = 252 1 + 24 252 = 24 10 + 12 24 = 12 2 Working backwards with these results, 12 = 252 24 10 12 = 252 (276 252 1) 10 12 = 252 276 10 + 252 10 12 = 252 11 276 10 12 = (804 276 2) 11 276 10 12 = 804 11 276 22 276 10 12 = 804 11 276 32 12 = 804 11 (2688 804 3) 32 12 = 804 11 2688 32 + 804 96 12 = 804 107 2688 32 A solution is x = 107, y = 32.

This is equivalent to 3x + 4y = 1. The algorithm is still useful. 4=31+1 1 = 3 1 + 4 A solution is x = 1, y = 1. The general solution is x = 1 + 4t y = 1 3t, t Z

478 = 3 478 + 4 478 A solution is x = 478, y = 478. The general solution is x = 478 + 4t y = 478 3t, t Z

The general solution is x = 107 + 2688 t 12 = 107 + 224t y = 32 804 t 12 = 32 67t, t R

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Apply the division algorithm to 1816 and 2688. 2688 = 1816 1 + 872 1816 = 872 2 + 72 872 = 72 12 + 8 72 = 8 9 Working backwards with these results, 8 = 872 72 12 8 = 872 (1816 872 2) 12 8 = 872 1816 12 + 872 24 8 = 872 25 1816 12 8 = (2688 1816 1) 25 1816 12 8 = 2688 25 1816 25 1816 12 8 = 2688 25 1816 37 A solution is x = 37, y = 25.

The general solution is x = 37 + 2688 t 8 = 37 + 336t y = 25 1816 t 8 = 25 227t, t R

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416

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The square of an even number is always an even number, and an even number plus an odd number always gives an odd result. This means that m2 + n will be odd, so option E is false. E If x 3 > 0, then x 2 > 0. The product of two numbers greater than zero will also be greater than zero. Therefore option D is true. D If p and q are both positive, and p + q = 1, then p and q are both less than 1, and 1 and 1 will be greater than 1. p q 1 > 1 and 1 > 1. Since p > q, pq p pq q The largest quantity will be 1 . C pq If pq < 0, and p > q, then p will be positive and q will be negative, in which case 1 would be positive and greater p than 1 , which would be negative. q Therefore pq must be greater than zero (i.e. p and q are both positive) for 1 to p 1. E be less than q You can choose any number of 2s from 0 to p in (p + 1) ways. For each of these, you can choose any number of 3s from 0 to q in (q + 1) ways, and for each of these combinations you can choose any number of 5s from 0 to r in (r + 1) ways. The total number of ways = (p + 1)(q + 1)(r + 1) D

Let the digits be a and b, so the number n = 10a + b. The sum of its digits is a + b. 10a + b = k(a + b) = ka + kb 10a ka = kb b (10 k)a = b(k 1) a= k1 b 10 k The number formed by interchanging the digits is m = 10b + a. Adding the two numbers, 10a + n + 10b + 1 = 11a + 11b = 11( a + b) k( a + b) + m = 11( a + b) m = (11 k)( a + b) The new number is the sum of the digits multiplied by 11 k. C
m + n = mn n = mn m = m(n 1) m= n n1 This will only be integral if n = 2, m = 2 or n = 0, m = 0. B There are two solutions.

Except for option D, the statements will be affected by either a, b or c being negative. D Solutions can be written in terms of another variable, and the number will be infinite. E

9 5

10 (n 1), (n 2) and (n 3) are consecutive numbers. Thus at least one of the factors of (n 1)(n 2)(n 3) will be a multiple of 3, and at least one will be even. Thus the number will be divisible by 1, 2, 3, and 6, but not always by 5. B

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417

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

1885 = 365 5 + 60 (1885, 365) = (60, 365) 365 = 60 6 + 5 (60, 365) = (60, 5) 60 = 5 12 + 0 (1885, 365) = 5 Apply the division algorithm to 43 and 9. 43 = 9 4 + 7 9=71+2 7=23+1 2=21 Working backwards with these results, 1=723 1 = 7 (9 7 1) 3 1=793+73 1=7493 1 = (43 9 4) 4 9 3 1 = 43 4 9 16 9 3 1 = 43 4 9 19 A solution to 9x + 43y = 1 is x = 19, y = 4. A solution to 9x + 43y = 7 is x = 19 7 = 133, y = 4 7 = 28.
The general solution is x = 133 + 43t y = 28 9t, t R Other solutions are possible. t = 4 gives a specific solution of x = 39, y = 8, leading to a general solution of x = 39 + 43t y = 8 9t, t R

2 a

If a and b are odd, they may be written as 2n + 1 and 2m + 1 respectively, where n and m are integers. ab = (2n + 1)(2m + 1) = 4mn + 2n + 2m + 1 = 2(2mn + n + m) + 1 This will be an odd number since 2mn + n + m is an integer.

12 121 = 10 659 1 + 1462 (12 121, 10 659) = (1462, 10 659) 10 659 = 1462 7 + 425 (1462, 10 659) = (1462, 425) 1462 = 425 3 + 187 (1462, 425) = (187, 425) 425 = 187 2 + 51 (187, 425) = (187, 51) 187 = 51 3 + 34 (187, 51) = (51, 34) 51 = 34 1 + 17 (51, 34) = (34, 17) 34 = 17 2 + 0 (12 121, 10 659) = 17 The algorithm is still useful. 7=51+2 5=22+1 1=522 1 = 5 (7 5 1) 2 1=572+52 1=5372 A solution is x = 3, y = 2. The general solution is x = 3 + 7t y = 2 5t, t R If 1 = 5 3 7 2, then 100 = 5 300 7 200. A solution is x = 300, y = 200. The general solution is x = 300 + 7t y = 200 5t, t R

5 a

t > 39 43 If y > 0, 8 9t > 0 t< 8 9 These two inequations cannot both be true if x is an integer. There is no solution for + + xZ , yZ .

If x > 0, 39 + 43t > 0

x = 300 + 7t , y = 200 5t

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If y x, 2 5t 3 + 7t 12t 5 t 5 12 Since t is an integer, t 0. The solution is x = 3 + 7t y = 2 5t, t 0, t R First, let Toms age be t and Freds age be f. Since it appears Tom is older than Fred, and we must look at the time when Tom was Freds age, we will define d as the difference in ages, specifically how many years Tom is older than Fred. t=f+d t + f = 63 (f + d) + f = 63 2f + d = 63 When Tom was Freds age, d years ago, Fred was aged f d. Tom is now twice that age, 2(f d). t = 2(f d) Since t = f + d, f + d = 2(f d) = 2f 2d 3d = f Substitute f = 3d into 2f + d = 63. 6d + d = 63 7d = 63 d=9 f = 3d = 27 t + f = 63 t = 36 Tom is 36 and Fred is 27.

t = 2( f d )