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THE

/

COMMENTARIES OF PROCLTJS
ON THE

TIM^EUS OF PLATO,
IN FIVE

BOOKS;

CONTAINING A TREASURY OF

PYTHAGORIC AM) PLATONIC PHYSIOLOGY.
TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK,

BY THOMAS TAYLOR.

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genius transcendent! y great, and accompanied through life with a fortune singularly good, he exhibited in his own person a union of the rarest kind, in which power

who, having tlicmselves happily pene luminously unfolded to others the profundities of the philosophy of Plato, Proclus is indisputably the largest and most refulgent link. Bora with a
trated,

OF

that golden chain of philosophers,

concurred with
of imparting
it,

will, the benefit resulting

from genuine philosophy with the ability
that Proclus possessed the
scientific

and

in

which Wisdom was inseparable from Prosperity.
"

gium

therefore of Ammonius lit rmcas,

Theeulopower of un

folding the opinions of the ancients,

and a

judgment of the nature of
will

things, in the highest perfection possible to humanity,"

be immediately assented

toby every one, Mho

writings of this incomparable man. I rejoice therefore, in the opportunity which is now afforded me of presenting
is

an adept

in th

to the English reader a translation of

phean philosopher

;

though unfortunately

one of the greatest productions of this Corylike most of his other works, ithasl>ceu

For these Commentaries scarcely explain a third part of the Timacus ; and from a passage in Olympiodorus On the Meteors of Aristotle,* there is every reason to believe that Proclus left no part of the
transmitted to us in a mutilated state.
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For important particulars respecting liiis extraordinary man, see my translation of first book of Kuclid. lie was born about tlic \car H - of Christ.
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or that and final causes of the universe are part in which the demiurgic. behind the concealed.(as us) in the flower of his a^e. &quot. ac te e symbols. is here shown to be connected. These and many other splendors of which they are occasionally most interesting particulars. The \\hole mundane animal too. &quot.ir INTRODUCTION. when it is considered that he had been a Ketkwer. 1 in ! wlmli Vol. whether he hail ever read these Com that they were too much for him. giant Dr. Ste also p. with an accu never been ex racy and perspicuity whit h have seldom been equalled. the most important part of this work is preserved . and distributed witli divine numbers . it soning. and di\ineand fabrica from the Demiurgns. Fortunately however.that he was a man laborious to a man would leave the greater l*lato unelucidated. subsists with appropriate each of the pl. stars is shown that very planet is surrounded \\ith satellites/ that the fixed have periodic revolutions on their axes.?yond all his other works. displaced a decree of pood sei se. 1 The late mentaries. Vol. 2hO and 281. though the length of their duration is \\hich at times disappear and a-ain become 1 visible. a number analogous circulations. 2. winch is seldom to !&quot. both For partial souls such as ours.lt. tins h more fnll\ aSMftcd. Thii confession. and such as are \ital.&quot. and soid is produced filled with harmonic ratios. the corporeal nature of it is i&amp. introduced into its spacious receptacle. and particu part of one of the most important dialogues of him the same Marinus informs larly as these Commentaries were written by &quot. and his candour is still more remarkable. are such as are corporeal.\\hata &quot. 270. are beautifully developed. in which it is sain.inetary sphere?. 2. of the same volume. toils unknown.that in to the choir of the fi\td stars. candidly replied. and become mundane through the luciform vehicles with which they are connected. on such an occasion . are placed about the mundane (. and cording to the united comprehension which subsists in the intelligible world . &quot.&quot. represented as fabricated with forms and demiurgic sections. and that he preferred them b&amp. and unfolded. are the satellites of other fixed stars of a more primary dignity.gt. from what Marinus says in his life for it cannot be supposed that such a miracle . the parts which it contains are so disposed as to harmoni/e \\itli the \\iiole. and that the stars.iods.&quot. at the same time exclaiming. TimsEus without This is likewise more than probable. are unfolded in these Commentaries. Sec p. The their subterranean to progression of the elements likew ise from their lirst incorporeal subsistence termination. * See p.met will) in a grammarian and sophy ofl Ulo. as the Doctor had never studied the philo was Hroclus compared to Longinus he. Charles Rurney. -! . of him. paradigmatic. his masterly elucidations. and the nuture of the heavens and heavenly And as the result of the most scientific rea bodies. and have celled. philologist. on being once asked by nif.

truth. as prior. geometrical reasoning. Since the revival of letters howevi r. and to show the cause from which to it originated.irrc are certain truths acquired . writings of 1 rocJus and other philosophers. he must possess those qualifications enumerated by Plato in the 7lh book of his Re with physics. or in fall Other words. Hence a legitimate student of this philosophy must be skilled in mathe matics have been exercised in all the logical methods.ertain8 I I &amp. who are distinguished by the appellation of the latter IMatoXlists. since the ren\al of letters. of the perspicuity with which these particulars are not mean that they are delivered in such a way. fortitude. The opinion all which I allude is this that IMotinus and his followers.INTRODUCTION. and by ascribing dogmas to him. to the of the Roman empire. the philosophy of 1 lato. learn with facility. which they are naturally capa 1 ble of admitting. has been generally entertained of the. as I ha\e elsewhere shown. is the offspring of the since most consummate science. troth in particular. obvious developed. or which a genuine student of the philosophy of 1 lato can desire.&quot. And in addition to all this. and the destruction of the schools of the philosophers by Justinian. cor rupted the philosophy of J lato. and not be unacquainted writings of Aristotle. the IMalonists that existed from his time.lt.i by Petwin. all the dogmas of some of them ranking it being deduced by a series of and the latter depending on the former. alluding to ilni philosophy. much.When T speak however. he must have naturally a good memory. lie must also be an adept in the. out of the reach of the greatest mathematician. 1 It is w II *ai&amp. and that they had studied the writings of the men whom This howe\er is very far from being the case. like the propositions in Euclid. And this leads me to make some remarks on the iniquitous opinion which. &quot.lo . as to be. and the friend and ally of justice. who have had the smallest conception that these requisites were indispensably public. perhaps. to every one. a* tbc (peculations of Newton arc above the capacity of tome that are now called mathematicians. vi/. that t . only to the fungous and frivolous productions of the present day . as pre paratory to the more Kiihlime speculations of IMato. bo magnifi cent and orderly. and temperance. by filling it with jargon and rcvery. en studied by men. &quot.lt. It which are not to be found in his writings. and which are perfectly absurd. this philosophy has not Ix. certain preparatory disciplines are requisite to the perfect comprehension of these doc trines. calumny were men might naturally be supposed that the authors of this deeply skilled in the philosophy. or that they may le apprehended as soon as read for this |&amp. and likewise in those subjects that arc by most general.gt. that they are written with all the clearness. lull my mean ing is. For they so grossly defame. the corruptors of which they profess to ha\e detected . a long exercise uf reason. and others as posterior.

(pOfi(ru TUV wn\\n&amp.&quot. and and that he in short. They appear likewise to have been ignorant.ai-. wrote in such a way as to conceal the sublimest of his doctrines them without being understood sufficiently strong to &quot.at rcn ptv )tii CKaXri ruv \oyvv.gt. ethically. not being . who have defamed the latter thus unqualified. rui&amp. who does not thus consider them. as he says. and which were may also be added. and thus ignorant of the mode of writing Platonists. with the true merits of which.v. aia rou vi }( kat ot Hi/0uy&amp. tai ai-rot Flap^trif /. and to calumniate what they could not understand. u/&amp. as they were thus unqualified.ar the light of truth. o Zijiu/y it Xuyup rou rout t ^iv cfaakov ^vartkovs.VI INTRODUCTION. or fic method. lx&amp. rinding from a superficial perusal of the most genuine di&amp. multifariously.eiples of Plato many dogmas which were to not immediately obvious in his them incomprehensible. ra te wpvt tv-. as well knowing. and others exoteric. as Proclus well observes. some assertions true. as like those of Homer. roi/i ^&amp. they have been explored meaning they contain. MS. the Pythagoreans said.f rourfpikovi.] T^OI aX/Ofiai- pHft. Tovt ft viraiOfnovi. but others to opinion. With the Peripatetics likewise. and Zeiio calls life. that Plato. from the vulgar.f. that they would only be profaned by the eye of the multitude. who have attempted the acquisition of it. that the authors of them weie delirious.y&amp. rout ft ^/xtwicii. Comment. Procl. Plato himself asserting that all these are ridiculous many. truly ovbtv f 1 Or t* atpcri] ra Orctrara fiiroiro*.oai &amp.gt. it it is needless to mention. Thus also.lt. TUV boyfiaTutv eonr. and Pannenides himself. some are esoteric. they have presumed to decide on the excellence of works.gt. t. his mystic narrations conformable to scientific deductions.rruii fn \tytif. will find the arduous . rn ^t aX&amp. and his apparent obscurity.t. and that It they had completely corrupted and polluted the philosophy of their master.\&amp.c&amp.lt.i(jra pry tart roit -ai iroXXoii. iraira iarn-/f.lt.gt. hut in an admirable manner are esteemed by the wise. these dogmas were spurious. but others adapted to b delivered openly. necessary.sublimities of Plato accessible.lt. ruiy ti f row riffHTaroK. that of discourses some are mystical. confidently asserted that writings. wrote some things conformable to truth.gt.gt. Iwing adopted by the great ancients. will in vain attempt to unfold the latent however. Olympiodorus justly observes.gt. that is Hence. 0ui//ia&amp. and he who is capable of availing himself of the elucidations of these most benevolent and most sagacious men. UVTU. . liy the latter Platonists in this way. unbecoming to speak of the most divine of dogmas to the before the multitude. in this regular and scienti Hmce. conformably to all the other great philosophers of antiquity. ia t^urfptiavi. in Purmrnii!. but others adapted to the necessary purposes of The men then fore.lt. avTiiv I\\UTWI o awfititi. that the writings of Plato are to be considered physically. theologically. the tit veil of conceptions.ru u.lt. they were wholly unacquainted.

(i. printed at Venice in the vear so scarce. * Tom. And thus much as to the cause of the prevailing iniqui tous opinion. good.525 .INTRODUCTION. And now I shall conclude with observing. that no one can read these Commentaries.) sa\. I could not avail myself. errors. but of all . as the learned . I sincerely wish well to my native land. must be evident from the nature of them. and will . because they are not the oflspring of conjecture.gt. man public for those labours 1 and that though on account I am not much indebted. From this translation I have been able. they were no less ignorant than arrogant. but of the most important nature. 1 reader will perceive. 8. should . as well as the matter of the original.uisl. that which springs up spontaneously. not merely of I have only met with ingratitude from the this their country. I have not been able to discover. respecting the writings of the latter Platonists for the authors of jt. have laboured greatly for tin. but entire sentences that were wanting. the original abounds trilling. my ability to unite in with errors. in the prosecution of these labours. not only particular words. unless he corrects them. and yet no one can correct the greater part of them. But of this I am certain. unless he is well acquainted with the of Plato. of this work. \\hich so materially a/Iect the sense. not be forward to pay any one for iU nurture. posterity confirm the decision. he never taw it &quot. I have only it to observe. necessary. and which arise from the abstruseness of the subjects that are discussed in this uork. that Fabricius in his account of the Life and Writings of Procluj. to give many important emendations of the printed original. for of the whole of it there arc none and a Latin translation of a part of the 3d book. that a greater good than the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle was never imparted by divinity This 1. that though like most others Mho kind. that I ha\e the utmost of and to preserve the manner Independent of the dilliculties inseparable from such an undertaking. no less contemptible than obscure. With respect endeavoured fr to the following translation. latt part of the Opuscula of Thomaeus. luminous and divine.ilion forms the is which work (Bibliotb. not of a vinced by perusing the notes which accompany this translation. in which he will find upwards of eleven hundred I call them necessary emendations. Of translations too. yet in it. to the most careless observer. but such as the sense indubitably demands. Of this the reader may be con philosophy faithfulness with perspicuity. and to every individual That I have neither been influ enced by the expectation of sordid emolument.erfect conviction indeed. According to Plato in the 7th Book of his Republic. that whoever they were. Gricc.&quot. by Nicholsons Leonicus Thoirueus. and not [infrequently to add toil. nor of the honours of the multi tude. The most j&amp. is the only aid that has been afforded me in this arduous undertaking.

from a Hence in accomplishing this Hercu and therefore in a way pleasing to dixinity.v jjj INTRODUCTION.fcd with exploring myself.gt. 1 have l*en sati&amp. hare also re-ard of that ineffable principle. lean task. as they induced me to en-age conviction that I was acting rightly. approbation can obtain. been attended with the purest deli-lit. and the consequent persuasion. and is not only the highest honour whose difficult such a undertaking. but the most durable and substan . that I could man. that either mortals or immortals tial train. with endeavouring to deserve the. favourable the treasures of ancient wisdom. than by a dissemination of on the present age and posterity in not confer a more real bene it to fit in my native ton-xie. and imparting to others.

was born in the first year of the 99th Olympiad. surnamed the obscure.LUJS. HEHMF. and a disciple of Plotinus. CIIRYSIPPUS. the Khodian. GRANTOR SOLF. the preceptor of Plotinus. ARISTOTLE. ALHINUS. according to Simplirius in the On the AGLAOPHEMUS. and the familiar of Augustus Caesar. the Epicurean. flourished about the 80th the celebrated Olympiad. flourished about the disciple of Olympiad. one of the genuine Peripatetics. Hr.RAci. the celebrated philosopher of Abdrra. a the Clazomenian. who was also a Platonist. Pythagorean philosopher. one ho initiated Pythagoras mysteries of Orpheus. a disciple of Plato and Speusippus. who flourished under ibe Empero r a Platonic philosopher. Olympiad.N sis. a disciple of Aristotle. a celebrated Stoic philosopher. Ammonius Saccas. the disciple of Plato. a Platonic philosopher. Emperor ConA IAMHMCHI stantine. who flourished about the time of Galen. JULIAN. Vot I. flourished about the 70lh. Plato. a Peripatetic philosopher. the physician. an Argire. ADRASTUS APHRCPISIENSIS. died in the 143rd Olympiad. Pythagoras. flourished under Uie Tim. and flourished under the Emperor Adr an. .EN. AMF. a Platonic philosopher. EC DEM us. ARISTOTLE. Severus. EMPEDOCLES. also a fellow disciple with Xenocrates of DEMOCRITVS. Plat. the first interpreter of Plato. Ethics. Categories of Aristotle. AMMOMUS SACCAS. ATTIC us. and an auditor of Polcmo. GAI. was born in the lOQlh Olympiad.ITVS EPIIESIUS. vho flourished under Marcus Antoninus. ALEXANDER APHRODISIENSIS. a Platonic philosopher.Oth ANAXAGORAS. HKKACI.iDEs PONTICUS. the Platoiiist. ANTONINUS.S TKISMEGISTUS. He wrote 200 Volumes. the Khodian.IX NAMES OF THE PHILOSOPHERS QUOTED BY PROCLUS IN THESE COMMENTARIES. surnamcd the ditine. HA RPOCRATION. who flourished under Marcus Antoninus. was an auditor when a young man of EPICURUS. most of which were burnt in the temple of Peace. &quot. and to whom Aristotle inscribed his Eudemian EURYM ACHUS. the Theurgist. s.

before tiiRd tli *f-xt of 4 )tars. was bo. an auditor of Pythagoras. PHERECYUES. was born in the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad.gt. Platonic philosophers. and surnamcd the grtai. Colophonian. XENAHCHUS. SOCHATK. somewhat posterior to the age of Pythagorean. the Syrian.e inslitulion. and the celebrated biographer.\ auditor of Pythagoras. : I or an account of the 00th Ol.of Cl. and a. STKATO LAMPSACEM S. Til ALES.OKHRAkTUS. m the 4th year of the 77th Oljapiad. and successor of Aristotle. is mentioned by our Proclus as one of SEVF. was born was posterior in lime to Amelius. SOLON.i. was. the preceptor of Pythagoras. a disciple of Plotinus.J this contmueU vcn lUe rtign ttt Cvmunimc. PLL TAHCH.ACS. and flourished about the 8Gth Olympiad. to Fabricius. in the first See the notes to this work. and died in the iOBlh Olympiad.S. the Elean. one of the most eminent of the Gordian and Galieuus. the pMotopher. SYMIANDS. of Plotinus. a Sloic philosopher. a disciple THP.) a disciple of Plotinus. see the additional note. PHILOI.d successor of Tlieophrastus. ORICKN.. and successor of Plato. a disciple of Theophrastus. PORPHYRY. the Legislator. flourished about the (JOlh Olympiad. and one of his most etnuxMit disciples. re Kored S B. a Platoniat.NlCDMACHCi. of Tarentuin. PYTHAGORAS.mpic games were by [. the celebrated disciple and died in the 58th Olympiad.n THF. a IV-iipatctic phdosopher. but the time in which he flourished is not known. (not a father of the Church. OCELLUS LUCANDS. the preceptor of Trajan. in Boeotia. SOCHATLS.ODORUS. flottfished about ihc 70th Olympiad. author of the the this Augustus Ca*sar. ihe preceptor of Proelns. PIIOCLUS MALLOTES.the Antoninus Pius.rsl and about 7TT A. Eleatic method. flourished under the Emperors PLOT IN us. and distinguished by the appellation of POSIDONIVS.. year. according NUMENIUS.a-ronca. 412 years after which con(Jrteks Logan to reckon Dy Oljriapiadi. of Julius Cx-sar. PARMENIOES. the father of philosophy.. the celebrated pret eptor of Plato. XENOHIANES. i ELEATES was an auditor of Parmenidcs.:inpiail. and the friend of a disciple. . From Christ.cMb vf to their f.-. an eminent Pythagorean philosopher. an auditor ar. tins list institution ll.!. flourished prior to Plotinus. flourished under the reign PKAXIPIIAN ES.ie.RUS. nu-thod X KNOCRATI. the ancient philosophers. tlie Platonist. The01&amp. year uf the 35th Olympiad. of reasoning floufMhd on this work. Asis*i S. a Pythagoric philosopher. a Pythagoric and Platonic philosopher. flourished about the -Unh Olympiad. PLATO.

or condition of being.. nature being between Gods and men. and they also signify forms. fvitauTixifi.lt. o. . AtLlATioN. well defined.AN EXPLANATION OF CERTAIN TERMS USED BY PROCLUS IN THIS WORK. ICAI. They tion add. when it subsists after the manner of an image. and appetite of the soul. Pertains to the colour. yniTit. For the knowledge of the son. Kcitjtuijon to a pristine form. fo. A thing i. to be a certain tendency. o THE GKNESIUKGIC. But desire is soul which is the principle of ail-various desires. Zi^uoypyof TO yiyvfafla* signifies an extension in subsistence. knowledge.. or a tendency to being. in the production of own immeHule energy.-. also a desire of the contraries to these. An appetite of the soul directed to the avcngcment of incidental REASONS. or to be disposed according to some sensitive energy. The Is or is thai power which reasons scienti fically. by the in Puhagofilled rcans. and this order to be with something.. or a subsistence in becoming to be. tu. because he produces the universe.aix. or or that part of the Tchy a tiling TO ii5v/xisTix5 belongs to Ciavota. TO rrffoxiyijfoy. Sofa.T.-. figure. Adtimbratively. 1. In a divinely-inspired manner. 1160X1x0. iixiviKcuf.LY. UN In a way conformable to the nature of the one. it DIANOIA. That which i* effective of generation. by his him Siavoia. A How iug condition of being..L. molestations. and likewise all contains. or to enjoy something present. THE DEMONIACAL ARISTOTLE. is thus the denominated. the last of the gnostic powers of it. Tixra&amp. OPINION.. other Hence be produces the parts. ICON JCAI. so rtholet it far as it is a tchofe. and not by 6vuo.n said to subsist iconically. TO yjvfsnov^yixoy.7Ta:n{. impulse. subordioate powers co-operating with universe totally and at once. elevates the soul from sensible! to intelligible*. looiilCA LLY. Change That which in quality. itself. deriving the principles of reasoning from intellect. That which is moved by another thing. and of having no sensible perception of certain things. Ti K Ah AC oc ic. K OF Ty TH DKM 1 WHOLES. TH E AL r KR-MCTi v R. Hence. is. from his transcendent physiological proximattly governed by dirmoos. nominated by the was thus de ancient*. This philosopher Icup Ms AfiTTort^f. T v*ywyiiwy. MORPHK. Tr(J 4^X1 - THE EpirnvMETir PART OF THE SOD L. that there is is desire of the evacua and absence. i. ENTHEASTICALLY. the rational soul. discursive energy of reason its . aAXoiovi. and magnitude of supcrhcits. Productive principles or powers. ft- is ignorant of the cause of or why it is. Aoyoi.us The maker of the universe oXay. ANGKR. Aroc ATASTASIS. or those powers that subsist GENERATION. and knows that a thing but i.

of the essence of a thing.C T. In the human soul is the summit of dianoia.vo.nce. the latter have used the word composite instead of compounded. perceiving cXsrr- Hut at in divine natures it is once. the intelligible. as it were. we perceive the truth of axioms. PLE. \ iXjircXaxo. O R I INTELLECTUAL. of and of soul. because is energy of intellect is thus an intuitive perception. Is tlie art riaining to niNstic operations. sigmfjing that she is a luver of rear : also called philosophic.I. and not according to a progression into an TO o-v5rrcv. proceeding all things subsiiUnt. r vo-coy i. .o i-o LKM i f .MTf n E. r.-s.JKCTION.. vtuyiXG e. TUP. the multitude of which is the cause.NC. Tilt. Aii i-pithet of Minerva.gt. INTELLECTUAL PIM. or an immediate darting forth. in of each of these according to order.. own order. solely denotes. The immediate r. it v*af c &amp. Hence the summit of essence. and ferior the extent progression of the i. it is The first ai principle. X*TS. which the former through its derivation fiom the AKT. COMPOSITE. OR PSYCHICAL intellect BREAimi.TlC I TiX. in \\noLr.sa&amp.ufl(.LEr. as being a lover of K isdorn. erixi] TJX*I&quot. also. Possessing much power. because notes the mingling.itelligible. rather d.ss. and which comprehends itself all Xi.pa MCLTIPOTENT. INTFLI. or nundation. and is that power by the light a self- from which. impartible.gt. than the contiguous union of one thing with another.ETiiN * Is a whole which gives completion to the universe. of the its I NT I.-. eternal c^. to w its proper object. just as she is PII i i. I. l: Tr.I. 1 Latin word comp^ilns.3ox|.I C BLE. ou COM P i.i- HYPAKXIS. it denominated. were. A whole which has it a perpetual subsistence.

in order that we Xaturc. and in what it dissents. the be it pertains to the theory of the universe. r. discussing this from ginning to the end. and Plato 1&amp. I. j&amp. through the whole of itself. who was so called from writing scurrilous comic iu. may investigate not in a careless manner the cause of this disagree All this dialogue. and images for the sake of paradigms. sake of such as are composite. Final munition*.e entirely illiterate. leaving none of the principal causes of nature uninvestigated. has physiology for in wholes and scope. * /.PROCLUS TILE TIMYEUS OF PLATO. it* that we the Tima-ns of Plato says that is tin. what it adds. surveying the same things in images and in paradigms. Tim. in parts.eing thence impelled. is may know what in the treatise And ment. For this very treatise of the Pythagoric Tima-ns Concerning 1 written after the Pytha^oric manner.o&amp. likewise. according to Sillographns. parts for the sake assuming things simple of wholes. VOL. appeal s to me to clearly evident to those who are not 1I1AT and that l&amp. same with what is asserted of TimaMis [the Ix)erian]. A .gt. the design of the Platonic Tinva-ns embraces ihe uliole of physiology. BOOK I.gt. For it in filled with all the most Itoantiful boundaries* of physiology.gt. applied we have prefixed the treatise of Tima-iis to these Commentaries. Timon. for the t i:. Plat. On this account himself to write the Tima-us.lt.

To that there is a pre-existing hut of those only that are home producing cau-e tf. Hut prior to the paradigm. 1ml of concaiises. since a third part demonstrates that these have not the relation of causes. and that Plato alone preserving the Pythagoric mode in the theory concerning nature. . in the generation of things. paradigmatic and final cause .gt. [BOOK f.gt. the I vtha^oreans. or c\ ince that \\hatiscasual is productive of s itself.IK made no and use of intellect in hi&amp.. du -ing cau-e. in short. there Avas a For Anaxagoras. in short. and the final Through these* also. and material form. patrons thought tit to survey physical form in conjunction with matter. he places a demiurgic intellect 1 our Vi/. ihinu. Socrates says in the !*lia(lo. that intellect is the first cause appears of generated nature-.d tt&amp. who were tho of a sect. among the multitude of tive. and admits that there are other those are a threefold division. these. and evinces that this causes. while the rest were aslerp.gt. who di\ersity of opinion respecting the subject of things.in&amp. in asserting which they are ignorant that they must cither give athl.-. which we ina\ that lhe\ all do not acknowledge subsistence to the itself I \\ hole of heaven from t hunce. a uui\ersal ret ipient. that there is no along in generation. the producing can-&quot. ought to le considered hy more sagacious and acute.2 PnOCLUS ONT TIIF. But that the dialogue deservedly embraces a design of this kind. the eflecthis being the case. not all. which are MI!&amp. Hut of tho-e posterior to IMato.generated casually. vi/. hut admitting that many things an.l \\\t folltmiTii . who causes. of things generated hy nature. folio \\ in:. cause. explanation of things. VriMotlr. they rather take away its eflicacious and properly effective power [than allow the existence of it] hy not ^ranting that it contains the reasons [or productive principles] of the things ellected hv it. hut employed certain airs a theis as the causes of things that are generated. which are properly so called.lt.- Hcnicnt causes properly so called. physiologists prior to Plato. as when they say that nature is a principle of motion. vi/. and again. rather . hut such of them as were more at curate than the lest. has pro secuted with great subtilty the proposed doctrine. llectne eao-e . For of eternal natures they clearly s. he investigates principal causes. that directed their attention to matter. is the more principal cause.y. physiology receives and one part of it is comeisant with matter and material but another part also adds the investigation of form. referring the prin For if they any where mention the prociples of hodies to matter and form. to ha\ e seen. For since. physical things. dcli\ers intleed. as the con- caust of natur. lato howe\er alone.

animated God. that. are . he would have evinced that the pood alone is the can-ie of these.gt. all these delivered.!. he the causes unities. things of which secondary natures are and inconceivable manner. through images. therefore. as we have said. is these causes of the fabrication of the the intelligible paradigm. and investigated with accuracy by Plato and the remaining two. descending into it from the supermundane Gods. the maker. tlio universe primarily subsists. viz. in all is i - these it is evidently not adapted either to pro in want of a producing cause. the order of the universe is appropriately indi cated in the beginning of the dialogue. as duct is 1 . and such as this. u accessary to read oXip. which the desirable. all . form and the from these. is. and an intelligible cause in which and the good. or save it. assimilates it Gods. it is nfcenar} to read atria* rovrwr. 3 the universe.should view be suspended from true causes. is suspended is it is from the power of that which moves. subsist in pure forms has the relation of reason and form. but in the middle of it. and Justly. according to some. with . would have shown that the gond and the intelligible are. l&amp. of a subject. established prior to the producing cause.gt. and another. for the intelligible number is from this cause. suspended intelligible or intellectual worlds. conducted by It therefore. itself. of these. and the subject e\idenl from the following considerations. form.gt.nooK i. in the order of For since that which is moved by another thins:. or perfect. the ^on.] T1MJEUS OF PLATO. discusses mundaae affairs and the whole world. and demonstrates it to l&amp. But since he to intelligible animal. ineffable.eing scope of the Timn This however iis. But if concerning the intellectual Gods. For the intellectual multitude proceeds from the intelligible and the one fountain of beings. but one thinir in it which. therefore.i to \\hich they Mere fabricated by the father of all for things. For if he had spoken con cerning the intelligible Gods. and the concauses of natural things.ends it from the total* fabrication. nature.e a God by the participation of the good . he gives to it matter and form. Fur 11X171 here. Instead of 1 mri roi/rwr it ill lliis place. from which they are produced. For this world is not the same with the subject-matter. And if he had spoken concerning the supermundane Gods. from the intelligible For this cause gives subsistence to all generative. This. he would have produced them from the intellectual and total fabrication. and from the cause of all things. but in a primary. the the case. . susj&amp. . and thus he renders the whole world an intel lectual. the sake of which they were generated. But that Plato very properly delivers world.

hin.gt.ion. S ON TUT. as the soul . and the mode . or l&amp. hoth raii^-tl in a Ixcominas are vital uorld.lt. and are ourselves sul.s and through what to us who make other things..gt.oth aceordin.4 PHOCU.-p.lt.lt.( is avximilati-il to e&amp. and tin- \\hole romprehension uf it in the intelli-Ue manner in the \\hole. ami a rational Mini proceeding from the same father. For then- is an intellect 1 as the woild contains divinely partially.&amp.lt. .li&amp.ds souls hriui.r the rorpnival nature of al&amp.ns of thii -s. ^ay that the [Soeratie] polity.ilincated it &amp. c of his stihsistcnce.gt.gt.gt. 1 the uui\ert&amp.nliumalir and i thiu-^ tlu-ivfoiv. For partial &amp.re woven together with wholes. w hich Critias narrates. hut theuarofthe Atlantic-.itioii aeoordmg to the division of nuindane natures. for the n a&amp. Inr.ecau&amp.. aiumaU hk-wi-e.u. &amp. of it. and iliuded hy di\ iue niuul. These uf ph\ siolo^y.ami demiur-ie the Demim-us and is filled annual is uo\m lu-ji-thrr ronforiliahl) to the united .d raiiM-s of the uuiveisr ani- IK unfolded.ly .him pertains him the .gt.uhsi-ts throu-h on- tranely and uuitatiuii..i&amp. tor Socrates sa\s.tial order .soul \\ilh harmonic rea^.&amp.. pre rxistenee of ami the paro of it.. cau&amp.the v.. \\hicli &amp. is [BOOK in the i.gt.-.. tin* For and the extremities of fabrication. is is protluci-tl from fa^iioned \\ilh form-. that the paradi-m of it is MIU&amp.gt.gt. The &amp.into the celestial the t\\o ro-ordiuati.lished in the heavens.-ctih. introduced into world. i. in -oils.r asitscnd is we must say that an imugi of their union. are arranged ahout their leading ami tlirouh Mt.|. f. where aUo man isMirveved. par. tuul end. prreedi. the whole fabrication of the world delivered . the celestial (iods.gt. and dixiiu.e man is a mtero- rosm. Atlantic island. partial natures.gt.gt. our attention to the union and multitude tinI the or it \\c direct the polity which Socrati-s Hinnmarily tlisnwses. unfold throu-h images of mundane natures.lt.gt.|ti&amp.ers .t men .gt. respecting resumption of the discourse theory of the world.lt. and the -amc \i\iuY (Joddis-. tho roimiuiiiiou which pervades through l.ilal tlieir \ehules hccome mumlaiie. is an image of the oppo&amp.-nstituted. n* which is in ener-v.jeet all of discu...to the v!i. and espe. ami suhhinary re-ions ue the cfte&amp. Imle Hut all. either hecause the theory r.xnl.gt. hViulwils. to -nieration. of I M- \vlueli. Ihe drniiuiL i.Man iudtvd is considered prior to .n-. imitating are fahricated ami \iviliedhy their presidmi.ons vvc have nu iitioned. l.tal. ami such lhin-s in him in and totally. li . hut that of w ar of the Atlanties with the Athenians. are arparts likewise h as are corporeal and Mich the. Ihi-.es he w. cstaall the things.virv . ially Hut if ^e diside the nni\er&amp. deities. ami the narration about a polity.

works of nature. ami also what pertains to meteors. and how the pro becomes terminated tlie in moderation and a natural condition. And in these things especially.enus paradigm after and species. when in them. in the intelligible. likewise. nnd happy through resemhlance to that hlessed -rod [the universe. together with productions in the and such as are accord in physiologist to understand it how many modes this aberration subsists.] The ends also of fabrication are snhtilely elahorated hy Plato. should he assimilated to the object of his For the universe is always happy . wise le intellection.ire first. and in animals. and our soul will like. exists together with nature hut It is the business. Hut that also say that to connect the discussion of that \\liich surveys with that I Von may that it is necessary that the intellect of says near the end of the dialogue. the whole heaven. I lato has something in common with other For they were conversant with the most material. it is necessary which is surveyed. and partially. the physiologist ends at these. therefore. nature. and the orders of the mundane vince of medical art (iods. in which part of llu Tima-us.] TIM. he also imitates his the an appropriate manner.TXS OF . since he is a surveyor of I or are unfolded. and animal itself. what lie for thus it will he led hack to its happy. rioiisly. unproceedini. in farewell to to matter. is evident from adursi Ui. it is requisite I lliink to add also. therefore. and a it 5 terres of the universe trial also an etherial vehicle analogous to the lu-avons. and with which likewise is co-ordi mnltifanecessary that the universe should be surveyed and in tin. For since we are informed \\liat the world is. as the sensilile man is to the universe. so is the intelligible man to For cause. paradigmatic-ally. of the the preternatural is a departure from nature. and makes them the subject of rational animlato directs his attention likewise to this. him who intends to obtain a happy life. part&quot. such things as are preternatural. according to i. bouy derived from It&quot. to Hut it is unfold such particulars as are consequent to these.gt. . sulisist in Hence. In-coming a world through similitude to the world. union with their wholes. what that is which considers these things.nooK i. the principles of medicine ing to nature. but they bade couseijuence of directing their attention forms and primary causes.sensible world. nate. For a subsistence according to nature. Hot there secondary natures alwavs adhere to such as . 1 LATO. . it conformably to the Tytlia^orie custom. it \\ill be well. the four elements. iconic-ally. when it is assimilated to the universe. i&amp. earth. nejjlectin:. and are established sensible man is assimilated to the universe. ami the ultimate physiologists. if the nature of man is perfectly discussed totally in the theory of the universe.

at For his discussion for the most purt stops of things that have a natural subsistence from he deserts the doctrine of \\i* preceptor. find tluih ticulars. And of these. matter. be admired. as the first . peculiarity. he has manner is Socratic. But such as pertain to the theory of animals.ssible ing nature. that his therefore. Again. and demonstrative. then. much concerning these par In the next place logue. of these Aristotle discusses to IMato fur as Plato denominates it ? But in the second place. an essential division. the various sj&amp. For there are he from the Pythagoric custom. but by Aristotle are scarcely. and is con- But with respect in a to the things peculiar in so way conformably he calls the hea\en unbegotten. the anagogic. the suspending every thing from intelligible*. that from whence the principle of motion tin s is derived. and a fifth essence. the transcending . began to write his Tima-us. For what dillerence is there between calling it a fifth element.gt. to substances to which are delivered by IMato in the image of eternity. acknowledged.eyond what is lit. And with respect to tilings of this kind.delivered the principles. IMato deserves t &amp. and a fifth figure. the bounding wholes in numbers. and for having rightly preserved their harmony and contrarieties. which was composed by him after the Pythagoric manner. the intellectual. surveyed according to form. and but in few instances. viz. motion.ecies of motion. that Plato receiving the treatise of the Pythagoric Tiuueus.gt.gt. philanthropic. all final causes and concauses. appears to any when. appears to me that the demoniacal Aristotle. elevation of conception. are distinguished by IMato according t. such indeed as pertain to meteors. form and a subject. it is requisite- to speak of the form and character of the dia It is universally and to show what they are.PROCLUS ON THE It also [BOOK i.mingled the Pythagoric and Socratic have done this in the present dialogue. and the concauses of things which have a natural subsistence. the indicating things mystically and symbolically. but Aristotle has extended the doctrine respecting them l&amp. thus arranges the whole of his discussion concern |X&amp. the divinely inspired. emulating as much as the doctrine of Plato. time. and making his exposition he shows to us that this. for having surveyed with much accuracy the essence and powers of them. or a fifth world. and place.gt. Plato has . interval. and time which is subsistent with the universe. in it If. jxrceiving that the tilings which are common to every thing that haa a natural subsistence are. according place such as pertain to the heavens. all dialogue. he discusses such things as are common^ to every t jing that has a generated subsistence. it is also acknowledged by those who are in the smallest degree conversant with the writ ings of IMato.

and tlio enunciative or unfolding into But from tlio light. things receive a threefold division into intel ligibles. the contemplat ing beings through image*. therefore. entities. and Hence it is every thing of this kind. But Plato defines its peculiarities by geonv . and which are usually called mathematical. The auditors therefore and ^peakers assembled together . the mild. But all things may be appropriately Mimyed in all. it be requisite that discourses should be assimilated to the things of which they are the interpreters. but is illuminated bv the truly-cxistinir stand physics. and such as are last. In physical ppradigmatlcally. the social. the demonstrative. likewise. he narrates the conference in the Pir.] TIM^EUS OF PLATO. and Gods. the polity son of (Vphaltis. Ix-ing from. Hermocrates and G riteas. forms its conceptions supernally from the first . but such as rank as the third. however.gt. This.rus. it will be fit that this dialogue also should have the physical. not only physically. also. Glauco and Adimantus. hut likewise theologically.Socrates having come to the Pinrus for the sake of the Bendidian festival ami solemn procession. to Tima?us. principles . It also prepares us to under suspended inspired by the Gods. in the city.gt. presubsist in intelligible* after a \ &amp. and to another fourth anonymous . there are images of the essences prior to them. Far/her still. first natures indeed ironically. For Nature herself who is the leader of the universe.u. which to the is the object of its contemplation. made this narration. governs the corporeal-formed essence. But the as follows . be the case. For/ such things as are media. I \\\\ ing. and leaves the causes of all in&quot. primordial manner. and should also have the theological .!. And she neither ranks as a God dess. the ethical. nor is without a divine j&amp. and such as are the media between these.eculiarity.rical figures.&amp. as Tim. And we hypo we descend to particulars. nnd its elements through mathematical names.gt. But on the day after this. discoursed there concerning a with Polemarchus.eus himself says. and both these subsist in the mathematical genera . act ordin&quot. its productive principles.gt. know more : perfectly the manner of the dialogue. with the banquet of discourse. imitating nature. Tima&amp. a venerable dialogue. to feast him in return on the day after this. and likewise Thrasymaclius the sophist. very properly indicates its powers. he calls upon the other associates. as it is laid down in the Republic. and mingles the demonstrative with the enunciative.erson. Socrntic philanthropy. since when shall be able to thesis of it is and demiurgic intellect. things physical. when he constitute 5 the soul. these primordially pre-existing in the intelligible thus much concerning these things . 7 partial conceptions. If. Pythagoric doctrine.

lt. as Anlipho. For in the I went down hut in this dialogue. tion. il is uctcsijry to read o&amp. which was the third from the conference in the Piraeus. For of the ancients. some indeed.aws. whence it proceeds. di&amp. and still more ancient physiolo Others called things which have a natural subsistence the art of ( iod . \\e should investigate every par ticular to the u lino. J5ut the triad of those that receive the discussion of TilUlL Us. the \vurd intlun sons. Imt the fourth \vas wanting through indisposi What.ent discussion. is analogous fattier .1 ROCLUS ON THE [HOOK i. rarity gists. and total motion of th* of the summit. and how far it extends to productions. the appellation of nature to physical powers. it will he propelthat.ul oil poNVef. and have . Republic it is said.* Of tliose who were received hy me yesterday at a haiNjuet of discourse. hut others form.Tently lliuier&amp. Not all of them howe\er. through an alliance of life immediately ((inhimself to Tima-us.&quot. Others again called some prior to IMato.lt. are these three auditors of a discussion about the whole world? I reply. ^. called matter nature.-.ons to the pre&amp. on &quot. 1 I Sin re. others soul and others something else of this kind. you will say. were present at this audition. For the knowledge of what nature is. however. who is prior to the tiiad.&quot.gt. then-fore. hut who ought now in their turn lo repay me with a similar repast.lt.to intel lect.gt.se who love to contemplate the conceptions of IMato. is the image of the fabrication of it according.shall we indicated the adaptation of the per&amp. triad Socrates is which AS \\e ha\e therefore render more manifest through what follows./ if re. These things. either to matter. will he adapted to the dialogue. such as gravity and h-vity. us in the fust place show what it appeared to him to \n\ and what his opinion was of its essence. does not think tit to give the appellation of nature primarily. or] the father of works. have shown how spoken concerning scope admirahle the character of it i. however. day. that it is tit the father of the discussion should he con sidered as analogous to [the Demiiirgus. and \\ hat is the \\ hole of the h\ pothesjs. IMato. gave the whole of things nature.tood hy dillerent per let tho. For the fahrication of the w&amp. and density. as J&amp. IH taking ourselves to the words of Tima-us. or material 1 For on I &amp. to the demiurgic triad which receives the one.Nturl 1 . as Aristotle. which has for its ohject the physical theory. heing dill.gt. as some of the Peripatetics. just as the first of the paradigmatic triad is united to joining the falh er. .gt. theand management of the dialogue.gt. of whom he speaks in the But others Others denominated nature things which Milist hy nature.rld in words. in many places. if the (iods please. . ho\\e\er. yesterday to the Piranis this &quot. .

nature is one thing. prior to him the intelligible paradigm itself of the whole world. of itself . and that which subsists according lo. in consequence of being participated. Being however such. through containing the reasons or productive principles of all of them. and by nature.J T1MJEUS OF PLATO.eing lx&amp.directs and governs And she is a Goddess indeed. that which is of another. whieh this is abides [as Plato says] in next to this [or itself. therefore. She belongs to another.ing ing things posterior to it. other.gt. viz. and nature another. in which there But of the next to this. illumination a secondary JM which of itself. &quot.gt. Tim. as being the statues of Gods.] is soul which subsists in herself. containing the heavens indeed in the summit of herself. according to common conceptions. she proceeds from the vivific Goddess [liheu. . But she governs the whole world by her ruling over powers. is suspended from the U . it*e!f. But the For nature. Placing. For that which is artificial. is interval and all-various every thing sensible. And with respect to the of these.] is the demiurgic intellect himself in hjs own accustomed manner. but nature surpass about bodies. the essence of it in. he has delivered to us the most accurate theory concerning it. between soul divided and corporeal powers. or physical powers. is both of itself and of another.dies but she has not immediately the subsistence of a deity. in consequence oflieing deified. if you are willing. in const queuce of converted to themselves. Nature. verges is to bodies. Plat. For we call divine !x&amp.gt. Demiurgus. For these follow each . J. and The next to this [or life to another thing.] !&amp. is the last of the causes which fabricate this corporeal-formed and sensible essence. indeed. but through not verging to the participant . Gods. of last \ itself and tifanottur it is of another another. of reasons and powers through which she. indeed. blished in herself. For. inseparable from bodies. and the intellectual soul is is one thing.BOOK i. She is also the. ^ evident that division. the latter being inferior to it. and every where weaving together partial with whole*. form. and is full mundane In-ings. and. just as the father of soul is of himself being imparticipable. and incapable of l&amp. another. boundary of the e\tnt of incorporeal essences. . the middle of both. but is averse to call it immediately soul. natures generation through the heavens . to herself. and which Plato on account thinks tit to call animal itself.gt. and at one and the intellectual soul separate from bodies.] is tho the paradigm of the productions of tho who And tin. all intelligible cause of things. or body.] it is nature it is which that is which imparts by that That which immediately precedes this [viz. is and esta inseparable from them. [viz.ut [For according to the Chalditan oracle] Immense Nature VOL. I mean. however. to herself same time belongs and to another. is something dillerent from art. and generating and vivifying all things.

art. and as it is evident from It ipptan to mr. if they mean the nature which proceeds from him. And nature is art which proceeds alone.10 PKOCLUS ON THE Goddess. distribute his whole fabrication into AVe must not therefore admit such an assertion.&quot. remain perpetually in the world. Unwearied Nature rules over the downward.&quot. which is in the Demiurgus.etUment through. But he will speak erroneously. . triple. and is himself. and incapable of perceiving itself. abides in him. The art therefore. in unpruceeding union . viz. nor tself-tnotive. Moreover. but more partial powers. if indeed they mean the nature which abides in the Demiurgus. those that Heaven may run an eternal course. through the Gods are essentiali/ed in As we have and concur with the energies of the Gods. she jnrvades without im|&amp. alone niter-motive. ^flicacious reasons. and a third being tluit which has now proceeding indeed. is them to these principles. and such things as are corruptible. back of the from whom all life is derived. whether it be Amelius or Theodorus [Asina-us] who wishes to make this arrangement. one kind subsisting but being converted to him . from thence. therefore shown what nature is according to Plato. So that if some one of willing to refer who assert that there are three deiniurgi. but their assertion is right. is the fiery world. thai art is proceededfrom the artist. ami to total nature [or to nature considered as a whole. and being suspended inspires all things . not destitute of life. but having in a certain respect the For the organs of the ability of energizing from itself. through the causes which have been already enumerated. and draws kc. is one. But the intellectual soul art indeed. and subsists in another thing. are vital. Fur ur must conceive in the artist. those who call nature demiurgic. so that through her. according to which the sensible world is denominated the work of the artificer. inseparable from bodies. [BOOK is i. both that which intellec tual. For again the Oracle says. of wholes parts. to soul. that the words TOV aiyQrjrov tosher. are wauling here in the origiual. on it is said to be the organ of the Cods. inseparable from the subjects of it* government.gt. being held together by the causes of forms which she contains. worlds and works. the most inanimate beings participate of und that which is a certain soul. that it is an incorporeal essence. yet art and the work of the artificer of which at the same which account also time both abides and proceeds. if he supposes that For the Demiurgus there are three other deiniurgi of the universe. another. to the demiurgic intellect.] he will speak rightly. containing the reasons or productive principles of them. &quot. Hence. but we must be careful to remain in ITatonic and Orphic hypotheses. beyond soul. they do not speak rightly .

ij/jir p&amp. in a manner appropriate to the men from whom the dialogues are denominated : to Timajus.gt. prior to physiology. says rightly. but where. prior to theology.een exercised in For it is requisite after having forms. For the former delivers to us all the divine orders. to IM? led having contended with strenuous doubts about forms. to the knowledge of the universe. these dialogues.Xc Ti^aic. that the whole theory of Plato is comprehended in these two dialogues. nor the latter l&amp.-.nci tlir One. the similitude of discussion in the Timanas not carelessly inspect For as Tima us refers the cause of to that in the Parmenides. the Parmenides compre hends the discussion of intclligibles.lt. II those things that the dialogue mundane fabrication. but the latter sions of mundane essences. But neither does the former of the natures contained in the universe. and to Pannenides.iing the whole we should connect what is consequent with what has been For since the whole of philosophy is divided into the theory concerning intelligible and mundane natures. friend Timieus. but is wauling in ibrse of Procliu. for he wrote a treatise of this kind about the universe.gt. and intelligibles in sensible. the intelligible and the sensible.rus and Parmenides. end in these.gt. three. will be apparent. the Tim. for lie wrote about truly-existing l&amp. which teaches us concer. this be. and discussions about the besi polity.gt. follow! after is the fourth Couirncn- / editions of the Timarui.ecause the progres omit the theory entirely the theory of intelligible:*.] TIMyElTS is OF PLATO. two.erant about that which is physical. because there is also a twofold world. obtains its most excellent who do uninvestigated. the theory of terial mundane as Timanis. so far as beings.* But the one is exul&amp.ins. &quot. all sensibles are in intelligible* paradigmatically. it is now time theory of the unities [of Ix-ings. one. it remains that physical. and investigate their meaning to the utmost of our [I see] In all t. The divine lamhlichns. said thus much. BO Parmenides excites the investigation of imma l&amp. . said. extends through images natures. the case. and this very properly. to be sent to the mystic Having however. For every thing pertaining to mundane and supermundane natures.BOOK i. words of Plato. but the Titna us that of mundane natures. so Parmenides suspends the pro lyings from the one. therefore. but by the latter. [or of an hyparxis which has the form of the.eings.participate of a uniform hyparxis. about that which is theological. as Plato himself says in the course of the dialogue.] Farther still. and the other iconically. And this is effected by the former.] after to consider the ability. so far as all things participate of the demiurgic providence. and no order of U ings is l-ft To those also everything gression of in the all world to the first Demiurgus.

that this is the (ireciun custom. 1 Iliad. and Hermocrates. for the purpose of producing beauty in the diction. Till in the feienth li\ And in a similar manner in many other places. tions of Praxiphanes. enumerating the persons that were present. said before. is For we use absent (since it was in. and Tinui-us. that if as many had been present as was requisite. of whosj name we are ignorant. me yesterday nt a banquet person of those who having been received by now to repay me with a similar repast of discussion. *ere present. For what occasion had Socrates to this numerate. two. of one that is absent. first the disciple of Theophrastus. I see Critias. but to the These.gt. as dei-irin^ that \\hich rema Ms. because he makes a change and in so doing. but he signifies the person that was of the one that is wanting. . known him. was to point them out.. Jourth. For the word Jour. Hut to the former objection Porphyry the term the fourth. furious weapon drove. docs not accord with what had Ix en to one. together with the grace and ihe whole period. indicative. but that man I perhaps do not see.crate them. second place lie blames him. three. and unknown to For if he had .!*2 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. the &quot.poible to point him oul) through tin: fourth. inconsequent and third are consequent. JIT hull Through ImU-s it lie l.Sorrates. I b&quot. anil had been able to manifest him by nacn he would have said. tuo. thre . second. are the objec The philosopher Porphyry however directly replies to him. know the multitude of those that assembled to the word fourth. two. but one of them In-ing absent. Homer therefore: 1 has said many things of this kind : Full t)f tho hru. raises and exalts lato.iuty of the words. blames Pra\i|&amp. in a tiling which is manifest to sense and in known to . ought r&quot. For to numerate the persons For to say one. and in answer to his second objection observes. three.vs tlrsrcndiu^ from above. represents Socrates of a part of the whole number. that Here also the mutation has a cause. 47. therefore. ikes an enumeration of one. conference? in usinir order that he might In the. he who was absent was a stranger. . Plato here.numeration of those that are present contains a representation replies. and requiring him who was wanting. vn.li:mes ho\\e\er. the first. and as beinu in want Plato therefore indicating this. because he in. it would have been superfluous to nun. Since however.

Very properly. another. were common to all of them. and such particulars as : these.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. pate. and the writings of one.gt.gt. are elegant.HOOK I. therefore.e In the third place.gt. In the second place. and what he conceived to is of an animal and brutal nature. conformably to its own or imitation disposes the lives of the auditors. both guests and hosts. like that he was wanting. and use numbers as things numbered. and that all the fabrications of These numliers however art* partici nature subsisted conformably to numlM-rs. that it is about a true feast. Plato delineates the forms of appropriate manners. know through niunlxr the. and for the fulfillment of these.er Pythagorean.e about the ethical. three. therefore. he only that so many were present. This also Socrates establishes. and those that are filled. Hence Socrates prior to every thing else adduces this. Socrates desires !&amp. in a way adapted to tin philosophers of that sect. 1 or the former are simple. the invention of dogmas. does the dialogue at its commencement proceed through numl&amp. as : their philosophy. .ers. and each of these subsists itself by itself. just as all mundane forms are participate. which have much greater ellicacy than those which are de posited in mere rules alone. have \\ritten arts concerning disciplines through which they think they shall improve the manners of those that are instructed by them but . through these things it is evident peculiarity. These therefore. and that it is requisite interpretations should made lx&amp. and manifests ta us All these observations. through the. such as the multitude fancy it to be. that it is not the hearing of discussions. theory of the words before us. U come Others. J what about which the philosopher is especially abundant. therefore. two. Hence. by giving Tima-us the appellation of friend. and not those very things themselves of which they partici For the monad.gt. there is much in Plato but that which bamjuets in us the [true] man. duad. they embraced communion in presence of the fourth person. and one. is it is rememl&amp. imitation of the most excellent men. calling on them to those that fill. they thought that the compacts which they made with each other. and triad are one thing. sical pated. 13 him. feast of discourse. and those that learn. should the stably preserved by them. are But the physical Pythagoric dogmas are as follow They said that every phy production was held together by numbers. and such others of kind as may Hut be devised by some necessary to in subserviency to the that the dialogue IK. for this Hence too. Such ethical from the present text the scope of all derived Pythagoric dogmas then-fore.gt. as the following. that is l&amp. may Those men established friendship and a concordant life. those that teach.

-ll d&amp. for the dilVeivnee of beings separates the . duad and triad. the monad. to intellect.gt. Itightly therefore. through the monad. .14 PROCLUS ON THE [oo* i. so is being to life. antl also power and intelligence. and that he who Mincys nature inwardly should look to these. and The all. the triad. all divine natures are .all numlN Communion. and that \\lneh is in celchtiul and in a or these impart to cacli other their proper powers. and the tetractys. And besides the duad is the principle of the is tetractys of intelligible paradigms. and are united to each other. uncording to which nil linn. and which also rank as rulers and leaders. as the fountain of ever-flowing iv. and they are connected together through divine friendship. this. so that of them are in one. Mich HN Further Mill. gible through intelligence. and the intelligible to intelligence. the paradigmatic. The final. Ofthe. and commensurate \\iili each oilier. does M jcrates think lit.h- lliat which ii ill gciid allon.se three. n all. or from the father through power. comprehends the one union of Cods.ttnie? But since the dia logue is physical. But the producing cause. were peculiarly investigated by IMato. all Again. these men vciieniled physical uii&amp. Farther still. signified through For through life adapted to the triad. arc indicative. you may survey such theological conceptions as the following: These men generated all things through the first numbers.i/- here.se. presides over numbers in the order of the good. These causes then-lore are manifested through the above numbers. the concaues of natural things were also . that these men considered could this 1)0 admitted by those who celebrate number as the father of Cods and men.ers For how ing. Moreover. rendered natures.. or from the intelli intellect is For as the monad is to (lie. very properly U-giiiH from communion and concord. that the same way adapted I persons should become both hosts and guests. duad. indeed. But as the duad is to the father to power. as by Auaxagoras and /eno but the final. contemplated by other philosophers. is not right in assert as subsisting in sensibles. the words I or ur ( )oi. sphere who looks to dmnity. Hence Socrates also which is there. gave.lt. Aristotle therefore. for it But the paradigmatic through the duad primary causes of wholes. and each is in likewise calls the other JMTSOHS of the dialogue to this. since it is the third from being as the medium. it i neceuary to rcail rcxr/runy. fN it makes its commencement from an. and from three Cods.gt. but the latter participate of the former. and the producing cau. to the thing proposed. so that it is requisite to begin from these. subsistence to all mundane natures. participated numbers. so is life. From these things also. triad. nnrnl&amp. both that nre physical.

dapted to the Gods. For they proceed together with the liberated Gods to the banquet and delicate food. imitating in this respect the Grids. was in conjunction with the great Jupiter. For Gods arc to each other not unknown. Farther still. Socrates: for he would not be absent from such an association as the willingly present. . The present Iliad iv. that a reciprocation of banqueting subsists primarily in the Gods. that friends should make fit have done any thing 1 Is Another thing also is involuntary.] TiMJEUS OF PLATO. l&amp. Socrates thinks should subsist analogously with them. infirmity of this kind on body. that the Gods communicate with each other in intellectual or providential energies in the works which they effect in the universe. &quot. They also know and intellectually perceive each other. For thus we hear from poets inspired by Phoebus. and that it is requisite to think that every thing of depends circumstances and delineated. their own proper intellectual conceptions. : therefore. intelligible is But the intellective. and especially to the mun dane Gods. that what is apposite that this is the one cause with wise men of is delineated in these relinquishing such like associa tions.gt.TiM. 15 feasting and banquet. divine natures filling and filled by each other. according to the Chaldaean oracle is nutriment to that which all which it is evident. impart to each other in unenvying abundance.&quot. which is contrary to common opinion. when they appear to rightly. in their mutual participa tions of divine conceptions. And it is not at all wonderful that Tima-us should feast others. communications and partici pations of powers are celebrated by theologists. From A certain infirmity has befallen him. 2 ttq. as Socrates says in the Pha-drus and the feasting on the nati These things vity of Venus. And \vhilc they drink.BOOK i.eing In golden cups ihe Cods each other pledge. their eyes arc lix d on Troy. And of men. arc words p. those that are more wise. apologies for friends. and be feasted by them. The words : philosopher Porphyry says. viz.

tint those who are exer divine lamblichus speaking loftily on these words. Aristoclc* .llit bi-giiiiiiu^ of tinil 1 For \&amp.is physical. says are nnadapted to the discussion of sensible*. but the latter. and the necessity of one being absent . logue which bears his name. in a more posed scope&quot. that those \\lin are nurtured in as also Socrates himself says in the Hepnblie. who before the of So. .Platonic absent person was Clitophon for in the dia Ptolomy however. but the other. that cxery thing physical way.!. lo rend ^pjKars lo nit lo be necessary E\un k ok. in a more manner. ncy of power. one what is said to the \iitn. have their eyes pure splendor.-ney than the present theory.: the conclusions of the philosophers about these particulars.trlli-il-les were to ]. thus also imbecillity who is of power.truov lu-rt. thai of intelligible*. lorph\r\. interprets e\ery thing physiology.gt. 7lh book of the Ilepublic. n-ferrmg should accord with the pro For it necessary. are but the dialogui. we are now absent absent person was to Soeiales. Such therefore. According to lambliclnis therefore. And nearly with respect to very thing [in this dialog.. truth.gt..] prior considered.-. Hut DCICN Hides is of opinion that it was Plato: for he was absent through illness. i. tales. but he would ha\e been willingl) piVM-nt. darkened when they descend into the cavern. cised in the sur\cy of intelligible*. according to which he surpass infirmity. lamblichus. brcume known Klean stranger. [BOOK i. as an impediment to exhibiting the former as mild and friendly I5ut the to the life of a lover of learning. was known to those who came For tlnix out of the Kleatic ill. infer*. tion those who labour to enncr. and not ethical. indicating the manners of Tima-us.. the person scendency wanting. is tran power. to the latter. political of these. if il. because.gt.1(J PROCLUS ON THE therefore. is discus absent in consequence of being incommensurate to physical t&amp. be a transcend.&amp. school.e. just us it likewise happens to those who through the obscurity which to the light. and because informed elsewhere] that he was illness. w hat is (here and to the Hut atbuiltiiig that in he had been long before known common between Tima-us and him? : Tin. Thea-t. as king adapted to the fourth this cause therefore. 1 Set. that this fourth person lie For I omit to men wa&amp. with respect to things of a secondary nature.-tos.T nmtemplatii. through their inability to look directly is wanting.lt. words comprehend both those. should For as the power of the wicked. &quot.lh he is said to ha\e been that the on account of Theielrtiis. thinks that the he is not thought desening of an answer by Socrates. i&amp.. is rather imput. ascend from the cavern.n.a\e been sions. a little Hence . is there.lt. * Through person Uo necessary that this his It is anoth..

that these men neither investigate what is worthy of All of them. that the absent person appears to have been one of those strangers [or guests] that were with Timceus. (he (mirth person IH auditors are three. And by so much the more is the number of auditors con where that which is discussed is a monad. nor assert any thing that can be depended on. For Clitophon when Socrates narrates what Clitophon said the day before. the yet is not liberated from opposition. since What. is perfectly absurd. and Timacus apologizes for him. Hence in the former discussion of a polity during the conference in the But in Pirn-US.] TIM. C . but pure. and the definite is extended into multitude.TUS OF PLATO. as I have said. since it is well observed by those prior to us. does not ill accord with the times. as it proceeds. possessing similitude and sameness .BOOK i. and which is nothing to the is the object of their search. and shows that his absence was neces in the Piraeus . more mystic and arcane. wise. those who receive the nar in the present conference. ancient interpreters.gt. I. I be words orow &. nnd those who had names were nix. and alliance to the monad. At another time. plicated with the even. Plat. our preceptor [Syrianus] has decided on this subject. of a slippery nature. But the discussion in the Tima-us becomes. sary. the auditors have the indefinite. and dialectic contests. 17 These. however. during the conference except that thus much is rightly signified by Atticus. which t ration iii i four in tin: wanting. And at another time the discussion auditors are four in numl&amp. as a friend. the tetrad through its tetragonic nature. however. And thus much for what is said by the more narrated by us. For was on account of is illness. tracted. . that in proportion as the auditions are about things of a more venerable and elevated nature. in such proportion the multitude of hearers is diminished. but through the nature of the even. the discussion is narrative. But at one time. must be it is remarkably conformable to the mind of Plato. VOL. For every it is accompanied with contention on which account also. thi hearers were many. For of these. but the latter when Socrates was dead. And by how much the discussion is more in mimlx r. narrated by Socrates. he was not present on the preceding day. Hence Socrates asks Timaeus where that fourth person was . and contrary to his will. He says. in which /he odd is com and more intellectual. attempt a thing which is when Socrates purpose. even to say that it if we should discover that which either Theactetus or Plato. the former said to have been when I3ut to say it was Socrates was judged.er . possessing difference and multitude. 1 It U necessary to supply in this place. I omit . died. like investigation. tin 1 MTond 1 ronl ivnrr. Hence also. therefore. Tun. therefore.

Why.bsent in such a willingly from this conference. exempt from all agonistic doctrine. but leads us to the Hence also Tima-us says. if an auditor of discussions about a as are more venerable. but as unable to be initiated in It is greater speculations. others are enunciative. the auditors should likewise Pythagoric. and others are in a certain . yet are not perfectly liberated from it. Hence. not conformable to our will. that this fourth person infinity of vice. therefore. is greater possesses not entirely a partaker also of the more perfect virtues. polity. separates us from more elevated con which case the involuntary also takes place. was absent not way For he was not . possible. Moreover. thus also of discussions. of auditors anil others gies commensurate to more elevated auditions. he who has the likewise the less. as are of a more groveling nature. should not be admitted to hear the discussion about the universe? is it Or rather. to an auditor of disquisitions be also an auditor of discussions about a therefore. in iM iietits more divine conceptions. who assigns infirmity superficial dogmas. about the fabrication of the world. am! measure the hostility of these parts but others separate indeed from this hostility. as to be perfectly abhorrent from the theory. is the first odd number. IK. And the auditors indeed of grander subjects. and others are entirely separated from it. and to the lives that subsist between these. Some-. but he \\ho is adorned with the inferior. and is perfect. or rather it is itself not voluntary. the theory being unfolded enunciatively. media between both. but those who are are unable to understand such naturally adapted to subjects of less importance. for . is involuntary. to define different measures not to the more profound homacoion [or common auditory of of more profound. absence of this fourth person ? For the imbecility of the soul as the cause of the of auditions? For of those who came witli resjH ct to ferences. and narratively. For as of the virtues. the triad is adapted to the recipients of it. . the falling off \\hich not only separates us from greater goods. is it any longer wonderful. some of them subsist in souls the parts of which are in a state of hostility to each other.18 is PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. being adapted to intellectual tran but others to doxastic ener to the intellectual energy of the soul quillity. not necessary that in fewer in number? Is it disquisitions. Thus also with respect to the \irtues. some indeed are agonistic. but others of more the Pythagoreans] some were partakers Does not this also accord with Plato. since this number is in every respect connascent with the monad. but others to such likewise. For every thing which is us in a less degree. But the falling off But from more perfect good is involuntary. some are respect .. are also capable of attending to such as are subordinate. indeed.

This also accords with what we have causal and divine.BOOK polity. and all the that which is For apirrwi here.gt. He the father of Critobulus. should through transcendency of power. quantity is power transcends. hut being inferior to all the rest. to up the part of this absent said. since of those that were present. And this also the triad is For in natures which are more always contracted. Thus in the Pha-do. those that were present.s accustomed to do not think him deserving of also mentions indefinitely. that one \vho is adapted to receive political discourses. therefore. cility both of those that descend from the intelligible. from the speculation of sensible^. ^ar ijr . but the inferiority of him to the others. seems to signify. sufficiently pin to us the difference between him and those that were present. was absent tin And it ough indigence. and likewise very many An auditor therefore of this kind would in vain 1 have been present at these discussions . it it And in short. he a name. com pany present. who was absent from the this in discussion of the subjects that were then considered . through his speak. This fourth person. i. others. that the imbecility was not the incommensuration of the For let there be an imbe and of those that ascend others to him. not his being His being anony from and circumscrilwd by exempt to transcendency. Critias indeed himself says something. therefore.gt. ond that of the person. but Hermocrates inability to is silently present. the tetrad than the decad. but is a dogma of the Pythagoreans. or *a/xyrcr r.&quot. through transcendency of power. 19 But it is among the nnml&amp. and multitude diminished. such as Socrates relates in the Republic. It your business. therefore. that the words has befallen him.er of things impossible. X. it appear* to me to be D*C*- ry to read 9 rmovrot arpoari}i ovr. hut the indefiniteness and inferiority of his habit. than those posterior to the decad. with whom more venerable than the tetrad. and not as some say. is Plato. Initead of o Jr| * roiovroi arprnirqi. omit to be present at auditions about the universe.] TIMJEL S OF PLATO.&quot. who in that dialogue answered badly. with represent sics. di tiering only from him who is absent in a greater aptitude to hear. do&amp. cannot through a tran to those that are present. ow ptiTijv neccswry to read aopivrwt. It &quot. yet he \\ho becomes an auditor of political discussions. roil Xoyoii. be absent from the theory of likewise appears to me. and not with respect mous also. Soc. scendency unknown respect to discussions. many places. numbers 1 within. must be said. is &quot. fill O Timacus.

Since. that though generated fall short of the nature of truly- yet a certain this. Hence .gt. !x&amp. the ethical doctrine contained in these words is this. For these things may be referred to divine causes. that which is more monadic. as we have before observed. are conformable to what has l&amp. and this the filling up the part of the absent person manifests. And conversant with nature.Socrates very properly makes a diminution of number to be a symbol of superior perfection.gt. first of the [demiurgic] triad is united to the primary monad. both in words and deeds. having supposed that the anonymous person was superior to those that were present. by tilling up their deficiency. the productive energy of the monad. has a more primordial nature. indeed. to leave nothing l&amp. that Socrates indicates by these words. conformably to the image of demiurgic Cods. and was a lover of the contemplation of intelligible?. which antecedently comprehends according to power all secondary natures. similitude is conformably to the theory which divulsed from these beings. is more excellent and more powerful than tilings which are more separated from tlieir cause. and how he is extended to him. 1 For ro t-wK here. But according to Por therefore. how he exempts Timii us from the rest. of our And we shall endeavour to the utmost Entirely so.elonging to such an employment ability. was multitude. and tills up their deficiency. says. If.gt.eeii phyry. existing beings. that friends ought to endure all things for each other. Socrates. lamblichus. as to the dispensator of the whole lie conjoins. in which the discussion. These things. however.gt. the principle is a monad. however. it would requisite that what is more should he more primordial and powerful than what is less so. as l&amp. participates in a is certain respect of the science of intelligible*. nearer to the principle.eing inferior to him in desert. l&amp. but excites the energies of the rest to fabrication. Socrates is the summit of this triad of auditors. these are the peculiarities of pure and genuine friendship. and from the principle the principle of things is imparted to other things. therefore.gt. since all power is antecedently comprehended in the principle.efore said. It also calls forth. &quot. But that which is more primordial is more powerful . and to supply their For wants. it is worth uhile to observe. and he conjoins himself to the monad that disposes the conference. and extends the other parts of the triad to it. But since. and cans them to be unindigent.20 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i.TiM. it is necessary to read . howe\er. multitudinous. the other auditors to himself.

But the entire. of himself. by whom tec were yesterday the universe. 2. the expression. and contribute to the one harmony of Likewise. Flic manners of Thrums are indicated by these words &quot. who were yesterday entertained by you. indicate his promptitude respecting the absent For the words Entirely to so&quot.lt. scendency of goodness perfect each other. Nor For a reciprocation of feasting. which he is readily dis person. different energies operating at different times on different subjects. and the For a^&amp.] TIM^EL S OF PLATO. that the demiurgic cause proceeds through. 1 comprehends this also is seen in wholes. therefore. through All these likewise. these words. return the hospitality. and the perfection of the science according to to fill up what is wanting in others.lt. and his modesty in speaking view.return the hospitality to you. We shall endeavour to the utmost of our ability.m. &quot. Such. T. to feast. that the energies of nature are changed according to For to time. and cuts off every deficiency through his own power. sufficiently present his firmness in the fulfilment of his promises. entertained in such a is manner as guests ought to be received&quot. conveys an imago of the communion and compensation of powers. and the all-perfect.BOOK i. becomes the retribution of own consummate aptitude. to our nothing belonging to tuc/i an employment unaccomplished&quot. . lific For he More characterised by the super-plenary. are similar. friendly and philanthropic. is divine fables.?rtaru hre. it U ncetry to read araf n-ia&amp. are the ethical indications that may be surveyed in But the physical indications are these. that the remuneration of discussion. &quot. and the communication of perfection. that we. the sufficient. is derived from the banqueting in over. For it 21 unaccomplished. and his pro abundance. . would not be just. being filled with nectar from the mighty Jupiter.&quot. in such a manner as guests ought to be received. are conjoined with the former. through winch all tilings are co-ordinated. elevated and elegant. to leave sincerity. and completely perfect plenitude of banqueting. for they are shown be superb and modest. these indications the words. but to return the hospitality (or to feast in return}. That which indicated is this. should not return the hospitality with readiness and delight. and they also indicate his genuine posed But the words. according to which the (Jods pledge each other: In golden goblets they each other pledge. Iliad IV. and theologically fills all things. is it simply said. their For the visible orders of things call forth invisible latter through tran powers. according to which he leaves nothing destitute of himself.

it is *aid. the Justice which arranges all things in conjunction with conveyB an image of But the becoming [or in such a manner as guests ought to be received] is Jupiter. And with reference to tin: order. same month. The next to this pertains to the that up the part of him who is absent. And the to do all an image liarities. energies. knowledge all in the participations of discourse. is of the 2Wh of June. in the Demiurgus the recollection of read For t/joaifo^n a place. other. thus to the one and transcendent providential attention of the powers. But these are in continuity with each the accuracy requisite to understand exhibit distributed For the words &quot. of the cause which illuminates wholes with demiurgic beauty. the Republic. For that the Bendidian festival was celebrated in the Pira-us on the lUh of April. therefore. these things. manner of an image. [BOOK i. it For the greater were celebrated on the Panathena-a. since the one is supposed but the other on the following day of the fes festival in the Pira-us. is acknowledged by those the Timutus must be supposed to have taken place on the who have follows. Do yuu For in tin* remcmhcr&quot. as will be observed in what this taken place during the Panathena-an festival. I ^oaio/iOn.42 calling forth. energizing conformably to his proper philosophy. the magnitude which I proposed to you to explain Do r&quot. which presents itself to the to the dialogue. Demiurgus view exercise to the theory of things. tilings and quality of the you remember. From Bendidian tival. In the first place. that is concerning is to the order of the heads of what is requisite to attend multitude ot those that form the conference. in the introduction 1 after tin- these things likewise. And the third which is now added. the times of the dialogues. of the words. Soc. according to &quot. and it is respects the explication of the thin-s proposed to be discussed. an image of the variety which is defined according to divine pecu For each of the divine natures possesses appropriate powers and As therefor* Socrates feasted Timanjs with the discourses of his own is also each of the Gods. of which. the narration of those whom we have jiM mentioned. and the to have taken place during the Tima-us. PROCLUS ON THE Farther still. written concerning festivals. term guests. . contributes And these particulars are vxhibited as an to the whole of things. so that But if. the filling the leader. supposed to have dialogue is evident that this was the les* 2()tl. accompanied with justice. are manifest .

. but such as I have forgotten. [or productive principles] possess an immutable and an immoveable nature. however. fall ofl from their proper causes. that they afford a pretext for the summary repetition of the problems: for to do this is recollects the province of dialectic. thiti^s. &quot. Some things indeed. which proceed indeed from the total fabrication.&quot. TIM. 1 such &quot. and partly lost. and not others. and uniform knowledge. And with respect to the words aVmVi / terms &quot. let us survey the answer of Timsus. ethical in these words. sical The productive principles For what present remembrance [of Tiimrus] is partly preserved. that the one fabrication [which is that of the Demiurgus] pos sesses indeed from itself. but if also to Timnrus. [in Socrates]. I do you recall ir.gt. That which is logical in them is. For pin here. but that he Rome things. it you proposed is evident how they are to be referred to things. as Porphyry say?. as is the case \\ith partial souls. according to the Mnemo which he contains. are indicative of the quantity and quality of the productive principles. physical indication of the words is this. is a subordinate intellection of both which the things . it is necessary to read 0*0. nor that he recollects nothing . and are always refluxive.to my memory. these powers attending the tumult of generated natures. Through this memory likewise. that this fabrication is such. and the natures of things that are generated.HOOK i. and which is the firm establishment of divine syne intelligence. That which tint they are a is recollect . And the theologi by cal indication is. 23 is a separate. just as the the immutable is and nndefiled sustained as it in its generations . And this in the secondary Gods. whole souls are established in intelligibles. arid Hermocrates. repress proceeds. they were addressed to Critias dency but of an evocation of the intellectual conceptions of Timaeus. you will find to l&amp. they are not a symbol of transcen to to if explain&quot. in the universe. But the and about \chich&quot. but through secondary and separate third powers. so that such beings as are deprived of it. this. exempt. &quot. and is in itself and running as it were before it guards. For Timscns does not say that he recollects every thing. that phy always remain. is said the man must be transferred to the whole of nature. Or rather. it as .] TIM. and to the principles of the fabri cation of the world .e medium between irony and arrogance.El S OF PLATO. and the pre-exists demiurgic rea sons. which present persons are images. and also proceed from more partial Gods. Besides these things.

It is l&amp. all the persons. who is the nar therefore. the account of sophistical contests . Uut this motion the circular motion of the heavens. through the same manner through intellect which connectedly con subsists always after It is very properly. forms permanently remain recalling their efllux and their destruction. it i necessary to rend cuporirn. comprehends But Socrates in the Republic. rator of the polity.gt. Socrates that recalls into the memory the discussions. preceded but the third was [j&amp. paradigms indeed comprehend all but the things which proceed from them.gt. return to that in the [first] narration of a polity. nor the promises. of which the celestial is the paradigm. brings with it an image of the renovation of still. mains never-failing. have not strength Mifliples of images. Or rather. o?er the subjects of its government. is the reason adds both these? ther makes mention of the persons. first description of it was truly diffi second was easier than that which . is cir universe. revolution same form . fashions only being arranged analogous to the summit 1 For oirXorfjrt here. thus also in the third. You may also may be surveyed more perfectly in as say theologically. Through this cause likewise. and the discussions themselves. and the circular return to the in the world. he commemorates those the productive princi wholes. Socrates nei What. Farther through placing secondary powers the the memory. run over the whole in a that it may be more firmly establish The polity cult on the [of Socrates] being triple. in the second cient to comprehend all the power of their causes. . therefore. trouble. tains and adorns &quot. ed in our memory. but here the first con is made of the persons that were in description of a polity. of the triple fabrication. the recalling into For that which is eflluxive in them. it. if it be not too much cursory manner from the beginning. by intellectual powers. all its circulation. from which also. howe\er. mention that were ference in the Pir. through the regeneration The recapitulation however of it pertains to physical which is in them. in the productive principles and the similar.&quot. vens are perpetually moved. the promises. things. and evolving many periods. the hea the same life.eus.24 PROCLUS ON THE [BOO* i. For effects more superior causes. AH.ecause in passed over their in silence in the first. being established analogous to the total fabrication. that Tirna-us.erfectly] easy containing in itself contractedly every species of a polity. And the order of generation re cularly recalled to the same.

and if this signifies &quot. prior to cation of the whole of theology. it is requisite to introduce the whole science of the Here.eak intellect.gt. Soc. form being celestial. as in on* 1 all-per- fert animal. thai proper energies.gt.ai. run over the whole&quot.c nettswry to add the words. through manifest the jirojto. Some.tx scientific Joclrine. ap^ar* lo mr to l&amp. &amp.in s|&amp.gt.o^(Ta tlierefore. after the excitation of the intellection and the purification of its eye.gt. Plat.tr. of a more to be more established. considering the resumption of say that it a polity in a more ethical point of view. \\/. that For firm which is more you are willing so to sjM-ak. me to be the best. And to begin : the sum of what was to said by me and yesterday is this. that those in their who apply themselves to the. For it 1 \c&amp. tilings first. all things an.lt. we must read TOV a\eyor. to rentier twits and images respecting them.f. afford an admirable indication of an elevation to the highest end.gt. and in subsisting according to desires to perceive itself intellectually. is evidently drfcelirr. eternal intelligence.gt.l TIM/EL S OF PLATO. requisite to roaJ rai 1 For ai T*II ^i^r)t. brings with it an image of a life conspiring to one which comprehends all things through an intelligible essence.&quot.lt. indicates to us. as an indi usual rril/i the riflliagorcan.V&amp./ For of the soul. Here.sed ohjccts the arcane indication anil qflcr this. it i rt| vivxi - * * For TOV XoynK hero. to added.. nil the evolution of wholes. lint others think that is placed liefore us as an image of the orderly distribution of the universe. therefore.aiv wi titnvn tliK. agrwably i.&quot. xiniiltenquiry.c original 01 fr at. and governs it in a Incoming manner. tliis &amp.gt. to introduce through symbols &amp. and last. In tl&amp. thus. And the third ascending to its causes. lint the second being that which is con verted to itself. in rrjt rou Tfu-roi ^lakoaft. And others.&amp. the concise narrathings which are the subjects of discussion. ami Hut how. its &quot.gt. .H w trltit. ]&amp.: t the form of a polity. \Vhut kind of polity appeared of what sort of men such a polity ought to consist.lt.gt. of perfection. and through what cause is a polity nar life rated the third time? I* because the also of the soul is triple? The first indeed. being that which represses and adorns the irrational part hy justice. in consequence of its own justice.&amp. Tim.gt.- y. it comprehended. VOL. theory of wholes. to the above translation.e words also &quot. Hut the latter part. and establishing &quot. The them l&amp. therefore. .gt.^tut TpfliyiffBai riji n^tramn it fc/&amp. middle. and to possess and more eternal about the same things. ic After irf&amp. Let it be so.in\. it ought to be adorned manners. To which may a curfory manner.

ironically places us in the fabrication of the For it universe. who op each other about a certain punctuation. very properly takes place. hut differently in different places. For the discourse concerning For it rightly dis The discourse. And the same thing is indeed justice in to separate. That in the present discussion. for this the and gracefulness in the world. Other s again. And thus much 1 By au unaccountable mistake 11 &amp. prior to physiology. there it is concerning a polity. are eapable of being the text. about a polity. therefore. define the scope of it to be conformable to the inscription. a witness that v/u/t was suit/. it polity. triple. a polity in a city. For the political sci ence subsists primarily in the Demiurgus of the universe. according to the diticrcnt modes of tin.- iiutedd of toa^o* in this (dace. as we may learn in tinAnd true virtue shines forth in this sensible world. same thing. making a stop at the words evince that the scope of it is about justice and that Socrates has a certain summary of what was said about justice. the form of this is very properly deli ther still. Ix-t farther discussed. PKOCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. For some.lt. which is concerning a gi\en If.&amp. which l. No that the phy things through symbols. Nor is it fit from par each other. as we have elsewhere shown. Hut in these.gt. siologic character pervades through the whole of the dialogue. And thus much coneerning the scojx&amp.lt. us however return to survey the whole Demiurgus.gt. hut (lie history of the Atlantic s accomplishes this is symbolically. IJotb. vered here contructedly. may iiia-iis sa\s. ticular.2&amp. llic original has lwpar&amp.gt. . of the proposed words. where rating and adorning still it is proposed to the. making a stop at the word polity. and adduce Plato as crates. is that both concur with each other. universe. is a discussion of the justice which subsists in multitude. things which are conjoined by nature.i&amp. Far the polity of Socrates beinj. likewise. doctrine which is deli usual with fables to indicate many vered. to this differently pose explain the scope of the discussion. tion of a polity. it is requisite not to trifle in asserting and contradicting. poses the communion of the powers that we contain. the summary repetition of a polity be multifariously inferred. and w ith reference. must he said justice. that the world is known and is friendly to itself through \irtue. however. and the words of So- is much contention among the interpreters. Hence also TiProtagoras.gt. gene therefore.ur tta luiL - .il- Irr vulrnlU the l. and the first being referred to the total fabrication. These things. however. jx-rtain to the foul. which is a disquisition of the polity within the soul.

j TIME S OF PLATO. We however is divulse the one polity polity say in answer to snch-like assertions. because it is an properly ethical world. Socrates. and immaterially. arranged incorporeally. The world also is a certain polity. For in the latter. For so cerns. it is superior to. the polity is seen living physically. and is desirous of adorning these. polity possesses the physical in the mercenaries. far as it it has for its matter human con and more and is has an order secondary to. and subsists in the last lives. itself. but if it is inferior to it. And what was said. tains to the polity. or the middle polity. But so far as it subsists in universal reasonings. that it nor to separate tin. And how not proper to contend about these tilings. politi about wliat kind of . the polity pre but esisls in the heavens.BOOK i. A narration conformable to intellect. and the So that the discussion about the whole polity. and co-augmenting itself by more perfect additions. Since. through the above-mentioned causes. in these words whether aliout the first. because every exists indeed in the intelligible. and is impressed in a partial matter.&quot. that what is hero said per because Socrates calls the assistants guardians. and intellectually. middle dians.gt. and a partial polity [with reference to the intelligible world]. and more total than physiology.no\vytai. however. but neither conformable to pleasure. So that if it is superior to physical fabrication. the warlike in the intellectual in the guardians. And both are true. hence also Socrates employs the words what kind for the sake of the form. was in the opinion of all of us very conformable to intellect.lt. continuity of life from 1 is not proper to . cally. 27 Longinus however and Origen contend with each other from another principle. body is partial.v&amp.f&amp. but the words of what &quot. . sort of men on account of the matter. In short. nor Here also the original has erroneously OeoXoyiai inttcad of &amp. partial than physiology. but rather the polity may very properly be said to be both subordinate it is 1 and superior to physiology. For the one. perfecting itsrlf.lt. it was very discussed prior to the Titmcus. For in this Socrates delivers disciplines to the guar respects the first polity. to. is But the whole auxiliaries. as we hive said. to consider this. jiolity Socrates speaks. we arc very properly re place in human quired to recur from things subordinate to such as are of a more venerable nature. and But Origen is of opinion that what is said says that the guardians are warriors. but the other is mundane and all-perfect. the form of the polity is universal.TiM. Longinus therefore thinks.

mortal natures remain mortal never-failing . the mercenary. what is said about the division of the genera. which procures the necessities of the body. points out to us. and betook themselves from images to paradigms which likewise is now in a prefatory man of the mundane fabrication. unfolds the transcendent all union. it obscurely signifies the concordant congress of united fabrication. and one The word ffj/ too.gt.erfection [BOOK i. who images which arc now mentioned [to their paradigms]. . through which all demiurgic causes converge as paternal cause of all things. separate husbandmen and other artificers from the belligerent genus? discourse about a polity.sary. the demiurgic division in the world. and the latter to generation. whose ollice is to CX|M-| vv hatever is injurious to the animal. who investigated the similitudes of Ix-ings from analogies. therefore. to one centre. indicates the admirable ture of the discussion [contained in it]. and to divide into yon are willing to arrange tin? whole city analogous to must not be said that man is a microcosm. secondary causes about one intellect. . according to a division of it into three logy is perfectly appropriate. and one &quot. and the di. the military. and in the first For this section of genera. and to assimilate the former to the heavens. i:ito . you may assume in the city. you will find that the ana Likewise. For since it if it the whole world not. In every nmlti- . in the first place. and gives us to survey in human lives those things which take place in (lie universe. iiiniiort. goreans. and a city two parts. contributes to the whole narration The a possible from these as images to recur to remarkable decree adopted by the ]*\thawholes.According to which. and the conglomerated and concise repetition. in summary way. It is neces. which is added.gll 1MIOCLUS ON THE j&amp. Did we not then. the upper city and the lower. place. nor mortal bodies to leave their own an incorporeal hvpostasis. Soc. that we also should ner effected by Plato. and the rational part. and is also ministrant to our ruling power. parts. For it is This very thing also was in a . und intellectual na And prior to this. and migrate sisting in wholes. and the guardian : but in the soul. of the genera contained in it. according to which incorporeal na imitates refer the. li rent orders of them have paradigmatic causes pre-subessence. the irascible part. the epithxmetic part.il natures eternally continue to be also. the decision of the vulgar. which is essentially philosophic and has a regal authority over the whole of our life. tures are not able to pass into the nature of bodies. For tin* polities of worthy men are assimilated to the celestial order.

is analogous to Hermes.c cause. but the former. the latter by Just as also among the Greeks. is that w hich performs the i p. he comprehends the Ixmginus says.lt. and the dhersity of the. of the celestial Gods. that Plato &amp. ITS or IM. that which is agricultural and that which pertains to the arts.ATO.s one genus. and of form with matter. Ajax indeed as being the barrier of the Greeks.Mars. as another but Ix-cause through the word belligerent. that (io&amp. former war with their hands. which occur* here by a strange mistake. is analogous to the Sun. who is the guardian of the Greeks . the agricultural tribe of the city which comprehends the sacred laws of nature. ruling prudence.gt.Moon. is analogous to Jupiter. the cause i of generation. with to theolo^ists. These tilings. That which providentially attends to levant allotments. according reside. analogous to the .HOOK i ] TIM. Plato. for they are truly the the relestial (iods . is which and also on account of the fraud which they contain. That which is royal. but lights. God that is the guardian. according to another division. order of and saviours of the whole of guardians Ami airain. repelling the enemy by his counsels . analogous to the order proceeding from .gt. obviously ncccssiry to read . and of the union of the male with the female. therefore. the whom. now For TO fai/ior 6vXof * in this place. may assumed through analogies. lint disciplinative and judicial in the city. who is the supplier of universe. ascends as far as to the to Saturn. and Nestor likewise fights. to \ enus. ininistranl I the anrl that which elrvated to In- intelligible.lt.lt. and to have established a. are. as belligerent.h is 2f&amp.ective guardian of the all common marriages.gt. appears to have divided the city into two parts. daemons precede as in a solemn procession the fabrication things.clligercnt. and the. in short. the latter as a defender.. however.irl of a mercenary about generation. it Unless it should be said. howe\er. and thus l&amp.v\ov. . their counsels. not that he now recapitulates the military polity. the. by employing his hands. first an intellectual God. which is called demiurgic but that which is . Farther still. But the ins|&amp.]s. and suppress nil the confusion and disorder in the world. there are. mundane is Dice. For of these. auxiliaries and the guardians. is and of the practical and adorning so far as he intellect. the clcmtor and the si i tn-foltl And that which is l&amp. which gene rates and comprehends them conformably to a divine intellect. which governs all the contrarieties of the world. is neceary to read TO latftotw it it For ycwpyurjj. there \\l. on account of the lots of which the is who the cause of &amp. the trilw of mortals. is analo gous harmony. tilde of souls. the tribe of da-mons. There is likewise a certain physical providence of mortal natures.gt. is But that which is analogous philosophic.f. mundane providence of the lint in all mundane natures.

and had prescribed one employment only to each of the arts. poihlc for him who engages in many works. and through the bodies of these i-ouls. is from both.gt. In the &quot. The end. must be enquired through what &quot. The words fiutrrij Tf* are omitted in the Icxt of Proclus. but that each is all nil things.30 PROCLUS ON THE l&amp. it is easy proper work. this In. in consequence of his ardor In-ing Hence in this case. wishes to narrate the &quot. them. in one employment conformable to nature to each prescril&amp. had preseriltf d to each to pursue an employment conformable to nature.ecause [BOOK lie i. or to one employment should be assigned to each of the citizens. and possesses the cause of one after a Solar. peculiarly makes mention of the military tribe. \Yhen we &quot. able to accomplish with rectitude nor can dexterity without diligent attention proceed into any tiling perfect.Socrates makes such a division. attention and pursues perform it in a becoming manner conformably his to nature. or that each employment is rightly pursued by Jinn vho is on what account he says. In the next it place. Hut how is this true for our nature is partible. proceeds through Hence of these.&quot. liarity originating from the divine unities.gt. first place. . there is a two-fold reading of these words. therefore. For a divine nature is all-powerful and all-perfect. will.&quot.the case. For neither to it. things according to the peculiarity of himself. however. For it either is And when we had of the citizens. with respect to the (Jods ? Or may we not say that with the Cods all tilings are in all of them. kind . citi/ens must necessarily appear to be of a viler nature. But if this is not right.should be ordered to extend all his care and it is distributed is adapted. we likewise assigned to the military tribe one province only. And when we 1 liac! assigned to every one that which is accom modated to his nature. If. is diligent attention. through divine souls. Soc. therefore.&quot. to which he to whom and he . but another after a Mercurial manner ? For pecu intellectual essences. For lie who is properly adapted to this particular life. in the best way to survey a division of this In human polities. eaiiM. it is likelv. and vho in a becoming manner engages in it? naturally adapted when deprived of aptitude. \vhich is adapted to each according to the present aptitude of his nature. it is not energy. to IM- similarly adapted to all of pay attention similarly to all. to one tiling.ed order that each might perform his proper work. the pursuits of the divided about a multitude of things. or. \\urlike actions of a polity of this kind.

lt. parts. and in another the guardians. as being naturally friends. interval pre-exists. mean tect it that they ought to he only guardians of the city. thus also in the city.&quot. in different bodies. diminish him. and to behave with war like fierceness towards their enemies in battle. others of connective. body has a sympathy with this thing. as we have before observed. and entirely enclose him within narrow bounds that which is only the most excellent. we do not by this . others some of an angelic. through vthich the purity of intellects not confounded. and others of a dividing power. the to employments of the which he is citi/ens are divided. in one way the auxiliaries. others of prolific. there are ultimate representations of intelligi- bles.out generation. pre-cxistent. but yet in such a manner as to administer justice mildly to the subjects of their government. first cause that he is one alone. therefore. hut another sympathizes with something else. in this universe. 31 some participate of demiurgic. however. defining the unities according to the difference is infinity which is there. Tinurus clearly shows in What. but contenders against those that are out of it. therefore. impacting a di Heron t peculiar order to a diili-rent intellect. sous to pro from the hostile incursions both of external and internal enemies . every addition to a thing of this since neither is Hut on the con kind is a diminution . In divine natures themselves therefore peculiarity pre-exists. Hut in intellects. but of that. And thus much for such-like particulars. ami the di\ine. however. duad. it is requisite to consider how wy may survey what is now . In these words Plato is willing that the guardians and auxiliaries should be judges of those that act ill within the city. each thing acts according to nature upon that which it was arranged by the fabrication of things to act this And upon is .] TIM/El S OF PLATO. producing different powers another in these. And after this manner they energi/e al&amp. trary. diminished by In-iug so. Hut For in bodies.. is not a diminution of power. according to which this particular body is effective of this thing. according allotted a di\ine. To For when we assert of the be only guardians. which separates wholes and is- and distributes intellectual povtcrs. the works are of the I military tribe. others a da-moniacal.BOOK i. Again. and each arranged perform that for naturally adapted. life In souls progression soul&amp. yon diminish so that by asserting its excellence. not only of a thing which was such from the beginning. ami division them being pre-suhsist. A*. and others to a different in different a different hyparxis.gt. what follows : &quot.

lt. every eternal order remains. and cathartic powers about souls. indeed. are the accomplishes of justice.se are some are manifest that some of these About bodies. but others to auxiliaries. others which art moved confusedly and disorderly. l-e order that.. he infernal. nothing may indefinite or confused.se \\lio are short. hut immediately vanish into non-entity. that they are si-rer? to tho. being ava*Tay*vKno. For utTa-fVuoTt u licie. and external. too. hut others. likewise. friends . and to the immutable and invariable nature of the intellects. there are elevating In For they are such as cannot endure to behold them. but others to those that are Ix-lligerent. he adorns all things but through the immutable guard which is established in himself. that which is external in the universe can it !* said that the universe does not comprehend all things? vi/. he said to naturally adapted to the intelligible. Hence. and to belong !&amp. and that If. but others dissolving powers are analogous to guardians. For through the demiurgic.. are antagonists to the unstable nature of matter. you direct your attention to the Demiurgus himself of wholes. hostile to the city. and it is connective. are repressed by the justice 1 which prevails in the universe.gt. are in a certain resjn-et aliens.eing naturally home along in hodies in a confuted and disorderly manner. PKOCLUS ON TH1. all governing all disorder being entirely abolished. you will also have in the father [of the universe. all no longer able to remain in things may have an arrangement. . which divine poetry calls the guards of Jupiter. also. Hence he now says. as twing incommensurate towards them. But sustain ornament of this kind.&amp. pouers expand their some ofthe. hut are severe to those that are use the former mildly. in souls todies? And it is necessary that those who exterminate confusion and disorder from the universe. 1 that evil has a two-fold subsistence in the world. and as entirely abolishing their privation of order. said in wholes. as l&amp.] the pre-existent cause of these two-fold genera. and by the invincible 1 strength of the order of guardian powers. cannot amputating the ine. And : it is evident. they may to the extent of the intelligible universe. those strangers. being which he contains. it is necessary lo read . indeed. For what is [HOOK ? i.3 . things in conjunction with Jupiter. Awl how May we not and in reply.gt.eing material and remote from the (iotl&amp. and also inspective guardians of judgment and justice. should extend justice and measure to souls. hut should \v For some souls. who and For some things.gt. that analogous to guardians. on which account.vhaustilile avidity of matter. 1 You may also see there Justice For Justice follows him. things \\hich are in proper series. For these into the universe.

should say that in the former there are demoniacal and divine orders. liar and allied to producing causes . E . unically. may be understood as follows: The confused and disordered (lux of bodies. and reme and the remoteness of its diminution. Hut it is necessary that all things in order that they may be the father of eternal natures. which divides his one and total t-very . and should call both For the universe is of them the guardians of generation and the universe. I. the vhich is peculiarly called the guardian genus. Hence. as those assert who have These things. to it. and it is also guarded by daemons.gt. dies their imbecility. Plat. ail-variously subverting its confusion. against which nothing able to prevail. and totally. I think. and that these two-fold if names the differences of the orders contained in the city .gt. is a stranger to its adorning causes. multitudinously.s arranged. are fami another. but matter. vanquished by fortns through the demiurgic guard. indeed guarded by the Gods. at onetime arises from the impo tence of the reasons. that the Demiurgus may Soc. through the indefiniteness of itself. we shall written the wars of the Titans and Giants. renovates the reasons of matter. resists the it Gods who produced it Not that matter but vanquishes the avarice of matter.US OF PLATO. you may perceive the arranges the universe. however. and at [fir productive principles participated by bodies. which is called the mercenary. however. lie armed order with which hereafter discuss. For about in a manner more proximate to the natures that are guarded by them. Tor we asserted. is is Hies from ornament. external and infernal. Tim. imincible strength of the God-. however.] TIM. viz. just as the accord* with the third genus. and the irascible comprehend both the genera. th&quot. For epithymetic the upper from the lower city. By the former and exemptly but by the latter partially. VOL. the avenger of the divine law. that the souls of the guardians should be of such a nature.ediciit remain. but that because on account of its indctinitencss it. from the inexhaustible avidity of matter.F. just as some one having divided the world into heaven and generation. in |&amp. as at the same time to be both irascible and philoso so that they might be mild to their friends. God a multitude of daemons i.gt.&quot. The vtords.ecause Socrates distinguishes The philosophic auxiliary. in a remarkable decree phic .] Reasons. and &quot. and the immutable guard of fabrication. and severe to their enemies.i.erpetually the world should be ol&amp. he manifests by l&amp. 33 At the same time too.

according to the deii. the former giving remission it as it were elegant anger. therefore. its descent to a material nature. commensurate anger.gt. and so far as institutions of Ad rastia. But this discipline filled from thence with a privation of adorns reason through the mathematical sciences. and ho\v it is it assimilated to the universe ? For in the [Socratic] city. we shall speak rightly if we say. and all &quot. and rendering in consequence of its Ik-ing vehemently remiss. are to da-rnons. and so far as they are filled with being. &amp. and distributing powers appropriately to the recipients. assertions that have been already all made. communion. of the sacred they are the saviours of the divine laws. proceeding in a becoming manner from the beginning to the end. however. forgetful of the It is All \\liicli is evident to those \vlio are not entirely arrangement* in the Socratic republic. rightly adorning the irrational part to the strength ot gymnastic. differ extending to things. and what the disciplines are of the guardians ol the that education is IVrhaps.iurgic allotment. to even. Soc. . the life of the citi/ens education. The ence. c. but severe to those that are external [i. The term philosophic. gymnastic and imisic are in the universe. in music. but the latter exciting desire. and these causes. however. which ha\c something of an attractive nature. and divine defining employments adapted one. and them_] according to supreme transcendency. and elevate our intellectual part to that \\hicliisitsclfthe most splendid of being. through of children. \Yhat then is education. in an exempt manner. so far as they providence. now. our business to investigate. employments.vith and and through life. to the Gods.34 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. the perfection which fills each thing with the good pertaining to it. to nature. pertains But the united to the intelligible. other becoming disciplines? 1 &quot. and the procreation unfolded. they are mild to their Through familiars. are capable of exciting in us the recol lection of true In ing. then-fore. what education. is But in the present \\ords. But what did we assert concerning their education ? AVas it not that they should be instructed in gymnastic exercises. according to intellectual perceptions ami providential universe. and causes it to be sufficient to itself. so far as they exterminate all confusion from the irascible pertains universe. to those that are strangers as abolishing the indetinitenes* of their nature. are certain common types. aptly as being allied to them by applying a remedy to their imbecility. is through music and the discipline of the soul.

which are the paradigms of the celestial periods. is and shows that the in celestial motion is is gymnastic indeed them. lint medicine in things harmoniously elegant. but through prior to gymnastic. and intellectual figures. And. and impart to the celestial proceed supcrnally livs by illumination the most excellent harmony. and the latter renders di\inc motion rythmical and elegant. diune number. If. sublunary in conse quence of their receiving that which is preternatural. those who were so educated. they survey the primordial and intellectual You may likewise say. preside over things secondary with undeliled purity. things which are to be ordained in a city governed by the most equita and were mentioned by Socrates in the Republic. and through music. we shall. have an exideiit cause. &quot. We likewise established. that circulation. transfer Hut how can we them to the hcatei. ISut the disciplines which are in the universe. according to which they run back to the intelligible. that silver. and to their vehicles undecaying strength. For on this account. the truly-existing heaven.s? Must it not be by surveying through what cause the acquisition of gold and silver. Soc.gt. Hut with respect 35 to mu&amp. And if it is necessary to speak by making a division. that the most true arithmetic. perhaps speak rightly. and are united to the one cause of percehe nil the unities. and from what It is evident that it is conceptions they are induced to cherish this infinite love because they wish to supply their wants. that through such like disciplines they energi/. following the mighty Jupiter. they are stupidly astonished . we assert these For powers things. For they behold swiftness itself. harmonically contain the colligation of wholes. according to which they intellectually the whole of an intelligible essence. For through these thing* 1 lato elsewhere alls energies. therefore. from intelligibles to all heaven. and slowness itself. thai the former causes the harmonious. we may say. in short. and surveying number characteri/ed may Hence you by unity. as I have before observed. Those ble laws.e about first natures .ic and gymnastic. should neither consider gold. are the intellectual perceptions of souls. and the same immu table habit of the divine vehicles. nor similar kind. say. so as always to preserve the same form. and of celestial natures.&quot.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO.nooK i. and intellectual figure. these. they contain dialectic. as their nor any other possessions of a own private property. astronomy and geometry are in them. lives in the universe to be diune souls for Sirens. and desire to procure such things as ! men pursue may administer to their pleasures.

is now said. in a love to contemplate these things directing solar manner. But they not mine. and is converted to good. they are not in want of them . Why.30 about muclirbelwed wealth. many to Cephalus. For on this account there is much among them life. and each of the and from these are gene an ejjhuion thence derived. and not the celestial Cods who emit the etlluxions. lead to Saturn. For am as they produced them. apostatiz because they ing from the whole. it of the celestial Cods. since is sufficient to itself. nor does established reunite from all indigence and material necessity.that those who are so educated should neither cons id^. but there. derive their concretion from the ej]hi.M&amp. they should receive the wages of guardianship from those whom they defend and preserve . they should spend their stipend in com- . as their wv// private property If nor ami other possessions of a you are willing also. That besides this. are not the private. nor similar kind. are indeed from liarity not receive all. Nor do they subsist in them. the Cods . and iron to Mars.aid therefore. &quot. and is especially characterized common and impartible. Hut it pursues that which is does not admit partible and divided good. therefore. silver. here. as likewise other things. according to this. it has a leading and ruling order with and over. that gold pertains to the Sun. conformably these things thus subsist. the consolations. things. of mine and abandon the union ami communion of i! But that rather. but another to a dilleient their attention. utility. however. and extends to wholes. after the manner of auxiliaries.. and that their recompense should be as much as is sufficient for tempe rate men.gt. But they Hil. the same time a different pecu has dominion in a dilleivnt &amp.t in the earth. but being . is not at all in want of this adventitious and apparent or regard as its scope vulgar it look to convenience. grow from the celestial Cods. self-sufliciency.lt. For they do And all things there.ri&amp. If. replete it and the good. refer one material These therefore. but the common property of who power. Hence in rated from thence. the rich have perfection the beautiful PKOCLUS ON THE They [BOOK i. metals. here.lt. and are extended to a partial nature. it may is be said. Moon. for they an the progeny of all of them. to which those substance to this..More in the universe.gold. but the metals vhich the celestial Cods. in a Satin nian. silver to the It . that say. Hence it harmoni/es with what silver. but at any thing from material natures.li\ inity.uis of It is in a partible manner? therefore. that gold and in the earth. are these things earnestly pursued by men have a material life. &quot.

r. referring remunerations to conversions. how with us in common. such as the guardian. retributions of beneficence. he fills all secondary natures with ^ood. the nature which is in us. it i* obviously requisite la read aynfW. live 37 mon. remunerations or wages from which are |&amp. that the ? Gods cohabit and the acknowledgment of thanks. he we is are converted all to him. and equity.gt.gt. It is not at all wonderful (hat in human aims lives there it is should IK? donation and re tribution. X. in consequence of not possessing self-siilhciency.BOOK i. But in the world. and spend understand remuneration a remuneration of this kind It is Iwtter. If. If. be requisite that some persons in the city should be the saviours of it by it \\ill and prudence. therefore. in order that generation 1 * lirre to supply tlir word virrpwXtfptt. is for each of them to be suspend ed from a divine cause.] TIM^EUS OF PLATO. hence Socrates calls such like more physical way. thanks.crfcclcd by the heavens. and neglecting oilier pursuits should pay attention to virtue alone. just as tude. but that every God is suflicieiit to himself. however. sutlicient and uniudi^ent. but l&amp. yet at the same time lie requires cer tain remunerations from us. trood. this ri^ht. to For since ellluxions proceed from the heavens to the mortal place. that the mark at which lie well said by Socrates in the Re to render the whole city happy. through which For beini. the acknowledgment of greater jrood. but that others by minislraul aid and servi should supply the saviours of the polity with the necessaries of lite . and a reward of beneficence. For is public. and cohabiting with each other. For the preservation of the natures posterior to him.&quot.e not otie particular fjenus of it. and are tilled with desirous that things should look to him. however. what retribution can there I*-. but exhalations ascend thither. loilcad of ano rqi 0X91 in ibn place. and in con junction with the self suflicient is superfull? Hence through the union of superplenitude with self-sulliciency. . 1 mutations and transition* of terrestrial natures. and should remember that all things are from him and on account of him. their providential caro or what recompense can be made by mortals to the celestial Gods ? For may we not say that these are the peculiarities of human imbecility. t read air0 rij X^i rrji it is nrrrsinry after iy nvrn/uci For nynfW . and through these the fabrication of the ( Mills about mortal natures receives its completion. but re 1 ceives nothing from them. - Or it may be said. we interpret these things after this manner. sublunary matter. can in a it still further be inferred. as heini. yap or. that though divinity receives nothing. prepares milk for the energies adapted to it. by fashioning and preserving the orjran.

and generation that the vhole to which also Tima-ns looking says. therefor*. and a certain portion of it descends also to the world. Since. through which every thing that undergoes dance is variously changed through the harmonious consumed. [noox i. &quot. in the For virtue subsists first with the Gods. since the Gods are able the Gods themselves according both to save themselves and others. but themselves. that the cohabiting in common. they genera sui&amp. for all things with what is beautiful and good. in of effecting source &quot. .gt. and suffering nil its nutriment. and are occupied by the gout.-minrgus of wholes. perate and prudent tures. Soc. linn. and all things. . is defined by measure. of the celestial divinities is the vorUt is friendly and knmcn to itself through virtue. both the duties of war. afterwards from to man . however. But things which are the same in secies. and till them with the one father and D.guardians of us. that piety mutations own This measure. Of women such a manner asserted. Plato very properly thought that the virtues of men the male one. have likein species. with whom they should perform in common life. For they do not look to convenience. are within themselves. to the mutations O f the earth.conformably to this. however.gt. vi/. and the since he evinces that both have one human form. in For being tem ot to themselves. to divine prudence. but not female another. especially contain a we may say. being miiiistrant to.33 PROCUJS ON THE never fail.erior co-operating M\e measure &quot. they measure secondary na the their way simplicity comprehending then all-v arious Hut in another Tim-. then the end of this one and common lift- of the citizens ? Socrates says virtue. and the concordant providence of the celestial conspiration of a mutation from the earth is Gods. is the one divine fabrication.e said. They likewise are the saviours of ternals . on this account So men. life. nor to ex unoccupied by other pursuits. of consequence things from itself.&quot. themselves. may But it must l&amp. and that its corruption all tilings in. is What them. therefore what is said may be explained in this way. are also different For things which have a different jK-rfe^tion according to form. and a conversion to the Gods. not in so being converted to crates savs. and subsisting silt/intent in doing departing from. and whatever else belongs to the business ot and women are common. u recompense xuelt us is in what relates fur tunjnralf. that they should be educated in that their natures might be aptly conformed so as to be too we similar to those of men . are also Tin. divine virtue.

lt. the har monious conjunction of the male with the female. For in the Gods. 39 wise one and the same perfection. proceeds from the male. are common. Hence.US OF I LATO. this the female also can produce in a diminished degree. Hence. it is virtues as men. but in an inferior degree from the female. and to the order of the universe. is denied by others. thus and in a similar manner. Jupiter. both possible and advantageous for women to have the For possible.] TIMvF. because this. likewise. and from such particular disciplines. in the intellectual. the works of the male . though Plato has shown that same % ther&amp. generating all .Saturn. who have far sujM-rior to men. This. and certain other Gods. of which Heaven i* the fa infi And prior to these elements. which proceed into existence.een lint it is advantageous.gt. we may admire in a greater degree the conceptions of we must In-take ourselves to wholes. nity. who nssert that there is a diH erenre according to form between men and women. as is likewise Khea with . so as that called both -7 they primarily proceed from the male. too. ther. You may also see the same in the heavens. in mortals. however. \\here also they are distinguished from each other. are generated from both these. are so connascent with each other. in the we direct our attention to bound and which rank order of principles. unitedly . For the whole of generation is go\erned by the Sun and Moon . In order. a lesser Sun. the also we form the female guardians from the same those : female warriors from the same institutes as the male. and analogous order*. as is the case with the Sun and Mercury. But Hence you if direct your attention to da-mons. indeed. in a greater and paternal degree by the former. For divine female du-mons. Farth also is equal in dignity with Hea\en.etter to have double than half the number of who exhibit virtue in their works.BOOK i. she is Hence said to he equal in rank with Jupiter.gt. the Mooti is denominated by some. For this Goddess is the bosom of all the Satumian power. that Plato.md female that are of the same order.lt. therefore. there are iikmitc lunar God*. however.Juno proceeds together with things in conjunction with the father. in You have there fore. have been found well-educated women.tte\er. For Karth is the mother of if all things. where we may is wonderful conspiration of the male and female nature. but secondarily. It is l&amp. AN therefore we form the male guar dians from such a particular education. indeed. in the intelligible. Iwrause it is l&amp. \\ li. you will every where see the providence of eiTect all these Iwo-fold genera conjoined. by the latter. male divinities in flic Sun.e male and female. history confirms. we shall find that all things whatever. and the supermundane Gods. nature evinces that the female is more imlwcile in all tilings than the male. that the same divinity survey a the&amp. And among the also.

that it excites our phantasy and inserts in us a clearer impression of itself. which nerate the guardians to the celestial Gods. males the relation of mothers to fathers. and imparts to both common virtue. conformably being in. If therefore we l&amp.lt. that unusual easily remembered. to distinguish as we were particularly cartful that none might be able but that all might consider all as their kindred.4U PROCLUS ON TIIK [BOOK i. it is easy unexpected to Plato. and the whole of their desene honoured. a similar providential energies. divide the one from the other. TIM. for imfltmx. since w hates er is generated when either of them is separated . with the female. . . ? But what did vc perhaj)s establish concerning the easily dren ty. though thenyet at is a greater difference in the &amp. but that the younger might reverence the elder and the elder might esteem the younger as their children grandfathers. For they ge of duads to monads. therefore. according to the intention of la the text of 1 roclus. as you say. and causes them to common employments. who are ministrant to their the auxiliaries to du-mons their utteiidimts.Moreover. and conjunction of the male as IS ature hinds these genera to.gt. is If some one should impure why . aX /Gnav is erroneously ! i&amp.greater decree as Ix-ing it is not difficult to reply. Female psychical likewise. That their own children.ame sical orans than in the lives of these.o. have to the primarily. just same things in conjunction with each other. But she does not procreate the from both is unprolitic. phy Nature to Much more. which are accomplislied by divine male things in a secondary degree.gt.common.gt.&quot. &quot. and but Plato very properly embraces in these genera. hence those of an equal age might regard themselves as brothers and sis as their parents and ters. does the life.gt. These things indeed. &quot. and O triandsous. and female corporeal daemons. makes the work of them to U.riut&amp. the time in these al&amp. Soc. commu h- nion of them in their employments. 1 applies to women. arc which is easily remembered. and the males produce paternally and unitedall tilings with elimination. to show how what is here said of marriages and children common. Though you remember this on account of procreation of chil its novel For we ordered that the marriages and children should be common. For he wished.efore rightly assimilated ly.

we may six? that there is one and the same recipient of different powers. and also their productions are common. those as common offspring of all of them. however. and again at other times should l&amp. benefits . essence proceeding into a second and third series.] TiM/CUS OF PLATO.e l&amp. order of the universe. But these things Referring. derived from the same cause. should not the property of any one man. Why therefore is this very thing l*.gt. is in them that which is analogous to father and And an efilux of grandfather. I.BOOK i. may be assumed from called Sacred Mam ages in the nusteries. and one productive power presenting itself to the in a multitude of recipients. and that the woman that had con nexion with a man. . said in the Republic. this distribution ments. and receptacles to females. On which jMTceptions. in them. it is necetsary lo read varro. For that the same Goddess is conjoined with different Gods. the theory of these particulars to nature. But prolific cause. All the Gods likewise are in all. as being the Each of them.Moreover. let us show how For these things by a much greater they pertain to the. F . and from what are which Plato as much as possible imitat ing in what he ordains about politics and marriages. and arts. and the younger as ehildren and grandsons.e copulated with that man whom is are thus indicated in what the guardians might approve. or the same God with many Goddesses. indeed. men should 41 the rulers. originates from and the Gods. those that are elder as fathers grandfathers. Plat. in conjunction with an immingled purity adapted to all.ind preserves that which is generated. mystical treatises. 1 For rovra litre. and is transferred from thence to this polity. and all are united to all. and dwell separated apart. For all things arc the progeny of all the Gods. Tim. to consider all brothers and sisters that are of an ecjual age. hut should be after connexion. forms are analogous to males. but is paradoxical in human lives ! I say view it is because these lives arc cut off from wholes. however. calls the marriages sacred. In physical productive powers also. takes place with the Gods. though different things are characterized by a di He rent peculiarity. on account of the union of the divinities. to which Socrates di of employ For not to know recting his attention. and pervading through many But receptacles. accompanied with sacrifices and prayers. VOL. that their connexion with take place in definite times. exhibits the form of offspring. is that which is fraternal For similitude of essence. own.held in the universe. assigning one their each of the own progeny as peculiarly their their account. priority exist in the Gods. intellectual conformably to nature.gt. and every human soul is partible. embraces to this communion.

lt.gt.iw&amp.gt. or to the intelligible. when it docs not prove the blame may be referred to fortune.e whole of things. but seconda from da inons. the worthy were mingled with the worthy.ss excellent woman with the less excellent man. Hence IKJ admitted.lt.gt. as in supercelestial lives. and the de&amp. may he perfectly preserved. . a disorderly arrangement. and of the le. and thus life of this kind.scrt the words. and not to the guardians of such a cal. and material female with material male da-mons. Sue. dogmas which embrace this communion appear to it most difficult to If. For through this cause. and minutely distributed far also he leaps to a titude.gt. he preserves the union of the In-st woman with the best man. therefore. Jjut that they might from their birth acquire a natural disposi tion as far as possible the best. mons analogous in order proceeds as to far as to the last of things. in order that the similitude of it to the heavens. is connascent with those of the effected according to desert. that no discord may arise in this all prosperous in the end.pi&amp. sameness. some one should take away the condition of his pre and elevate himself to the sent subsistence. divine female de are co-arranged with divine male da-mons.i rwy baifitinit. and geometri conjunction with arithmetical equality. conjunction. he would immediate sympathy which is divided by the mul extruded. in marriages also. To which we may add sists rily that the rulers contriving that this ciently adumbrates 1 connexion may take place latently. take care that in the nuptial league. so is an unrestrained habitude.42 PROCLUS ON THE the [BOOK i. &quot. being thence primarily derived. &amp.lribution of this kind conformably to the intention of the Cods.hes is about a part. Hence in the second genera after the Cods. For first in the Cods likewise. which the whole and one. a di&amp. the male. and together with union there is immingled purity. ly admit this communion. and secondary with those of the second rank. however. possessll i* iifi-c!s?nry lirrr to ii. which the lot indicates. through the means of certain lots. and from the order of each. as in sensible*. but that connexion. primary natures are more rank. we decreed that the rulers whom we placed over the marriage rites should. as each of us relinqiii&amp. suffi us that the cause of such a conjunction of genera sub unapparently with the Cods . So far. On this account.&quot. in Plato particularly assumes in his Itepuhlic similitude. and an indivisible division. psychical female with psychical And very where.

He gave the pood [i. an image. however.ivrr. e. however. And Porphyry replies indeed to the doubt. (lie brave] man. doubts here. and participate of a certain dignify and excellence from In the next place. thus also total nature fashioning bodies.lt. thinks that in the first place it should be observed. KrSAsj tlwt. and each form may ascribe the cause of its own co-ordination to material variety. by placing certain sym renders them more adapted to the participation of superior powers. For children recci-re a physical &quot. . that though it is not true that souls are emitted together with the seed. thing* oti\a &amp. for reception of different * For ra ainara here. account.HOOK t. Lon^inns. lie conjoins similars with similars.* *!* still. its each loving that winch that this order is allied to itself. fr&quot. different says Homer./&quot. and v\hich are analogous for the to guardians. likewise. of a less eiccllrnt nature. but each into that organ which J-JXot fifv is adapted to it. as an initiator into the mysteries. e. therefore. their begetters. with the middle.&quot. And thus much. the citi/ens Iteinir conjoined in is marriage liy lot. For all souls are not yet there is a distribution of the organs according to desert. according to which each i* co-arranged with the similar. whether Plato was of opinion.FAJS OF PLATO.divine with the divine. introduced into casual organs. similitude from their pftrcnls.-J ing the power of colligation from similitude of life. likewise. which preside over the whole fabrication of things. A. it is requisite to read ra atria. &quot. tin. In tbe text of Protlu* erroneously t*Q\a ft*v K. the statues of disseminates a different aptitude in bodies the souls. the material with the On this material. spontaneous. In order that they might acquire a natural disposition as far as possible the best. 3 X&quot. that souls are emitted together with the seed for in order that they may become most excellent. ILIV. and not looking to elegance and receptacles are distributed to forms appropriately. by physical productive powers. YS. * 382. For in natural things. all sedition is and dissension is removed from divine natures. but tbe lei* ex it is cellent character. this is effected according to causes ornament in the connexion. it must be observed. 4. Iliad. Farther bols about statues. has been said. Our preceptor. and that whieh has a middle subsistence. sake of the theory of wholes. also. good tbings. At the same time.? - vl 2fX&quot. : but not satisfactorily. i. according to own order. perceiving . according to the physical virtues.&quot. and not adventitious and demised of all which. that Plato himself adds.J TIM.

and da-muns who preside over the descent of souls. The celestial and undefiled genera of souls. defluxion of \\ings. therefore. But why lent natures. indicating by the word latent the invisible and occult cause in the Gods of the psychical descents. become subject food. and a . because it is advantageous to us to know which we think to be good. and charioteers of the Gods. which the politician likewise rightly understand pays attention to the emission of seed in the city. of them good there is Hence in these. of such as we apprehend to be which distributes these [seeming to l&amp. but that those of the h. which the celestial Gods send into generation. ing. communicate with it. These things ity also are established in the Republic. but others of less excellent powers. becomes to him productive of evil. See tliis explained. therefore. to the productions of much Gods and Daemons.&quot. because every one avoids that which Soc. but by a take place in the universe. And [latently] to another providential inspection. some of these are the oflspring of good. a verging downward. and to other guardians who preside over generation. but others descend into generation. are nourished following the Gods to the banquet and delicious those that are subservient to generation. than to accuse the cause evils] for a good purpose? For this excites to a contempt. or rather to a hatred of the giver. and to all physical aptitude. some genera which on abide in them.44 souls. does Plato conceive tion to the citizens ? it is better to think that Fortune is the cause of this distribu the cause of tilings we say it is. 1 Tim is ifj-t?d in the Ph. . For the term bad is indicative of less excellent.gt.rdru. we ordered that the children of the good should be educated. leing latently sent into it from the heavens. Moreover. but those of partial souls an of a mixed prcponderation. therefore. as Socrates isajs. and that souls which thence descend. as it is said in the I ha-drus. [BOOK i. account are calh d uiideliled . And not being able to remain in the heat ens without a downward inclination.e causeless. are nature. in order that the most excellent souls may be generated for him in the most excel And thus much in answer to the doubt of Longinus. pure and remote from generation. this With greater prior respect. in the notes at the end of this Trumlation. but better to conceive the presence Shall e\il.ul should be secretly sent to some other city. &quot. all The horses. the better PROCLL S ON THE and the worse .

ordains that which is analogous to them.enus which ascends or descends. remaining divine and . if it is mined. as those which Socrates ordains order in his politj. on the con trary.mons that elevate partial souls [to their paternal port]. souls as had (heir now deliters is conformable to the things proposed For descending [rational] souls a^ain ascend. mingled with those that embrace generation. nor is this to be asserted of nor are da-mons subject to death. in short. accord with each oilier? Per possible to reconcile what is here said.yposta-is from the iMx^innin^ in generation. should be recalled from exile. but not such . but proved afterwards bad. therefore. &quot. the reference is made to those who are recalled from exile. Do these things. but partial souls. we understand in the lower city. &amp. over da&amp.gt. For the celestial Jupiter . but others are always and others are in a certain respect the media l&amp. those \vho were retained from the first in the city as good. indeed. therefore. while. Socrates makes a transition not only from those that were distributed from the upper into the lower city.gt. but likewise to all those that are educated in the lower For. It is not. the daemoniacal j. city.e and descents of souls may never failing in the universe. however.er into the lower city. in order l&amp. it must be said. at one time. with what is there deter the word adult . which are at one time conversant with generation. conversant with generation For some things always have the same immutable. should be similarly banished. and thus those that are worthy are to be recalled from exile.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. and about matter. themselves.li\ine demoniacal allotment he legislatively presides over the that the ascents which things bein^ known by Socrates in the Republic.gt. yet . i. being suspended from dixine natures themselves. For though you should see this particular soul restored to its pristine perfection. in And thus much for the words how the same things lake place in wholes. the natural disposition is to be considered of those adults who were born haps. Here. But if some one is will to understand the words according to our first ing explanation of them. the heavens. or of those who were sent from the up|&amp. as not only pertaining to those sent from the up|wr city.&quot. but at another Ix-inu. however. Gods in the heavens. but also from those of the golden race that were born there.etween both. indeed. such as are the multitude of irrational souls. and also over others that lead souls into generation. 45 Yet so that such of the adult among these as should be found to be of a good disposition.gt.lt. See. In the Republic. and at another are transferred into a multiform lives.BOOK &quot. that what Socrates to IM considered.

ol many productive powers. recurrinir to Lives. from each other. and each communicating with other things. therefore. at different times have dillerent allotments. epitomised e\ery form of the impartibility. [BOOK tlie \. For in definite heads. or do w Timneus. v. the father send** another to be indication according to divinely-inspired about these things. intellectual tlie celestial might Hut since every where measures and perfec polity intelligibly tion are definitely imparted to secondary natures from [piimary] causes. whether he has compre For e\ery intellect being firmly hended fin his epitome) e\ery form of the polity. universe. fixed in the deity prior to itself. of the polity teaches us. also. that to speak summarily is a symbol of the first parts. words mean. of mundane beings. Hut the same productive middle with middle. which tin.Demiurgus of the universe adorns in a more thus perfect one life of the world. again sufficiently resumed the epitome of the discussion of yesterday. &quot.&quot. Socrates ha-. The &quot. energizes separated And primary. are coiinaseently conjoined with the most excellent. To which we may add. and the h respecting the analogy of partial natures tO wholes. looking to the whole. &quot.gt. JJarc u-c f/aic :cc &amp. According to tlie Clialdraii Oracles. Have we. defines itself by looking lo it. through images. becoming manner. whether the or epitomized the polity which wr (iisaiAtfd yesterday?&quot. in polity. And mu manner.is necessary to the completion of the Hut secondary are adorned by primary natures. All these particulars therefore. order that he imitate the (iod who adorns and paternally. the polity which 1 tec epitomized yesterday T For i. however. and last with such as are hist. \et employ their energies. how the.sts Tima-us to inform him. Soc. . and the same recipients participate. on this account also Socrates recpie. universe is For generated naturrs in it are most excellent productive powers. powers penade through many subjects.4 PROCLUS ON THE annmnerated. Tho resumption with tin- filled t however. according dary natures. investigation. are exempt from secon its own peculiarity. The most excellent. which has been omitted f we friend require any thing further. . indeed. and the head of the universe being adorned by the fabricator of the heavens. snflicirlitly place be according to their desert. in a fore our \iew the order of the universe. is again epitomized to-day.io:r not attended with any difficulty.

Thirdly. cnira^in^ in contests and labors. however.found in that dialogue. Porphyn therefore dis solves the doubt by saying. what that is which in what has been summarily. For attain to discuss the polity summarily. \i/. discussed. place. Socrates in order that he may survey the polity truly perfect. . said li^ht. said. may doubt this accomplished. should not be is it For many other things which are asserted heie. Soc. hut now summarily. is Fourthly. that he is not sufficient to effect this himself. to what the desire of Socrates to is directed. that energies perfect habits. arising from circumstances of times and places. but also ihose that proceed from them. but to resuming the (incux~ brought to xion. but he again resumes. does not refer to the epitomizing. these five particulars. in order that motion. For the jKTtection in habit. that the auditors alone in proper to commit a work of this can accomplish that which earnestly desired by Socrates a becoming manner. then. &quot.&quot. who summarily contracts the narration. is in conjunction with energy. therefore. or hi? spoke summarily in both. a city of this kind actions. to see what he wishes Some one. who narrates at p-eat length what had been I M* fore- said . alter the narration of the polity. comprehends. not only those energies that are prior to habits. Unless it should be said that the word again. and at rest through remission of energy. kind to the sophists. and warlike after the peaceful life gies of the city is which he had delivered. And it is not at all wonderful. on the former day. is this? For it is necessary. and on what account he wishes be accomplished. the summary discussion which took place in the licpuhlic. as brine. that neither is any one of the poet* sufficient. that it is not Fifthly. and we do not at all differ from him. Perhaps. he mitiht have to narrate the ener This. therefore.BOOK i. Hear now. Secondly. requires that in therefore. 47 whether yesterday Socrates spoke more diffusely. the divine lumhlichus approves of either of the read ings. how I am affected towards this polity which we have What Socrates says in the words that follow. to What. he desires should take place. the latter construrtion fests that that more consonant. mani was summarily discussed yesterday. since otherwise habit will bo in a certain respect in capacity. to see. that I may speak First. are not to IK.] TIMyEliS OF PLATO. For In- resumes. But whichever of the constructions is adopted. speak concerning that which as he says. however. neither of them is attended with any difficulty. in the first Socrates desires to see after in this polity.

ami let us direct our attention particular. is sufficient that if the end was It may. adorning the n. co-adapt warlike dissensions. to not admit that the habit of virtue by itself. by things which enslave others.lt. In a similar manner.n. Socraies wished to ice his city . and celestial polity wished to behold the natures Such an analogy. For the same things may For dilli-rcnt things according to dilli-rent analogies. For incc Socrates is analogous to the first we how it accords with this theory. show in And in short. to see genera the whole of it governed from tion co-arranged with the celestial regions./// and ///. mighty waves and a tem^st. I lmt 1 ir/irn / &quot./ inun-J [///(&amp. hut If.of Plato. to which and not to look to the whole scop. words it may with others. and take the man. we arranged In-fore.4ft 1 ROCLUS ON THIS [OOK i.erfection to the polity. though they have a it is absurd to refer the cause however. that this is analogous to thence. to say. there to solve Platonic doubts by introducing Peripatetic explanations? Or though the end is not military. to be manifest that Plato does would be it is assert that requisite to war But if the end of peace. to these things alone. takes place in the present instance. it is similar to war.lt. you must not wonder. now as analogous to war. and that the war of forms in matter in order that the circle of generation may adumbrate the And this it is to see the city excited to war.ntnnicty produced by generation. also are accustomed by circumstances. according to the lives l*&amp. from hence. ns this.&quot. safely arranged among in it which an. resembles the lower city. it be beheld in motion. generation and material tumult. that this &quot.lt. the moling and energi/ing just as the Cod who comprehends which it contains riiergi/ing. as the Stoics that which is not subdued Cive circumstances. felicity. military. also. but when energi/ing. this is etlected &quot.rL&quot. celestial circulation. manifests a life in every respect worthy.&amp. Jtil/it-r understood &amp. however. the lower city as analogous to generation. yet war exhibits the magnitude of \irtue in a greater degree than peace. rtxcMnu c &quot. in answer to Porphyry. is willing also that generation the celestial Cods. In: /m .inseparable from matter.gt.lt.lt. according political reason. however. the Cod who adorns should be governed by should always subsist.gt. however. prior every to the second thing said by Socrates.rmrtiltd &quot. what occasion is gives ]&amp. but according to its contrarieties That we may. says he.Yr//&amp./ the gemrutin&quot. appears bv the Demiurgus of the universe. . and to the consideration of cu-ry thing to the theory of mundane wholes.// &amp.. ju-t as a stronger light the skill of the pilot s art. therefore. and what is shortly after said It likewise. engaged in warlike actions. vas ileiiffhhd \nth then-lore. For Perhaps. the polity in the heavens. and contending And it appears. be said.

For these are employed about images. aAAa cat K. is different is him who constitutes tilings of a middle nature is and this (od -again different from him is. and to supply aXAo. is abundantly wandering. performing the duties pertaining to their allotments according . order that through the philosophic characteristic. that are able to effect . and immutable mutable allotments. fashion \vlial froi-i follows. that there should be. one and the same lime.ary. in which they have been nourished . and to imitators. alone praise material and partible natures which they only know. to read owe ^wprrovi uvrwr cirai btt. Plat. sat cr ** MUtrad iff evrc necessary lo read ^w^nrrovr.ecause who those are. who the cause of things that rank as the third.gt.i:iS fathers \vlio OF PLATO. ami litrt. is inseparable from matter. at different times ascend ing or descending to different orders.lt. before said. from words to deeds fathers. the sophists. because they the fourth place. and are unable to ascend from matter. but may energize providentially through the political peculiarity.gt. VOL.BOOK of the 1. . but conversant with thorn. of things. should at one and the same time be philosophical and political . Hence it is necessary that the powers that connectedly contain generation. In the fifth place. ence to middle. he says ho is 4J&amp. intellect. which is governed by the in heavens. but the form of partial souls being sophistical. because they are wanderers. they may be separate from Jhe subjects of their government.gt. the . fabricate totally For these things are to be transferred Demiurgus of the universe. But the IS or.i . and the rest of the and exemptly the second of which fathers gives subsist this. It is however.3 TIM. who arc assimi lated to sophists at different times . but the latter.to For that which is physical.gt. And to these Tima-us. imitate the things The former. but wander to different parts of the world. I. the invariable prior to and perpetually-permanent providence of the Gods. (Jrilias. such as are partial souls. therefore. nrcesviry to read Tim. it is M Hence for \*fnrrat io tbii place. avrau rrfxt^nprrat. Socrates delivers to us l&amp. third particular and not at Again. llir. neceis&amp. For the duimly who ^ivrs subsistence to all things. 1 because they also possess all-beautiful productive powers. \. philosophers and politicians. prior to things which are moved. a^ttpierroot ai/rwr ttrni bri. in that neither are the poets sufficient for this purpose. let us see how these things are conformable to what has IXHMI necessary that the powers that are to preside over generution should not be separable from material natures. being productive. indeed. Xor is it fit that these powers should be inseparable. but the third to For a^wporrovf * it is hist natures. and very mutable. it is 1 For For these powers are analogous to poets who invent fables. therefore. &amp.t adorn the first not sufficient t&amp.

as the end of it. not as regarding that which is pleasing.&quot. \\lien he says: For I ill illustrate the by it that sonic (me un beholding beautiful animals. accord ing to the testimon) of others.lt. all may be inferred. that this mode of expression is spontaneous.60 Herrnocrntps. i. in the last degree. and engaging some one of those contests which per bodies. Stiftjiost: &quot. similitudes Longinus says. attenthe to the grace of diction.gt.gt. that he paid great attention to Socrates does nut simply say. through and the gracefulness of the words. Socrates also adding. however. ulire. though with respect it to composition.- riOAci/rii/&amp.u //&amp. and the third. who and not the result of art. But Longinus says this in answer contend. At the same time. r . than nouns and verbs would form a correct sentence by a casual compo But some blame Plato for sition. and does not employ them casually. the first manner. that Plato 1 The text of I roolut lus. but he speaks like one decorating his words and alluring the hearer. For 1 will illustrate some one.ui &quot.. And thus is Origeii. in a middle way. should desire to behold motion. he observes. Suppose then that beautiful animals.e. industry as are exhibited diction. that he desires to see this accom plished by those that were with Tima-us . For Plato. not from iu this employing metaphors in the use of words admire him. and that he was very attentive to what was customary. however. bo said. k.c. time J common and usual. but tain to 1 a in state of rest.&quot. that of words. are analogous. ur really much for Longinus. whether represented in a beholding in picture or really alive. conformably to his in my opinion. grants indeed. erroiirou*)}. pays attention to the selection It may. PROCLUS ON TIIK But of &quot. &quot.gt. or the atoms of Kpicunis would more rapidly by their concurrence produce the world. &quot. .&quot. iiMltad of mi iuv run autfiuai leKWVTW wfioainttf naru TIJV ayunai oOXovKra. circumstance alone. but that he employs this image for the sake of exhibiting the manner in which he was himself allected. [HOOK i./// sented in a picture. ru/K ro au^aat tviovt-Tuv ui i^ay fiira ri]v ayut iu&amp. order. that Plato here decorates and beautifies his diction. on them in the affair by *i similitude. but from such care and . u liethtr repre similitude. those. in praised in an admirable but the Heeond.&amp. Plato made rhoice of this form of words from a mode of diction which was at that to certain Platonists. however. For the present words.

to desire t) if not in human. but exists. are rightly asserted in both For they are respects of divine bodies. was written for the sake of imitation of divine natures. essence. because of contests some belong to souls. wrestling. and the latter are such as running. For I should gladly hear cities. arc employed. For thus also the adorner of the hea\ens wished to see them in motion. But the words &quot. that this similitude 51 tin- And we nay. . in a stale of rest exhibit to MM the of intellectual arrangement. and thnxe which engage in sonic one of the contests pertaining to bodies. you direct your attention to the image itself.* . analogous to the words [in another part of this dialogue-] a still milate saw the universe moving. you consider the words separately.Ers OF PLATO. he was delighted. and true lives prior to these imitations. In such a manner am I also affected towards the city which we a becoming manner in a way worthy of its educa in have discussed. or really alire. they will signify that the beforementioned polity is indeed fashioned in words. and they possess efficacious and demiurgic lives. and acts during such an engagement in and discipline. likewise. however. beautiful animals manifest those natures that are resplendent with [divine] beauty but /Aatr represented in ft picture.engaging in some one of the contests pertaining to bodies&quot. And thus much respecting the image. which has is mingled with the spontaneous. but others to as soon as the father it in bodies &quot. and gymnastic. . indicate corporal images. depicted by the dodecahedron. and operate by their own powers on other things. yet in true or demoniacal lircs. But the words whether represented in a picture or really alive. which indeed a boundary from itself. are images of those that impart to more imperfect natures their own proper ellluxions and powers. both with respect to practical achievements. and a second in full them. that the ijraee of the words presents to us an irnacje of the grace im parted by the Deminrgus to celestial natures. and of an equable and continued those that are in motion such as proceed info another order. and that the artifice of the dictiou. and also a progression from IXMIISJ and If. and through motion governing the war of generation. Farther still. adumbrates divine production. any one relating the contests of our city with other tion when it engages war. and iris/ted to assi greater degree to its paradigm&quot.BOOK i. But those that are fabrication. and verbal negotiations. sec the city in motion. If.] TlM. and is assimilated to the heavens. For the figures of the (Jods are resemblances of (he animals that are natures that are life. is &quot.

\ehement. For. according to both. The irony. accurate. however. is contrary to the is slender. Those. but in deeds.gt. at DeloH and Potida-a. superb. he sa\s. employ against their enemies both works and words. just as he said with respect to other was ignorant of them. adorns Critias all paradigm. This is the second of the proposed heads. For thus. and not against wise and For the works of a rightly instituted scientific better. therefore. it will imitate its intellectual productions. and the subjects to which it was naturally adapted.ay encomiums.venus. men and Mich a am conscious of my city according to their desert. as knowing the power he former. cause. as prudent. the third from the paradigm of truth [i. have before shown through what cause. in addition to their being directly refuted by the Mene. possessed. that the encomiastic form of but the Socratic character of diction writing is robust. Socrates wished to t&amp. and with reference to what para Because cities. he is not able to bear the wishing .gt. some of the . are becoming the third from the truth.&quot.ee We on but works in the pitching of camps. of the true or intelligible polity]. e. should lie skilled in warlike affairs. of which we have before assigned the For now now again explore it according more ancient [interpreters] have said. was not unskilled in all Mich-like particulars. and magnificent The latter. to remain in the second from the truth. according to both these. and the hurling of missive weapons. celebrated this account Socrates wishes that a city of this kind should l&amp. through ignorance of tactics. indeed. in exhortations to battle. and well exercised. Hence many historians err in their lint Socrates having fought disposition of armies. however. It is against and young men. so here he sa\s. that Socrates speaks ironically. that lie did not know how to praise this city according to sophists its desert. who assert this. cautious. instead of these things to say. and in every thing of this kind. and shall to another method. digm. of Socrates was employed men.52 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. therefore. that he again assert. words indeed in embassies. and dialectic. magnanimous. appear to me the Plurdrus. in compacts. Others things. Ilenee [say they] Socrates avoids panegyric. in spears. shining with physical and the war of generation. that he guards against city.e In words indeed. who. his republic contending in war. I &quot. to O own inability praise such and Hermocrates.gt. and strenuous. however. Ilenee. as brave. not to have perceived die magnificence of the diction of Socrates in it is lit that the artificer of Mich-like There are also those who &amp.

in consequence of directly preserving his analogy to the Demiurgiis of wholes. is Socrates precedaneonsly extended to Crilias and Hermocrates. so that Porphyry informs us that Origen passed three whole days exclaiming. Yon may likewise see how this arcords with wh. is effected through powor which is transcendent. since the same imbecility seems to have attended poets. Lon rr inus f shows that however. but speaks reply. show that the imitation in the poetry of Homer is sufficient for lirtuoim For who speaks more magnificently than Homer.e. For the second fabrication is assimilated to the first. but it is evident. representing the and fighting with each other. in which Socrates none of the poets have Ix-en adequate to the praise of men and cities of this kind.BOOK i. This is the third of the before-mentioned heads of discussion. whether Plato comprehends Homer among the poets. says. and Origen. both of &quot. but generation with appropriate figures. Indeed. that Homer conformably is indeed Porphyry.erly. in passions.it has l&amp. For thr whole demiurgic series is one.gt. blushing and toiling.j. But that which is &amp. that I Not that I despise the poetic genus . and on this account is proximate to it.&quot. it is difficult to imitate well in deeds. but that he is not capable . and not through images. who. possessing union together with M-par- Very proj&amp.o been before said by us respecting the analogy of these things to wholes. and still more difficult in words. and he rightly thinks it lit that they should weave together the For Tinui-ns is about to deliver these things in particulars that are next in order. the past am! present a foreign to the education of any one. however. 53 tlcscont to the third species of life. who paints the heavens with the dodecahedron. asserting that the hypothesis and the doubt were great. doubt. that he has not only the same opinion of the poets then existing (for this is nothing novel).] TIMJEUS OI PLATO.lt. And an impotency of this kind is an abund ance of power. which have casually been engaged in warlike actions. that the imitative tribe easily and in the best manner perfectly imitate things in which they have been educated. and being ambi tious to actions. \\hen he says. ation. therefore. and to excite actions to magnitude and elevation to the an imaginative bulk. but likewise of those of former times. For to able to abide in paradigms.gt. a more universal and elevated manner. does not err in to the nature of things sufficient to give ? Gods as contending loftily his imitation. should be incapable of such an undertaking is not wonderful.

but in deeds ill it not. and makes great use But Socrates requires a pane \vlio exhibits in his praise a spontaneous sublimity. things. nor the w hole of poetry. by exhibiting virtue as far as words.&amp. as the case with Antimachus. therefore. and a magnificence of gyrist. viz. I The ficult. The portie genus. I And thus much l:o\vc\er of he word* of Socrates. is not adequate to the of the fortitude of this city. conformably that for that (&amp. in answer to he doubt.c// unituUd ? to And thus we may collect from it is these. most excellent it be well imitated. and grandeur of diction. but that which But hr despises the imitative species of is nourished in depraved manners and to things For this. . Ix? better to being entirely alienated from it. few. interpret these W words thus. tind in tate net/. but adapted to the education and discipline of the men. a philosophic them.gt. IS ot a difficult last part.words. in consequence of verging of a less excellent nature. and which energizes according to But I should wonder if Homer is not sufficient for these life.e thought lit to speak about appears. is &quot. and stilt more foni^n jjicult in U crt/s* For it seems to be easy to imitate words or deeds. as is foreign to but to assume. It of delivering an impassivity which is intellectual. does not reject the divinely-inspired poet. is not naturally adapted to be imitative of more exalted manners.lt.says. is still . nor yet simply . that :r/tic/i is to the education oj any one. to the Gods. is. but that only \\luch is artificial. and magnificence of language. And having made this division.that he din. inspired.gt. is implied in th. mi 1 . he manifests. . : To suppose the most excellent education the education of any one . and should to l&amp. as equivalent having the all to. ju-t as actions in Republic] have magnificence. therefore. but Critias or Hermocrates. this poetry laws. act suphistically. that Plato divides poetry into the divinely- and the artificial. of metaphors. duds . vehemence. it is d to imitate . I think.For oracles in a remarkable decree possess grandeur.lt. which is free from compulsion and pure. but well imitated according to words in more dillicult for it to be For this is the thing a written work.rc// in deeds. !n&amp. language. That Socrates.gt. he refers the magni ficent diction and sublimity derived from inspiration. in that which icords. it But lie has much of contrivance in is it. and of the great deeds of the men that are praise educated in it. di\ine. diflicull indeed according to deeds. evinces that the poetry proceeding from human art. not casually. For if then? is any artificial sublimity in some one of the poets. and eunfurinulily (o ico rds and tu imi same meaning with which tu be is :&amp.54 PKOCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. deeds. being in a certain resjK-ct dif be rendered perspicuous as follows: But the words are. . as he elsewhere says. may &quot. when he then-fore. however. therefore.s not despise tin: [xxtic genus&quot.

This also is e\ident from Socrates in the Hepuhlic. also* he came forth armed after such a manner.uul their intellections are t&amp.city. howe\er. not difficult. since they possess an imitative power? In answer to these doubts. r as the diurnal li.. that composition.BOOK i. would not he thought worthy of laughter. it mav said. as not pr&quot. that as all things. is For since their words are words .l TIM. For w ho can delineate their works according to their desert? Or it may he said that it is the same tiling with respect to the Gods. excellent men. and that he is performed such deeds. and was sentenced to die. assumes a disposition similar io the speaker. Since. are not imitated by painters. the imitator of their also the imitator much he other. therefore.e adducing words adapted lo worthy men. lint he who narrates the speeches of these men. when detained in the river. ahlc to assume the manners of the hero. neither will be ahle toe/feet this. is incapable of its paradigms. very much But as to the Gods. So that hy how he deficient in the imitation of the words. fails in the one. who have written ihe Apology of the Socntic manner in their composition.EUS OF PLATO. For thus we deride most of those. intellections. if For he who in a written work narrates the deeds of the most composes a history. in order to imitate it. It is not. hut to narrate copiously what lie said is not But this is the province of one who is easy. tobeeasx by lan^ua^e to intitule the words or the deeds of the Gods. as the doubt B lt Porphyry adds. l&amp. except I lato. Critias and his associates hecause they are not educated in the manners of tin. ht. hut the dissimili Socrates.gt. For words are seen to differ according to the inward dispositions. And yon may how this accords \vitli tiling themselves.said. such for instance of Lon^inus says it is. so neither is the life of the most excellent polity imitated by poets. hy so much also is their productions. sufficient merely to hear what form of life the polity possesses. but from us.lt. it is said blaming Il-uner respecting the imitation of words. made an apology. hecause they have not science. Though the narration of this \ery thinir.r\in^ tude of imitation to say in the of Achilles. has the following doubts with respect to the proposed For if poets are not worthy imitators of the works pertaining to such a city as this.gt. may they not he ahle to imi why by receiving types tate. he intenrls to preserve the manners of the speaker. Lonirinus. For neither did they live perform it. to imitate their words or deeds. ..*&amp.f productions. IK? 55 see proposed to effected in portry. that the imitation of such a polity proceeds through a life concordant with For he who does not live according to virtue. rvnders the imitators ridiculous. that Soerates was accused. and to write conformably to what he would IKIM. ing the office of magistrates in if it is But are imitators alone. inconsequence of transcending their power.

skilled in them. the . lest with respect to the institutions of philoso liut with respect to the tribe of sophists. eiu-rgi/ing according that every one very properly said not to have a settled tilwtte . of your habit remains. Because. though I consider them as of speaking. others in geometry. they com inwardly pre-assiimiiig their life. and in man} other beautiful arts.said to Since. and that generation may contain. and unscientific wandering. the intellectual energy of prehend But from these images we should make a transition to demiurgic the rulers. and others skilled in many beautiful arts.gt. For it is necessary that these al-o should he total and intellectual. they of deception. words. And through the former. in both politicians and philosophers. to passion. indeed. and these prior \Vlio then are the proper imitators of the deeds and words of be filly governed. yet as they have no settled abode. which wise and politic men are lily and magnitude engaged in \yitli individuals in warlike undertakings. skilled both in the art they should not be able to conjecture the quaof those concerns. IMIOCLUS ON THK [BOOK i. it is added. of But as false opinion. l&amp. but wander daily through a multitude of cities. their words.e they did not possess a scientific knowledge of these. possess ironic ally such things as the heavens primarily The genus. however. skilled in With respect to (he sophists. full not only lived at different times in different hut were to externals ought to family and a city. in order that the universe may be consummately perfect.&quot.e l&amp. of the citi/ens . some of them frequently pretended to in the art of dividing. both in deeds and phers and politicians. aMronomv. if neither the poets nor the sophists are? They are such as are For the union of both these is necessary. they arejustly called wanderers.&quot. which at one and same time participates of both these. the host polity. however. that they are For skill maniff sts an irrational occupation in mere words. I am afraid. they are they led a disorderly and inenulile life. should arrange himself prior unaccompanied with the knowledge of the why. Hence they are now . their practical wisdom. cities. by nature and by education. order that through the political character they may be able to perceive the works in consequence of luit thrombi the philosophic.gt. others in polities. causes. but through the latter. since it is requisite For all such particulars.50 &quot. &quot. as are in a to other things. are likewise in manners. therefore.

For they do not manifest the same thing as the expression you. from which there would only be an ability of giving that polity. however. &quot. both by nature ami education. not disdaining to survey those words. Plat. we must say. Sec. there is a difference of expression through the desire of dignity and gravity in the diction. strength that the form of expression in the proposed words. And that the third part.* or you should think that education ought to he thrown into an 1 Od)s. Longinus. so as to he adapted to his subjects. Looking. will be able to effect that which Socrates desires. that in that part of sophists. calling [the wisdom which they possess] a habit. in order that he may exempt them from so But he says that they are partakers of the political science. to the conceptions which they contain. however. you thould cause it to be lame . u. as they arc wanderers&quot. the perfect from nature and education . &amp.lt. and those that precede them. lest depriving nature of education. dissimilar to the strength of Hercules. and in unusual things.gt. That in the words that Lest ri/Y/i raped to the institutions of philosophers ami politicians. Plato everywhere changes his say. which is nourished by less excellent laws. crates excites Critias and llermocrates to what remains to polity.gt. like of Hercules . magnificently Socrates celebrates the men from the very beginning. Tclcmachus. and other such like expressions. t But Origen admits. to ncr i$ the sacred TeXstta^iio.e the But he likewise calls on Tima-us to assist the undertaking. 77m. 37 says. them beginning with. And thus much for the words themselves. For such like periphrases are adapted to a narration of this kind. necciwry to read I.gt. 409. &quot. is perfectly unusual.J of historians. that So accomplished in l&amp. stu dies mutations of expression. But with respect to the tribe of &quot. which is adapted to the imitation of (he best For those who are both philosophers and politicians. The genus therefore of your habit all 1 not at For it is remains. mode of diction. they should not be able to conjecture the quality and magnitude of those concern. &c.&amp. the strength as well as to poetry. and which differs from the poetical and sophistical habit. And this is the You may also see how fifth head of the things proposed for elucidation. VOL. &c. X*AI&amp. by encrgi/ing according to the habit which they possess. We. is conformable to the manner &amp.gt. there is a distortion of phrase from what is natural. follow.BOOK i.*&quot. it it * For \o\tff here.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. phistical wandering.&quot. But we do not admit that the proposed words are a that periphrasis. in order that you may contradistinguish it from And he designates poetical imitation. lam afraid. II .

in the place. the image is Jovian. sceptre. But to add likewise that he had enjoyed the greatest honours. governed by the best of laws. exclusive of his not being inferior to any of his fellow-citizens in wealth and nobility.gt. By asserting also that Tima-us had obtained the highest posts of government. in my opinion. and unical nature of the god. Dcmiurgus of the universe is. by . or Does it not. and twenty measures.gt. in nit/ opinion. however. the demi s|x?cting the men. !x? who who also distributes honours to others. himself. once perfectly said. For Timteus here of Locris. arrived at And it may said. as from ima that he is an intellect comprehensive intellectual (Jods . What to the other image also than this among nun. rniurgus ? For. For all these the l)ebrates the total. mirvey separately every parti attention to wholes. miurgus possesses. assimilates him to the god.next place. presents us with an image of that transcendency which is exempt from wholes. &quot.een [BOOK i. evince that TinuniB was a political a place. has arrived at the summit of all philosophy. that he possessed intellectual knowledge [in most eminent decree]. And thus much has But if you wish to proceeding to paradigms. that he had arrived at the summit of all philo sophy and adding.itt * the god And by Tima-us excelling in nobility of birth.able of being assimilated by the political and the philosophic. by participating of the fathers prior to himself. intellectual. it adum telligible by Adrastia. and the highest posts of government and. one 1)&amp. remains to arranged according to a Let us. ges. that he is full of . can be more admirable than this. urgic gemiN. said in common reunapt and incongruous recipient. What be greater? what praise can testimony. therefore. consisting of four It is the Demiurgu*. has obtained in his own city the greatest honours. summit of philoso contains all knowledge in the So the that.lt.gt. l&amp. both in dignity and power. according to theologists. in the second .&quot. from all that has been who of many intellects. which is total and intellectual. then-fore.saying. that the assertion that Timieus had at phy.cak. In tin. providential n|&amp. first is more ca &amp. and arranged among the you may apprehend.58 PROCLUS ON THE l&amp. an Italian city. it represents to us his the royal power of the Demiurgiis. it iinit. . by asserting that Tima-us belonged to a wlio was nurtured in the in ily governed by the best of la\\s. and \\hich has dominion over wholes .o cular. in the first place.gt. which places a colophon on nil the panegyrics? character.

the other demiurgic gods. 59 and that he has a royal establishment. they pursue apparent power . are the characteristics of this life. and things. just to accuse Socrates on this account. &quot. to Euboea.BOOK the i. that he was not one of the vulgar. that he not igno any of tlir particulars of which we are now speaking. embrace visible beauty. but a philosopher among ideots. indicates person of the dialogue. because he now rant attend to the (if thinks him deserving of a certain praise. For. pertains. we should is For he says. nnd. we arc know that Critias is not now speaking.gt. however. in those terrestrial regions also. may however.&quot. and his association with philosophers. as surpassing in dig . was of a generous and grand nature. shows tirely his inferiority to the first removed from him. therefore he possesses the middle place in the encomiums. But laws is wonder. as history informs us. we all culars of which Critias. For to assert of him. according to analogy. and to goYern the universe in conjunc tion with them. He likewise engaged in philosophic conferences. cularly leads souls descending from the heavens to a tyrannical For l&amp. in order to distinguish For Plato changes many manner the thing proposed. just as those who possess the remembrance of intelligible beauty. Plato calls the city of Timacus Locris. the Atlantic* being the progeny of Neptune. to the middle be learnt. we must not purpose of signifying in a clearer that the Locrians were governed by the beat for their legislator was Zaleucus. ignorant of any of the parti indeed. however. as should observe. But that he was not en . being one of philosophers. In the next place. in the third place. nity If. Besides.eing accustomed there to revolve with the Gods. It is not. manner in which lie praises him.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. it from the Locris opposite tilings for the &quot. likewise pertains to media. in the first place. and was called. For the ruling peculiarity. but a partaker of the prerogatives of Timaeuft. we ture. and that which extends to many discourse of Socrates Power. . both on account of his natural disposition. That Critias. from his narrating the Atlantic history. it not being usual with the Greeks thus to denominate it. which parti life. his alliance to him. that the tyrannical character is an argument of an excellent na we learn from the fable in the lOth book of the} Republic. in the first place. but to call it Locri first intelligible* only. the thirty. from his own proper life. an ideot among lie tyrannized also.&quot. evident . from his succeeding to the in the next place. fabrication of things.

il is necessary to read fio ^iern^&amp.rwi ia&amp. and Her- are analogous to the three ruling fathers. both by nature and education. and an ultimate di\ision. for he leads into energy those that have Hence also he is adapted indeed to cause. .f&amp. indeed. oryrcr uv* f.dso must be considered. therefore. adapted to all such concerns. logy of the men]. Critias.us. though the absent person neither adapted to speak nor to hear. of things. desirous of Hence also he participates. produces make But this arrangement. and most disorderly parts of mundane fabrication and to who arranges the last be testified by a multitude of circumstances.gt. And this arrangement indeed will be found to generate. the 6 th of mj tramlation of Proclus on the Theology of lato. int. indicates an analogy to the power that We therefore fabrication into all multitude. not naturally adapted if we abandon the former conceptions [relative to the ana to be very reasonable.gt. and in th s respect imitates those that are about is both an auditor and In the next place.ok order .lt. the Deiuiuruus of the univrr but Socrates. in what he says.lt. PROCLUS ON THE Nor h this to [BOOK i. is secondary to him who conference}. For the command of an . and of those that are present [at a but is silent. iu order that the men may have an analogy to the things. llectual fV&amp. Tima-us niocrate*. was others arrange Critias as inferior to Hermocrates.gt. a speaker. tl political science He must be referred. X. . Neptune. . cation * living conformably to law. according to the arcana of the Grecian form the summit of the supermundane order of (iods. in u certain respect. but is hear. but not to speak.f&amp. this . in tvtttv &amp. Jupiter.such an order as the fol after Tima-us. vi/. and Critias according to the formal cause.ro$iat o\i r. Socrates according to been rightly educated but Hercause. praising him immediately There are likewise those who attribute.lt. &amp. I See. and 1 luto. according to analogy. wi ptrtitf. one being the Deiniurgu*. Jupiter. that So Socrates and Tima. mocrates according to the material For matter receives productive powers externally. they arrange the ellicient. is analogous to Jupiter. but the other being the first of the supermundane demiurgic triad.gt.lt. to and philo e third fabri army is a power allied to the god. crates gives the preference to Critias. X.t\uaiiif&amp.lt.tat.i\o&amp. who For. Hermocrates was a Syracusan general. Tima-us according to the paradigmatic lowing to these persons. and existing at the extremity of the there is a twofold ttieolo. or druiiurgi.00 &quot. since a multitude of cir cumstances evince that he is. of the sophy. he who is an auditor.. Instead of fio tac *-oXiniji at iroXirnijJ .&quot. be doubted of Hermocrates.

of tlie polity. resuming the polity in certain forms. refused this employment no one fit in the present age but you from to receive. being seated in his citadel on the summit of Oljm- who preside over thus also Socrates. and imitate those production of the world. Socrates. all these discourses bring with them an image of demiurgic works. who celebrate the power of such a city. any one than by you. d to discuss what pertains to with your request. and. hitherto complied with your request. in a deco rous manner. before observe. therefore. calling forth. indeed. For as lie had discussed the after this manner also. For.EUS OF PLATO. the pns. prepares those after him that are able. with common The summary have been made constituted city. being purely established in the intelligible form of a polity.] TIM.!. and abiding in his own accustomed unity.&quot. through this imitating the universe. as it were. and uniformly comprehend the contrarieties and multiform motions which it contains. as all we have the. and the Atlantic war. if you were but willing For when you have properly adapted the city is to engage in its discussion. sends the Gods . to the survey of wholes totally. however. prior to the whole fabrication. indeed. refer us to the one fabrication of the world. to receive the promised feast. I shall now require you to comply with mine in the abovementioned particulars. it is better. thing for it As I . to celebrate the motion and power of this polity. for the repetition of the polity appears. however. therefore. determined to repay my hospitality with the banquet of discourse. but preparing the others to the total and concise comprehension of partial natures. Jupiter.OOK &quot. very properly establishes himself. as Socrates now says. but have. being persuaded that the readily complied remainder of the discourse could not be more conveniently explained bv Hence when you yesterday requested me I a polity. there whom it can acquire every have. and the whole conference adumbrates the fabrication of the . indeed. but excites others to the discussion. in who Homer. first. Nor have you. in essence. therefore.Both the concise comprehension. As. and the fonn of a survey from parts and images. he wishes that the power of it should lie cele polity totally. consent. Since. to sake of the discussion of the contests in war of a rightly . for warlike purposes. the mundane contrariety to the Grecian war science of Timaeus. i. to make arrange the universe according to the middle demiurgic form. there fore. I now. stand prepared. brated by the rest.

For yesterday. said to latter IM&amp. and which is also perfective natures. But we. And this indeed the one father of wholes. we discoursed on this very It particular.&quot. sents to us. therefore. when to the lodging of Critias. and. in a decorous manner* to receive the promised feast . If. says. of the fabrication of things. the former through power. either of alacrity or power. follow present. thing sliall In- wanting. that the. following Socrates. was requisite that Ilermocrates should say something. as a form adapted to virtue. hut it is likewise adapted to what has been before said. just as the third Deuiiiirgns on Tinurus. [BOOK i. Socrates very properly says. is Hence also he speaking to Socrates. to the accomplishment of the narrations investigated by Socrates. world. So that whether you assign to this history a double or a triple narration . through similitude to him. does he call upon Critias for the mandate of Socrates terminates. Ilermocrates says. just as Socrates calls taker of his discourse. Very properly. Removing. manner. his words being invested with modesty. converge to the one For Ilermocrates. or prevent them from accomplishing the therefore. hist parts. HERM.gt. and any external impediments |M-diment. how of generation is entirely in want of returns from the subterranean in the ever. like the unemployed persons in a comedy. of mundane through its demiurgic providence. O cheerfully engage in the execution of Socrates. world. and not he is silently represented logographic [or pertaining to the art of Tor it repre writing]. both these. and went to reside. that no providence of the world. n that he stands prepared. &quot. For these two things become especially im to us in our mutual energies.2 PROCLUS ON THE &quot. as Ti mains just your desire . both in his sufficient to justify neglect in this affair. our indolence. are and the adapted to the middle fabrication. narration respecting the city of the ancient Athenians. viz. the Atlantic history will appear to But those numbers. that there cannot be any ex cuse siiflicient to justify their neglect. they dis coursed on this very particular together with Critias. where we arc apartment and in the way thither. as in an image. now signified. and makes himself a par For the whole universe communicates with the production of the second. for we cannot shall offer any excuse accustomed we departed from hence. in vhich the mandate of Socrates. these things subsist after this have had the third narration. For on the preceding day. he says. the duad and the triad.

all things conformably to his will. effects convert themselves to the reception of their causes.BOO* you i. Moreover. And as. from cither of the numbers. in order and govern being impelled from that as from a root. then. they may dispose their narration For thus what is going to be said will contribute to the agreeably to his desire. which was once delivered by Solon. CRI. &quot. &quot. a narration surprising indeed in the extreme. they will ob the reasons or productive powers which are from eternity inherent if. I assent to your compliance. TIM.&quot. if agreeable to Timzeus. He therefore narrated to us the following particulars from ancient rumour. after the same manner here also all the persons fly to Timaeus. the wisest of the seven wise men. Hut if they arc an indication of scurely signify in souls. thus also here Ilermocrates calls on Critias to speak. And likewise.** &quot. &quot. Socrates. impart also to secondary natures their own providential energies. as in them. the third as sociate of our undertaking. of divine For. they show that these demiurgic causes. universe. you would now repeat to Socrates. thus also here. and gives completion to what was promised to Socrates. words an admirable indication. be able to recur to the conception of the 63 in will. signify ancient according to time.from that. and to his nod. undent rumour&quot. among divine natures. O Critias. if the narration is historical. being supemally filled from more ancient (jods. the words &quot. will find in these You natures. or will. tervening medium. It is requisite to comply. they bring with them an image of divine cause*. As likewise all demiurgic causes are suspended from the one father of the uni verse. but Critias looks to the mandate of . Ilermocrates is extended to Critias. discourse about the whole fabrication of the world. CRI. as in images. such as are secondary call forth the prolific powers of such as are primary. and produce them to the providential inspection of the sub jects of their government. which I wish. what takes place in tin.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO. . yet in (very respect true.Socrates. Hear. or consent. that he may judge whether it any way conduces to the fulfilment of his re quest.

that this is testified nians once liu-d conformably to this polity.perfectly true. With repect tfc th whole of this narration about the Atlantics. as not Ijeing the inventor who says. that this but w hich bring vv ith them an indication of natures by no means had an existence. some of them in power it : vanquishing. hut And some of them being superior in multitude. true. these. who because it is clearly said in the \ehementlyeonteiidsthatthismii-tbe the case. but transcribing what the Egyptians had written deriders as to refer to the Egyi&amp. is the father of all things. the first interpreter of Plato.aiii. which a. But others but others being vanquished. since a thing of thi&amp. but think that they are deny that these transactions now assumed as images of the contrarieties that pre-exist in the universe. to Neptune]. but others excellent. some refer the analysis to the fixed stars and planets the : They (he Athenians as analogous likewise sa\. true. war. narrated by Plato] narration is a fable. but the former being drawn down. Others. as Origen.64 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. say. and that he so far who assert that these particulars [which are by the prophets of the Egyptians. that of Crantor. say they. took place alter manner. But I do not the Atlantic island was divided into seven circles. the latter drawing down.regards what is said by these about the Athenians and Atlantics. l Of this opinion.gt. who also pertain to the And this is the interpreta (lod that presides over generation [i. know of any other who is of the same opinion. refer to the discord of souls. nor false according this to the apparent. others less. it is a mere history. sa\. who or are generated in the world which are perpetual. but that the fixed stars vanquish the planets volution of the world. as they fancy. that these stars light on account of the opposition in their cir on account of the one con culation. some say. e. Tor And of as Ileraclitus also asserted. but the inferior kind being subservient to generation. therefore. . not attending to Plato. that the narration refers to the opposition of souls to da-mons. yet respect true. to the fixed stars. and to believe that the Athe tians this history Crantor adds. the opinions of Origen and Numemus together. but Atlantics so that they assume the planets. .gt. of the Republic. that the narration is is surliriwig in the extreme. &quot. which was the opinion was derided by those of his time. is the illustrious Amelius.&quot. the more excellent being the pupils of Minerva. Others are written on pillars which are still preserved. that Critias. refer the analysis to the opposil on of certain da-mons. is not is in every respect For that which is it in every partly true. but true and partly not according to the inward Others do not kind would not IM. again. and a fictitious account of things. some of them being more. Others. And tion of Numenius. that Plato on this subject. meaning. exclaims. mingling.

a triple suhsistence. this is to he admitted as an account of transactions art* vu&amp. For the polity is analogous to existence and essences. therefore. and also trariety and opposition are not introduced tion. souls descend into solid that. tai-wr-iiMr. they are of opinion. as we and especially through the realms of generation. of ihrmons according to hahitude. \ and of motion to permanency. however. Hence.rmons. since to for the our preceptor Syrianus. wage tliis war against souls. ner. in their descent into say they. dsrmon that of di\ ine (hrinons . he extended through the whole world. to the Athenians and Atlanties. to which partial souls give completion. hen- it is necessary to road it Is eirri rat rj fvirn. he asserted any thing different from the doctrine of in Nmnenius.vious dtcmons* Of this would he wonderful. and another i* that of depraved d. that actually accustomed to do. For they say. possess the contrariety Moreover. That in consequence of this.5 with these men.?/. must refer that happened which precedes the suhject of the dialogue. J . that this contrariety which is derived from human affairs. to the scope itself of the dialogue. Before. Tim. and have an opposite after the one. hut. Plat. lias 6. 1 InMcail of m/ii^u in (his place. and from the duad the variety of powers. if These [philosophers] however. very excellently According to him. that one kind is another. there is a certain opposition of sameness to difference. respecting uhom. VOL. which ancient ideologists refer to Osiris and generation. requisite to read Koptly. are in a certain respect united to rach other. I lato. . \vhen they ohtain a demoniacal allotment . And hodies. I. my * opinion. opinion is the philosopher Porphyry. who it are adapted to the west since the ur. to the these essences. We must. and for aiwruor. we should survey every where how things participate of contrariety. according to For since all things are from the one. like- 1 For *i I TI NTH. are corrected hy the most dmne lamhliehus.] TIM/EL S OF PLATO. we must survey after what manner mundane natures which pervades through all things. is the place of no. tlieri fore. or to Bacchus and the Titans. if we consider he polity of Plato as analogous in every respect to the world.gt. this con purpose of rejecting the narra on the contrary.n/. refers Typhon. powers of M and as Plato says. to their motions.lt. this. deliver the war of them with material demons . who are also noxious to soul*. those theologists and Plato. from motives of piety.BOOK i. nature. Da-mons. ax the Egyptians *&amp. hut all things participate of these ge- this heing the case. should. of this la-t kind. according to a similar form. as iu the genera of IMMU^. it is necessary that we should survey this war as existing in every nature. hut war.

primary IctnUrs of the irlnde of a corp&amp.elo&quot. Fur Arro/irwi here. or in a manner eonjuiiction \\itli a unity. indeed.gt.gt. us the suppliers of vivijication. Mars to Minerva.m/A/// than multitude. because TDK osr. or in da-mons./ former I ratio)iully t but ths latter pliysically.fr.gt. and parts i&amp. in For all contrariety is is sur- in a certain respect an adjunct posterior to it.lt. the river Xanthus to and Juno to Diana. For you may every \\h -re transfer the analogies from (Jods themselves. refer tlie polity. rightly perceixin^ that this is the case.ux Inj herself. and in both. as well as theolo^ists. over (he. things .Ktcrs. into contrary . representing hostile! y mm Apollo as \ ulcan. and as it :icrc inoie mahnal. in order that she nun/ il/timinale all things mlh union and harmony. in those stiiutioH. tit: divine Homer makes oppositions. Hermes and Latona. be&amp. in bodies. if that which is dtjined according tu intellect . And Plato. to Hermes to Neptune.lt. you give a twofold division into the incorporeal and the corporeal it and .lt. of that which is inure ma- tcrial suuts . have delivered a multitudinous contrariety prior to the one fabrication of the world.OO wise. or in into heaven and generation . or in \\hatever \\ay you assume powers whether in the mundane Cods. to &amp. and voluntary tlcratiun uhteh is aeijuired through the lilal l ulcan and Xanthus./ the f&amp.*e ttt/e. the of the pon former. Jhnerva and Mars. is less r. bodies. but by making it common to all things. smooth.&amp. and represents her as Jighting on tin :ior. il ii IIC|IIIM(I- to read i t/&amp. again divide the incorporeal into (he more intellectual and the more material natures.gt.gt.gt.gt. but the latter if those that are ihorc Jlut he pa\. but the latter. But Juno mid Diana. the Junner. it PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. us the causes ht contrariety nhieh pervades throitgli both existence and life . oier the perfection :C/HC/I as presiding over the tu ofold perj\ct of is obtained through the gnostic u&amp. of those that uie more [hcacious . as the ]&amp. to the universe. jK-riods. For it is requisite to survey // is /ikcii ixe necessary generation in incorporeal nature-. to the whole union of must be said. but generation into opposite this opposite the and heaven. spontaneous.lt. the former. but the /titter. leaves Vei. and c&amp.u pwcrs* and the evolution r into light of productive principles .-oiiiin^ \eyed it. and passive. therefore. \\luch either prior to a is oiuitttd in the original. the one but the other partially.ci&amp. that war is to assimilated to the mundane division.n\ul coitit contains . and to the empire of victory. totally. renders the htttT part of the sentence \ery ambiguous. and the corporeal life. to tins side. opposed Latoiia. ami the omission of if. orcoiinasccnl \\ith. that l&amp. o( to things.\n-e.lt. lx&amp. by separating Whether. . consider Neptune and siJulio as the Jubricators of t/tc uliole generation. in souls.gt.$ &amp.lt.

as heini.) But here it is assumed as that which deserves admiration. and as indicating that the Nor is it requisite to wonder how Solon all ensuing narration extends to all wisdom. 07 Finding. ircrc not a thing of f hit kind&quot. order that he miiiht not assert of the (jods (hat they ii^ht with each other. it is said. . ascribes these battlers to men. and is those things to which we wish to call the attention of the hearer.&quot. likewise.v worthy of attention. these tiling in prior to wholes. hut the former. in conjunction with the telestic art.n the Crito.lt. latter is true. (xai v^t-v ys aroTov. .Er. however. by Critias. said &quot. &quot. what is ^oiivjj .&quot.HOOK i. \Vhnt a surprizing dream. but the former not.] TIM. it (xoyvc\ manifests Uie truth of to be related. in which &quot.ein^ asserted So/on icas the wisest of the seven wise men properly said. manifests that which happens contrary to expec // is surprizing. however. his armed that attack of Pisistralus the tyrant.&quot. therefore.j) or ^l&amp. This. in conjunction with the political science. he lint through a cautious and pious analogy. is O Xocralc*&quot. paradoxical.S OF PLATO. the wisest of all the seven is said to lx&amp.- there. prior to the one order of things.gt. In what is employed in is hear&quot. therefore. Their mode. For such like wars are delivered Ity divinely-inspired poets.gt.Socrates. his pretended insanity said he at same order Salami s.narration&quot.saTi. as in the (ioririas. 3 . hein^ more moderate. And thus much concerning the whole of the text. however. TOIOVTOJ T. the J word or thus &quot. as in the Thea-tetus. &quot. The word the hear. is adapted to them. that the deeds of I his city were great and admirable. l&amp. Sowonderful. who was more prudent than those . when surdity is how he can said to be the wisest of other of them were most wise.gt. bein^ more replete with divine inspiration. For how could he al&amp. is said in the Cior^ias. But equivalent to receive what /. ij it And it ix not tit all surprizing. as in &amp. is evi dent from what follows. that a fable differs is from Xiyoj [because the &quot. and in the Panatlu naia- . transfers to the them also (ods. but it would he much more wonderful. It is also very as l&amp. said to another Athenian. which wholes. of narrating them. tation.e wise men. 5 inincr*&quot.&quot.gt.e ^TOT* -yt w iVox^anjf) . that of one who was related to Plato . hut the present mode to Plato. nor to be anxious to know.o narrate such wars to . iMoreo\er. or that which cratcs &quot.gt. prior to paradigms he has an analogous subsistence in surveys this contrariety in men. men.V. (tog OCTOTOI/ svtx-viw i&quot. the latter. neither liein^ in want of Titannie or (Ji^anlie wars. but one of the wise men. is word surprizing* (arorrov) &quot.lt. for devising in ihiiiijs who on the preceding day had blamed I lie poets of tliis kind? I\eei\in:r.Vnx. in calling a man the wisest of those that are of the with himself ? But his legislation. transactions from history. For what al&amp. the word proverbial. rcXXa TroXj Sau/taffrort^V ti a?.

should be sent at last it tjuence of this. Solon. the days revert from the twentieth day. that he had established most beautiful established the most beautiful. * 3 In the original twr. and of the alliance of Plato in his to him. till came of them yielding does nut to him. all these par ticulars !&amp. though is not related by the Cod answered. for he replied. the wisest of beings.numbers of iv vfov Some.car testimony to his vtisdom. [of Apollo] being consulted That in COUSIN i\eii to the wisest man. and of Dropides son. . once declared to our grandfather Critias. is as fol The children of Execestides were. it and so on.. sent to the Cod. conceive to he erroneously tnuiicribed for tv of I nr. iieic. and more brave than those that were present. and lliat the oracle certain young men. then. Attention to his father pay. also. that the. his conference also with Cru sus. a story told of a tripod it that all was draped up in a net by historians. saying. 1 The same *ci\Xayi.gt. but powerful laws. that he was a participant of a certain wisdom. Hid Critias witli the yellow locks. which \&amp.&quot.. I in bis life of Tbales. (as the old man himself informed us) that great and admirable actions had once been achieved by in this city. as he himself frequently relates in his poems.t Solon.co\ery. was offered to Thales. that the of thirty days. that it it on the occasion. this again to another. all vise men.gt. also. in short. and The lows: Critias history of the race of Solon. and that he knew laws that were more excellent than these . likewise. is said to have found. Solon things. was the who is mentioned by Solon poems. that pricr to Anaxagoras.gt. There is. Solon. the di&amp. where he sings. &tory is also Mil of Solon.03 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. Solon and Dropides. was the familiar and intimate friend of our great-grand 1 Hut lie father Dropides. which nevertheless were buried the destruction of mankind.gt. but he it it to another of the seven to Solon. showed that intellect presided o\er the vthole of From all which it is evident. by Diogenes Laertim. were absent. omitted in tht le*t ioilu. and on this account he was the fust that called was lunar month that he it a new one. that lie hud not laws. and *. and his answer to one who said. however. assert.consi&amp. oblivion through length of time. And. is ascribed to him. &quot.

Jnlltn immoderately into geneBut souls that have fooen truly corrupted. easily acquire a reminiscence of the truth. is similitude of life. therefore.J9 says. in images. that the superior causes are secondary receive the production of primary natures. that there was not merely a communion of race. tias in the Charmides.&quot. To a man. Chunnidcs is the ton of Calhfscrus. and that from one cause. For we not only call those with whom we asso and an intimate But foy likewise adding.ECS OF PLATO. to things. however.] TIM. We must not.ou sM. that the causes of (his motion are ronti- nuoiiN and united. is evident from Cri present dialogue was the son of Calla-scrus. arising cither l. called an old man. font And Charmides was Thedhine his race. tin./ of /i/ c ir n til anil adinirulilc n lmlfx. font the father of Charmides. to things. Critias says. in the ancestors of I lato. that it. conse(|uence of not falling into matter. though in the C harmides. But Charmides aivd INTJclione Plato. . fiiiutiarx. nor ihe forothcr of the younger Critias./. (hat a two/old ublirictl fr&amp. and retain the memory of things in the intclligifole \\orld. For liy rovcriii}.mlly leader he obey. Solon was the forother of the &quot. ness and he indicates. and tin. dillT from and yet have a connascent tion to these tilings also. if Critias Solon simply -A familiar. (rldiico our tinele. font also our kindred. as the immediately makes Glaueo to foe the son of Dropides. but is trn/ couzi/i. \\lio pays attention it is of no consequence in whatever manner these particulars may sufoPa-sin^ on. in recently perfected. /v j In addi you may assume. the truth [respecting the race of Solon. his uncle.lt.] lamfolichns. Drives a different account of the succession of Such. however. however. is For lie others.gt. wonder. Itnt j. also.iit&amp. that Critias and Glaueo were the sons of &quot.Teatft grandfather of Critias. that Hence Glauco is not the son of Dropides. therefore. and an. souls af the I communion vtith them.twofold co-ordinations that are &amp.referred to other intellectual and ancient causes . : But Calla scrus and Glauco were the sons of Critias and a^ain the Critias of the This. And thus calls k n J~ricnd. may assume from these particulars as all the discord of (lie \\nrld.lt.? a a/ that or through /itirit/g I nr tins is far tin nul nitin to be much for these particulars.lt. however. more are suspended Irniu proximate demiurgic causes. ciate. and his being adapted to many disciplines.&amp. which signifies his possession of prudence and intellect.lt. the uncle of Plato. assert.in mluccd in In or &amp.BOOK i. But Platonic Theon. font a same The prior Critias. \(i f. hating abandoned for a tion. So thai were the oHspring of Glauro: and Peru tione was the mother of Glauco was the uncle of Critias. and suspended more ancient in intellection. calling the father of Charmides.gt. \\liat lie ll &amp.

l&amp. and unifying power. said. according to which she governs cates the all i. tr /licit arc things most onttnin/ toiuch other. Critias sa\s \cry properly. however. that it becomes him to repay his obligations to These things. according to which dane fabrication. and that by to the Goddess in the present solemnity. therefore. tliis says. to the principle which pervade. may agreeable to truth. who excited both the .70 &quot. or as being in want of it.s. in order to On^en says. &quot. by auditor*. saying. are said to recompense the benefits bestowed by total the production causes. justly. PROCLUS ON THF. And he dissolves ihe douht.Minerval solemnity. and as 4 lato also a-serts in the. hut he docs not admit \\ith Lon-inus. Philebus.second and third powers. Since.gt. with hymns. that it was devised lie does not. uni\crse.] But will you not say. that iu these words. that the . as Philolaus eonsiMing of partic -ipations of tlie contraries bo\uid and infmitv. In particular. fore. . lowers.soften the severity of that kind of writing. that reader. which I undertaking surpassing in now think proper to relate to you. it is assumed by Plato fiction. The . the greatest and most admirable of works. add the cause of the fiction.&quot.ifl the mundane oppositions. and possesses intellectual li\es she weaves together the. connectedly in herself. that the Minenal solemnity has an indication of demi contains all the mun urgic works? For the ( loddess herself indeed. informed magnitude that I all tlie rest. ho\ve\er. and the one contrariety contribute-. For he there says.&quot. there Socrates. \Ve. that it sake of have frequently whole theory of nature. as he thinks. and give coin/i/t tton to tliix n/iircrtc. Plato calls the one and common productive of the l\\ofold co-ordinations in the world. both me of one such a relation 1 may offer repay my obligations. indi things with herself. all things that contribute to of the world. as it were. Longinus doubts what was the intention of Plato in the insertion of this narra Tor he does not introduce it either for the purpose of ivin^ respite to the tion.ut narration indeed a and so far he agrees with ISumenius and for the his fol pleasure. by cele my tribute of praise and in a manner brating her divinity. may lie immediately assumed [from the words before us. as fabrication containing the other fabrication of things in infrangible bond-. lie [BOOK i. that there is much bnnnd and nittch infinity in the world. and fills all and likewise the union which extends through all variety. of the (Joddess which pervades through all things. however. and we likewi-e say.through wholes. and is allure the prior to physiology.

HOOK

i.]

TiM/EUS OF PLATO.
embrace
:i

71
life.

For

in solemnities, \ve especially

common and concordant

If,

however, wo have
selves to
tlie

asserted (lieso things rightly, we may from these transfer our \arioiis and one life of the world, and survey the difference lctween
lliis

the Parmeiiidcs and

dialogue.
in

For both

lia\e tlirir hypothesis in the

Pana-

thena-a
nities.

;

hut the

t

ormer

the greater, and the latter in the lesser of these; solem

and
and

this very properly.

For thry were celehrated ahout the same time with the Bcndidian festival; For since the productions of Minerva are twofold, total

intelligible and sensible; the former of these solemnities indeed, pertains to the exempt productions of the Goddess, unfolding into liu.ht the intelligible series of the Gods, hut the latter to her sub
partial,

supermundane and mundane,

ordinate productions, interpreting the powers of the Gods ahout the world. And the Bendidian festival, indeed, appears to manifest the suppression of the con
trariety

Gods who

externally acceding to the universe from a are the in^pective guardians of the festival.
in

Barbarric temjK

st,

Hence
to

it

is

said to

by the have

been celebrated

the

I

ir.rus

as

beiiv^

most adapted

the extremities,

and

material parts of the unit erse. But the Panathena an festival, exhibits the esta blished order which proceeds into the world from intellect, and the unconfiiscd

For this Goddess is at one and the same separation of mundane contrarieties. Another veil, therefore, was referred time, a lover of wisdom, and a lo\erofwar.
to the
pii))ils

Goddess

[in

of Minerva \\ere victorious

represented the ever, is celebrated with hymns, justly
ncce>-ar\

G

(he lleudidian festival,] representing the war in which the ju^t as the veil in the Panatheiuean solemnity, The Goddex, how ants \aiiifiiished by the Olympian Gods.
;

and with truth;

///A-//;/,

indeed, because

it is

that every tiling
;

per principle

which has proceeded, should be converted to its pro but with truth, because the hymn is assumed through things and

through beings.

And

because of hymns, some celebrate the essence, but others
1

the providence of the Gods, ami others praise the works that proceed from them, and a hymn of this kind is the last form of celebration; (for the praise of the

divine essence precedes all other panegyrics, as Socrates asserts in the Banquet) this heini; the case, the words celebrating a.s it were," are very properly
"

added.

For he wishes

to celebrate the

Goddess from

the deeds performed

But that the. Panathena?an followed tin: Bendidian fes by the Athenians. is asserted both by the commentators, and by Aristotle the Ilhodian. tivals,

For they say,

that

the

Bendidia were celebrated

in

the

Piraeus

on the

For

air

UITOV her*,

it is

necessary to read

air

aurwr.

72
tvrentieth

PROCLUS OK THE
day of April; but that the
festival

[HOOK

i.

sacred to

Minerva followed

these.

"

Soc.

Critias

But what is this ancient achievement, which once heard from Solon, and which is not narrated in history, but

You speak

well.

was once actually accomplished by

this

city."

Socrates exciting Crilias lo narration, requests that ho would relate the mighty undertaking which the ancient Critias said lie had heard from Solon, and which

In which, this in the first really performed. though nut much cclehraled, yet \\ deserves to he considered, that many things happen in tin; universe of which place .And in tliis, \\ortli\ men dill er from others, that the ninltitiule are ignorant. But they see things of this kind, and understand the exents that take place.
a>

it is

worth

\\liile

secondly to

o!>ser\e

that the

more

in sim perfect causes, rejoice

Hut from things of a composite natme, to Mich as are first. plicity, and proceed Mihordinate beings on the contrary, descend from things simple to things compo lh.it \\ hich is downward as tar as J or tlms also here Socrates ncuis from site. to Solon, in an ascending progression; hut Critias on the contrary, descends
from Solon
to the

mention of himself.

I did not acquaint you with that ancient history, which a youth, but from a man very much advanced in indeed receive from

"Cm.

I

will

"

years.

Longinns here again ohserves, that Plato pays attention
-

to elegance of diction,
t

he calls the undertaking ap%*H>v I or hy narrating the same things dillcrently. hut the iiiirrtitiuH T^X /IO.,-, and ttit tinm, nt u i/mil/t ; though as he signifies the all these, he mi-lit ha\e deiiominaled all of them after the same
thin;;

through

same manner.
artificial

hut not a philosopher.

of him, was a philologist, 1 lotinns said of Ori^en, ho\ve\er, dors not admit that Plato is studious to delight and certain ornaments of diction, hut that he pays attention
Lonu,inns, therefore, as
credibility,

spontaneous and unadorned

and accuracy

in imitations.

This mode

I or it was also of expression has spontaneity, as heini; adapted to erudition. that the dispositions of philosophers rightly said hy Aristoxemis, the lyric poet, extend as far as to sounds, and exhihit in all things the arrangement \\hich they

possess \junt I

thin!:,

as this mi^/itt/ heaven, exhibits in

ils

transfigurations clear

i.]

TIM;EUS OF PLATO.

73

; being moved in conjunction with the unapparcnt periods of intellectual natures. The great lamblichus, however, thinks that we should rather refer the variety of the words to things, and see how

images of the splendor of intellectual perceptions

in

nature contraries are vanquished by the one

;

how

the one

is

varied,

and how

great a mutation the same productive principles exhibit; subsisting in oneway in the intellect of the universe, in another, in soul, in another, in nature, and in
the last place, subsisting in matter.

And

abundant difference

in conjunction with similitude.

again, unfolding about matter a most For these observations are

worthy the conceptions of Plato, and not a solicitous attention to diction.
"

For at that time

Critias, as
ten."

he himself declared, was almost ninety

years old,

and

I

was about

logy, Solon, the ancient Critias,

These three persons are assumed, as having preserved this history, or mytho and this junior Critias because perfect causes
;

precede the fabrication of the World,
subjects of their government.

and perfective causes are antecedent
it

to the

The

elder Critias, however, heard this narration

from Solon, one from one
tias

;

from the elder Critias

was heard by the junior Cri

and Amynamlcr; and from the junior Crilias three persons received it. For the monad proceeds through the duad to the perfective providence of wholes. The numbers also of the ages, have much alliance to the things themselves. Fur the decad manifests the conversion of all mundane natures to the one ; and ninety the Rut both numbcrt restitution again to the monad, in conjunction with progression.

You may say, therefore, that Solon is analogous to arc symbolical of the world. the cause of permanency; but the former Crilias, to the cause which supplies progression ; and the present Critias to the cause which converts and conjoins

And the first of these, indeed, things which have proceeded, to their causes. the relation of a ruling and leading cause ; the second, of the cause which preserves
comes
war.
into contact with

mundane

fabrication in

a liberated manner; and the

third, of that

which now pays attention

to the universe,

and governs the ntundanr

When, therefore, that solemnity was celebrated among us, which is known by the name of Curcotis Apaturiorum, nothing was omitted which
Instead of wyKirov^rrai ran cicovwr ayarrrt wfptoiou,
(<*>.
.

**

it is

necessary to read, myrirov/jrraf rat*

X.

Tim. Plat.

VOL.

I.

K

74

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK

i.

boys during that festivity are accustomed to perform. For when our set before us the rewards proposed for the contest of singing parents had were recited, and many verses, both a multitude of verses of many poets of us especially sung the poems of Solon, because they were at that time entirely new.

The Apaturia was

a festival sacred to Bacchus,

on account of the duel between

Melanthus and Xanthus the Bu-otian, and the victory of Melanthus through war with each other for deception; the Bu-otians and Athenians waging But this festival was celebrated for three days; of w hich the first day (Knoe. Mas called ava^vnj,-, because many sacrifices were performed in it ; and the victims were called avai^uara, because they ere dra:m njward, am! sacrificed. The second there icere splendid banquets and much day was called o7na ; for on this day or lint the third day was called xv^emr*.,for mi this day buys, three feasting. such boys as were On this das also, enrol/id in t/uir trilns. four t/cnr* old, more sagacious than the rest, sung certain poems, and those were victorious who
t.
;
z.< r<

retained the greater

number of them

in their

memory.
tin

They
it

poems

of the ancients.

after Ion there

were four

But wilhr.-peet to families, but from

tribes,

sang, however, the must be observed, that

Cli-lln lies ten,

and

that after these,

each twelve of the families was divided into three: the tribes were arranged into the enrolment of the allied to each other as and the same
family

company,
;

being

:

boy.s

was

into tin se tribes

and

this

day, as

we have

before observed,
is

was called

Cureotis, from the bo\s that weie enrolled.

And

such

the information derived

from history. Again, however,

let

us direct our attention to things,

and behold these

in the

been narrated, as in images. The particulars that have which had for its pretext the victory of the Athenians, pertains to the

festival, therefore, of the

Apatmia,

the Athenians conquered [the Atlantic*], hypothesis according to which
intellectual
to

and

all

subdue material natures. Deception, likewise, is adapted and which separate themselves from imparlible and immaterial principles, forms of the become apparent, instead of truly-existing U ings. But the enrolment wills into their proper allotments, and bays, imitates the arrangements of partial The festival is an imitation of the their descents into different
generations.
if
it

mundane

celebrates a perpetual But the cuntct .s i,f rliapsmly, are analogous to the contests which souls festival. And the rhapsody with the universe. sustain, weaving their own life together
eternal hilarity in the world: for
is

tilled

with

<iods,

it

BOOK
itself,

i.]

TIM.EUS OF PLATO.
life

75

resembles the above-mentioned woven

of the universe.

For

this ha*

an

imitation of intellectual forms, in the

same manner

as the contests of rhapsody

have of heroic actions and manners, possessing together with an harmonious The many pnctnx adumbrate the conjunction, a connected series. many
r>f

})<>?(*,

and many cireum-miindane productive powers, and, in short, the Hut the nc~r jtocnix, are images of forms ulueh division of physical imitations.

1

many

natures,

perpetually flourishing, always perfect and prolific, and able, to operate effica And thus much concerning these particulars. ciously on other things.
art;

Mention, however,
lar

is

made

sense of the word, but as of one
likewise,

of the poems of Solon, not as of a poet in the popu who mingled philosophy with poetry. For of

mnndane works

And
der,

the praise

because,

and whole productions, a royal intellect is the leader. related as being mentioned to another person, i. e. to Amynanas we learn in the Pha-drus, that which judges differs from that
is

which makes and generates. Referring, however, all that has been said, to the universe, we may infer as from images, that partial souls, partial natures, and
partible forms,

and of

these, those especially that are

always new and

efficacious*,

contribute to the

Gods, who one world, one harmony, and one kindred
"

these are connected together by the are the mspective guardians of fabrication, and are co-arranged with
all
life.

mundane

war.

But

But then one of our
it

tribe,

or whether

was

his

real opinion, affirmed that

whether ho was willing to gratify Critias, Solon appeared to him

to he most wise in other concerns, and in things respecting poetry, the most ingenuous and free of all poets. Upon hearing this, the old man and said, laughing (for I very well remember) was vehemently delighted If Solon, O Amynander, had not engaged in poetry as a casual affair, but had made it as others do a serious employment and if through sedi
;

;

tions

and other fluctuations of the

state in

which he found

his

country

involved, he had not been compelled to neglect the completion of the history which he brought from Egypt, I do not think that either IJe>iod

or Homer,
renown."

or any other poet, would

have acquired greater glory and

Here again, the
1

lovers of diction
it.

may

indicate to their admirers,
in

tiiat

Plato

The word Xyoi

I

conceive, omitted

the original in thi

place.

76

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK

i.

of Solon, since he represents the praise as bestowed cautiously praises the poetry and for the sake of others, and not as given by one who by a private individual, For Plato, if any one, was a most to intellect and reason. K

Heraclides Ponticus there excellent judge of poets, as Longimw also admits. at that time most renowned, fore says, that Chu-rilus and Antimachus beina: and that he per Plato preferred the poems of the latter to those of the former, In vain, of Antimachus. suaded Ileraclides at Colophon, to collect the poems
then-fore,
sufficient
is
it

pokc conformably

futilely

judge of ports. be considered philosopher, and it may
investigator,

observed by Callimachus and Duris, that Plato was not a Hence, what is hero said manifests the judgment of the
in a

more
it

historical point of view.

The
the

however,

of tilings,
distribution

will

think

requisite

to

show how

all

causes of the orderly

connective of contrariety, are extended to one principle, and adhere through media to the first of things. For thus those
narration of the

of the universe, and also the causes that are how the last

who

receive the

ancient

Critias, are

extended

to him,

but he looks to Solon.

Ami
a

Critias],

admires the poetic power of Solon ; but they, through Critias as For gratifying the former [i. e. are referred to the poetry of Solon. medium, But what is it that Critias says the poetry of the hitter. they praise
he, indeed,

was subordinate to divinely-inspired poets, from respecting Solon ? That he these two causes; because he engaged in poetry as a casual affair; and because he found the city of the Athenians in a state of sedi when he came from
tion,

and

that

Egypt, he was not able,

his

country being involved

in difficulties,

to

com

What the history there from thence hither. plete the history, which he brought fore was, he informs us as he proceeds. From these tilings, however, as images, Plato manifests, that Trhat is primarily
demiurgic, and every thing effective, have other primary energies ; but that their secondary energy is the production of secondary things. Likewise, that the con
fused,

disorderly,

and unstable nature of matter, frequently does not receive

ornament from more divine causes, but subsists without symmetry to the gift which proceeds from them. Hence, second and third powers are unfolded into nature. Solon, therefore, being most liilht, which proximately adorn its formless
ingenuous, and imitating exempt causes, did not deliver through poetry the Atlantic war. But Critias, and those posterior to him, transmit the account of
this

war

to others,

imitating second

and

third causes,

who produce
aAY

the variety of

1

For uAAa evfipiTpun in

this place,

it it

necessary to read,

a<rv^erp.

BOOI

i.]

TIM/EUS OF PLATO.
and the orderly
distribution of things,

77

effective principles,

which

is

harmonized

from contraries into a

visible subsistence.

Moreover,

the assertion that Solon

was the

icisctt

And
in

his being most free,

of the seven wise men, exhibits his analogy to the first principles. adumbrates the power which is exempt, and established

itself, and which (ills all things in a liberated manner. thing of this kind likewise concurs with the wise man, as Ix ing immaterial, without a master, and of itself. The ancient Critias, also, being said to be old, indicates a cause which

A

and remote from generation. For" wisdom" says Plato, "and true most desirable things to him icho has arrived at old age." Again, the opinions are assertion of Critias, that he vert/ well remembers, exhibits to our view the salvation
is

intellectual,

of eternal productive powers, and the stable energy of secondary causes, about such as are first. But Solon engaging in poetry as a casual affair, represents to us that production. into secondary natures, hare only a secondary rank among first
1

;

causes.

For

their first energies are intellectual, according to

which they are united

to

the beings prior to themselves.
If, however, some one omitting the survey of things, should consider through what cause Plato introduced these particulars, according to their apparent

meaning, he will very properly find that they contributed to the thing proposed. For the design of Plato was to narrate the Atlantic war. But it was requisite
that

the messenger of this
also,

Hence

Solon

is

history should neither deceive nor be deceived. said to have been most wise, and intimately acquainted

For as a wise man, he was not deceived, and as being an intimate acquaintance, he would not deceive. It was likewise requisite, that the receiver of this history should neither have been aged, in order that the narra
with those about Critias.
tion

may appear

to be ancient,
to

tias is

supposed consequence of this,

have

nor yet so young, as to be forgetful. Hence, Cri a youth, but smTicicntly able to remember, and in to have contended with others in rhapsody, in which much
lx>en

memory

is

necessary.
still, it

Farther

was

requisite, that the ancient Critias

should not commit such

they should appear to them to be con it is said, that some one of the tribes, by enquiry Hence, temptible. very properly of Solon, heard the history. But it was requisite that he also should, in a certain
like narrations to very

young men,

lest

respect,

have been familiar with Solon,

in

order that the old

man might oppor

tunely relate all the history to him.

Hence, likewise, the praises of the poetry of
read ra

For

<ropiffc*Xijrf

78
Solon precede the history
tify Critias.
;

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK

i.

And

nan tier in order to gra the praise being given by thus much concerning the disposition of what is said in the

Amy

text.

That Solon, however, vent to Kgypt, not only for the purpose of obtaining the Atlantic history, but likewise; that the Athenians, during his absence, obeyed i or his laws, which he had bound them by an oath not to violate, is e\ident.
during
this time, also,

return, he Ix-came master of the city,

he associated with Crojsns, and sailed to Egypt but on his which was in a tumultuous condition through
;

And thus much we have derived from history. Origen, how doubts how I lato calls Solon most free : for this is not an encomium adapt ever, ed to a poet. And he dissohes the doubt by saying, that he is so (ailed, either because he spent his money liberally, or because he used the greatest freedom of
the
l
isi>tratida-.

five, without any timidity in his poetical denominated, as being in his poetry remiss and uncompositions. But lamblichus says, that no one of these solutions is true, but that compelled.

speech

;

and

that

on

this

account he \\as
.so

Or

lie

\\as

through this appellation, the lil>t.rated condition of the intellect of Solon, the un~ .senile nature of his \iitue, and that which was venerable in his character, and

which transcended
th.it

all

other things, are signified.

The same

interpreter also savs,

the laughter of Crilias manifests a generative progression from causes, perfect, indicates the sahation of and rejoicing in its progeny. But the remembering
^<7/,

was Solon anxious to deliver all natural \\orks and the mundane the Atlantic war in verse Because, says he, I or this is analogous to its effective and contrariety subsist through imitation. as Critias is analogous to proximate and secondary causes. primary causes; just Because material motions and material But why was he prevented by sedition ?
effective principles in

the world.
?

\\liy, therefore,

tumult become an impediment, as jo\\ers of mundane causes.
44

we ha\c

before ubsened, to the productive

consequence of this, Amynumler enquired of Critias what that To which lie; answered, that it was concerning an a flair, history was. which ought most justly to he the greatest and most iciiowncd which this city ever accomplished though through length of time, ami the destruc
III
;

tion of those

by

whom

it

was undertaken, the fame of

its

execution has

not reached the present

age."

Longinus says, that something

is

wanting here to render the sense complete

ROOK
J

i.]

TIM/EL S OF PLATO.
word
considered
is

79
to
/<*,

or

tlic

wanting to the words most justly

because these

are required in what follows, 1ml not the
says, that
l>cing

word

ovo-r^, being.

Longinus did not perceive,

that, in

Porphyry, however, consequence of the undertaking
"

the greatest, hut not yet celebrated, Plato adds, ought woxt justly to be most rcnou nal" lint we, directing our attention to things, say, that Plato calls it
the greatest
itself
uttdcrlakiti",

as bringing with
that he

it

an image of
it

all

contrariety, extending

every where.
renoicncd.

And

the visible fabrication of things.

most renvu:ncd, as contributing to For thus, also, the works of nature are called by

denominates

Orpheus

Boundless eternity, and nature Ilcnmvn d, remain.

s

works

"

Relate

this a flair,

Critias,

says

Amynandcr, from

the beginning,

and inform us what that transaction was, how it was accomplished, and from whom Solon having heard it, narrated it as a fact."
I. e. llelate what this admirable deed was, how, or after what manner it was performed, how it became known to, and by >\hom being preserved, it reach ed the hearing of Solon. Plato appears, through this, to investigate the whole form of contrariety, how it was effected, or may be. known, and from what causes,

to us invisible,

to the narration of

that

I

may

suspended. Before, therefore, he recurred through relatives Solon ; but now he investigates the superior histories of it, or, speak clearer, the principles of the fabrication of this contrariety. And
it

is

by

directing your attention to this narration,

you may survey,

as in images, through
first

certain symbols, all the principles of this fabrication, as far as to the

causes

of it.

"

There

is,

the

summit
is

then, says he, a certain region of Kgypt, called Delta, about of which the streams of the Nile are divided, and in which
Saitical."

there

a province called

.things

first place, it is worth while to observe how the narration always delivers comprehended, proceeding from such as are more comprehensive from Egypt, indeed, the river, from this Delta, from this the Saitic province, and from

In the

;

tin s

Sa

i

s,

sacred to Minerva.

In the next place, having observed

this, it will

be

in short. that which is parti total. it is and the intelligible es we say. With respect to Egypt. to the mundane all tion. Solon. necessary.gt. proceeding in the same way. to the celestial triangle which is connective on account !eing proximate to the ram. but the history of Solon. assimilated to the whole invisible order. and of the undented power of Minerva. and proceeding as far as to the last of tilings . ference between human anil di\ine fabrication* becomes apparent. is converted to that which is more hut the latter antecedently comprehends the causes perfected by it of the former. com where preceding sch as are comprehended . cient. being divided is to r and to the sea.NYe and which administers the all-various circulations of mun shall also be benefited by perceiving how. that which is recenf or junior. be well. the more prehending causes every and the impartible fabrication. to discuss every particular. it is which produced its With respect to Delta the principle of visible natures. to assimilate the knowledge of the Egyptian priests to the former [or impartible] fabrica the productive powers contained in the universe which contrariety. analogous to the one vivific fountain of t&amp. and prior to these. about the Sa itic province. prehensive causes com hended by more total causes. that in what is here asserted. in what he here says. and is . for the sake of which tin: whole narration For. &quot. which the Egyptians particularly honor. and is established above it. of the whole earth. it will stably comprehends . however. and how. an fabrications. indeed. some call it an image of matter. however. by still greater and more perfect intel And thus much concerning the w hole of the lectual perceptions and powers. and is (It-nominated recent . And this fabrication. and placed in mutations. text. . the egress from one riu ht line to the right and left. as bein^c therefore. and others of the intelligible. particularly participates we refer this war. which the stream of the Nile indicating. calls on the priest to the developement are reckoned ancient by the tions.80 PROCLUS ON THE [BOO* i. which is always recent.cl fabrication. such as are truly ancient. the dif For thus also. to the more no&amp.f all divine life. in of ancient transac these. which Plato calls the Sa itic province . dane natures. sea forming the hypothenuse of the triangle. in visible natures. filled from these causes. It is. in divine Creeks. indeed.gt. and. the analogy of these things. to which also the present words is refer the father of the narration. liut t( it . but the priest knows both such events as in images. others It is divided analogously sence. that it is that about make is diuded. also. to the first and most proper to ascent! through For you may perceive this supcrnally compre of fabrication. all generation. such as arc more partial. ble. so as from the Nile. since is excited.

&quot. to whom &quot. Hence likewise Sa s is not shaken by earthquakes. Eor he paid attention to wisdom and justice beyond all the (other Egyptian] kings. The word land. and also because the ram is the principle of veneration. participates also of a great portion of the celestial regions. \\hich run into the se. and Canobic from Canobus.i from the i summit [of Delta]. Neith. L Tim. his origin.BOOK of i. and secondary natures always perfected from such as are more perVOL. which proceed from one root as far as to generation. the obliquity of it. which the city has to Athens . I and imitating. and is moral with (fie greatest celerity. is now assumed analogous to Solon. but in the Greek Athena.v pmtrcd on the he equinoctial points. or Minerva. and has the same relation to him.l TTM/EUS OF PLATO. But from the city the whole province was denominated Sa itic. is is the principle of the hypo-itasis of the mundane its But the Nile to be arranged ana logous to the y. but as partici pating of a certain pecidiar elllux of the (iod [who presides over that constellation]. therefore.. Moreover. of Delta in is here very what follows. or province. may be. just as Sctannytic is denominated from Sebennetus. sis derived city in the Egyptian tongue. if. Plat. Amasis. into not because it is situated under it. however. as beiutr among the constellations established about the equinoctial. Of this province. appropriate : since the triangle. and its division aliout The Nile also is a symbol of the life which i. The inhabitants of this city were very friendly to the Athenians. derived appellation from the distribution of For thus the Egyptians called divisions of the great parts of Egypt. whole or/t/. assimilated to tho two co-ordina tions. receptacle. i from which also king A mahas a presiding divinity. 81 Atntnon having the fare of a ram. . in a certain resjM-ct. and of which genera tion is the recipient. The also they said they were after a certain manner its allied. in order that we may survey the cities and the men adorned by the Goddess [Minerva} as from one monad. Sa is. as The mention.odiac. through having an inclination similar to divisions. as being situated under it. whose name is. I. But the Sa itic province. the greatest city is Sais. must le sacerdotally referred to the constellation called the Bear. which forms a great part of Delta. nor on account of its coldness. voixoc. therefore. in consequence of receiving a firm establishment on account of the place alnmt the pole. the two sides of the ISile. He is therefore conjoined with Solon. we shall learn elements. So that a triangle is produced from them and their common which they conjointly flow.

here especially a junccr of the universe She vi-ry c-alled by proper!}. tlu refore. The forms. and the illu is J or of the the it Zodiac. ami Phanodenms relate.s her the first tlie earth. Hut the J^vplians relate. city being the same \\ith the Minerva of the \Vith respect. on the contrary. some of the inhabitants of Sai s came renew their alliance with the Athenians.gt. it is possible for the same 1 The furim-r part of (Kirt HIM is ri|&amp. tory through envy.ua^e of liis country. ho\\e\er. ir/nch J brought Jorth the *un. I am concealed.H2 feet. it is know. that the Athenians were But Theopompus. government of herself. tiz. i* only to be found Coinmeiitanes of Proclus. llit latter of it. however. and a lover of war. government. of her. circle i. ln-ini.s itself. &quot. the (Greeks manifest liy assertinjr tliat she \\as-enerated from the head of Jupiter. that he mii. thai -. But IMato only says thus much con that the SniUe were very friendly tn the Athenians. and her presiding po\\cr.gt.ht say this on account of the tutelar (Joddess of the Athenians. tutelar (Joddess of the city . that in the ad\ turn of the (Joddess there was \o inscription.j. that Theopompus altered the his For. and at the same time apparent and nnapparent. the fathers of the Saita*. [BOOK i. that they were a colony of them. howe\er. minates generation \\ith an allotment tign* / in the heavens. lias demiur-ic. nv tyu kUjixuy frinvv t)\wi tytvtro. Plato a lover of wisdom. of this (Joddess extend* supernall) as far as to the last of things. . however.tion to \&amp. In next place.v that are. and leader of these allotments in tlie he no\\ denominatr. In the For the (Joddess in the lani. tin- allotnu-nts which an governed by 1 And U-sidcs this he clearly represents to us. PROCLUS ON THE CallisthcncH. is and the equinoctial established. tain manner allieil to them. that proceeding from intelligible and intellectual causes through terrene dis supcrcelestial orders. That the it. ceh hrating her surname. luit antecedently comprehending the essence and form of and thus possessing this allotment in a manner adapted to herself.e fount! in IMutanh * treatise on Uis and Osiris. ram ascribed to the motive.ihich mil In-. therefor*-.gt. says. (/W. hut in these thrjruit ichich I brvugh! forth teat thr inn. likewise. to this (Joddess the guardian of the requisite to tlie two cities. or the leader. he indicates the uniform pretlu&amp. not imparting an adventitious tributions. uml after a cer cerning them. (Joddess. according to him. he honours place. Athenians denominate the estahlished comprehension in herself. to certain parts of the celestial regions and she is allotted places adapted to herself.&quot. / am the things one has crcr laid upen the garment by this wv/. that tin-./t.v. to The Platonic Atticus says. It is possible.Irche^eten. Tlie urigiual of tins part is. and that have The Jiuit been.

y &quot. on his arrival tint her. with respect to memory and history. Solon. duelling in those countries.le to the and still more partially from spermatic productive powers. virtue. their colour and roice . had any knowledge of things of this kind. because they call the Goddess by a name which has the same signification with that of the Greeks. they especially differ according to the gregal government of the Gods.gt. but others of another power contained in the Goddess. from the temperature of the air. on account of his political wisdom. lie perceived that neither himself. when they are trans planted in a foreign land. establishing the name according to tutelar Goddess of the two cities Sai s in consequence one science. and on account of the dignity and his city. that worth of neither himself. transactions.lt. justly appeared to be deserving of honor to the priests of Sai s. nor any other Grecian. If. For again. contributes indeed to political * and also contributes niroAeycr in this place. voice. more and others that a variation is produced in different nations from the placet vlucli they severally inhahil. just as plants are changed together with the quality of the region. as being in a certain respect them for the aflinity is not wholly perfect. by them.gt. So that those who migrate into other count rict o that frequently change. The remembrance.OK i. the inhabitants of Sai s are allied to very properly said to be lovers of the Athenians. there is one and Athens. of such particulars superior to other. as he himself And on his inquiring about ancient relates. it ix likewise iicccs.gt.&amp. and the direr si t us of the tutelar powers. had any knowledge of very ancient of such to the transactions. For some may participate : less of the same And some may participate of one. . providence. many words. 1 theory of the mundane For Awmi/i read uovtrir nraXoyor.itu&amp. (as he himself declared). from ichich you willfind a difference in colour. very honourably received. figure. therefore.] TIM/KUS OF rLATO. statues may since things to be signified through signified words are images of the 1 be formed of one thing from different materials. among the Greeks.vary to f. and motion. in different places. however.. heat-ens. Hut he found. from hal&amp.nic ////*. was. For many Nor ot is it at all wonderful that both should denominate her rightly. nor any one of the Greeks &quot. affairs of those priests who possessed a knowledge. In this country Solon. llttt you may say. I&amp. so that the Egyptians preserve the analogous.

\\hicli are in secondary natures.gt. and through total intellections . anil preserve ancient n&amp. there is still less reason to compare \\itli the much-celebrated archa-ology of the Greeks: from which tliis The words wi ti&amp.//r)^m apptar to me to be wanting in ibis plate in the original.lt.gt. hace nut only preserved the memorials of &even says they hare. but others are recent as with rence to them. of Deucalion and Pyrrha their posterity . likewise.. in consei/ucm-e of not being destroyed either uahr orjirc. when lie once desired to excite them to the relation of pris tine transactions. are filled is from them with more di\ine and Mich as now al&amp. there is such a difference in demiurgic principles. the ~uorld.84 periods. together with a proper attention to the di lieplace. this evocation. (as described by the mythologists)..&quot. which Solon being the priests.w//Tri/ icltliout ii&amp. but ltk. found that he PROCLUS ON THE desirous to [IOOK i. For extending to the Egyptian priests the most ancient transactions of the Greeks. theologists 1 this is by particularly honoured [as being suspended] from the father of wholes. through the purity of the b\i air.gt. was perfectly know.lt. but others of more partial form*. For a certain fabrication recent.&amp.i]&amp. and twenty myriad? of years. with \\hointhere are intellectual perceptions exempt from other things. called But anil less excellent. sayx [(tmblichus. These things. he tor this purpose began to discourse about those most ancient events which formerly happened tions concerning the first among Niobe . and interrogating for this purpose deficient in knowledge of tin s kind.o effected by Solon.moriuls. he in a certain respect leads them to the narration of their antiquities. And refe Hence. &quot.~cise of the vhulc tipocatttttasc. as thai . are is symbols of divine concerns.. and which have more eternal natures for their objects. lint the Assyrians. of -^hich (lie Egyptians d unent the celestial participate in a remarkable degree. that some of them are comprehensive of more total.gt. and possess a subordinate power. perceptions are more partial And farther still. . and from the intelligi ble Gods. bodies. some of them precede in dignity and power. as Uifiparchun and periods of the secen rulers vj i So that these memorials being admitted. at the same time paying rent ages in which these events are said to have taken Of such a nature as this are all divine causes : for they call forth more divine powers. us. I mean the tradi Phoroneus anil and after thetleluge. But those intellectual or workmanship.

however. We shall however see. what one of the ancient priests said respecting the narration of Solon.Farther still. they restored the human race.erhaps it was the priest of Sa i s. through indelible lie accuses. not only as striving l&amp. hut that of the Athenians from Cecrops. hut to the whole . lint from him lasos and Pelasgos. . the analogous. priest is ancient. And |&amp. comprehend stably and knowledge to which causes the priest is Greeks as being always children. they were preserved miiiratin:. Ami these indeed.eyond measure in what he is about to say.gt. as we learn from the tilings. one of those more ancient priests exclaimed. whose name was Ethimon. The Egyptian intolerable. who was a native of Athens : but with the Arrives. the archa-ology of the Greeks is different with different [Grecian the Athenians it proceeds as far as to Erichthonius. relating these and such-like particulars. hut at Ileliopolis.evident through what follows. therefore. with a priest called Ochlapi . because they have not acquired the intellectually. the frequent destructions of them. cities]. met at Sai s with a priest called I ateneit . who says as follows to Solon : But upon this. from thence.e. but for the purpose of indicating the circulation of al&amp. respecting Deucalion and Parnassus. in whom Argos was how For Argos descended from denominated 1 iYlasgic. so that before they become truly ancient.gt. each of whom was Solon. evident. but bear servile hairs in their soul. iSiohe.itouk i. however. Solon. all- various wisdom of the Egyptians. in order that while he reprotes he for may not l&amp. are manifest. and vrrha.&quot. will IM. from Inachns. that the present narration does not look to that which and the uiuTerse. you Greeks are always children. as far as to i horoneus and Niol&amp. that a delude taking place. there Or this privation of wisdom arises from fore.] TIM. For For with are these two with the Greeks the most ancient. Solon.gt. and at Sehennytns. &quot.o and may have a probable reason things from the same to the same. he employ* a repetition of the name of Solon. with one. which the more total causes of things gene rated in the universe. nor is there an aged Greek among you. indicates their want of wisdom. But according to some. 5 is likewise it is small. Juvenility. causes the Egyptian priests to narrate their antiquities.e But teaching about archaeology. histories of the Egyptians.gt. from particulars. they . the Argolie race Infills prior to Deucalion. The however. O Solon. and also that antiquity with the Tliessalians is as far as to these. .-EL S Ol PLATO.lt.

but powers. it if is they were recent. does this priest accn. as the noble Ileraclitus says. and the knowledge from astmlo-y of the And thus much in answer to the doubt. Anil the remembrance fiom pillars. 1. fabrication. though. juvenile through destruction. things many similar circumstances.ifUfuf hfrc. are inscribed.M hocome again PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. some of which are ellcctive of the regeneration of things. but the other It is said to have related various mutations. ir/wna. it is it impossi ble that memory and seine should be effective of science. As. and contributes to the mundane For contrariety. framed by Calippio. the Il was knowledge of transactions not be attended with any tiling won idle. however. therefore. and finding frequently from history concordant apocatasta-es of one cause of them. and corruptions. we produce one form of them. and such as sense apprehends. -in Aristotle says. and filled fiom more ancient and primoijenial causes. in the demiurgic profession whidi is distributed into parts and mul tiplied.1. past transactions are is always present through memory. as But the history through history. proceeds on account of that principle. indeed. tSu fo t^nifitfof utrint. that the \\ill Egyptians call a month a year.Minerva. is one exhibits a transcendent remembrance of antiquity. ? may be said. the world. .lt.lt.-ratioii. J : or in actions or inventions. that they contribute to the reminiscence of wholes. Or. the enumeration of derful. For in the fabrica .t at the suinc time must be For by relating in many admitted. learned knotrledge of past transactions docs not produce intellect ? But is is which Eudoxus says true. tion of Jupiter. since. we recur to the lr aHections of the air were celestial motions. and there survey Ihcjuiiior held together by .se the Greeks w ith such severity what a if rtry that there admirable in his narration. whether however. they have this order with reference to each other just as the Instead of T(O. let MS recur to the theory of wholes. I read. 1 account of an exempt cause. Or it is because ancient deeds are not preserved by them .gt. in which tiling paradoxical and worthy of admiration. in the Eiryptian priest to tliink highly of himself for many of these years. assumed way adapted to the orderly distribution of the universe. y&amp. must be Solon to the former. on Aiiain. But with the F^yptians. vn&amp. TO r^iip&amp. therefore. there are causes in every thin . the priest. For from thence this fabrication possessing stability proceeds. Hence. to me. in these. that the arrangement of the eld. AYhy. but others are guardians of the coherence o( productive assumed the as analogous to these latter causes. but their knowledge is always confined to present events. For thus the observations O f many t) tilings. r prior to the younger in a likewise appears person.

and to more an And lioanj disci/ilinc is analogous to the com prehension. through which. of the unical intelligence of wholes. the enquiry is. some of is the (jods hairiness is an undeiiled partial life. more is partial in what is here said.&quot. in a contrary direction. the priest.n. an inquiry is made. but remote tradition. though that which is junior proceeds from a higher order. &quot. [in 87 Klean guest proceed from being older to being younger Plato] says. and again will be of these. indeed.] TIM. knowledge. Jicvaiility of soul. But the reason of this is the multitude and variety of destructions of : the est the great race.&quot. who is the guardian of divine institutions. and to causes. dignity. but the lesser from ten contingencies. nor any discipline hoary from its existence it) former periods of time. just as Solon comes from a city. proceed hut those that live in the period of Jupiter. Tiina?us says. why the Greeks are always children. which formerly have been. To whom the priest : Because all your souls arc juvenile . you wish to survey the paradigms of these things. excels through antiquity. For hoariness adapted.EUS OF PLATO. . and on this account constituted it of a more principal nature. . arising from fire and water . discipline with them hoary from its existence in former periods of Or. that the Drmiiirgus produced it more ancient than the body. neither containing any ancient opinion derived from remote tradition. human thousand other In what but there time ? is is no if here said. and which is a symbol of intelligence and remote from generation but juvenility of more . that which more ancient possesses a great &quot. is In mundane works. is analogous to renovation of life. Hence to but to others juvenility. which per tains in a greater degree to Minerva. of the nature and composition of all that the world contains. Now. that those who live in the Saturnian period. respecting the soul. however. the fir*t and most divine of mundane natures cient principles. and which now comes into contact with generated natures.unc. indeed. And in this dialogue. . to stable intelligence.joic i. comprehend totally and exemptly the causes of all generated beings. and eternal but comprehend ly and antecedently contain in themselves temporal natures things more proximate to the universe partially and subordinate!} as falling short . therefore. which united and always the !.

and destruction. in a In-coming manner. that any one of 1 its parts should still exist according to nature. and points out the variety . however. would \*&amp. subsistence for parts follow wholes. or the one has a preternatural. But genera of perpetually generated bodies. exist preternaturally.the.em-ration. the junior fabrication presides over variety. on a certain time. there would be nothing stable. figures. must he summed in one way in the and in another in material natures. wholes and the parts alwavs subsist according to nature. stably and uni principles of second principles partially. d.gt. |K&amp. is There are. he first discusses the fore. the variety of generation !M&amp. and wholes are compre . but the it is always to contact with the nature of the things which they iro\ern. in the former. therefore. but the latter remain in a condition conformable to nature. always preserve the same and a similar order according wholes. and its it Hence is order destroyed. hensive of parts. nor would the circle of genera And it is impossible that wholes should have a preternatural.md tending to corruption. But .gt. of them of which the first in the universe.however. tion.PROCLUS ON THE HtJ [BOOK i. certain various periods there is always generation and alwavs corruption in the universe. If. a mutation of heavens. pre-exist. Ami to na ture .uch-like doubts. impossible that the former should. when the whole of our animal nature is moved. at a certain time. different elements have dominion at different times. &quot. there of wholes separately and stably. but ne\er truly is. circle.lt. have a preternatural subsistence. either con For either the formably to nature. but parts a natural. . or both. and in such a way as to come into tedly. For neither is it possible. but the different parts of these wholes subsist at different times. This however. or preternaturally. But if all things were disposed preternatu rally. for this to retain in the memory things that are absent. dis the extremities of beings. know what is present. that of things in the world fore.gt.riods the Gods. and the first es natures would sipated. . I up is oiuittni hrre in the original. and this in a twofold respect. have an antecedent knowledge. indeed. inde&amp. tion be preserved. analogous to the perception but it must be admitted. from which an invariable sameness of sub sistence might be present with mutable nature*. but the other a natural subsistence. and such as are ancient becoming he discovers the cause of s. For. evolves its ou n In this circle. and the motion &quot. all tilings [iK-r|M-tually] existed according to nature. generated natures through what cause renovated ? Be always rising into existence. Tor that which U sensible is rising into existence. last of all things. Ix-ing governed through the mutations of these bodies. jH-rpetual sences would IK.

* For ktort in this place. though they are preserved by other figures [or configurations]. so as to cause things which are {reiterated in time. as are able to exist in For the universe does not envy salvation to such things conjunction with it . on account of the power of the inspective Gods.] TJMACUS OF PLATO. are disposed conformably to nature. and who are allotted in motion. but one is more generated. and in the next place. the parts are more able to subsist conformably to nature. but afterwards on account of the .eing administered together with the universe. that wholes being established in a natural subsistence. but that which is incapable of l&amp.gt. some of position being different of different parts. to be also dissolved in time. therefore. expels from essence every tiling For it is perfectly impossible that what is disgraceful should remain in the uni verse. but another to corruption. parts at one time following tin. but at another time have a preternatural tendency. * For r/i/JaXAu lierr. the. For man the forms or species of the uni is always.is deprived of order in the universe * is disgraceful. read No n. verse have a never-failing subsistence. The law of of this kind as disgraceful.BOOK It i. figures. the earth is always. different peculiarities seme tial preside over climates. but from these stabi derived . I. For different parts of the earth are adapted to different parts of the heavens. but corrupt ive of parts. But that which . We have shown therefore why abundant and partial corruptions are produced in different places of the earth. 89 remains. according ~ O to a circular progression. and each of the elements always ceed from the celestial For since corruption and generation pro is. receiving both a natural and preternatural subsistence. each is ways generated and corrupted. abundant corruptions likewise of par divinities who some more natures being produced in different places . M . on account of ha bitude to the heavens. is not able to abide in it. lity is this Ix-ing the case. rejoicing in sameness. But as of partial animals. but these are. continuity is produced in mundane formsi and the visible figures are preservative of species. however. imitations of divine intellections. and of the . and another is more corrupted than anothen and one is more adapted to existence. but others in permanency. on account of a different temperament. Tim. VOL. and the intellections are suspended from intellectual forms. it is necessary to read crf3oAAci. indeed. thus also the indeed .il several parts of the earth.wholes. Jupiter. but others in difference. but others are more adapted to sustain deviations into a preternatural condition of In-ing this. Plat. on account of the efflux of them in the universe. And in addition to all that has been said.

through the immutable progression of dhine forms. and is indicated by the tradition of the Egyptians. which mystically says of the It is not. and For air when it becomes putrid. that he assumes different forms in the signs of the zodiac.gt. as being more may be produced from is other causes.00 In the next place through the it PR4CLUS ON THE must l&amp. Hence they are capable in consequence of not corrupting vigorous and powerful than the other elements. yet man at all wonderful. if though there and e\ery form always exist. in which we li\e.il further on. is sufficiently able to proceed through all other things. has an efficacious and productive order in the elements. effected by deluges and conflagrations. the effective cause indeed the order of the universe. and not through that of the other elements. For through these. remaining two elements are more adapted to us. these elements earth suffer ing prior to us. is But water. Farther air.gt. and conflagrations through Ix-ing But famine and pestilence. and water are able to operate on appear to ojH-rate on u&amp. are many destructions. Fur this is asserted by the fables of the. without lieing previously af Fire. and at different times produces the generation of different things.gt. of us.l. and prior to the junior fabrication. therefore. the former by permeating. abundant absorptions. indeed. as being more allied are of a kindred nature with it. indeed moved with greater facility than earth. fected themselves . which are contrary to these. in OIH- of llic nolt s on tin- 4lli book. and earth when divulsed. tilence is a passion of air. that violent. like air. therefore.pire. are less destructive with them more violent destructions. bring. sun. Greeks. For w e are pedestrious. so that it reasonably follows. And all these. are the greatest destructions. and the You may also say. it is not affected by violence. and chasms and earthquakes are passions of earth.tiin. yet And by its facility of motion.gt. greatest destructions are that the. Fire. Deludes. . according to another mode of and together with suffering themselves. and allied to earth and as we are on all sides compre hended by air. however. the productive principles in the universe possess an imariable * Jx-c lliis t\|&amp. and in jnany places. earthquakes and wars. is more difficultly passive than air. survey also. But pes produces pestilence. nor becomes imbecile when dissipated. but the others.e [BOOK i. themselves distempered.but through being passi\c with difficulty. it is able to ojR-rate. and is naturally adapted predominance of fire to divide them. this. and other such-like of partial calamities. still. therefore. which always makes new effects. it is e\ident that our bodies Hence these elements. but the latter by external impulsion. . us. to. and which we re&amp. shown why the greatest of destructions are and water.. of producing more extended destructions.

And over these. thus also. And of the former. For . the apparent meaning of the narration being historically deli vered by the Greeks.ill stirh-like corruptions and generations derive their completion from the junior fabrication.the form of a first to keep the track observed by his parent.] from which also tbe circulation of forms. evident. [or the fabrication of the junior. . the priest investigating the real meaning of the history. and perished himself blasted by 1 fable. teaches Solon from this concerning things serving is perfected.&quot. to the principles that are proximately established now said.lt.said by us is in the first place. and such as likewise well divided according to time. is which are stably. is to . on a certain time attempting to drive the chariot of his father. that Phaeton the offspring of the Sun.discussed. totally. burnt up tin earth. and the knowledge mythology above the world. that For raft^ovoi la IT . requires a manifold discussion. and of all multiplied and divided life. and the nature of bodies. indeed. to Solon. eternally. For . that what is about Phaeton to the Greeks. That the moved. them from such as are first. * History therefore says. but they are connectedly comprehended by the intelligible orders of the Gods. things multiplied. arid of the psychical ascents and descents. liowe\er. and in the third place. havcstill multiform mutations. And thus much has been the narration The for the sake of the whole theory. philosophically. indeed. the Egyptian preperfection imparted what is related by the Greeks. . As. generated from an immovo- For the relation subsisting among you. of which he had a knowledge prior to Solon. ami in order to show that not discordant with the things proposed to IM. that theologists refer the causes of periods. of . things secondary remaining. or mundane Gods. is belonging indeed said to have.01 sameness of subsistence. is . unitedly. however.HOOK i. the supermundane powers preside. fable respecting IMiaeton. and not being able the natures to thunder. is a symbol.Solon. And it is known. are principles of beings comprehend* indeed things partial natures. because every thing which able cause.&amp. and unfolding it into light. it i* necessary to read rtpirxpvoi. and tin: variety of corporeal and psychical periods. is always suspended from its cause. physically. in divine natures.] TIMJFAJS OF PLATO. it is necessary to consider it historically. refers the Hence it appears to me. ? What therefore does this narration obscurely signify That psychical lives. in the second place. but of the latter.

. should burn all that p rt of the earth which is situated under it. but the other form.irds the north. Phaeton was the offspring of the Sun. lamented liis fall. minate the one matter. as Hut this In in. And it will a certain tiling some one fancies that the l&amp.gt. safety of the universe. the authors of fables were induced to call Phaeton the offspring of the Sun denominating this offspring . the fall of Phaeton . that was nourished by the earth: and his ulster*. to he easily enkindled great a quantity of dry exhalation is collected together. of the inflammation being produced by the Sun. for the whole nar however. The fire likewise proceeding from him burnt every thiui. he deviated from the also fearing for tin.e lx&amp. a male.gt.sert. (for this takes place alter great conflagra of this tions) is the lamentation of the sisters. nor if which may easily hap|&amp. that the cause of it is neither an -s&amp. Fur when this motion is tuirards the southern indicative t &amp. and commits his proper em aiuonu. in the name manner as earth a female . Phaeton was a comet. Porphyry therefore xm/t. and because likewise it and to deno is usual to call fire a male. Hut because this exhalation did not proceed in a path parallel to that of the Sun.juisite better to adopt the explanation of our associate Domninus. Hut it w ill le im Sim at one time drives his own chariot. hut Jupiter projK&amp. and. towards the fast t t ln&amp. that sometimes . of dryness from excessive of tttnpests.gt.gt. the number of things which may ployment to another. which being t-asily accomplished. In consequence. the And such is the historical account of the fahle. destroyed him ly thunder. that Phaeton did not drive the chariot conformably to the track of his father.gt. however.gt. to dissolve the fahle in a more physical way. and toward* the icest of fertility. Tliat track. was called by them.en.thologists a&amp. and that driving tlie chariot of his father. ration to admit that a conflagration took place. it is If. it is not at all wonderful.ary impossibility. foi of pest i ft nee. therefore.r Masted by thunder.so is heat. or the wet exhalations. if it is supposed that this position is assumed from parts. M&amp. also. and possible at another time Ix-in^ changed ceases to drive it.enkindled.gt. and produce such a conflagration as that of which the fahle speaks.92 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOC i. is said to be the destruction by thunder. rain after the extinction of the cloud. It lleliades. The disapjx-arance likewise of the comet. ncct is introduced for the sake of this.lt. that it liy the solar heat. that ctrtain signs may be the mutton of comets. the thundering of Jupiter.lt.gt. lie In-inf? is. it generally vulopti d. and of Clymene the daughter of Ocean. For this sup. extinction JJut the abundance of cloud. fell ahout Kridanus. The dissolution and the of the cloud about the earth. it re&amp. dissolved produced an intolerable dryness from vehement lieat. in as much as . on account of the cflicacy of the power of fire.

or is demiurgic. therefore. or vivific. remain always suspended from the Gods to whom they are allied. are truly sons of the Gods. And the exhalations. and others under the Sun. Hut to the latter the female jwrtains. or Lunar. but others the similitude of the mother. such for instance as Martial. in into contact with intelligible*. The souls that have the middle rank. A similar reasoning Of these souls therefore. some express the peculiarity of places. others under the Moon. a certain representation of the peculiarity of the allotted deity accedes under it. pour forth moisture. therefore. come and recede from bodies. whether you are to the souls that are arranged willing to call them likewise must l&amp. *. both the dry and the wet.] TIM. hut are disseminated about the mundane Gods. that the fable may indicate something more sublime. These explanations. fashioned by and remain ing within them. it &amp. therefore. receive something from the nature of the animal: so that of offspring. but a soul of a life. since the of presiding Gods extends as far as to herbs and stones? And there peculiarity is a stone. And others receive a certain defilement from the subjects of their government. every where receives something from the nature of that in which it sown: just as things sown in the earth. running before the Gods. X. m-rji i \i. but those so\\n in an animal. rcijuiMl* to read rvi rat vworcray^ii. that partial souls proceed indeed from the father of wholes. have one cause. or Jovi. so that each is not only certain kind. are indeed called on of the For i o rut v vror(rn}/irra&amp. under the government of Jupiter.gt. heliotropes. order that they may not only he intellectual. As. . Hence also. divine and da-moniacal souls are arranged under secondary leaders.e or by any other name. 1 or this is the last form of of these souls.gt.gt. souls that are disseminated about. but also that they may have a mundane hypostasis. as not proceeding out of their fathers. For whether the (iod is of an immutable characteristic. some.BOOK those i. those indeed that are undefiled. The first attendants. and also a herb suspended from the solar power. and govern the universe in But others descend. but others under that of Mars. And why is this wonderful. their kindred stars. that which is disseminated being of is divine origin. are more physical. as it were. receive something from the earth.m. the Sun. recehe a certain peculiarity of soul. some indeed under the divinity of the Ivulh. 93 that weep. and having the order of guards or life. It is however possible. vice [or the depravity which is offspring of the realms of generation]. extended to the other Gods. yet are not filled with genesiurgic conjunction with them. being. from their leaders. and to the former the male.KUS OF PLATO.

. I rc. is solar chariots. lightning] is a symbol of stroyed by the thunder of Jupiter. some have the aquatic. however. that in one of the islands to be sacred. or being borne along on high collet lively. and as not preserving Whether. And some but others tin. when they become more situated in air. which appears as an asylum.l nm^i/t.gt. therefore. Phaeton is indeed the offspring of the Sun. and others the son of . sons of the Cods. he is said to ha\e been de ration. he did not rank among the first of souls.ui lulf. from lire.td ui/&amp. but are not called genuine the form of their proper Cod. he conjunction with his father. * lis^liuil nl ufivf fHjf ill -. and on this account is considered by the of Britain. but verge to matter. and vivifying all things. and some in order and accompanied with much tumult and disorderly motion. gross. fabrication. all things without contact.lt. the authors of oblivious of their genuine fathers.s !&amp. become they \\ith respect toother conformably. and piodueed in certain parts of it a confla~ ralion.gt. manner. of souls into different polities. or Musa-m fables call Tityus the son of Karth. we shall elsewhere speak. as U?ing of the solar differently series. are also sons of the Coda.pi rnocMJ. vehement and the jx-rcussive.. e. but others preserve them even 1 know. and assume others that are a* far as to the earth. he is said to For the \elncle of Phaeton U-Iongs to the Hut when he fell into gene entirely solar form. some being transferred from earth to the sphere of lire. and some have empv rean vestments. or thunder and lightning take place.ut ON THE [HOOK . - I Of these also. revolved and governed the universe in Since ho\\e\er. and from one But there are have driven the chariot of his father. Hence also he has a solar name. when he proceeded to earth.I.C lril&amp. receive td*o u secondary life. lay aside these garments.lt. he was moved through these in a disorderly and attracting empyrean vestments. il ii wr-iiiil\ to tins |&amp. or Phaeton the offspring of the Sun. Gods.the Moon.gt. souls of the third rank.uiu&amp. For souls in descending become invested with man\ garments aerial or Phaeton is said to have suffered. that the Oia-roneari Plutarch relates. such as together. thus denominate them alter this manner. that some one of the rulers of it when prodigious rains more excellent nature.* indeed. but but others heaped others from the sphere of fire to earth. und Income !ho onn of Codx nnd men. vigorous. abiding on high. And sons.to the before-mentioned causes. therefore. But again. the inhabitants frequently assert. proceeding through but is not the cause of the dissolution of the spirit in which the soul is carried. for For thunder li. since that also 1 many transpositions element into another.* 1 I or urcif. .

that descending degree co-passive with those elements which are analogous to their presiding (iods. and after a certain demoniacal manner. such as the fable obscure!) signifies the to wonderful. instead of immaterial garments. being then the instruments of avenging or purifying da-mons) . not as alone commiserating him on account of his descent into generation. so that Saturnian souls it soul of Phaeton have been. each being desirous of obtaining a material and these ponderous body. and should attract and become invested with a greater number of Mich-like elementary garments. in the same manner about the earth. 05 But they denominate souls they being accustomed to passions of this kind. in In. But is not at all souls should be in a greater in a greater degree rejoice in humid and aqueous vestments. through the stream of lire (for partial souls many things out of the body. are transferred into bodies. and others in another way. sion of the solar providence to mortal natures through tears. certain other calamities on those who deserve to sutler them. indicate the of the soul into the river of generation . in order that they might in an undeliled manner pay attention to things which are generated For the river Eridanus. in which being situated. however. For it is nothing wonderful. who were certain But they were said to be the sisters of Phaeton. and more demoniacal essence.much-enduring race of E\cilc. that there should be many causes of the.T. and the falling into it. int heir productions these souls likewise the (iods produce conflagrations. and solar souls in such as are empyrean.HOOK fails. Phaeton therefore. she lapse requires the providential care of the genera allied to herself. burning those some producing in places to which effect lie approached. same things. but providentially inspecting him. . being borne along about the earth. or Through intlict as they use material da-mons. they accomplish that which they effect. they lamented him. and the aid of souls that are in a permanent condition. more excellent natures. the exten Theologists also signify and corrupted. or pestilence. befall souls must not. riularch rrlalrs lln.US 01- PLATO. the (iods also should employing as organs. and employing souls that are allied to them as ministrant to the causes of the effects that take place in the heavens. Tin. one. be denied that Mich-like circumstances are allotted a descending into bodies.Irealitc men ihy tears On Iht I uilurr of tht Uiaclfi. and especially those that are magnificent. solar souls. It that and that relinquish a certain generation. i ] TIM. whence also he was lamented by the Ilelidilcis.

others Martial. but likewise of tin: peculiarity of their leading finds . are easily dissolved. but when they are incommensurate to them. are able to remain. generated through itself. just as if your eye not In-ing able to endure the solar light. the providential attention to Phaeton of souls that are of the solar order.&quot. the lives and all-various elections of souls. It may also IK* inferred that others receive an appellation from some other (od. though some other eye may be capable of looking directly to it without pain. lint the r truth is. Again. but Mich as are too im!x&amp. And likewise. and souls are effected through impotency. are preserved. For the universe is one animal. so that from their vehicle participate these divinities. in consequence of the mutation of the bodies that Hut through mutation he signifies either revolve in the heavens about the earth.gt. it in preserves different things by different parts. by hurling that the descents of souls are suspended from the one fabrication of things.g0 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. destructions are the thunder at Phaeton. therefore. are it preternatural to the whole. &quot. but also about the ascents Hence and descents. terrestrial long natures ensues from the The Ivjjyptian priest only unfolds thus that much of the fable that contributes to the terrestrial proposed discussion. that the descents of So And that not only souls. nor is any thing which is generated For the natures which are generated in it. in a symbolical manner.cile to endure his effective energy. that the fable very properly manifests through tears. who always benevolently disposed towards his son. and operates on is Or is it may said that mutation just as if a good father. the incoinmeiisuratiou of things in the earth to celestial natures: for all things while they subsist coinincnsurutcly to the celestial eflluxions. Tima-us teaches us not only about the essence. should on a time . it. mutation of the bodies signifies that through re- volvin in the heavens about the earth of and a destruction periods of time. For things which are abb. to sustain the dividing power of Mars. this corollary may be assumed from the fable. that it indicates the . For Jupiter was the effected by the providence of the Gods. some of them are denominated Solar. And a similar reasoning must be adopted with respect to the other (iods and their configurations. are corrupted. cause of the conflagration. audits parts sympathizing with each other. abundant destructions of natures are produced through fin?. and be it is the world itself this which operates. devastations of fire. should be blinded by its effulgence.

and a preparation of instruments and times. should be preservative of another? It is also necessary that there should be an apti tude of matter. and at dill erent limes exliiliit dilli ri-nl in the heavens ligun s for the him changed his al&amp. is it because a concurrence of many things is necessary in order that such a destruction may take place ? For it is requisite that there should be both the peculiar and common habit of the things that suffer. life an impassive transfiguration. but another. For the mutation of the celestial Gods is one a thing. Plat. for in so doing lie will appear to hnve Or this mutation may ho the accustomed mode of treatment. do copious destructions of the human race happen through long periods of time . heavens to the earth. For those arc the bodies that revolve various configuration of the crlrstinl bodies. betake themselves to sublunary conflagrations. the souls that when on high like also takes place through souls. conspiration of the agents. it is different from either a certain corniptive mutation. and the incommensnration of earthly natures. that of the souls from is without habitude: and that of places about the earth.out through the various intellectual perceptions of their informing souls. therefore. since to their series are produced. this rea sonably. and certain efficacious coiiftguratioiis arc (lie letters of impressions produced them. nor much less the Gods. but are ruptions. should be through things which are corrupted with are always incorruptible. N .) TI M. the leaders of souls. according to which neither Such-like cor souls are changed. destructions adapted also effected through da-mous alone. / or the these souls. 97 chastise sake of hi* good.. necessary that the progression from an incorruptible nature to easily corruptible. but is more rarely in such as are common and . and a For what if that which is corruptive of one tiling.gt.s that revolve together with thorn. and which become destroyed in long periods of time/ Tim. are the leading causes of But if it is necessary to call the fall of Phaeton from the such-like destructions. one that For it is difficulty.US OF PLATO.BOOK i. however. but more partial If. For these also take place in partial destructions. the media between these may be very properly arranged among things which are corrupted with difficulty. since this i. therefore. however. which remain during the VOL. a certain mutation of some one of the bodies that revolve in the heavens. For the are delighted to illuminate immaterially. through bodies. Why. wholes natures are easily corrupted. this being a habitude to terrestrial natures.T. of the former. And as through these. it is not at all wonderful. both these are true. of terrestrial natures are effected through partial souls. For wholes I. For the mutation of these Again. (lie railh.

less extended. and But if commensurate by hollow places. in a more strenuous condi perturbations of desire. those perish more abundantly that dwell on lofty mountains. and a nation. . be requisite. as enervated. who have the irascible part in a relaxed condition. of partial natures . however. these things are rightly asserted. and not ethically. Hence those who either dwell on mountains.&quot. exhalation? are not much elevated on account of the weight of the moist -substance.&quot. of some. But those are inexperienced in the as are near to water. But genesiurgic moisture. from the pha-nomena these the irascible part is at one time ellervescent. and of a city. there are periods of these. And as as there is of one man.ire effected through long periods For there IH a life of :i of time but such natures are nevertheless dissolved. part. the sea. thinks lit tion to the inertness of desire. that inflammation of in is phi here said.&quot. the epithymetie. transfers what to souls . as being more remote from the exhalations arising from water for these . is defended from destructions through fire the devastation of fire. certain genus. since mundane of the universe. and merged in the streams of matter. [BOOK i. but desire is languid and imbecile. Aristotle says. But partial For no configuration of whole period and individuals receive an easy dissolution. however. perish more abundantly &quot. being deluged by For. period. are incomiptiMe the stars is destructive of them. . natures all things are evolved in the Copious destructions. those will be inexperienced in the pertur bations arising from anger. are losopher Porphyry. therefore. Thus Homer Achilles. and exeited from the somnolency of matter. and says. For in a certain respect. to a and such be etlicacious. This is likely to happen in the \isihle who dwell near water. who have the epithymetie part For this is indicated by lofty tion. is another death of intellectual souls Heraclitus says.98 PROCLUS ON THE and indestructible. : for those The and &quot. is occasioned by moisture. this the destruction of the lie man within us. that when a conflagration takes place. or in lofty and dry than those who dwell near rivers or places. and to \sill For this is signified proper attention to secondary concerns. another time. A musician. however. and gi\e inten The philosopher lamblichus. more. the irascible part is adapted to be easily mo\ed. placet. &quot. in order to relax the strenuous nature of anger. to survey these things physically. as represents the eyes Agamemnon when at was enraged with shining like fire. therefore. lie says. but of others.

the efficient cause is clearly ascribed to the Gods. fire and water] produces without deliberation and involuntarily. For those that dwell in hollow situations. which are in a flowing and dissipated condition. hen. &quot. therefore. being borne along according to intelligible. But the contrary takes place in deluges. But the material cause of purification is here For each of these [i.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO. which naturally tends upward. deluge its surface. Hence likewise in Orpheus. and likewise of avoiding conflagrations. e.e a pre-existent cause which employs them 1 to beneficial purposes. from which also the light that is 1 in the intelligible Gods. of the Its water also generation of fruits. mountains arc preserved. But from these things you may assume. impetuous inundation of the In what also is rivers. and becomes fuel to fire. But when the Gods.sual with thcvlogisls to ar ascribed to the incursion of water.said. its range Crete for the own natural tendency. by the &quot. .BOOK i. purifying the earth by water. and operates for The words roijroit fwt arc wauling in the original. that first causes.secondary primary horted to bring purifications from Crete. connect themselves. preserves their bodies. It is necessary. For it is u. the intellectual and demiurgic causes. of geometry. the Nile is the cause to the Egyptians of many and all-various goods. the Nile is a saviour in other respects.&quot. since all heavy substances naturally tend downward. and also be cause liberates us from this destruction. and also think to impart connexion from themselves toother things. that there should l&amp. According to the apparent signification of what is here said. To it us. elevates their souls. adumbrates divine and exempt providence illuminates all . And this may be asserted of conflagrations. indeed. viz. For purification is at one time effected But every where purification to through water. Jupiter is ex . or) Hence the air that surrounds them is not wet but dry. are more abundantly destroyed. and prolific power. being full of fit life and the divinity that connectedly contains this body. is from natures. then the herdsmen and shepherds inhabiting the. and at another through fire.&quot.gt. so that the name of saviour. while those that dwell in your cities arc hurried away to the sea. and remain eternally.

operating But if there beautifully ascribed to the Gods. is there emerge from rarefied earth.On did the contrary.that Hence to returndovs not now siginto it. . \Ve however understand the term ilissali-fj. Mich as collection of :\ snow ? Nor does this river jaritv of the earth. are said And in Egypt. that the water issued upward says. the Nile is increased from certain rains that are poured Others. being elsewhere increased.rood. yet it does not happen in the about the lower parts. the whole of it is capable of returning from the bosom of the hence. which impels it from cavities to with respect to the Egyptian opinion. it was an ancient opinion ascent of the Nile. are certain purifications in wholes. Whence.e else. calls the destructions through water and fire by a sacerdotal this to but not corruptions. nor will these ever desert on wholes prior to partial natures. that (T . manifesting by Not that the snow Egypt preserves the Nile. however.gt. the quantity of its water. does not give to necessary that there should be something through which the Nile Hows. And thus lofty places. with reference to what is dissolved in doubt doubt. does the Nile return ? Porphyry indeed of (he Egyptians. there are also purifications. however. much mfv to -print: from beneath.lt. some powers initiating. but that it is loosened from its dissolved produces lx in own fountains. This.are initiated . the waterer of the earth this. in our region.gt. or where in southern places. because it liberates us from For it is not true that from snow bein^ dissolved the Nile is increased. but. preserved here. but usually takes place But the upper parts do not receive Aristotle.. PROCLUS ON THE which cause is [BOOK i.ecome visible. I : for speaking Attically. and that it returned from beneath. by the Nile. tin- The Egyptian purifications. but for the water.J00 the sake of &amp. tho&amp. the traditions which arc to be most ancient. nor at any other time. neither then. say. from on high pour with desolation on the the water descending plains earth. the Nile is dissolved. and through these causes. says whole of it. being prior to this impeded nml detained. universe. priest likewise knowing be the case. and proceeds so as to l&amp. on which account also they called the from beneath.&quot. as he would have done if he alone phyname. and others IKMIIJ. therefore. is evidently the work of the river. to . &quot. that preside over these powers Then. as purifiers likewise divine mysteries. Though rain may sometimes happen an afllux of this kind. sio!ogi/ed. For the But it is entirely the water a motion upward. as is clearly asserted by Eratosthenes.

These things. that their land will never experience either a deluge or a confla it That should however fail from other causes. But from these particulars the concisely indicated on this subject. .] TIM.gt. . the increase ofthe Nile. from For the seasons there are con to these places. For OITICVI* here. and the becomes sea the same place it is at one time continent. some one should blame this explanation. equivalent to what is usually called the ascent of water and he assigns a two-fold cause.EUS OF PLATO. which are thus denominated from their altitude. Moreover. the pressure of clouds against a mountain. And thus much against the Egyptian oration of Aristides. u necessary to read arraprrunm. and And this is manifest from what he says when examining the increase deluges. as l&amp. For these mountains. and the magnitude of the mountains time. ]01 poured into the Nile from other proceed above the earth streams of water lint lamblirhus says. says Theophrastus.ecause the rains being increased the increase is not regular. If. but to understand in a more simple way the return of the water from IxMieath. says. every part of the earth infinity of time. . from For he says. is one cause of rain. pour it incessantly into the foun tains of the Nile. are the causes of the unceasing happens when there increase ofthe water. the For the stream ofthe Nile is not first poured from these. in since. from excessive heat. and at another. For this. that rain frequently is no descent At the same[or disappearance] of the Nile. there we ha\e Egyptians gration. that run into fore. receiving in all their sides the rain impelled against them from the annual clouds. the will of their presiding Gods. il is not requisite to investigate a thing of this kind. however. is first of fabrication. that the rains. trary to those in the antarctic which the Nile flows them the generation ofdryness from violent heat. impede the cataracts by their superior magnitude. viz. as Aristotle rightly observes. the uninterrupted succession of rain. but from Lunar mountains. it is no longer is requisite to investigate the cause of when we direct onr attention to certain waters and rains so as to corroborate what said by Aristotle.eing places.OOK i. it must be said. reci procates. through which the Egyptians avoid dry ness. and of great rains. in which the fountains of the Nile are contained. lirst and the boundary from the air. it is not at all wonderful. if clouds are not seen about the cataracts. is not at all wonderful. it. sea. But the second cause and in is the temperature of the regions.gt. And the clouds when present being collected about the mountains. l&amp. however. Eratosthenes. cause of the salvation of the Egyptians. infer. But these fountains becoming exuberant increase the river.

less. &quot. but a certain dire impiety. also IM. and the proudence of the Nile. some unfold the meaning of the passage. [which were formerly so populous). But the truth is. that the race of men fail in a different way. likewise. that a confla every climate has men. through which.-. the race of men is always preserved.lt. K\ery place. happened. and at other times less numerous.Prodiii alluilr*.gt. must not be denied that the water of the looking to the infinity of time. the wind from subterranean places burst- And in&quot. Some one. therefore. that there are certain places derately dry through heat. therefore. vhich //us tntire. which is not excessively cold. more or less numerous. After this manner. or immo For mathematicians say. a certain aniintalor ob&amp.i)\ (&amp. though neither a deluge nor a conflagration has 1 For.. should not ? What also.&quot. however. at one time more. what lit- the Chri-ti.lt.saved in a delude. For what if the annual winds. that e\ery place is tree from deludes and conflagrations.lt.in n-lij-iou. may say.r of Greece was deluded. though it is sometimes more. tfuit succeeding cities shall be tieD the stream always becoming less and strayed? And the clouds not being collected. as Deucalion. that every place han always a greater or less number of men. Domninus]. therefore. and has observed that the safety of the Egyptians is . them. He says. it Nile may fail. IMato means. lias always the race of men remaining. where neither intense cold nor immoderate heat prevails. that in all places. .at present there arc none rrho inhabit these very places of the Jftic land obliterated the race of men. JJut iiccording to our associate f which are uninhabitable through excess of heat or cold. though there should not have been a deluge Some however will gration. if the mountains should fall.10o PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. which is adapted to the habitation of men. impel the clouds against the mountains in which there is a collection of clouds. and every climate. has a greater or less number of men. and the different them]. when the climate &amp. The priest he infers in common which respecting places of the earth.calls climate*.&quot. &quot. and at another less numerous. ntaii&amp. place*.derived fin iVow.enis in the margin. and conformable to In that my ropy of I he original of in llu-so Jicrt- Comnu *. then-fore. And this interpretation is reasonable. blowing less vehemently.li/ Or it may be said that Plato now. from the position of the region. who was preserved. \\i\\ be absorbed by the earth which is dry. For the greatest destructions are throun h lire and water. the oracles sail. as was before asserted. mutations has spoken concerning the mundane periods.

is and at oilier times less numerous. . or by you. says. certain illiterate and rustic persons alone remain. however. when he is &quot. Hut with us [says the priest] many most ancient transactions are said to be preserved. beautiful or great. every climate which is commensurate to the habitation of has always men more or less numerous. where neither of the contraries being erces- And. For this is the meaning of the words. text. thus also the preservation of past transactions is effected by their own As care and attention. where neither intense cold.or doxical events of things. g:ive. where neither intense cold. For not only mathematicians assert men. of to be found described in our temples. nor immoderate heat prevails. and also para &quot. J0 3 words of the For the words. But they are assisted in this by their temples. but Orpheus also. prevails. For assuming that certain . &quot. who says : adds. that impedes Inibilntion. ^ an oblivion of ancient transactions. the race of men times more. or is in any other place. that not every climate of the earth has men.&quot. they dis is cover the effective pavers of the celestial configurations. But whatever lias been transacted cither by us. appear to signify. there failure of men. both of their own people and of others. however. A seat opart from the immortals Where turns the Sun s mid axil stretching wide Between excessive cold and lieat a mean. know ledge of similar events also to the from which the reminiscence of wholes knowledge of futurity. that The Demiiirpui for th* abode of men. nor immo derate heat siiv. or containing any thing which \vc have heard the report. in consequence of every tiling being committed to writing in our temples. though it is some ith other nations. of these things contributes to their . produced. and For through obtcrcatioiu of this kind. and preserved to the present day. he very properly in reality. every tiling of this kind uncommon. the situation of the country and Us guardian Goddess impart safety to the Egyptians. the transactions of the Egyptians were said to be most ancient. And this likewise Plato now asserts. through which they apply a remedy to the oblivion produced by time. in short. containing any The history. since IMato had In-fore observed. &quot.] TLMvEUS OF PLATO.HOOK the i. but in con sequence of frequent destructions taking place. thing uncommon. in which all great and won derful actions are recorded.&quot.&quot. not through the always preserved.&quot.

certain things existing. And such also in cities. such observations are assimilated life of nature.ibles is . of a linn consistence. that the doctrine of the Pythagoreans which prepares souls to rcmemlier their former lives.* from the intelligible (lods but that what moved. periods afford the greatest For to the orderly distribution of the universe. For the sacerdotal genus by which mention is made of ancient transactions. are literature and But in the universe. thus also different periods as in the one. to ployed for transmitting information ConlritatK-c is posterity. and also of such as are of a nify the receptacles of perpetual productive powers. temples sig things as receive a temporal and partial composition. therefore. arts.e powers. and always suhsame manner.gt. manner. the causes of future events. connexion. pro duces things which are not yet in existence. tions of a former are perfective. through which remaining imthey imitate the stable productive powers in things that are mutable. is derived from the junior fabrication. and the like. or rather of one soul. things happen from from the same signs. the recollections of the transac assumed of one nation. sameness. Hence. connective and guardian nature . in dcods in temples will be an image ot eternally remain. While on the contrary. and at different time* is generated and corrupted in a different that whatever . contrivance. signify J O * sisting after the ever is in sen&amp. contncanccs are such As. and toother contrivances which cities have em &quot. a symbol of the cause which always fabricates new things. perfection of the of every thing necessary.104 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i.&quot.gt. we call the preparation world. commit only recent transactions to writing. the recording of ancient And what is assertrd by the Egyptians may the Mibsjstence of the&amp.t he lives of one man. imitates such a history as this of the Egyptians. proceed.stable. the world moveable. therefore. and co-adapts all things to the one For in our domestic concerns. imparts by bv illumination to things of a very mutable nature. If. the histories of former Farther still. of sou s. divine memory. so in the other. you and other nations. they are able syllogistically to collect. forums and baths. It appears also to me.gt. thus likewise cities manifest hypostases con^i&t- . which is connective of wholes and of stability. conveys an image oi the divine and which guards all things order. assistance to the acquisition of wisdom. For as it is tit to assume different mu&amp. order is ingenerated which the productive powers that connect the universe is a most sacred temple. and from which the junior fabrication being filled. and per manency.

which is corruptive.&quot. hut to the whole of tilings good.says.gt. destroyed. by understanding that all generated natures are corrupted. vei&amp.&quot. dissimilar. I. This also [or perpetually livool other things. them so again in like a disease. VOL. years. which also have themselves a certain consecutive order with reference to the whole period of a divinely generated nature. called a celesijal ellluxiou. indeed. Plato . as of those in the regions which you inhabit.&quot. Hence those that remain are illiterate account of the former. will not entirely happen to be the same. but that such things as happen from certain partial causes. and to the circulations of the whole life the seems to be [of world . is accustomed years. But recent transaction* only being committed to writing. survive. Plat.lt. configurations of the period are the same. is indeed to a partial nature evil. which are defined by the same number. are illiterate that and unac&amp.1 TIM. but having water for their mailer. For deluges destroy as it their race. a Hence the whole of ami. Hence they become oblivious of all Tim. that the inhabitants of cities are and without the Muses. evinces that the existence of such writings and arts. they are not sufficiently capable of or melody the preserving in events that happened prior to the deluge.e And on O . among but that herdsmen and shepherds are left. disease. however. and mortal powers. and accomplish one continued life. well of those and ignorant of the transactions of ancient times. For from a deluge. a celestial cttluxion rushes on This also from the this is evident in men. llnuv those among you who with the Muses. because such like destructions are accomplished conformably to certain circula tions. circulating] manifested through these particulars. being excited indeed celestial periods. that such things as are alone generated from holes are necessarily consummated according to mundane pei iods. unable through writing to transmit memorials of the prc-existcnl period . ing of many.And nature. &quot. were. because it is eorrupThat.|iiainlcil And thus it happens you become juvenile again. though the In the universe. you may survey the same thing. lor&amp. they are. as us. and yield to the mundane periods.EUS OF PLATO.gt. and that the periods are conjoined to each other. but on account of the latter. is of a more recent &quot. however. Hut I lato in accusfowal says.

and the dissolution (Jod&amp.O the histories of Solon are analogous . Such representations also intelligibles. indeed. and stable. those that remain. aiid 1 have the essence of themselves concealed. but the other contribute lo science. of the junior For they are fables.ion sions of time. From these things. And the one are only histories.* Solon to the fables of children. For the one look to that which but to the former. however. il is ntctsjiv to read io&amp. the indicates to those who consider il . Thus. are intellectual.gt. vi&amp. . of forms in an ultimate degree. the naturally illiterate assertion that mutations taking place. from matter. . contain intellectual concealed i*. the images of !ieiin:s. whir h ajruin the are the inspeclive * who The transactions therefore. remedy. truth of a grovelling nature.MM! which indicates nothiii&quot.gt. To the latter elevated.&quot. For an ignorant old man.^m. the destruction of the elements happens. and participate from intelligibles. which was intellectual. you relate from your antiquities. happens to For having exchanged for the former period. The ellects. easily and restoro io a condition according to nature. wjii( h is manifested through the word iliiUratc. surveyed. the paradigms also of them are to b&quot. liorne it consequence of the form of quainted \\ith along differently at dillerent times..J00 things. differ very little from j)uerile The Kgyptian of an eternal priest compares the venerable and very ancient narrations of For the fables of the w is. physically. are and unac MUMS. and resemble eternal. tables tho-e of children about temporal things and which And the former. small. that the of bodies takes place as far as to that \\hieli is formless and without analysis morphe and also that in this mill a tic MI.lt. they become ohlivious of certain. but . of harmony. every thing in the world returns to juvenility from juvenility through regeneration heini. are of small consequence. A souls that have recently descended into thing of this kind. therefore. Tor i(fu liore. through the deluge arising of them they lose in the progres of intelligibles. guardians of renovation. the histories of the Egyptians. says Aristotle. truth : but the latter. as they once had from the generation. Hut tin. But through oblivion they return to the life of children. therefore.Moreo\er. a secondan and genesinrgic condition of being. therefore. does not at all differ from a child in understanding. lint the other ha\e a most extended survey. are about thiii r5 -s nature. in subsisting in motion. things which primarily deiive ihcir subsistence fabrication. are called the sports of the (iods. PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. O Solon. indeed. which (able*.

&quot. remaining. wonder if the priest it* immutable mutation.gt. the nature of analogies .ne~\. in the excellent race of next place. possesses from them the genus. who once inhabited your country from whence . and Avlkosc deeds and polities are said to have been the most beautiful of all that we have receiv heavens. junior renders that intelligibles. JJut your ignorance in this alfair is owing to the posterity of this people. and became as it were dumb. For prior to that greatest destruction by water. in though in tlie first place. and as some one says. as lie says. through the essence of causes. are antecedently &quot. but to know first. former times there have been many. i. but so far as he a partial intellect. though as also in wholes. and of those that now For thus also in the world exist. the unceasing motion of the universe. Thus and mullitudinously. he is analogous to the divi nity.&quot. which surpassed all others in Avar. For we indeed says. however.] TIM^US OF PLATO. there Avas a most excellent city of Athenians. you are ignorant of a most beautiful and men. is For the delude of Deucalion the Egyptian says. fabrication gives completion to Avholes partially. and to show one connexion and of the Athenians. you only mention one deluge of the earth.HOOK &quot. supernally distmbed by such from intelligible* to the sensible region. under the .gt. For now Solon. receiving the narration of a Avar. and Avas in every respect governed by the most equitable laws.e like objections. through a small seed. that Solon is the oflsjirin^ of those excellent men. Avho transports the productive principle of mundane contrariety. and that the same things through analogy. must a^ain direct our attention to the cause of all mundane contrariety. ed the knowledge of by the hearing. there \vere much celebrated by flic Greeks. become * middle. and last. and which is present in a good condition through regeneration. IS or is it proper to l&amp. yon and the whole of your city descended. 107 For. The Egyptian wishes that there is to conjoin the life second first to the former period. the many others prior to it. comprehended uuically [or according to the nature of tliec&amp. But in the causes of the first subsistence and of the circulation of forms. so is far as he is an animal. who for many ages were destitute of literature. the seeds of a former period conjoin that which succeeds it to its principles. though a small seed only of this admirable people once remained. And. We must not.

Pherecydes. we should remind ourselves respecting the whole deed of the some indeed Athenians. of it depending on its union.gt. but others. that. it is the best of tho&amp.e under forpar- the heavens ticuhus. lie does not intend to signify that they In- l&amp.108 Plato does not ]&amp. that proposes to instruct us w ithotit aiubi^uilv . known In he the delight and allurement of that if we analyse all things.gt. By the inunt beautiful deals But by the most beautiful politics he means the victory over thr Atlantics. as the doctrine of Neither. nor a mere history And some assert receiving what is narrated as a history. since the man . should we force him to analyse. that it is neither called a fable. is loth philosophic and For the Athenians partake of the warlike from the philopolemie. lnil inltrj&amp.lt.tltlts to divine ii iiirnn. . the one polity will many the most beauty til He also adds. that what is delivered by very fortunate man.gt. say they. whom he afterwards says. or the cause of neither is a de\ elopement in the present instance necessary. t 1 I l. the developement of these. the beauty all that :rc Linr.licalioiis nl l. But he rails the city f the Athenians most warlike. in ilic I li. lato himself to be the province of a certain laborious and not 1 and in the second place. manifests a certain natural event .c under the /leai-fn.gt. but that he teaches with jMTspicuity concerning most of his dogmas. therefore.oii may say.ilo s. obscurely Egyptians signified So that the developem* nt of this narration the arcana of nature through fable. tion of the politv of the so (hat it &amp. number of many polities just as one world . that it has indeed that it the form of a fable. as U-ing an imitation of its guardian Goddess.gt. . They also add. For if the life of each individual is . tin. communion of many partial lives. for the paradigm of is in the heavens. philopolemic. and governed by the most equitable la\vs. but and of eipiitahle legislation from the philosophic.&amp. Imt he thus speaks.gt.riliui of tin- mail \vlio tlors not ailil|ll (lie fx)&amp.v///ct- the :chii as Plato tai/.i.o. as a fable. l the insertion of this narration reader. u ere the lathers of this relation.i certain polity. lion. sicalK. . the deluge of Deuca some one of the deluges prior to it. and such like narrations. is connective of hut the consist many common life is of worlds. polities. . the the same as whom v a slippery Others again think that harmony. is And those in the fourth place. in the third place. but al.ecause one polity may called the changed many of them. mean ly the greatest destruction. because it is the first imita of world .s. Plato is not a tiling of such an enigmatical nature.li&amp. And thus much Again.gt.erliaps PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK i. however. ing.i\* tin-.rcts Hum |&amp. we shall snller manner are conversant with Homer. in appeared to the tirt place.gt. from the developement of this history should be referred to physical hat Plato says of the narration about Phaeton.

EUS OF PLATO. multitude first subsists unitedly. tkt tub-ctUttiml arcb. This This This triad constitutes intrlligiblr life. narrating the past transactions of men. 3 triad triad 4 is forms intflligible inlellrcf. * The Ami second triad of the above order the third triad of this order. therefore. Again.gt. into the straight and the circular. who speak every tiling from what is at hand. it is divided or rather into things allied to hound and infinity. conformably to the philosophy of tho Pythagoreans. 09 will lo .LOOK i.or these. in order. hound and the infinite.i(l:i|)tf. the I jiryplian priest will teach tlie truth of things throimh symbols adapted to himself. the Miinn. called intelligible.gt. commencing from the first riety. From the triad that is next to this. 4 From the second triad.it of the order which is or tttrnily ilielf.] TIM. we will divide the universe m uninterrupted succession. the universe is divided into the united and the multiplied. after the 1 it is divided. each of these primarily subsists. which and purvey. is denominated Htrctn.er characterized by unity there. for nmnl&amp.* For the measure of existence it things derived from thence. you are are willing. conformably to the Pythagoreans. that ) I lato himself else\\here accuses those may (me. From the two principles. Iy Plato in the Pha-dni*. makes liis discussion from numbers and figures. indeed. that they render their wisdom manifest. called bj Plato in the Phvdrun. it co-ordinations that into according to the divine orders. So that he who delivers is assertions through enigmas. according (7 au&amp. is 1 and things corruptible. it is divided into the partial and the total. into things that are two principles bound infinity. that all of the mundane contrariety. But from the first triad divided according to the even and the odd. not foreign from the mind of Plato. as interpreting nature through images. the history. there it is divided to into all things perpetual.lt. For of things principle. some is pertain to the former. hut others to the latter But from that which unfolded into li^ht as the third after I -&quot. says lie.| to liim.e added. the contains. thus. or [avroiuor] animal it iltrlf. such are the arguments of each. To which may l&amp. say. . of the intellectual triads. for in this it is From the third triad is divided into the male and female: of the next order. principles. and also an indication and the whole order of things. .&quot. also. ami the mundane contra For the progression according to opposition. who speaks in the person of the Egyptians. that are mixed. And from the third. And if intelligible*.l to the first. And We however. divides the world hy powers that are oppositely arranged. and at the same lime intellectual. Tlii* tliinl tiling. these particulars are a history. even to shoemakers. hut symbolically comprehending in itself those things which are comprehended in the universe. is bring ihrlf. For as Tima-us himself.

. And in it (ruin the urder of Uulers. indeed. For the division extends as extremes. receives a division into the separate and the inseparable.gt.rmun&amp. thin&quot. such as the male separates. According to the second. follow the celestial. and those that are frequently separated from them. w ish to redncv own power the property of their opponents.jods. and those that 1 become defiled with vice. 1 urilcr &amp.ich other. those which (todies. understand the opposition of powers in the universe.|M&amp. and things allied to dissiinililude. hy the mundane order of God-. likewise. the stable total and the female. Likewise. of a more excellent condition. and entirely destroy them. that third. indeed. These. is into (hose that preside over generation with nndeliled purity. the odd and the even. Kliej. and Jupiter. wen. are evident.s of things into their . we must divide. energi/.c celestial.110 in themselves. \\c may. These as it tiling. that which unites. therefore. -And.ito. in the first place. ha\e now also been For according to each division. into things that an. excellent natures. by making a division after the following manner. those that contend against e. ( i&quot. For the genus of the eternal lives. \\liich us.the 1 same and things it an* diHerent. into generation.iunc order. And such as are total. These things. is i^elf immediately follow d Pljto. to divulse a certain But the desire of war. For The The The iiiirlliiiu. however. into the divine and angelic. And. excites the apparent opposition portion lc&amp. See my transljtiou of Proclus on the Theology of .lt. and those that pay a providential attention to Souls.lt. And according to time. Souls are to divided into the divine. In. we must divide into far as to these wholes and attain. and that which and the motive. And divine souls. tin. into souls and bodies. lint eternal natures must be divided into and partial essences.il triail consists of Salurn. by dividing essences into and those which ener^i/e according to time. And the division of those that are separated from them..ds is super-essential. that follow the (. desiring to fill things Mihortliir. since in w ar. and to take away depravity.N.lt. into such as are subsist in lieneration.* PROCLUS ON THK ami things according to 1 [HOOK i.gt. must be divided into those that them perpetually. i&quot. tliin^n \\liicli into animated and tiling inanimate. therefore. likewise. is divided into lint tilings which rejoice 1 similitude. In the next place.i! Rulers. the tiiprnnundunt ordtr of (i&amp. also. explored by ha\e an arrangement elsewhere. into things stable and lint tin- aro moved. 1 liberated whidi immediately follows the M. and such as parts. goodness of better natures. into the adorning and adorned. from the liberated order. that are in others. produces of bcing&amp. and the attendants on the divine. into things super-essential and essences. super-essential natures into the divine peculiarities.gt.

And into the peculiarities of powers. the celestial bodies must divided those. . on hearing tliis.o total powers should by a much greater priority effect this. should proceed through in the universe. and such as arc moved with a various motion. heaven and generation. because it is requisite that such an analogy as this which the junior fabrication connects.ion in all the is above mentioned orders. The latter. is where. and burning with the most ardent desire.gt.BOOK the i.gt. gives subsistence to to souls antibodies conformably to the pecularity of itself. through symbols and enijjmas.gt. also. must lie divided descent far :s to those. entreated the priests to narrate every thing pertaining to bis ancient fellow eitizens. Hence. we say that this narration whole theory of nature. as indicating to us the mundane contra motions. Moreover. . by illumination own irpo plenitude to such as are secondary. and in bodies. hut to adhere to the intellec it must be admitted that this opposition subsists even in (. 1 iato very properly calls the polity the work of the Athenians. and make these to be principles . Farther still. genuinely to adhere to such as are . viz. and the circle of the different and in bodies. for such as are secon in their dary. tual conception of wholes. . first For it is of these. is n l&amp. it is through unenvyiiig cxulierant 1 For J necessary to read T/&amp. of the same. there the circle in souls. reference to is But secondary natures are always arranged with such as are more excellent. cat ayaOorifri. &quot. and it that which is filled. through energy of Mincna. said that lie was astonished. &quot. contrariety is of the genera the intellectual and how less are subjugated to more excellent natures. in souls. he requisite.&quot. which Plato also knowing.. is which adorns. first. also. not to look to a part.OI rttv n/tnrnruv. and in intellects. into such as are moved with a simple. from which intellect-&quot. This. likewise. is the peculiarity of divine natures. the junior fabrication being filled. delivers to us. vra/irwr a^Oorwr. into that And universally the dm&amp. rou ktvrtpon t xtXafiwtiv cavrv r .lt. what the. rijr ap&quot. For in the bound and infinity in intellects.* lMrad of ro fc -rpvTa. that which If. all things . but that al&amp.iods. into the inerratic and erratic. and to be established to impart * un- defiled intellectual perceptions iheir but for such as are first. and that which adorned. however. For all the teachers of physiology lx?^in useful to the riety from energies and from contraries. sameness and difference.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. therefore. fills.e . rwr afinrni ur. mundane Solon.

All things. through the city an a medium And this. all which. is said to adumbrate a greater and more divine cause . because in us. precedes. and piv. fill from that as from a certain fountain theduine order. but at another time. Wonder. account of the Solon Ix-iit&quot. likewise. therefore. And the priest reso far as he adheres to more perfect intellectual perceptions. . to eiicrgi/e for the sake of the . For iroifirm it is mcisiarv to read /n/&amp.] as one of greatest of the Gods.sents to us an imitation of the middle orders of he junior fabrication. litrt.5ary lo read ru ^ ir^wra i Ivvaptuv a^&uwr. . likewise. [whose name is dcriicd from tliaiuna. also. But in divine natures. of the knowledge of wholes. and especially on sake and that of your city. (ioddess. inclines secon wonder. to energi/e for the sake of the city: for the energy more ample. Hence. the nnenvying communication of the priest only indicating the privation of envy. it conjoins that beo-innm&quot. one of the priests said : Nothing of envy. we must not IM- genuinely represents to us. the city is praised. from was committed to writing in the temples I . it is iHTi&quot. if now indeed the priest as Ix-ing the dispensator of the narration. fsembles one shaking.irai. which orders transmitting the gifts of a more elevated to a subordinate cause. f5 which wonders with the object of wonder. prevents us from complying with your request. to partake of more perfect goods. X. lias a resemblance to the Tutelar (Joddess Minerva.&quot. those who are wise.lt. it is still more divine to extend all the nar a greater power. . &quot. who through wonder \\\\lunlfiit . 1 will relate the whole. The perfected. power and goodness. is and the super- it in a still greater degree beneliceiit. is indeed beneficent \i/.gt. For Solon ascent also is is and the (. Again. For he teaches what a certain adytum. That afterwards. lUit for your Solon. however. irXifpu/aif in this place. as it were. o an Athenian. from Solon to the (Joddess imitating the comerlhe power of the (Joddchs. perfection of secondary natures: for Hut plenary power of di\ine beings. and of the whole paternal cause. likewise. not but the di\ine and prompt generation ignoranlly disturbed. ration to the Goddess. adapted to the participation of them. it imitates is providence.Joddess is celebrated. rendering that which ought dary to primary natures. *u uyaOorr/roi. of good.m in divine PRQCLUS ON THE [BOOK. and embraces liesides this. t this is the concerns celebrate tlie T/UIUI/HIS. a. and to terminate the whole energy in her.rywo/ follows. the Athenians being the ancestors of Solon.&amp. are elegantly rlfected by the speaker.

-l arc cording to the more ancient than the inhabitants of Sai s the Athenians leing arranged ac mundane causes of the whole contrariety of tilings.e of the whole contrariety of things. P . Plat. nil ill* Minerva. however. and the whole of the solemnity. U hoisgood. the veil [of Minerva] is the Inst irnai. the weaving art. A better image however of in which this. the paradigmatic cause of the Athenians in intellectual lives. Tim. 11 For the orders which exist proximately with him. Tor so far as pertains to the narration. and things which are adorned. tual light is superior to both these. Minerva became apparent.ss into the universe. they bring with them an ima^e of certain more elevated and divine orders. wove in conjunction with her father. to the thing For in ruling over the war of the universe. and of to the works of Minerva which narration contributes whole [descriptive] fabrication of the world. He u as good. in the same manner as the veil to the splendid procession of the Goddess. and the mun dane contrariety. Hence. in paradigmatic causes and the intelligible. you may there also assume according to analogy. which is of Minerva. and likewise in the productive and primary causes of them. represents to us the whole . For contrariety is woven is in the universe. and the veil of the is all things intellectually. essence of this Goddess. For the Pfi/ifil/icttrffj is (in image of I lie Mincrval fabrication in llic universe. they have this order . since all fabrication. But in the universe. but so far as pertains to physical progression. I. . the true works of the Gods have a precedency. is the veil. immortals is excels. where also it is said. the Egyp tian priest directly imitates the unenvying providence of the Deiniurgus. which the ruling art of And prior to all these. contrariety of things. verse is there primarily. in the intellec spread under the one life of the world. to That we may however recur which Plato a little be considered. that the uni according to a mundane characteristic. Ami if you are willing so to speak. which essenc&quot. arranges in a In-coming manner. VOL. and she demiurgic order proceeding from the Godde. the weaving art says Orpheus.IKIOK i. tin? and in enigmas. invested with armour. about anything. and the war Minerva which is a part of the fabrication of things. and is com pre-established in the prehended one intellectual perception of In weaving. U. but envy ticccr subsists in him &quot. For aur ain. The veil. Or rather. lic For. the veil is the last work of of veil tht. about farther on says.] TIMjEUS OF PLATO. is that which the narration of Plato. containing in itself an linage of the mundane war. she does not look any where else than into proposed herself. toother with adorning causes. are antecedently comprehended in the father of wholes.

things from the Goddess. to the power who presides over it. after the vi~. ttfrad. after the uniform a multiform fatal laws. themselves.u. How is it possible. and ours. all and sus pending &quot. triad. it is providence. the section of the universe into two.y demiurgic numbers. there is a triad.nf i &amp. What. is the meaning of this allotment to be distributed into the universe partial souls. some are those of Some are demoniacal. the celestial and genesinrgic. he imitates the progression of Again also asserting that the participants are nourished things from her dhinity. thdumad. therefore. and also to those that secondarily participate of her. and disciplined by the Goddess. and others.gt.gt. converts all things to the God For recurring dess. after the one Hither and others. the triad divides the unircr.114 PROCLUS ON THE [IOOK r. lyo. duu/cd l&amp. and by whom The they have been nourished and Egyptian.bik. and them to the causes of themselves ? And anil corner! in * And how are the Gods said Of allotments therefore. constitutes two-told allot ments. others For if the father of the universe was angelic. Tin.spaciuii* litaven to Jute. of the nndeliled genera. Ac. conjoining partial series. and celebrates the tutelar Goddess . which are established generate those posterior to. In/ the ilnad. nor of divine distribution. there would be no need of allotments. uniting things contained to the things that contain them.se. he makes this con from a citi/en through the city version. praises the total 1 And but city. that these particulars . about which Neptune Homer* says. For iVjio Iliad iv. through this privation of envy. and produces them from. 7 natures prior to themselves. hea\en and generation.entdd. Through this canst theirfore the universe is /&amp. and dodecud. is uccesiary to read iA. and natures. the pnest fills indeed the mind of Solon. of the Gods one alone. however. Since. For one fabrication. howe\er. licir.should not in an admirable tate manner imi demiurgic powers. But again proceeding from the Goddess to the natures that primarily. after a certain admirable manner. thus much concerning these particulars. according to one bond and one &quot. l To iiic lij loi belong* llir lioarv ilerp. . and after one law a multitude of also necessary that there should be a division of the subjects of government.&quot. and there was only one providence and one law. to lut.Who is allotted the guardianship both of your city educated. \t. an unenvying participation of good. he likewise converts these to her. and another pro\ idence and order about other thin r s. and on account of him. and again converts them to her. it 1 !.lt. in After this. have from him.

the allotments of angels and da rnon. consists of five parts. those (hat rank as tho tirst. and is appropriately divided l&amp.] TIM/1UJS OF PLATO. whether they are said to he perpetual. are allotted a diminished power. concerning the former indeed there can be no into the celestial however. aquatic. \ t [~ Tlu. Next to this is the five-fold division. and to the total and one providence. the same. After For the heptad Iwginniu&quot. For the world tial. this possible? ? For how.y celes empyreal. thus also in allotments. as the Pythagoreans say. divine allotment is about itself many demoniacal allotments.tuient is neither a certain separate energy of the (iods.s are suspended comprehensive of many angelical. that a da-mons. and an increased multitude. in lint those that are the second in rank. Forwhat in tribe is to each allotment choirs. this allotment. ahovt the earth. in order that tilings in generation being. and under the earth. in order that no absurdity may follow from the allotment (lowing. Since. how is in generation is mutable and flowing.nonK i. of the powers that providentially inspect it. but it is an assigned state. providence. and terrestrial figures. following their respective leatlers. how is it that dhine inspection subsists differently at diflercnt times? For an all . and presiding Gods. since every thing j&amp. aerial. be perpetual For can the energies And if these energies are not the things that are in generation. proceeds through all the elements. as in energies. and sublunary. and every angelical allotment has a monad is in the (iods. we must assume three companies. is the allotment of the universe defined in the dodecad. changed into another condition. therefore. are not perpetual. giving a four-fold arrangement to the elements in the universe. For if they are jMTpetual. as beinjj more proxi the higher allotments. and instead of the tetratl or dodecad. or not. we have doubt respecting the nature of them. For OIK. For every an^rl rules over a multitude of daemons. have a precedency in power. For as in essences. ami of a still greater number of demoniacal allotments.erpetiial. tetradic distribution follows the triple order. but are diminished in quantity. and whether they aluays remain invariably Hut the sublunary allotments are desenedly subjects of admiration. . These tilings then fore are to IK considered common about allotments. however. about these sublunary concern*. And thus we shall always preserve as in powers. And supernal ly from the inerratic sphere. divided allotments according to a section into two. and sustaining all-various muta tion? . is one. nor is it alone that which is pnerned. celestially and ethereally. after all these. four numbers and twelve and have more various distributions. mate to the one father. this energy may remain exempt and immutable. the division into seven parts follows. progres sions generate multitude. From the divine allotments. and unrestrained government of And on account indeed of the subject divinity.gt.gt. Instead ofatriad.

.etuity [BOOK applied to it.iyjt u.t a form. here you 1 may . make a distribution according to the definite vehicles of /f together with lir. K. 1 For xrrur. that every considered as alone con in generation. a per beintr full of pro essence. i In the next place.gt. and which imitate the lives in the heavens. lii C is. comprehends them in itself. and that bciistr generated from an iuimoveable to essence.gt.116 PROCLUSON THE per|&amp. they are allotted portions in the interval of the univer&amp.n. said to be. or rather that thnnih the participation ofune entire form. &amp. lest. another thing. and is extended immovcahlc. proximatcly dividing the interval. Hut creri/ u/iulem.a/Jto&amp. And in its parts. the vehicles of divine to place.gt. For is necessary that each form of the univcr. And order. 1&amp. though the parts sustain an all-various corruption.gt. see. \\ilh which these souls infinitinn. it remains always the same.s] to every but another thing.-t it the in the place indeed . and naturally adapted to remain always the same. according circle of the celestial orbs. must not tiling to that theory. how allotment is to be ments at different times.s explained. which table.-e should be never-failinir.tial allot al heavens. And in the (bird place. and generation itself. but there is also in these something immu For the interval.gt. receives all all the parts of the world.gt. of jrovcrnment. in order that the universe may tc/iic/i cause it may it is !* immovcahle according it is be perfect. how For one thing motion e. and are eternally suspended from di\ine petual to a certain secondary lific power.e. have.lil tiri( rjfirj yut I/JOK ^KI aftiuit. by assigning them different allot to sliow. and performing a circular motion.e sisting of mutable and flowing things. . ijiui . [i. through this should be the case ad it should also itself require another receptacle. [i. And the cele&amp.e of divine souls. ments indeed. is invested.e the passion of partial souls.&amp.LM//K ri/&amp. Hence it remains for Gods &quot.lt. ll &quot.gt. in order that we may not ascril&amp. they And in the third it i l. bodies. by having recourse which we have frequently elsewhere employed.fsi.gt.gt.gt. mutability to things Perhaps therefore the discussion of this allair \vill be easy. iiniatv eyivtAu-r Ti.e.ir^ to rr. X. the wholeness of the elements] admits of other mutations but the whole remains entirely immutable.souls. vis.gt. and The ethereal \ehicles likewi&amp.gt. the definition of cannot l&amp.gt. e. the nature of bodies proceeds in [a becoming! the interval of the universej is immoveahlc according soul. ( fiai n&amp. if it belonged to things which are moved.e hut on account of its being [always] present. [i. Tt ail rptruv. and in generation. receives motion only according For this is most remote from essential mutation. to the it is destitute of corruption.oitl&amp. so as to preserve the immutable in the Cods. the wholeness of the elements are circularly &amp. i. divide But with respect to the sublunar) allotments.

even in these mutable natures. same time. nor subsist dilierently at different times. 1 at the then existing nature. that May the Gods possessing perpetual allotments. therefore. his allotment. Mow. itely their hypostasis in therefore. le. according the telestjc or legislative art dedicates this to an eternal allotment from the lhi&amp. similarly to the sections of the heavens. he bein^ before concealed through the inaptitude of the recipients.ij&amp. suspended some are accustomed to be more prosperous.u . every tiling about us contributes to the increase and diminution of this aptitude. \Vhen. And. dillen nt images of the divinities in dilli-rent illuminated parts. are adapted to the power that there from another order. but others are same manner as of some choose such as partial souls. some more unfortunate.ht. particular city to the divinity who. inserting divine impressions in each of the things illumi nated. And on this account.] TIMJZUS OF PLATO. they remain always invariably generation. tin* 117 plaro. The ^ood temperament of the air too co-operates.|n. But in the lives at diflerent tunes.lt. jKirlion [of the earth]. but others such as are foreign. and dividing the earth according to divine nntnbers. suspended from the Gods. but not bein^ always received by the^e terrestrial places. these divisions of the earth also are illuminated. The is ! allotments of the God* same.jinnin. through certain configurations. aptitude to the participation of the Ciods is in-generated in some one of the things naturally disposed to be changed.l* Ottmt rX. the life [of the inhabitants] is through this in a greater decree assimilated to the tutelar deity. possessing indeed eternally his proper allotment. thus. in short. then di\ inily is unfolded into lij.gt. at different times occupied by diflerent spirits ? And how is the we not say. through an oblivion of the divinities to whom they are allied. and always extending the participation of himself. according to the whole parts of then-fore do not change. . received \\ hether. that which changed. according to which the conditions of other things are tjoverncd. in consequence of these parts hem. therefore. on account of their inaptitude. For she inserts divine illumination.BOOM. but others ha&amp. which choose diflerent says the Athenian truest. of sacred places.. lo me liiat llir wor.\/i v rm arc wanting in ilm jil. and the works of him [who !l .lt.ir-&amp. do the illuminations of the Gods take place in these How are the dissolutions of sacred rites effected? same place. imparting a power more excellent than tle Total nature likewise [or nature considered as a whole] produces this aptitude. are adapted to their proper Gods. Times also effect something. For they have not proxim. so far as they possess aptitude? But the circulation of the celestial orbs produces indeed this aptitude. also.lt.r. through which these spontaneously participate of the Gods. according to a concurrence of these many causes.

authority. admirable than those of the of this kind. in the Moon: for Minerva is the monad of the triad the Electra.erceiving that there was an allotment of tin s kind. so likewise of Minerva. Conformably to this mode therefore. and in the one power there is also multitude.gt. it is unfolded into light in the according to theologists.gt.Minerva. there an allotment proceeding snjM-rnally from intellectual causes to the place of the earth. These things therefore are |x&amp.118 looks to 1MIOCLUS this divinity in effecting ON TIIR [BOOK i. about the earth differently in diflerent to the celestial distributions. but there they exert a providential energy indeed a participation of the same power in dillereiit place*..ecanse is in conjunction with habitude. in another way order. inferring this per the Goddess. in the inerratic sphere. For 1 another way in the earth. according to the peculiarities of providence. For the same thing must not he supposed to take place about the Gods. difference. with unrestrained ment of this about the is way indeed. is there. This power likevvUe i^ dillerciilly participated by different places. from the telestic art. as some say it In one there. and also his own city Sais. but in others. and the allotments likevv is. wonderful. as about to dwell in two bodies at the same time. but in the ruling Gods accord and sacerdotal works. an admiiable power. man who them] are rendered more correctly great anil is not impelled to action from a principle a life And he who chooses conformable to that of the allotted deity. and a Mincrval And again. that Minerva is allotted the city which is named after her. ol the Gods are established in the universe. 15ut in which is there. And in some. govern wholes in conjunction with the Sun. or that Virgin. But in another way. unfolds itself into light in the it make-. partial souls. a third progres heaveu^. These l existing. it In the twelve liberated Gods. acts with greater rectitude than he docs who transfers himself to another order. . Her allotment therefore is fust in her father. and per haps from the great similitude of the life of the citizens to also |&amp.gt. the Egyptian says. which are not adapted l&amp. which Sun. It is not therefore at all places. and Diana. if one divinity should be said to be allotted both Athens and Sa is. there are dillerent This Iriail coruistj of . whether it lw the place about the Ham. iorr|iiu*. according to the similitude of the allotments of the eai th And la-tly. is ing to a second order.rpetnally truly asserted. haps For as of the other Cods. or whether it be some one of the northern stars. but after this. sameness is more abundantly participated. sion. For there a certain allot Goddess is expanded.

when they call him the tiling is the fabricator of sensible. prior to And the mundane Gods comprehend these allotments. and the aerial. since it is necessary that prior to things which it is Gods. parti sun&amp. receiving Earth. or any to is manifested by theologists. psychical. by a priority to ours of a thousand years.HOUR i. For as daemons prior to partial souls follow the Gods. 1&amp.l T1. il . and not of But that artificer. such as |&amp. that there are other sublunary allotments.lt. employing the l&amp.|MMn to me to be iicrovirv to read c&amp.ect to the fabrication of Vulcan. Imlrad of rfwrrpor in llin pUcr. proceeding from on high in conjunction with divine light. But conformably mu*t be admitted. credibility concerning this divinity.&quot. when they represent him as fashioning from brass. according Jo different places.lt. likewise necessary that perpetual allotments should exist prior to such as are temporal. such as are aquatic.lt. Cut that which is said by those whose notions are more intellectual* is indeed perfectly to fail in true. OF PLATO.ertain to the air. o&amp. Gods whether it what has &quot. For the formation of a mirror. is also manifested by them. Yours indeed. in short. such as are terrestrial. and. 1 Iliad xv.NUJUS light. the terrestrial Gods. must be elsewhere considered: for bodies. lx*long to things which must be entirely rejected. or other series.lt.gt.gt. rvrpwrtpor. And in short.ello\vs. [ty lot l)clongn.erpetual essence of the allotmentx.een said. in the prior to visible heavens. v. That Vulcan then is of the demiurgic. ride in ethereal \ehicles. To nip in ocean * honry ik rpi lo dwell. his how may some one decide. For the word cipate of the ahcaijs is significant of perpetuity. but requires no small decree of confirmation. We shall therefore introduce our discussion from theologists. thus also there are perpetual allotments suspended from the Gods. the aquatic. is sufficient for the present. partial illuminations. These Gods to the likewise. there should be natures which akrayx.gt.)O. the seed of your race from Vulcan and the With res[&amp. Alrcnin. intellectual works.i|&amp. or connective. j \Q temporal evolution* of them into theology U!HO manifests the in Ancient it it* |&amp.gt. as when Haiti Homer.gt.lt. . l&amp. but not of the vivific.c(iifics. h&amp. so as not conceptions of the power of the God ? For the assertions of the multitude concerning him.gt.

iitrai&amp.lt.-an says. mundane Gods. iyuibolicjllj indiralCH his rn in|i!i&amp. for siicli aie bodies. generated by \ productive cause therefore of generated natures is referred. And the former are derived !. arc -.lt.in anv defective |&amp. lamenes*.uitl lie incafuUe of perceiving In liU- i&amp. cie$: jut a tliu-e \\lnne mumluiif oli|tft&amp. and also i&amp. Moreover. in what I lato Ix-inij id&amp. and every tiling of this kind.gt. [said to be] bra/en. to this (jod.Jin.gt. a sensible essence. and a subject. is ev ident from the same theolo. art. this (iod fashions divinely and exemptly. Likewise. as beinsr And because the heavens an. jilting all fabrications in/// corporeal life . or by earth. exciting nature. rendering all things subservient to the out harmony of the world.lt.lt. It nnii! tir tan-fulls olis-rril. And he was the maker of the universe. 1 Vulcanian. for the generation of mortal animals. that ffi/fflt wln-n .latter from earth. as Tnna-us says. because. ubo say that he was hurled from Olympus as far as to the earth. 1 of tilings that are as beint. therefore. as beinj. productive principles in the universe.gt. her as an instrument to her own fabrication. to bodies. inauucr.lt. The as Mibservient to corporeal production. it-ill Me admit that these things are true.li\inc- naluri to \ j udiiinlir. and this On adorning and connecting with forms the resisting and ^russ nature of matter. and who make all If.: IIIOK. but powers. I bv \eriiini.ili. account also he is said by theolo^ists to fashion things from brass.. as things I which be a^ain returned. . we miM now understand every material tin.een elaborated by Vulcan.gt. but because it I i&amp.120 the exercise of the brazier s PKOCLUS ON Till- [DOOK i. or innate In at is and nsini.rogresiun. the of \ulcan. usual to cause.gt. tiili-tl willi ilic solar li-lit. this (iod be the fabricator totally of aw/ corporeal-formed substance .fl to &amp. which. the fabric.gt. Imrled from on hifji to earth. itor [fabled to IH-] a bra/ier.it e&amp. to have !&amp. then: are said to he certain physical are spermatic principles. the receptacles of the therefore. are symbols of hia productive energy about a sensible nature.t-s ur&amp. as extending his fabi iealion through thejvliole of Whether.atiti/ n&amp. or whether there or that which nature cllects the rause of all these must be referred to this (Jod. iln.- iil&amp.ists.ilc lninn-fi. Since however matter in is neceary to things that are generated. there are productive I or in v-ry admiiahle manner. for the will (iodw the heavens borrow parts from the universe. as In/ill^ an imitation of the intelligible.:i l!ie art o| N ulcaii. the maker of the heavens is likewise But he is lame in both hi-.lt. he without lei^s. no longer able to proceed into another order. not that the Athenians spuing from the earth.m lranc*iclem froru of vision. that lie is the maker of all sensible*. i&amp..gt. the artificer of resisting solids. preparingJor the doits their visible seats. fret.lt. in a seed ^-|f.also i lato delivers to us. for thij lunicue&amp.itliiii&amp..gt. last in the progressions ol bein^. throiiyh earth.gt.gt.

BOOK i. account a thousand a cubic number. that For as leader. Vulcan is always in love the generation of the Athenians. ruf Xoywr Tim.r&amp. gave subsistence to For according to the fable also.&amp. but earth fire. some subsist proximately after these. Q . 1 rrad For rrj yijt vrvirraatv rwr Aoywr. therefore. 121 call all Vnlcanian instrument. is a generation earth. is matter. according to which the Athenians are prior to the inhabitants of Sais it ? This. emitted his seed on the earth. but others to the SaVtans.f superior according to generation.lt.signify this excellence. the productive powers receiving souls. some of which are more total. of Minerval souls descending into generation. orders of things. and from thence the race of the Athenians blossomed forth. . but others thousand years. Hence this number is very properly adapted to a life being &amp. &amp. And some l&amp.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO.eing analogous to the Athenians. but others more subordmately same manner also. Plat. But Minenal to this eneriry of Minerval impressions. and are introduced into bodies from the productive powers of Vulcan. Fire. For r rorpov 1 Instead of TO mrpnv avn\i TH* amOrjuy fjifiovfiaoi ill this place. But seems also it to signify the temporal priority of the is of the Athenian?. and adorning you may causes and adorned effects . imitating her intellectual nature. conjunction with Vulcan.gt. there behold all the visible fabrication which is Vulcanian. Vulcan being Minerva. For this God. in the fabrication 1 of sensible. different symbols of the divinities.lt. it SCCDI* nfCfSSary to read rijt yiji W9fTttattft. together with earth. in love with with Minerva. Vulcan. Orj^nra Xa/3nrwr. In short. nOijiaun aftijra/in. wiiidi oi/rijs tv ry liiftti inyitf rur airOifrwr fitfjuv/iryrn. and which is in a greater degree assimilated to the [tutelar Goddess. especially receive according vehicles from him. which is excited and vivified through it is since of itself lifeless. may life be said historically.gt. What however are the thousand years. but others more partial. X. inserting in different bodies. many genera are suspended from the same . If also you wish to transfer these things to the universe. c. therefore. in the invisible necessary their life should be more elevated than that of the Sa itans. and the hypostasis* of earth. is the perfecter of bodies. And on thi* also. is Hence in the material order now assumed consequence of this being filled. some indeed more proximately. Vou I. after the are assi milated to Minerva. prior to nature. according to the highest degree of excellence. therefore.gt. in account it is said that the seed of Vulcan.gt. therefore. and in short. A the measure of a perfect gencxiurgic period.n For they arc (&amp. earthly.*. and every tiling material. is evidently defective.

indeed.tin^ or allotment essential. ? w lieu to their lot. it will aUo at a certain time cease. Gods For if. they are allotted or was it under the dominion of other was it without a ruler. Hut let us direct our attention to what follows. 7 in short. if it is sutlicient to the pr-ser\ae\c. dissolves the doubts by say in-. with respect to the place it fell it at a certain time. Farther . according to definite times For if. this &quot. in and in an historical narration. nothing hinders.choose lives adapted to other Gods. and there is a Tims. s tJU.&quot. that For every soul has entirely a tutelar God. or is established by men. in the universe. u-huh s tacJ instiimiinis fra/ua. can any place remain without the -uardian How. a certain time. I or whatever is measured which by time.tlii full the tnrthu hicli tire tm-asund this resembles that J ti/sH/ llicduth.&quot. is a thin.&quot.of this kind. And about souls. can it afterwards the allotment But if it is under the dominion of another leader.lt. -llent natures ? protection of more become the allotment of some one of the Gods f tion of itself. therefore. destitute of divinity Or how.2 tliat PKOCLUS ON THE the [&amp. which at d&amp. how the gods are said to be allotted as for instance. subsi&amp. of some other certain im-tic dh inity. receiving this . The divine lamhlichus however doubts. but same things may be sun eyed analogously. at one time Gods He adds. was withuut a hclon. how is it possible that any thini.. that are perpetually cMulili-shed. 2 . Nor do the. their allotment commences from Sa is. allotted Athens. lamblichus bavin.thus doubted.m^ to the universe can be perfectly ruler. that tln*c urc flit /Mirtii-i/ialioHJi another time reap no benefit from it.&quot. time the allotment of a certain God. Hut an account of the transactions of is our city. of e hdit thousand -years. and afterwards . Minerva was first certain places.^ &amp. For the second God and allotment of the former divinity. every place is when it becomes the allotment through twofold.gt. but that the participants tin-allotments of the derive advantage from the miardialiship of the rulers. who rites renders it adapted throu-h I a certain period. the one bem-j. it will also fall to of another alternately does not God.gt.v happens certain soul. f preserved in our sacred The to the priest assigns Athenians the number nine thousand. during the space writings.gt. It has however been observed by us. nor do da-mons chan-e their allot ments. God* divul-ethe prefecture receive the places of each other.&quot. but the other according to habitude.lt./ &amp. and thus an absurdity will ensue. and of them. demiurgic causes.

probable reason.BOOK i. and perfection from the triad. however. which lives of (lie citizens For by thin would say. The For * 1 philosopher lc(&amp. * Iliad. c. as being a many artificial - forms For nine ycart fjsliiuu d - says Vulcan [in Homer. j. and to adorn secondary natures. For the Gods make their gives from the celestial allotments to the terrestrial. to be assimilated to them. 1 through the indefinite duad in similitude . the priest makes this narration from the sacred \vritin ir s . Since however even a secondary nature is cube. 20. a cube adapted to the since the decad is attributed to the heavens.gt. and so likewise IOOO the is is in interpreting these tilings. by number. measuring the the chiliad. anil drrtth to a cube.OOO. Porphyry however. 4 But it is the symbol of a better life. . as the last. in short. With them 1 . because u Procliu had before observed. 8. itself in itself. For 9 is a square. the stable guard of the mundane divine These numbers. truth. 6 ] in is thus speaking. But it is better to imitate more excellent nature through a more simple life. 800O gives superficies For 20x20x20-8000. to remain in itself. and this superficies on a cube. that the number nine thousand is adapted to those that have their hypostasis from Earth and Vulcan cube. This progression allotments of Minerva. than through a life which is more compounded. to descend to secondary natures. If however you should say. for a thousand is terrestrial. but the other preserves the superficies. is through &amp. For ei^ht thousand is a cube on a cube but nine thousand is a letrugonic Hence the one gives depth to a superficies. progression of the decad then-fore must be said by us. but nine pertains to Vulcan. . The descent 1. as the philosopher Porphyry says. And a square is more simple than a cube. in which there ou a cube. is a tetradic similitude. the descent is through a is a tetradic similitude. and the last subsistence to the solid number one thousand. happen to lives according to a guardians.] TINLEUS OF PLATO. and thin is through the duad. and to be filled with a certain indefmitencss. damons also nicaxure t tine. manifests.gt. in which there not entirely deprived of similitude to divinity. Farther still. iOO. as lamblichus . conformably to the writings in the temples. i. 4 For ynoo is llic cube of 30. supposes is a cube. because C0= 2x 10. you will not terrestrial wander from the But. And it is an indication of a more imperfect life. it is a Mjuate superficies 18. vs.^3 also from history but to the Sailans the number eight thousand.

Anil again. some mve names to ihosc that are horn.e. she proceeds is in her the&amp. is The year employing as symbols the periods of generation and production. It is absurd. however. it must be said. does not now assume a mviiad of years. and the myriad it terminated. but about the different measures of . nine thousand. . but descends first to Jovian. which ascends and descends through the five stars. yet not successive. therefore. That nine thousand years. the period of the souh the following manner. exciting genesinrgic first lives physically. she lives epithymetieally. And in the last place. rising against her former habits. and says that the discussion here is not about lives. body. Afterwards. and venereal lives. not without continuity. For lie says therefore that HOU!S which thit is called by the Egyptiant ethereal earth. hut participate of the artificial [or Vulcanic] intellect. though she conversant with chiliad. however. but the number oi priest. being the supplier Afterwards. exerts physical reason* But all reasons are Ilermaie. she lives according to a deficiency by the of this the number nine thousand is a symbol. And Hermes is the [or productive powers]. If therefore she is is restored to her pristine state. !*-st And manner. In {he next place. but entering into an ambitious life. that life. Hence all the stars have nine lives which . of physical reasons. from the conception of Porphyry. moderating the passions. toys he. Hi eg under the influence of powers. hut earth to to the arts. she lives politically. All tins interpretation.lt.she of nutriment and increase to the body. are disseminated in the body of the moon. she. the divine lainblichus rejects. in the ninth . in order that those of whom he is speaking may still IK* terrene. her life is is intellectual.124 1 ROCIAJS ON THE [BOOK i. and that they ha\e bodies which are etlluxions of the ethereal bodies. to the dead. also. after A myriad of years is. .Minerval participation. but approximating to the period of a myriad of years. she wards. And in a similar manner. for it Time indeed is successive according to concep . in order that each may have two tion chiliads. dwelling there. and Saturnally on hi^h. But in generation. to make mention to narrate what follows But if it be requisite of the periods spoken of in the Plia-drus. the soul lives indeed intellectually and the conception of a political which But anger is descent to desire. lives intellectually. In the next place. derive their subsistence from divinity. receiving a body. . !\mths also are performed is obscurely Minified through nine thousand years. are adapted to the-e souls. she excites anger.Martial. she is bound to insjK-ctive guardian Through lives ambitiously. After anger. and at last. being adapted to the in the best polity of the Athenians. however. souls that give themselves intellect that presides over art. Vulcan to be the be the lunar sphere.

thus also the priest briefly discusses the laws of the ancient Athenians. but legislation is order pro and division. and extends as inferred from all that has said. and likewise the life which pervades through all Hut through the things. j^ I will therefore briefly unfold to yon the laws. consider the laws of these people.&quot. but the other more partial.BOOK &quot. And the one is ufdianour. i. For you will now which then subsisted in your city. you wi*h to refer what is here said to the whole order of tilings.gt. is the union ceeding into multitude tial and conmon bond of the life of citizens .EUS OF PLATO. This diminution indeed may be sun eyed. when we arc more at leisure. and the comprehension of them according to intellect. indicates the recurrence to the of them. is l&amp. hwc- the work evcr. and terrestrial works. A polity.lt. as &quot. cation. but the other of the phantasy. we shall accurately discuss every particular.&quot. the number nine thousand will manifest the total progression as far as to a cube. and also a similitude to it. and the most beautiful of the deeds of those citizens that existed nine thousand years For ago.j TIM.lt. And multiplied fabrication. may connected by intellect. distribution But the most beautiful is work to is an adumbration of the orderly 1 of things which extended one autiful end. so far as Socrates has described a polity. A nd the former is more analogous to the providen cause. but the priest laics. the union of many productive powers. will be concerning. delivers these paradigms things The narration. multiplying. it wf nm necttMfy lo rrd v^tmi. The la:is are images of the divided fabrication. in order that the latter may have dimi nution w ith reference to the former.ecn far as to terrestrial In the first place then. For beauty subsisting according to the united. And this very pro perly.*-&amp. of prolific and dividing forms into minute parts. intellectual impartiality. . But there is a similitude between Socrates and the v&amp. For the one is more universal. are indicated. but that ing to intellect. and find licre compare of things them with ours.the divided and to Solon. from which also the priest being filled. word briefly.t^y ravra MM rpot mra. but the latter to fate. For the synoptical is an image of which departs into multitude. which IK? works. through power. which is united accord diversity. proceeds from intelligible^ to the visible fabri the resumption of the sacred writings. therefore.m- Instead of t^y ravra iai cccira. producing. receiving for this purpose the sacred writings If themselves. many paradigms As Socrates summarily discussed his own polity.

but them. But the laws of the Athenians.eing established conformably to the tutelar Coddess. for *y&amp. hi-causc the Sai tans participate secondarily of those images paradigms. * one demiurgic intellect.ar second subordinate!} and according to diminution the extremities of the universe. of which the Athenians participate primarily.&quot.* things fabricated.ect all this order of the polity of the priest is more partial and more divided than that of Socrates.gt.gt. . and the one providence For the race of the priests was separated from the rest of the inhabi tants. just as the third connects Very properly therefore does Socrates summarily life and the \\hole of the Athenians. it is necessary to read rynrr.. l&amp. indicates a more total. priest. For though archetypes things. yet images have the* first order with reference therefore things secondary by nature are said to be first. in the same manner as the But priest says.gt. and onr sameness . Here a!w&amp. in generation celestially. So that the polity which is about to be delivered.gt. pertains to the eity of the Athenians. l&amp. or rather to the whole orderly distribution of things. These things likewise are analogous.gt. it u neceary lo read rpirij. but the And the first fabrication connects the \&amp. That in a certain resj&amp. and which know through them the natures prior pertains to the Athenians. imitating the middle fabrication. to But of this kind are the laws in the universe which are defined conformably of Minerva.e thus also they are said to paradigms to the things that are elevated to from them. and is rightly said to be so. deliver the laws. thereforo.!2 priest. so far as both assert that they deliver the multitude of their words con tracted ly. also. For tlie middle is stisjxhuled from the first fabrication. both in partial natures ami in wholes. and the laws extend to the whole world from Minerva. . As of beings. these things And may IK assumed from what the now lie calls rank among the to first our knowledge*. Here what i \\hat pertains to the Sa tans.rij. exhibit the distribution of the M inen al intellect. may be The 1 For rprij here. and is assimilated to it. And each indeed pertains to the universe hut the latter according to union.iliru atiom i* unfolded farther oil. For every law is said to be the distribution of intellect. a more partial order.gt. Just as the third fabrication siuVists according to conversion. PttOCLUS ON THE [HOOK i. Again. nature of ihese three f. and the former according to progression and the difference of the . these tilings embrace wholes and di\ine causes.

therefore.r PLATO.lian.gt. more c-omprehensive. So that both from number and cpialily. the presiding over wisdom.crs demiurgic. indeed.gt.&amp. and does not impart to them political power. By the trigonir therefore. the first. fabrication has at one and the same time the dnadic. 127 tlio multitude ami quality of the irenera in tinFor in the polity city. yon will entirely find the heptad. the triad. are adapted to Minerva. and the first fabrication.gt. and tfid. if yon alone select these genera. learnt from 1 nary. the auxiliary. nx being intellectual . arranges city.c &amp. cns arranges the priests under the politician. and ly the lievad from the triad. For the latter lint Incoming manner. xtud to Minerva. adapted For the hexad is a triangle from the triad. and partici l&amp. and things pertaining to it. and sufficiently disciplinen the inhabitants of the the former pursues war alone. And this is one of the things that are of is notoriety. in it. but the other according to generation. necessary howe\er. ! tiiijof tlr giiar&amp. ami after a manner co-adapted to the genera prior to it. c\/&amp. Thus therefore. ami the liepproduced from the monad alone. it become* evident to us that the polity 1 For 6 PlMi i* a triangular nun. and the first are filled father. you may infer from numbers. is The feminine nature likewise of the heptad celebrated. [or pertaining to For the middle triadic. first For though every fabrication participates of . from the quality of the genera.tilf.gt. yet the and supreme parts of the universe. fire The monad also. .gt./ the wontl.gt. lint here then. . and both Hut one of these indeed. which ascends as far as to the first cause. from her in a more abundant decree. But if yon add.ein And the mercenary tribe is divided into the remaining pates of this study alone. which great that it is of a Minerva! characteristic. the diminution and at the same time alliance to the (jJoddcss are manifested. The polity of Socrates therefore surpasses* that of the priest. and the the and the pastoral the venatic and the agricultural. to survey the diminution m converting the mound and transcendency of these. and the merce.are the double of those.ccia//t( images /&amp. military . anil rt U the ilouMr of .gt.lt.Minerva. viz. there were three genera. of Socrates. nn. fntlur Il is alone. as penera.l the third. and the these numl&amp. as proceeding from the Aller this manner.TX S (&amp.sacerdotal is subordinate to the guardian * For Plato himselfin the I olitigenus.BOOK i ] TIM. flic triad. The in a military also is subordinate to the auxiliary genus. For the . in tm I r|iublic. (lit guardian.bcr. For the triad is allied to the demiurgic monad. is immediately to the Goddess. artificers! the sacerdotal. you will find the number adapted to the (ioddess.

the shepherds are analogous to tin. gous to the celestial The the attendants on the celestial planets.gt. j\or must the middle genus. ami after what manner. to simey how. is analogous to the fixed stars. hunt after souls. For it is not proper to oppose litary genus pertain For we should act absurdly. Cods. the analogies of the polity of Socrates The genus of guardians we arrange as analo auxiliary genus to those more excellent natures. some being Hut others of individuals. her of venatic daemons. is not thus conjoined to which now delivered. it l&amp.. is subordinate to that of Socrates. For the philosopher Porphyry arranges them as follows: That (he priests are analogous Here.powers that are arranged ing into bodies. lamblichus. as neither Platonic nor For archangels are not any where mentioned by Plato. over the herds of animals . And the mercenary genus. There are likewise powers who such as Diana is said to and another mul delight in the hunting of animals. nor who inclose the soul in body.e. however. certain sympathy to animals. or is becoming lobe. tial and the third to material natures. in consequence of looking to the effect which now is. and inclose them l&amp. Gods. is worth while genera ^enumerated by the priest] are to to the archangels in the hea\eus. Again. others of cities. For the existence of da-mons who is govern the mortal nature. For And there are likewise certain also a certain curator of the herd of men. all \\\&amp. who are frustrated of human intellect. second We establish. since the soul is are those powers hunters. as in a net. of whom Jiut the soldiers are analogous to souls descend they are the messengers. rhic/i in arcane narrations are said to be touts that are frustrated of the there is but have a propensity towards animals. the inspectors of nations. it these according to analogy. and will rank as the .e but have a admitted. who are converted to the Cods. these hi* assumed in the universe. however. and the hunters are analogous to those powers that in bodies. intellect. to be as follows. sublunary daemons is said by Plato to receive many demiurgic distributions. [BOOK i. human partial curators. not derived from men.12 8 PROCLUS ON THE after it. but Cods and da-mons among the last artificers. in arranging these in these to gods or da-mons. and the defenders of the universe. And the husbandmen ure analogous titude together with All this administration therefore of to those powers that preside over fruits. nor does the mi to souls verging to bodies.gt. reprehends these assertions. however.gt. to those powers that connect a material nature with partial The first of these also. that those are shepherds. The divine true. the second to the souls. may likewise assume in the celen- Cods themselves. to the universe.

stor. and corroborate that which is divine. K . to investigate the paradigms of them. but they do not produce aliair. therefore.gt. and the fabricative in the (ods who separate all (lie forms. that they divide the pastoral. these assertions.BOOK to the i. 129 body. and who dis tribute these in universal powers Cut the being. this Nor are husbandmen to l&amp. denominate* the lapse of the soid into generation. by admitting that the sacerdotal and military tril&amp. and the agricultural .] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. After this manner. in distinctly all the forms that generation. a dissemi nation. And the soldiers. Reprehending. 1 the convertive genus. to the seeds that an orderly manner. lint the shep herds. viz. . that are allotted the government of the life which verges to body. likewise.For Plato. li/ tint Porphyry. but full of Barfxiric arrogance. Hut to sow is most adapted pastoral life to husbandmen.e mode of theory philosophic. and llie pro lint (he agricultural genus subsists in ductive principles of mundane natures. military in the guardian. preceptor.] But it is common fabricative genus into the to both these philosophers.es Will but the fabricative and agricultural another. For no one. as honour and worship the causes prior to themselves. as corresponding to the powers that give efficacy descend from the heavens to the earth. to collect pro the ductions of nature. as subsists in is.il and venatic a third duad ami assuming an order of this kind. All these genera likewise jxrtain to Politicus. .gt. who culled the Christian religion ttapl ^afo bold tcicktdnei*. to the powers that subvert everything atheistical. the venatic. those (iods that siipernally excite nature. for the (Jods are referred to Ceres oxonipt from the : proximate causes of nature. the guardian. For the sacerdotal genus subsists in the anagogic (jods. Tim. and disseminate souls about generation. divine shepherd*. And llic venatic subsists in an orderly distribution to all material spirits. Plat. that which ad- It it somewhat Mngular. VOL. The hunters he places as analogous to those who adorn secondary natures through the investigation of [real! husbandmen. as analogous to all those mundane powers. tin. A or &amp. and the pa. also. and of the most irrational powers. thedi\ine lamblichiis [interprets what is said by the priest.gt. The of genus revolve in the Gods 1 or that govern Plato. ho consi ders the priests as analogous through similitude to all sueli secondary essences and powers. For it if usual the divinities that give with thcologists to call these Gods hunters. who rightly considers the can place either the pastoral or the venatic under the fabricative genus. it not therefore be belter to interpret the passage conformably to our form one duad. delivers to us certain the middle fabrication. I. thouUI have adopted I hit tltcury. the four genera from one. therefore.

in his own employment without iniiiiding with that of other ~ ~ The same method was likewise adopted by shepherds. this intellect. The r artificers.ul /jow&amp. also. every thing \vhirli fabricates and gives form to material natures. and also to guardian. as &quot.gt.lt. and husbandmen. order that through is is this. . in which the la-&amp.HO IMtOCLUS ON THE [BOOK f.v&amp. far as to the last of things. 1 alone can itself I it it is here by id added. hut is now enumerated by IMato as the second . formali/. must he considered as different from all these genera. but in the second place.. and which arranges the last order of spirits. in the first place. and vivifying those that are the loaders of the herds of a tame life. For this not only produces accuracy and rectitude in be preserved. ucej?&amp. of the sacerdotal genus. but that each remained by itself. indeed.&quot. he says. and the monad . fruni proper work in a definite manner. that these orders may be seen among men. that each -* was en O a O ed artists. among the Athenians. as bring a prit st. fabri but the hexad is analogous to the more partial orders cation of generated natures tlierefore.gt. of this telractys has. in the first place. is analogous to the one intellect which connects all the.lt. what is said may imitate the universe.itr&amp. and to \i/. vt hole of 1 For //o\ii IHTC. likewise are Moreover. and in its oun purity. nor in a simi lar manner any one of the others with the rest. according to the division of genera. (r exercised their arts in such a manner. the comprehending natures [in the universe]. For that which For thus most material and gross. &amp. indeed. ministers the psychical allotments. to the anagogic. being adorned and guarded according to the Hut again.gt. making mention genera. however. tho-e that rule over the brutal nature. the third order. is enclosed by fabrication in the middle. separated from the fixed stars. \\hich orders in the universe. it i-&amp. l!iat which governs the geneiurgic forms of that life. others. each accomplishing its For he manifests this by saung. That. according to a section in three. is All the exempt from the liexad. which pays attention to wisdom. are seven.. hunters. and that which is contemplative.ing. under order*./c . and which the Egyptian also celebrates above all the rest. that the fabricati\e art was not mingled with the other arts. among the Saitans. The whole of the genera into the middle.y// proceeding siipernally through diminution. to n-. And (he monad.gt.t comprehended on all sides by more div me natures.gt. in order that we may understand the unmingled purity of the genera.

and obliterates that which is disorderly and every thing oft&quot.gt. will not bo nnminglcd with them. you will find was separated from all the other and was ordered by law to engage in nothing but what pertained genera. law.OOK i. likewise happened to you.gt. J31 For all will appropriate work-. lint &quot. and remain perpetually undefiled with invariable sameness through it. and Iho hunter of the builder . which cuts material. in consequence of cadi nut exorcising many arts.gt. order.The to war. For the in want of the husbandman.gt. more total and more partial. first pointing them out to our use. It is requisite.&amp. is present with the first. are vanquished by the Minerval energies.F PLATO. the unmingled and the separate are appropriate.&quot. such as that of shields and darts was employed . thus be in want of all.&quot. l&amp. the of (lie hunter. A similar armour too. by each.&amp. there is sameness in builder will !&amp. which is seated by Jupiter. and thus each in shepherd want of the rest. and separation accompanied with union. and which arrange the mundane genera from the middle fabrication. they the as far as to the last genera. participating of nndefiled powers.lt. For they have an alliance to the highest order. in law This. may we must understand bo assumed from theology. to know these things in common about ail these . warlike genus too. Analogously also to this. &quot. the divine institutions proceeding from For prior to mundane natures is the demiurgic the one demiurgic intellection. the city remains free from external and injurious and this invests it with a -juard from itself. the husbandman of the shepherd. therefore. For there are things connascent with this energy.sympathy of the citizens. Very properly therefore does this genus pay attention to the concerns For on account of this. For as a guardian deity the universe. The narration extends comprehend and are comprehended.T. as energy of Minerva supernally from paradigms. imitating the guardian incursions confused. but likewise cHects tin. so likewise with the mid by dle of the demiurgi. in the uni verse. .eing conjunction with difference. but especially in the warlike genus. therefore. These we first used in Asia the Goddess in those places. of war. and distributes together with him in an orderly manner all the providential inspection which exists in the universe.l TIM/HI S (&amp. honor. Every whore indeed.

thus. likewise. what great attention was paid immediately from the beginning by the laws to prudence and modesty. snrroimding itself through which a di\ine nature remains impassive l&amp. and Hut these pertain are not the instruments of immutable t^Mv. are first seen about . and destroying the \\hirh subsists according to reason. Hut these have a secondary subsistence. ceeds through all things without contact.gt. proceeding health. PROCLL S ON THE [BOOK i. cutting oft These powers. however.|34 particulars.the powers according to which it pro with an infiangible guard. explains these in a di\ inely inspired Tor since it is requisite that every thing divine should operate and divine that by operating it not sutler. calling the body to souls falling into gem-ration and to material things. . the shields. lambliclms. and besides to the preservation of these. but of a geneiurgic life life. ami the and how these are antoedently comprehended in the Goddess. however. We must however show what the armour. and with undeliled purity. and that by not suffering may not have an eflicacious which act in conjunction with passion. imitates its monad.ears art. which arc divine goods.Minerva. are powers in order that both these may accomplished. For in these. and as jtowers. but the measure of alliance to the (Joddess.e Hut s|&amp. The manner. in her fathertheoloiiists remains without declination. the shield. are.gt. indeed. and giving aid to every genesiurgir form. corrupting the purity of intellect. adumbrates the undeliled and unmingled nature of Minerva. assumes anger for the spear. to divination and medicine. too. which amputates matter and liberates the stud from power of which powers the Athenians participate in a pas ions the . the shield is but the spear that fatal da-moniacal or untamed and uninclining power of reason. in both the total and partial Minerval For as the Jovian and demiurgic multitude. This also. spears. in order is may not have it the ineflicacious. Ileuce in the statues of her she is repre For she vanquishes all things. the prophetic liarity . the Minerval and Apolloniacal multitude participates of the Apolloniacal pecu number. &quot. as subservient And Irom these. Sa itans in a secondary degree. You may perceive. 1 For uKui^wk here. the laws. Porphyry. power resembling that of material natures. ami operates on all things. also. he sa\s. which assimilated to matter. that shields and undeliled. il is necessary to read ou^r/k. iecei\ing these through the purer manner. takes place in is an ultimate degree in Minerval souls. that which is material. and according to sented with a spear and shield.

For since the Goddess her proceeding in self is immaterial and separate wisdom. a certain facility is obtained in the concerns of human life. procured disciplines as follow from those we have just enumerated. but that which pertains to wisdom. And of the latter. to unfold each particular more fully. l&amp. daemons. and another from the discur proceeds energy of the sive human soul. but others that of forerunners of the God. from whom likewise matter and instruments are procured for the advents of the Gods. philosophic nature of Minerva might adumbrated. is the order proceeding from the one intellect of Minerva . arrangement of the polity of the Athenians and Saitans he produced con form a lily to IHT as a paradigm. And ano ther kind exists in human lives.&quot. about human a Hairs. on this account. about the world. and this of a I a-onian nature but another kind.. and from one fountain many streams are distributed about the world. in another way. with the Egyptians. thus also about Esculapius. For as there are many da-mons about Ixne.gt.nooK to the i. and by the other. and experience. also a mixture of these two kinds of prudence. is sufficiently indicated from what has been said . however.c are perfective of souls. In a similar manner also with respect is to medicine. some are allotted the order of attendants. being that which lint there is is imparted from theorems in a greater. and con one kind indeed exists in the in Gods themselves. indeed. and in the last place. What then is this prudence? The theory of wholes and of supermundane natures. one kind from the Gods. indeed. And thus about the prudence which is now mentioned.US OF PLATO. the prophetic and the medicinal. to (lie natures that are allied to her. uch other Goddess both a lover of wisdom and a lover of war. also. the. conjunction with divination and medicine. according in a less to which some are adapted and others degree to divine medicine. existing rather as something artificial jectural. And what indeed pertains might to the exerri. one kind must he admitted to exist in the and another in the mundane Cods. because the causes of these are antecedently comprehended in one divinity. \\/. . being ministrant and subservient to the Gods. but has been said in common . all 133 invention of such as are merely human. the philopolemic. For with respect to divination. that laze. And in one way.se of war. this prudence is the source of disciplines in invisible causes.] TIM/F. he exhibits to us in the present words in order that by the one. she unfolds into light all the parts of divine and human prudence. much In order. another from daemons. from which. ho calls the tlie in order that . intellectual. after the first of goods which little A farther on. we must say.

hecau&amp. and that he proceeds from that as the heavens.:bi F-r the world. and For natural aptitude of Minerxal souls to pruilence. /.gt. and to I u&amp.gt. l it must NMit circumstances the intellects and souU of the mundane (iods. hut not of .gt. . nnniig. their to contemplate the other powers of the mundane (iods. wlio are enclo&amp. &amp.Minerxa. ment. is the -it t of Vulcan.v nL&amp.enlapins lint the divine lamhliehus blames this assertion.trilmtion therefore.natures ihut arearran^ed in the iH-rfect.r he admitted that Ksmlapin* exi. stays. astronomy.gt. all wliich the e&amp.e it is lit. in the same manner as Apollo is the liccause J-&amp. and that neither is any thins: pretei milled The word all tlio by . * manifests the united comprehension in the Goddess of all natures that are adorned by her.gt. so likewise luminary ahout the ireiierated place in order that he connected hy this divinity. Tor this. much of the contingent. in the first place. Porphyry. .s moved at dillerent Hut hy suck otlur ili^ipiincs logistic. ilirniutinn mill iiiulidiH .lt.ed in hody. us confounding solar intellect. \\hich perfect priidenee [i. immedi the providence pervading from whole* as far as to material natures . -rid of an hyparxis dilli-rcntly a. i J tiid h&amp. because there are invisible eaiiscsof tin. 1 or a material life exhihits times. howexer. he government ot a since we are allotted prophetic and &amp. is the essence* of the (iods. led the Athenians and Saitans these to the possession of an admirable prudence. And thus much concerning from Minerva. as lamhliehus oltserves. and sciences allied to these. mu-t be referred to the order of the. however. according to a second participation. Hut if some one Wause the distrihution of things does not proceed from the imperfect to the that which is neither adventitious in its progression with tliat manifested hy the words inimediwhich is excellent. the ately from nor foreiirn. words. and as not alvxav* ri. law ha\ in- arithmetic. e.&quot. and jjood temperament. form of prudence is not. as Porphvry says it is. nttli/ fnnn whole world.gt.//A-u /mm tlu. appears to lie signified liy these should ivfer what is *aid to the mundane order.s means geometry. t/icsc. tkt beginning.uhtlv distrihulin^ according to pre.lt.gt.gt. and thus afterwards. artil icial. particulars. \\ i-dom] priu\arily contemplates. the Cioddess iii^t established and adurnctl your city.sls in the MIII. or adapted to the arts. he donhtle&amp. futurity is immanifi-st.anative production.gt. that medicine very properly proceeds the lunar intellect. it appears The \\ords. generation may and may he lilli-d from it vuth s\mnietry.tahh-hed.134 PHOCLUS OX THE [BOOK i. hut is always arranged and accompanied to me that this is th&amp.lt. tolerated hody. and co-arrange According to all tliis orderly i!is&amp. IJut uttcntii-n uY/.

] TIM. as were. nor a partial allotment. universe perfectly without dinvrcnco in itself towards itself. through divine impressions. therefore. choice with \Vhat this place. yet is not since neither is the. some are total. is the circle of tlicsamc. and certain powers. the word ^-xxoT/ijj ri^ signifies are analogous to monads. inserts in di Hi-rent parts of the interval an alliance to dilli-rent prior For this interval of the divine orders in the (iods. the conversion of them to herself. concur. And were] of it. hut primarily such as are total and monadic. . however. is secondary and diminished to the Saitans. but one part [as it of the tiij/trcnf.&quot.Tj. it i&amp. of the same colour.lt. and neither is the bein^ allot itli ted contrary to her w soul. and lioth participate of the on this ac iMinerval providence. and their alliance to And one the progression of wholes from the (Joddess. as is the ca-c w For divine necessity concurs with divine will. but others are partial. But the word oiaxiT/o. soul of the entirely without dillcrence with reference to itself. that it is interval. is symbols connasecnt with her. lnt others to numhers.&amp. and world. Both. is much it celebrated intellect without dillerence in though all things in it are. are divisions of these. lint it must now be added. she also renders this [sensible] interval. but it now said that she clime ill. i. however. and another. and said vital though to IM. to herself. 135 nor the inultitudc her snflered to exist in a divided staff. For the sions of divine allotments. however./ tho Attic region is . proximately suspended from her. and to her choice disorderly. attributes the more ancient ami leading order to some the Athenians. in order that they may IM- esta blished with invariable sameness prior to things which subsist according to time. \i/. count what is at present said. that the soul of the universe possessing tho productive and IHMII^ suspended from the essences principles of all divine [mundane] natures. continued and iminoveable. Choosing foresaw. the circle why do I assert this of the soul? for neither itself. and that which is truly place. it. before divi shown by us. and is an instrument AH she is.lt.TiUS in OF PLATO. of the natures in the universe. IM-CII i. but cu arrange/in nl. Since. a rational and psychical world. Farther still. For . produce the most sagacious Prior to this the (ioddess was said to have been is #////&amp. but that which &quot. is has chti n with to be alltl ctl.HOOK her. world endued with interval itself.lt. the word co-arrangcmcnt signifies tlie union of tliese. that as she for tliis purpose the place in which you were born from the excellent temperature of the seasons it would men. indicates the orderly distribution of the Miner* al providence. Hence the.

llenccii of the i* mu&amp. Origen. according to the demiurgic order. I think Orpheus. and are pestilential. the (Jods. sutlice respecting these particulars. Whence. also. more partial. this air.t In- admitted.&quot. and things do not possess an equal power in intellect. on account of the excellent temperature of the seasons of the year. which is always ilhnninnted alter the same man For these material ner by the (Jods. hut the latter aloue detined accord ing to the present life. there is a great For the contrary is seen to l&amp. hut prior to e must not understand the earth or hnmovcahlc interval.aide to preserve the immor of souls.gt. refers this excellent temperature to the circula for from thence the fertility and sterility of soids are derived. these. and divided by the allotments of justice. of this kind. thus. and certain other IMatonists. also. if ture of the seasons. and last orders.-e. referred to tin condition of the but that it is a certain nameless peculiarity of the region For as certain waters are prophetic.etius.13fl all PROCLITS ON THE [BOOK i. demonstrate that there in much dillerenee in the parts of internal. would they yet Ix.lt.. understand apparent meaning. natures are at one time adapted. lie. however. JJy jilucc. that thin excellent temperature is not lobe air. that the Attic region. . For the Demiurgus himself contain* others in himself. dividing it. therefon 1 .gt. since about this place. hut the latter temporal. And \i the former eternal. which is productive of sagacious men. indicating that his head is the refulgent heaven.gt. and the opposing moon. unattended with dillerence. in the Republic. that the choice liecomeN that it is and from the es&amp. tion of the heaven* contributing to . are the sun. vi/. the there should be those \\hichare alvvavs suspended alter the same manner from the (jlods. it is not at all wonderful that a certain peculiarity of country should contribute In prudence and sagacity. And it is nec ssary that prir to things \\ Inch sometimes participate. hut his eyes the order of his powers. as Socrates says. and piior to thc. and at another unadapted.e\er. production of sagacious men. lint some are more total. 1 sagacity was implanted in them through the excellent tempera But he says. ISor is tliis wonderful. it. ho\&amp. one essence. first. this interval should have &quot. apprehends the truth in a more . certain places are productive of disease. middle.eiiee &amp. and the allotment-* of jiMicc. and sagacity. and the allot ted orders ofdiunons. however. and cold tempestuous weather. words according to their an. says. Ami thus much may to I M ith the respect. For the former essential i&amp.gt.gt. jet the power of soul. and not such i as \ve see in partial souls. the case.e n ant of symmetry in Nor if the place was tality dry ness from excessive heat. is adapted to the lint Ixm^inus douhts the truth of their assertion. therefore.iod&amp.gt. to the participation of the (jods. the excellent temperature of the seasons. Though.

-Kl. prophetic souls. S . manner. Tim. that is which is Esculapian. prudent and rather each through sagacious of place possesses a power of this kind from its allotted divinity. psychical. therefore.ATO . :{7 partial real. after the same manner. adapted to the the contrary to . it must he belter to say. and portion Plato calls this adaptation. with respect to the elections of lives. that the shown what it is that Gods having divided is corruptive the whole of space conformably to the demiurgic order. the soul that chooses its proj&amp.HOOK i. to which. Plat. to whose can-. medical. are posterior to himself.l TIM. and according . But Longimis that lie is is ignorant thai he and entangled in the makes the peculiarity to le corpo doubts which Porphyry proposes to him. also. selected it for this purpose. As. iii^cl. the hence Plato suspends this co-adaptations of souls similiar to places is effected excellent temperature from the Seasons. VOL. but because there are also in the interval itself. I. The Goddess therefore perceiving that the [Attic] portion of interval which is is reception of sagacious souls. 750. but at another time was under her allotted guardianship . not that this place was once deprived of Minerva. which aptitudes were inserted by the whole Demiurgus. or rather proceed from. a similar peculiarity still remaining. as Homer says. this is effected But a certain quality. animated and irascible nature . according to different parts . S 01 IM. since there are many physical. however. different aptitudes reception of divine illuminations. the presiding Gods. or but each unity of the allotted divinity unites and mingles all these in an unminglcd Since however the Seasons are allotted from the Father.er life. For how can one peculiarity of air render men adapted to different pursuits ? And in the next place.gt. excellence of temperature. for the text demonstrates always guarded by the Seasons. tlie mighty Heaven and Olympus are committed. however corruptible. that which is Apolloniacal. how conies it to pass that there is no\v no longer the same natural excellence in the genius of the inhabitants ? But of if the peculiarity It is is it. T. the oul which is arranged in a V.&quot. &quot. each portion of place receives souls adapted to it that portion indeed which is Martial. and angelical powers in each portion of place. the powers of act* with rectitude . souls. the whole of it deriving from thence its subsistence. diernoniacal. and that which Minerva). receiving souls of a more . manner. who uniformly comprehends the all the Gods These powers. corroborated and perfected by. the guardian ship of these portions of place and allotments.

to con it miM IM. then-Ion-. therefore. there us I fence. &quot. in a greater degree than tin? pluce conformable to the choice of its life. We shall show.said that this Goddess template wholes according to the analogous. In fertile is a greater. of sagacious men.&quot. The Goddess. Such. and to things of the Ix-tter co-ordination. in order that when tlie period is fertile it may have shall reap greater benefit.&amp. the one soul which is disseminated in a foreign place. therefore. herself.lt. every where fabricating and weaving the universe distributes to allotment. it truly good men.o surveyed from what has been said. therefore.iui Xror. with the words may !&amp. from the following words of Plato. whether he accords If.imbcr of sagacious men. ir. TU uwnwifTtif. yet there is always a certain same sagacity of the place. how that which excels in prudence is of a more Minerval characteristic. may have from a life less 1 of prudent to and place. The kind. be requisite. . the visible Seasons. ice of this taining bodies b\ life. being a lover both of war and wisdom. does not understand by place. consequence sagacious men. but \\heii it more. in those that inhabit this region. first -elected this place tor the habitation of luMeaH V f It &quot. the Seasons. Is ntifssarj to re^d.ivs. men most ri)i similar to &amp. to tin- ol falling oil if adapted the Plato is praises the excellent temperature of For then- one excellent temperature with reference health of bodies. desisting from these things. thus also the text s. knowing barren \\lien the season is fertile. but in barren periods. that the Goddess chose this place. We must not however wonder. divine lamblichus. in conjunction with her father. one corporealformed condition. ill tills place. Minis. as pro ductive.*&quot. wholes. ara rov TOXUV WF/ ( .&quot. and are more adapted to the Goddess. \\hich introduces a fertility and sterility of periods. a more perfect Hut these are more replete with wisdom than their opposite*. circulation of the heavens contribute*. however. for the efficacious gro\\th i:c of the seed . and the aptitude of greater abundance of it through the jx-culiarity is our opinion resjR cting these particulars. energizes But to this arrangement. and another contributing to the reception of sagacious For though there is not always the souls.gt. and causes them of Plato. I5ut lie i*avs the Goddess fashions however. aud when in the period is barren. a less a when is husbandman chooses good land that less. sus For in a pi.rirqciut &quot. to inhabit. but an incorporeal cause pervading through the earth.gt. i. X. on account of the power of the earth. xn aoop/ai ry fXurroi a-rowtvrnv r^rrtit.138 PROC1AJS ON THE [BOOK i. such as is that of the Attic region. and comprehendum all interval.

the indications of thcologists.gt. says that souls descend from thence.^Q In what this greatest divinity. placing Minerva in the Moon. celebrates her as thfonoe [^eovor. being brought a demiurgic. separate. Unit on this account. confused. und immutable. consider her as in conjunction with other divinities 1 Instead of r&amp. the of/ spring Hermes there subsists about the &amp.&amp. IM: manifest. and through \\hirh.lt. the whole of a disorderly. hut others more clearly. Hence Socrates. and abiding in him .&amp.assertions. first of a guardian. the niystagogueg in I . and all power. from which a/so (he race the Crucrs is dfi-irul.- Otuv here. ting. however. and is separate in an per&amp.&amp. as not well For he interprets rrrtr as that which entirely subverts preserving the analogy. we must a&amp. .HOOK i. Pinto delivers to us the most accurate conception respecting unfolding to those who are sufficiently able to perceive his meaning. DeuiiurgUH. in tamed deity Miurna.f and material nature but u-isdvin as immate and separate intelligence. here said.gt. that the Athenian region is well adapted to the re ception of sueh-like souls. many orders of Ciods that have the form of the one.] or deijic intel all beings. however.lt.lt.] T1M/EUS is Ol- PLATO.gt. that this (goddess is the cause of hoth these. He also says. Moon . as indeed from the summit of her father.gt. it i necessary to read n)r Hror. Different interpreters however betake them*el\es todifli rent arrangements of the Goddess . exempt manner from l&amp. yet not continuing what they assert. But theologihts. call this forth lection. &amp. which possess nt one and (lie same time iniseilility and mildness . which likewise the Athenians imitate through a prudent and . The di\ine lamhlichus. and aLo that the Moon. and - :&amp. J.r Ami is these an connective. and immaterial intelligence. present themselves to the view. is of the. or dela Hut the nndefiled and un intellectual unities subsistiui. or demiurgic.lt. the whole world. I or Porphyry.eing divinity Minerva. derived from Mnsaus. and prior to accord in requisite that the conceptions of these men should Ix-come to these.lcuxis arc lovers of wisdom and Invert of since it it said that the race of those irho arc leaders . then-fore. also.lt. All theologists. some indeed narrating their opinion more enigmatically. of the mysteries in Klenxis. blame* fheM.gt. If. rial warlike life.sert as follows : In the Deniiurgus and father of deriving what we say from a supernal origin. or perfective characteristic.!&amp. in the Cratylus. He it adds.gt. that what is delivered by Plato should be shown the highest degree with theologists. nccording one of the the to which he himself reinniiiH firm thing* proceeding from him pariicipate of inflexible he intellectually eiven every thing.

birth says. may be properly called a lour of rt ttr. what ought we to say of her attendant choirs liberated.gt. souls that resemble her divinity. and according to the united gift of herself. * Iliad. viii. who according to the form of the contains all the paternal wisdom. of productions of those divinities to be unth them to be immingled with their tiled. wove I lie radiant veil her sacred fingers in rich * I loan Her father waves. And she. uniting is Hence she and demonstrating the one unity depending powers. Hence also. and her separate w isdom is pure and immingled with secondary natures. . and the one characteristic peculiarity of . Hence Orpheus speaking of her h&amp. ami spreads the court of Jove. in tins place. they exert an admirable prudence. \\ ilh armour vhiiung like a biaicn flowtr. and ruling orders? For all these receive as from a fountain the twofold peculiarity of this (Joddess. causing the (Jods. or divine. the divine poet [Homer] indicating both these powers of Miners a. all PHOCLIJS ON TIIK [ROOK i.*&amp. * 1 Tor \&amp. according to the orders. She also appears in the heavens and the sublunary region. in conjunction with fabulous devices savs.*&amp. For imparts the cause both of the philosophic and the philopolemic power. mundane.lt. things in the one Demiurgus.. il is neci-s-.f&amp. and partial exhibit an unconquerable strength. and an undeliled life. extends as far as to the last orders.gt.lt. they denominate her philosophic. 1 of da inons.v. it was necessary that she should proceed into second and third she appears in the order to which Proserpine belongs.gt. connectedly invariably rules over all contrariety.ary to rlacl \i&amp. Since.gt. and elevating iindcHled hcptad and illuminates secondary natures with intellect.Minerval For since wherever there are providence. but she generates every virtue from herself. the first Hence through und arranging wholes together with of these. * \\ailike robe her limbs invest.p&amp. is i\ philosopher. For she.v TM. . that Jupiter generated her from head. but through the second philopoleinic.HO sustaining her father. her inflexibility is intellectual. who one. She likewise appears among the liberated the lunar order with intellectual and demiurgic light. powers.gt. however. called Cure Tnto^encs.

and a separation vile. therefore. in consequence of better natures havin fr dominion. and as separate and immaterial wisdom.. is Phosphorot. ponderous. rule over such as are more irrational . as every way extending intellectual light . tnisv javelin bcruM . which immutably takes rare of mundane natures. hut with things themselves. And she . waiting for the mandate of Jupiter.J TIM.causc she is allotted the summit of se a lover of contrarieties. connects contrariety. likewise. we must understand her demiurgic providence. the ancients co-ai ranged Victory with paration but she Minerva. |j\- She too alone shakes She also hurls the javelin tlie the/. is !&amp.gt. she . as establishing every partial intellect in the total intellections of her father 1 Hind. Hence. her intellectual wisdom is signified. she is philosophic indeed. is a friend to war and contrarieties. fighting.rgis. she preserves Bacchus undctilcd. U Again. just as Plato here relates was an associate with the (ireeks against the inhabitants of the Atlantic that she in Order that every where more intellectual and divine natures island may ciate in battle with the .-11US OF PLATO. is called Metis by the (iods. viii.* she necting the contrarieties in wholes.gt. strong! that \\lini her fury burn*. of Jupiter. Strife. as con also. indeed. Hence. hole ranki of heroes tames and overturns. and prepares more divine bein::s always to have dominion in the world. . subjects of her government For. Hence. licr arm. Shook llu. I think Homer represents her as an asso Greeks against the Barbarians. also.uuok i. and illuminates the with union. likewise. For Mars. IJul she is p/rilopolcmic. But ly the warlike rol*&amp. and to which she gave subsistence by her intellections. as If. is a friend to war. likewise. war. sh always love*. without . 141 In which verses ly the veil which slip wove. and division more adapted to the Minerva. On this account.e. because these are in a certain respect congregated through this goddess. the Sa. being demiurgic intelligence. and as an untamed and inflexible deity. however. On this account. these things arc rightly asserted. also. but vanquishes the giants in conjunction with her lather. she is Maid to he philopolemic.e.

Again. Ergane. al-o.7/&quot. discuss the remaining appellations of the h.. Love and Minerva. . as moving the whole of fate. and that their mundane paradigms.gt. Forthe laws are more proximate . the middle of wholes. and Ix-ing the leader its productions. in the may called the progeny anil pupils of the For they derive .gt. however. that things which are more divine Gods. a wholes are prior to parts power which is greater. what we should. or the ologist as presiding over demiurgic works. who are the progeny and pupils of the Gods.prolix through my sympathy with the discussion. philo hut he thus denominates the former. For in the abiding in the Demiurgus. virtue. We Goddess. as being v irtue herself. and there is an order in them which is more divine. that the father produced her. says Orpheus. and of . Meti&amp. and as leading to intelligible wisdom. it by good a still greater degree than I inhabited this region surpassing all men in every virtue. and a form of virtue which is truly Minerval. or u-gis-bcaung. if.vW//c/. the works of the father or the beautiful fabricator. But in the genus of virtue ruling [or is adapted to this greatest is divinity. and supermundane] Gods. sh- wisdom and immutable the intelligence. &quot. therefore. But she is C(illitri. as those to do.. institutions in .on. he generates the amatory series.ve aliv. recurring to the thing proposed we must say. becomes We learn from history that the affairs of the . The ancient Athenians. as exerting an undeliled and unmingled purity. and being formed have mentioned. Minerva. the first &quot. and as the union of demiurgic wisdom. and the latter as the summit of wholes. as connecting by beauty all a J irgin. It IK- is evident. he brings forth Minerva. also. as being sophers. Athenians are more ancient than is those of the Saitans that the establishment of their city to prior. not for the same rea&amp. generator and much-pleasing Love.&quot. That she the (|iite might be of mistily works. therefore.142 PROCLUS ON THE artificer. [BOOK i. that Plato calls both these divinities.v. using these laws. she unfolds Bj power of s virtue s woilliv iKime she culled. but as Love. Forthe Demiurgus is And as Metis. indeed.s. Hence the the- Orpheus *ays.idv saul might not appear to IK. universe.

and originates supernally from the supermundane orders. Since. surpasses all of them in magnitude find virtue. and connectedly contain one life. the priest very properly relates one deed which was recorded in the temples.lt.HOOK i. of your city are recorded in our and are the subject of admiration yet there is one which temples. they vanquish For ftrptt. he announces that he shall narrate the greatest deed. having promised summarily to relate the laws and deeds of the he delivered. of Athens. an intellectual paradigm of it. ind&amp. according to which the whole form of the polity is exhibited. this deed not being one of the many. but according to virtue that which is intellectual. For there is. and the tutelar Goddess is praised. it i* all Hihordinntc beings. After this wrtfjry . and accomplish one life and polity. extends as far as lo the last of things. also.Solon to inhabited this ancient inhabitants For it says. is remained for him to celebrate their deeds. conformably to which is the 1 fighting under Minerva. and the undcfiled production of Minerva. which is them. 143 their subsistence fabrication of the therefore. since the whole of the Minerva! series iug one. exhibits transcendent \irtue. how ever. priest The it. For . subsists appropriately with reference to the universe. through the Gods. they For the paradigm of them is one. and which transcends transcendency according to ma^nltmlc presenting in to magnitude. of deeds there is a ntnnlcr. life the Athenians. is in wholes since it must be . through which an encomium passed on the city. and are perfected. l deeds. region.such a method of narration trarieties. suspended and originates from the Gods. For wholes more divine of mundane natures have many energies of the great magnitude. and our view that which and est ///.] TIM/KUS OF IM. Every tiling.&quot. and therefore. and is converted to 15ut this.ni licif . and collect many con Hence. in which sh. also.&quot. but one prior In the many. therefore. so far as it is virtue.vd. and there is also one unity comprehensive of them. admitted that there is divine virtue in the universe. lint making the the Hence what now applied to of the Athenians to be one and continued. surveyed in the world. lo read fit-ytarai.ATO. to a similitude to wholes. accord ins. and in continuity with itself. their laws according to a division of genera. &quot. Athenians. Mainland mighty . il &quot. into wholes accompl one union with the Goddess. or rather they are always perfect. conjoins . and which surpasses all the rest in virtue. as there were many and great deeds of the city. And is it is likewise in said is human lives.

does not think it safe im mediately to introduce war against the. day. that in the institutes delivered by the ancestors \ west. if any one is willing to from partial natures to wholes. in order that oil may of the Athenians. for this is the very thing which he blames in the ancient poets. castigating a Barbaric multitude pouring against it on each side in a disorderly manner.(iods. neither omits any tiling of encomiastic ungment. and to proceed from images to paradigms. .Since. accomplished and material modes. of which the one consists of souls.. however. . For. then-fore. the Persian expedition came from the east against the (i reeks. afler him.s Panathena ic orations to celebrate most amply the Per and the victories of the Athenians both by land and sea. and it would be absurd that Critias orTima-us.parts. understand* such as an. and which rushed from the e\ternal sea with a force capable of entirely destroying these. because in conjunction with her father i&amp.\ iln diviiif laiublu liu&amp. and particularly against the Athenians.y according to him. spread itself with hostile fury over all Europe and Asia. however. pa Plato in what the. in neither delivers the Persian invasion nor any other similar deed. which more recent orators fill their orations.gt.!44 PROCLUS ON TIIK [BOOK i. and that they subdued this mighty power. however.material powers*. there are two species of da-mons. wliich are noxious to the soul. if war of the Athenians against the Atlantics is considered as a mere history nor fails in theological accuracy in conjunction with caution. however. against matter. wliat a mighty power your city once turned. but the other ot intxlt s : and these art.souls gn-at and admirable deeds. and the \ictory of Minerva over the Giants. To which ma\ be added. and also in the mysteries. (hercfore.gt. who wen. Tor these writings relate-.gt. he informs us that the Athenians wen \ietorioiis. is here said. Plato. l&amp. But he rails damions tmitcrial tmnlt-x. Porphyry. should r !. Plato introduces the Atlantic war from the survey the citv of the Athenians as from a centre. she vanquished these and the Titans. we must explain what i* said. he 1 is corrected by the interpreter that came &quot. Plato in praising the Athenians. For these dogmas. manner.gt. the ( ligantic war celebrated. which rushing from the Atlantic sea. it As is usual. with sian expedition. auditors of what Socrates said against the poets on the preceding i. . &amp. but introducing the Atlantic war against the parts inhabited by us. by .&quot.

and the Atlantic s an island. For it is possible to survey the same things in images as in wholes. For the Athe necessaries. and there a festival sacred to the Goddess. but Minerva is the inspeetivc guardian of an intellectual life. it must be admitted.lt.BOOK i. according to which the second and the other invisible causes. say that the other Titans had diUcrcnt allotments. and through being called the progeny of Neptune. and more material hyposlasis. In order however that we may pro-assume certain definite forms of the pro posed analysis. after procurement \cptunc presides over generation . governs by Minerva. For the Gods themselves. extreme . and those that inhabit this region betaking themselves to a according to intellect. T .lt. therefore. these things must be separately understood. are filled with this kind of division. verned by them. but that Atlas was established in the western parts. sustaining the heavens. and the Atlantics instead of tho Titans and Giants.sity llic \\idc-Jprrad lirav n \\. arcanalogous to her. T/ico- fagixts also after the laceration of ttacchns. Hut through the analogy &amp. through inhabiting so that it is evident from these things that the preserve an analogy to this God the of For nians bearing the name of the Goddess. The. that the habitations within the pillars of Hcrit is necessary to I. concerns lie delivers (his Atlantic tion through thename of the Athenians/he refers his readers to the Olympian co-ordina which fought under tlie command of . In o. For the mighty Atlas was one of the Titans. are eternally united but the In-ings which are go At/antic :&amp. divisible. the victories of Minerva. VOL. For rovrovs IK re.US OF PLATO. by Atl. things proposed therefore will contribute in the greatest degree to these analogies. and subjects all such things as have a multiplied. in consequence of her having vanquished Nep tune. irhieh manifests the divisible progression into the universe under Jupiter from the impartible fabrication. And that 1 may remind you of the analogy. to intellectual natures.] TINM. indeed. assuming the Athenians instead of Minerva and the Olympian Gods. After this manner. tics. .n Mi-l. are celebrated by the Athenians. father [Neptune] being filled . Plat.cinM.f lift again ascribe wars and seditions to the finds.Minerva but through that of the Allan. to divine lininaa wnr prior to the fabrication of the world. Tim. 15y strong ncccs.ntir&amp.(]/ indicates the middle fabrication. diviner natures in a more powerful manner. rrH rvirovi. to the Titanic Gods. and from the genesinrgic bring subdued by the life intellectual order.n Farther is still.gt.

but those external to them. here refers the theory to daemons and souls. or sameness and difference. And if the illustrious Heraclitus looking to this said. as we learn in the Philebus. way you may divide essences. Inhuming from the Gods. . and the whole 1 . whether you are willing Orphically to arrange the Olympian and Titanic genera in opposition to each other. to the inter words of Plato. is of opinion after a certain wonderful manner. all the genus of those within the pillars of Hercules will be analogous to the better. mention of the fabulous Titanic war. tilings. that r/v/r is th c he did not speak absurdly.14 rules. of permanencv and motion. also. according to progression. we think it fit to remind ourselves. though in the pre face he himself delivers to us auxiliaries for the solution of such-like narrations. you speak ot the or in whatever or from bodies. and the better adorning the subordinate rank or Platonically. which extends through all mundane nahires.gt. chus however. or thagorically. to the whole of the more excellent. For in these. to perceive the two co-ordi nations proceeding from on high. and variously proceeding life. The divine larnbliwho adopt a more partial a^ignatiou of the cause of the analysis. but others. therefore. therefore. according to all divisions. and a proximity pretation of the mentioned foims of analysis . adducing some things to what is proposed all things. father of therefore. you speak of the Olympian and Titanic divinities or l&amp. and makes Porphyry. [BOOK i. that the whole composition of the world is co-harmonized from this con trariety. But we must arrange their insolent injustice. tu matter. May that divine in these. For the true sea of dissimi which proceeds into interval and multitude from I/it. man and also however. of infinity in conjunction with the meaMires of bound. to survey much of infinity and much of bound in the universe. Whether. For matter is truly infinity and baseness. and that of this. of the beforeand that we must arrange the Atlantics accord to all the total natures of the inferior co-ordination. that what is said is to only to be understood according to the apparent meaning. Betaking ourselves.eginning from intellect. there is one continued. be propitious to us. but others parts. Hence through nearness . from all these. who has instructed us in many other particulars. producing generation. against those be considered. are analogous to the PUOCLUSONTHE whoje of the inferior co-ordination. Hence. . one. of heaven and generation rational and irrational . with probability. ing some things are wholes. are there. without it. you may assume one thing. a division through diminution. or from souls. but of those other without to the less excellent co-ordination of litude. as far as to the last of things. and to celebrate and the whole of a material life v the former a* Mibduing the latter.

For thus the it. and a certain respect in it. view appropriately the dhinc and each. two co-ordinations are of as two-fold divided principles of things are to be admitted. duad of principles Pythagoreans also say. motion by permanency. after the one cause of all. Since. pure. the speak Orphically. insolence. and united. matter other itself. For we say that these a kindred nature.gt. acted injuriously from is manifested by the theologist. a conversion to matter. and appearing analogously in each nature.eing irrationality and immoderation. It must not however be supposed from this. a is unfolded into light. or the sea of dissimilitude. in order. the divisions are accomplished after this manner in the Gods prior to the world. the Atlantic island is denominated. and their heart is insolent.&quot.&quot. as far as to the For among the extremity of things.itcnutl pnrtx according to a defection and separation remote from the Gods. 117 to.erly IVlinerval. intellectual. but the sujx-rmundane Gods the demiurgic and connective orders are under the monad.n&quot.gt. it is is by the Olympian Gods . l&amp. i TINM. and in a similar manner in all things. For the external does not indicate compre hension of powers. But the one precedes all contrariety. or. and subduing through its power things of a say subordinate nature. permanency. generation by the heavens. irrational by rational souls. we must arrange.S lieinir in or PLATO. vivific and the generative orders are under the duad. and tiling of a diviner nature in the universe. and in these the monad is more excel lent than the duad. whether yon IM* call it the abyss. and also in the mundane Gods. arc under the more . im But the Atlantic sea must he arranged according to material. way you may willing to denominate For tions of the inferior co-ordination. Tor the paradigm of them they are said to have. But the inferior co-ordination becoming adorned. hut an hypostasis departing from every thing stable. the psychical and corporeal. we shall receding analogies understand that the whole of the inferior co-ordination. the principle of diversity and the duad . ceases from its abundant division and infinity.I. or in whatever matter receives the appella called infinity and darkness. which you may proj&amp. reason and form. and the genera in if.* . however. but the Titanic under sameness. the rushing from t. And &quot. and that thus proceeds through all things. the And Olympian genus is under the monad. the connected genus of the Titans such. presenting itself to the viz. Being however in being but difference being united by sameness. that adorned and arranged by the better order. if you wish to irther than chaos. just as from the Atlantic sea. through their these names.that mind is replete with r\il rounsrls. more and total and partial are characterised by progression it and division. v\hen he says of them. But among the mundane Gods the duad. as being undefined.

indeed. the magni were M-VCU islands tude of which was preserved the existed thrre. That such and HO great an island once existed. or the nature of bound. motion. one of which was sacred to Pluto. and aflbrdcd this island was greater than both Libya and Asia together. of the Atlantic island which and was truly prodigiously great.148 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK and matter. the various genera of &quot. JMarceltus writes however this be the ra*e. to that gives subsistence which mixed. which it contains. that bound. And according to a subsistence from all these. and such an island once existed. are under the other of ancient. These things. Since however the one is beyond the first duad.gt. the oppositely divided genera and the contrary genera of bodies. but according to the things that bound. hut difference. and was itself likewise sacred in hivpic History. For at that time the Atlantic sen was navigable. tilings which appear procet-ds. in their times.&quot. and aluo three others* another to Ammon. :i thousand stadia. or the nature of the infinite. For according by certain historians res|&amp. and are co-arranged with a view to one For in the universe there are these two-fold orderly distribution of things. pass that true sea. there in that sea. But tin subordinate are vanquished by the more divine. from the intelligible monad. what is said about it as a history. and the world is ivndered one. ami also as an image of a certain nature among his lit to If . therefore. souls. an easy passage to other neighbouring islands as it was likewise easy to from those islands to all the opposite continent which surrounded . sacred to Proserpine. which for many periods had dominion over all the islands in the Atlantic sea. is evident from what in said what pertains to the external sea. And according that are infinite. For as far as to these the diminution of the two principles these principles. and had an island Uut before that moutli which is called by you the Pillars of Hercules. and from since it subsists according to Philolaus from things to the infinite. to be contraries are collected together. as Socrates says in the Philebus. tilings it subsistence from the indefinite duad.to receive. They also add. and the middle [or second] of these to Neptune. it is possible. irrationality. of being. it becomes one whole derives its and all-perfect form from the one. who &quot. Neptune. being harmonised from contraries.ecting to them.enera of Mods. For is it is Ciod. of an immense extent. that the inhabitants of it remembrance from their ancestors.

and that we explore the analogy more generally. which originates from the (Jods. matter and material form partial. but same tiling with an accuracy said. and to others all the opposite continent. therefore wonder.gt. and adorn it. but possess an admirable power. magnitude is sig quantity. . as we have a two-fold the universe. For all the inferior co-ordination is material. nificant of diminution. with resjx Ct to itself. we think tit in the psychical genera subsist between these. has an indication that total causes proceed without imi&amp. those Unfolding likewise the similitude of is who it For this. it is ntcestary to read r . But the sea was then navigable. others the other islands. But we shall to And consider the deep. and to place assume last in it some things as most total genera. and since each possesses things more fore said] . there is is adapted coordination in to the things themselves. You must not. therefore. For that which in no respect has things. but that they inhabited an island larger than both For all things that are Libya and A*ia.BOOK i. and things more we have Ix of both these co-ordinations and the last elements arc but other things are the middles tor the divine genera are comprehensive of all things. possible to behold the same analogies in a more partial. first to divide in a three-fold manner the inferior co-ordination. should thus give respite to theory. and terminated total. but are merged in an infinite 1 For f\^nrra/ityn h* n . as proceeding into bulk and interval. they stop. as analogous to matter. but having arrived at the end of the order. and in a more comprehensive way. Hence Plato says that the Atlantics spread themselves externally. assumed this now after another manner.eing.ediment through matter. are contracted Here. to the whole theory of mundane natures. [for this . a subsistence is successive to the boundaries of But the addition of those. transcendency and deficiency. the vilest of all things. more remote from the one. if before we.] TIM/FAJS OF PLATO. since more total natures proceed as far as to the last of and adorn matter.gt. and proceeds into multitude and division. others as middle. in For since. as being more remote from the one and nearer to matter. I4&amp. just as such as are nearer to the one. and the Atlantic sea. we may gradually accustom survey things of this kind. wholes. Hut it is necessary that doctrine proceeding from universal* to the subtle elaboration of particulars. to genera. l&amp.gt. and the intellectual and this being the case. and others as some things. But it also has. we shall arrange the Atlantics as analogous. hut transcend in according to cpiantity. are diminished according to power. and of progression and extension to every thing. and that which remains U-yond it is infinite. but that we do not always subdue it.

the latter oj illicit always remains This Hercules therefore Hcreulcs. The waters within the mouth indicate the genera of the letter co-ordination. &quot. llic M-IHC requires w* should read MOV. but a well-ordered diminution is surveyed from more total to middle natures which comprehend and are comprehended nnd on this account he says.*. and the last of analogous to that which is truly false. external habitable part. that together opposite./ is Jovian . for puo* in this place. must assumed. be in every respect truly denominated the continent. the Inpostasis of mundane and natures. order of the generative the guardian is di\ ine. but the other Mauds many. Am! they he does not alone use that which evinces opposite. and guarded by demiurgic boundaries. he manifest* through the term are at the greatest possible distance from more excellent natures. Since however the progression of things continued. they indie that he may (lie term e. Since. as he does of the Atlantic s.gt. the extremities of the worse co-ordination are most material.&quot. which Hence IM- and who niards these two separate parts of the universe. For the monad is adapted to the first genus For multitude subsists in every thing . account of the progression of magnitude to the triad. have the form of a port with a narrow entrance. on vvith the duad. . and no vacuum any where intervenes. passage And that the Atlantic was one. from the Atlantic island to the other island. the l*illarx (in:l /&amp. and indefinite rialurc. but number and multitude to the second. but he also adds the Hut he signifies by ale the most extreme diminution.should be sepa two-fold over.. is allotted from both the demiurgic division. on the internal from tho this account he says. opposite continent. which co-ordinations . and word belong to the other part. and from these to the it* 1 1 . and the continent was the greatest. More in the I oliticus he calls the sea of dissimilitude. For the true sea is them about matter. but Ami the land which surrounds it may the mouth itself is a true sea. . hut the one prior to series.K i.150 I UnCl.rter/ial. For the waters which are beheld within the mouth we have just now mentioned. ho we\cr. the words about that true sea. there was a from middle* to the last and vilest natures. itablu and strenuously the same. And magnitude is adapted to the third genus.l S ON Till. this. because it is necessary that these rated from each other without confusion. IIM. that the I illars of Hercules separated for he denoininalm llouriahing demiurgic production.^. the divine separation of genera in the iiinicr. truly matter.

mm*

i.J

TlM.V.r.S

OF

1

I.Alo.

1.11

ihcmscUes itnd rcjoiriny: in a stable and uniting power. symbolically manife.stn the cause which defines and separates the two portions of mundane nature*, lint the port with a narrow enlr.mce, signifies the convolved, M-lf-converging, arranged, and immaterial h\ parxis of
as being converted to

For

tin- innntli

these

mundane

interval

Tor through ihc w/r/vw entrance it and extension proceed from the worse co-ordination.
portions.
is

is

signified

that

port an hyparxis material natures.
the sea.
If,

But through the indicated, exempt from the confused and disorderly motion of For such are ports affording u protection from the tumults in

however, some one should say, that an elevation to the more Intel-, lectual and divine natures in the universe becomes a port to souls, he will not
l>o

far

from the truth.
"

In this Atlantic island there was a combination of kings, who with great and admirable power subdued the whole island, together with

many
jected

other islands and parts of the continent
to

;

their

dominion
sea.
is

all

Libya as Car as to Egypt,

and besides this sub and Europe as

far as to the

Tyrrhene
here said
it

In what

is

requisite to recollect the

Platonic hypotheses about

the earth, that IMato does not measure the magnitude, of it conformably to ma thematicians; but apprehends the interval of it to be greater than they admit it to as Socrates says in the Plr.rdo ; and that he supposes there are many
l>e,

habitable parts similar to the part which we inhabit. Jlcnee he relates that there is an island and a continent of so great a magnitude in the external sea. For
in short, if the earth
is

naturally

spherical.it
it.

is

necessary that
it,

it

should
is

be so
inha

according to the greater part of
bited

That portion of
its

however, which

there

great inequality by elsewhere an expanded plane of the earth, For, according to Heraclilns, he who passes through a region very difficult high. of access, will arrive at the Atlantic, mountain, the magnitude of which is said to
is

by

us, exhibits

cavities

and prominencies. Hence and an interval extended on

be so great by the Kthiopic historians, that it reaches to the a-thcr, and sends forth a shadow as far as to live thousand stadia. For tin- sun is concealed by it from
the ninth hour of the

Athos, a

day till it entirely sets. Nor is this at all wonderful. For. Macedonian mountain, emits a shadow as fur as to Lcmnos, which is distant from it seven hundred stadia. And Marcellus, who wrote the Ethiopic not only relates that the Atlantic mountain was of such a great height, history,

152
lint
tle

IMIOCLI. S

OX

TllK

("HOOK

,.

Ptolemy

nlso say* that the
tl.at

Lunar mountains are immensely high, and Aristo
is

illuminated by the solar rays during the third the third part In-fore the rising, of the night after the setting, and also for part of the whole magnitude of the earth, hounded l.y And he who looks to the sun. of that it is truly immense, according to the assertion its elevated parts, will infer want of certain mathematical methods to the So that we are not now ill Plato. we attempt to reeur to them. is said aho.U the earth, nor do development of what

informs us

Caucasus

For

thi*c methods

measure the earth according
tlu fll hi

to the

surface iJiiJi

n

inhabited

l>y

;

but Plato says that ire

a uintii,

and that then holt earth

in

derated, which

aho
i>

the sacred

rumor of the

asserts. F.gyl limi*

And
it

thus

much concerning what
show
that
it

related of

proper to
history.
wl.o"

magnitude disbelie\e what is said
tin;

or the Atlantic island, in order to
l.y

is

not

Plato, though

should he rccciu-d as a menkin-in

Jtnt with respect to the

power of

this island, that tin-re \\ere ten

and that it ruled o\er the other islands, certain parts it brgat live male twins, all these par of Hercules, ef the continent, and some parts within the Pillars
ticulars are clearly related in the Critias. In make liowe\rr, for it is

Now

proposed

an analvsis of the particulars,

tin-

power

is

-aid to he great

hecan-eit proeci

(Mo

every

M-eond co-ordination,

and admirable, according the whole of the thinir, and comprehends totally it is held toother by ten kings, because the dccad For
t

to a reference to the universe,

comprehends the

rulers of the

o co-ordinations
in

;

since the
Ii.it

Pjthngoreans also
they were twins, so

are say, that all opposites

comprehended
bein-

the decad.

that there are li\e dnads, twins
Clite-,;

live

because according
!ioweu-r

to the mca-nre.s of jn-tice, there

times iM-gotteii from Neptune and is likewise an orderly
is

distribution of this co-ordination, of

which the pentad

an image.

The

pro

gression of
i

it

is

through the monad. to the because all the connexion of contraries, and the mundane war, belong this (Jod presides over the contrariety which every For as middle fabrication.
s

co-ordination through the duad, just as that of the better all of them are the descendants of Neptune, Moreover,

where

exists, lie likewise rul.s

oxer generation and corruption, and

all-various

motion.
first

Hut tin-so kings subdued the

and most total genera of the wholeness of them. other islands, as likewise comprehending middles thronuh the as adorning us Pinch as possible ]5ut they also \an<mished parts of the continent, And they had dominion over certain parts of the internal the last of things. because the la*t parts of the better me subservient to the first parts habitable
region,

Atlantic island as comprehending all the worse co-ordination. And they subdued the

BOOK

i.]

TIM/EUS OF PLATO.

1

W

Nor is this at all wonderful ; since certain d<ewnn.i of the worse co-ordination. are in subjection to certain heroes, and partial souls which belong to the intf/iiSuch also is the Titanic giblc portion of things are frequently slaves to fate.
order with the

Gods

lo

which Atlas belongs.
it

And

the

first

of these

ten

kings
to
ilio

was

called

Alias,

and as

is

said in the Atlauticiis gave the

name

island.

The summits,

therefore,

of the

second

co-ordination,

are adorned
;

indeed by the Olympian Gods, of whom Minerva is the leader but they snhdue the whole of the essence which is subordinate to the Gods, but ter minates in the worse co-ordination; such as the essence of irrational souls,
of material masses, and
the

of matter

itself.

Plato also appears to have called

power great and admirable, because Thaumas and Bias are said by ancient thcologists to have belonged to this order. Per haps too, he so denominated it, because the whole of the second co-or
of
the

Atlantics

dination

is

the

progeny of
of the
*

infinity,
is

as the better

co-ordination

which we say is the first [power ], just On this account he the offspring of bound.
1

celebrates

the power

Atlantics,
:

just
is

as

lie

does the virtue of the

Athenians, which belongs to bound for it After this manner therefore, I think we

may

the measure of those that possess it. be able to make the analysis

according to the Pythagorean principles. The words of Plato likewise, have a great augment, in order to exhibit the work of the victors in a greater and more splendid point of view. For he says And he SVVX/AIV re, through the union of the particle rt augmenting ?rjva[jnv power.

and admirable. But each of these is different from the other. For power may be great though it is nothing else, but it is said to be admirable from other things. And by how much the more admirable that is which is van Besides this quished, by so much greater is the victor demonstrated to be. also, indicating through divisions the multitude subdued by this power, he
also adds, great,

evinces that

it is

multitudinous and transcendent.

But then all this power being collected into one, endeavoured to enslave our region and yours, and likewise every place situated within the mouth of the Atlantic sea."
"

AVXI/IIK
*
J

if

omitted
rot>

in the original.
it is

Instead of wpo

xtparoi in this place,

neceuary to read mpot rev wrpare*.

For TO rovrp here, read rovevry.

Tim. Plat.

VOL.

I.

U

154

PROCLUS ON TIIK

[BOOK

i.

Plato does not say that there was once sedition among divine natures, or that Hut let these things indeed be true subordinate subdued more excellent beings.
in

human

a flairs

:

of the genera in the

the present narration ho\ve\er, indicates, that the most total second co-ordination of things in the universe proceed

For there are both in the heavens and everywhere, a sepa all things. and uniting power, and nothing is destitute of these. In more excellent rating natures however, these powers do not subsist with division, nor multitudinously, but collected into one, and with one impulse; but this is, unitedly, and ac
through
cording to one and a continued
the one
is

life.

For

as

in

the
is

worse co-ordination
united.

in the better, multitude multiplied, thus also

Hence mul
these

titude

is

every

where,
to

and

the Atlantic* wishing
tic sea,
all their
!>

things anguished subdue every place within the mouth of the Atlan
is
\

through union.

Of

\anciuishcd
lhou"h

the Athenians,

time being powers being collected into one, but at the same For multitude and separation, are an image.

they

may

seen

to

subsist

be suneyed in the better co-onliiiation, yet they will be multitude not In-ing there \ictorions, but there unitedly;
short,

sameness,

and

in

the better genera.

"

Then

it

was,

O

Solon, that the power of your city was conspicuous

to all

men

for its virtue

and

strength."

"Plato

opposes

to the

power of

the Atlantic*;, the

power of the Athenians;
middle fabrication.
;

this appellation, preferring

as being

adapted
alliance,

to the

And

he celebrates the
throu- h virtue,

more excellent power
its

for its \irtue

and strength
the

in

order that
nature of
her \irtue,)

Miner\a;

(for

he may indicate another theology,
its

to

philosophic
calls

and not the Orphic only,
to
is

but through

strength

alliance
it

the power conspicuous, because cation of sensible*
:

Hut lie calls her phllopolemic nature. and contributes to the fabri mundane,
indeed,

and

to

the

Atlantic s

he alone

attributes
infinity.

and
>ays

this

continually,

becau-e

they

are

arranged

under

power, Unt he

For as they \aiujuished this power, throuuh virtue. are characterized by \irttie, to the co-ordination of bound; they In-long which measures the passions, and uses powers in a becoming manner.
that

the Athenians

1

i.

c.

The Chaldtan

theology.

HOOK
"

i.j

TIM;F.I;S
its

or

I>L.\T<>.

)lW

For as

military arts, by the rest of

armies surpassed so with respect to
the

all
its

others, both in

contests, whether

magnanimity ami it was assisted
presided
in
/
\

Greeks,

over
it

whom
was

it

sometime.*

warlike

a flairs,

or

whether

was
thus
the

deserted
in

incursions
it

of the

enemies, and
In

by them through the extreme danger, yet still
\vho were

remained

triumphant.
it

mean
;

time, those

not

yet enslaved,
liberty
cules."

liberated

from danger
us

for

all

those of

and procured the most ample who dwell within the Pillars of Her

As wo have
last

triply

divided the inferior co-ordination, into

first,

middle, and

boundaries, thus also

wo mu-4
we
shall

divide the

superior,

into the

most

total,

and the
the
iirst

most

partial

genera, and

those

that

subsist

letween

these.

And

haunn made

this

genera;

dni*ion, arrange the Athenians as analogous to hut the other Greeks who were not yet enslaved, to the
slaves,
to the last

middle; and those who were now

genera.

For according

to

this arrangement, those that In-long to the Minenal series, vanquish those that belong to the scries of Neptune; those that rank as Iirst, subduing those that

the monadic, the dyadie, and in short, the better vanquishing But the middle genera eternally preserve their own order, and are the worse. not vanquished by the worse co-ordination, on account of the, union of them

rank as

>econd,

selves,

and the stable genus of power. They likewise liberate from slavery those that are enslaved, recalling them to union and permanency. For some things indeed, are always in matter, others are always separated from it, and others,
sometimes become situated under the material genera, and sometimes have an in a separate life. Just as in the drnma pertaining to us at one time we are arranged under the Titanic, and at another, under the Olympian
;

arrangement

order; ami at one time our course terminates
heavens.

in generation,

but

at

another, in the

This however happens to partial souls, through the invariably |crinnnent providence of the Gods, which leads back nouls to their pristine felicity.

For as in consequence of there being genesiurgic Gods, souls descend, in sub serviency to their will, thus also, through the prior subsistence of anagogic cause*, the ascent of our soul* from the realms of generation is ellectcd. And thus much
1

For

r,>*Tuf

here,

it

sccius

necessary to read ttvrfpvr.

1JtJ

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOO*

i.

us. concerning the whole meaning of the words before discuss each particular.

L^t us however, concisely

comprehension of But the words in magnanimity, and the first genera of the more dmne part. the same meaning as Miner\ ally. For through magnanimity, they military arts, have

The words

therefore, surpassed all others, manifest the total

imitate the philosophic characteristic of the Goddess, but through warlike arts, And the words, whether it was assisted by the her philopolemic characteristic.
in warlike affairs, or whether it of the Greeks, over whom it sometimes presided was deserted by them through the incursions of the enemies, signify that first and total causes, produce some tilings in conjunction \\ith second and middle causes,

rest

but others by themselves, beyond the production of these, and being alone in their For the genus of the Cods, and that \\hich is posterior to the Gods, do energy.
not produce equally, but the effective power of the Gods proceeds to a greater extent; since every where more dnine causes energize prior to, together with,

and posterior
produced.
genera. under the

to their effects.

Credibility therefore o(

this

may

In-

multifariously
first

But

the

extreme danger manifests the

last

production of the

And
first,

the traph us signify that the second co-ordination is perfected being adorned by it ; that it is in a certain respect converted by

the power of it; and that there are in the last of things invariably permanent indications of the conversion of less excellent natures, proceeding from the first of
things.

For whatever

is

arranged

in

the worse co-ordination, and invested with

form, material causes receding, affords a sullicient indication of the inspectivo But the care of the better order, which is especially the peculiarity of trophies.
most ample
liberty, is
all

from on high to

an indication of the divine and liberated order, proceeding vthich liberty the- Athenians imparted to the Greeks, things
;

by vanquishing the Atlantics; or rather the Olympic, by subduing the Titanic For thus the demiurgic will is accomplished, and the worse is vanquish genera.
ed by the better co-ordination; in partial natures indeed the Atlantics by the Though they are Athenians, but in wholes, the Titans by the Olympian Gods.
"

robust, and oppose the better order, through pernicious pride, and insolent impro the theologist ; whom Plato emulating, asserts that the Atlantics inso bity," says
lently

proceeded against the Athenians.

"

JUit in succeeding times prodigious earthquakes
For tvivrpaTtat here,
it ii

and deluges taking

nccejsary to read txirraaiaf.

i.]

TIM;EUS OF PLATO.

157

and bringing with .them desolation, in the space of one dreadful day and ni^ht, all that warlike race of Athenians was at once merged o under the earth and the Atlantic island itself, being absorbed in the sea,
place,
;

entirely disappeared.

And

hence that sea

is

at present
"

innavigable,

from

the impeding

mud

uhich the subsiding island produced.

That what is hrrc said has a physical deduction, is evident to those who nre not entirely ignor. nt of the physical theory. For it is not wonderful that there should have an earthquake so great, as to have destroyed such n laru;e island ;
l>een

our time, shook both Egypt and happened a little and it is not at all paradoxical, that a deluge should follow an earth Bithynia, quake. For this usually happens in great earthquakes, as Aristotle relates, who at the same time adds the cause. For where a deluge takes place together with the waves are thetause of this passion. For when the spirit which earthquakes,
l>efore

since an earthquake that

produces the earthquake, does not yet flow towards the earth, and is not aMe to drive backward the sea which is impelled by a certain contrary spirit, urging it in
a contrary direction, through the wind which propels it, but nevertheless stops the sea by hindering its progression, it is the pause of much sea which is impelled by the spirit contrary to this, becoming collected together. Then however, the
sea thus collected (Urn ing most abundantly, the spirit impelling it in a, contrary direction, enters under the earth and produces an earthquake. Hut the sea deluges the place. For after this manner also about Aehaia, then 1 was an accom

earthquake panied with an ingress of the waves of the sea, which deluged the maritime cities, JBouras and Helice ;J so that neither will any physiologist reject this narration, who
considers the affair rightly. Moreover, that the same place may become pervious and impervious, continent and sea, is among the things admitted by physiologists, according to Aristotle, and which history demonstrates. Aristotle also relates,
[in his

Meteors,] that there

was mud
;

in

the external sea, after the
&p<*x.s>>s

mouth

ot

it,

and

that the place there
it is

not wonderful.

was marshy so that if TO mjXoy xapra. For even now rocks concealed under

s -^ 1 ifIPS

marshy,

water on

their surface, are called breakers.

Why

therefore

and having should any one con
the sea,

tending for the truth of these things be disturbed?

That these

particulars however, have reference to the admirable

distribution of the universe,

we

shall

be convinced by recollecting what

and orderly is said by

The text of Plato in this place is in the Commentarie* of Proclus very erroneous, ms the learned reader will immediately perceive by comparing it with any of the editions of the Timaruf
.

15B
Orplieus about
tlie

PROCLUS ON THE

[,OOK

i.

For

lie
1

(Jod-,

hurling into Tartarus near the end of the fabrication of things. delivering the demiurgic opposition lietvveen the Olympian and Titanic terminates the whole onKily distribution in the extremities of tlu 1 universe,

and imparts to these also the undeiiled providence of the (.iods. IMato, therefore, knowing this, and delivering to ns wholes in images, extends and leads into the invisible, these twofold genera, and through this disappearing, imitates the Orphic
For in order that the last of things may be adorned, precipitation into Tartarus. and participate of divine providence, it is requisite that both the superior and infe
rior co-ordination,

should extend their production from on high as

far as lo the

mundane extremity. Each however, elli-cts this in a manner adapted to itself; the one being shaken, and entering under the earth, \\ hieh is the same as proceed \\hichistliesame as becom ing stably and solidly ; but the other disappearing,
ing material, disorderly, and formless ; under the earth, being a symbol of the firm and the .stable; but//; the sai, of that wliich is very mutable, disorderly and For in the last of things, permanency and generation are from the better; flowing. but corruption, mutation, and disonli ily motion are from the worse co-ordina Since however these things are adorned, both the invisible and visible fabri

tion.

cation receiving their completion, on this account Plato says, they happened in one dreadful day and night, night indicating the invisible causes, but uiy the visi ble, and the dreuilfulness, signifying opposing power, the indexible, and that which Hut because all these are accomplished according proceeds through all things. to demiurgic powers, earthquakes and deluges took place, which are adapted to
t

the middle fabrication.

For

if

he wished to signi y Jovian powers or energies, he

Hut since he delivers Nep thunders and lightnings happened. For tunian demiurgic energies, he assimilates them to earthquakes or deluges. it is usual to call this (iod turth-shukcr, and the source nj iinirinc irultr (xvav&^jTvjv).

would have

said,

And
tion,

because time
he says that

signifies a progression
all

in order,
//;

and a well-arranged diminu

It is not there succeeding time. fore proper to say, that he who destroys an argument, takes away also the sub jects, as Homer says of the Pha-accaus, and of the wall which the (i reeks raised;

these events took place

since the things

w hich

are

now

asserted are not

fictitious,

but true.

For

many

parts of the earth are deluged by the sea;
all
it

impossible.

Nor

again, does he relate

and what he says happened is not at but he introduces it as a mere history
;

purpose of indicating the providence which proceeds through and extends even to the last of things.
for the
1

all tilings,

luMeail of
;<i*

TT)V

TUV OXtyjviwp
6eu
,

Ofuiv,
rtjt

tat TIJV

Firunnjy waputuvt
K.

ttjmuvfiyttriv iiiriljtau in this

|>!.uf,

1

read

Tiny

OXi /jiriuv

nut

ruv liroxxwr,

X.

IIOOK

i.]

TINLi:US
it is

OF PLATO.
1

^

In short,
receives
its

necessary to assert, since tin whole orderly distribution of things completion from the visible and invisible fabrication, that for the

purpose of gi\iu:r pei lection to the demiurgic productions of the? second father, the gifls both of the belter and the worst; co-ordination, proceed as far as to the
the former vanquishing the subjects [of its power] through the and illuminating a stable power, through entering under the curtly [i. e. through proceeding firmly and solidly ;] but the latter producing ultimate diuMon, and connecting the most material and indefinite motion of Tartarus.
last

of

l>eiiigs;

warlike

1

"(/IKS,

Uut these things being adorned, it reasonably follows that what remains is an * impervious and uninvestigable place of the sea. For there is no other passage and
progression of the adorning genera of the universe, but this is that which is truly mud ; and \\hich is mentioned by Socrates in the 1 ha-do, when he is teaching us
concerning; the subterranean places. retains the forms of corporeity, which
tion

For the place under the earth obscurely
it

possesses through the inferior co-ordina

end of the orderly distribution of things. driven by Jupiter as far as to Tartarus, fills what is For the Titanic order being
subsiding, and proceeding
to the

there contained with dciform guards.
"

And

this,

O

Socrates,

is

the

sum

from the narration of Solon.

of what the elder Critias repeated But when yesterday you were speaking

about a polity and

was surprised on recollecting the present For I perceived how divinely roni a certain fortune, and not history. wandering from the mark, you collected many things agreeing with the
its citi/cns, I
1

narration of Solon.

That the war of the Atlantics and Athenians contributes

to [the theory of] the

whole fabrication of the world, and that the mundane contrariety is connected by the middle fabrication proceeding from on high, from the first to the last of things,
the Minerval series adorning all tilings stably, and in a ruling and victorious manner, expanding indeed the natures which are detained in matter, but pre and also, that the other serving those undeliled that are separated from matter
;

fabrication imparts appropriately,* motion, division, and difference, to the things all this has been sufficiently fabricated, and proceeds su;>ernaUy to the end ;
1

For

yuii/t

In IP,

it is

necessary to read /JOX/IOK.

1
J

For nipoi hcrr, it is necessary to rrad artywi. Instead of cm \~purfitvn rcd

4

For wpo*ij*ti>*i t read

t excellent manner to the best measure of life. are worthy of the theory of Plato. The mention also of fortune and divinity. fabrication of things. the fabrication of things. are said natures which have the same form in many which in natures also. that lie recollected the transition partial For the recollection itself. the doctrinal narration of the deeds of their ancestors. belongs to the Gods. is analogous to the God who connects this contrariety. and also that it is productive of the great est good O to those IT ho belong to C* is it . yon will find that the Athenians are praised in an admirable manner. lint in addition to this. but material Moreover. For the Egyp by the Athenians. through warlike works. which also Socrates thinks fit to demonstrate in likewise of opinion that those who live according to the best form of a polity. the city of the Athenians also exhibits. also it For since is adapted things to are- the progression in intelligibles. it ii necessary to rear! TQV c yro0yiior. with Farther still. since In brings with him an image of the second. i. shown and memory by us. whole form of their paradigms. possess the last order. For those who are fashioned according to the first paradigm are truly admirable. in a certain resect imitates him. And through a recurrence to the fathers of the narration.gt. to partake transcendently of their proper paradigm.iist. should be shown to deserve the greatest admiration. \i/. he. imitates the mundane circle. through the life of the [(indent} Athenians. and are monadic. demiurgic power. Again.1CO PROCLUS ON THE recalled to the [BOOK Haid. conformably to what pre-exists in the paradigm. hence he says. Hence. he by whom this narration is made. which proceeds from another fabrication. which is tilled from first causes. and the excitation For fortune and her of our reasoning powers. therefore. But he since of mundane This subjects. if you consider what is said after another manner. and that the polity of Socrates For that it is possible Jor tins polity to e. was a return of favour. is not a history through the discourse of Socrates. his Republic. he ascends to the Egyptians. but from universal conceptions to more actions. is demonstrated is fitly celebrated. of the whole all every demiurgic cause distributes total productions according to its proper order. 1 For TO eyicfci/jiof here. from images to paradigms. in what we have before Since however. through what was heard by Critias and Solon. . For the communication of an unwritten action. the more divine which transcemlently receive the to lie. the circle of tians are benefited benefits. exhibits a multi plied retribution. and the Athe nians are benefited by the Egyptians through sacerdotal narrations. by applying itself in the mo&amp. 1 and fills things posterior to itself.

tlu ir tutelar Goddess. L disclose these particulars immediately. first intellectually perceiving himself.gt. in order that he.1 follows: rur rni &amp.lt. that yesterday immediately complied with your we should not want the ability of pre inocratcs has informed you.gt. but she is a power collective of many dis to persed causes. rr ry irarri of the punctuation here. *.e rnvro V^IOT/JITI 6tartv&amp.i)fiinvnyitov dinar rwr yiyrr&amp. l&amp.gt. f a Minerval characteristic.] TIM.gt. Why then did Socrates I answer. And that the hypostatic cause hi&amp. ro brjfjiovp-ytfov airinf. as soon as we departed from hence. being sufficient and perfect. this kind.t These things may also he surveyed in the universe . it 1 Instead of rpo rwv io thi* plarr.gt.gt. as Herprincipal importance. on things which agree with the narration of Solon? account of the cause which collects many dispersed causes. may impart his own power to secondary natures. I. adorning things that are without arrangement. wpo rw firpixw. and on account of collect many the one divinity who connects the common intellect of .gt. and giving completion what is allotted to each individual from the universe. by com municating these particulars with my friends here present. TO f&amp. The ni crroneouM&amp.r ry rarri rpn rwf ^irfiitwK. from the great interval of time since I first received them. and seeing in himself the causes of his productions. X . t lg| gifts are not irilhot a scope. &quot. X.Socrates and Solon. and every thing of manifest the comprehension of demiurgic productive principles in one. u iwcc&amp. which in things of is of In consequence of this. my rememI * ? Yet was unwilling to ^ brance of them was not sufficiently accurate for the purpose of repetition. . For. Orarroy.EUS OF PLATO. Kilt the punctuation ought to be to read vpwror.Mry Tim. I demands. this I And on for account. of things generated. senting a this kind perceived discourse accommodated to your wishes. rn tnvrov yfy&amp.BOOK i. to similar conceptions. fiat. VOL. ] consider it therefore necessary. Conception therefore and resumption. as.gt. fir&amp.eing they are excited as it were from one fountain. viz.jurw Kara \poruv rj/tnra. gives subsistence to own progeny prior to that of partial natures.gt. thus gives also to other things a progression from himself. that the demiurgic rause of beings which are generated according to time. pcrvrrU the meaning of Procln. or indefinite . read fiiav Otuv. &amp.gt. that I should diligently revolve the whole in my mind. For the original i. for the purpose For 1 fitav Otuv in this place.&quot.

from which produced first of Critias ethically. the repeating the narration to himself. is but afterwards. I am not certain s discourse . in dicates in the fabrication of things the suspension of risible effects from their causes. Farther still. according to the proverb. such as that in which Socrates wished to see his polity in motion. &quot. let us Ix-take ourselves to wholes. my memory. I and afterwards revolving them in my mind by nearly acquired a complete recollection of the affair. produces the power of himself into the visible world. by receiving from histdry the war of the dates. in order that in For we may bring them forth as from a treasury through speech. the greatest undertaking is to find an hypothesis from which it is possible to give what is adapted to the man And this Critias accomplishes. Atlantics and Athenians. And to present a discourse accommodated to the wishes i. imitates the conversion of demiurgic reasons to themselves. But he first revolved enjoined him. from these things. conceiving that in mandates of this kind. without You may also consider the caution physical effects.OOK i. of refreshing night. Why the affair in his mind. For there the demiurgic cause bring filled from an invisible cause (since all intellectual causes are there primarily.J6 2 PROCLUS ON THE [J. indeed. to which he is united according to the highest trans Again therefore. it ia uectssary to read ciwrai. which is truly the messenger of internal reasons. according to which [the soul] surveys in herself [by participation] the productive principles of beings. conformably to and judgment. for instance. in order that he might it impart to his associates without error. abides in the memory with a wonderful stability. which 1 1 had heard some past time very Foruiifjrcu here. what we learn in childhood.f those icho enjoined it. I that myself. And. best polity. Moreover. . not to give the narration immediately. as a thing capable of exhibiting a life productive of the He also revolved this narration by night. yet I should be very yesterday For with respect to could recollect the whole of astonished in if much any thing should escape my remembrance.&quot. it is not proper to attempt things of such a magnitude revolving the whole undertaking by ourselves. did Critias nearly rememhor? For he promised to accomplish what was Because ho did not accurately rememher. their will cendency). perfection is a symbol of the preparatory apparatus of nature. rashly.

the heat . that void of impressions but their reasoning For experience renders this power more acute. as the marks of letters with a repetition of it. that the cause of memory to us is the unusualness For aXrjQnur hfJT.oiiig And l&amp. strengthened. as suliering in d greater degree from the same things. and account ospoeially remember them. probable causes. and has many because the souls of children One indeed. Hence as that which suffers in a greater degree from fire.gt.] TIJLEUS OF PLATO. their imagination power is more is sluggish. the phantasy is strengthened through the habitude of reason. related. ritias indicates tin* when he says. as to the history which I have just now I received it from the old man with great pleasure and delight . it has more stable impressions. it U Of rcsiirj to K*d a^nar. after the same manner also. But as Socrates in the recapitulation of his polity of the things which asserts. through a more abundant commu powerful. retains the impression in a greater degree. gratified burnt in.&quot.gt. 1 or we deposit in the memory thing* third cause in addition to these is. And it appears to me that (. so all these particulars became firmly deeply his part who on me established in my memory. appear greater on this that the same things Hence they are in a degree admired by them. another cause the rational life in children is in a greater decree min gled with the phantasy.eing nion with the soul. like the marks of letters deeply burnt in. Thus. the body becomes stronger and more vital . They therefore operate on us inn greater degree. very readily complied with my request. as they are neither distracted nor That children remember letter than mon is soon in disturbed by externals. As therefore. and frequently And hence. that more from the external object of the phantasy. Hence. Moreover the imagination of children sutlers more. in consequence of l&amp.BOOK i. which vehemently pain. But js . just as the body is more more vital. works. on acrount of the same things appearing to us to be greater during our childhood. so that they are more co. and co-mingled with the body.passive with them. hare not an experience of human evils. whioh suffers Hence children in a greater degree retain the impression. imparted to it after the same manner. in consequence of the soul being co-passive. remain indelible. . that he heard this history from the old man with great delight. this. A to IH greater to the imaginations of children. from receiving through its own power reason in a greater degree . and that on this account it became firmly established in his memory. KM distant from the present. preserves for a longer time. or vehemently delight us. as Porphyry says.

to .united on high. in Ihc intellect of the a certain dnine and Demiurgus. and the alacrity of the teacher. conformably to which. to the utmost of our ability. appears to be unusual. If someone however. the unenvying and abundant supply afforded by more Fur the&amp. flourishing. the the perpetually-flowing indelibility of the letters.] they subset with each other. Before. junction with the before-mentioned it was day. memory of a boy i. that the memory of children indicates the ever new. that city which * von established as no other than this Athenian a Hair and the citixens which you conceived. For every perhaps the second rank just as the to children at first. as no other than those ances tors of ours will described in by the Egyptian . or whe ther we should lay aside. pared to that for which tin s narration was undertaken.md never-failing fabrication . the employment assigned them. time. In consequence of this. we will en deavour. priest. and fill each but in the demiurgic world for in the world other with intellectual powers on them to . And tiling that occurs this brings with it an indication. that your citizens are those very people who existed at that Hence. that the prolific fabrication of Gods of suspended from the stable sameness of those of the first order the cause of memory to the associates of Critias.*4 PROCMJS ON what is Tllli [BOOK tlie i. to accomplish in a becoming man It is requisite there ner the employment which you have assigned us. and through . ascribes this cause to age of children. let him hear laiublichus asserting.s . but so as We shall transfer. should adhere to the whole ihoorv of things. in here said. according to total conspiration . . citizens and city which you fashioned yesterday as in a fable consider tes.e things also have a place in con ancient causes to secondary natures. accomplish Because in the paradigms all things indeed are. but now. ing 5 city. I am prepared. tve hear. as soon as tion to ni v friends.lt. solutions. O Socrates. fore to consider. and seek after another. and stable production of reasons. Crilias made his associates partakers of his narration in . that to descend to the particulars speak not only summarily.gt.j&amp. in addition to these solutions. he calls conjunction with him. to reality the of cvcrv thing which I heard.gt. distributing the atlair in common among us. i&amp.&quot. I repeated the na na with myself they might be better pre together lint now with respect tor the purposes of the present association. thus Critias. it And indeed the harmonize every respect nor will be foreign from the purpose to assert. however. () Socra &quot. whether this discourse it is reasonable.

things are 1 (lie Critias lir&amp. he says.t summarily discusses the war . however. thai it v ill not be foreign to the purpose to ancrt. this also may be seen in the second fabrication. neglecting your narration. And particularly hesidrs this.\hould be. of it. how the Athenians proceeded to gations. in aery reaped. but afterwards he endeavours to explain more copiously every particular.&quot.lt. with war. [of Socrates] as are consequent to Hence indicating the mystic nature an imitation of the first fabrication. we should another more convenient. and its pre-existence in pure reason. heavens paradigms of generated natures pre-exist. and &quot. however. therefore. and such The genuine polity. therefore. tilings is through what ways.j. itself to the view. since the Goddess is the cause of 1 For wi crdi-wf CI-TUV in this place.&amp. the present sacrifice to the Goddess.lt.gt. as a thing of the greatest moment. it as But the hypothesis of the Athenians has an indication. that the citizens in the JieI fie public of Socrates arc rcry people icho existed at that time. and the principle of their generation . that it wtia faxh mned ax the&amp. that the til/air wilt harmonize. On this account which.e. narrating all the polity of the Atluntics. ? Hut what other. were in in a fable. employed in hymnx. is suspended from the first fabrication. Socit ATI-. 1 of the second it. and as a hymn accommodated is the sacrifice place as adapted an image of mundane to Minerva. through a certain affinity. the motion. that your true history of tranxcentlenl niagnifittfc./- we should not a mere fable./&amp. from what apparatus.S. O Critias. and is in continuity with hence he says. it . of Critias.OK i. in Socrates approves to the festival of the the narration the first is Athenians. second fabrication. For if of any advantage to men. for the [Atlantic] war to wars .J TIMJ-US OF PLATO. nil j&amp. should we receive in is prefer ence to this adapted lion It is is to For your discourse. Since.lt. but a consider. how and from whence.P. &quot. \\ holeness every where pre cedes parts.mv 01 TV*. and \\hat remains consists of partial presents contrariety and and that which is circumscribed in place.gt. throrgli this. it is nerrssary to read wi m. to say find impossible. in which that which is more images. how they turned to injustice. Since. . . And besides speech both theory and action . and in generation tliere :ire images of celestial natures. from what le whom they were co-arranged. .5 Hence in tin every where appropriately in each.

have at the same time separate . Moreover. and the whole fabrication. therefore. have an internal uubsistence. inspector of light words. assert. Hence I it is requisite you should speak with good Fortune. indeed. he certainly demonstrates the polity that have This. thus also good Fortune directs the words both of those that receive and of him that utters them.&quot.gt. to a good purpose. according to external progression. and to be attentive to what may be said. and in one man. in his discourse as bearing witness to the possibility of his polity. since they are com plicated with corporeal energies. must not be rejected as fabulous and fictitious on account of those who en close the earth in a very narrow space. and And as Nemesis is the that their effect upon others may be friendly to divinity. discourse yesterday. that such things as Plato discusses about the magnitude of the Atlantic island. logins from the internal lift. in order by good Fortune. Plato does not.gt. and be attentive what you have to say. Socrates approves the narration For thin.I6fl PROCLUS ON THE we [BOOK i. that the narration about the Atever may a fiction. sacrifice. imitate her practical energy. But this shows from analogy. good Fortune signifies a divine allotment. For the other persons of the dialogue did narrated his polity. for So crates to rest from speaking. For it WAS sufficient for him about it. Again how assumed from these things. has such-like causes as these. theoretic energy. has indeed an appropriate retribution. that which is adapted to every one. but through the hymn her But. natures. according to which each thing is allotted an order adapted to it. that this is truly law. in that the former may receive benevolently and sympathetically. l&amp. but he is of opinion that our dianoetic energies. when he demiurgic causes being united to each other. like the Stoics. he thought worthy of demonstration. how all this. But in wholes.e inspired order that they may proceed fortunately. possibility it of it. in the second place. that the worthy man has no need of Fortune. but the latter may impart in a divinely inspired Thus. that &quot. that this scheme of a polity existed in the heavens. and that which thing* If also he shows. in partial manner. should l&amp. should to but that on account of my now rest from speaking. as some have supposed it to be but a history lantics is not So indeed. once prevailed among the Athenians. yet having an affinity to the whole fabrication of the world. since all an external.e . therefore. itself. from the one father.

GRIT. For the ditadic pertains to the middle fabrication. . but parts and Hermocrates contributed to the parts of the history which was about polity. The intention of this arrangement is to make Timanis a summit. and prior to Critias and Ilermocratcs. I(j 7 And productions. and at the same time a middle. should speak the first. commencing his discourse from the generation of the world. But men which he has mentally produced. Some one. should render them members of this city. in the shall discourse concerning them. hut Critias arms. And thus. according to the doctrine For the tower of Jupiter is.&quot. For he speaks after Socrates and Critias. what after will be left for Hermocrates to accomplish Tuna-us has delivered the generation of the men. This. andbrcausehegenerates the men. who is the most astronomical of us all. Socrates. to be narrated by Critias. according to science. as they say. ctJie is a summit. but which have been excellently educated by you. mutual banquet of discussion.ites. and introducing them to you according to the narration and law of Solon. . Socrates their education. whom . the manner of our disposing the For it seems proper to us that Timacus. and is eminently knowing in the nature of the universe. as being in reality no other that I after him. belong to the Demiurgus. But nour consider. And thus much concerning the whole arrangement. Critias. however. For it is exempt all mundane and is equally present to all. however. &quot. For to hear is indicative of receiving through each other. signifies the unraingled purity ac cording to which each demiurgic cause produces and generates secondary natures from its own peculiarity. hut in another rcsjM. and ending in the nature of men. which from is at one and the same time a summit and a middle. now again sunu. may doubt.iarily speaks prior to Hermocr. as to proper judges. as about citizens and Athenians. and also the whole in conjunction with parts juit as the if hole. situated there. of the Pythagoreans. But who spoke as the middle after Socrates. for the others to rest. natures. And that in unknown future we to us. Hence Socrates summarily delivered his Jirst.] T1M&US OF PLATO. is also a manifest symbol of total fabrication. and the middle of the universe. receiving the than those Athenians which were described as report of the sacred writings. when one speaks. The summits likewise. heis a middle. indeed.Socrates indeed edu cates.BOOK I. \_prior to parts] belongs to the to the last fabrication.

there is a recapitulation of the polity. Here. that for the sake of doctrine. \i/. of productive powers]. indeed. these particulars may be symbolically understood.. Hence in the Atlanticus. the second. and Hennocrates of these. he says thus terminates the dialogue. their education. things that are first to us. the first therefore. therefore. And he Jupiter thus addressed them? the imitation of the to Hennocrates not discussing [in words.in the.lt. imitating the paternal cause.&amp. will be asserting. And Critias himself but calls on Ilermocrates to assist promised to make a discussion of the actions. and it Plato beginning from the end proceeded to the Tirruvus. which in a certain respect the Atlanticus exhibits. it would have been less wonderful. and it For to these things there is nothing successive. the preparation of the comprehended Athenians. should be generated effects in the .e [BOOK is i. &amp. to to actions. this doubt it must \tc said. Critias having assembled the Gods. that they should be educated. For.itias Tima fortli us. which Socrates that they should energi/e in a manner worthy of Republic . in short. the supplier of stable intelligence. by nature. . it would be necessary that the . leads them Socrates educates them. their egress. i. are first delivered . !&amp. as was before observed. since in the former dialogue the generation of the world. in no very superfluous manner. as consulting about the punishment of the Atlanties.gt. the third. that men is delivered. and the fourth. Gods being thus collected. e. purpose of chastising the insolence of the Atlantic-. Some one. imitating the cause which converts the last their principles through the imitation of reasons [i. which is first by nature. he has every thing consequent to thi. the supplier of motion and progression to secondary of things to natures. and their victory. Thus. May for the not said that Hennocrates the adjutor of Critias in his narration relation of the history was a mixture of deeds and words. therefore.gt. 15ut there is no absurdity in his the Atlanticusj the for the remainder of the deeds. f tlie human race.ltW PKOCLUS ON THE Critias their actions. For the imitation of these is difficult. him in the words. or which were formerly. what is usual to say. and also. but now Plato himself appears to have acted in this manner. may doubt why the Tima-us had not an arrangement prior to the Republic. but that now he though posterior the first a* the middle. as Timtuus says. and. ornament. And if. also. having assembled the Gods. and this arrangement had been adopted by those who are studious of And if. indeed. perhaps. generates the men. and also For it is necessary. In answer as having been already summarily narrated in the shortest manner. as delivering &quot. that if all hypotheses were assumed from the nature to of things now in existence. appears to have arranged the middle as the first. words .

gt.e OF PLATO. perfectly accord with those citizens which Socrates mentally conceived. descend from thence to a providential attention to the city.BOOK i. to Socrates. Plat. J6f) is not rightly ranked in the second were devised from hypothesis. the deliberate choice of virtue free. and hence the Atlanticus is pos But the habit of the citizens shows that virtue is without a terior to the Tima-uR. But since the hypothesis of Socrates subsists in words alone. but in a city it. is cuni/uishcd b\i physical laws. fabrication. Conformably to this congruity. and in the third place. Plato wished to indicate souls. the con nexion of these dialogues. Tim. If also. but when flic n-rcs to actions. will. as the read r/j^porwi. that the soul when she is of herself [and does not depend on another] is superior to irtry physical hypostasis. master.eus. requires the mundane order. Y . I.gt. For the fame form of life in the world. these some time or other effected on the earth. likewise. this to us. and that the Tima us place. with that which is partial. that such things as divine are and which are ascending to the intelligible. and runs above Fate . In addition also to what has been said. For in that dialogue the men arc first educated and instructed through disciplines. produce. and the doubt should valid. and is in subjection to Fate.c are very properly conjoined to each other. and Farther still. Afterwards.t surveying. according to certain prosperous [human] vicissitudes of circulations. Plato also manifests through the&amp.US l&amp. living happily.gt. wisely For filial here. theory by the Tim&us. should be assumed. they ascend to the contemplation of [true] beings . the Re public has an arrangement prior to the Tim.e things. and being on this account accurate. has an arrangement prior to the rest.] TIM/F. applies itself to the nurture to this consequent the&amp. and to discuss mortal affairs is to dwell on an image. universal. I |erform such actions. the hypothesis Perhaps.gt. and the Timacus to the Atlanti For the men leing instructed by the Republic. yet the universal prevails in justice. it is requisite to know this. as only subsisting in words. all the narrations l&amp. that from the order of human life delivered in the Republic. As Critias therefore asserts we must say that those true this. and our opinion is not to be rejected that they were those who existed at that If however the Republic is inferior to the Tima-us. it thus would requisite that such things as are first according to nature. is exhibits indeed in the soul a polity. bearing testimony ancestors of ours of which the priest spoke. and education of men. maybe obtained.e iir&amp. VOL. because it is conversant time. and elevated according to cus. while the hypothesis of Socrates. but discusses beings and things in generation.gt. but the energy which is di rected to externals.

nor as sun. as Hut there are certain persons educated Socrates demonstrates in the I hilcbiis. first to have !&amp.u |&amp. but dis that those who cussing something else. and establi&amp. and ends in man .similar in And thus much answer through erudition to the excellent order of the uni to this doubt. by meaiii of i ollei-ted rules.een benefited by the Republic.\c. are introduced by Critias. not as directing his attention to the rapidity collecting the measures of the courses J of the celestial motions.strotiomi/ing above the heavens. and having been adorned afterwards to the dogmas concerning the world. but the man th. to attend themselves to be most verse.gt. Profliu here . to MIC lit l&amp. we The philosopher Porphyry however.so educates the whole city. conformably to the law and conceptions of Solon. PROCLUS ON THE After this [BOOK dissolve the doubt. because Solon narrates. which also imitates intellect through its motion. that the Athenians were once thus governed.it is purely cssentiali/ed in reason and he . of Classical Journal. a becoming manner co-adapted to the knowledge of the truth. which the uni\er&amp. unit not for j our suktf. to li-jil 0. The men however. \.gt. by and these an. possessing all things partially. For the auditors of the Tirna-us ought through it. Each is now Tinv. ought first to-be instructed in the form of it.. \\V1I. not directly for the sake of this doubt.mt Ir : measures of the earth MIII .ni of the earth.the guardians and auxiliaries. does this as imitating the \\hole deiniurgus.i rcu. Hence Socrates does not exhibit the visible man. who al. that which transcendently participates of intellect is heaven. for it &amp. they may be in This therefore. particular however of the text must be considered.lt. Mish to apprehend the whole theory genuinely.&quot. Dismiiis the sounding course of the moon tlie The advauciug {irucession of thp [liietl] perpetually TUUS through llie cxertionu of neceiiily.gt.lt.hed laws how children oii^ht to le intro duced into the polity. evincing .e does totally. J or in the universe. in order that being similar to the object of intellection. See my collectiou star*. .170 Atlanticus narrates. intellectually.. and into the tribes. I. as the theologist says.!. said to be most astronomical. - it a|i|irar&amp.gt.illiuli tu tin- following C lmMir in or. l. Socrates in the most excellent manner.rus therefore. for the of truth it ii not in tint Direct not your attention In the immense Nor mra-iire the diiiK-i^i. but as a. ofthtjt Oraclis.-rnal will of the father.gt.* nor as heiiiij of the conversant with the works of ate. from the generation of the world. conformably to the con pha-us in the Thea-tetus. and how they ouijit to Iw registered. was not generated for your sake. IK crii. affords us the following aid in its solution 1 . in whom the heavens and all Tiiiurus begins however. iu No. the stars sub-ist. 1 the order itself of the dialogues demonstrates. for re\olvci hv thr .in &quot. manner therefore. For jiooiMit * ill tins jilace. and contemplating the invisible causes which are properly stars. In-cause man is a mi crocosm.

as they are disposed by law. extends to the demiurgic At the same cause. so that words may be imitators of the things For mythologists also narrates that Vulcan who of which they are significant. 171 what kind of judges. they should be tried. in one place from the but in another. time.Honor in the first place. accord (iods. the not nay that the whole is superfluous. &quot. I seem to behold a perfect and splendid banquet of discussion 1 set before me.EUS OF PLATO. ing to which secondary are always suspended from prior causes. The banquet of discussion indicates the perfect plenitude of demiurgic forms . did not think fit to give any interpretation.i:i\ For the expression according to ligible*. goras. And to these the words of Socrates refer. and the inrocafion of (he (iods. that the I vlh. tual forms. conformably to Anaxa- necessary that true physiology should be suspended from theo as nature is suspended from the Gods. atid is divided according to the total orders of them . As Critias there fore admiLv that the-men educated by Socrates were Athenians. and that it should not be such as that which he reprobates in the 1 ha-do. indeed. but usually employed by the supernally suspended from intel is not such as many of the Italic it has the same meaning as the words Pythagoreans. in the same manner presides over nature was in love with Minerva. and is divided about the universe. the fabrication l&amp. Socrates indicates through these things. he follows the conceptions likewise. &quot.] TIM. to begin the In aw. which blinds the eye of the soul. but only such particulars as are introduced .i^oric doc trine requires that physiology should commence from a divine cause. from other appropriates persons. of which Severus. as is fit. having of all. and which takes place universally. it is For logy. It belongs therefore. invoked the Gods according to The perfection duction of and the splendor of the narration indicate the supernatural pro tilings on account of their paradigms. the immortal For law manifesls the di\ine order. and is he supplier of intelligence to I who weaves the order all mundane essences.lt. by assigning airs and aethers as causes. filled from them. conformably the polity. ami from this proceeds. discourse. to which certain persons are introduced into Soc. but the calling on Tinuvus^ the conversion of partial causes to the whole. first now to you.BOOK nnd i. and are.&quot. O Timajus. or Attic interpreters suppose it to be. by tribes. and the law of Solon. but Longinus does to this therefore. of intellec As far as preface of the Tima-us receives its completion. and an evocation of the goods thence derived . But law thus beginning from inlelligibles. however.

nects with the words. conformity to Plato. tlie [BOOK i narration of the Egyptian . but the other with more profound intuition so that we also shall here finish the book in discussion. Socrates.&quot. . the promise of Critias. consider. and &quot. he con to conjoin with the request of . .&quot. &quot. so that ho is accustomed I mean.Socrates.|72 PROCLUS ON THE TIM^FAJS OF PLATO. the words. having adopted their order. / now therefore stand prepared to receive the promisedfeast. about the Atlantics. tlie one indeed more partially. Rut no~u&amp.lt. the manner of our disposing the mutual ban But Porphyry and lamblichus hhow that this preface accords quet of with the whole design of tlie dialogue.

the polity if l&amp. Tin: preface of the Tinvrus consists of two heads a recapitulation of the polity of Socrates. Incomes a symbol to (is of the mundane contrariety. and a concise narration of the war of the Athenians against the Atlantic*. . that which is in men. another. and to extend in an orderly progression to every multitude. to which also it entirely hastens to refer [the polities that rank as] parts. Contrariety also pre-exists after a mariner in the heavens. which in the recapitulation is shown to proceed from the polity in common. Kach of tliese. that which is mundane. ever. But the recapitulation of Socrates. war and the victory. the former describes the formal. since all things are arranged conformably to the series which proceeds from the demiurgus as far as to may mundane natures. but the war to genera tion.self. For all physiologists make principles to be contraries. if you are willing. exhibits to ns the primarily polity in the universe. the world. Farther still. describing the form itself of every polity separately. contributes in tin- greatest decree to the consummation of the whole theory of considered by it. And the polity. And harmony indeed. For the form of the [Socratic] former describes in images the first fabrication. and order are derived from form. but the latter the material cause.17. is primarily IJut the narration of the adapted to the orderly distribution of the heavens. For it is one tiling to deliver the polity which is in the soul. how . bm the latter the second. Or. For the polity extends as far as to the last of things .gt. and the victory which they obtained over them.c also you are willing to consider the affair after another manner. arranged as analogous to the heavens. and constitute the world from the harmonious conjunction of contraries. and another.1 HOOK II.

and thereto dissolve. . but the fore. exciting the eve of the and of ami the univer&amp. circle of of sameness. and prayers to the Gods. of all mundane natures. gist Maia. who calls on the father. is allotment of Neptune. viz. it is requisite to initiated in greater [objects of con paradigms. prior to the the oracle of night. imitating in this the maker of the whole fabrication of tilings.U| For the former have the relation of things preparatory !o initiation. to the comprehension of the small mysteries. . and the circle of dillerence. but tho latter pertains to the it Alter however the theory of parts. and the one whole For every thing is from tin. All inclus tilings receive s il on cv ry siJe. Jupiter is rejiTesented by the theolo- as saving. vice versa to the one cause of its suh-i^tenoe. templation!. more partial presiding powers. to tho cither according to the two-fold circulation* of the cehwtia! bodies.174 PROCLUS ON TI1F. Hence the former is more allied to the heavens. Immortal Niglii! liw \\iili uiicoiifjut r d mh)J Miikl I the source of llic iinniottult Its ? And he receives this answer from her. Jovian. In sttlur 1 wide ineffalile embrace hen in tlie innKt of xlher place tlie lieav n. [BOOK n. converts himself to the invocations of. proceeds Tima-us however. is said to have approached universe. progression universe with having in dilVerent parts of it. [Jupiter] so to lawful who to en-age in speak.gt.e. The polity there war to generation. 1 For evtnaaif here. or according to any other snch-like division. Mipirme of all l!ic puutrs tin me. or according to (lie two-fold circles of nonls. tho. if it be tions. it is * it is nece^ary necessary (o read arativ. and to the loft. from small beinu is M&amp.gt. adhere to their he extended to the know necessary through images to And after the survey of images themselves. and the. to have received the principles all his doubts. tho male being. ri&quot.ht hand. jx-nnnnency and and the female. to have been there filled with divine intellectual concep to of fabrication. prior to entering on the whole discussion. and to the contemplation of the one cause. to real oi/paOK. the fabrication of the universe. or according to the genera motion .one. or according to the divine peculiarities. ledge of the whole. To night also. For cvpatu here.

. who admit indeed the providence of the Gods. and says in short. de It is f j . do not admit that there are Gods.] TIM. they ought to request the Gods that they may migrate from hence. assimilate the sensible world to animal itself. what its essence s and what its thing perfection. derived But such as assert that the Gods providentially attend to all things. Nor are they benefited by it. And in all that follows.gt. most t. these admit the necessity of prayers. granting indeed that there are Gods. [or the intelligible paradigm] than by extending himself to the invisible causes of whole*. 1 But again to Saturn. and that produced by them from necessity. that we should know somemanifest concerning prayer. and whence it is imparted to souls. - scribing those among the ancients that admitted prayer. instructed by her in all !75 And he is the consequent fabrication of the world. For how could he otherwise all things with Gods and filled. but denying their providential energies. and are inclosed in the body as in a similar : prison. Because likewise those who embrace \irtue are in custody. a\\vi yntvOat ^ errvr. Damon. from which being himself lie truni lin [acrd] heart may godlike works Again produre. Besides. if things of a contingent nature hare not any existence. contingent and may subsist otherwise. leads us from one opinion to another. since we arc as children lorn from our parents. and acknowledge that they correct very properly our life. nor those who labour under the second kind.gt.iiftoK n. but assert that all things are since they For there is no longer any advantage to be from prayer. 1 art.tmM. For the philosopher Porphyry indeed. and entirely subvert providence. here. Jupiter a but praying says. Porphyry also adds. he calls forth fill the benevolence* of his father. r&amp. after the bonds. it is fit we should pray For oXXwi yirtoOat it is o&amp. necessary to read. and those that did not. But the similar loves to IK? conjoined to the many things that are generated and the worthy man is most similar to the Gods.our progeny direct. because it is a contact with divinity. necessary therefore. derive any benefit from prayer. that neither those who are diseased according to the first kind ofimpiety. prior to all other tings.IX S OF PLATO. that prayer especially pertains to worthy men.

yon should invoke that which is antecedently comprehends For that all-good. Gods. will also he the cause to you uf appropriate good. All beings aie the progeny of the Gods. It is necessary therefore that perfection should from thence be which derived to the parts. is from the divinities. which transcends expectation. ami lit its mimirable. and able to converse with the. on account minate a Goddess . which they deno so far are they from despising sacred worship. .gt. however. of the possession of universe it virtue. and of tin. subject. who do not think it requisite to pray All nations likewise. Ut in ilui |il. io ^ior does he speak of such as are dubious about the tr/ia iitid works of piety. And not ihis is no even though asserted of matter For a divine nature ah&amp. less true. Or if you a certain corporeal good. and wisdom.17 fl that PROCLUSONTI1E we may l&amp. If therefore all Tor a conversion virtue.gt. And this is the sum of what is said by Porphyry on this this The divine Iarnblichiii&amp. &amp. that transferring what he says to what is more usual and more we should render his meaning clear. and cohere from permanent causes. there is a power in the world which compre explore hends all body. t&amp..Greeks the laost theolo Hut the Chaldeans venerate gical. who instituted initiatory rites and mysteries. among the Indians the Ilrachmans. ii it i|iniiic tu icail (). It is known to the reader. and assign arguments From hence there concerning prayer which accord with the doctrine of Plato..e [BOOK n.ent from anything.e kind considered. and likewise the \irtne itself of the Gods.gt. by whom they are fore we must beg in For the produced without a medium. however.gt. does not think that a history of !&amp.gt. the whole imparts salvation to every thing. that have excelled in converted to tin. among the l ersians the Magi. And in addition to all this. but immediately subsists from the Gods. and in whom they are firmly established. however distant they may bo itself. is not alone perfected by a certain continuation. I or Plato is not now speaking pertains to what is here proposed to about atheistical men. return to our true parents the Gods. every othrr divinity. have diligently applied themselves prayer. but about such as niv wise. but lie such as wish to be saved by those arc the saviours of u-holes. from whence is all things are generated. : progression of things which per|etnally subsist. Gods. Those also resemble such as are deprived of their fathers and mothers.lt. aiijicrmilnral perfection delivers the all inkier of pni i/er. as \ve are parts of the to is lit that we should he in want of the universe. yon possess virtue. but it equally present to all 1 ! in !:.u i-.

but others as to particular Gods. and in short. having proceeded. the manner For whatever But is all all things proceed.eing from the Gods. of (iods? For nature some of which sujienially in are allied to susj&amp. all and yet are not. will find divinity. that they may abide there. but also in inanimate natures. as to the Gods simply. the symbol of some other (iod. may survey not only in souls. inserts also others again. but others to that series l&amp. originates from and terminates in &quot. since the Gods primarily comprehend all things in their embrace ? placed as separate from the Gods has not any kind of suln sistence. I. but abide in the (iods. in order that Ix ing at first rooted in. some. As all tin. Tim.gt. immediately recur to the immense vastness of non-entity. every tiling receives last of lyings. one is dominion. Since how ever. Z . ami in their orders. but in others lunar impression*.gt. the one. nature thus perfecting her progeny according to different peculiarities of For wnp COTI here.ended this. as the causes and sustainers of their existence.pring when torn from their parents. in these also you and in consequence of its absolute every where. both abide ing this in. and conversion of the Gods to their cause. Hence. may a^ain be contained by the Gods anil the first unities. but the syml&amp. hence they receive from them a certain secondary perfection. they circle. together with two-fold impressions according to essence . forming a certain Gods. read ra^ari. to the divinities.gt. Plat.ols which they are allotted by nature. proceed in themselves. convert them selves to the Gods . it is requisite that they should be converted and return. imitating the evolution into light. For what else ingenerates in these a sympathy with other powers. they are not separated from the (iods. they may convert themselves [to their causes]. VOL. so likewise. and convert themselves to the Gods. receiv power from the dhinities. separated from the Gods.] TIMvEUS OF PLATO. in order that these being arranged conformably to the perfective triad. Uut in a certain respect they are established in them. after of a circular comprehension. having proceeded.the which All things therefore. by which they may be able to convert themselves to the goodness of the divinities. And these indeed. but the other that.. by a wonderful mode of subsistence. In some indeed. brings are contained by the Gods and reside in their natures. its nature and coherence from the Gods. things however proceed. may again through conversion be established in them.gt. can they recede. luit For where radically abide in them. nor indeed can lie because ofl&amp. inserting solar. you should assume For t/ic 177 things. And these things we. and distributed from bodies impressions of their alliance. Hence though.

which pro eeds from the the litrht which is in us may be comprehended in tin. in order that the IH . and together with in short. necessary. through purity. who pray with the words of conjoins the intellect of the (Jods of those who jM-rfectly comprehend good to the. of the (Jods.superior possesses but on the contrary the ascent of the soul this. union . throut. excites the will . and this accompanied with all their peculiarities. according to which we are no longer ourselves. and that every thing one of the (Jods.piired a Jiasthe first order in sacred u orship. For imparts to usa u /////t/XHW n li ht J ru in w ith.ti&amp.178 the divinities. it. discipline. we shall attract their beneficence. and with its . priority. according to which we lor thus essence with the . abundant communication of blishes in the (Jods all it. it ) lint there it. that a Jire-lieitted Conception ]5ul in the second place. touch the divine it. f In the third place. i\or is he who to the want of the good which proceeds from prayer virtue is permanency. but are absorbed as were comprehended by it. The Dominions impressed these symbols and again convert themsehes to the sources of their being. Praver therefore. piety to the Clods. j^ no small part of the whole ascent of souls. he imparted to them the power in themselves. he has . there is required For no to winch he who prays approaches. and verge to a union with vet farther required.lt.h It likewise unites those who pray with those to has dominated in them. may again be established in the via.light ot the (Jods.i knowledge of one will accede to the (Jods in a proper manner. and a more mani iMTome one with divine energv it .racle calls when this- says. abiding in divine light. the mortal to fire I greater communion In the last place. Hence and order. contact is which our concerns being intro and our souls will become. conformation of our life with that which is divine.. by which they might Iw able to abide For it attracts to itself conversion praver is of the greatest utility. duced to the (Jods. intellect. subject to them. by a much greater in souls. To a perfect and true also the oracle admonishes. there is re&amp.succeeds fest participation of the light of the (Jods. conversion of the soul And may beYonjoined the (Jods.gt. is an approximating adhesion: ti] pn&amp. and esta that we possess. and circularly this is the best end of tine prayer. of the universe therefore.lt.gt.summit of our soul. . which is the summit of \ur ought any . in the first place. 15ut to this souls whom those prayer is addressed . those incllable symbols which the father of the beneficence of the (Jods. chastity. 1MIOCLUS ON THE [BOOK iv. knowledge of all the divine orders unless. one of the soul in the UHC lie Gads. is the fabricator of divine persuasion . clUcled through virtue. And on them stability but through through the symbol of unity indeed he conferred of conversion. a prayer however.nati)i the &amp. and causing our energy to establishing ttir.

edicts the very For as it is not lawful in con contrary. \n~a\j trartscendcnlly &quot.y Gods tual tual linht. the rapid (iods perfect the mortal constantly employed in prayer. they are the inipresi.lt. and give perfection to the whole of their life. and love . ment of a linjip f life. beginning from more common in divine union. we may associate with folilan/ deity. it it rojtmitc to read kotrorrpwr. I or the favor and benignity of more exalted beings. and should excite in himself conceptions full of intellec . that so far as they are effective.oods of the soul. to preserve this triad and hope of good.. all things pray except the goods. is the most effec incentive to their communication with our natures. the Athenian guest [hi Plain] For (n gue/t aonc. it is neces that lie who generously enters on the exercise of prayer. they are the immaculate u. and segregation from every other pursuit. they am paradigmatica/.gt. Such therefore are the particulars which ought first to be known concerning prayer . The intrlligiMc IIITH (itxU. which proceed to it. which That so far also as they derive as the fruits of being established in the (iods. t/icgnod. so neither is it possible with multi tude to be conjoined with thconc. and gradually accustoms the soul to divine liijit. that the essence of it congregates and binds souls to the Gods. For as the great Theodorus sa)s. that it unites all secondary to primary natures.dod. the impure.. 1 toiAnrrfMtfr in this jiliirr. from and are united they are the primordial causes of beings.lt. we may infer.lil S than he \chn is or IM. propitious to him. truth.] TiM. together. c. Hut its effica The cious energy both replenishes us with irood. lirrr.*OOK i.ATO. junction with non-entity to associate with being . . And that so far as they are material. and not endeavour to conjoin ourselves with multitude lotficonc. this immutable reception of divine light. according to one ineffable union. they assimilate souls to the Gods. I or he who attempts this. should render the sary l&amp. also with faith. r/v 17f) other to sniis. it i 1 For KMFor r\tj&amp. It oracle] is necessary to observe a stable order in the performance of divine works.hvi n*r rosary li rcal iai /it/ /irrn :r. or rather. For it is not lawful for the pure to he touched Hence. to exert those virtues which purify and elevate the soul from generation. \\ ilii respect to the causes of praver too. that thus be * coming fl/ow. lut that so far as they are formal. first. viz. and causes our concerns to IK* com mon with those of the (iods. But that so far as they are Jinnl or perfective. And it is requisite to For [according to the continue without intermission in the worship of divinity.\q&amp. ccmccrsc with the (iods becomes nioft efficacious to the attain Hut the contrary is naturally adapti d to befal the vicious. they are the efficacious powers of the Gods converting and calling upwards the soul to the (iods themselves. and separates himself from the Gods. ends perfection however of prayer.A.

addn-sscd ir&amp. And he \\ ho considers Mich prayers in a dihYrent manner.- and maturity causes of vmlication. Plato refers to the Tinncus what kind of yon see what kind .ller or the centers conlinir up prayers. on account of the Hence prayers are of a peil ccthe nature. sake of shoner. re fers to the to the one intellect to be led to it conformably but the auditor is Do .|H to the dinsion of the times in year. ternal CMiicerns. temples.ioiu&amp. toions (hey the Demiurgus in theescnec* of soul*. the second. diseases sueli as M-C and other contagious distempers is that with uhich And the tiV///c prajer oMi-rcd for tin.gt.y S ON THK | noon n./ci/uiin.e rank in the third place. rious.( proj:re:s&amp. with ct n&amp. prepared &quot.-fan hypothesis mi auditor of it he introduces \i/. pnrpoM. . which we to &amp. such as participate but in the least wisdom] in the impulse to every un dertaking. either accord in-/ to the seasons of the or we establish multiform prayers ac- other snch-like conceptions. or \i\itic. tho-e prayers.gt. we may likewise ill line tin. who are the of fruits.I |M .reat.lt. PKOCU l&amp. TIM.. tlm-e which pertain which are oll ered lor the sake of ex and tho&amp.&quot. because they ele\ate us to these orders of the (iods.lt.gt.Hui . in order that or Kymholi* inserted be excited to a reminiscence of the fouls who produced them.gt. But. \&amp.- lint tin- prayer originating from lia^e \Nrilteu in is that \\liicli pestilence. And ilu. tin- For to tin- tlciniur^i tin- are the for CUIIMS of ^. allnlto in (lie Icdst degree participate of .to tlie genera and species of the (JoiN. is of prayer which HIV va Moreo\er.jods. whatever else . ? things .n of the soul. [i. which re-ard the sal\ati&amp. that &quot. &quot. Since howe\er.gt. always invoke divinity. And lastly. O Socrates. Hence also he excites Tima-us tir&amp. thus imitates ninirofthediscnssioii. Socrates and what a beginning of the discus whole fabrication of sion lie has d.and to prayer. first pray. and may exists. it is of the solar revolution.ol a\. all decree of temperance.lt. from them. Hut the be^inof the &amp.scrihed For the hj potht -is in&amp. thrs. arethns allotted generation one-theory of wholes.fbemjis. with reference to the things for which we of and etlicacy prayer. our \\orship origin the (iods.gt. -of winds. obtain tin.leed. fails in properly apprehending the nature lint a-ain. ic is Mich as that which or cathartic.gt.s and of thrw. place. to the pood temperament of the body. whether small or . it is said. beim: impelled from the invocation a w hich tin abiding in the ( Jods.lemiunjir.gt. r winds procuring srn-nity catlnirlic \\rathrr an.gt.-nrration And pra\i-rs of Athenians (Jods.modes For prayer i* either accord in. t offered for tintli. e.

These things therefore. they will vtrv properly in each l&amp. let us set1 from what kind of conception they make this invocation of the Gods in every tiling in which they engage. the in Gods produced the whole of our essence and gave us a self-motive nature of good. vre require their providential attention . by means of the gifts which they insert may MMI! also.HOOK ii. are seen to perfectly small. llni place.n. introducing their productions to the universe in conjunction with wholes. perceiving this to the case. Since however. not being a certain human to he small.e and establishing themselves approaching to what is called continence. and harmonizing all things to the universe. their producing . that nothing deity to all things and may .^fii MI u npcr^an to read ui .are sus from them just again. and not in who deposit.lt. when pended they separate themselves from di\ inity. in the call on divinity as the co-ad jutor of their im pulse. when thus converted to herself.gt. these will genuinely apprehend the science concerning the But again.e and according to each energy.eautiful establish a pure intellect as the leader of their and the good in the prerogatives of the soul. For things which appear Gods.iirs. habit. impulse to cccrt/ undertaking. 181 temperance afa ays inrnkc divinity in the.gt. we niny is advantageous..gt. l&amp. and that in choosing. lie destitute of the providence which proceeds from Gods.eaulifullv. and of no worth. and from thence surveying both other things.gt. temperance imparts to souls. il 1 For u -. And those who noi in external fortunes. and who perceive the power of providence extending through all beings. through which as auxiliaries. be able to recur to the Gods.WJS OF PLATO.] TIM. and through these renders every thing familiar and allied to the Gods. Gods * proceed into a visible subsistence]. we may not through is passion verge. and when I here. the human afi . l&amp. as things which are great in their own nature. theory. but a divinely inspired of the soul. but rather. order to the choice power is particularly manifested in our external ener though when we consult. I or it is not pro bable that those who are temperate will not make real In-ing the to l&amp.gt. irhclher il small or ^rcat.c scope which they tend. and are great so far as the}. converting herself to herself and to divinity. we discover what are in want of their assistance. that both when acting. goodness of the Gods. rcnl KI( -own. in each even of the smallest things. in order that by consulting. nor and sue!) as we also in us. perceiving the energy causes of all tilings in the Gods. finds symbols of the Tli&quot. to that which or iVKi-iofTi worse. enjoy the providence of (he . action.&quot. th&amp. so that both whole and the parts may subsist most l&amp. (which gies the Athenians manifest by honoring Jupiter the Counsellor) nnd when we choose.

hut to does not therefore require another prayer. /jf fjr ^f TUV njv op/jut&amp. or is without generation. itnd po&amp.gt.h . rated. and procures communion with It is necessary tlim-lore. unless we are perfectly unwise.. together \\illi and the energies of subordinate beings. lint lint in the impulse to every tiling.follows: that it no where. poo 1 arv rot/ tifi ?i/ iiptv /la.lt. things. read *f ipor. secondary natures. For avitpvv here.we have less of the selfour impulse** pable of ihmK lliM ill For that which is in our po\\er is not NO extended IIH the promotivc cn ruy.iic oiro rov r^ i)fitv alwnrovfttv. who are about to whether it was gene speak in a certain respect conceinin^ the universe. that he is allotted a power from them of conversion to them. so that in this \ve shall a^ain reijuire pra\er.lt.lt. that those who in the smallest decree partici arrogance. It prayer tlirou^h ^ood is imparted through prayer. a^w aroi /if v. pursuing the medium between irony and For h:\vi n4 before said. any tiling. ?hall is every he in want of another prayer. and an impulse to this anaiu to inlinity.\ov IvnifitOa tlii* place. and the donlit a. it is ID trail. We are impelled is we are not impelled to impulses.182 impelled. we shall thin-. PKOCLL S ON THE we may j&amp..gt. and on all sides But. since it com a divine nature.lt.ill om power. ood in itself.i/&amp.iry *fju&amp. rt\v wcfs&amp. invoke divinity in the impulse 1 Instead of ?iaipiv&amp. prehends &quot.fO(i. For in our elections indeed.l i ir l to lliem. able to separate providence from that \\liirh i. Hence Tiuurus also that the self-motive says. Hence it is Letter to say. we are more every undertaking. . but elegantly preserves himself in the order of a prudent man.ifiaiuf. superior energize prior to in the i////w/ff to vi&amp. and tliat that tliose who are temperate always invoke the (iods.&quot. inlinity.lt.gt.u yap ill art fiiv TUV aifictriur.u&amp. tm^ifat -/up ciri ruv &amp.gt. stop it i-^ ? And I not &amp.gt. Or does not the doiiht still remain so that there f not a progression to For \\e are impelletl to prayer. fin).lt. sav* the Epicurean Eur- small the impulse to if in how can we avoid proceeding to inlinity. but we are inca because in theM.VXor &amp. that he \vho prays respectiii . for though we should pray. that wo sliouhl do this. comprehend iraachus. nee of the (iods !nl as we lia\e fre|iieiiily said. we require prayer: we.aid necessary to pray orphyry ili-sol\es on account of therefore to every thin-.erceive [BOOK u. nature possesses the smallest the whole of it is suspended from the providence of the (io ds.gt. to every yreat or small underpate of temperance. Timsvus evinces. tri ft Tuif vpfiur. power. prior to this f acknowledges to the (Jods. how very admirable the hypothesis is. and that to other things indeed itself.

ha\e to show. very 183 taking. And those are of another kind which are allotted the third hypostasis from intellect. tor matter. to these nrgus . not therefore. and not with the universe. as being indefinite in the world. w it the w ords unbegotten and generated. discipline 1 and communication with \\tf OTOI.Gods for Plato says.ut u to in is very properly in a certain respect. work hut not from his own it .&quot. are from itself. And speak the more superficial indeed of the interpreters say. so far as produced by the (iods. Tinurns however. why Plato here adds /. says. are of another kind. that the uni\erse is in a certain Hence the discussion respect nnhegotten. usual however to doubt. Tliose H hn are a!&amp. ilis to read. because things modes which have a natural subsistence. Instead yvyrwr rt xat oXivwr in this jiUcr. *. that it TTT. intellect.v For ui rt y o UXnrwi- TV nytMt hfrc. is His theory therefore. have far as they are. For the demiurgic words proceeding from intellect are of one kind. Will : &quot.u\ and which proceed externally for the sake of others. lie much (lie exalts his proposed subject of discussion. may be variously considered. not that the summit of temperance [i. it may be said. of wisdom]. it it rfi[uisitc to rrad n rot y o ILXarwr pi tv. so And thus this must be determined. . tff *ov rt *ai &amp. and a certain respect as of that which is generated. not according only. a certain respect : for / lie a certain rented concerning the universe. in a certain respect.gt. but with of it in Ii the words alxnit to speak.gt. discussions. for this is small thing. ( temperance in the smallest dearer.lms says that the discussion is in a certain respect about the universe.yoft cirri &amp.] TIM/KUS OF PLATO. that words are multifariously enunciated. e. to the participation of is iv. but particularly according to its progression from the Demiwhere also physiology appears to bo a certain theology. Though Plato does not co* arrange TO TTY. (lie contrary. far as it is full of or so far as it participates of partial and total souls. X. and / // a certain respect generated. and in a Certain respect not.&quot. Hut the div ine laniblic. such as th^ Demiurgus utters to the junior . to a discourse. 1 For the world may or so be multifariously surveyed either according to its corporeal-formed nature. is co-arranged with something else. in order that perfectly unwise. about lie itnircrsc at has himself arrived ly opposing a But he cautiously says. Hence Timacns knowing that those nrcfiir&amp. Imt that he he may the And this he says from the hypothesis. that the soul speaks. as of that which is unbegotten.lt. considers the nature of the universe.lt.ods. (hat the po\\er and science which he possesses.HOOK ii. To this interpretation however. being moved (o itself. will be concerning the universe. It is in a certain respect a divine hyparxis. generated from the f. be better to say with our preceptor.rX. Those words which are surveyed in science..

or un!&amp. tlioiigh Plato no where in what follows says. and jnj indicates these dillerence.egotieii. on this account he For it is says that he shall employ words in a certain respect about the universe. ha&amp. but in short.gt.egotten. but that the world was JUit Porphyry and lamblichus read gem-rated.gt. generation.gt. nurse is nnl&amp. always is. rightly to admit that the world was generated or is ununiverse was generated or Ix-gotlen. and be generated.tins. in that the uni\erse was generated according For thus also Tima-us to form. of discipline. by which also a beginning of gene to existing always. for the sake it fut/ier it was Attain then-fore. he if about to speak Con cerning the unicerse so far as it is generated. but which he pro-assumes in himself.gt. but the world in addition think*.gt. that its unbegotten according tt is nur&amp.gt. prior to all is unbegut tin. is more redundant than since this indeed it inu. those inlerprrters with a soft breathing. with respect to the words. since it contributes in the highest degree to the consummation of the whole of physiology. are demiurgic words which the Demiurgus employs. in ordi-r that surveying it Ami the IMatonic Albiiiuri rated. in order that Tima-us may say.184 PKOCLUS ON THE [BOOH n. . For from this hypothesis 1 we shall be able to see I what the nature is of Fur aytyr/rov hero. i-&amp.e [matter]. we may perceive the nature which it cont. be so according to time for in this case it generated after such a manner as to would not always exist . to another cause more ancient than liyposta&amp.gt.gt. flild uiNi&amp. and is not only [This then fore is asserted by Albinusj. erriiii. unless indeed they is as&amp. but &amp. lie one thin^ to use them intellectually. who saN thai IMato speaks about the unm-rse.\ot that it is alwajs. other things.. an J so far as U the same way as tho&amp. .&amp. that the universe is in a certain Others again. is necessary to refer through which always it existing primarily. and in a certain ropcct unbegotten. generated. on account ration. . tint the latter vut generation. but tlint those arc scientific which he is now about to generate.viMi For this is to be considered. read both respect generated.gt. in order that what is said may be whither the &amp. and that makes use of external words for the sake of Socrates alone. or is uithread the former with an aspirate-. ha* a beginning. in order that it may exist . it has the relation of generation.gt.ert nn/ngutten . &quot. that according to l&amp. another scientifically.e. generated. and always is. of Plato the world bein^ perjM tual.gt.is And itself.ays. as receiving form from dhinity.&quot. and another. both the parts a soft breathing.e prior to them .s of words. .gt. the parts with an aspirate. the world is in a certain reject. so far as it a ^-liewas generated from a cau&amp. but is also unbegotlen.gt. of its its composition from things many and dissimilar.gt.

very properly invokes the Gods and Goddesses. and will pro ceed from this principle. elevating himself to all the Gods. dination. Tim. Hence. 8a essence and powers. all-various animals and plants. tion .o . some are of the former. whether the world was generated.eing.BOOK its ii.gt. to run upward to a divine intellect. the female characteristic. as will manifest to us shortly after. and there are many ? rivers of life. v &amp. very properly comprehends the whole orders of them. and a* all 1 For rawy here. and particularly that it may be agreeable to their divinities. are in the male. the supplier of the first l&amp. l&amp. It is we should pray ourselves. For this universe is full of these twofold divine For heaven has to earth (that we may assume the extremes) the order of genera. rations. ject some of which exhibit the form of the male. the demiurgic choir is abundant in the universe. 2 Tim. various orders proceed into the universe. For from the liberated be consistent. but others of the latter co-or In short. measures of But that which emits from itself all-various life and prolific powers. is parturient with Of the Gods in also in the heavens. some but others according to the female. that invoking all the Gods and Goddesses.lt. are distinguished according to the male. or is without genera therefore. k. and hcsivrhes them that what he asserts may unities. other things must be woven together in a consequent order. The and division of divine orders. Such a division. is most proposed theory. but others of And what occasion is there to say much on this sub 1 both masculine. he who is entering on the discussion of the universe.gt.ecause the motion of heaven imparts productive princi and earth receding the eflluxions ples and powers to every thing [sublunary] adapted to the .gt. which :s principle of conversion to all things. The discussion concerning the universe. And of those powers that govern generation and generates an unbogotten manner. in a division into these genera. therefore. For this is the sublimcst end of theory.&quot. thence proceeding. Hence. VOL. &quot. likewise. that what we assert may especially be agreeable to their and that in the ensuing discourse we may be consistent with divinities. and feminine. from both which the universe receives its completion. the male to the female.rus.] TIMJEUS Oh PLATO.ia&amp. A .gt. that male and female comprehends in itself all the plenitudes of the For the cause of stable power and sameness. will be for the sake of discipline. Plat. and from this. it i nrcr*ary to read J. necessary. l&amp. is contained comprehended progressions and sepa in the female.

he himself completes. may justly. but another in a less de-Tee.i-us say. atj 1MIOCLUS are uuiforinly ON THE [loon n. are not dependent on our will. For those things which he prays rial bonds. &quot. plate. pre-exist in a divine intellect. not placed in us. depends on our will. is contrary to the will. but should himself to ell ect tln\ through the cathartic virtues.] for is end of them the number of is pray.i. though an opportunity hirnst-lf to the proposed discussion? \\creply. and is con- its completion conformably to human intellect and the light of science. For the whole. i-ejuent to tins is. which is the first work of prayer.gt. &quot. will itself. [Uut the consequences resulting conversant with external actions. both according to power* and energies. measure. of the will. \xork of a true prayer.. read uror/uf. And a life indeed. We desiring soul.ot his wish. would entirely accomplish a dissolution of his mate conjunction This therefore Tima-us here effects. hut others. this also is the ill a greater. and the uniform. and afterwards to pray. but as for in itm &quot. disposing the whole discourse to the accordin&quot. and magnifi yet does not Cods and Goddesses should be iimiked. comprehended in ably to this causal comprehension. the perfect.-elf conducts the a desire of conversion to the (Jods. pray. but that which is partial ami falls short of divine simplicity. ^xs l 1 For Cf\ J )err &amp. to arrange the discussion of things agree But that which is the second end. for those things for which \\e pray to be common to the Cod*. therefore. and for us to eflect them in con junction with the Cods.* not proper fust to wish. but he that wishes to Hence as the. it and conjoins it to dixinity. For the wish to things And this desire it. (iods to accomplish. conformable to philosophy. distribute and a deficiency from a the life in it. that it is necessary cently proclaim that the for so to pray. Gods with 11111*1 reference to myself.-Thus if some one should pray to the powers that ampu tate matter.. subsists about a mortal intellect. rank prayer among w hich have all their perfi ction in the w ill.for the whole theory to receive it. one person pray. some doing presents itself. it is because their in the but immediately converts limits have another end comprehended very and through action accomplish that whu h was the object energy after the will. but so as to be in conformity to the intellect of the particularly endeavour r? ( jods. does Tim. * wbvioiisN ncccMarv ii nail . such a one in with the Coils. and obliterate the stains arising from generation. And such is mv 1 prayer to the airo&amp. will at the same time have prayer is indeed Farther still. ^ hy however.lt. to human intellect.

but having dialectically purified their conceptions. The original of the words within the brarkrt* belongs to the lie hut is not to be found in Ihc commentaries of Froclus. who also said to them.&quot. 4 and the gift will be rendered more easy to the giver.gt. as also addressing his discourse to men. these things are first to be considered. and one is intellectual conception. adum as far as to the last of things.BOOK ii. sufficiently indicated.] opinion therefore. is opinion therefore.gt. they may happily receive the intellectual conceptions which it imparts.\TJOWT. 1rom the very be&quot. . from which abiding and Farther still. Moreover. should previously exeite its recipients. adapted to those that imitate the whole fabrication . a Pythagorean.gt. For thus the participation will Income more perfect to them. the self-motive nature of souls moved by the (ods. For the words.T.lt. this very circumstance of facility. [According to the following division must first be made.inniri&quot. J TIM. in the clearest my the proposed subjects of discussion. rejoicing in itself. is to produce one series. But Timacu&amp. * For Ci-x&quot. l&amp. exhibit the energy which is impelled from a life whose power is free. in order that becoming more itself. through (lie brates the demiurgic series. prior adapted. in this place. it will happen that the whole conference will in reality In. ihcy also move them Ivcs. what I scicnti/ical y condive. it is requisite to pray that you may easily learn. though ai the reader nrty MT. savs that he shall enunciate his 1 own dogmas.. manner about The its exhortation of the auditors. T.ecrjsarv lo read n ^mi. r J to my .eing Besides this also.cing immediately exhibited to us as such. &quot. read rnn np nvrixi . unfolds truth into light. that &quot. I7 to \vhat and respects you. For it is necessary that the replenishing source being suspended from proper causes. that I may be able to exhibit what I scientifically conceive. all things proceed to the effects which it excites. not at all busying himself with foreign opitext. but Tim:rns disposes the whole discussion conformably to the intellect of the Gods. ! comment* on thetewordi. For Socrates does not enur. InMrail of * vftoi rr.US OI : PLATO. litre also. and convert them to to the plenitude which it confers . According that Tiiirjrus cussions. is a thirty consequent to the prayers* [of Tim. it is i. aiTou. which proceeds contact of secondary with prior natures. that he knew nothing except to make an assertion [or give a reason] and receive one.referred to one intellect.ciatively declare his opinions to -others. For if the auditors receive what is said conformably to the intellect of Tinurus. and produce from themselves sciences.rus]. we mut read wpo rij For ro yo/&amp. and preserving the form of l*\ thagoric dis l&amp.

For there. . which receiving a scientific division from dianoia. the separation of thesetwo genera. is conjoined to the (Jods. In tin- c. Hence. . itself. intellect to the intellect of the Goiis. one part dianoia. natures is in them. such ideas thenfure.gt.188 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. 1 as if it were the section of a certain produced Was it made or as genus is divided into species. surveys the demiurgic reason. are sulliciently assimi distinguishes the nature of things. Moieo\er. us the Oracle says inherent in animal the paradigm contains intJii^iblcsin intellect. about sensihles. and These particulars also. thin&quot.gt. of science. i. &quot. is is assumed here very aptly. is consentaneous For after the (Joels and Goddesses. and the ineffable and But &quot. For the words. and appropriately is intellect.(. But through exhortations.&quot. To Jupiter to it. I whkh a s^llo-jiiw ton-. .-rd n&amp. t rotlu&amp.i&amp.gt. and the third imparts them toothers. so many lie dianoetically taw this universe ou^ltt to possess. of being takes place. and dianoia. the distinction between lyings to what has l&amp. The doxastic part therefore remains. but from thii comment ot This it &amp.lt.gt.e. nor divided delivers the streams of it to others. For that what we their divinities. in itself the plenitudes of forms. but pursuing one patli of opinion.eneration. nions.&quot. or vice versa.. and that in the ensuing discourse assert may we may be consistent nidi especially be agreeable to ourselves. knowing these this is through prayer adapts his the words. containing to inU -lligihles according lo which the paradigm is united uniform cause of opinion. This however is not ambiguous. a royal intellect precedes.y own &quot.lt. and after what manner whole \\as into parts. or as the division of one it word 1 into many is significations. and a third opinion. lated to the paradigm of the speaker.t to it be found in an\ edition of llie Timseua of I lato. nor does the formal distinction of but it is it consist in hypolepsis * alone . as intellect perceived to be or as Plato. e. and the first and . appears that \iz. or as that of essence into accidents. For being is allied to the more excellent order of divine which is always established in invariable sameness. Moreover. i. he excites the dianoetic part of the souls of his auditors. / am to what has been before another is For of the whole rational soul. This man produces the therefore. which peculiarity ircm-rat um is allied to the inferior order. j. have an indication of this kind. infinite progression. manifested l&amp. what I scientifically conceive. originally belonged of he terms of apprehension of each the Dcmiurgus of the woiM. and things generated. and is intelligible. derive their subsistence. the word i8oo.een before said. the second sciences. And thefirst of these indeed. fdled from intellect a dianoia.*.. suid. all-various mutation. from which. and What then is this division. but introduces xense to the worlds.

and which never [truly] is. to divide persons being and generation. j89 for those are the species of division which some are accustomed to applaud.gt.gt.eing genus of perpetual precedes according latter is not. should be arranged in Because. united. i. is there one genus of the first. is thus divided by him ? This division however. ? can being have their essence in and that which is generated. either in capacity. and that which is generated? Or how can paradigm and image give completion to one composition How likewise can perpetual be a part of a certain thing. But that which is generated is not impartible. both to power and energy.BOOK ii. and that which is is generated. unless some one should say that TJ.gt. and that which is generated. either as accident into essences. productive powers]. What then shall we say ? Must it not this. Hence there is not a common ? l&amp. Nor again must they divided as a word into its significations. but is derived from the Stoic custom.gt. But as it i* in short demonstrated to be suj&amp. e. IM- o that neither will there in short. but that he proposes to define separately what each of these two. ? be arranged under one genus lest that \Vhat also will this genus be For it is not being. cannot in any way whatever ha\e differences.erior . to cause that which generated For perpetual being and the former is when the But perpetual being not existing. is not Platonic. every genus is divided by its will being itself be the one. takes place in the middle psychical reasons in [i. or in energy.] T1M/EUS OF PLATO. is proper differences. and the paradigm of the world. and generation the last of things ? For the division of genera into species.5iax/s*r. a certain thing. But tilings prior to soul. How therefore.emg. . that of accident into essences. discourses about the world. But it is not lawful that the one should have differences either in capa city. How likewise. and antecedently assumes the differences. lest it lest it should l&amp. since it is impartible. and simple ? For the impartible is not a part of any thing which does not consist of all impartible*. it imperfect than secondary natures or in energy. be a division of the one. as that of a whole into parts? But what is that whole which consists of perpetual being. and that which is generated . also would vanish. For what word is there which Plato l&amp.e more should have multitude. perpetual being. and things posterior to soul. divides into perpetual being. subsist more excellent genera.e assuming as common. is ? For it appears to me that the word aioti^irfoy has the same signification with For since he &amp. It is ridiculous therefore. For accident by no means pertains to j)erpetual being.rio. the Demiurgus. that Plato does not now make any division whatever.gt. which it is not lawful to suppose. e. l&amp. which being.lt. itself co-ordinate natures. Nor generated. or as essence into accidents. Is the division therefore. he .

p.nrjri original. and prior hut beings. For imiuiring concerning intellect. that the division is not of one certain thing. and that the proposed e\er. is \ \l. [evident] of these two-fold genera. prior to other things the definition that the discussion proceeding as if from geometrical hypotheses to the in order of things ient. hegin from the (Jodr* prolific Here however.le to say that perpetual heing.gt. he assumes the genera of them. hound and infinity heginnint. so far .miurjiic and generative cause of They were likewise intellectual order (ods. and each genera.e. lest perishing hy so doing.the For if the universe was generated. enstomcd to call it non-heing . For thus the order of mingled from hound and the infinite. where in order that through the given definitions we may know where the world.of the universe. infinity. lie likewise dors the very same as they are severally adapted to separated. may discover the nature. And according to the paternal and material principle of the they were in the supermundane order.ar&amp.s are unities.gt. paternal and paradigmatic cause of There is therefore a demiurgic cause of the universe. thin&quot. For these also were intelligihles. for the unities.lt. hut separate them from each other. i&amp. according to the \ivifu: monad and dnad. and where the paradigm are to not confound the orders of things. This therefore. in intelli-iliVs according intellectual d&quot. IN generated things which are or and are participated hy For n i&amp.gt. and he will manifest the peculiarity of them from their There however. of the world.e life. . was geneiated hy a cause. wishes separately to define j&amp. to read fr. ilia ol\iouily noce&amp. will again he asserted hy us.| &quot. Income apparent. he arranged and that we may the Demiurgu.lt. extend is in the same manner itlu r as the unities heinir. It ishowshould entirely vanish. hound. And thus in a consequent For o 1 liprr. nor that which it is generated. which that will is the hest of these. of (lie is e\em|)t from all -\or are heing and that which the other (iod. pleasure and the mixed in the 1 hilehns.s. heing and . l&amp. do not (iods are Miperior to heinir. from the (lods. do they matter it possil. hecanse the first (iod is one. with reference to there is also a a If there paradigm Demiurgus. ma&amp. that 1 is which are participated hy the (lods. and in the last place. theory has necessarily. which is not ahle even to sulli-r heing.lt.erpetual heing. ami separately that whidi is generated. to these the one itself which is generated. are said to he posterior to the Ciods. and investigation ronse&amp. it it.gt.gt.&amp.gt.1JXI PROCLUS ON THE [BOOKII.lt. proceed which beings of whatever kind they to the stahle through in the all may l&amp. according to effective and powers. ii iiinittc-il in llic &amp. as far as to the last of things. which he who constituted the universe fahricated.gt. since we are n&amp.gt.

subsistence of perpetual bein^ evident ? And it is the law in demonstrative dis cussions. with which it comes into contact. unless l&amp.gt. not a little. and on this account is of a doxastic nature. where likewise speaking about the rood he says. According some. what it is. Let us then consider from the power each of the words [of Plato] possesses in itself. and generated indeed. that preceded us. that what is perfectly being. and truly of science. I or thus that place. that it reigns in the intelligible place. we examine each of them by itself. by Socrates.Socrates in what he said about the soul. who says that TO n is the genus of bein&quot. But it is not a genus. TO tomed to rive TI - . \Ve however.eginning. therefore. all l&amp. as the day before. or the what is definitive. that perhaps Tima-us did not think this was requisite to his purpose. order tlie introduced. is another. is still. This was also granted no respect is l&amp. the intelligible. and the conjectural. why Plato did not demonstrate that there is such a For whence is the thing as perpetual being. the sensible. and partly nonthe object being. are comprehended in this distinction . that what is partly being. And the interpreters contradict each other respecting this. when he divides a line into four parts. In the first what TI. and that what in and is entirely unknown. that the soul was shown by him. hut not all beings according to others. cannot know which of these assertions it is fit to adopt.eiugs whatever.ili book of 1 1n H public. w In rf all this is . will be all. to consider// a thing is previous to the investigation. is another. philosophises through And likewise. and that it real beings. and that which is generated and that the alt is signified by it. For we are accus an antecedent arrangement in definitions. [or consists in becoming to be] is always being. For if a demonstration 1 And farther Sre the litter rnd of he i &amp. the introduction of prayer previous to the of the existence of being which always in.&quot. as it its alliance to unlicgotten and incorruptible. discussion. is IP! discussion about these things beautifully terminates for us in theology.eing. but never [real] to being. as the Platonic Seterus thought it was. is it was shown by . In answer to this doubt it may be said. the dianoetie. and likewise perpetual being. which is by some It was also doubted generated.gt. prior to the inquiry what it is.] TIM/EDS OF PLATO.gt.BOOK ii. is one tiling. and the physical theory What what but is that is is which is that which is without generation. whether they subsist paradigmatically or iconically.gt. in the same manner as the sun to Tima-us in the visible region.

Nor is generation in principle the same things should be both better and worse. from the third. from perpetual being? For whence was that which is generated produced except from some other being. science itself also is from hypothesis. he demonstrates that from one of the hypotheses. defines that Plato now assuming But after the discussion about the fabrication of the world. it perpetual being has a subsistence. whether does it signify the or the J)emiurgus. With resjMTt however. [true] being Hence it remains that always is. Ix-ing is But in the place itself by itself prior to we have mentioned. is not absurd that multitude should one S Because. in order it is truly existing being. is deposited in our common conceptions.it is necessary that but not that which is generated and which perishes. however. or the paradigm of the universe? for it intelligible world. ticular.1&2 PROCLUS ON TIIK . from which also generation proceeds. whole is to jwrpetual being itself. Why then. and requires that hy consequent to it. he demonstrates not only that matter is. but also that being is. he demonstrates that perpetual And thus much for this par generated natures. [BOOK n. he proceeds from this hypothesis. : there should be truly existing being for this there are Gods. resuming Preserving however. it is the whole differently assumed by different interpreters. what pertains to phy being has a subsistence. we reply. intelligible world. all things originate. generation from the is nece&amp. that the exis is never truly being. i. peq&amp.etual and demonstrates such things as arcsiology. looking to an eternal he evinces. it. the most true solution of the doubt as au hypothesis that there is perpetual being. it must have been generated And this must either be perpetual being. whence does the intelligible breadth begin. or not lawful to proceed to infinity. But is or generation is in a circle. but prior to these After all that has been said. that the which be proceeds from the one.gt. may primarily not be alone the cause of the last of things. Or rather prior to these tilings it may be haid. it may be said.e this very thing. paradigm. the Demiurgus fabricated the unuerso. that there should It be entirely produced without being. l&amp. tence of something which always is.sary therefore. that But a little after. is. For assumed prior to its demonstrations. lest which is the one. or must likewise have been itself generat ed.gt. For if this also was generated. causes and effects. but is united to the Gods . And if indeed. In what he says there potheses should fore about matter. and where does it . For from one a circle. first may principle be the cause of being. demonstrating that there is a Demiurgus of the world. So that we must either proceed to infinity. e.gt. he obtains also from this that perpetual being And again from the fourth hypothesis subsists prior to that which is generated.

and Demiurgus is is it is not lawful to assert.gt.] TIM/EUS 01- PLATO. . it jf3 proceed ? But if it is tlio paradigm. Tim. And how After this manner therefore was there truly an eternal reasoning is it possible that being a divine intellect he should not ? rank among eternal beings ? Is therefore every intelligible world perpetual ln-in^ The di&amp. so that he belongs to eternal beings. Iwin^ [or being characterized to these things. bears testimony or then Plato arranges the one beintj j)riorto whole. be better to say. and a whole. and a whole. as that which primarily parti is written in the Parmenides concerning the one the one]. of the God&quot. is &quot. which . however. Here.s clearly According to which of (lit paradigms did the world? /( as it according to that which subsist* -jitk the artificer fabricate invariable sameness. wonderful. ever. but that this at all [lamhliehus]] hns delivered. Jf therefore the universe is not lawful to assert this is this. &quot. strenuously contends on this subject. And he immediately tal&amp. and according to genera. evincing that eternal being is superior both to establishes it at the inic. If the world indeed not good. that there is indeed sued an order of b^ing. the of generated natures. NN ill it not. and such as Plato else now Plato thus denominates every eternal world? intelligible is asserted ofcrcri/ /&amp. summit of the But what by - cipates of ///f the genera and the species ofbein^.&quot. which it is beautiful. But that also true of the Demiurgus. to the inli I 1 and also in the .&amp. whence is it that the is paradigm is not a thing of this arranged in perpetual Ix. if the paradigm how comes is one tiling. it evident that he looked to an eternal paradigm. The Demiiir^ns. though the whole and the all are intelligible. that Plato calls the soul.. lligihlc IMato clearly calls the paradigm perpetual being. Demiurgus world is it good.is that divine man where ISor is surveys. evi the Demiurgns constitutes. when it is said that the But at another time it in VOL. paradigm is a whole and all-perfect. and intelligible essence. the paradigm and that being will not be the same. of i-hich other animals art parts according to one.gt.. For. Plat. and all-perfect. is prior to soul.-in^.lt. dent from first this perpetual being. the Actual and invisible nature* as Socrates in the Phrrdo. tlic Hut not beautiful. therefore. evident from Plato when he says. however. and prior all .-. when he says.nuuic ii. or according to that which was generated?&quot. That the paradigmatic cause. but that which is primarily lcing is above whole and all. soul also i. For he denominates it all-perfect animal .ine lamhlichns.s intelligible. at one lime. and delivers the generation of it. decides hy saying. and if the the. I. So that if the &quot.&quot. how Hence also Plato says concerning him. to pass that the Deminrjns iand the Dominions another? And kind if it ? is the Demiurgus. then he looked to a the paradigm of is generated paradigm. i.gt.c &quot.Sophista. as b\ asserted of the natures that 2 1 1 . therefore. not jxirpetnal being.

.ri &quot./ luonsly u.&quot. / &amp. liul natures therefore that exist in time.lt.\*mtu:i &quot. are the Rrpnl&amp. . As series of the v irtues. &quot.t (n&amp. bcin- In UK. o ^wr. rru./ ti&amp. the is intelligible primarily beiny. After the same as is evident from what Tima.psychical essence. beautiful of intelli-ibU-s. .gt. has jK-ars to exist. an the division in of the first triads of beinjr. have aNo of bein-. thus also being itself the equal which is primarily bein-. but entliiisf imUalJiom in its the mitnre uniimil itvlf.lt.denominated one bein-.v&amp. truth. ihM&amp. and prior to Hernity should sav what appears to me I therefore.ur&amp.. and Hence Plato will now speak in reality of every intelligible.arily elirnul M-quence of ronioined if purt ml intdltclf..lt.il.or. llif tlir orij. and from it all lein* and whatever apUut every intelligible anil intellectual hcinu.- &quot. be is is The the one bem^. iti.&amp. and animal itself in animals.lt.us a little after says of them.lt.as the I . since if it ranked as the second. and does nut sho. therefore. . in its For every where.ds. are not the same.inellable.lin^ lirrt in . in c(.(/&amp.&amp. depart mo&amp.iu.-lorr. &quot. bein more excellent than every U . demon&amp. T than b&amp. Tor it is evident that inj. :. T(ir /joia lien read ^oa.&quot. is the summit of all brings.lt.. yet be in. &amp. &quot.gt. indeed.&quot.etvveen //if If. that which is primarily beiii monad of all bein-s.gt. N is cult.:. ticipate likewise also of bein:.gt.. I or this latter bed. iru^rn ra .. beinp in the Sophista. n. that intelligible not assumed which o&amp. and -ternily. of eternity.gt. as subsisting l&amp. ritiln //. ffr &quot. but not all such things For the appellation of the one be ini. WOM!&amp. &quot. &amp. itself 1 proceed.lt. as possesses the highest place in the therefore./ this is /niii.lt.. 1 Alter UT uir.lt. existm./j/ //////:. is and perpetual heiii bcvmid eternity.lt. / &amp.gt.gt. ticipates as participate of In inir. it be reipiisile that to be the bring. //a / is iitrittilli/ beginning. has the hi-hest order.&quot.gt. own series. in ron- to the one.il wu ? 1.. r &quot. Ami at another time.lt. it is asserted lic manifest*.m*hcwu. participate oml the order of eternity. ami have the same form . ru vr.gt.gt.gt. r &quot. . H . 94 1 ROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n.&quot. it would not which i* the summit of the breadth.u i llu-r.it&amp. and as U-in. fur it would no longer Iw primarily that which it is. primarily bein^ is bev Hence the n-asonin-.t !&amp. he peihaps omits. is the highest. is monad of tluse. For eternity par Hence all such things as participate of eternity. 1 - ) I yn uui.|uemx- of the natures prior to this.-m.. par a certain portion of bciii. rn o.nse&amp. Itut here it signifies the whole eternal world..&amp.tlv after this.lt. assumed from perpetual beiiip:. .101. that animal itself is the therefor. !&quot. so that what is periH tual bemx that every tiling (ontrary. bein^.trates the very eternal. manifests the order of the one manner. l(f ^ / &quot. virtue itself in ei|u. than is rather I.nt the one bein-. l/ic inT.-.

HOOK

i..]

TIMJEUS OF PLATO.

H,5

Unless through excess of union, superior to a subsistence as objects of intellect. lie says that animal itself is the most l>cautiful of all the objects of intellect, both
animal
\w\tt

itself

and (he one being existing as objects of

intellect also,

the latter as
itself

causally ever, eternity as being so accord ing to fn/par.vis,

and animal

or

1

1

if;

eternal, as existing always,

admitted,

in

Hence, if these things are according to participation. that which always exists, eternity, animal itself, and the Demiurl>eing

be comprehended, and likewise the one occult canst- of eternity. So that it is evident from

gus

will

itself,

which possesses

the.

this, that perpetual being

comprehends every nature
tual
;

prior to souls, whether

it

be

intelligible,

or intellec

be^innin^: indeed from being itself, but ending in a partial intellect, and that it does not alone comprehend, as lamblichus says it does, the summit of all such as the beins is which is characterized by (lie one, or the one Iwing, brings,

through which

all

beings are said to

l>e

beings, and to which the one itself alone,

and the principles of being [bound and infinity] are superior. The one, therefore, is better than that which is self-subsistent. For it is necessary that it should

l>e

exempt from

Perpetual being, however, but possesses the power of being so through the one. But that which is posterior as is our nature, is self-subsistent, and at the same time derives its to it, such
all
is

multitude.

self-subsistent indeed,

subsistence from another producing cause. And the last of things proceed indeed into existence from a more excellent cause, but are not self-suhsistent. It is not however yet time for these observations.

But with respect to perpetual being, it must not be supposed, that it is partly being, and partly rion-l>eing for if it were, it would be a composite, and consist
;

ing of things of this kind,

it

would

l>e

time being, and at another non-being

;

Nor is it at dissimilarly a composite. for it is said to be always being. But
even thing whatever
it

one
it

is

simply and eternally being, and be, that is of a contrary nature.

is

iintningled with
it

may

For

appears to

me

that the addition of the

words,

"

/;///

not having generation? indicates the

of perpetual being, according to which it is borne along in the images of beunr, and is changed by time. IS ot as some assert, that perpetual is said, for the sake of perspicuity, to be. without generation ;
l>eing

unmingled and undeliled purity exempt from every hypostasis which is

nor according to others, that Plato was willing to sjK-ak of it both affirmatively and negatively ; but that it is necessary perpetual being should le intellectually perceived subsisting by itself, remote from al! temporal mutation. For soul
For rapiisi
in
llii

place,

it in

requisite to read v^turt.

19rt

1

HOCLUS ON THE
allotted a
life

r.ooic n.

participates offline,

anl the heavens are

which

is

evolved

acced

ing to time; but the intelligible nature alone is, according to the whole of itself, eternal. Hence, some of the ancients call the intelligible breadth truly existing

being

;

being;

the psychical truly enisling and at the same time not truly existing the sensible not truly t. rifting being ; and matter, truly non-being. After

tiirate.

what manner, however, they made this arrangement, we shall elsewhere iinesBut that the addition of nut haring generation, is for the sake of indi cating the separate essence of |K?rj>ehial Ix-inij, is I think evident from what
"

has

l>een

said.

In the next place, with respect to that which /.v generated, whether does it sig nify the whole world, or a material and jwrfectly nuitahle composition? For

some of
far as

derstand by
this

Hut we un the ancients explain this in one way, and other* in another. it every corporeal fanned nature, and not the soul of the universe; so
nature
is

of

ilself

time, arranged by

another.

indeed unadorned, but is always or at a certain For the soul of the universe is, in a certain respect,
is

)MT|H iual

beinir.

-Much

less

intellect

tlmt -fhieh
is

is

generated :
is

for tins

is

im
is

Hut body alone mediately perpetual Ix-inicJ or body is always truly never real bein-j;.
cause, and
is

that

which

generated, and

in

want of the

world-producing

always deriving from
said,

then
in

it

may be
is

did not
as
ln

it the representation of existence. Why IMato add, always, and tltal which is generated,

the

same manner

imf,

or

tit

a icrtain

time,

in

order that

generated entirely opposed to that Plato devised this mode of expression,
that

have what

jitrjietnal

being?

May we

he might not say

which

is

generated, and

taking

away from
<i

looking to the various nature of eternal being the existence

and the perpetuity of a generated nature? For the if/idles of auch a flam tiuic. And after another man nature are generated akeaiis, bin the parts at ner [of considering the allair] with re<pect to forms, some are inseparable from
at a certain time,
c<

matter, and are alw ays generated from (hat

\v

ln<

h

is

(nil v

alw ay

s

;

but others are in

and depart from matter. J- orcvr/torit aiuitt matter ; but tin form o/ /ire, or of
time,
iiiififjKirntcdfroin
it

/;/,

indent,

is n!.i fti/s

generated fti/d is alua^x

<nr,

enters iutouiid

;!ef>nrfs

from matter,

bieoin-

it

a>nl

jnrnhiiig, through the domination of a contrary nature.
is

Hut
/.v

the Merprluitv which detains matter
if

alwavs eenerali d, ~
it

it

never therefore

;

and

the existence at a certain time

is

gmcfiited,
illilf.ul

is

never being.
I

livery thing
it

Aflrr
>sr\

r.iffc<

po

c-f

t.i(\(.iioif

ru

ui;n.r irXaroi,

of

<i

(itiui

t

<\

r>,

,;i

ykt/i,

ii

iHi f*-

lon.nl

<rwi

tin o/.a

i/v>.

ntrwt or.

nnox

ii.]

TIM/EUS
is

01-

PLATO.

1

97

however, which

generated,

is

either ahcnt/s generated, or at a cerlain
l>eing.

time..

Hence, every thing which is generated, is never [real] These things, therefore, having said, let us, recurring;
l>oeii

to tlie discussion

from

the beginning, or not of all.

show whether perpetual
For
if,

indeed,

we

being in this place is asserted of all beings, admit that j>erpctual being indicates an eternal

nature alone, having the eternal according to the whole of itself, it is not asserted For neither the In-ing prior to eternity, nor the order of eternity, of all beings. nor again, such things as have indeed an eternal essence, but produce energies according to time, can be arranged under this being. JJut if we assume every
thing whatever that is eternal, and which always is, either according to the whole of itself, or partially, then soul also ranks among eternal natures, and also that

which contains
Hfilly.

in itself the
is

causes of all things, unically, as
:

it

is

said,

and univer-

For the case
is

as follows
1

one thing
is

fi.

e.

being

itselfj is

[another thing

eternity; With respect, however, to each of these perpetual l>eings, the respect eternal. first is as the power and fountain of the crcr ; the second, as that vthich is prima
]

another

simply eternal,

and another

sujHT-etermd ; is in a certain

itself, and not according to participation ; but the always, as participating of the ere r, and as primarily wholly eternal; and the fourth, is as that which in a certain respect participates of a peculiarity of this

rily

always being, and the crcr
is

third

For each thing subsists triply, either according to cause, or according to kind. hyparxis, or according to participation. And the one being, indeed, is being alone according to hyparxis, but is perpetual being according to cause. Kternity is per

And petual I dng according to hyparxis, but being according to partieipalion. the eternal is perpetual being according to participation, but according to h\parvis is a certain other intelligible, or intelligible and intellectual, or intellectual
[only].

And if the last of these, it is either total or partial and if this, it is either supermundane or mundane, and if this, it is either divine, or posterior to (he (Jods and is each of these either according to existence alone, or according to power and energy, and as far as to the jM rpetual being of thinirs which are in a
; ;

if*

certain respect eternal.

Again
versal,

therefore, with respect to that

which

is

thing gene heavens also are gene rated, so far as they partake of motion and mutation, ami that soul is the first of generated natures, so far as it lives in time, and time is connascent with its ener;

we must assume
way

generation ail-variously changed

generated, if but
that the

we

as.-ume the uni

if every

rated, in whatever

it

may

be,

we

shall find

Tlic words TO ^

ciiwr,

are wauling in \ht original, bul

nititl

necvssaiiU

tic
5<i[>j>lic<l.

jp 8
gies.

HROCLUS ON THE
And
thus ascending from
;

[BOOK u.

shall end in soul as the first of things l>eneath, we and descending from above, we shall again terminate our prothat are generated For though a certain person as the last of eternal natures. gression in soul,
1

that the rightly says else ; but something
in

heavens always
soul possesses

exist,
its
it

yet their being

is

always generated by
itself.

own
is

essence from

Hence

also,

unbegotten, and at the same time selfSocrates as being indeed the principle of all generation, but generating and vivifymoved, If therefore we say, that it is both unbegotten and generated, eternal itself. and not eternal, we shall speak rightly. Hence too the Athenian guest thinks but not eternal, because it is in a certain respect fit to call the soul indestructible,
the Pluedrus says, that
in"

1

to the whole of itself, in the same manner as oniy eternal, and not according For it is one thing to be always, and another to be generated truly existing luring. for th_ y do not possess are generated always always. And the heavens, indeed, from themselves. But soul in always for it possesses being from itself. And being but is from a cause. For every thing prior to soul is not generated from a cause, from others. Through is alone in things which derive their subsistence generation therefore it will be manifest after what manner there is a comprehen these
;
;

things sion of all beings in the before-mentioned

manner
of
all

all

beings are not

comprehended
which
is
is

in

and after what portions of division, There is not a comprehension them.
only,

beings, because that

eternal

and

that

which
is

is

generated

only, are

assumed
is

;

one of which

prior to, but
!M<

the other

posterior to soul.

it

ause the extremes being assumed, a comprehension of all beings, from these to find the middle, which is at one and the same time possible both being and that which is generated. That these distinctions, however, of that which always is, and of that which is

And
is

there

to all other axioms, it is easy to learn; by generated,. arc necessarily made prior that this is the first of the problems which it is requisite to consider observing about the universe in the beginning, i. e. nhttlier it always wa* t having no beginning For if this is the first of the tilings to it was generated. of generation, or u-iicther be investigated, then what that is which is generated, and what that is which is For the other axioms the axioms. eternal, have very properly the first order in the follow these, just as the remaining problems follow the problem respecting the discussion about it be requisite that resuming generation of the world. And if on the biibjtct. the hypotheses, I should more fully explain what appear*, to me
i.

e.

Aruiollf.

3

III

Ihr 10th

hook of the Laws.

UOOK

.,.]

TIM/EUS OF PLATO.
tlu*

U,p

Pinto in

same manner

as geometricians,

employs definitions and hypotheses

which he frames his demonstrations, and ante prior to demonstrations, through For as the principles cedently assumes the principles of the whole of physiology. of music an- different from the principles of medicine, and in a similar manner
there are different principles of arithmetic and mechanics; thus also there are certain principles of the whole of physiology, which Plato now delivers to us ;

[and these are as follow
by intelligence

:]

in conjunction

Truly existing being in that which may be. comprehended with reason. That which ii generated is to be apprehended

Every thing generated, is generated by opinion in conjunction w ith irrational sense. a cause. That which docs not derive its subsistence from a cause, is not generated. by
That of which the paradigm
the
is
it

eternal being,

is

paradigm For from these principles he produces all that follows. And to me, that on this account he shows what perpetual being is, and also
generated,

is

not beautiful.

That, of which necessarily beautiful. Let the universe be called heaven or the
it

world.

appears \

u-hat that
,

which is {rein-rated, hut does not show us that each of them is. For the geometrician informs us what a point is, and what a line is, prior to his demonstra For how can lie he a tions, hut he by no means teaches us that each of these is.
is

geometrician,

if

he discusses his

own

principles
is,

?

After the same

manner

also,

the physiologist says what perpetual being

for the

sake of the demonstrations
it

he

is

ahout to

u>ake,

hut he hy no means shows that

would go beyond physiology.

But

since,

as

we have

is ; for in so doing, he before observed, Timanis

does not resemble other physiologists, being a Pythagorean physiologist, and Plato exhibits in this dialogue the highest science, hence he afterwards very
divinely proves that truly existing being
it

is.

For

his present

purpose, however,

preserving the boundaries of physiology, lie appears also to investigate the definition of perpetual being and of that which is generated, in order that he may discover the causes which give completion to the universe, vi/. form and matter lor that which is generated is in want of these.
is

sufficient for

him

to

admit that

it is,

:

assumes, however, the third hypothesis, in order that he may discover the producing cause; but the fourth, that he may le able to infer that the universe was
generated according to a paradigmatic cause; and the fifth, which i* concerning the name of the universe, in order that he may investigate the participation of
the good
It

He

and the

ineffable

by the world, as

will

be shown in what follows.

appears also to me, that Aristotle in his Physics, imitating Plato,
For
*<

assumes one

(v\i-//m

amor

htrr, read Tyxi? ciy/iancor airier.

200

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK n.

it it supposed by us rcith respect to t/tingt tc/tich hart a hypothesis, when he says, that either all or some of them are moved. For it is entirely natural subsistence,

the discussion of the physical theory is a principle of motion. But in his trea tise On the Heavens, prior to every tiling else, he assumes tlio.se hypotheses con cerning which Plotiuiis says, that Aristotle will find no difficulty in his discussion that the if his hypotheses ahout the fifth hotly are admitted, meaning these five
if is
;

necessary that there should he motion, to proceed with success ; since nature

motion

is

simple of a simple body

;

that a simple body has a certain simple motion accord

one

ing to nature ; that there are trt n simple motions ; that one motion is contrary to that which can corrupt it. ; and that the thing which has tint a contrary, ha* not From which hypotheses, he frames his demonstrations concerning the fifth body.
Aristotle,

however, shows that the universe
it

hut Plato that

is

iM-nerated.

Whether

unbegotU.n, from the hypotheses; therefore, they are discordant or not,
is

will shortly after

be manifest to us.

And

this,

indeed, Mill again be considered.

Why, however, does Plato, who is accustomed to employ, when speaking of now assume neither of these, intelligible*, the terms auro itftlf, and (,-rr-p that it hit h,
For this also but rather prefers the term an aia ays, as connasccnt with being. with a doubt, through what cause he employ s the third of these terms, i. attended
always, as better adapted to signify the nature of truly existing being.
to this
it

is

e.

In answer

may

be said, that the term
to

itself mnni/estji the simplicity

of

inttttigibles,

a

subsistence
is

according

Inipar.iis,
to

and an

e.n^ttiue

-ahich

is

primary,

which

according to which intelligibles are and Jill secondary natures uith the participation oj zt liic/i they are, primarily that But the term that which it, indicates purity, the unmingled, and themselwi.
asserted

conformably

the

peculiarity ^

the not iH ing filled with a contrary nature.

And

the

the immutable, and the

invariable, according
itself,

to hypostasis.

and the just itself, the beautiful, and justice which is not so by the par not bo by the participation of is primarily l>eautiful, and that which is ticipation of the just ; but that which But when we sny thit which is bt -autiful we mean that which is primarily just.
the be a
itiful

when we say

tar manifests the eternal, Thus for instance, we survey Ix-auty which is

not mingled with deformity, nor contaminated by
beauty, which
is

its

1

situated in deformity, and use the term eier or always we indicate beauty which is not at one So that the time beautiful, and at another not, but which is eternally beautiful. and the supplying all first of these terms manifests the simplicity of intelligible*,
is itself replete

contiury, such as is material with its subject nature.

And when we

other

things

from themselves.

For such

is

the

beautiful

itsc/f,

by

which

UMOK
all

ii.j

T1M.EUS Or rLATO.

UOl

and the equal itself, by which all equal things are manner in other things of this kind. But the second of these terms, indicates onlyness and purity, the unmingled and the undented. For the that which is (his, i. e. it is something which is not various, and which does not at
beautiful things are beautiful,
in

equal, and

a similar

tract to itself
for the ci cr

nency

in

any thing of a foreign nature. And thcc-ctr manifests immutability, Yet it does not simply indicate immutability, but a perma For a temporal ever in one thing, and an eternal ever, another ; eternity.
is this.

the latter

l>eing

every thing collectively and at once
but the former,

;

but the former being co-ex
infinite.

tended with the whole continuity of time, and being
subsisting in the now,
in interval, in

And

the latter

always

generation, or

beings from the paradigm.

becoming to be. The For that is the cause of

the interval being unceasing, and term therefore itself, is derived to
simplicity to
beings,

,

and of /
\

But the term that imparting to other things that which it primarily possesses. For that is primarily exempt from nonwhich if, is derived from the one being. and privation because it is primarily being, and all things subsists in it and indivisibly. And the term ever, is derived from eternity. For as the one beiivj is the supplier of existence, so eternity impart* perpetuity to
being,
;

occultly

intelligible*.

Hence, and for participated,
it. if If

if

Plato had been speaking about participants and things

this
if

\ihat bcin

is.

And

purpose had required leing, he would have inquired he had been discussing things unmingled, and thing-,
that

that are mingled, he

would have used the term

which

is.

But since

lie

di>-

courses about

generation and the unbegotten, and for this purpose requires thr^e he very properly inquires what that is which is alwayx being. For this definitions, the eternal from that which is temporal, in the same manner as the distinguishes

unbegotten distinguishes eternity.

Hence

also the nature of animal

itself,

which

is comprehensive of all intelligible animals, is eternal; but time was generated together with heaven, as Plato says in the course of the dialogue. Moreover, though perpetual being is said to proceed from a cause, yet it must

not be asserted that

it is

generated according to all causes, but that

it is

according to

them.

For

and

uy* ov,

that on account nfv/iich, and irpo$ o, that with relation to which, that by which. For perpetual being is self-subsistent, and is not gene
it is
3<

o,

rated by itself, lest not existing at a certain time, it should be generated. For that which is generated, when it is becoming to be is not. Nor is it gene rated with relation to itself, lest it should be a composite. Nor an ac1

Instead of wi ynp Tovcirm TO tv m-,

it it

ncfsary torraH
I.

<vi

yap

mv umi

t.

X.

Tim. Plat.

VOL.

2

C

202
count of
itself,

PKOCLUS ON THE
lest
it

[BOOK n.
is

should

IH?

imperfect.
its

Cut that winch

generated

is

sus

pended from another thing, and has
is

every corporeal-formed nature. which Plato speaks clearly in the Sophista? generated never being, concerning Now, liowe\cr, it is that it is non-being, but that it is never truly luring. Not
said to be never
nal nature
;

progression from other causes ; and such After what manner however, is that which is

(it

ant/ (imc being,
is

but that which
it

because being has a prior arrangement in an eter If, therefore, alicnys if. generated, is never that
t.V//V/<

existence, so far as

what

is

mingled and being which subsists b\
has not in a certain
r.

being, nnrereptive of non-existence, it is evident that since it lias the being \\hich is in it, of whatever kind it may be, generated, with non-beint;, is never at any time being, so as to be genuinely being;
is
is

itself,

-sped

since this pertains to real existence alone, which non-existence in conjunction with existence, atone

and the same time being and not being.
"

The former of
latter
is

these, indeed,
it

is

comprehended by
in

junction with reason, since

always subsists with

intelligence in coninvariable sameness.

But the
since

it is

conjunction with irrational sense, generated and corrupted, and never truly
perceived by opinion,
i
s."

***

To

theseit happens, that they err in

many
is

other respects, and that they

com
which
sul>-

prehend
the
first

in tin: definitions the things defined.

definition

assumes

is

explained, and

For what perpetual being is, said to be that which always

sists
it

with invariable sameness; and this
that

(he second definition assumes, saying
Thi<,

is

generated and corrupted, but ne\er truly is. to accuse both themselves and Plato of unskilfuluess in dialectic.
is

which

is

however,
Jiut others

dividing the sentence, show that in each of (he colons there- are definition, and that \Jiich is com For in the former colon, the words, the thing defined. but the a definition intelligence in Conjunction *t:t/i 7 cY/v-y/,"are prehended by are the thing defined. subsists \ritli invariable sameness, sinct it words,
"

;

alirays

And
is

in the

second colon, the words

irrational

sense"

the thing

is opinion in conjunction uith perceived are given as a definition ; but the remaining part of the sentence, To these men it will lie found our preceptor las well replied. defined.
"

!>y

For by

a little transposition of the
Tltc.t
u-liic/i

words, the whole
uttlt

will

be immediately apparent as
sameness,
is
is-

follows:

ahi-in/s

iub A i*ts
-

it.i-uriablc,

comprehended

by intelligence
1

in

conjunction
/.f
i

u -ith

reason: but
|ii;cf,
is
it
i

that icliich
read
ci

generated and cor/iij

For

c
!"y

.n re

-.1

irrn

,

in

llii-,

,

ri

.

r ii-,itc

l>

^ on ro

uv larif.

Tin

Ltfiniiing ol

lhU

cuiiiiiitnl.trv,

unfurUiiutfly Hauling.

B

OK

ii.]

I

IM/El S

OF

I

l.ATO.

203

sameness, without generation ; and that which is generated, hut is never [real], being, having the same signification as, irA/cA never truly is. tlioujrli they are more And through the obscurely announced. addition of /;///// Plato indicates that so far indeed as it is generated, it is not ; but that so far as it brings with it an image of being, so far it is not generated. For in the definitions, he renders the things defined more elear through the additions. Thus, one of the definitions says, Khich i.t in order that the
signifying the

rupled,and never truly is, is perceived Inj opinion, in conjunction with irrational For these things nro consequent to w liat was before what is that which said, is ah ays "what is that which is being but is without generation generated, but is never that which [real] being always subsists with invariable
sense.
"

;"

;in<l

;"

same thing

as,

that

which

is

///<//

"

term always
this
i

all
is

petuity,

always bein^," by not understand temporal |er|)etuity, but the eternal. For at once, and subsists with irnariable sameness. Hut temporal per co-extended wilh the infinity of time. Thus, too, the other definition

we may

and together with it also says, and is corrupted," not understand by -reiterations mr.y simply progressions, which are also ascribed (o the (Jods who are beyond being, but progressions which are
tl,<il

has.

"

n-hieli is

"

generated,"

ill

order that

we

\\itli de>truetion. The assigned definitions, therefore, are such as follow: 1 t-rpetual being, is that which is comprehended by intelligence in conjunction wilh reason. That which is generated is perceived by opinion in conjunction with,

CO-ordinate

irrational sense.

For tliese definitions, however, it is usual to accuse Plato, in the first place, indeed, that he does not assume genus, as the rules of definitions require. In the next place, that he does not manifest what the nature is of the things defined, but
It is necessary, however, prior to this distinguishes them by our kno\\ledi;e. habitude. In consider things themsehes by themselves. But [in defence of Plato] we shall demonstrate the very contrary, vi/. that those who are accustomed thus

to

doubt perfectly

err.

comprehends every

intelligible

nor definition, since it is comprehensive of every essence, and of all powers and energies? IS either, there-\ fore, is being the genus of eternal being: for if it was, it would not be simply
being, but a certain being.

For what kind of i;enus has a place in lein.ir, which essence For if essence has no genus prior to itself, is most generic, what can you say respecting being which
?

\or

is

non-lK>ing

the genus of eternal being lest

we /

should ignorantly

make

eternal non-being.

For every where genera arc predicated

Hence, there is not a genus of being. Besides, is not a definition ofsj>ecies. derived from knowledge adapted to theory, anil to the proposed definitions? For if,

therefore. is diflerent from perpetual l--ing. both affirmatively and negatively. to observe how Plato pioposing to himself Hut giving an renders each of them manifest. it is able after a certain manner to abide in A condition of always becoming to be. and ~&amp. and through After this manner. indeed. but iJtich /mr being&quot.&quot. &quot.nustic.lt. Assuming therefore each by generated. yet not with negation alone. fur intellect. of. finitions he would have ignorantly filled the whole of hi* doctrine de definitions with obscurity. existence alone.chich is destroyed&quot. But as he wished to make known through being and that which that are every thing or possesses the thing know is generated. is either the thing known itself. alone defining it. it is akmys . however. and signify that which in each thing is inherent. hut sense JH retires uhat is sensible. negation.204 as PROCLUS ON THE before. also. he -assumes the one. being and that which is generated. says. . it would also be able produce itself. For since because definitions respect aflirmations. but that beinjj. in perpetual being. and corruptttl&quot. and duinoia to the duinoetic vb/ect possesses in itself tin: intelligible. and as we are not in us naturally adapted become . it differs from that which is invariably the same. wonderful. never truly is which says. it also. it was necessary the nature of to us. since if it were. itself in itself.&quot. and clearly represents to us the peculiarity of them. we answer this the nature of being is known to us. but he assumes the other together with is. It is requisite. and generated by subsisting invariably the same. if he not only says &quot. For as he.gt. answer to each. . he hud exhorted us to investigate and manifest If. but know it through the power which is conjoined with it this being the case. generated corrupted. ed&quot. the doubts. the problems. we may more manifestly survey or pereeiies. explains the words. things. is. in the !K&amp. generated. he produced the demonstrations through things in order that known. we require this power. he assumes the former as that which is above generation. through the assumption &quot. which is gentrtited. e. It is not. is incapable ot con and so far as it is which is adds to being. itself. to necting itself. however. we said wished to use these axioms and hypotheses demon known that they should strations which he intended to make. but so I or that far as it is corrupted. but the latter. what each of them bein-r excited and perfected. but also. i. he assumes the allirmative alone. &quot. so likewise to that it Inch For tlii so far as it is generated. &quot. &quot. the negative. indeed. is the intelligible. subsisting with invariable sameness&quot. and not only ami corrupt is generated he adds. . is characterized by non-existence. For since &quot. as that which is not So that when the representation of being accedes to that which is indestructible. indeed. Plato [BOOK u. but in that which is crenerated. the words. m He. adding is to &quot.

J third is tliG :ronjoined intelligence in a divine intellect itself. 1 is requisite lu read rawij*-. tiifters djectx l knowledge in-card.&amp. intellect. Nor does it we have said). filling but establishing it in the intelligible. For / is common to all intelligence to /ttrcc the. iicco. it the thing is first known which itself. words by let itself. being the energy nective and collective of the extremes. intelligence. and intelligence exist^s power.gt. intellect. but sees that ll. us see in tlic how many -ways gence subsists. The second intelligence is that whiclAfonjoins intellect with the intelligible. is phantastic knowledge. and accompa nied with resemblances its figures. comprehends the intelligible it contains. In another sees indeed wholes. and collect by a reasoning process is other progressions of The first intelligence therefore. but (as not intelligible intelligence. tlio 205 through which he Jx&amp.UOOK n. if and has time /At //. rpirq it q tv nvrif Oriy it foijiru. In another is is partially the it ing known. The indeed intellect from the intelligible. The jilunUsv is UIHJ called by Aristotle. possessing a peculiarity wliich is con and existing as life and power.siry afler Ornf lo Juj ly. Or rather each has all tln H i partially. or the knowledge of the imagination. which by some is denominated intelligence.gt.J TIMAIUS OF PLATO. For rovrof here. which passes into tlie same with from it. In another it ranks which totally. you are willing also to connumerate this. itself. viz. ami transitive intt lligcHie. through which ing to which it it intellectually perceives.gt. the intelligible. com intelli it. intellec each of these. For ench of these The^fntelligence of partial intellects has the fourth order* this and entirely contains in itself a certain conjoined intelligible and possesses intelligence. For this intelligence is but is energy. And |&amp. intelligence as the second. of it is niklligince.gt. as energy. essentially and intelligibly. consider each of . and the through which also it is conjoined to total intellects. poses the propositions and in the first place. and the phantasy is called by them passive onndfccnt :///// But the sixth intelligence.t us however. but at the 1 same time avSv-/&amp. ahn tin- kiinn-lcilgt . inwardly. intelligible. as / it does know. This also is essentjal in the and essence because every thing intelligible subsists manner. thus . because it knows such and thing&amp. In one order however. The fifth tually perceives For as lit? rational soul ix mf/nl intellect.lj in la the origin I. after this and is not any tiling different itself. and accord and is what it is. For in this also intelligence is from sense. and intellectual intelligence.gt.f partially But it and not H at once. intelligence. of intellect. but sees w holes also through that partial. . intelligence is that of the rational soul. viz. and likewise the whole intelligible world. the intelligible.

but participated through souls *hich always energize according participate . [BOOK n.soul. and tays that it alone intel and copious. The it intelligence. But And in short. therefore. in of a partial intellect. but passing from sotne to . the vision is PROCLUS ON THE accompanied with passion. exempt from our knowledge. -MI must now bo other perceive soul. to U /m7/ :f arc comerted v//t/J purified TIC- through philosophy. Jh reeires /ler/ietual being. lectually perceives real being. For conjunction with thU. no irrational knowledge is able to tnal being is unfigured. is But -chat this partial intcllici conjoin our o~cn intellectual pir^er leith the intelli is. that we For as sense is in the second duad below is some tim I he. the following part of this dialogue.s sometimes uistinctli/ of intcl ectual light. intellect and science thus al^o must be said that by this intel is is and is truly that intelligence [mentioned IMato] but that it bays in Hence IMato participated by soul when reason eiiergi/es intellectually.iimatc dd inoniacal soul*.7/f/j as in the Pha drus Plato calls this t/ic governor oj the soul. -nit It as reason indeed. but genus \&amp. is in the duad abo\e it. however. distinguishing by a transitive energy the latter from the former. through elsewhere that it is -Jiich al. phantastic intelligence must not to know j&amp. it energise* transit n but r/v pe red ring intellectually.gt. since neither is adapted to perceive that which is universal.\u partial son. Init illuminates participated coiner I ourselves to it. tliua i/. are the differences of intelligence. when she ligence i$ nourished by prior to . and ~ihcn gence oj this intellect.ucli mutt be assumed. he adds to intelligence So reason. r.lt. so intelli assumed. . ration.are. yet not all things at once. .20G another. simplicity timlirstaml- ing carft thing as simple at once. real Ix-intr. ice have ditcuttcd. itself. indeed In/ ait other jiro.^ &quot. he first calls it intelligence. assumed. naturally adapted knows the object of its perception accompanied with figure and inorphe. For a partial intellect is pro.viniate y established above elevating and perfecting it.ie i\. rational soul. possess for IS or must we assume total intellections but it proceeds according to time. and which is co-ordinate with eternal natures witli reason. Hut Tinueus co-arranges intelligence these. at-once-collected. And ours. For it does not . And it seems that in what he sa\s unfolding the knowledge of perpetual bein^. A oa //outrt /. survey being Now. and render the reason hie his in us intellectual. because it truly existing being. that intellect is indeed in the Gods. anil that it is nut as one to one to if. l/ut lliat the soul perceives . that \ihcu rut &un intellectually eli/. So many lw&amp.gt. gence our essence.er|H iS or must the intelligence tlie in the rational soul that be assumed. therefore.J that a certain small men] participates of it. but that we may not apprehend it to be that alone. it it together with this intellect. since this is not For it is indefinite.

conjoins the energy of itself with the intelligence of that intellect. moved about the intelligible. in each of ihese reason must be dillerently surveyed.. intuiti\ely surveying being* [themselves. is e&amp. After t!ir definition of intelligence however.gt. for it is cither enunciative.lt. and most impartible portion of our nature. and hating run back to this. and the energy of which Socra 1 tes in the Republic says is intelligence. and intellect a more simple energy. Xoyoj.moia. Plato in the fulthis lowing^art of iiigciici dialogue says. of eternal being. a t phantasy and opinion. remains. then 1 Instead of ri of o rrirnXirdp SwvyMirft. i ad ecu oJ o f voXirtiy iw^.arij cue rijK ftt^ /tntr. or. This highest there fore. and \arious and indefinite knowledge. intellithe energy of this n-asoii. If. Opinion however.gt. that this irhrn it is rctiS w in the same manner (is ACI&amp. and is exempt from every similar. and another reason is intellectual. tiling which is contrary to these. but on the contrary through the variety of It its discursive energies.is ii.lt.ii\mr nre r/r frrpyciar iu llii.lt.tabli. reason. Pialo no a. or that which exhibits the differences of each tiling with respect to others. arc conver sant with compositions and divisions.lt. but is I call is inlelkct here. All these significations however. it i UCf eaiarj t&amp. it \\ill be a certain intellect. according to which it is rooted in a partial intellect. dianoia and since the of our essence reason.gt. that the summit of the soul. or a discursive it procession through the elements [of speech]. but recurs to its own impartiality. . so far as it proceeds into conjoined to irrational knowledge*. being Hence this is the reason which intellectually per through alliance united to it.] TIM/KLS Oi ft transith fly I LATO. dianoia.-hed in the intelligence of a partial intellect.(.-* |)lacc.&amp.r&amp. apprehending some things through others. it is separated from intellectual impartiality. said to have a three-fold subsistence .JUM. v hole and intellect . anda* Dimple. is let us set- what reason is. is and arc nnadapted to the comprehension naturally adapted to he apprehended liy the 15ut eternal being is simple and indivisible. another scientific. energy : not naturally adapted it is to be united to the intelligence of intellect in for on the contrary IVoris di.HCC. For the similar For since there are the summit iif in us opinion. dent minutes reason. . therefore. just as dianoia is (he knowledge of things tchich subsist gence is between intelligible* und the objects of opinion. is dtcd in the ft&amp. nhich it hMcciw perceives intellectually n~cry thing jterccivcs one thing. however.- t&amp. is connascent with intelligence. able to recur to intellect. one kind of said to be doxastic. and that in it which has most the form of llic one. ceives the intelligible* co-ordinate to our nature. multitude and division.lt. and how In the Theactetus therefore. after another manner. as : abandons J or when the soul unfolding to us intcl cct and an intelligible nature. . lint that science has more various energy.i&amp. A^ain.K others.

lt. in order that it l&amp. and energizing and being moved as about a centre.gt. is : ductive principles] of sensibles .// a thing For since dianoia knows at one and the same causes of sensible**.gt. and both sameness and separation For then the intelligence of the soul becomes more things. of the Platonic doctrine. That it is us direct our attention to opinion.208 it PROCLUS ON THE it. of all things. May we not say. that itself cannot be comprehended by intellect and reason. its and twofold. ami m the but during in conjunction vsith the Gods : human I soul al&amp. and evolving the united hyposlasis in In the next place. [BOOK n. or it. energise in conjunction with For our reason in one that is greater. and that it is conjoined let the. and which is in us may like a Irss light. which knows the essences of ignorant of the cause of time both the essences and tin. and nearer to eternal that the reason may apprehend the intelligible together with intellect.o on this account said to heml is the whole [of an itself. or by reason ? though the because it intelligible is superior to comprehended by a partial more admirable.gt. it this is also is. thus surveys it. conjunction with intelligence. collected. intelligence indeed knowing it intransitively and impartibly. when reason acquires the form of intellect. therefore the boundary of the whole rational life. it is necessary perfectly ignorant of the cause that opinion being arranged between sense and dianoiii.o. subsist tlnii kiiboist. all comprehension. intelligible. beings.eing inherent in intellections. and After what manner however. should know the essence* 1 These reason* iu a divine ioul. that ^reason dancing ns it were round the essence of it it in a circle. but sense the Thea-telus that sense does not knows neither of these. but the intelligence of intellect always sees it. liiey when il revolves on In^li both gnostically anil fubricalivvly. intelligible nature]. for know the essence of a it is clearly shown that it in is thing. But we shall frequently acknowledged. and comprehends all things exemptly. its intellectually perceives eternal being together with energy being both one. and of the objects of its knowledge. but is 1 ///&amp. is al. and consider \\hat it is. that them . and always \conjoins reason to it. they subsist in it gnostically only. .ird body. But reason through the real intellect comprewhich is thus through reason running comprehend round the intelligible. but co-ordinate to receding the conceptions of Ix ing. intellect. and that it knows the on. is truly existing being still For this is yet intellect possessing its own intelligible. lie union of the oul *ith I hia ontw. these said to Perhaps also it signifies. and now unfiild such things as are the peculiarities which are as follow That the doxastic part comprehends the reasons [or pro to the summit of irrational life.&amp. sees the is .

and the instrument of sense passion only. therefore. 2 D . speaking of it says since it is an irrnfional thing. hoir can it be science ? But it must In. therefore.] TIM/F. And sense has the fourth order. I. Opinion has the third order. l&amp. since it is gence of our soul. Thus. What then is it which says that the thing presented to us is an apple ? For it is not any one of the partial senses . said. that it causes of them. and not the whole of it. the smell that it is fragrant from the pas sion about the nostrils. must be that sense is entirely irrational. nor does even the common . the taste that it is sweet. opinion a know ledge in conjunction with reason but without the assignation of cause . know l&amp. for instance. For does not Tim.sense know this.lat.gt. But sense adheres to opinion. the wight indeed knows that it irrational is red from the passion about the eye.gt. part. as Socrates said on the preceding day. that opinion is according to reason. when an apple is presented to us. For Socrates in the Banquet. panied with passion. being a irrational medium between intelligence knowledge of sensibles. For the instrument of sense apprehends sensibles accom Hence it is corrupted through the excess of sensibles. but has also something gnostic. but a clearer perception than that of opinion . In this. and is without transition. but it that the thing which possesses an essence of such a kind is the VOL. science being able to survey likewise the cause of it. For in short. is gnostic of middle forms. but that it is otherwise irrational. For and opinion. because it reasons of the essences of things. possesses gnostic as being ignorant of causes.e 20i) of sensibles.noox ii. which require a more obscure apprehension than that of intelligence. But Opinion possesses knowledge un defiled with passion.US Or PLATO. and the touch that it is smooth. Sense however partici pates in a certain respect of passion. but should ignorant of the For thus right opinion will differ from science in this. transitively coming into contact with real beings. this alone distinguishes the differences of the passions. through the reasons which it contains. sense an knowledge of passions. since each of the senses knows the passion produced about the animal by the object of sense.admitted &quot. when he It defined the dillerent kinds of knowledge by the objects of knowledge. and partakes of the form of is in itself irrational. the series of gnostic powers of which indeed intelligence is the leader. But reason has the second order which is the intelli reason. but dianoia and reason a transitive knowledge. is illuminated by it. alone kno\\s//m/ a tiling is. hence intelligence is an intransitive. being also also itself a medium between the instrument of sense and opinion. being a knowledge of sensibles conformable to reason. so far as it is established in the doxastic. which is above reason. since each of these knows one certain thing only about the apple. being an dianoia. terminated.

that which it it knows. the senses announce indeed their own passions. In tin. \et would still see it to be a foot in diameter. and that the taste which pronounces honey those that are diseased ? For it is entirely evident that in these.fnr this place. On this account. prior to connective of these many powers. is a certain power superior to the the things which are as it were parts. since the senses frequently this still. should hear reason ten thousand times asserting that the Mill is greater than the earth. but it is knowledge and ignorance: for it is indeed a rational knowledge. and 1 1 is therefore Jf TO on this account in irrational. it is disobedient to reason.amy&amp. Plato calls opinion. is impartiMy he denominates Tliis power. LMato in the existing U-ings. first I ut alone irrational.. diameter. hut that which says what the it is a thin^ of such a kind something dillerent from cause is of the passion. and corrects the longer knows sensible* through an instrument hut through itself. it Tima-us also denominates irrational in the place.gt.jT&amp. and on this account.irui ataO&amp. therefore. likewise of sense. it is evident that there Censes. because neither But sense though it does it [accurate! v] know it. and receive from it erudi metie from science. third place. deceived.gt. what said in the Thea-tetus distinguishes In the second place. with reference to sense. is n&amp. parts. knowing as in sensible* in conjunction with it.gt. to read ov tiakttptrai tt row . tion. which no sense. Hence. i&amp. is irrational as with reference to the knowledge of truly But sense is simply irrational.gt. and as they assert it to lie.gt. and forms a judgment of it.210 PROCLUS ON THE thin?. because in contradistinction to all the parts For the irascible and epithyof the irrational soul. shows that it is a medium between Republic calling this power opinion. and is is characteristic of every life. that kind are is in announce various passions. and not themselves. For it is to see the essence of For is does not It know what is a white thing not naturally adapted is. which I knowing the whole surveying the form of it. and are not For they say what the passion is aliout the in-truments of sense. f 800 * &quot. ihatwhich Farther is sensible doxastic. but it knows tlirough passion that it white.ce$iar) Instead of *. Midi as things of says. by these things. Hence. and would not otherwise announce it to us. what is it in us which judges and the sight deceived when it asserts that the sim to is is hut a foot in the taste of all hitter. And this power indeed which is reason as Crossness of sensible information. there U a certain power of the soul superior to sense. are obedient to reason and its mandates. whole an. sense. because irrational it is also inherent for animals. it not separated from the instrument For thus in the Georgia*. mingled with sense is irrationality. and !e siich-hke perfectly particulars.

which latter we calls that j&amp.ecause opinion knows indeed the essences hut sense does not. and not within it. arranges intelligence prior to reason. in Instead of cr&amp. rqr rrpc rvr ai90r)rwr rpuy^iurf .gt. and sene our messenger. JJut intellect is our king. ill thl&amp. circumscribe the whole breadth of the rational essence. from reason and intellect. |lacr. as the object. have shown how is these forms subsi&amp.HOOK ii. the intelligible is seen as a doxastic apprehended For the object of its knowledge is external to. Hence present with intellect. generated the. it receives the appellation of a clearer within reason. the latter announcing passions. but in the sucond he places opinion before sense. sense alone irrational. knows mit that which completion to it is For since the soul is of a middle essence it gives between intellect and irrationality. Hence too. says the great IMotinus.erly which is since Parmenides also according to opinion 1 . Hence the object is not comprehended by it. but here also Tuna-us in Opinion however. Heason indeed.lt. . sees that which is generated but by itself it contemplates all the forms it contains.gt. and knowing the essences of sensibles.t. as being rational sense. cerning which we have elsewhere spoken. it is DCCCary to read crri citi o llapfunbii..gt. thus also opinion co-arranged with sense. boundary of the whole series of sses an essence most remote. And as reason when in con tact with intelligence sees theintelligible. to externals. and reason opinion is prior to sense. rr\v wrpt TUV alffOi/rwc rpay^amwr ia&amp. there indeed. it i)iit fn the fourth place. because knowledge. as being a less intellect. knowledge is is 211 conjectural. but the former producing from itself the rea sons of them.EUS OF PLATO.] TIM. reason is posterior to intelligence. pertains is the and effects its its apprehension of things through body. but by its ultimate part it verges to sense. and that the intelligible is by reason. object of opinion. say knowledge. but and not sensible l&amp.gt. how the doxastic part of the soul. together^ with intellect. the.s a discussion sensibles being in their own nature perceptible by this consequence of this Tiniitus very pro-/ For this is I ylhagoric . pos&amp. considered the discussion of sensibles. For by its sum a subsistence is generated. place of them intelligible is is called opinable of things.gt. And opinion in conjunction with sense. the former conjunction. irrational defined to he not scientific.lt. but not alone that it is. a. sees the intelligible. but by opinion. is. For all these particulars demonstrate irrationality. but by itself it surveys reasons or forms that have a middle subsistence.i cat o tr Napfif nkfi. Every thing gem-rated then-fore is apprehended by opinion in conjunction with sense. which knows what a thing the employment of sense and is . as For being more excellent . con .

it is of this kind which produces and connects itself. and clearly infinite power.gt. But alter what manner the heaven 1 is unbegotten and lliij will be manifest to us lii-trail of on apa OT yeKijrw tonv in place. [BOOK 11. truly existing being is nnbegotten. and themselves. nor the object of opinion. If. therefore. it so far as body. For corruption. but so far as pertains to its it corporeal nature. not only according to the figures. neither truly nnbegotten nor trulj indestructible. is impartible. but alone subsists from another cause. its not lieing able to connect reason. Tima-ns in the couise of this dialogue. so far as indestructible. as Aristotle himself and generously demonstrates. however. So that from the reasoning of Aristotle is demonstrated to be a thing of this kind. j&amp. Farther still. not only subsets from. Hence body. howe\er.ihegotten and indes generated And tructible. itself. and is corrupted according to \\itli own proper assumes generation co-ordinately and eternal beings generate themselves. on this account truly existing it itself. The indestructible. it must be said by us. Here however. though it is perceived by opinion in conjunction with sense. it is olmouil) necessary to read ovc apa on-wi .oio PROCLUS ON THE srud. inquires whether the whole heaven was For where is it that \\hat [universally] true with sense is generated. however. its Hence generated [diflerent as having the cause of subsistence suspended it from another lint is tiling Since.gt. is generated and made. naturally adapted to connect to connect itself \\ill not be truly is Hence. connected by another. but motions and mutations of also because a celestial body it is is not prtn duced by from itself.er not gnostic of any essence. and therefore subMsts from gottcn. nature of tiling it not naturally adapted is Heaven. that generation and cor to analogy in the hea\ens. says. and therefore does not possess an nitepouer. Aristotle particularly blames the second assertion of Timicus. itself. however. are connected-toy itself. is perceived by opinion in conjunction and corrupted ? For heaven is u. that which does not subsist from is itself will not be truly unbe- And if that \\hich truly indestructible that which indestructible.erpetual. localise sense to call that which is generated sensi it is not pro|&amp. is neither adapted to produce nor to connect itself. without the addition of sense. no finite body possesses an inliBut the celestial body is Unite. power of thr Hence is ble alone. but I mean by hea\en the corporeal-formed For every alone. ruption At subsist according present. is not indestructible. whence also they are said to be in their own nature iiiibegottcn and indestructible. possesses an infinite power.

as being co-extended with the perpetuity of time So that we shall thus dissolve the objections definitions. The divine. Instead of TO qtwrtof roijror orrot vrny in this place. why is it ne intelligible. the eternal. cessary to refer the nature of heaven to this perpetual heiii j. or in its own nature generated and corrupted. Since. we think it fit. we have we shall dismiss it for it will be spoken of hereafter. O fore. therefore. to supply tire word aec. thai to subsist always invariably the same.LUS OF PLATO. and why should we not say that it is always generated. alone pertains to the most divine But the nature of body is not of this order. it appears to me that we should read rai . tilings. howci-er. are after another manner perpetual. asserting that it is sense. as the Protagorcans. as it partakes of body. TO aiwnor apa roip-oc CITWI c?nr. some be assumed. but. not enduring to say that every thing which always is.] TLM. possesses indeed its many and it blessed prerogatives fmm be. conjunction with reason. and therefore the eternal is truly 1 If. It is necessary litre. since the most divine exist. however. or becoming ? to l&amp. this alone is evident from what has hern said. but the latter to lumen. there of visible objects always . That always-existing being. and the motion of heaven. as he who said.gt. that eternity is connascent with intelligible^. generator . also distin guishes eternity from time and attributes the former indeed to intellect.e. . is of itself. For In. the how the heaven falls said of eternal da moniaeal Aristotle. that which always is. 213 shortly after. hut never truly is. others opinion. is impossible that it should We have shown. Opinion 1 i in all tilings Irjm d . is most This also is said by Aristotle. intelligence in is is comprehended by eternal.BOOK ii. however. For he there observes &quot. of time. from his ar guments. and not according to an eternal permanency. however. the opinion of Plato concerning criteria. however. entirely fire from mutation? under the above-mentioned distinctions. which he urges against these replied to this inquiry. of visible objects. But. That. signifies the eternal. may from these things For dilferent persons admitting a different criterion. If however. that every tiling corporeal. i\o\v. should again doubt respecting what being. that he should not confound the and that which subsists through the whole. pos sessing and comprehending in itself infinite time . in short. which of ail we de nominate heaven or the world.. But they are produced in the whole of time from their causes. a thing of such a kind as Tiniit iis defines it to be. and the whole of their existence is in bceomin^ to be. as Plato also says in the Politicus.

which reis that essence. however. but it admits the At one time vations.lt. For when it considers the the phantasy. reason. and through li&amp. at another. opinion to doxastie objects. 1 power and energy II is time. it employs sense as an adjutor in its obser And when it of the second powers. sense. accuracy of the before-mentioned definitions we will also survey the same thing according to another But if you are willing. of rtaAOit. I say. Concerning the criteria therefore. is vi/. both uniform and multiform. that which is eternal according to all things. thus much may in our sullice for the present . as for when it directs manner in which the earth is posited. but that intelligence considering intelligence as inferior to reason. . reives all its And that the nature which simply generated. judgments blames the errors which they frequently happen to commit on ac count of the instruments. it moves opinion . but in judging of objects of imagination.is thou&quot. the soul power what will also this b&amp. the judicial Some one therefore may say. essence of forms. as the Platonic deed &quot. it uses opinion as the sensible For in this the reasons of sensibles subsist.214 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. that the nature which is primarily perpetual being. which has in its summit a stance.gt. method. power. itself. in attention to the position or figure of a certain thing. read -ruaar. But speculation. it also. not that intelligence in survey of intelligibles. it is necessary that the the requisite here to supply * For xaauiv here. and illuminating its gnostic power.- which judges is both one and a multitude. perfecting uses dianoia and it alone it forms a judgment of middle reasons. as it is.. such as is every sensible object. word For tr. for we have discussed these things more copiously From what has been said. attributing intellect to intelligibles.ht. Hut when When also it decides on objects this is converted to itself. and in judging of sensibles. in order cu-adjutor of its its with interval and morphe. sibles. is therefore. Severus the instrument. and reason that which uses it. titude. survey the object of its inquiry accompanied considers an eclipse. it then excites the phantasy. when it proceeds to the uses both itself and intelligence. and others that it is intellect. You must vulsed according to not however fancy that the criteria are on this account diFor the soul is both one and a mul him from each other. the great the Theajtetus. If. . the criteria conformably and sense to sendianoia to dianoetic objects.jlit it excites of opinion. is tlie and titrating it. therefore. to the that it may habitude to the heavens. on Commentaries is evident. is one power? We reply. For this. in according to essence. and energy. the essence of others that itjs reason. Plato divides to things themselves.

-.BO K &quot. As these. and surveyed prior to the production of the world . but the latter wholly temporal. and da-mons And as far as to this. For matter is neither be-in&quot. as for instance. however. Porphyry. but ]&amp. media are. and is participated bv anand by partial souls. and without generation.. For every intellect energizes eternally. likewise is e\ery thin. and all these Tiur. of the latter in the first. urn- this also is true every supermundane intellect. in should have an extension of the one. let us direct our attention For TimaMis calls both time and the soul generated.gt. ri-ls. And l. OF PLATO. simply perpetual bein-. is and that which properly generated and corrupted. therefore. onco every thin.US IH&amp. there are two generation.ut OJ5 that the former should former should be latter at wholly eternal. as Parmenides demonstrates of both these. in order that through the admirations he may them from things which separate are the recipients of neither. Hence TimuMis essence.which sensible and visible natures. vi/. and is measured in the whole of itself by eternity. nature. natures which participate of neither of these. rend waparaati. is the whole of the intelligible. one in consequence of being su]MTior. And comprehended by intelligence. and every sensible essence. that which is primarily Fur xnpaTrnffd litre. heaven. . and ix nercr real being. vi/. Since these. to be these. intellectual genus. ami of the former in the fifth hypothevis. generated.gt. every intellect participated hy ami every intellect which is called partial. perpetual being. to the intermediate And it is evident that these. as not being sensible. and in a certain resect generated. but that through the negations they may be distin guished from things which in a certain respect participate of both.in a self-subsisterit manner. ihin-s \\hirh in a certain respect participate of a portion of king. therefore. are the extreme*. every intelligible and intellectual natures are those which communicate with both these. are in a certain respect lyings. is every thing which is which in conception is moved in a confused and disorderly manner. through angels and dirmons as media. and the whole of the is sensible. and con of existence. Perpetual being. For it is neither and hypostasis suspended elsewhere than from itself. Jiut that which is divine souls. perpetual being extends. hut the other through being inferior to them. that ic/iic/i is generated. rightly observes. are the extremes. and again. therefore. that Plato now defines the extremes.erfectly neither of these.] TIM/F. . nor that which is generated.eus also defines that which is simply generated. and on each side of them are th. ]Jut the intermediate proposes both of them afiirmalively and negatively.? natures which participate of neither of these. its that the sisting tlie in a certain respect communicate with Hut again.

because it is superior to superior therefore. and that which the definitions intellect. . and making it to be spurious reason. Treason . iocluj ii ipeAing of the ro ft. and from the other sense. and the one not known from is cause. at alone generated. of which be ing and generated are ad apted to the nature of souls. l*ecause it is known in a superior each. is unhejjotten. you will produce the definition For this is known by reason and opinion. but from not having a cause.2I6 and that which as. such for instance one and the same time being and a generate d nature. which are media. of beint. that which is the better of the two. and is not known from cause. since these are irenerated alone. Thus too. but a spurious intellect intellectual perception. is spurious as with reference also is more excellent than that which is simple. U iiecei ary to read n. such as The which i&amp. It is Hence to it is not properly simple. is But it is absurd uenerated. is intelligible It to truly existing intellect.lt. by a spurious intellect. but vice versa that which is gnu-ratal and being. reason and opinion dill er from each other. and to which intellect is is allied and not spurious. For thus it would be sii|erior to to say that matter is both generated and luinif. known then-fore manner according is by a spurious knowledge. and that he omits the media . are allied to the summit Such as this. and opinion knows itself an. but matter would also generated sensible natures. and making it to be spurious according to that which is more excellent. or that which both generated and being .gt. according to which For 1 not For &amp. it. but the latter both. For this n. viz. Opinion also is known by reason. and And the whole [rational] soul subsists through both these reason by opinion.iri here. the one. without cause. this is intellect. the former indeed For in this both in conjunction with cause. spurious opinion.fitu.. that which is is is PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. however.ture so far as it is divisible about bodies. as the une that is knows the one. by that in itself which also it is a Cod. by assuming the worse of the two upward terms. you will Lave the manner in which the one is known. For reason knows of the medium. And intellect knows that which simple. Assuming likewise analogously in each. by taking away from one of perpetual bem-. vivifies the universe. and making it to be insensible sense. is the nature of the universe which of generated natures. to intellect. reason. 1 But the out in it perceives therefore. but so far as it is entirely incorporeal. vi/. and insensible sense. you will then have the manner in which Plato thought matter by spurious reason. For opinion does not know from cause. and may be known. and of the two downward terms sense.. And if you are willing separately to assume that which is alone participate is alone generated. both itself and opinion. vi/. here.

s that it should have generation without a cause.gt. and not to parts of division. VOL. which is by a certain cause.considered as belonging to the term oo^crrtov.oui. which necessarily is. figure. 2 E .&quot. hut the other hut the other as the conclusion.BOOK &quot. common conceptions that the tiling which hy a cause. hut that the tiling which is not From these axioms also it is generated by a cause. But frequently it it is not thing necessarily is. and may l&amp.J17 Every however. n. Since however one of the present axioms is more clear.e hence Timicus places the one as the middle term. aAcr the assumes these axioms. But the axiom. what is For it is letter to collect said after this manner. is necessarily generated by a certain cause. nourished.roj/. as some other persons do.c in the first as follows It is impossible for that is which is generated to [tc generated without a cause. this will now e. in a manner truly conformable to tlio geometric method. is is entirely generated o&amp. in order that the syllogism : may be categoric. to avoid death]. is &amp. that it is impossible a thing should not be. known that a Thus for l&amp.l TIM/KUS tiling OI- PLATO. comjH-1 the patient [to death is neccHsary through a certain cause : for it again.gt. For the assertion that every thing which is generat generated are. For the axiom. a certain cause.e it impossible to live without take nutriment]. For having said what being and what that which . it is necessary to give money Tim. axioms. than to make. and he will in a less degree persuade the sick man. does not Dignity the dividing method. is known. the physician says [to his patient} it is necessary you should But if he says. cannot have generation. is the entirely impossible is less known and clear. which it is impossible should not be. For it generation without a cause. from necessity generated perfectly impossible that it should have is generated. generated. Imt that the evident that TO hypotheses are to he defined. that what w generated according to an eternal paradigm is rendered heautiful. every thing which is generated. definitions is TimaMis. is but that it is impossible for not to be. necessarily generated by i. Or in a is certain respect each of these the same. instance.cing nourished. are to IK. he adds these other generated. is it l&amp. all these being ed. I. But how is the middle more known than the conclusion ? For also thinks it is we and evident that a thing must necessarily be. middle. as the diune lamblichus ought. is from necessity generated by a certain cause. And. Plat. But this thing therefore which is Every necessarily generated by a certain cause.lt.gt. the syllogism to be hypothetical. And is not to die [i. is the conclusion.gt. and also the following axiom. impossible l&amp. and that it is impossible for it to have generation without a cause.lt.

it will sutler this For il is necessary that what is it same thins: should both act and suller. it is either its being made]. if it U generated. therefore. it is it is e-ipacity.gt. to the ality is imparted For il is necessary that what ojx-i-ates : 1 I or ry yiyi-f/irry here. it is generated by si that which make* is the cause to the Philebus.- before it is Hut if it sutlers.gt. it suffers generated suffers.not Hence it is rightly said in ce. what if in some things this should be true. in the words l&amp.gt. it is eudent that it becomes of dissipated.gt. though the which is generated. How. it will derive power from another. departs For 1. which always is. .l ry in.eing vation and connexion. from its cause just Hut separating that which is world from its father. this which is made itself l&amp.generated without a cause. which he does For firmness and stability accompanied by JH rsuasion accede to that which is as he says in the I oliticus. but be the rase. from something else.cing powerless. should operate in energy on Plato. is the one clearer than the other? For we not say. subsistence. should and not [real] being.gt. cai.srs into the MUIIU with be gnu-rated by something. is powerless and imbecile? For not from its cause alone its preser liut as it derives neither is it connected by itself. requisite to .efore us. conjoining that which is generated to that which is in capacity. which also demonstrates that what is 1 that [of {reiterated by itself. when it is separated that hero also it is easy to learn how that which able to preserve itself. l&amp. that l&amp. so far indeed as it is that which Milli-rs. however. nor it is that which is generated.ir. but the other more known. you may to signify the more obscure. and a generated nature will rank among things it is entneK generated by another. if generated. FKOCLUS ON THE a tyrant : [BOOK 11. And being itself making itself in energy. cause.. from its cause. on another. that one of these is in a similar variety of other instance*.gt.erpetnal l*-ing that have an eternal the same. it pa&amp. for and would be in energy prior to subsisting in generated. but in others not? May is generated. For it not naturally adapted to generate itself. in the conclusion.tv/^iy. that And in a great impossible not to give it. and into non-entity. so far as : from something rise would IK. will gem -rated..erly uses the term from necessity. Fur not connecting itself. That also it suiters from another.L in maker. and |&amp. manner see.. therefore. it is rta. very pvoj&amp. if it is M-p. Hut if it is not generated by itself.e Hut or by another. though both may appear i owing to for it is same thing.gt. and thus that which is if by itsrlf.tted from its cause. that what is generate. that a renovated immor generated. anil so far as it is cliective operates by itself imbecile. Farther still. If.! is miulr. generated.

who having enumerated llir 1 Tbete causes are. But on account of causes being predicated two-fold. matter. either proximately modes of or remotely. union must accede to cause. 1 according to the former. in order that what is generated may become one conformably to the union pre-existing in its cause.to say that every cause is either essential or accidental. he indicates the uniform power of the demiurgic principle calling the demiurgic cause. there are eight modes. and \\\vjinnl: and con-caur are. there are four modes.gt. all the causes. prior generated. there are two may be surveyed. have a two-fold subsistence . gibles.] and the same number of .:. surveyed by itself. and therefore it is much more necessary that its cause should be uniform and connective of multitude. though in a different way. generated from For that which Moreover. mnrl form. Through these also l&amp. For thus the multitude of them the essential and accidental. is inefficacious and imperfect.eing there are sixteen modes. iho producing.. its is 21}&amp. and con-causes also. For thus the assumption is will Income j&amp. different things. which he does in the middle. therefore. however. to the world. usual to enumerate . or in energy. generated. in cause. But on account of these being attributed in a two-fold respect.OK ii. there is also one such cause [prior to in short. and the differences of For it is requi causes according to Aristotle nor is this done unmethodically. that of Plato will to the latter there will be forty-eight be sixty-four modes of causes [but according modes of causes.&quot.fold respect. For on account of the explication of causes. either simple or complex. And again. subsistence to another thing it . but is &quot. on account of all these subsisting in ft two-fold respect. not simply that which give* .rhick is Hence. employing the word cause. causes subsisting in a three hence fold. site..] and that these subsist in a two. . mat trial cautu. he uses the term impossible. there are different causes of &quot.] TIM^US OF PLATO. All these. though causes usually omitted by the interpreters. [and this proximately or remotely. either as simple or complicated with each other. And thus much con from its cerning these particulars. there are but there are not demiurgic causes of generated natures. there con-causes. but according to Plato. it For which is generated is one. as they are either in capacity. if that the many]. either in energy.erfectly methodical . likewise. in a three-fold respect.gt. It is here. or in capacity. For the demiurgic is attributed that the demiurgic refers to that to generation as Plato says in the Philebus.gt. in a four-fold respect according to Aristotle. \\\t paradigmatic. I many demiurgic causes. for Socrates says that the good is the cause of intellinot the demiurgic cause of them.

one cause of all things.gt.U/O*. however. say that Timaeus is here Awaking about the efli-ctive cause. one providence. NVe. and which though generated account are generated from many causes. is entirely derided by the Fpieurcans.crvations. is said that every tiling which generated. soul and nature.he whole. in the l. and prior is to these. JK I or generated by a cause. what I is generated. and there are many causes. This axiom. and separated from each other. For the term Ay rr/m//. producing in a different manner. all things are co-arranged with a view to form. by a certain cause. when they enumerate chance with causes. which is uniform.l nder. and the most divine of \isjhle natures to be the work of chanee. enquire is PUOCLUSONTHK how it is [BOOIC-II. also this !&amp. and places over generated natures. all cause-. made elsewhere. are said this dignity. I or chance is this very thing.gt. who make the whole world. but that what appears to be in vain to apart. (lie O/N.s to !M&amp. and a different order. omitting all this superfluous discu*tion. in order that there may be nothing in vain. For it is not proper that beings should then-. For the intellect of the universe. These thingH therefore are manifest. yet there is one cause collective and connective of the makers. or adventitious in the universe. many kings. also together with the monad an appropriate multitude. the word certain ticular is generated hy a certain cause. yet every where multitude has a &amp.lt. natuies are many.l For they say indred. producing causes. it is necessary that which is common.gt. gemTated by a certain cause. in and that nothing which is in vain should have a place in the universe.gt.r co- thin s multiform about that arrangement about the monad. as things. .But he adds a certain cause.ii-s. is adapted to that which IN words. Hence he uses the eflective. should IK. be one gou-rned badly. have been there should be a cause of the co-ordination. for the name alone that it is thought worthy of revrrcncr. For if. Aristotle says.e on I&amp. however. various causes. and one chain of beings. though not of each particular.i|&amp.li\!&amp. things various about that \vhich is simple. lint by the Aristotelians. other causes have many things are generated. These ob&amp. Fate and (iod. however. . following the Pythagorean?!. rightly nays that every thing which is generated. tli book ofhu Mtl. a multiform providence. and not hy For each par very projw-rly added. let there he. 1 J hoe art the wonh of Arislollr.gt. however. generate&amp.220 according to Aristotle. yet a.gt.lt. Hut Plato alone. is entirely liy a certain rause.advantageous to . but they undesigned y make the cause to be causeless. and things different about that t 7 order that a truly golden chain may have dominion over all and that all things may be constituted in a In-coming manner.

the infinite. and not every mixture. mixed. and material causes proximately is moved. the final. and always employing* a certain paradigm 1 There i an omiHon lirre. and ihe material. Tima-us indeed points out to us afterwards. he delivers all things in order. but a mixture which generated. viz. So that through these axioms investigating according And the hypo for us the causes of the universe. form.. dent that the J)emiurgns is sulordiiiatc to the one. it is a form participated is by matter. it is necessary there which is should the mingled form. the formal. When therefore. by which also it is evi power. there in is now said. is For if the uniu rse is not [real] generated. every thing which which is mingled is generated. more universal than this axiom. and is nature.O generated. and by the organic. to the one. to theses &quot. it * For wpoir^nfufoi iu this plate. mixed. from the former before-mentioned axioms. subsist bodies derive their subsistence. but delivers the organic. being. bound and infinity. subsists from a rertain cause of the mixture. and as being at as possessing infinite one and the same time impartible and partible. and that which is mixed. of TO opyonroK. another nature.gt. therefore. the organic. and the material cause. the eflective.B. the paradigmatic. EL S OF PLATO. but that which formal. For if But Tima-us the universe is unfolds to us the eJlective cause from what generated. are mingled. the final cause.lt. that is All that is said here therefore. just as that which is generated is a ctrtain mixture. imitatin&quot. is 221 lint vi/. as being knowledge. what said in the Philebus appears to be that every tiling if For things \vhieli !&amp. since is mixture. Jiut the latter are more universal than the former because the latter [viz. the formal. an effective cause of it. in Ibc original.&amp. bound. from reason and demon stration. ami imparting union to This cause. is in one mixture God.OK ii. afl ord him this utility. And what will be said afterwards. lect. mingled with each other. and that which is generated to that which . J fence. is mingled. is the cause of that which is generated. the one. but the former [vi/. are not to be mingled casually. and also soul. matter mixed. the Demiurgns to the infinite. is analogous to all form to bound. isnctessary lo read . the Demiurgus. and that which is generated] are seen in mundane natures For intellect is only. matter. he produces indeed a For since the causes of the world 1 are these.] TIM. Plato says other things. and also in another a certain art. but not every thing For the first of beings. one cause collective of the separated natures. From these. in another intel in in another soul. is said in the Philebus. a certain cause. however. For if he unfolds the paradigmatic cause the world is beautiful it was generated an eternal paradigm. an artificer looking to that which possesses an inva riable sameness of subsistence.] are beheld in all things. Indeed.

hut contribute after the present tic cause of the to the discovery that there is a paradigma but to the knowledge of what kind of a paradigm it is. The world was generated. that which beautiful. either pre-existing in the to. sul&amp.are two that which has not a cause.m such as the following is is produced. If the universe is a IVmiurgus of it . then his beautiful. except that the before-mentioned axioms investigated to our discovering that there is a demiurgic cause of the universe.. whether eternal or generated. if there is a Demiurgus of the is universe. For a certain form. digm is eternal. common digm is conceptions. that which makes. he falls oll from the similitude. vi/. work will not be is This also in continuity with what has been said. there is is whether the mundane para the proposed axioms contribute and : to itself.truly consentaneous generated. of this kind. there it also a paradigm. that which is not beautiful. or inferior or of the to universally. : . has a demiurgic cause. is aKo a paradigm. employing a generated paradigm. This therefore follows. therefore. So that a continued syllogi&amp. And if indeed that which is generated beautiful.gt. livery thing generated. which living extended maker himself. will In. intel ligible.- makes the imitation l&amp. neces sary however next in order. every thing which is generated has a cause. world. that which is generated on account of an intelligible para generated on account of a generated paradigm is is not beautiful. and either superior. and two other in the second axioms. that which is primarily Hut ifdissimilarly. is not generated . what perpetual being is. For from there being an elective cause. viz. But if it was not. has tiling having both a demiurgicand paradigmatic cause. and what that is which is generated. he l&amp. The world. For the paradigmatic is the effective cause. makes that It is which it wishes to insert to find that in the thing is made. has also a paradigmatic cause. it follows axiom* do not contribute that there to him. then. he does not make on account of the intelligible for on the contrary.gt. imitates : And if indeed similarly. thus also in these. then it is necessary that the whole should be a beautiful effect. Every a demiurgic.eautiful for there. For he who makes on account of the it. either similarly.gt. expresses in his work the idea and power of it. or external same rank with him.eaiitifiil.222 1 ROCLUS ON THE [BOOK it. or dissimilarly. And as in the first axioms then* weretwo hypotheses. Hut to this the whole of what is said. And he who makes any thing on account sists.&quot.gt. or generated. but when he looks to that which is generated. Kach also of these is perfectly true. was gene generated rated on account of an eternal paradigm.

1 And perhaps on this account also. and . as deriving their subsistence from things mutable and in motion. when he speaks of the paradigm. And when oil nature. . it teem* ncccs^aiy to raH. With reference toboth however. for &quot.HOOK ii.l he says. is if make that which is beautiful. For from the para arrived at the conception looked at a generated resemblance of the God. therefore. is 223 of that which not is generated. as are the beautiful progeny of art. But when there is an eternal paradigm of a generated nature. for he then says. an&amp. similitude or dissimilitude to the archetyjK? is derived. ticipate from their paradigms of In-auty and order. but only that it is not beautiful. therefore.&quot. that which is generated on also. beauty or the want of l&amp. On this account also Timvrus. but the work an ell ect of the maker. that which is deformed. rop .&quot. : for t/ic paradigm its he conjoins \\ilh him his work and father of works. as being imitations of a stable to infinite time. does not bubsist confonnis entirely For orofiuai here. as intellect of soul.. The former. according there is an entirely generated paradigm of a generated from eternity. not that which it. Of whom either I am the Demiurgus Since however paradigms are triple . i. For it is not possible that what is essentially should be productive of eternal natures. but are alone mani fested through the negation of beauty.] TIM^US OF PLATO. and yet are not entirely deformed. the image is said to be the image of the paradigm. if he had And if he had been able to extend himself to the intellectual Jupiter. are not beautiful.lt. would not have digm indeed.n eternal paradigm of aa an eternal thinu. Such things. but the latter. &quot. are not beautiful when compared with the beauty which ac cedes from an eternal paradigm to sensible paradigms. par generated. evidently docs For this very thing is full of dissimilitude. he truly directs his attention to it. For constituted according to artificial reason. account of is much more separated from Hence Phidias who made the [celebrated] statue of Jupiter. hence when there is . this paradigm also is in a certain respect eternal. primarily beautiful whence beauty. of the Jupiter iu Homer. eternal thing. there is an eternal paradigm of or an eternal paradigm of a generated tiling. Tints therefore ~a e must speak But when he speaks of the Demiurgus. or a generated pa radigm of a generated tiling.e. Tinurus docs not say that what derives its subsistence according to a generated paradigm. but from the maker. that which is entirely eternal is the paradigm of that which is so in a certain respect.gt. this (alls nature.eauty accedes to the image . conjoins with concerning it its image: ii/nigc. it is evident that he would have rendered his work still more iH-autiful.

it has not a power through which connected. and place over Plato however and the the whole of things void of multitude. is And thing which that it is separate from matter. it whence does is it derive this di-sire it I world is not the of things. since it is finite. how Plato assumes as a thing acknowledged. Whence therefore does the not from chance. if intellect is the cause of a motion which power. that there a Demiurgus of the universe who looks to a paradigm for there is not a Deof it say they who directs his attention to that which is invariably the miurgus same. The Stoics admit that there is per but assert that he Demiurgus. from the appctible.1 fectly eternal. since there are not in intellect paradigms of tiling* artificial. aspires after intellect. that which inseparable from matter. as Epicurus says is infinite. from thence an infinitive power of existing.ecause Some however doubt. what should hinder the world from being perp -tual. And many of the ancients indeed are the patrons of this assertion among is : . whence also its being appetitive derived.s For he also says that the tendency.2-24 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK u.gt. and a providence that is attentive to the welfare of wholes. ably to an eternal form. Pythagoreans celebrate a separate and exempt Demiurgus of the universe. since it is is? In short. for if the world. the Peripatetics grant indeed. . by is that the very lx-ing and according to nature is appetitive of intellect. and deriving its subsistence from a paternal cause . uninterrupted.] That these axioms there fore are true. necessary that . there is something which is productive of the eternal. from a cause which excites it to desire. they are not simply beautiful. in short. whom is are the Epicureans. yet do not allow that cause. we may through these observations be reminded. Either therefore. for as moved. and one. that in a finite body there not at any time an is infinite power. but also a final Hence they an intellect take away paradigms. and this with the greatest propriety. is motive of that which is But if this is true.should pooses. Whence likewise is the world. Hence. of the artist. nor yet are they deformed. it is evident whole of its existence is from thence. as he says. as Aristotle says. a pro ducing cause of all things. that there is some it is a producing. through which will entirely receive it it receives an is infinite power of being thus also the it moved ad is intinitiim. and . and the world appetible appetitive. who entirely deny the existence of is . a it finite universe derive this infinite power. But if this Iw the case. l&amp. they derive their subsistence according to reason.For since the this and is moved towards first it. [or that pro ductive principle which is in the mind. moved ad infmitunl ? its For every body possesses. through it pro position which says.

Something else. by an absurdity follows.. connects animal. been said by many . able to receive. after this manner. but every animal connected by the life which is in it. It a reasoning process. reasons cr productive principles of their effects Aristotle will also grant.HOOK i. moved. much has of all things arc in intellect. therefore. This. and not receptive of the whole at one time. we see artificers that an.] TIM.r. Plat. paradigms of the things that an. let us investigate from what cause he introduces to generated natures the beautiful and the not beautiful. therefore. and whence she is place. generated. and thus ascending. or indeed by consulting. that there are two-fold demiurgic causes.eing effective I But lato does -not speak Tim. the generated and the intelligible. the demoniacal it But if art imitates nature. In the first which she generates. vi/. is nece&amp. Or it possesses an infinite power. by very bring For there will be a mutation about it. but generated paradigms. It might then have been said. should contain the reasons of the things And if nature does this. indeed.gt. and the passions of If will not therefore consult. much Hut it as the world is. us Aristotle himself therefore says that somewhere says. we must say that the causes In opposition to Aristotle. a power which connects it. it it must entirely antecedently assume work about which But itself. if it if it makes by does this.gt. is Hence it imparts this power by influx. but the former of things that are not beautiful. is and always as to be. it will fail. imparts not the whole at once. For every thing partible. 2 F . and the influx is perpetual.So that the world always becoming it and never if intellect is the Demiurgus of the world. contain makes that which similar to And And it. indeed. whether does its ? make that which makes. and not from tin. but this power is finite. whether these paradigms subsist primarily in will the- very being.producing cause. and after whence it manner do derives this paradigmatic cause of wholes. . a partial soul. lias 2 25 how ia this possible it. For it is imparts to it the power of existing. we must investigate.sary much prior to art. but our business. l&amp. consults.US ? OF PLATO. we must inquire whence she is perfected ? For she is irrational . however. at present. or not. what not by possessing the that natrire. just as every its it one does who consults it he energizes. from the paradigm. is impossible: for if it is finite. again. the latter of beautiful things. I. of HUC!I as are uot beau* VOL. This. is to explore what Plato says. something impartible which and the universe also is an is He God is an eternal animal. in itself the In-fore is And if it should consult. Or the universe has. And again. then-fore. here produce? Is ? Farther it still. it will not have this from itself. but says that intelligible paradigms arc the paradigms of Ijcaiitiful cflects.

. is with respect &amp. &amp.lt. And the last the cause of form. possible for the and to make a certain thing beautiful. on that he does not say that what is generated necessary to admue this in IMato.gt.iiu. another to demiurgic da-mons. soul looking to intellect.. and a certain thin-.. a diflerent manner in to the many demiurgic we must survey fabrication proceeding (iods.gt. but the paradigm is the supplier form and essence. then-lore. of form.lt. the Denmirgus.A\u lure. 2 29 liful.\Xu(.iv if lie had said that what is gene have rendered us more sluggish not eflective of beauty. and of beauty and of these. e. who from these receive and one way to after are allotted paternal powers. is intellect. Neptune] generatively. the to which sub-. through which all (hum. indeed.i&amp. Ag. soul. Demiurgus looking. -o far as it ///&amp. in last [i. the attendants of this of life. PROCLUSONTHE It [HOOK n.lt. generate* truth and science. which follow the demi For the peculiarity and the mode of production. an-els. Farther demiurgic After these.gt.&&quot. therefore.lt. . urgic choir. which contribute we must likewise survey the undeiiled forms to the demiurgic scries. that from this cause beauty evident is beautiful. if we to beautiful actions. another way. If.ul ii. to be the cause of beautiful and noi beautiful ellects.it.universe.beautiful. 1 and the genera of partial souls.ts the highest order among eteini Hence the cause effective of beauty is then-. .an. it h. and passive appetites. also.e. For same eflective cause to look to two-fold paradigms. Hut the demiurgic triad labru ate./ For is multiform. Very properly same that it is paradigm is it therefore lieand deformity accede to asserted. the Mist [i.&amp. therefore.o of union.&amp. exhorting. and the in the ruling. in And in one way order. actions.ame and tliut it is i&amp. the second [i. For but looking to generation. as far as to these. brings :d belongs to the first intelligible*.gt. it is the supplier of beauty. it proceed* in order. always adonis tin. and the demiurgic cause.gt.us not to reject beautiful rated. that what is here asserted contributes to enulition. it is mtis-ai) lo u. in one nay looking to it. supplies all things at once.gt. another in the liberated and in the mundane But after this triad. the nhoic Deniiurgus fabiic. it AS the paradigm however of this universe rated natures. PlutoJ conv. l : al&amp. rtively. another. not beautiful. And of this triad indeed. but still. extend diligently to diSlerent natures. Moreover.&amp. Jupiter] f-ihricatcs uniformly . but the paradigm of beauty. and of looking ur &amp.e.s m to it according to supreme transcendency. is inti-llectual. tnav however be said. intelligible. the demim-ic cause looking to the intelligible is united He. and the nature of body. perhaps he might But it will be better and more physical.ts inv ariaMy the &amp.gt. lint it is impossible for the she procreates imaginations. It is also to the intelligible.

horses. hut the paradigm is simply the arranged. we mint read wpot aiwnor. but that which was generated by the Derniurgus looking to it. but others through Some. bnt he who uses a paradigm of I hi* kind. on account of the union of intelligibles . such for instance as that disorderly and confused nature. from the paradigm some. possessing intellectually the intelligible . indeed.. kind is is in a certain respect beautiful. some of which are more total. Farther be assumed. for it is visible and sensible.BOOK ii. it was also generated by the eternal paradigm. And so far indeed as it wa. and others make the last forms the paradigms of their Hence ihrouuli these. Hence that which is geneiated OH account of an eternal paradigm. there is one shepherd of men.t participants. as it was generated by the illuminated that disorderly essence. it was invested \\ith form.] I IMPELS OF PLATO. the part is in a certain respect the whole. tin&quot. as with reference to the formless nature of matter. but others more partial. do not produce according to the whole of the intelli gible. and there are different paradigms of dillerent things. which paradigm also 1 and For fiaiu\tir in this place. as he says further on. however. but so far as by the Demiurgus. intelligible Since also the vrhole Demiurgus looks indeed to the the paradigm all-perfect animal. . but the intelligible prior to the Demiurgus.gt. . others proceed into a greater number. (&amp. survey the whole of intelligible*) through union intelligence. Timxus very properly does not say. but that what is generated by the Demiurgus who looks to it. but another of productions. For from that confused nature the Demiurgus was absent. though h. is most beautiful. and is not most beautiful. 1 As the demiurgic series therefore is various. through which is the domination of sameness. th. 227 account of an eternal paradigm is l^nutiful. Hut every tiling of this and was generated. it was For the Dcmiurgux ix the cmtsc order ./ cause of fnrtn to it. makes that which is generated to be beautiful. and in a similar manner in other forms. is not simply beautiful.s generated by the paradigm. but some are divided according to the four primary causes. looking to the whole of intelliproduce according to the whole of them but others produce partially. . since tbat \\liich is confused and disordered is general -1. receiving from the intelligible certain vestiges of forms prior to fabrication.it he who uses this intelligible paradigm. itself the difference of demiurgic powers may For some of these powers. giltles. but employs in himself. And still. as Plato snis in the Polilicus. Demiurgus. and the multitude is most similar to the monad. energizing on it through Demiurgus as a medium. In the intelligible paradigms therefore. So far. again. indeed.

but instead of this. Hence.iihsistcncc according to eulars. For since IMato intends to call the same thing both heaven and the world. that on this account he assumes the *aic inantur.gt. he should The Demi latently introduce into his production. For they say any one thing consisting of two complements is to be called a gno mon. adduces the term generated? Is it pression generated to the paradigm. yafi \irtr. TI. that \\hichis not beautiful. has nothing else similar to itself? For that which is produced on account of it. of eternal being does he say employing a paradigm of this kind. and beautiful. but is of a more partial nature hence Tinueus adds the words a certain to a thing of this kind. therefore. to this the dissimilar in order that there may be that whuh looks to a nature always possess sameness of subsistence. or receive.lt. For thus the philosopher orphjry properly For TiiiKeus does not say that the Demiurgus in fabricating all things. gnomon in parallelograms. I nless IM: said.gt. . however. decides. assimilating that which is But fabrication imparts essences and powers to the things that are generated. not In-cause the intelligible has something similar to itself. and is appropriate. rank. he no longer adds the ex of this hind&quot.&quot. looks to that which is eternal. lest by seeing at one time. Why. and are more partial than all-perfect animal.. and every thing of this kind.l I or &amp. giv ing a name to the subject [of discussion] con formably to geometricians. is allied. sameness. when they speak about tin. is generated. but of that which is generated. in order that you may not think at different times different unmet*. it should beholding alwajs. h 1 he disturbs the doctrine./&amp. And thus much concerning these partiBut the term a/irdi/s must be conjoined to a t&amp. &quot.lt. tlit for/*/. it certain tiling. but to the intelligible.220 PUOCLUS ON TIIK [BOOK u. but that the intelligible always subsists after tlir. too. &quot. in order that he may produce that which &quot. TI &amp. as Atticus thought. urgus. all heaven. . he calls idea. is such as the intelligible through siniilitutle to it. is similar to it. as having the highest but that which is generated being the last of things. Let therefore tins universe be denominated by us. For these Intel- liable* participate of the eternal paradigm.gt. (lie same. by employing previously determine!* something about the rtit&amp.&quot. ing a I nhrays bchvlds. or whatever other appellation it may be especially adapted to This is the last of the axioms. but at another not. the similar.

And it seems. let it be called by us heaven and opinion. . generated by.gt. cations of 1 Iliad. has indeed some things which are visible indi ed to real being.9&amp. and which arc only known to the mystic artists themselves after the same manner. which are the invisible impressions of the par of being received by it from the father who gave it perfection. * 1 This For is asserted in theCratylui. it is necessary to read it rrji rovorrnr fierc^t. 1. and is convert J or it is but the world as proceeding from it. conformably to the. a divine body alone is denominated by us the world. and saying all heaven. or whatever other name it may rejoice to be called. 6 In the woivisoti it arrvr tppi$*ptroi p ^icuwriwi iv ry orri. moon . but the world. intellectual as surveying the and participating of an but the world. rv/j/3oXi*a r^t rwr Q(W 1 irnpot imii. theory. some of them . to . For it 229 the names. but others are inwardly concealed.. opinion of all men.ttooKii. : is also possible to call heaven. and perfected by the father. Instead of rij rovorwf fiij fitro\ijt in ibis place. though both heaven and the world intelligible. being pertaining * symbolical of the presence of the Gods. TUV Oiv wapovyiat in this place.] T1M/CUS OF PLATO. the world being a statue of the intelligi ble. as being converted existing beings. is obvious that pi ought to be expunged.gt. may according to his the world. but others called the sum mits of generation heaven : The wide-spread heav n in xthcr and the clouds Fell to the lot of Jove. it a^fo-i) here. essence . heaven And some defined it to extend as far as to the region alone the world. indeed. it is nrcevtary to read.gt. the sublunary but others region above it.^arq.lt. calling the universe heaven prior to the whole and the world. its divinity . is 4 InMiMii of i7i&amp. Heaven. oi u orld is adapted to it as a certain fabrication . it own For the name it 1 For he says. that he by calls the universe heaven. as behold as ing the things above. some things them are manifest. as being always tilled and adorned by truly to its prinIt may also be called heaven./^)oXtKi)t necessary to read &amp. but the denominating heaven a part of the world. vs. must IK&amp. in order ticipation * thai through these it may be eternally rooted in real being. Heuee Plato very properly determines concerning these names. that you not fancy he says. But as of statues established by the telestic art. ple]. observed calling tliat these names had great ambiguity with ancients. but others. indeed. indeed. xv.

ofj/jmruoy omiltfd. are it [BOOK H. mn Ctiiiindif ctll.sence of different from those of into contact with them. mundane names ineffable. [as significant &quot. thus the other. omit* the divine and Plato therefore knowing that ineffable name itself. 7-i 1 1 Iliad xi*. and allotted a divine es sence. For the words also consider tht imtfable You may uhatci cr other are significant of oneness. subsist in the opinions of men. ] of its abiding name of the universe. and to which it does which H a symbol of the impression of the Demiurgus.since divine names unfold the whole e&amp. * And in a similar manner in many other names. by \Vhicli the Uods Clialcb. and to the objects of opinion. \v ho ad embraces what i* asserted by Cratylus. hymn of the it mundane name. is ineffable those. This aUo Plato says in the doxastic. Xantlius by God*./. which it &quot. ?91is lu ibe original HI this place. is . Hence. according and arcane.//. the mundane form. but the latter And tin: former the world.o tin- the names of the one are Gods is different from that of partial *onLs.. and nnappamit name of the demiurgic cause and paradigm.&amp. themselves.///&amp. however necessary to know that the divine name of its abiding power.lt. is greatest caution introduces For the words. Through these things. U-ing that are adapted to divine natures being divine. far as It is proceeds from the of the powers in the universe. . are a latent from the apparent name. dianoetic.gt. in order that divine may be co-ordinate to what signified by it. indeed For tin-re are names adapted to every order of things .&quot.//.lt. completion. the latter so hut the former so far as it is converted to it. but those of men only paitially come this pre-exists in the world. 1 m Iliad xx. names significant intelligible. Tor as the knowledge of al&amp. but others of the elements from which derives its monadic. powers in the world. contains.gt. and with the world as a symbol of the divine impression which the dillerent or whutcw oilier and . Homer on this subject. the things named. and the apparent name indeed is duadic. &quot. are delivered by Theurgists . and known only to the Cods not proceed out of being.. as hypotheses. to the objects of dianoia. vs. vs. men Scaiuanrlcr call d. . where he are different from those that mits that names of tlie same things with the Cods.PROCLUS ON THR and tlx u-orld. also. it may rectire&quot. some of which significant are called by them but others effible and some being visible of the invisible it therefore. as ineffable. are delivered.

that head is the leader. ll is hat tlint is rrfiic/i is akrat/s is bei&amp. therefore.gt. terminating what follows hy the principles.xfTOj:. to tin antecedent object of desire. never Tn&amp. Hut since most I latonists understand hy the words TJSJ rravroc.)K it.gt. Tinr.t. that Plato means alut thin*. discussion conforma bly them selves. know For thaf the former interpretation has in a greater degree the spon to assume ro Taxroc for TO --^ rvt ^.lt. you have the cause.cginning to be surveyed about every After (he prayer.ms said. respecting thing. ichet/icr it icas generated or t( ther the world &quot. And in the hypotheses. &quot. are sini|!y to IM. but is without &quot. The no beginning of genera tiont having said is asserted more generally of it we may . it is through tin- three. as indicative of progression fhinl and heaven. or PLATO. In the first it.m. it* 231 . proceeding perfectly. is demonstrated that it iia&amp.u-tix.I:US ..gt. respecting every tiling. i were the thinirs which were lir-t thin. a . having no hcginiiing of generation.gt./&amp. the father hut the N&quot.. whether it was shows that what is the universe.lt. and converting itself to It is fit.&quot. to perly thought of the which also Tima-ns immediately after this directs his attention. For with reference to the world. But this is the form of the object of investigation. or is tmhegotten. and the &quot. &quot. Of this. to he the first tiling that deserves an appropriate consideration. is a forced assumption.- investigated concerning every thing. on account of which full the good as of -.v which generated. it hein^ lit to sj)eak /list concerning d crij the the universe. find that i. first hypotheses. to consider in the first place what first lx? And the generated and 80 that this is very pro the unhejjolten j{ive distinction to the mundane form. however. tiiese limits That. as it however.&quot. hut l*or|)hyry understand* words as pi&amp.cncrtitinn. that as an hypothesis. ban&quot.lt.&quot.oo(l. of its conversion. This therefore must It is was tes the supposed in the principles. aixl to show whether it is naturally imheirotten or generated. which ought placo.!. conformahly to what is said in the Pha-dms. first assumed. must be considered in the l&amp. abiding inellahly. however.// previously assume from common conceptions. // is tuccxxarif thai we who are about to speak concerning the universe. is nnbentten.) TIM. as Socra necessary.&amp. but c&quot. Pha-drns. in the considered.il~\ -J L.rnifying ad/tut the universe. it is rcfpiMte to taneous.l name :&amp. engage in the 1 discussion of the rest of the theory. the hypotheses the exhortation to the auditors. howexcr. *fiou/d invoke the (ioih mid Goddesses* as from hence commencing the theory. For in what was asserted prior to the hypotheses. ir/i (it &quot. ami the delivery of the hypotheses. addition also of whether the unrcertc uticiiyx generated&quot. whe was generated.lt. says it is. nothing else remains than to dispose the whole.

and whether it must I*. or whether it always was. i^ is evi. the was tl. a (Jod. to the demiurgic what each of them is. Plutarch.*li. and follow him generated natures. or has none. for we shall In-inning of gem-ration.\*iTuan /uOufc.lOoN/a in tins plato. Platonists. having no principle he whether it was in some way or other generated. gate And in the first place..f with the Time. or was generated methods in the hypotheses.. Tl.-. conceiving the generation here mentioned to be temporal. For he recurs from generated natures indicated to us the truth and paradigmatic causes of them. whatever of generation.gt.l. discover in the eternal. Such therefore being the inquiry. having of in perfect conformity to the doctrine concerning ineffable and enable names. And on this account lie or of a generated nature. follows. portion of perpetual being. demonstrations of the problems eoneerning the world. This.lir.. there was a disorderly so that there was time with motion subsists is FOP fabrication together . to the universe.^. in order that he might apprehend both these to be that which has a certain principle of . &amp.ouM rr.!.n.iUclic Pl.. &quot.ito pt-rfccllv ..lmt that msU-at! of al*o r%itici!l ^nXoy. Afterwards hating shown that the world it is alone its body. &quot.tiu. ^ I -irriM-nnlrs.. and yet alwa\&amp.admitted to be a he endeavour* to find the form of it. tiiij. but not with reference But since it is also necessary to place the mundane form.. prior to the A l the universe. or to gem-rated natures But in the same manner as soul.&quot. sl.^. and tangible. is.ii from wliat .. a&amp.gt..i. in his demonstrations whether 1 let it is to be arranged among us nee what arguments the philosopher it always was. and Jfjinitively and al^o analytically assigns beint. or first it [BOOK u. he grants generated according to be unbegotten. is visible is manifest. according to which also it according to a certain other thing to i&amp.gt. having no from a certain principle.lii. ll ? it &amp. he afterwards eomerts himself to next in wisdom who wa&amp. ilrlini.e Hixi.ks the medium letween generation.e wise. but that he number Pythagoras.lt. ^. Thus he JiviJct find tliatlic uses all the dialectic from that whieli is generated.on&amp.-. said that it was a medium between both thcae. aiM tl.gt.PROCLUS ON THE and that beginning of generation.lt.lojs jn. I lni. Moreover. howeier.ilif nit tin. who said that the name* to things. inquiry is..gt. But time entirely unbegotten or generated according of the world. Atticns. .tl^i.. was also generated together i. li. as will be evident as we proceed. n i&quot. whether among employs..1% .li.&amp. say that to time. of generation. not asking in M uires whether it has a certain principle for he might have whether it belong to eternal beings. .ul ?.. and many other of the the.tr.gt. c a. therefore.xt of things. whether the world the to they assert that prior motion.

say that the world is said to be exonerated. and that which in sensible.gt. but the parts in the parts of time. nor Plotinus. the medium should be an petual. \\hich eternally possesses a stable essence. all receives perpetual bei-n^.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO. as is the case with the celestial For rovro here.gt. generated. and its existence is generated. is that which And that which is in a certain respect these according to time. that all these assertions are most true .gt. things that are moved. and that with this. power that [real] l&amp.erpetual. simply generated. that and the perpetuity of this subsists according to temporal infinity. is allotted such a nature as this. being the number of a disorderly motion. But it is all motion subsists according lias to a part. possesses its energy in motion and extension. indeed is that. that these philosophers should look to other generated natures. both For every thing which has interval is a tiling of this kind. observed by us. or energy established in unity. and it whole of it is not at once. or absolutely generated. And produced by another cause.iz. and not Ix ing self-liegotten. survey what is common in them.gt. two-fold.tent.er 033 universe. and extend it to these significations. and as being indigent of other causes to its existence.gt. Hence. I mean time and soul.BOOK ii. and that the world is an a composite. the essence of the world First. generation from another cause is eon-subsi&amp.gt. is denominated generated. as being self-subsistent.e having the whole i&amp. G . This sensible world likewise. We think it fit however. rwp. being the of the motion of the universe. 2 Tim. that Plato defined the extremes to be.gt. as is the case with these elements. that which is simply and eneriry. time or becoming to be. but is not [real] being. are things of this kind. the interpreters of Plato that follow Grantor. called that which generated. that which does not possess at once. And that this should : gi/e as follows it is l&amp. VOL. and the philosophers after Plotinus. the \chole tf its essence. and that which is he comprehends the media. however. For it has been before generated. through the whole of time. Porphyry &amp. some one by considering may syllo- necessary l&amp. or having both the whole and the part* co-extended with the perpetuity of the whole of time. and lamhlichns. A among that the If. say that the composite nature is hen. 1 is We however say. generation. Plat.etween things that are eternally per and things which arc generated in a part of time. nunil&amp. tiling of this kind also. either hypostasis which is generated infinitely. But in what is here said. so that the former time was But prior to the fabrication of the world. entirely subsists through generation. and the manifest that transitive intelligence of souls.eing But that which is simply. it it necessary lo read I. and say.

that u Inch was generated&quot. as having its essence. &quot. receiving an infinite But &quot. which in as Being.gt. he follows the accustomed mode of disturlx-d. therefore. or becoming to be. but eter is incapable of receiving eternity. that the intel nature is produced by self subsistent and eternal. different from itself. though The nature of he collects both these together at once for he says. with atwvtog oura being eternal. PROCLUS OX THE For tliere is [BOOI n. by which we may this infer that the essence of the celestial bodies It is this. and exists in eternity. such as is a sensible nature.234 bodies. are not the same. as we have before observed. because eter of time .&quot. The intention indeed that the world is simply generated. For the energy of soul is nearer to eternal natures. And the former is in number. separ and imparts to it essence. was being eternal together animal itself therefore l)t cause tne ^ nc* in &quot. and also its perpetuity co-extended with the whole of time. that tin/the term uas is not adapted to eternal natures. intelligible. since neither is there the same infinity of time that what is measured by In the second place.gt.M 1 to al1 tn:it nas ** avt zt as TO the &quot. rated. manifest the eternal. and energy. whether it is eternal being. by conjunction with sense. he says further on. but should always be gene It is necessary therefore as much as possible a flowing existence. and have its essence established in the impartible? In the third place. assuming is tr^x - &quot. with alu-ays was. than the essence of lime. power of every nity finite body is not infinite.on sai&amp.1&amp. power. not the same perpetuity according to eternity and the whole and eternity. to the whole of its proper essence from itself. Hence also. and that hotly subsists entirely in body.! from a source petuity. But he inquires from the first. signifies Plato however.lt. eternity. What is is it then. I have said. as Aristotle has demonstrated. but the term is. mea also is apprehemUd by opinion sured time. signifies the being allotted an hypostasis. . and the temporal another. speaking. power. And shaking of the Demiurgus ranks among eternal natures. which are jK-rfected by time. we must not be For prior to a distinct evolution. . that soul energizes according to time. For the expression If. is partible be fixed.&quot. For always generate. cause that adorns For makes cannot be separated from the evident that it is allotted a renovated per if it external to itself. ligible is something has however been already said by us. and It number is one thing. that it it thus perpetual according to time? it. jofTIatois to show.he teas good. paradigm. it would be sufficient and is received itself. &amp. nity and time For how can that which is necessarily impartible. or belongs to things /rate from that which makes it. when celebrating the Demiurgus he : says. and perpetual being. but that the sensible For the eternal in is cou-subsistent with time. hence every finite body that it should not always be.

he renders it manifest to those who have the smal lest degree of intelligence. or that is which this without generation. For is spoken of. always gene producing cause. It doen not. though petual. That which it is is and always adorned by its but Plato always inquires.l TIMT. Farther still. i* 035 is hul the latter generated In number. however. inquiry of this kind will Ixfthe same things as an investigation. If therefore. generated likewise. that also which is essentially a composite. is not the case. is called generated.lt. however. whether the world l&amp. since there are many generations. whether the world always was. n roirvr r&amp. and which is to the latter time. an a certain generation. because neither is Uiere time. to eternal and self-subsistent natures. though it should not be seen. multifariously. has a certain princi For if it has no principle whatever of generation. generated belongs to things which are multifariously very thing which has a temporal beginning. being predicated . in which there is not generation. which are generated according to the whole of time and whether it belongs to self-subsist en t natures. entirely follow that what is generated after another manner. Every thing likewise which proceeds from a cause. but whether the universe.elongs to eternal natures.gt. perpetual being manifests the eternal. and that which has a generable nature [or which is naturally capable of being generated] though it should not have been generated such as is that which has a visible nature. we should say that he investigated whether it is generated 1 this according to time. or to things which are adorned by another cause. or to . is a composite.r&amp. whether it arrives at being through generation.US OF PLATO.] or not all. and has a generable nature. That which is generated therefore. but he asks whether it has no principle whatever of generation. for such is that which is always generated . that which is For it proceeds from a cause. and is so much called generated. hut said to be jwr- rated. or has a certain principle of it. it belongs ple of generation. as Aristotle says. has an hypostasis co-extended with all time. Since. predicated. or has not a temporal principle of generation. [If therefore Plato had inquired whether the universe lias all the generations.UOOK ii.jr4 rXarwr rorrpor r* ar rural . that he does not doubt about its temporal beginning. For though we sometimes speak of the generations of the the original : It arenas that th following worth are wanting in this place in yci rat ycycrrii. but that which has a principle of generation signifies that which is produced by another cause . For to the former eternity conjoined. generated according to time.gt. or has the principle of this being the case. has all the generations. has all the generations.

from the effect. yet it proceeds from being.o every thing universe is generated and perfect. this indicating their ineffable progression. mences the generation of the world. it tain other principle.-tasis with which manv dissimilar things. the universe is immediately imperfect which is likewise At one and the same time. . the generation of the this. hovrever. 1 For from the generating cause com In the next place. Theologists. but is not one It )KT. is that which is i. originates the most proper principle.petuity and the heaven [or the universe].gt. t. place. of Hence alone also it eternal. co-extended also time is conjoined. the case with the maker. according to which and on account of which generation subsists. and the difference of natures with reference to the causes of them.gt. are according to the whole of . yet we say PROCLUS ON T!!E [BOOK it. in the same manner as time. is that which does not generate itself. to that which is always in time. the final. hut is fit that is another thing.23Q Gods. cause and time are the same. U-ini. i. said to have a principle of generation. the that is still generated.s made. subsists from non-being. and to originate from a cer fore. longer is \\hen separated from its cause. however. dnide it by conception into cause and effect. and is -always becoming to be one and the same in numwith the infinity of time.e rationally it where there is generation. and is never-failing time is : t&amp. therefore. That the cause is different from the effect. there both with respect to beginning and end. AVith these. generations of the Godn previously subverting devised by them. any time deserting But it that no from another thing. according For that which is self-subsissay proceeds from non-being. time should precede. it is also as he hays from And in the first indeed. because mav !&amp. For though lent. generated nature : and that which is . {jenerated . not apart of time.s e\ident for if you take away being. does not proceed from non-being. . call the first principle of things Time. Thus. so that never at it proceeds from the being itself. in order that tin.u may For the maker and itself. likewise has a never-failing generation. and always generated and illuminated by Hut this i. generated by itself. the physical axiom may be adapted according which because this always generated. since also with them progression is the same as generation. is composed of by another. but all generated together with that the heaven is generated in an infinite time. wcomlary all such douhts. generated you may y. 15ut that which is thus to an eternal subsistence. and the cause is different to analogy to Thus. becomes the image of ami always receives a renovated hypo.are one. Hence also its pejFor time was time. its perfection. therefore. That however which is truly gent-rated.

and is always pcrjectAnd it has indeed. in the end .&quot. and are generated. it l&amp. to tJie final 037 is world subsists with rofcrence principle. is omitted in this place in the original. But because intellect is the maker of it. begins at ginning of a certain partial time. and at another not. whole of time is a certain generation. . and always abiding in his own accustomed manner. but this is is always. it is generated. &quot. &quot.lt. and has an end of generation. but t hat u-hich generated in the whale of lime is ahcays beginning. it is through generation is in beginning to 1x3 generated. which is generated one time.eginning was generated. however. and is generated.What therefore is this generation ? That which has both the beginning * and the end contracted together [so as to be si Because therefore the world is a body. and has a body. For these do not subsist at one and the same time. therefore. Aristotle says. For it is visible and tangible. the whole of time. And sensibles are apprehended by things are sensible. it teas ning of is it not one thing. and possesses the end of it.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. to bo. not being generated in a part of time. That. and is perfect according to generation. But all sucli As the Demiurgus of wholes looking to himself. opinion in conjunction with sense. Thus for instance principle or the motion of the heavens. as not having the be in a part of time. but it has not a certain principle. which is perfected by some thing d lift-rent from itself. and is perfected at another . and the end another. and it is generated another. was generated. after the same manner also 1 ypovov &amp. Through both. It is necfSMry to supply er\ here. as not the case with motions on the earth. and has a multaneous].BOOK ii. produces the whole world. of generation. and as the world always Incoming generated. is * always becoming to be. lest he should depart from eternity r .gt. and with eternally invariable sameness .\r\n is * 1 also omitted in the original. for he does not make at one time. and not of all generation. the prin So that the generation which subsists through the ciple also of it is multifarious. in things which are generated in a part of time. totally and at once collectively. For since generation is multifarious. and this principle is the principle of a certain. and appear to be things which are becoming to be. a certain principle of generation. as neither is the lx?ginone thing. it is rising into existence. For with respect to the world. It was generated.

238 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. contract in intellect the end prior to the egress. let us also consider the wonderful hypotheses of Atticus. he asks whether the universe is eternal. let us see what the nature is of cause according him . and Hence. who admits that this there is is a cause to of generation. recurring to in tellect from dianoia. therefore.&amp. is necessary to read 1 this explained farther on. it vtis gcneratcil. therefore. prior to the demonstration.shows this demonstratively from the de universe.&quot.* And thus much concerning the form of the words. and that which is sen sible is apprehended by opinion in conjunction with sense. time. the in a syllogi/ing. was every thing sensible generated in time. and has a hotly. or not every which was moved in a confused thing? If indeed every thing. // was generated. jx?rceiving For these set the whole collec all tilings at once. he descends from intellect to logical progressions. assertion. he energizes according to the selfmotive nature of soul tellect. has a certain principle of generation. Since. confused and disorderly manner is says that what was moved in a but that the world was generated in time. delivers the whole theory. directly after the and But enthusiastically. or . he establishes the universe remote from temporal generation for if the world has a certain. Timaeus. and proceeding into a reasoning process from intellect. time has the principle of every generation.lt. he answers. hut that which is visible and tangible. . If. this IM. and interrogating himself. For he first answering he imitates the projecting enertry of in comprehends the dogma in one word ytywt. the world was not generated in Farther still. finition. is sensible. for the world visible and tangible. for this was the other part of tin. however. and has a body. he shows from the hypotheses the whole form of the For if the world is visible and tangible. Whether. the world therefore is generated. .o omitted here in the original. therefore. // r/ as generated. but that which is generated in . manner perfectly divine.before-mentioned opposition. is 3 r&amp. being couvcrted to himself. however. doubting. the case.gt. Hence he . Since. hut iit and proclaims the conclusion manner of those who energi/e tively. and let us speak unbegotten. then that and disorderly manner 1 will be generated in time it : for he says that this also For See eirirpoTijK here. and is generated. investigation through demonstration of the nature of the world. and not crcry principle of generation. as we have said. Atticus concerning this &quot. therefore. according to a conversion of the definition since geometricians also use demonstrations of this kind. it is evident that he gives a certain generation to the world From : this.

7 being visible and generated. that the world is conclusive of nothing. three things.l TlM. how not being good. tiling &quot. is generated. But in the words before us he says. did he make it to be arranged and adorned ? For it is generation entirely the province of a good being to adorn and arrange other things. rated such however both were generated. is not now visible. how is it possible he should not adapt it in a beautiful manner. ner. is therefore. also say that Plato calls this very disorderly thing itself may in For he says that prior to the generation of the world. as well as that which is visible. indeed. there were generated.i. Hence that disorderly nature was generated. It ^ is not proper therefore to s. the affair as follows : But is recur to our principles. it is however. If. Cut it&quot. let vis the universe to be generated in time. and discuss Whether is it the world perpetual being. he should corrupt it? But if he is not good.&quot. not neces it is make and generated. and has a body&quot. it was unlx-gotten according to time. But everything visible is sensible. being. sary immediately to visible it is not generated according to time. the from a contrary. He shows therefore that every visible which is visible and tangible. the world as it now is was changed into the confused is ^ gene : for to a contrary. and therefore that which to is moved which we In addition a confused and disorderly manner. And if he who made the world is good. h same manner is as the eternal. defending what he advances . it nothing of this kind in the definition of that which is generated. and that the universe was generated If or both were unbegotten. or not ntccmry to rrad fM/ur. every such thing as was risible.r. but not that which was and tangible. but it is simply said. then the reasoning of Atticus is unsylloUnless lie should say. place and generation. subsisting in the vestiges of forms. Though. since Plato also speaks in this manner when he says. gistic and visible and tangible. in the For ?/i hrrr. So that if there is any thing which is entirely sensible. or that having beautifully adapted it. these things should be asserted to him. such is man skilful in by Atticus . For both are similarly said bv him to be visible and~| prior to being generated. but that what was moved in a confused and disorderly man was visible. must be said in answer for the that there thing will be generated. but either both were generated according to Plato. that every thing generated is the object of opinion in conjunction with irrational sense.iy that . . .l S 01- PLATO.DOOK . 239 not every tiling. was generated.for it i? visible and tangible. because And thus much against Atticus. and ii-as mo-ccd in a confused and disorderly manner. but was so prior to the fabrication of the world &quot.

therefore.d lie says therefore that this generation originated. therefore. it is not* eternal. If likewise of this kind according to the composition.cjr me to be utuilted IJ tint plate. from a For since a material.gt. in or the final principle. thorvforc. But the answer that however. it mpiiMtc to read ^. principle.540 eternal. so far as lint the according to cause. Vi hat therefore is this principle ? from a certain.gt.it has the whole of its hypostasis according is is to time. For n&amp.nerated.lt. a simple is generation. as the universe has sonttlhing of body. And this again is asserted // is an imitation of intellect. These. and that is which is composite generation to essence. mul produced by another. which says: So far. And of it is generated. is it with time? is And whether self-subsistent. is the principle from which which he afterwards instructs us. and this For it was generated on account of I lie p&amp. Hence. its from its composition. Forit is fabricated on account of another. is consubsistent with time. is. For that which originates from thin But it originated is also allotted the principl&quot. producing. itself. that u-hich is also fabricated 1 1 For rayo/m-or here. and us time is to eternity. lias A thing. and tangibility in in it heaven. If. awrov to u|t|&amp. it has a generation it alone subsists from another cause. from a final. Hence in the first place he shown that the. and not from crcry principle. as gem-rated as a flowing imago of being. For it is divinely said by Plato. Forthrt which is generated in a portion of time began from a temporal. so to that which is simple. the essence which is composite. . and conjoined with time. multiform.&amp. from was once generated has a begin is multifariously predicated that which The world however originated ning of generation according to all these causes. assume the middle plenitudes which it contains. For fur line. world is generated tion of the world. You must not say it is a temporal principle.gt. . PROCLUSONTHE but consubsistent [BOOK u.gt. or it produced is by another ? Such then is if it the inquiry. as not being itself productive if a composite form.&amp. and uniform essence is eternal. but by IMato conformably to the oracle. i The wonl ofjurof *a. tangible.are theextremes but earth is of the universe. enrth so far as For heaven visible. is the most proper principle. and from a formal cause. it forit is visible is and tangible. of generation from all the rest. from that principle. that the world originated from it certain principle. xatl wafiayo^ituv. so that this may be called the principle of the genera. And visibility is in a terres participates of light . trial nature is antecedently comprehended and has a body in order that you may world is simply [visible nnd tangible]. I mean the most proper.

he . a temporal beginning. therefore. Tim. ac o ofpavtif opx r &amp. VOL. But if it was generated. as having a composite essence. many motions .. is twofold.ible and tangible. which is is perpetual. uni o x/oroi ap\tv rtt ^orurijr. which is consubsistenl with time. then time also had a temporal of all things the most impossible. And why do I say this? For when the motion is anomalous. And that this is true we may learn from hence.lt. hut the other proceeding according to number.id ol fi if iii^tji- x r| ^onriirqr. Plato conjoins the soul of the universe immediately on its generated. will .c[&amp. aixl some are swifter. ci it t fiv^tat-ot oj^iji is t\n xftonKijt. n * XP&quot. as being mingled purity of intelligible forms. for according to is is visible and vi&amp. is unl&amp. and does not uive to it life prior to the corporeal-formed nature. according to him body also is For that which is at once consnbsistent with the perp -tual. time is equable. the one kind disorderly and confused. But every tiling generated . the universe also is perpetual. touching and object of opinion. For x/wny here. and not able to preserve tlie tiling of this kind is -jenerated. Farther that soul ranks among beings that always exist. the one disorderly. or anomalously is possible. But time if the universe* had is ho^innin^. thus to make however. Ifiitc.lt. something corporeal.US CM PLATO.a}s lein&amp. For thus the That but it a is body. however. plf necessary to 1 rca&amp. in onh r that it may be generated. he makes body and soul to be consnbsistent. If. Moreover. but there is one continued time it -of all these.lt. if indeed it is nnbegotten. But there is a time * co-ordinate to each of these motions.gt. however.erpclual.e this. but soul always exists.BOOK lias ii. time was still. an absurdity will in want of time.lt. There are now. may be moved equably impossible to conceive an equable .T. If. 2 II . seeing. and follow since time.] TIM. therefore. requisite tw read xpo-oi. and which proceeds according a twofold time. to number. is (lie Tint however which is sensible from sensible*. though it does not yet exist. But every sensible. but others slower. I. therefore.gt.gt. does not subvert the perpetuity of the universe. l&amp.r not yet. but the other orderly and elegant. r * rl l&amp. it is 04 this it 1 tangible. in body. as some who follow the Aristotelian hypotheses fancy he does. that 1 If therefore time For motion twofold. with body. but as soon as it is constituted incloses it.&quot. and anomalous time. for sense is I hito. time one and continued.gt. and one is more equable than another. is Hence i* not ri-^ht. essence of time will be a composite. |JIe says that time was generated together with the easily heaven oV universe. They say. For when time was generated.l. the universe also is unbegotten. Plat.

i-t. is incorruptible.Tuii.&quot. . ijeuerated. /////////// time. is infinite according to been myriads on u:\riads o! b. in \\\\^ |i!. irlm c there . not consubsistent with the inlinity of time. . and at another not.-c it Again. . a lunf prior to this.lt.///.lt.gt. \vliicli is is clearly nnlie^otteil according to linn*.lt. For why.nnbegotten. is s-.i\s. that tune I ami thai in this infinity anil fertile periods of men. But if healw i\s fabricates. that the world incorruptible. gotten. to admit these things.a\ that &quot.y &amp.f . For if he did.icc. we may hear him &amp. 11. / is in tiiLc place of this kind.gt. 1 Tho-e -. beinij intellect. (tint tin- nmtdiioii. the tiniver.lt. the Demiiir^ns ranks amoiiL? eternal beings. therefore.&amp.lt.r rather that ue may ar^ue from what in:. was IM tier or not ill wince there w ? For it is absurd. But in the is Uepublic clearly asserts.o nec&amp.ility. jou may understand what I say for tintime. it lie not before heniu to ireiieiale in ihis ami produce the world enei .-o appear It i to me to sin against tii5li-.. bein^ v\illin_:lv at rest exist-. that he should be ignorant he about him both ignorance and knowledge. lie does not at one time fabricate.ul \\n /n) ty nrtifny rov \pvHjv fft/H fK&amp.ttrt inc urcold.. if the world is . there. For if tin.&amp. ur . our hands. Hut if the race of men always exists.7//f. heiiiLj intellect and a that which IN less instead of thai which is moiv beautiful. ? For I lato in the l.lt. he adds / : Jittt you ^ itl *tn.v. therefore. HKOLLt S ON TimaniH here says.vj tiu/tn nuts. the Pluedrus says. for these syllogisms the p.v i/iurc al&amp. why was J did Ix-tter. which lie also granted by those who oppose he sayt him. world is thus demonstrated to hi.nl ill iiXXu rj) urniiiif TOI/ ixififinu ei t i\ rtri. fnn ir/icticc S I indeed tliink from in a thing little t/ic length anil &amp. it Till: [nook . which cities change into \irtue and \ice. there the nice vf men f.t\e p&amp.d howis ever. &amp. that tin? soul is tiiiltegotteii. or is &amp. him aluavs at and immutability. or rather the !\!u?es.242 Aj^ain. ignorant that . Hence.i\\s clearly s.ei. that e\ery tiling ge nerated necessarily corrupted.era!ed according to time. assuming in this place generation according to From these things. the world is is however.gt. if it ! And if it why did he not persevere lie laul ul so to speak ? not holy to conceive (hat. i that for which is fabricated by time. It nece-sar\ ai.lV lo r.//v/. a!. ho is was generated hut Socrates in after another manner falls that Farther still.iod. But if he knew this. prior to tlii-.&quot. : but nothing which is generated according to time What occasion not generated according to time. ! an infinite did he it lecansc he apprehended it to \\ as it length convert himself to fabrication be better? But was he. i* init/tt rc. he would is pursue .//. tli Cl ^M .gt.lt.arily jHipetnal.-.irren For investigating the he^inniim of a from In re h.world is incorruptible. he would not ha\e an in variable saint-ness of siih-istnice.

and change the ancient circulation How also is the universe perfect. Hul simply con-idered oj)pose. subsist together. be weary. And if lie If. proper habit ? . This. however. lli. and be perpetual. Demiur&amp. he produces time. Iml evidcally ought lo be intcrlcd in llii^ pl. to the left hand ? For if it is neces sary that lhe works of the Den. exists and is thus nuned. was generated. this opinion. there is another way.gt. in I l. however. w Inch is the cause of this circulation.other the contrary to it. time. was in capacity. Tinui iis say. iltat ineijiiahihty must thus be introduced to the 1 Tltc \\onl&amp. and were allotted this circulation.gt. is moved to the rii:ht and that the period characterized by sameness should be but that which is characterized by diil erence. we shall by ohscmii. preserve their and sufficient to it-elf. but that which is characterized by diili-rence.irc oniillttl in (lie original. .ATO. . and lie which makes. it is likewise necessary that the circulations sliould be always thn same.lran ^ii -st has shown. 1 this energy ? that by r his For lie once produced time. one of which is that which the universe now circmmol\es. and afterward* perfect when ho it made. iNIoieover. is it not necessary.KL S 01 of the \\orhl. to the left. at For they proceeded one and the same time from the Deminr^us.] TIM. of which he is indigent. is evident that lie doe. in order elUcthc energy In* may product.tus For it.lt.icc. let us duvet our attention to Severus. Faither still.lt. to making. making according therefore having an energy which is in want of time. does he product it through t&amp. and that which motes. hut that he passes from not How time.noiiK I. hand. and originated from a certain principle. that it is not proper to transfer fabulous enigmas to phy For liow is it po^-ihl: that the soul which moves the unherse. however.And how doe&amp.not belong to natures which energize eternally. who says world simply considered is indeed perpetual. therefore. lie IJiit iftliere w which did not make. cannot be otherwise. w hen both that w hich mo\ed.lt.iui trns -honld remain invariably the same. Afl&amp. who say that the world once was was a time in which the Demiunrns did not that make For (hat which as a time in made. but the. This interpretation. there prior and posterior ahont him. 1 ! doires mutation I low can there he an alternate change of circulations. according to the demiurgic will.rij ^f Ottrtpov t* apirrtpn. sliould siology. il it ? i&amp. is was then a maker in capacity. The world therefore is generated. that tin a*. if it once \vas not. that tiie circulation of the nature whicli is characterized by sameness. he Mas imperfect.lt. it is not generated. moved to the ri^lit hand. -JJU the not.F. but that this which now For there are twofold circulations..

of which it or tins is nuleeij in a certain roped participates.lt. and the v smlriue uu^ht -i/Tpu In inlf n^. As that which now always becoming and at the time always was hecomin^ is is to be.lt. .f cni i&amp. nor simply because Fur intellect aUo to say this..gt.ir mini !&amp.te of intrrrounliuii lit-ri . ! After what manner is therefore. and all tilings ie.gt. IJody there- e.&amp. when it it is adapted to to science. the \eiierahlc. [i.i not only trenerated. ri Kiriu ri/v &amp.J44 1 HOCLIS ON Til 1 1 .lt. through tiie hefore from a cause since it is not proceeds from the lir-t cau^c. 1 or where d&amp. the unnerve generated sani&quot. nnnerse is I true. is show from For it manner the universe said to he generated. vTrtdi-rtTt. afiuv&amp. |&amp.gt. energy. if all \&amp.lt. it may to he. And thus let much us in opposition to these interpretations.ii:itii &amp. and not according to truth. that there is is if a is Deminr^us of demonstrated a producing . lamhlichus. or a^ain. . we !l tin ri/i &amp. For from admitting that the world \\as generated. and causes For if the precedaneous motion to waste away. inru* nfpytiai i.lc.c iijijilii il.| i TI r(. thebejfinnini. e. when is it \v:s becoming and not at generated. . [BOOK n. from the demiurgic prox ideiice.int out the ^oods imparted to by the Cods. It is also according to Aristotle always - in the end. but there in also a time to /&amp.i&amp. are yenerated he said.f&amp.gt.l in i lhi&amp. the (t lrtiyx the solar-form liiiht I or hemi^ temporal.nc. -n: (In- \\ord t ti. thiii j&amp. unc are from a cause. to rest.lt.gt.. ami to pass on to another. what is the cause of the second circulation these interpretations which it continued ti\ed in the same ! By no means. For it is not that which partial. uccordiilt.erpetiial. hastens to the contrary. fore.is is always generated. and 1 I is always becoming \ to be.\i/0FWf.gt.py m. i.t tarui j &amp.gt.lt.lt. with After m&amp.. proceecls from its proper fountain. For the perspicuous. and the doctrinal method. is neither so according to it Miflicient afler l/ic mentioned arguments.o according to conception.lt. i&amp.gt. |)!.md demiurgic can-e of it. and always produced. that the * admitted to he generated for the sake of perspicuity. partial lint generated. Or it may he said. is For the one is prior to eternity.gt.gt. yet is not is is sufficient to the theory of 1 lato.gt. to t-mp(ral inliiiiiy.gt.gt. motion of the universe! For every thirty which is about to erase from its former motion.i. as those which For thus we may infer aseriln* generation to the world. the same time that which body] is the whole world alone suhsi-ts wti. or rising into existence. though they are more rational.X. are are not physical to lr admitted. thus also the world . ho\\c\er.IIT/&amp.lt. I all things are not generated. alter \\hat tii Aiiain. and at the i. al&amp.tl ilii-t-ntl. in conception only.lt. in&amp.. in order that we ma) learn what the numerous ^nods arc.gt. i&amp.urr. . &amp. must such explanations be adopted. Illll^t ri llriur ~/&quot. says For admitting also ihat it uniuTse is po-iMe p&amp.ili\c. s the eternal suh^ist. : . that there the universe. IS then-Ion*.

evident since Dnuiiir^us also is llnis who produces denominated. For as he about to call that which w . and as generated.-n.-signified that which from a certain genera led is thinir.TIM/L:US rune. hem-.*&amp. &amp. et/v//(Y/ instead of it is generated.fin-rated . who acknowle. from having a hody l as then- an eternal and not that ? &amp.ctiiai . beini. on which account also it is generated.v generated was . But when you see it animated For thus Plalo iti the Uepnbhe thinks lit a dirinc generated a But In in this dialogue.gt.lt. reater decree blessed (joil. is evident from its For to this opposite.r u as always to ni&quot. For it which always was hecomin. I he. though he has an immortal soul. r Plato opposes perpetual beinu If. it and the para- diliin likewise signifies Hence. l/tc n&amp.. and not denominate it iniliegolten. ad of is : for Ins is words are&quot. which is It is said. however. which now which (lie is according to time thus also ii i\ &quot. and a divine intellect prior to this. the was and all are the same. when it is assumed according to a certain time. llie That is per|&amp.lt. hut so far as it \ / participates of lime.tr nre in alone generated. says insi // &amp. which participates of temporal perpetuity Some one. lieiiiir. bcomin lx-in &amp.gt.rj\ for limits are there accord is ing to sameness. not is in him yet co-arranged with MII|.gt. on account of its soul. [or that which always is. is always according to time. iieneraled. however. or its intellect it a hody.becoming to le./. you say that For do we not Socrates mortal. . \vliy do we say that it is generated on account of its hody. it is. is called perpetual Ueini.: to he. wiictln-r all it just as -iLraifs of [real] . denomi he in nate the world. a divine soul. &quot. why we have hefore said that the world is generated.lt. Ix-cause the animal which we now consider ilh intellect. lo us. since the things are in .. corporeal-formed nature of the universe. and endued w lir calls it you may tiling. same tiling in every seiisihle nalnr.&amp.r knowing he says it this. For that which is it \ not opposed to the eternal. But that a thin&quot. &amp. And it it . B ll if eternal . however. it time always was so.lt. - L For &quot. we must say that what is alone a composite is generated. composite likewise is always compos!. lo be. Asa But if composition is gniicratmn.lt.generated. yon will speak rightly. therefore. therefore. does not indicate proceed lo I more impartih!e lhan and / r/v. as that / hat \\hicli is simply a composite. which always is. all -/&quot. o 45 ills ^cnerated. For as in the intelligible. is mortal ? If. call it a Cod.lijes this may nevertheless donht. time.lt. that which is originating would he said to Ix.] manilests the eternal. with whirh to he .eneraied concurs.lt. hypostasis. the very words also is In-fore a celebrates the universe. manifests that which perpetual is simple.. that the whole world is every where characterized from form call and not from the subject nature. or PLATO. so far as is generated.appears tint l*lato\W&amp.t uas.

&amp. stration. in order thnt as all or the universe. to In. TH x fl &quot. or this will cause \\hat said to he truly a demon natures. He likewise conjoins the becoming to be of it. though it is ha\e before said. how seientifn ally from lie definition.tra- perfectly requisite. his not adding ifnit tclitclt is ikxtnu titilc to tluit his re\erential IHC/I /. .1&quot.the object of opinion hypotheses indeed. that it is gem-rated. soul] generated. in but to the demonstration onler that he tions is may make the definition to he I th. gotten. lie invei N the order.according to the same. in the same manner as un be .gt.lt. as we for consequent [to the being generated]. For in the . Hence also. thus also he calls the world generated. Fur it antecedently compre by them.gt..i.iry lo rt .pect in a certain true that the world this is conceptions of the world. &amp. And according toils corporeal-formed it. For opinion through pos. rtivt \&amp. he calls is it. Moreover.. all generation. in d&amp. r&amp.i is generated according to time.v iv/&amp.a roi k Xd-. For ort if that which yi Tut &amp. but adds also that what sensible in since sense indeed knows the energy of seiisibles. which he ou^ht to admire who thinks that the world was generated according For this generated nature which he calls the olject of opinion. yet he does not .- middle term.i ^iip N . he may evince that it is perfect and being. though For it is not when to eternal natures. of seiisibles to object of opinion.s in through \\hich it happy. generation.ul &amp. consequence of sidli/ring essences.v generated .lt. to Plato in time.ing the reasons ol generated introduces that Plato the order of cause* with is reference to them.gt. therefore.-ds the- demonstration t is worthy of admiration.lt.gt. is destructible. but opinion knows also their In order. :i generated. would be philosopher does not call it both tlu-M.lt. fur this ridii nlous but lit call* it incorruptible.u!d it. \i/.gt.assumes the converse. he defined that which is generated of that which is generated.lt. he forms his demonstration from that which is the Farther still. according to 1 time.//. and is call* d a &amp.es&amp.i i.. . liaxint. Hence the world both destructible and incorruptible. denominated generated. but the world is is not destructible at the same lime that yet the \ is generated.od.gt. in Hence is it appears to me . h. with // . diminished by a juxtaposition with the eternal. * | Instead of rtt ij ynp oi. that he might e\ ince the essence lie hends the reasons of (hem. omitting the di\ine po\\er.lt./.n Jl c * iu i I NS. not satisfied with the term sensible is order to demonstrate that the the object of opinion world is generated.24({ PROCLUS ON THK [BOOK n he attributes an nnbegotten subsistence imbejrotten [viz. that which exhibits tons the caution and reverence of Plato: at the same time it dt stiuclible . as i&amp.-mo:i&amp. X.V. of a certain and not of nature. is At the same time. shows re&amp.lt. it proc-&amp. but as ha\ ing He likewise assigns to it the principle its essence in lime.gt.

-lf connected body.gt.. to it itself is H alter motive..i:i S 01- PLATO. tioa of it he i. always in and always uus generated nut receiving* at It i% wlmlc itijinity of tfie oeccsarv \\trt lo supply /irj ^cyn/icroi. so nature destructible. since every tiling incorporeal. in addition to beinjj generated. -public..r which is and is always trenerated. incorruptibility to itself.lt. however. that ye-u may aUo investigate the corruptible iu energy. so &amp.ly either constvpimce of ^enerative or connec every tlii:i- tive of iNelf. is cHvclur of a certain tiling.it Hut i. Hvery tiling tlierefore connective is iinpartilile. thus a!-o so f. is the essential p-ner. therefore.ir //- at&amp. N\ e reply. since. own parting. For every thin from an immoveable cause. according to its own proper nature it is intellectual] fabrication. is from producing cause. and tin.lt. from the perpetual proceeding Since.gt. n\ w. power? likewise il therefore.n 217 is corruptible. as p Tlaiu-&amp.lt. more. once So that tlic it is tikcays generated.. viz. it is alwa\s generated from the father. not as bein^ adapted to corruption. the motion of it is always in the end. it always was I not imperfect.c l. likewise.ul it which makes ji For though a fxx/i/. but which connects which in its is is incorporeal. is allotted a never-failing nature. . however. t/it makcx hi/ incui-pnrcnl iiccrx. that that is which its. that this reaMinin^ likewise. or becoming t () j^ jyencrated. \\hicli generates incorporeal.gt.l &amp. For as it is moved from thence. nor as corruptible in capacity. But since the world bein^ all generated. or moved by pertains to rise. \\liirli it itself destructible. ilse!f is body not connective of itself. generates makes. has its it the perpetual. which s&amp.K ii. so tiie according to the world will have and a whole.gt. voi fd is dt sti HC(i/ifi\ f. Hence that connected by nature a neces- suily impartible.] TIM.lf. as is Aristotle savs. as it is t/ic said lo he in (he U that / which &amp. is il is partible. As therefore body has own finite power. Hence it is impossible for that which connects For it is not the province of body to connect. as it is body. as generated ijenerated from thence.gt. as lint all tilings are bodies is the Sophista against those who assert it is said in Tml that whirli connect^ i^ impartible. lining Urn. it is elli-ctive of union. in is Ji. connected by something is For no lto&amp.\. therefore. the perfection of its maker. .lt.-nd. 1C. undii|iated. should l&amp. e. i-. since so far itself to be a body. Much . K\ery lliin^. from the immoveable [i. but as not naturally capable of preserving itself. in is incorruptible is connect it. IJiit e\ery tiling which is eilective is impartible. also the da .moniacal Aristotle says.ir as inj. ^ hence.is ui. but as incapable of im in it&amp.lt. imitating. likewise it i&amp. For corporeal another.I. and whence does it receive inlinite. and every tiling which connects..

says that But Aristotle subsistence to the universe. is an efl ec live cause. . Hence the world is in a cerlain re&amp. generation Plato and Aristotle] After tliis manner. lioth likewise assert that is romp* acknowledge that the same l . to the essence of the heavens. the d.livskJ but dwelling more than liiplu-r on physical which ^ will. the ha\ ing no intellectual pe. power infmitv is it is ptm-ratcil.e time. discuions aiccmls uo this than intelligible all intellect. vi/. this simply always exists. celestial (iods : for according to him. therefore. the perpetuity ofthe world remains. which he gives producing cause.(ion of possess. inlinile power. hut is not. it principles. IMato attril. in numher. same time that eternity no infinite powf r whatever can he present with a fmile hotly.sirahle. from And the former. e. as fabrication and providence are from principles.pect generated. asserting whole it. account of inlinile time. It is therefore alone true to say. for generation is conjoined with time. it receives to that which pertains alone it is eternal ^m rat ul infinite belongs to that Aristotle himself it w hich is is temporal lied to . according to tht instantaneous from tins paver. co-extended with all time. is accustomed to do Aristotle. Hut Mich things Aristotle asciiU-s to the heavens. Aristotle attributes to their circular motion is lit departing indeed from theological Aristotle in his luttjj. hut Plato conformably to or he established prior to the universe a is generated. together with motion: for time according For such this in his other Treatises. 1 and the these. him the first caue.risting power of its Maker. hut a For It.gt. does not admit that any eternal nature essence of the universe. however.ire not at variance.248 1 ROCLUS ON THE [BOOK u. and the of it takes place .utes to the demiurgic intellect. And perlup* wa in of knowing that coiiM-qtiri. Hence it follows.gt.cc brjoiul tin* intilli-tl is truly inetfjlde. /u infinite generated. that from infinite because it is finite. they differ. that which is imparted. on iircnunt of And participation of infinity. . hut never has the that the world Ix-ing rorpoival always receive*. Such things also IMato ascribes . At the same is because IMato says. lint if on . indeed. it. generates time together w ilh the to him i* that which is numbered. hut on its own account is not aide to receive the same at once. as secondary natures. that the essence of the hut Aristotle supposes that it tmi\er&amp. infers ascribes to it to he necessary at tintemporal through many arguments. iufmitely. and receiving something from it receives the same infinity. the nonthings as IMato asserts of /7/c one. Aristotle ascnhes to intellect. however. and He likewise demonstrates that i* stable infinite power. hut the hitler indeed.ce| . but always according to the now possessing the ability ofc. of infinity. and in this resjwct the In-fore mentioned men [\. .on of multitude.

therefore. was devised by him after a manner different [from its apparent meaning]. Every thing generated. that whatever is generated. but every thing generated certain cause. viz. being generated is present to the world. And we memory. is is unbegotten is also incorruptible. however. For it is necessary to investigate this shall sec as immediately what kind of arguments Plato uses on after the present demonstration. is perfected from that Thn it because be discussed metaphysics physically. But we say cause. this subject. or becoming to bo. since Plato gives in the it . since neither any For every thing which is perfected. from the effective cause. the daemoniacal Aristotle is very copious in the reciprocations of the generated with reference to the corruptible. that productive powers. he should not give generation to it prior to corruption ! The generation of the universe. and discussing of the unbegotten with reference to the incorruptible. tain cause. generation to the universe. the first hypotheses are in conti suspended The and afford a principle to the demonstrations which are For since it was demonstrated according to the first hypo consequent thesis. it is necessarily generated by a cer in its own nature imperfect. 2 I . just as Plato discussed phj sirs metaphysically. is is we proceed. VOL. &quot. Now. Tim. that the generated. 1 not naturally adapted to perfect itself. it possible. however. is necessarily generated by a certain discussion accords with the hypotheses.] TIM^EUS O* PLATO. therefore. therefore.BOOK ii. or rather with the order of the For as every where form is things from which the hypotheses are assumed. to them. other imperfect tiling. Plato much prior to him assents to these that corruption follows every thing which axioms. so likewise. But is being imperfect. 349 Since.&quot. tiiat the world was generated. is let us briefly recall to our [the reasoning by which it shown] that every tiling which is generated. is generated by a hence the world was necessarily generated by a certain cause. that he should not also introduce corruption to or that corrupting that which is in a confused and disorderly manner. I. How moved Republic indeed asserting but in the Phacdrus. For if the world is a nuity with the second. afterwards that which is consequent to this is demonstrated according to the second hypothesis. What therefore is the producing cause of the universe ? That from which the thing generated. Plat. that it was generated by a cause. through the object of opinion as a medium. he must be reminded.

possible that things unadorned If however the natures.lt. and has But if it is a composite. much more i* it incapable Tor that which perfects itself.Xuricr. .rr. and give Mibsis- an incorporeal essence. But every thing generated. from a cause. and ornament from things unadorned? For every where that which makes is better than its And if indeed the the thing generated. I itself. Again.gt.gt. in iu energy.lt. chance. which in generated. or by another. and that which generates.IMIOCLUS which i ON THE in [BOOK n.T.uf. effect. iltoultl &amp.lt.&amp. of such as have order and arrangement ? rly not another.gt. other? And case And how is commit How how is it and disonh world is can be effective of things that are adorned. is a iUelf.gt. hut that which a composite Instead of in Iliis pl. 1 . it composed by itself. For how thus will compose Will l&amp. unless we intend to make it an accidental thing. than the material causes of the composition of the world. greater fective of another thing. generated. iai &amp. HO that every thing which jM ifccU another IH ulwayi* when it perfect* in energy according to thai form That however. therefore. i* imperfect.lt. it For how must be will not perfected by itself. 1 But if it is perfected by another. is therefore perfected by another. so that it is generated by a certain cause.clling each self-motive.ad is &amp. again it will and we shall ignorantly tiansfer it itself? perfect to itself.gt. Farther still. \r doulillo* r. another thing. or by is either perfected by which is generated being imperfect. But if it cannot perfect another i* riot naturally adapted to perfect another thing. But that which in energy perfect.r.i!.lt.gt. The latter. But it is not perfected by by itself. therefore.&amp. ifp&amp. But if they are the cllieiciit causes. i&amp. so far as it in lo which it give* perfection]. of pcilectmg thing.gt. it Ugenerated.e If therefore it is tence to itself.ii tan. 1 composed by itself.e we shall make what bodies to in this But be from the parts arranging themselves ? Or will it be from im|&amp. or Hence every thing which itself.gt. it is evident that it has this composition is from is a composite. T-rXtiu. it is that which primarily moves them. is also per undertaking than the former. what is it which parts are made them? For this is what we investigate. and from its l&amp. is either perfected by another. evidently dc-fi-tlixc.ia 1 Inxirad f i Ul . Hence if the world is ui n TO -. the whole world to such like impulsions and contrivances? it holy to likewise will there be order from things deprived of order. For it is necessary that composition should posed by itself. it i-ffins rt|uiilr to read ro -fti/t 1 taiiTo rt.OtrK aXXcr Xjiu/rino- un it it onntud in (lie &amp.TT. it is either com hypostasis from dissimilars. it is it is perfected said. the world is a composite.iu.rnojri wliali . HO far as it is generated generated. unless the world is it is evident that &amp. Hence that which is generated.n.op &amp.

says one cause For multitude is co-arranged about one prin precedes the whole of generation. : moved conformably Because. if Plato calls the cause of every thing &quot. verse.enerated. others to nature. is the first of all causes. is For with it. MI here. which is prior to eternity. is manifest. he says. from (lie one . that what generated by a certain cause. that simply God. It is not however wonderful. Plato. the demiurgic monad pre cedes multitude. For the series and order of things which proceed is from to the one. &quot. is simply cause. Hence.* he adds the word certain. concerning which he also says. See the 6th Book of my Transition i of Proclui on the theology of Plato. and others to soul. rated. reasonable immediately to produce that which is generated.gt. and the many unities about the one.BOOK ii. it is the cause of it is all beautiful things. For it is But every divinity posterior to a certain God. and things nearer it. others to dispersed infinite principles. by one cause indeed. however. but from these. from these generation from a cause. For * and when found. have the same signification neither is it is which as. how over. some rank cause with con-causes. generated. give subsistence such as are more remote from &quot. the world therefore has things it is 251 its is composed by a certain Hence too. continued . . ticipahlo. that which gene And that solf-subsislont natures likewise may proceed from which is that are generated by superior to beings that produce themselves. intellectual intellect. the psychical order indeed co-ope it. Jtipitrr or the Demiurgu*. is every eternal nature rated and temporal. those others. others recur to physical powers. dismisses indeed theso causes.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. but that eternal. it to discover the maker and father of this uni men. therefore. in order that from the one. but from an eternal nature. requisite to read r Tlio demiurgic ately illuminate*.articir*Me lxrne it immedi con-*ubiMent with. it has not the first order among causes. therefore. Hence. but supposes that there is one cause which from the cause of all. as differing is The cause therefore of generated natures a cer physiologists. It is difficult. is as for instance.) i* not imr&amp. that may proceed . demiurgic or vivific. this cause. rates. that what is ^oneIt is also well that Plato generated by a certain cause. he denominates this monad a cause for this is significant of are to its will. a certain cause. or monad. but nature ministrant to and all con-causes are subservient to and Because. (i. nor is imparunity. So that the words by a certain cause&quot. yet not the first cause. and not a certain cause . e. it is is impossible to speak of him to all n. For the cause of all things. cause. But with respect to other ciple.&quot. to the principle. tain cause.

and all the mundane causes also But thin universe&quot. together with the divine. and the whole It also signifies the it consists] and the plenitudes of each. because nutter according to Plato proceed* Irtun the Uttier Ph-iues. and so far an the one stably contains the latter of pow-rs and a multiform essence in himself. nor have an hypoIt is power. first and not accident or chance. sustain that we should requisite. which are neither causes. Porphvry however says.i-ns. it is necessary l read in&amp. spheres [of which It in the corporeal masses. nor in short. indeed. the divine soul. 1 For G\IJ Here. but the latter an . who that father is lie who generates the universe from himself. the comprehends about which the number of the mundane Cods proceeds . but maker he receives the matter of it of Plato. vinity. and impart seed together from a non-existent state into existence. examine the words themselves. For avTovt. Father and maker therefore.PKOCLUS ON THE It [BOOK 11. in a seems that the cause. vital and intellectual powers. introduces a rational and divine the well-ordered progression of beings.world and order. immediately after ascends to the God who the DemiurgiiH of it. nml all tilings so far as the former signifies ineflalile and divine providence. cause. and in short. he does not give subsistence to matter. is said to be the/u//ur is the maker or fabricator of it. Hut KO And &quot. rather the those makers who produce any thing far UH the Demiurgus produces which he produces.n. hut the latter of tin.gt. of the formal but r is (lie supplier of being and union. KO far as the former is the cause of matter. :uid * from the Demiurgus. but the builder of a house self generating the matter of which from another. but the other is the cause of progression and generation . or animal itrlf.il conceptions. For it nature of the progeny. however.t \&amp. maker as producing form ? For we that Is not the call all demiurgus therefore. which ride as it were l the whole divinity of the world. corporeal masses. static artificial manner worthy of his iiiU-llectir.lt. this is true. he is father. and of certain living beings. because. differ from each other. us not him it consists. thus much concerning signifies this particular. according to Tiin. there was no occasion to call the Oeinimgus father. Hence Aristo indeed. the one di and the whole bulk of the world. If however.ir indeed as the 1 l orm&amp. For fathers are with the causes of animals. thut Plato having shown that is the world was generated by n cause. and after wards thus recur to the whole theory. and so f.lt. . abundant communication of productive principles. in conjunction with life. life. it is necessary to read airmi. ha* been rightly observed by some prior to UH. likewise.

Moreover. different parts We must likewise to the have beheld the all-various souls. according to 1 reminiscence difficult. and such as are parts. should in- vis. that the soul becoming an intellectual world. the rational and the irra tional. the discovery from such things as are first may said to be because the invention of the intermediate powers. And farther still. All these there fore must be assumed for the unirtrsc . we must have surveyed both the more the stable physical reasons. the undefdcd and he material. 1 and auain. and being assimilated as much * as possible to the whole intelligible world. since it signifies all these.eing cause it is the \isible universe But the term this comprehensive of all intellectual forms. thing imperfect to be conjoined with that which is all-perfect. Perhaps like wise the addition of (he pronoun this. the perpetual and the mortal. l&amp. For he who without having seen these is impelled to the survey of the Demiurgus.gt. be certain re&amp. and natures themselves. is adapted to It is difficult therefore. is significant of the universe in a For the intelligible universe is not this. and the ineffable and eflable impressions of the world through which it is conjoined with the father. . is nearly more than the former. which is allotted a sensible and material nature. From axioms and is definitions. such as are wholes. difficult But the discovery from such things as are secondary. For since with respect to discovery one kind proceeds scientifically from such things as are fust. * For 1 1| here. but another journeys on from things of a secondary nature. intellectual.] TIMJEL S OF PLATO. and the natures of mortal animals. 253 and corporeal-formed number that is conjoined with the For every monad has a multitude co-ordinate to itself.lt. the different numbers of Gods according of the universe. the immaterial and material. and the prerogatives which are superior to ours.lt. world. psychical. is more imperfect than is I5ut it is not lawful for any requisite to the intellectual perception of the father. and the unapparent natural powers which it contain*.pir*rrr/xif omitted the original. total and the more partial. in M&amp. it if requisite to read k. l&amp.s necessary. For if we intend from these to survey the essence of the Deiniurgus. to discover the Deiniurgus of this uni \erse. according to which the sympathy and antipathy of the parts in the world subsist. all and his other powers. the genera which are under life. all the visible parts of the world.gt.noon u. through which every thing between the (Jods and the mortal nature are bound together. as Plato says. the divine and d Demoniacal. Prior to these also. pertains to the high . it is necessary that we should have beheld the nature of the things generated by him. it i.pect sensible and partial.e est theory.

e ing. nicett with and embraces his falli. and the light of science. and finds a nation &quot.254 troflhce herself to the PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. calls forth and resuscitates energy.. should \vit!i him through a continued intellectual For uninterrupted energy ahout any thing. in a certain respect Ijecome familiar maker of the universe.sthe true labour of souls.haruiii.- ihrou-hly energi/e according to the intuitive perception is at lenytli able to by the evi re ise of ihe cathartic virtues. p. she then considers scientific energy to him. to 1 l&amp.s and seas are unknown. a contact with the intelligible. rification.it the person of Ulysses in the Odyssey represented to us a man who passe* manner over the dark and stormy sea of generation and thus at length arrives at (hat region .gt.lt. and does not come into contact with the intel intellectual itself. .r (i. more intellectual. of the o/ttthan viz. Nuincnius. it is necessary that we should be united to him. lectual essence of the Demiurgus. in nay Restoration of the Platonic Theology. with her father. i&amp. t. This is 1 in consequence of a union with the Demiurgus beiug so allude* to the fabulous lift- much buperior to scientific per ception. a repul. to associate alone with the covery and to see him himself. and a union For may properly be denominated diflicult.gt. for not very remote from the irrational life. and composite-. and conjoining light with light.e in lh- Ody^cy. Pythagorean in he thought th. Such therefore bious.oe b. JOt. banquets together with him on the truth of real be discussions to is this.f This appears also to h. for this is du Neither is it scientific . not that which is doxastic .gt. But through this familiarity.af&amp. purely establishing such as that of her in intellections.r &quot. or heard ihe billows roar. placing the soul in the father as in a port. not demiurgic science.lt.r. e intellectual legion&quot.gt. of a man who purified in a regular manm-r from miblc to an intellectual aud who In-in. but more beautiful. and from this introduction. For being present but words. Proclu* litre wandering of |&amp.gt. presenting itself to souls after every evolution of life.y ocullly indicate* the life. t&amp. an undefiled union with him. this Hut it is that \\hich subsists according to intellectual vision with the demiurgic intellect. Fur Momor then* l&amp. after pu a. For dis meet with him. intellectual energy and the intellect winch is in us shine forth.) where teiiijH sl.opinion or Philosophy. of intellect. and this is syllogistic the discovery of the father. this. and in is pure splendor is purely initiated in entire and stable visions. For this is the paternal port. door of the father. a we are informed by Porphyry in his trrali-e De Antro Nyui|&amp. and thui after becoming re-uiiiied to Penelope &amp. to be united to him.lt. becoming stationed at the our [dormant] ideas. the 1 &amp.-en tin.* and partaking more of the nature and the discovery of the father. the soul hastily withdrawing herself from every other alone. Who See more onlhis subject ne er kntw salt.lt. or For after the wandering about generation. either as hard to obtain.scs t lyf.

of the multitude arc not strong enough to look to truth. For it is better to than 1 to say as he 1 v /irj. and explain it to others. through nouns and verbs? For the evolu which is conversant with composition. cannot exhibit a uniform and simple \\ hat then. but we do not speak of each of th&amp. own [to way proper motion. who the what order of beings he belongs. For different philosophers among the ancients were led to different opinions on this subject. offspring. but not intellectually. indeed. as Plato say sin his Epistles. nature.gt. the first and the second God. be sufficient lo following the light of science. than And how when having thus found it. And we are able indeed to speak scienlijicaify of them.}. but is seen through in el lection alone. X. the natures. some one may say.nooKi. is to discover them. For the world according to him is the third God. But to sty perhaps indicates the cuslom of the Pythagoreans. but through being silent with For since the essence of other things union].. and to So that with him the Demiurgus is is two-fold. c t vpovra \tyuv it is necessarj to r*ad. and the third that which is made. aay this. it is necessary here lo supplj . t in what ether way can intellectual energy is ? it by be possible to discover the essence of the Demiurgus. 255 that when found it is impossible to speak of him to all men. For is a silence of the soul.assertions about divine For as the Elean uuest says. flowing through the mouth. and even of the one itself? To this we Demiurgus.] &quot. Nor was it made being converted/ to the divine light. therefore. not naturallyadapted to be spoken of. or through definition. reply.lt. After these tilings. or through science. For IS umenius. .m itself. and that which fabricated is the third God.. survey lead that which is light. but closing her eyes. viz. But if the discovery this. Demiurgus is. rjt. fttfc rvporrn CM crr ii i . we speak indeed about them. eyes Perhaps also this may ho said which is much more venerable. nephew. and by her b^ing moved with her a silence which leads the is father of the universe to speak of him to certain persons For the discovery was not made by the soul speaking. calls the first father. and did nof divulge tin in to all men. celebrating three Cods. but the second maker. either through a name. does speaking tragically. 1&quot. TIM/EUS OF PLATO. rjt. has seen him. who had arrant. that it is impossible for him who has discovered the maker and such as he. is it possible to tell what tion seen. do we not assert many things about the and about the other Gods. as we have before observed. For * n-rrrrTpn^jiit it it It qilisite to read fwtfrpafifitt &amp. grandfather. how can speech discovered into let us. fi/rara Ji/iaroc eo-a He how- For nrur.

For one divine fabrication.] i* just as if some one. first. man is inconsistent in what he says according to the doctrine of three Gods and so far as he makes the Demiurgus to be two-fold. with certain things. with the natures that are under and posterior to it. good with these other causes.gt.say there are tvo fabrications. !ecau. to refer these indeed to the first. Heaven and the But again changing the order he calls the first Cod Dia. with him Jupiter. Numenius co-arranges that which is exempt. . but to take away from 1 it all habitude. is the paternal are apparent in the not right to divide father and maker. it would l&amp. Father aud tinker are apparent in the intelligible and intellectual. the preceptor of Ilarpocration.25 ever. Instead of TOJTOI here. indeed. Neither therefore. and the king of the intelligible hut he denominates the second Cod. immediately makes the Demiurgus be the same with the good. in determining things of this kind about the Demiurgus. is divinity.se Plato calls the universe both heaven and the world. and ofl spring. should . since Plato celebrates one and the same Cod by both these names. and the offspring of an offspring. and one maker and father. With respect to Ilarpocration. and afterward* iu the other orderi of Gods. Numenius says there the other maker. World. It is necessary. from all habitude. the second. For he calls the first God. and the other the world a two-fold demiurgic Cod. But Atticus. from whom Parmenides takes away all things. but he denominates him father. every name. nature of the maker orders of adapted to the it. cannot endure to call the first God guage. And we. Saturn. and Heaven. and all habitude. But father with it arranged as the second to maker. but not the good. the sense evidently requires that we should read first onjrow. to divulse the one cause [of the \\orld. and the same Heaven and Saturn. one heaven. all lan all these . the ruler. it it requisite to read ef^pij^oof. nor lias Plato [in the text] is For it place does not rightly con-numerate the not naturally adapted to be conjoined an order secondary to another. The first God therefore. Farther still. however. He is also denominated by him intellect. the one father. but he says that the good to * For fffjprrj^oo* * 1 in thii place. is even father . the is juntas here. if he were consistent For this with himself. and the third. Itut . .e wonderful. PROCLUS ON THK who assorts these things. And by following names. For these things it is Gods posterior to In the third place. are every where delivered by Plato. in the first is [BOOK n. Dia and Zena. though the Demiurgus is called good by Plato.

all 2.Saturn. For the whole intelligible is one many. I. three intellects. and . or assert. Or For rather. and with Orpheus and Demiurgi. and calls it by the name of Jupiter. its same with fore. this case. It is worth while. from which the order in the many proceeds. there is an exempt father and maker. and subsist. and thus the good. one being him that exists. And always precedes multitude according to the every divine order originates from a monad. it But these differ. Phanes. to observe to him. there will he something more ancient and honorable than thcgvnd. another him that possesses. will it is in the posterior to the Demiurgus.gt. therefore. as we may learn in the Republic. hut the other the leader and ruler of the he says rightly.shows that this is the first God. is especially the Demiurgus.BOOK is ii. Plat. and the Jovian intellect Just as if some one should say. that there arc these three intellects there are three kings. The is conjoined intelligible. And he who. And Aristotle . however. there is. that the spheres of Saturn. that divine number should proceed from the triad 2 Tim. Demiurgus. and is one him. Mars. because the first intellect. but it possesses the intelligible which is in and sees the first intellect. one universe. Heaven. After these men. and the third him that sees. is not lawful to intellectually he converted and will perceive them. and or it is is beyond being. unity itself arrangement it of things. by so much the more obscure is that which is possessed. accord king of Saturn. asserts that there is a twofold world. in the intelligihle Plotinus the philosopher. for every intellect is the is. that every where Plato is accustomed to recur from multitude to the unities. But again. and \Vhat then will Atticus in Demiurgus. participates entirely of it. prior to Plato. to itself. Amelius. For there. is also the intelligible which it contains . He supposes. For by how much greater the interval the second. is necessary. l&amp. is Phanes. according to him. the true heaven. makes a threefold Demiurgus. which Plotinus places in the intelligible. the the intelligible. . are in the heavens. and on this account is the second intellect. indeed. say concerning the paradigm? For it is either prior to the.57 the ransc of essence. and says that with Plato also three. But the third. indeed. VOL. but has the intelligible prior second. intellect comprehensive of many intclligibles. is tru/y that which the intelligible which is in it. which it to things posterior to itself. and three kings. For the mundane intellect is in a certain Demiurgns of the universe. Plotinus therefore philosophizing asserts these things. K .] TIMJEUS OF PLATO.e many things . and the first (Jod will Demiurgus. calling respect the And every thing between the ing to otic and the world. denominates it Fate. Jupiter.

not also be one Demiurgus prior to the many. so that his own theology. i says. is able to partake of the demiurgic providence. but never calls him soul ? How also mundane natures? For all does the Demiurgus proceed through all do not participate of soul. whether Plato knew that there is a the divine lamblichuH has written much against therefore. and be monadic. unless may proceed For it is by a much greater priority necessary ? it was fabricated by one cause be united. but above the psychical order. and the intelligible paradigms of the Such causes. the opinion of Porphyry. the intelligible world. whom we now what comprehending possesses in himself. he calls the whole intelligible asserts the same thing as Plotinus. so as to be according to it is him the paradigm of the Demiurgus. in order that the world may that the cause itself should monad is prior lo the triad. confirmation. soul is not naturally adapted to produce any thing generate intellect and duds. how is Farther still. is this conformable to Plato. whom worth while to ask. If. and has subverted it as being Plotinian but delivering world the Demiurgus. but all things things How And divine production. likewise. dod. who continually deno ? minates the Demiurgus a God does he call the world a Cod and intellect. multitude.&quot. who it possible that there should one paradigm. How. order that the triad Where. therefore. the demiurgic in one. Porphyry thinking to accord with Plotimis.lt. h&amp. id the demiurgic monad. he intends to signify that in the 1 Demiurgus all things subsist demiur- i. in which of his writings Plotinus makes soul to be the Demiur-us. mundane soul the Uemiurgus. and the world is one. is all things in nature. and the principle of generated natures. . likewise. therefore. but tlio intellect of it to which calls (he superit is converted. but makes the world to be only begotten? looks indeed to the should originate from a triad. He . animal itself. In the next place. that from what has been baid. as we admit to have an world. therefore. After Amelius. in from it ? How likewise is the world one. I omit to say that this very thing itself requires much certain imparticipable soul. existence prior to investigate. in here said.. it is evident Thus we call that which truly cause. A Boul which is nol comutuisteut wilh body. these. e. in his Commentaries. become only begotten. &quot. indeed. but \vlio is the one For no one of the divine orders originates from Demiurgus prior to the three? if the paradigm is one. it is not proper that the demiurgic number but from a monad.PROCLU3 ON THE but the OOOK ti. Hence. Let there then IMJ three Demiurgi .

yet speaks of it more accurately For writing concerning the fabrication the intelligible triads. as is likewise animal itself? For shall we not thus compelled to say. Nor is it at all wonderful.e not an eternal being? Unless the Demiurgus likewise is comprehended together with other eternal beings. intelligible triads. But they say that the second is collective of the Gods are celebrated of them perfection of things of this kind.BOOK ii. to himself. That lambliclms himself. if we also say that the urgus is the whole intelligible order. another 1 connectivity. the indivisible. I fie according to Plato. For he says that assert that the first third order th \se three intellect is an by the Pythagoreans. that which is collective of the three Gods. after a different subject of doubt . fathers fit and we may urge against this assertion the arguments which For where are the kings that are prior to Jupiter. may and be from thence assumed.ds of the 1 elsewhere. * here necessary to supply u wcpwr. we the derive from him. that which is generative of divine life. And all such like assertions. that which abides and is united in itself. though he here celebrates the demiurgic order in a more confused manner. of Jupifer in the Tima-us. that which proceeds 1 Instead of ru* fn rpt-rruf. who is himself perpetual being. one ? whom we Demi he thinks to arrange above the world next to the first How likewise can say that perpetual being itself being. and to Orpheus who says : For in Jove Jove s s ample dwelling all things lie. For the three triads of the intelligible and at the same follows time intellectual Gods.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. and are ? of Jupiter Where is are the kings. but. one demiurgically. and who deliver such like indications of its transcendency. But if he says that the whole extent between the world and the one. however. Ami in belly they together flow. It is it is necessary to read rov t frifTpcrrirvt. this deserves to become the should bo the universe. that which gives completion to energy. who comprehending in itself whole monads. he attributes the hebdomad to the Demiurgus. is the Demiurgus. and being itself. and that the most beautiful indications of it are divine fecundity. that the Demiurgus is l&amp. and the intellectual bebdouud . the simple. and the three trh. another convertivcly. and another in some other way according to a divine peculiarity. after intelligible at the in the intellectual same time intellectual Gods.gt. lie 259 speaks conformably both gically. the boniform. immediately follow th as the third in order. that each of the Gods manner. another immutably. and the intelligible world.

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK

m

and that which is beneficent. And they teach us that of the third every where, who fabricates wholes, the most beautiful signatures are, prolific progressions, total causes, together with total causes defined the productions and connections of

and oilier things similar to these. It is proceeding fabrications to form a judgment of the lambliehean theology from these worth while, therefore, what tin- nature of it is respecting the Demiurgus of things, and to determine be the whole of perpetual being, if indeed how can the For
liy

forms,

all

\i

holes.

Demiurgus

it is has bet n already deliued by Plato but he now says that when found, impossible to speak of him to all difficult to find the Dciniurgus, and men ? And how can these things be \erilied of that which is definitively delivered,
;

jH-rpetual

l>emg

and unfolded

into light to all those that were present

.

that there are After latnbliclms, therefore, Theodorns, following Amelius, says lie arranges them, however, not immediately after the one, three Demiurgi. of the intelligible and at the same time intellectual Gods. but at the

extremity

He also

calls the first

an essential

intellect, the

the third, the fountain of souls, the second, divided into wholes,

lie likewise says, that the first

second, an intellectual essence, and is indivisible, but

and the third receives a division into particulars. to the illustrious same things must be said to him as were Again, therefore, the that there are three Cods, or (lods Amelius; viz. that we indeed acknowledge that there are three Demiurgi, but that analogous to these, yet we do not admit
>aid

the intelligible of the Demiurgus, the second, his generative power, to con and that the third is truly the demiurgic intellect. It is likewise requisite for power of souls is to be arranged as the third sider whether the fountain as he somewhere says; and thus it must be denominated pertains to the middle, For the fountain of souls, not called the universal fountain of life. partially, ami contained in this mi. Idle [or generative power of the De is one of the fountains there For life is not in souls only, nor in animated K.itures alone, but miurgus.] to the psychical life, which is said to is also a di\ine, and an intellectual, prior from thence, from divided ri\ers. And such, in short, are the proceed diversely the Demiurgus. dogmas of the ancient interpreters concerning this relate the opinion of our preceptor [Syrianus] on 1st us, however, concisely that it especially accords with the conceptions of Plato. think Hibjecl, as we the
first is
:

For o\vr here,
*
lntra<l

it is

necessary to

reail

o\o.
wf>*

of T. ru

It

TUV y^rvr
it

re *a.

0-,

I

retl tw

t^aray

rv roijrwx

.

X.

1

For ioy/iarw* Lere,

is

necessary to read io-y^aro.

1*00 K

no

TIM;EUS or PLATO.
therefore,

20 i

The one Demiurgus,
intellectual divine

according to him,

1

subsists at the extremity of the

partial fathers of wholes. Bein<r, however, himself immoveahle, he is eternally established on the summit of Olym pus,* and rules over the twofold worlds, the supereclestial and the celestial, com

the total

monads, and the fountains of fabrication, and presides over the more

life.

But he emits from himself

prehending also the beginning, middles, and ends of wholes. For of the whole demiurgic order, one part is a distribution of wholes totally, another of wholes partially, another of parts totally*, and another of parts partially. Fabrication,
1

therefore,

l>eing

fourfold, the demiurgic

monad

binds to

itself

the total providence

of wholes; but a demiurgic triad, is suspended from it, which rules over parts Just again, as in the other, totally, and over the divided power of the monad. or the partial fabrication, a monad is the leader of a triad, which orderly distri
butes wholes partially, and parts partially. Hut all the multitude of the triad dances fas it were] round the monad, and being divided about it, distributes its Of the many Demiurgi, therefore, there is productions, and is filled from it.

one Demiurgus [who is the monad of the rest], in order that all things may consequent to each other, viz. the one, the paradigm in intelligibles, the one intelli
gible asserted,

l>e

Demiurgus, the one only-begotten world. If, however, these things are rightly the Demiurgus of wholes is the boundary of intellectuals, established indeed in the intelligible, but being full of power, according to which he produces On this account also Tima-us calls wholes, and converting all things to himself.

and the best of causes, and says that he looks to the intelligible order that by this he may separate him from the first intelligible paradigm Gods. But by calling him intellect, he distinguishes him from the intelligible and at the same time intellectual Gods. And by denominating him the best of he establishes him above all the other supermundane Demiurgi. For he causes, him
intellect,
;
ir>

denominates the causes demiurgic, ay also he had said, Every thing ge ll hen therefore an nerated is generated by a cause? and adds, artificer, Hence the Demiurgus is an intellectual God, exempt from all the Demiurgi. If,
"

l>efore

"

c."

1 1

in this place, it is obviously requisite Jo read ai/ror. dwells eternally in the highest intellectual splendor. Instead of wwt yap ir/^ oi^y<rtjt X., here, it u requisite to read
avri)i>

For

i.

e.

He

(

.

rift

yap

.

A.

*

Afitr TO lr ruf oXwr /irpitwi,

it is

necessary to supply the word*, ro t* rwr /*rpwr oXwwc, ia order

to render the division complete.

For rpia&oi here, we must read porao.

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK

11.

lie would alone abide in his however, he was the first among the intellectual Gods, own accustomed manner : for this is the illustrious property of the first. If he was But now, when he the second, he would be particularly the cause of life. with Juno], but when he gene with the Crater [i. e. soul, he

generates

energizes

by himself. Hence he is no other than the third of For his illustrious and principal work is to produce in the intellectual fathers. Fur he produces body not alone, but together tellect, and nut to fabricate body.
rates intellect, he energizes

Nor does his prin but he produces intellect through himself. soul together with the for he generates in producing soul cipal work consist subsistence to intellect, and causes it to himself But he alone
with necessity
Crater.
;
:

by

gives

universe. preside over the has an intellec Existing, therefore, as the producer of intellect, he very properly
tual order.

Hence

also he

is

said by Plato to be both

maker and

father,

and

neither father alone,

extremes indeed, are
intelligibles,

nor maker alone, nor again father and maker. For the father and maker; the former possessing the summit of

series [i. e. to Plumes, Night, Heaven, but the latter possessing the end of the [intellec Saturn, Jupiter, and Bacchus]; And the former being the monad of paternal deity; but the latter tual] order. Between both these, however, in the universe. allotted a

and

Ixjing prior to the royal

lieing

producing power

are father

same time maker, and maker and at the same time father. For each of these is not the same; but in one order the paternal, and in another The paternal, however, is more excellent than the the efl ective has dominion. Hence in the media, though both are in each, yet the former is more furtive. For it is the boundary of the paternal depth,* and the foun father than maker. But the second is more maker than father. For it is the tain of intellectuals.
and
at the
1 t

monad, of

total fabrication.

Hence

I

think the former
is

is

called Metis, but the

The former And seen, but the latter sees. latter Metictct. And the latter is replete with the power of the former. also is absorbed, but in intelligibles, that the latter is in intellectuals. For the former what the former is
the former indeed
is

the boundary of the intelligible, but the latter of the intellectual Gods.

Con

cerning the former likewise, Orpheus says,
In a d*ik caveru these the father made.

1

Vii.

f-ttlu-r

and

at the

same lime maker.

This

God

also

i

Phanej or animal

itself,

and lubsiiti

at llie
*

eilrtiuil>

of the intelligible order.

For

/3o<rov

in this jilace,

we

uiubt rea

BOOK

ii.]

TIM.EUS OF PLATO.
"

263

latter Plato says, Of whom I am the, Dcmiurgus and father In the Politicus likewise, he makes mention of the doctrine of the (if Demiurgus and father; because with the former [i. e. with Phanes] tlie paternal is more predominant, hut with the latter [i. e. with Jupiter] the demiurgic. Each

But concerning the
n-orks"

ot the

Gods however
all tilings.

is

denominated from
he indeed

his peculiarity,
is

hensive of

And
is

who

alone maker,

though each is compre is the cause of mun

father, is the cause of supermundane and and maker, is the cause of intellectual, supermundane, and mundane natures. But he who is alone father, is the cause of intelligibles, of intellectuals, of supermundane and mundane natures. Plato, therefore, admitting a Demiurgus of this kind, suffers him to IK? ineffable and without a name, as having an arrangement prior to wholes in the portion of * For in every order of the Gods, there is that which is analogous to the good. Such therefore is the monad in each world. But Oqihetis gives a name the one.

dane natures,

lie

who

maker and
is

mundane

natures.

He who

father

to the

Demiurgus,

in

consequence of

In-ing

moved

[i.

e.

inspired] from thence

;

whom
is

Plato himself likewise elsewhere follows.
is

For the Jupiter with him, who

prior to the three sons of Saturn,

the

absorption therefore of Phanes, the ideas of
theologist says
:

nil

Demiurgus of wholes. After the things shone forth in him, as the

Hence with

tlie

universe great Jove contain!,
s

Extended xlhcr, heav n

cialtcd plains;

Tiic barren restless deep, and earth renown d,

Ocean immense, and Tartarus profound;
Fountains and
A\ ith
all

rivers,
s

that nature

and the boundless main, ample re alms contain
>

And Gods and Goddesses
All that
is

of each decree;

past,

and

all

that e er shall be.
lies,

Occultly, and

in fair

connection
1

in Jove

s

wide

bellv,

ruler of the skies.*

i.

c.

Vulcan.

*

vii.

The Demiurgus

has an arrangement analogous to
is

t ft e

good.

For as the good
the

monad of
1

the intrlli^iltlc order, so the Derniurgtis

the exempt

monad of

is the exempt tupermundane order.

Celestial

belly

of Jupiter, IMT.UIV-

and sublunar) cause* and effects, are very properly said by Orpheus to ubut in tl* tlifso have a middle Rubnistence between supermundane and Tartarean
is in

natures, just as the belly
4

the middle of the body.
in the original
;

These verses are very defective late in the Orpheus of Herman.

but the learned reader will find them in

correct

264

PROCLUS ON THE

[BOOK n.

himself full of ideas, through these comprehends in Jupiter however, being adds: wholes: which the theologist also indicating
Jove
it

the

first,

and

last,

high-thundering king,
all

Middle and head, from Jove

beings spring.

Jove the foundation of the earth contains,

And
Jove

the deep splendor of the starry plains.
is

a ling by

no

restraint cuiifinM,

And all things flow from Jove s prolific mind. One mighty principle which never fails, One power, one daemon, over all prevails.
Tor
s royal body all thing* lie, and day, earth, water, and the sky. Fire, night

in

Jove

with in himself wholes, produces in conjunction Jupiter therefore, comprehending to her oracles, and and intellectually, according Night all things monadically and the parts of the universe. Night likewise all mundane natures, Cods, be a certain one, and yet each therefore says to him asking, how all things will be separate and apart from the rest:
All things receive inclosed on ev ry side,
In aulhtr
s

wide

ineffable,

embrace

:

Then

in the
let

midst of u-lher place the heav n
earth of infinite extent,
stars, the

;

In winch

The

sea,

and

crown of heav

n,

be

fixt.

But

after

she has laid

down

rules respecting all other productions, she

adds

:

And when your power around

the

whole has ipread

A

chain strong coercive bond, a golden
a ther.
j

Suspend from

This bond which

is

and

indissoluble.

For Plato also says,

derived from nature, soul and intellect, being perfectly strong that animals were generated, bound
calls the divine orders Orpheus, likewise, Homerically
1

with animated bonds.

For

&<vt>

herr,

it is

neceisary to rrtd

0eo.

BOOK

ii.

j

TINLKUS OF IM.ATO.
"

yc,. ,

which are above the world, a golden chain which Plato emulating says, That the Dcmittrgus placing intellect in smil, soul in body, fabricated the universe and that he gave subsistence to the junior Gods, through whom also lie adorns
;
l>nl

;"

the parts of the universe.

If therefore,

who

absorbs Phanes,

in

whom

it is Jupiter who possesses the one power, the intelligible causes of wholes first subsist, who

produces

all things, according to the counsels of Night, and who gives authority both to the other Gods, and to the three sons of Saturn, he is the one and whole

Demiurgus of
the

all

the world,

and has the

fifth

order

among

the kitrjs,

[i.

e.

among

of the royal series,] as it is divinely demonstrated by our preceptor in his Conferences. Jupiter likewise,, is co-ordinate with Heaven and Phanes Orphic and on this account he is both maker and father, and each of these totally.

Gods

That Plato, however, had these conceptions respecting the mighty Jupiter, is manifested by him in the Cratylus from names for lie .here shows that he is the cause and supplier of life to all things. For he says, That ire denominate Inm
:
"

Dia and Zcna, through ic/um ti/c is present In nil things. But in the Gorgias h^ co-arranges, and at the same time exempts him from the sons of Saturn, in order that he may be prior to the three, and participated by them. He also makes Law to be his assessor, in the same manner as Orpheus. For with him also I,aw is
Farther still, placed by the side of Jupiter, according to the counsels of Night. I lato in the Law. s represents total Justice to be the attendant of Jupiter, in the same manner as the ideologist. But in the Plulcbus he shows, that a royal soul

and a royal
conformably
(iods,

intellect pre-exist in Jupiter

according to the reason of cause.

And

represents him as giving subsistence to intellect and soul, unfolding the laws of Fate, and producing all the orders of the mundane
to this

he

now
all

and constituting

animals as far as to the

last

of things; some things

being generated by him alone, but others through the celestial (iods as media. To which we may also add, that in the Politicks he calls Jupiter the Demiurgus

and
"

father of the universe, ju.st as in the present dialogue he says concerning him,

Of whom

I

am

(he

I)<

niiurgus,

andf(it her of works."
is

ticus, that the present

order of the world

He likewise says in the PoliJovian, and that the world is moved
life,

according to Fate.

The world
its
is

therefore living a Jovian
If,

has Jupiter for the

Demiurgus and
vering a speech,
InMcJil of TUI

father of
1

life.

likewise, he represents the

this

too

in

reality Jovian.
tfnirpiur
111

For
il
i

in the

Demiurgus deli Meno, he on thw

Onvr

*y>a<wr

vwo

TV

tint placr,

nrrfnvary to read rwt 0nwr ru s

Wtfi r*f ry t

r/iiwr.
it

For

^ij/jioi-pyoDira hfrr,

u nrceturj

to read

^^iryyovtra.
I.

Tim. Plat.

VOL.

2

L

26$
account
various
calls

PROCLUS ON THE
him a
sophist, as filling the

[oo*
posterior
to

n.

Gods

him with

all-

This also the divine poet [Homer]] manifests, from the summit of Olympus. sents him thus speaking
reasons.
Hear,
all

who

repre

}e

Gods and Goddesses, my words.

And

Through the whole of converting the two-fold co-ordinations to himself. his poetry, likewise, he praises him as the supreme of rulers, and the father of men
and Gods, and celebrates him with all demiurgic conceptions. As, therefore, we have shown that all the Grecian theology attributes the total fabrication of things Is it not, that the to Jui>iter, what ought we to conceive of these words of Plato?

same God king Jupiter, is with him maker and father, and is neither father alone, nor father and maker. For father is the monad, as the Pythagoreans say, but to which divine number the decad is the demiurgic* order of divine nature*,
"

arrives

from the secret recesses of the monad, which decad

is

the venerable uni

versal recipient, surrounding all things with

bound,
after

and

is

called

the sacred

decad."

Hence,

immutable and unwearied, the paternal monad, and the
is

paternal and

And
Hut

it is it

demiurgic decad proceeds. indeed immutable, because an immutable deity .subsists together with it. surrounds all things with bound, as supplying with order things that are
at the

same time

effective tetrad, the

unadorned. It likewise illuminates and body with Mail, as possessing and comprehending the cause of soul, and gem-rates things which are truly gene rated, both such as are middles, and such as are last, in consequence of compre
disorderly,
that are

and with ornament things

souls with intellect, as being intellect totally,

hending

in itself

demiurgic being.

From what

is

written also in the Protagoras,

what the demiurgic order is. For Jupiter there becomes the cause of the whole political science, and of the reasons essentially disseminated in souls.
collect

we may

This, however,

is

to bind the

whole fabrication of

things,

and

to

connect

all

things

by

him the powers. Curetic order, thus also Plato says, that he is surrounded with terrible guards. And as the former establishes him on the summit of Olympus, so the latter assigns
his

own immutable

For

as the theologist establishes about

to

him

a tower, in

which being eternally seated, he adoins

all

things through the

\Vho the Demiurgus therefore is, and that he is a divine intellect, the cause of total fabrication, is evident from what has been said and likewise that Jupiter himself is celebrated as the Demiurgus both by Orpheus and Plato.
middle orders.
;
1

Here also

it

is is

requisite to

make

the &arue emendation at above.

1

Afyiicvpyici}

omitted

in the original.

BOOK

ii.]

TIM/EUS OF PLATO.

267

Whether, however, we must say that he
to

some other order of
It

silence.

is a fontal or a ruling God, or belongs the demiurgic series, deserves not to be passed over ia appears, therefore, that such things as the theurgist [Julian]] ascril>e8

to the third divinity of the rulers, these to

Plato assigns to the Demiurgiis
in

;

such as

fabricate the heavens, inclosing
inerratic stars
;

them

a

convex
water

figure; to establish the

nu

merous multitude of
animals
;

to give subsistence to the
in

and

to place earth in the middle, but
If,

heptad of planetary the bosoms of the earth,

accurately consider the affair, we shall find that the third of the mundane rulers divides the universe into parts; that the second divides it into wholes, and is celebrated as the demiurgic cause of motion ;
air

and

above these.

however,

we

and

that the first by his will alone disposes all things, and constitutes the whole world according to union. But the God who is said by Timonis to be the De

miurgus,

produces

all

into wholes,

and also

into

[rag oXirTjTa?

7ra<raj].

by his will, imparts to the universe a division parts, which give completion to all the wholenesses For he not only makes the universe to be a whole of
things

beyond the one fontal cause, and that the Oracles represent him eradicating the multitude of ideas in the fontal soul, and constituting the world from intellect, soul and body, and producing our souls, and sending them
is

wholes, but he also produces the multitude of each wholeness. accounts therefore, we think it proper to assert that the Demiurgus
;

On

all

these

triad of ruling fathers

that he

is

into generation.

For they say,
in sluggish

"

The Oracles likewise assert the same things of him as Timrrus. The father of Gods and men placed our intellect in soul, but soul
1

cerning him uho

the admirable thing celebrated by the Greeks, con according to them the Demiurgus. If however these things are asserted conformably * both to Timacus and the Oracles, those who are incited
body."

But

this

is

is

by the divinely delivered theology [of the Chaldeans] will say that this Demiurgus is fontal; that he fabricates the whole world conformably to ideas, considered as
1

It

1

Tli

appears to be necessary here to rend ry Iq/ncvpyy instead of ry totrfjy. Greek in this place is very faulty. For it is rarfOrro yap rov fitr er
Instead of which
it

^X7

tftpari i

ifnm

tytsartOijft iranjp arbp+iv rt Orvt- re.

ought to br,

Now* fttvft

vi"XP>

^Xl* &
variy>

<*"

O*IIOTI

"P*ff

\\fjfuf eytarfOfjM
J

ai

Ipvv re Orwr
vrou.

rt.

For wap avrqi here,

it is

necessary to read wop

*

For o^v^vXtM

in this

place read

PROCLUS ON THE
one and as many, and as divided both
v Plato,

(BOOK u.
is

into

wholes and parts, and that he

cele

and as the father of Gods and men brated as the maker and father of the universe, and the Oracles generating indeed, the multitude of Gods, but
|,

Orpheus,

;

x mling souls
IN

to the generations of

the best of causes, as

he says,
?

men, as Timn-us hiiUM-lf also says. Tor if he be arranged in the by what contrivance can he

second orders of Demiurgi

Tor the most excellent among the Demiurgi is Hut the highest series. significant of thehighot transci ndency in the d.-rniurgic this Dcmiurgus is necessarily fonlal, and summit of every MH s is fontal, so that
not
e\. ry where- secondary to llieir proper fountain. ruling; the rulei> Wing a Hence aUo he renders the mundane God> Demiuriri, or fabricators, as being

certain

been said, it is evident in what order of Gods it is necessary alter \\liat manner it is to investigate him; from which likewise, it is manife>t It is also of him to all men. lillicultto find him, and when fount! to speak and that he is evident hou he is lather and maker, and \\liat hiseirectiir power of such as are not as some say, the iiiuL-r of inanimate natures, but the yi;///tr
lias
;
i>

what place But from w hat

tin re are many fontal Demiurgi, in demiurgic fountain. Since, ho\\e\ r, this I)einiurgu> is to be arranged, requires greater consideration.

animated.
ll.e

J

or he

is

both the

maker

and

father ..fall things.

For

lie is

called

father of works, as he himself sa)s in his speeeh [to the junior (JodsJ.

But

h<-i>

maker and

father, as

the

cau>e

of union,
all

e>sence,

and hypostasis, and the

in supplier of providential inspection

things.

"

Again, however,

this

must

which of the paradigms with invariable sameness, or that which accoiding to that which subsists
to

foiisidcred respecting him, viz. according the artificer lubricated the world, whether
!><

was generated."
it is ge Tima-us having *hovvu what the form is of the mundane system, that in which it is generated, viz. as sensible; for he makes nerated, and the manner and no mention whatever of time, because he has not yet constituted time;

cause }^ \h. that it is effective and at having also shown w hut the demiurgic he now but this is, intellectual, imparticipable and total the same time paternal, v\ hat the nature is of ihe paradigm of the of to the third
t
:

pae>

object

inquiry,

universe, whether generated,
1

or eternal
uiiiittfd

?

Tor he perceived
in

that every artificer

llu.rjrrjf

i

here

the original.

that every thing which makes in an orderly manner. the causes of the things generated are contained in him. and through what kind of demon stration. For whence will it know that this the end. has the scope and measure of that \\hicli is made. fabricates. remedy. then: is not a this . investigates through \\ these tilings hat the nature of it is. Every thing. discovers the object of his inquiry. we shall shortly after survey. operate too abundantly and destroy the whole. and will not know whether is it has arrived at the end when l&amp. or himself produces them from the paradigm in himself. subverting therefore. Farther still. Just as of human artificers. introduces the as Aristotle also by Plato paradigm of the universe. it will err in making. it intellect are not present. what paradigmatic cause of the universe the case. no measure. to the production of the For it has not the form of the thing produced. this place. since the Demiurgus is intellect. taking it for granted that there is a paradigm. and it is necessary either that he should primarily possess these causes. but if it is not lawful to conceive this to be and the Demiurgus knows what he produces. 26. For if it has not. just the paradigm. because they ha\e. through the three former hypotheses. and in what order of beings it subsists. but if art and the medical fire. some are able to imitate oilier things accurately . and knowing thus produces the fabrication of the \\orld. if he produces by his very being. was generated according to a In the first very thing must be shown by in the us. though it was intended to contribute. uill defining the measure of energy to the which makes ought to have the reason of the thing that is made. but others possess themselves a power capable of fashioning admirable and useful works. l&amp. And next place. we must investigate paradigm is.] TiM. co-subverts likewise the maker.e it has. if it intends to make in an orderly manner. IUit in what manner he makes the discovery.c be heated to a certain degree . Farther still.HOOK cither ii. For it is necessary that the medicine should 1&amp.0 assumes paradigm of the things which he externally.ia S tlic OF PLATO.gt. at the same time that he admits the effective cause.e. or to add something? account bodies make irrationally and stupidly. therefore. and it may For on tliis necessary to take something away. that the world certain paradigm. If indeed the fabrication of wholes is indefinite and without design. there is a paradigmatic cause prior to the world. . Thus he who first made a ship formed in his imagination the paradigm of it. Hence Plato perceiving this. nor cause of the thin^ that is made. since something may deficient or redundant. or that they should imparted to him by more ancient principles.gt. this also must be observed. But whichever of these we admit. and employing the before-mentioned defini tions. howeuT.gt.

For it is necessary that the Derni- urgus being intellectual. antecedently of that about which he deliberates. In the preter assuming soul for the Demiurgus. the admirable Theodorus dividing the demiurgic triad. and thus says that intellect looks to animal itself. third place. is For he admits itself that the one it. therefore. attend to it? And how can he give arrangement to the universe? If. This there paradigm be demonstrated through many other arguments. Demiurgus intellect. he produces that which is most similar to himself. lest the maker should make looking to things posterior to himself. as we have before observed. and which is comprehended by intelligence in conjunction with reason. But if he is ignorant of this. and esjx?rially paradigm of the world should have an existence prior when the demiurgic cause is pre-supposed. calls the last 1 in each animal itself. but shows that what being concuis with and denominates each that which is comprehended by intelligence. for according to him. it is ntceisanr to rd ta^aref. For eooro&amp. should either be ignorant of the order of what is fabricated. it comprehend that which is generated in by the intellection of In the next place. and perceiving that in each monad is of it there is a first. must l&amp. he knows it. he produces from deliberation. is the paradigm of the universe. calls the paradigm intellect. assumes fore. middle and last. according to one cause? is. this is entirely and in every respect unworthy of the demiurgic cause.- her*. And if some one should admit this to be the case.gt. that which is being itself. .eyond the paradigm. does not fabricate looking to animal itself. Thus according to the divine lamblichus. But the philosopher Porphyry suppose*. But this is to produce an image of himself. that imparticipable soul is the DemiurjTUR. or the paradigmatic Demiurgus causes are not many. how can he providentially or that he should know it. intellect essential Hence.gt. or not every Demiurgus e fleets his proper production according to a certain paradigm. natures which exist in more ancient and venerable is orders.e considered what this paradigm and what For there is a difference of opinion respecting this among order of beings it ranks. how is it possible he should not it. the more ancient interpreters. If. denominates the paradigm For Plato having said that the But this inter intelligible.270 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. either the proximately suspended from essential animal. however. that it is necessary the For every one who to the world. in himself the may deliberates and consults. is l&amp. thus beholding in subordinate. yet it will follow that the form of the demiurgic work pre-exists in him. and thus should ignorantly sustain the passion of a partial soul. but that intellect is the paradigm.gt.

however. or not seen by him ? To say. whom our preceptor asks. &quot. he asserts that . it is absurd that all the multitude of intelligible* should be immediately posterior to that which is without For through numbers proximate to the one. to and speak about it.\f therefore. but that it should not be seen by But if the Demiurgus sees the intelligible. So that the paradigm is prior to the Demiurgus. Demiurgus.gt. or posterior to. therefore. we must admit that he contains every intelligible beautiful of intelligibles. and to many idem he conceived \&amp. But if there arc other orders the one and the Demiurgus. though the each of the natures that have a perpetual subsistence. If. is the most and not what we a before demonstrated him to be. the object of his intellectual jKrception will be in himself. and less honorable. and the whole of multitude. 271 however.BOOK n. the progression is to the multitude. paradigm has four ideas alone. Demiurgus . some have made. Our Plotinus . it. it must be investigated whether the paradigm is of the universe in the in For he if it is multitude. not the . between whole of number. he alone sees external to himself. between the Demiurgus and the one. but the Demiurgus has those w Inch are more partial than these. so that again little will be intelligible.J TiMyEUS OF PLATO. The words of Plato also appear at one time to make the paradigm different For when he says. which it is not lawful to admit of any divine nature. whether is it seen by him. and possesses sense instead of and in the intelligence. But if converted to himself. it is prior to the Demiurgus. and intellectual. whether being converted external to himself? If. as preceptor. that it is posterior to him. so many a dianoetic energy this universe also should possess&quot. primarily For the paradigm him. or does he alone perceive it it however. as or then: are also other intelligible orders. and at another the same with the Demiurgus. Demiurgus primarily. the ideas of the sun and moon. Such from. For it is absurd that our soul should see intellect. intelligibly indeed prior to him. and by a total intellect. he sees the image of l&amp. For if the Demiurgus subsists immediately after the one. he will be converted to that which is less excellent. to him. For of the ancients. as Longinus. has thought fit to give this subject an appropriate examination. whether the Demiurgus is immediately posterior to the one. as intellect saw in that which is animal itself. viz. But if the paradigm is posterior to him. himself does he see it. but intellectually in him. does not accord with Plato and the nature of things. the Demiurgus himself to possess the paradigms of wholes. that it is not seen by him. hut have asserted that the paradigm is prior Porphyry and others. or prior to him.oing. No that the paradigm is prior to. according to his divine intellectual conceptions.gt. others.

and \ery properly makes rath of these a^sertions. 1 And the former of paradigmatic causes. that the Demiurgus is the same. admit that the most similar of all things to that animal. and according to their genera. these things says. the paradigm.gt. is But when again he clearly says.. the God who is called Protogonus by Orpheus. latter is the most monadic of demiurgic causes. or four monads of ideas. and as the fable says. prior to the fabrication of things subsist &amp. e. and who is established at the end of intelligibles. ire must by no mean? think that ice similar to such an wuils us subsist in the form of a part . enry (hat all things should be as much as possible similar to oj this. the Demiurgus leaps as it were to the intelligible God. Hence Jupiter is united to the paradigm through IS ight as the medium. as in indeed. and in others. For the ideas.a\s intelligibly. hefashioned it Indeed.&quot. appears to le manifest. and is in intelligibles that which Jupiter is in intellectuals. are nothing. absorbs him. lie was good . --* indicating through sight intellectual perception. here.gt. According to the theologist. and being filled from thence. and Jupiter of trie intellectual order. when he says. the sameness of the Demiurgus with the paradigm.ed by the Demi. however. Loth considered individually.gt. is animal with Plato. the Demiurgus. but tin.as And IMato asserts that the Demiurgus looks to the paradi nrgus of wholes. and it&amp. . So that in some places Plato that he is di /Keren t from the paradigm.&quot. as being different from the paradigm. but must of which other animals. For if it be requisite clearly to unfold the doctrine of our preceptor. Let us consider after the similitude of what animal the &quot. composing artificer constituted (he world.elf. And again. Protogonu* it th boundary of the intelligible. Then Was of Protogonus the mighty itrength seen. but in that which can ne-cer be inherent about anything ichatci i-r : being therefore void good. in.more than in these words also lie separates him who constituted the universe from parts it is . Jlence it is eternal.272 PROCLU8 ON THK [BOOK u. that the intelligible God [Plumes] &quot. becomes an intelligible world. is extended to animal itself. he was willing himself . is the first intellectuals. Each however is the boundary of these orders. for in his Lflly he cntainVi For ry airowy here. read ro ni rnzuo*. the most beautiful of intelligibles. but number of ideas is the order of forms proceeds into the one of the monads which he contains. * i. or* Demiurgus and the whole Orpheus also indicating ahsorl&amp.

or according to that which is intelligible . have in these place* Uie tame meaning as d\orit or tcholrnru with the PiatonivN. is it not impossible it is should have been constituted with relation to that which other generated nature is generated ? For what this there besides the universe ? We may dissolve doubt howe\er. or sonable. So tli. through which 1 will also be evident that the confused and disorderly nature prior to the tr/iaf or i In the original ruv rnrr^ial&amp. but the Demiurgus intellectually. and how to a it is paradigm. whether these are the only things that are eternal. 2. that the *fa Tin* principle ij^ frr. . VOL.gt.&quot. &. and attfia with Aristotle. The whole of tiling?. May it. the question. as it it not. the demiurgic intel- is manifest through what has been said. radigm after what manner was generated according it is above. the world therefore. order that becoming Hence also the Ideologist says : For in his sacred heart he these conccal d.it with Orpheus.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. however be possible to solve it has appeared to some. would have Ix-en rea Hut as the.c. what this pa in. Tim. Hence. 2 M . a collrrtrd bulk or matt.Vpa. things through the intellectual perception of it. inquiry is concerning the universe. u^rd by Aristotle Lib. And into jo) ful light again reveal d. or intellect. 273 universe gnat Jove contains. that Plato calls soul But the inquiry here is. C.lt. willi the fit. afr^Tirtiftn e*ft* loo. Cap. \\liuli 11 likow it bctly. and mingled where twas The force and powerful vigour of the God. solved. he may give subsistence to the sensible world. of bis &amp. whether it is soul.lt. That lect. is. the word ic body obviously signifying in uhalr. the world was generated with relation to a generated or to an eternal nature. Plat. and the world sensibly.BOOK ii. Meteors. rnv irntTot vbarnt For he there say. After this manner.. not any other generated nature iti order that the universe might be fa If therefore the inquiry had been concerning So bricated with relation to it. any other partial nature. the doubt may In. what is the generated. by another more perfect method.- the WOK! ovfin. tt &amp. In this -rn. or the intelligible? For paradigm And on this account he asks. say they. Very properly.Some however doubt why Plato inquires whether the world was fabricated according to that which for there is is generated. trftai Ihr principle and body of all tralrr. I. by recollecting what has him frequently said. he afterwards calls ijOponr/jerot oyxot. does Plato all now say that the Derniurgus looked to the paradigm. so far as it participates of tune. of the iHii verse. For the paradigm was the universe intelligibly. in therefore. crates.

viz. the world was generated with inquire whether that the universe. that the world being beautiful. For we are those who look to both these pa For it is not lawful for him to look to that which is less excellent . those which to place the are posterior to him. in order that lie may not appear to whether the mundane paradigm is eternal. formable . it was assimilated in a confused and disorderly manner. prevent the object of investigation. \\hether to that which he assumes. must. celebrated confused which is or to i&amp.gt. that Plato does not inquire concerning he made the world. being. these the it is Demiurgus or to that which he sees.things [as petual being. but radigms. Ami this assertion is manner reasonable. sake of a perfect division. for the paradigm. the natures which an. but the intelligible therefore. rated. n-lation to it was ridiculous to is now generated. and nature as matter. or to that which it is essentially more di\ine? For being a extremes.erpetual being.er- so-much Hence not orderly the universe only. nor place . therefore. but that which was moved in u confused and dis li. that since of sensible*. pre-oxistins. possessing this confused whether was the mmerse assimilated to the ma as more excellent. that which follows is con to the intelligible. to be unbe- was generated prior to gotten? For if nothing. according to which of the paradigms that he asks as with reference to us who know that there are twofold paradigms. assimilates the universe.nl a prior subsistence. and gnu-ration. is evident that the ration of the univcrso. For that that which was moved To to this is deformed. medium For between the two. there was a certain generated Plato says] were prior to the &quot.prior. Prior to the world imestigated. supposed that the Deiniurgus so that Plato very pro^-rly inquires to which of and perceives animal itself. as Atticus and Plutarch thought world. some have the images hence Plato wishing but others an.the similitudes of them .onefor three. generated natures. But others say that Plalo adduces that which is gene we perceiving . viz. and not to which is assimilated these things therefore. some are preternatural. This however. and of these. and not the Demiurgus. with relation to which of these the universe after a certain was generated. of certain but others according to nature . as we have said. will follow. Some of the interpreters however say. to be generated.sehcs. was generated. but the Demiurgus. must not be said. And since it was neither nature. and also in which of them it is tit interrogate ou. place. manner. ]&amp. The world terial nature which it contains.gt. is necessarily assimilated to one of the assumed that disorderly nature. it and disorderly nature was a thing of this kind.374 PROCLUS ON THE it [BOOK it. he shows that a certain absurdity For supposing the paradigm Others again say.

it is not preternatural. worth while however concisely to survey the accuracy of the words. that prior to the generation of the universe there were these three .HOOK to ir. when speak 15nt the words. first artists. indicate the.^ what the theologist here asserts. the former existing among from each other. For must be considered&quot.. rate as extremes. For Plato clearly say. that u hic/t And nature.&quot. in short. and first demiurgic proceeding into the world. as being alter-motive and co-mingled. .v. For as the theologist says.-.it i.mri. the taught world contain*. ing of the demiurgic production. that which was moved in a con For this is a composite. Hut because.gt.vmiv&quot. I lato therefore follow ing rrxr. is much mingled. Vulcan and the Jove all thr arts. the investigations. which is the first of eternal natures. is The words. &quot.gt. For that which is most beautiful. again. is assumed for the sake of the theory of the universe. is said about the Demiurgus and and as different the paradigm. the manual artificers gave to Jupiter the demiurgic powers of all the mundane production. &quot. and refer them to the one theory about the world. and &quot.v. continually uses the words and irrxrv. the intelligible. the universe is beautiful.&quot. indicate the eternal paradigm of the universe.&amp. according to that which sub sist* with invariable . And.according to which nf the paradigms&quot. that it is in continuity with the things which precede it. but that the He former of those was generated. which signify fahrieative energy. nor is derived from a generated paradigmatic essence. was gcneralciT signifies. hint. on account of the universe being most beautiful. \\ 1m thunder.www.respecting collect all diately follows those speculations. &quot. or moved by another. is the solution of the doubt. and that the world is generated and corruptible . For what It is &quot. but the latter among the last of production of form by its l&amp. But the word art artificer exhibits the cause. all which are the elements of a generated altcr-motive.rd:il ilic lightning formed for Jove.eings. and fused and disorderly manner. and that which the first. and that this imme But the words. order of the problem the words a^ahi* and viz. makes a subversion of the others. demonstrate that world was ijcnerated with relation to an eternal paradigm. sepa generated . does not therefore say that this disorderly nature is unbegotten and incorruptible. since that which is derived from this is not most beautiful. 27.] TIMJlit S tlte OF PLATO. is neither preternatural. &quot. Such therefore. and IVill. is established at the end of the first intelligibles.

are more allied to things posterior to hypotheses. but what is not beautiful For if to the opposite of \?as not generated according to an eternal paradigm. the former of these. the latter which commence from causes.gt. The converse however to to these are. means the confused is and being. through one of the axioms. then it will follow that what is not !&amp. that and not the latter in his demonstration? In answer to lhi&amp. then these reciprocate with each other. that what is an eternal paradigm. was generated according to a generated paradigm.lt. and with our unperverted opinions about the the world unl&amp. that what is generated according to an eternal paradigm is beautiful but that what is generated according to a gene .gt.&quot. he sa\s. but the former which are derived from tilings caused. place. evident that by generation he is this . &quot. but ciuls in (hat which an eternal juiradi^m is dutiful.gt. But when iiceuT*a. he looked to that which was beautiful. and disorderly And nature. if this world is evident that he looked to which it is not lawful for and the Derniurgus of it is good. it is an eternal paradigm but if he is not good. ~ o any one to assort.. he makes the beautiful to be preeedaiieous. the hypotheses! he had these twofold axioms. in order that we may see how For from rated paradigm l&amp.gt.egotten universe. For when he says. what is not beautiful was not so generated . That /. that which precedes. in order that .lt. \\\iy then fore.&quot. to 7 /nit which was generated according he begins from cause-. did not Plato immediately in the hypotheses according to assume these axioms. the opposite of that which is consequent folbws. and that which was proposed from the beginning was generated according is beautiful For if that which is demonstrated. PROCLUS ON THE generation. [goox u. it is requisite that we should understand it the logical method demonstratively proceeds.. is caused. i . are more adapted to hypotheses.J76 things. that what is beautiful wa* generated an eternal paradigm. though he intended to use the former. Indeed. of Plato.cautiful is beautiful. but according &quot. it is Generation then-fore and Hence these things according to temporal generation. l&amp. the cause consequent.&quot. but that which is so generated is not beautiful. hut those to which these are the converse. He employs therefore.eautiful is not beautiful. &quot. are more concordant with Plato. \i/. In the first place.v beautiful which was generated to an eternal paradigm. it must be said.&amp. through a deduction to an impossibility. generated.

Hence i lato employs Themis* as a guard to what he says. . The however. Hence laying down it these four axioms. being such. he assumes that the Demiurcrus also gives subsistence to nature. for the is is good artist. it lie whether is l&amp. reason and intelligence.lt. And he does this. the Since howe\er beauty is imparted to the world from the paradigm. in tbis place. it it requisite to read vunpyct. the [universal] snhject of things. he passes over the opposite in silence. hut if it is not heautiful. according to a generated paradigm. manliest to every one. That the world however is aiititn!. and the Dcmiurgus is the best of causes. and superinduces the form which he wishes. not beautiful. or is very pn&amp. For the assertions evince. It is . he may not ascrilx: any tiling disorderly or defamatory to the Derniurgus. defamation of the world is atrocious. Tint if indeed the world is Ix-aiiliful. who collects the Gods themselves to the Demiurgiis. and which subsists invariably the Instead of atpym lit TO. and does not suffer them to be divulsed from the goodness of the father.|eily enquires concerning the universe.gt. is evident fnun sense. but he employs (he latter. Mas generated according to an eternal paradigm . as other and who produced it. who a thi&amp.lt. or Icw/vl. It was therefore generated to an eternal paradigm. in the world und fabrication from him.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO. according l&amp. in the demonstrations. and a blessed (od. on the subjects of his art. through demiurgic cause as a medium. but the defamation of the Demiurgus is still more so.noon ii. &quot. he had added receiving this in the second proposition. which is the converse. propositions therefore. For I lato uses the word Or/in. of the former. that he looked to an eternal paradigm tor the worUl indeed is the most beautiful of generated But being thus gene natures. 2 77 he may assume tilings adapted to principles and causes in the hypotheses. purpose of showing that the world is good. that it might co-operate with him. in the proposition which precedes. rated. in order that through Themis. and receiving their U-ginning from the dividing art. let us see what Plato afterwards adds. has dominion over his proper matter.&quot. who beautiful. selecting that which is appropriate to the things demonstrated. it is fabricated according to that which may be apprehended by same. is And accomplished in a much greater decree hy the whole Derniiir^tis. For every artificer.eaii!ifiil.gt. Since however. since it is most beautiful.

is here said.erfection to the world. paradigm is evident. as lie is from tion. For by how much the percciver is more divine. was fabricated according For whence could asserted. the fabrication was not simply but if it be requisite to say so. intellect. it was assimilated to the most eternal of eternal is natures. 1 tin For the words. to it an eternal obtain the If however. deriving the principles of his demonstrations In the next place. In the next place. and was before beautiful. the image ax of the statue* produced by the telcstic art.278 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. and the of causes. beautiful. and us survey how thr. are a narration of the assumption. eternal // is hun erer manifest to are the conclusion.se things are true. That a beautiful fabrication therefore. rest. be the case. it is necc.gt. For the same thing will not it which is generated. the God /after the same manner likevv ise. by so much the more elevated is the object of perception.&quot. but tin best among causes. he introduces the recollection of the assumiv- and afterwards adds the that he looked to &quot.ssarj to read TO \oiwov. through its own beauty. 1 less excellent nature. . to that is If. let what kind of order they have with reference to each other.&quot. Plato therefore. as the causal Demiurgus the best of all that is conjunction pi* indeed manifests. enjuy but others participating of it more clearly. And the rest is the conclusion Such therefore is the logical arrangement of the words. indica para- and through these that the latently assisting the position Instead of ro Xi/y&f here. ourselves to the theory of the things. For that which is most beautiful is derived to the world first of eternal natures. and good to the bcxt. partake also of the pou-ers of the divinity. But again. not only a good cause. looked to the most eternal of paradigms. the (Jod who frst and highest power* of has rendered it most beautiful. every one. of a purer paradigm. some par the second and third taking of the presence of a divine nature more obscurely. as an image of the gives |&amp. lest by looking to what is not lawful to assert. For every image which more clearly participates of form. But the &quot. let us in the first place see taking through what cause he transfers the word beautiful to the word most beautiful. he should fall off from goodness. be said. in the first place. words. and is extended to a similitude is Again and not which this therefore. however. For is the U orld indeed is the most bcantijul of generated natures. he looked to that which is eternal. paradigm. less excellent. be surveyed by the better and the ting these things. And from thence. if the demiurgic cause towards it. Through what clusion. he antecedently assumes the con accustomed to do. good. this is most except from the imitation of this paradigm? made according to an eternal paradigm.

s most excellent. which is best intellectually perceives it? And how can that which is intelligible to which is most beautiful How a less excellent nature. that these three things are. or of something less excellent. tiful \vas generated according to the beautiful most excellent necessarily looks to was not derived from the For that which is most beau most divine paradigm. fabricates whnt is [truly] beautiful. this first paradigm will either be the paradigm of nothing..lt. it is said.e inserted.eing q ov woi &amp. should look to that. and primarily eternal.id in this place. But it is not lawful for natures to make that which is less excellent in secondary natures. it i requisite In . unless that likewise. that is what manner the Demiurgu. which is eternal. be incomprehensible through transcendency by tl.* it is necessary that he who fabricate what is beautiful. it is the cause of something less excellent.gt. and on thin l&amp. Instead of Inslr. and that which is that which is supreme. TO tu\\tvT&amp. therefore. unless of that which is natures? For if it is not the cause of the most beautiful the most beautiful of generated effect. and that what is most excel lent should look to that which is most eternal. but he will make it casually. that which is best is the cause of that which is less excellent. and through these we are reminded names are assumed by IMato. but the most eternal of all of thorn. nothing will prevent the artificer* likewise most excellent. or he will 5 not make what is beautiful Hence also. but evidcntlj ought to r&amp. it is necessary that what is most U autiful should be fabricated by that which is best. And if and framers of mortal natures from The words * indeed.EUS OF PLATO. lato asserts I as the l&amp. calls the world indeed l&amp. or that he will not And in the next place. 1 will that which is the first paradigm.at which is more excellent ? Hence it is necessary that what is most beautiful should have been generated according to that which is most divine. that which is not best will be entirely the cause of that which It is most beautiful. And superior unless that which is best looked to that 1 which is first [either it will not make that ] or not looking to that which is first it will make it.est of fabricators. Farther still. * For ore read nra.COOK ii. Porphyry however adds. they arc simply most excellent.gt.eautiful. 279 is digm of the universe does not rank among the multitude of eternal natures. of here. &amp.] T1M. 5 The same emendation also requisite here a* above. arc omitted in the origin*!. read is r\. . If.ul n ftij. most hut the Demiurgus most excellent.gt. demonstrated after if 1 by geometrical necessities.lt. as be radically subverted. For of u hat is that which is best the cause. and thus the order of things will must be admitted therefore.gt. For if that which is most first paradigm. that the fabricators of mortal natures are daemons. it follows that he looks to an eternal nature. l&amp.iv. rank as a paradigm.gt.lt.

But how are we For some think For this that Demiurgus is the best of eternal natures? we must understand by this word best. the best of the causes to adn. who c. but who revile the Demiurgus. of wholes. was shown this to be the fountain and lie is demiurgic order. On first account of order therefore. . ills the Demiurgu* the father rulers 1 . the harmony the heavens. in which the Demiurgus now this. from which the whole becomes it assimilated to the universe. me that the s him though he mentions the (Jods in this It appears to word ir^Wui must be supplied pUce. were in want of such an artifice as I however. dare to say that on the contrary they say that through the beauty of it souls are allured and ensnared. the participation of intellect. ties. IMiilophrosune. becoming elegantly adorned. the [partial] soul full of beauty. evince that it is the most beautiful of generated in the harmonious choir of souls. forgetting what was delivered to us by Plato. who render Neither therefore. therefore are the observations We may easily however learn.it that the of generated natures. supreme of and he thus denonu. and the numlK-r of henads or uni Since also. the measures of the seasons. account the fabricators of beautiful images. lie next place. and to those who analogy which pervades through all things. In the of the elements. which is say and they generate Eucleia and Eusthenia. do those the woi Id is not mo^t beautiful. that it is rightly said the world first is most Ix-autiful. the Ix-st monad of every of causes. place.280 PROCLUS ON THE Such [BOOK it. may not le absolutely the best of causes. exhibits iu hershould not possess helf an admirable beauty. should be ashamed of myself. false. how is it possible that the universe Venus with Vulcan. the order of the periods. does not the order of the invisible powers it contains. of Porphyry. indeed. and the emulating Homer. Pluto here. in order that he but that would . the beauty of and the Demiurgus the best of causes. that the universe is most beautiful. the progression of ineffable deity. demonstrate In the are not entirely Mind. Eupheme the corporeal-formed nature decorated with In-auty. and the gift of the intellectual For there are natures? essence.iat. the supply of a divine life. because he is allotted the directly among the demiur-i of the uni\erse. IK. according to which the parts of the world are connected.eauty And again.gt. in a still greater degree ? hence theoloijists conjoining l&amp. if 1 a little In-fore said. that he thus fabricated the universe. from Vulcan and Aglaia. he may be the best of the causes of things that are generated since the natures that are above him are not the causes oi these.

For as the world itself was led from contusion to. th. In.is also the discussion it of it first employed abhorrent the most appellations.noon ii. &quot. more simple. yet the whole of his pro\ idential energies about the recent fabrications. and a similitude to the intelligible.gt. that the a ca\ern and a den. requisite also to understand how the coordination of the most beautiful \\ilh the in most xcelient. order. from the is fountain of all i^ood. a N . denominating best of generated natures. calling \enerable names. fabricat- For ainoi Iirre.\porl.&quot. generated and destructible.And is especially so to partial souls who deservedly called a cavern and a ver^e to bodies and matter. To these objections howexer it is easy to reply. and the most beautiful is suspended from that which is host. I. VOL. But with respect to the Demiur^us. it 1 celebrated by Homer as the of causes. For these reasons therefore. Plat. the offspring of the most excellent father. may be called . though lie is the best of causes. when compared with the energies \\hieh are exempt from sensibles. there the world should be the image of u certain tiling.i:US or PLATO. Others however by no pervert the assertions of the ancients. and rulers.] JiM. thus also here. and it the Ami shortly after. as far as lo the (joddess iSiiiht. the Demiur^us is thus celebrated in the pre-ent words. most anrient and venerable of dcmiur^i. it is den. tiicsc tilings [thus] subsisting. supreme of means cliliis. For as good. he reminds us of it the ima^e of the most divine paradigm. but the Demiur^ns most excellent. Because therefore Jupiter is is o8 l prior to liiin.lt. |\ fabrica tion. tin&quot. Plato says. but now by the most sacred of names. but blame this universe. what is here said may appear to be the same For some one who does not survey tilings accu is rately may ask what dnTerence there hctwtvn saying. But again. as Hera- Dcmiurgus spurted in fabricating the world. and the beautifying cause. . And others. For though the world is. most beautiful. intelligible. the world said to lx&amp. is I them beauty is suspended from lie suspended from the first principles. yet when compared with the a&amp. \\lio call say. that the world was nt ccsmjr to read apteroi. and the place which it is there. most beautiful. In the next place it is requisite to understand how what is said about the fabrication itself [of limits] imitates this fabrication. is every necessity that To Vvith those who are what was before asserted. and a blessed God. it is Tim. hut by Plato as the host dare to accuse the Demiurgu*. by It is Plato.

which is not dissimilar &amp. however.&amp.gt. hut of t lie Dciniiti^n. is an im. ur tin- I lie jnruli&amp. lijc Inj and e. / -r the Jot -iiitr is to energize t^cntni/li/ Intt the /alter tiu\&amp. .lt. is * or rn uioUtiTii hcrt . the tailor is il And be l i/ the former is to perceive intellectually.linage Tor Mice it is possible for an other.gt.uig. e.imilar and iini\erse. l intelligibly.gt.faliru-atrd jrihle. and At the same time however.gt.gt.-s lo be a paradi-m demiurgically . and is the same with the intelligible it contains. and that In-ini. since it maki s that which is generated. l- or the l)emim-ns makes looking to himself. of a certain thing. nor as the Socrates not a paradigm like a the ima^e ot another inak&amp.iese also is J.OQO PROCLUS ON Till: [DOCK n. t . it ncccary lo rrad r lor/ra.gt. though the paradigmatic aUo m the deminr-ic. is is placed bt fore ns as a fabrica but the eternal two-fold. Ym !nne therefore.e. the intellectual imiscise. And it 1 For ovrok I licrc.//&amp. (i. and that it is tin. And a-ain the detninr-ic is in the paradig matic . road 1 i &amp. but the other as is paradigmatic. diller. most excellent he what he said respectm. nni\er&amp. of the pa-adi-m in consequence of not not fancy that this is also the ease in order that von may the fabricating: cause rlilin-r to make . en&amp. through know led-c tlirvitgli since soul ulto products but tirtijtcuiHj/ knowledge.urt ts^tur energetically. the most beautiful o( and the intelligible nni\ r&amp. but the paradigmatic cause by its very iM-in^ to fabricate paradigmatic-ally. the one bein^ as demiur-ic. fabritatively] ix t&amp.hed paradigm. fabricated may not confonnalily to a paradi-m.ue. form impressed wax. each of these is separated from the but tin.l. but \ &amp. most divine paradi-m. the best of causes. the sensible For the sensible universe participate* of intellect and beini: the t-v cry where. In reality ed according lo a paradigm.gt.thin?. I lato lias shown that tin- Demiiinriii* indeed to the looked to a para to looked digm. intellectuals and seiisibles. intelligible universe each order. the lint manifests from what assimilated to the ronsentane&amp. now sni. ol I or it is is in ima^e secondary natures ima^e. but intelligible* secondarily and the ly.lt. r^i/. make Ay know und malax r^r.lt.ach of the most divine of paradi-in^.lt. Mith tin- world.i. is to intelli its gible intellectnally.lt. And the sensible universe indeed.e is intelli-zihle. run.. from j-oiiforiiially the intelliits lint that the lie universe aUo is is \aiH|m&amp. to make by existing. primordially subsists appropriately in The universe however.tritii /KinuJi^in . images. tion .lt. similar to its lf. and united antecedently comprehends.gt. and truly 1-or if the world or that imitates i^ an ima-e.vanquished by become the imam.Mi&amp. l to is uuiLc niy thin- icing to .the nniverse hem.lt. 1 intellectual universe possesses sensible* uniformly. U-in. l hy form. .itin to r . since every intellect sees itself.lt. .e or not the same .ti&amp. .

I dnine lie v. Bui in is Some 1 read what is corclin^ to \\hoin the words here said by stopping at the word TTO. rs-nee-. and All the causes haiies. as assimilated to paradigm. celebrates the demiurgic cans. so /xy&amp. ? possesses indeed. in the for there the lir-t .ord which nv//t A/. the greatest of undertakings. awl antecedent lycjri&led j (lie order that it lia\e as it were . . this I or . to \vonder it Plato calls the world an iniaijo. and FiicapaMis. if the M &amp.\i/i/. I read eiriirptiro^ro. tf the discussion at the \&amp. the sin lie nti^ ! lii diniuii. every tinni:. that the Deiniurtrus coinprelienils in himself the paradigm.VTOS. licini..lt. And he considered the paradigmatic to he the same thus much concerning these particulars. &quot. mi-hl not however. (hat the paradigm is the Deiniurr &amp. the imaire of intelli^ildr heauty. foninT essentially.y then ion parlieio the and much-pleasing Love. that it is the greatest of all things. ping that \vith them the colon signifies that it is the greatest undertaking. Through exhihits such things as adorn and heautifv generation. H paradi^iual first cause in Jupiter.lt. tin.gt. in a eeriain respect speak riL.i. But others.)K ii.the illustrious Ann hits.latter ^3 according to ener/v. also lie ei-li hratos (I ili.( . to begin from a principle according to nature.gt.gt.rrov. Dioiivsius. For a^ain. \vith And on account lemim^ic cause.n.Metis also was in the Demmr^ns. and are iti earh oilier. \et it this similitude also. For f-xtrpwrtvcvTa here. ACindicate.Jupiter exists. and h&quot. it is and receives as a \\ hole the form of the paradigm.ivs as generator. lani diehiis. . l . hnt the former sa\v the niiinuu^. Ho is. to make according to nature. wax. OF PLATO. he likewise as sa\s. litl\. so that he \\lio s.gt. For testifies this by a demonstration proceeds from the hypotheses themscUcs. hut And why is if requisite Jo Implicit these observations philosophically For the throlotix pist lup-j before. or dli-scchiz Jv/iifo . Metis ly denominated 1 |&amp.gt. |( in^ paradigm in the ahsorU d liy him.&quot. Afterwards also. stop conjoin the word Tavroy with what follows. to begin is that beuinuin. and on this account pre-e\iiinLi paradigm . shows that the similitude of the former to the latter is admirable and inellahle. or though is most leaulifiil. J vr Ihcrc. he it indubitable and firm. he makes IMianes to he the Deiniiirirus 1&amp. cccn/ thing. Thus the philosopher calls its Hie world theimaije of the intelligible.in Phancs.a\v I or the latter the deiniinxic peculiaritv H us. (lie fountains of ie t\\o|old fabrication of things. The addition likewi-c of nt*.] TI MAIL S ilit&amp. in he says. lie is also continual hint. ile of each other.

inif what is directly after asserted. In the first imitates wholes. from lliat Others again say these words i* according to nature. llu-y an- introduc. quisition science itself. too.004 the. /irutlticcs (til things rightly if it obtains a congruous jwrtion [or the part ichkh is adapted to (tcconiinx to But what is the meaning of the words it}.l follows. of tho universe. as some say. \\liirh it is m|iii&amp.. hut to all as from a root. we intend to make to IM- lieginning. a (Jod.gt. said the principle is something more than the If. [HOOK n. will And otlu-rs say. For that which is last is a principle as from things which subsist essentially ? with reference to us. but doctrinal follows science. because In the next place. principle. -inir requisite. greatest power. through the h\ potheses which introduced for the sake of -. If however. what from which coninu-iu-in. g physical dis dUm^ - tho ili^iuisiliou of this.s universal. they were necessary.-./. and is what axiom a[prars to lie rightly assurtod of all things. and and according to nat. And moreover.lt. or beginning.&quot. cussions.. the greatest undertaking.-d for tlic&amp. to thi. this be the case. principle which are introduced for tho *aku of the thing* pre ii these Ix-ing rightly concluded viously UKaimiod.lt. PIlOCUJS tli*cii-*iou ON Till. The principle therefore . To me is however. because if whole.gt. For this is th.gt.itf especially to survey.gt. &quot.. 1 or it lieforc saiil. principle Principle UiHZ established in men us a (. and the progression of beings. ihis is also testified guest &quot.s-ii*il!rs. the principle multiplied as we proceed. collects appropriate dis Science therefore follows the order of thm-s.&amp. dc-liu-r. an&amp. nature?&quot.ako of uhat -ivatest aflT\vards .it is lit to he infoi ins us uhat tho mode will IIP..u-lit a pioper ad. that every thing which receives a good by poets who say. Or ratlu-r. to delme pn-viously what kind of discourses . it I. it And this i&amp. &amp. it becomes the smallest particular is overlooked in the principle. calls the k&amp. For beginning from n piineiple according to nature Plato delivers afterward* explanations of cause homologous to this fabrication.. it is not adapted to these alone.nv. The truth qf said lo be the greatest thing.-d roiuvrnin- tin- final (MUM. but not with reference to nature. it possesses the to be the half of the whole. And conclusions. principl* lint that pn-vions to follows. on this account the Athenian beginning usually ends well. For he says. if it obtains that which is fit. Is it the re or is it that which first proceeds ceiving every thing which ought to be received. from proper h\potheses. to what immediately adapted to what lias lieen will be again said.lt. it is in an admirable manner place. is And in the third place. tod court-ruin . lu. Nut according to others.&quot.

each other .e definition respecting doctrine. hut of demonstra the form of the and of discussions the to l&amp. now distributing the words according to the diversity in the knowledge of them. IMalo assumes the makes lie this definition. After this manner it.gt. the final cause. Hence. and the words. after the demonstrarnr)//&amp. and twofold words.EUS OF PLATO. &quot. rijt arci\f ro genuine meaning by reading.&quot.lt. twofold things. and also many others more recent. In tllC original. the things.] TIM. orr ?r rat n/irrfpni yiuernt tuipiStt. Some mode and 1 therefore say. except from the objects of know ledge ? And whence is the difference of words derived. the conceptions. *payftaaiv roiirw*- which if ftj- itcntly defective. Hut when he defines our knowledge * it. but according to the words he For when he separates that which is generated from being. \vo must decide about the image. except from knowledges ? . whether that which is it is received as firm. According to the things and the conceptions therefore. and accurate. Aristotle emulated this.lt. and antecedently assumes.gt. but gives to it subsistence apparent. it yrwrm . immutable is merely probable. of til*. ere ft rot tyirrrpai Otwptai rwr wij^nrwr. intelligence and opinion. but also makes to be adapted to the things. the theory of the things. and not indeed truth.universe indeed. therefore. is 28/i according to nature. and the paradigm of These three particulars are connascently consequent to each other.e however should say which is that the.BOOK ii. and previously defines the mode of the whole theory of the discussion. For whence are knowledges derived.irwr.lt. in order that he may dispose the whole of the doctrine conformably to this definition. but may be restored to jVpt &amp. &amp. thus also Tima the form of the words adheres indeed to the theory of the things. being and that which is generated twofold knowledges. discussion imitates the fabrication itself of tilings. And theory of the conceptions. adheres to first hypothesis. and assimi lated to (ruth. that is of the diction. and that the logographic art to define previously what the what kind of person the auditor of it ought to . or as but credible.gt.*&amp. it is l&amp. ami imparts a boundary iis prior to the whole world. the stable anil the probable. these are consentaneous to according to the objects of lie adheres to the 1 vi/. Why therefore docs he 1 do this now and not before? rrri rent Because. light the invisible lives For as that unfolds into to that of the world. tions the hypotheses. roil vpay/jarir. he demonstrates tons their definite nature.

images which the (Jods extend to it. such also is that of the words which are divided according to one mode. to beings.gt. nor as .similates it&amp. For 4 V \ UV here is . that some words assert the accuracy of the dogmas.28 PUOCLUS ON THI &amp. And does that the I latonisls in (iaius. as we corn-cite that * of inanimate natures to be. tion. as neither is the paradigm un prolific and iliellicaciIn the be gi\en to this world to the intelligible. but others ()u 1 3 Wf&amp. And in the third place. the demiurgic cause. what the nature of the discussion about sensible things ouht lint when to this.gt. but an assimilation must first by the energic* extended version of the world it-elf to it. ? That took necessary language should be allied to the things. that it is requisite the world should bo gem-rated. Plato dogmati/es and that he a twofold respect. accordm . but not prior lie calls the world an image. of the paradigm. I For it is necessary that is uinittrtl ill lie oii-m. and not had one accuracy. as words.lt. he necessarily defines ty IH-.ion&amp. As the mundane discourse progression of beings is from the otic which is prior to the many.gt. an image of such a kind is not to be assumed. omitted in tlic original. ous. and also the. whether they but such as are concerning beings. he says.il. or things which subsist through generation in con is the nature of things. s necessary to read a\fV%uv..-&amp. commences from one axiom..gt. according to very Iwin^r it produces the imaire from it-elf.gt. and the unher. it is What seems therefore is the one common axiom. If. which renders the universe most similar to the intelligible. forming power and participation of intelligible*. be in 4 assimilated. according to the prolilie power In the second place. ens. as the ( )racle says.gt. natures proceed from a monad to their proper number. tlir nature of the universe U-ing unknown. Hence they subsist in such a way with respect to accuracy junction with things. hastening to be in\e&amp. it of w hich is the interpreter.n their probability. and thus afterwards introduces dUision to his of Tim. . . to the con For &quot. thu.ssjon of the &quot. and clearness about the things which are their subjects. or from probability. illy.sal. and their followers. either scientific. As words therefore arc allied to the tilings themselves of which they arc the interpreters. it as. [BOOK n. occasion from hence to define this in how many ways if all discus&amp.gt. Albiims and in the words before it u&amp.ted with the imto the intelligible prc. for by its place indeed.

lt. and are connascent with them. also denominate)) the ness of the thing. the angelic order said. instead of that which He .tv vjroOtoif licrc. that the possible permanent. .&quot. And TiinaMis in what follows. is And in irnprchcnsible^ in order that they may imitate that J which it comprehended by intelligence. as being employed about things of this kind. apprehended by words respecting it permanent.For as the knowledge of eternal natures is without lapse. and which is stable.4uao. and may scientifically accede. language must he said is allied to to Very properly therefore. prior to the divided particulars.] TiM. but evidently ought to b . in this [stability] the paradigm is in no respect Prior to the same. indeed. she rciciiing from them her has the relation of logos liyposlasis. the ol lrr this manner the.rods. the angel or to of Jupiter father.secondary natures. is apparent in conjunction with intelligence. the former indeed. in order that it may unfold the thing into litrht. divine ranges of lan^ua^e untold prior to them. subsisting invariably intelligence. j&amp.. should be similar to things . Er is omitted in the original. This one that therefore. announces the i/^cr is I l/c j/i-rmcs]. modes of words in conjunction wilh - Hence.e since it could not otherwise interpret their For it is requisite that what the thing is nature. unfolds the united Hut in essences. respecting it is tliat wliicli is tually apparent. And in the gemra superior to us. permanent and stable. so likewise is the discourse necessary that words. common axiom. he may indicate the similitude of them to tiling but without Iti/txc. 207 lan&amp. without lapse. this. essences of tin.natures /// I he. and may be subordinate to the nature of it. in order that through the sameness of the name. order that they For * T&amp. or is may be adapted to intelligiblos. distributes different the quality of the things.EUs or ri~vro. be tin. inserted. contracted ly. in order that they might adumbrate the firm but the latter. Ilenre.!c&amp. TiinaMis called the paradigm perpetual being. c. and apprehended by intelli-ct. is Jo^ns of hilclliziblcsi came of wholes which in them. [i. soul which. &quot. it i* necessary to rrad rt/r virooramr.\&amp. tlmn by being allied to them. . is it here the things of which it is the interpreter. deficient.ii.. who lias the relation of logos the intellect of his icill of Jupiter to .lt.should have accuracy and firmness. Ciods therefore.* to the (. that lan^ua^e should lie evolvedly .gt. requisite. but now he calls it permanent and instead of perpetual be in.lt. and intellec words should be as much as JJut irreprehensible and immutable.gt.

he denominates the thing itself in the the union and impartibility and stable. are \anquishod by &quot. but science.cr. and are in f/n this abundant. reprehends science. from its impartiality. r*v yoirvr. but as nincli reprehended by intellect. aUo a scientific discourse is irrepreheiisible. diM ourse. is evident. and as falling ]n&amp. is. For it is an evolved knowledge. but intellect knows at one.gt. proceeds into and on this account falls short of multitude.lf.. such as he it really &quot.elf. for evolving that which impartible.the whole in conjunction object and scientific eoence. such assimilated to the intelligible. as adds. It is lated that which is assimi necessary however.manner.ssii&amp.gt. that words respecting to the permanent and stable. di\ ides the it transitively intellect as wo have said. litude to the paradigm. localise with of knowledge. as with reference to our knowledge.88 [BOOK n. knowledge is alleiided with t\pe and morplie.gt. its knowledge is which opinion is free. for there is not any thing in us belter than science.PKOCLUS ON THE i&amp. Perhaps however. itself.. because And without the explanation of cause. but yet at the same lime exist in is to 1 For For a-rcfir fot here. from which the phantasy is purified. however.nd intellectually apparent . but the others diHerent. the thing. Science reprehends opinion. calling it stable icorJs.gt.ermanent are without a discourse about it in the plural numl&amp. of the thinir. airoar^oa^fOt. but is confuted by he assumes one word in common it&amp. ichich since in language there is a certain simi And Jietmiblc. indeed irrepreheiisible. and be called prubabk. according to Nut opinion reprehends a commixture. is a discussion about an image. because its knowledge is in conjunction with passion. hpse. and apprehend ing thai which is simple in a comport. able to oil 1 comprehend the nature of on this it. t is obviousl\ necf^an. according to the knowledge of being. this account what words remain to be assigned to things which are not some one may inquire the universe. Since. r fx&amp. it about them. and Since the permanent. r.&quot.gt. For the phantasy also repre intellect. hends sense. as not beini. Hence intellect is alone unconquerable. to read wtpt . by which science is especially bound.gt. I ri ail r itrrjrur in this place.&quot. account is is For science is as subsisting in souls.gt. but which is the image of bcin g [alone]. but there is also a certain dissimilitude. and is allotted a composite nature. but the singular nnmU-r |&amp. from the phantasy be( -ause it-. should possess probability That that on the discussion of generated it natures.

that words a conjectural nature are adapted to those.cd and a t. For assimilation pertains to the interpreters of the images of being.gt. what is said. what lie there llut there is an idea of each of these he call* DcniinrgMS of llie universe. 2 O . &amp.*rt ranks as first piloted as the third.e considered. is lie says. is asserted for the sake of the For he says that God is the paradigm.. and is not concerning ideas themselves. w in speaks of the idea* of a s. hut with respect to artificial assimilative or prohahle words. would be the fourth. Pl. Plat.gt. still.BOOK as it. however. which are truly conjectural . maker and Dcminrgns of things artificial. are adapted to those that are the first from things. the bed which he rnakei as second. 2}{f) we assort conjectural and artificial things to bo.il&amp. I that tint very arnicnide*. or with to. and not the third from truth. !&amp. it is cleaily reasons or productive principles See tin shown by Plato that we do not contain the of the arts.i&amp. who of the form of her). in the same manner as sensible*. physical images. is Thus the painted bed is the image of that which made by Farther the carpenter. But in the Protagoras. docs not make a bed.gt. For the arti&amp. are adapted to things forms. that Plato is now shaking about .gt. that !&amp.t does not make that though Socrates appears to say Republic. are the images of intelligible*.s.bscurc than and to assimilate another. in the dianoctic |&amp. that an argument repvct it. therefore. lif re lie 10th hook of llie Republic. the painter e. or. and much less of things artificial. The soul does not ttitxtially contain the reasons of those arts which are solely ministrant to life. and that on this account he gives a twofold division to words. hut to those which have a secondary hypostasis. the purposes of the moral Tim. that (hero are ideas of thin. and that which is Rut if there was an idea of bed in the intellect of divinity.lr.gt. 1 i. this in the which he makes. For conjectural things are the images of sensihles. May we not say.gt.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. but b\ the name of idea. since this is more scuso . and are the third from truth. is the offspring of deity. in the imparted to souU from divinity. of (he truth of this may derived from h nee. the reason or productive ami forming principle which soloists in the dianoctic power of the artificer. artiliri.ito. according certain ideas. well observe*. because lie conceived. therefore. in short. but he is not the Dominrgus of ideas.gt.* arlih cul. which words are different from of those that aro assimilative! For to conjecture is one tiling. subsist by nature or naturally but this is not the case with things to artificial. did not intend to intellect of the signify. and conjectural Unless other such like words things arc unfolded through conjectural words.il This reason also principle itself. but the image of artificer. For things which are assimilated to the intelligible. such words are adapted as pertain to things conjectural by nature. in ilie however. with respect to truth. placing him analogous to a painter. I.gt. I roclu*. VOL. Artificial. The the truth.e 1 liilii calls a pcx-l the third from. this also must l&amp. There.

time lx-gins mingle that nature.n ledge conformably to the objects of knowledge account of his writings being poetical. spoken concerning these things elsewhere. says. that its paradigm]. however. &quot. And a^ain. science and probability. that words respecting that ichich But the works of which is the image of being. or truth and faith Prior to this. preserve the proper worth of the things. has no true existence.2j)0 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK u. that truth is full of splendor and immutable. so that neither have particulars this assimilation definitely. &quot. 1 that there are two.&amp. the subject of discourse. so that it is not possible for it not to exist. Plato.&quot.tuule^ but says. I generated and faith.&quot.lt. The oilier. have only jjivfn the substance of th* MTSCS ofParnKuidcs . there fore. at the and Parmenides though obscure same time indicating these &quot. and is attended by Truth. that he may which has a reference to us with the order which is according. : intelligible paradigm. for it any knowledge of non-being. is not attainable. or the paradigm and the image. in them. should possess probability [alone]. the intelligible and the generated. nature are assimilated to the intelligible.gt. of these paths. real existence. of mortals have no real credibility. now divides words into those which pertain to the discussion of the intelligible. And For he makes the from that and truth to be antecedent. so the intelligible to intelligible is Hut now alternately he that which is generated. The is latter of an image to trulh to words having the same relation to the former [as that For what essence is to generation. but the saint. Hence indicating this he is assimilated to t/ie permanent und t.gt. and may argue Plato. yet &quot. and not the works of art. though replete with And again. but that the he says. Owing to the obscurity uf the original. and that neither are the paradigms of them established in the Gods. so is \\i-ll. the The former is most perfect (MTSUUsion. faith. &amp. is faith to the is generated image. however. clearly divides language and know . and (hose which are concerning the linage of the intelligible. that there are two paths. as truth this perfectly at to faith. one of which has a But thi&amp. &quot. and assumed two things as analogous so that as truth is to the to these. These therefore were not generated according to the intelligible. Neither can you have unpleasant. but the universal* \\hich are \\ e have. necessarily is the path of Persuasion. opinions things. to which and is that he may rum what known to us. nor can you make it The philosopher therefore says. Tima-us made two things antecedent. however.

on account of that energize with the object of knowledge is unstable. and with probability [instead of certainty]. But if it is possible to assert any thing firm and stable about that which is celestial. . since it i* always changing and (lowing.] TiM. in the section of a line.. and difficult to be For if surveyed. however. as it employs sense Hence it is filled with much of the nnstahlo. nor to be apprehended by science. and deviate from accuracy. but those sense. mingled with irrational knowledge. and is not But that which is celestial. Hence Socrates in the Pica-do reprehends sense in many respects. he comes into contact with it. which from that spoken of him in the Republic.is liming with intellectual liiilit and The faith. in a much stable. is not easily known.BOOK fold ii. For receiving from sense or conjecture the on. . requires the being situated there. which ho takes away stable Plato now mentions appears to ho ture.KUS Or PLATO. can the knowledge which originates from sense possess the ac curate and the irreprehensihle ? For the powers which use science alone. in conse naturally adapted to abide for a moment. this also is possible so far as it participates of being. thus much concerning Some one. is sensible. For there the faith is an irrational knowledge whence also it is di\ided from conjeo knowledge. . or that a thing is.! knowledges. but we must be satisfied in the theory of it. and impossible when found him to all men. hut and conjecture. tilings . therefore. place. For with respect to what can any one say of it. however. it is difficult to be apprehended. and so far as it can Inin place. it thus explains causes. we are able to employ is the paradigm? Or immutable. l&amp. and because that which is material. compre hend the whole of the thing known with accuracy. how And there particulars. truth For wherever any one establishes his dianoetic being every where present. apprehended by us energy. hut is arranged according to sense. from calls [full of splendor. are deceived. different . with an approximation to the For every thing which is in truth. since it is not nature. in order to a perfect know ledge of ite The intelligible.ocausc we neither hear nor see any thing accurately.gt. apprehended concerning it. have much of the confused and unstable. quence of being remote from us. is not a thing of this kind . and irreprehensible language altout not that which is said about the Deraiurgns. But these kinds of knowledge. is The faith however of which he now speaks is rational. it can be any longer said to speak of to be ditlicult to discover the since Demiurgus. by intelligence. -j. may doubt. How. there. of twofold truth which ho faith. however. it is But so far as it any thing necessary can be collected alone through geometrical demonstrations which are universal. sense.

292 PROCLUSONTHE [BOOK M. the plain is that which is connar cent with souls. effective For he knew. that. ** You must I not wonder. is much more difficult to greater degree adapted to the paradigm itself? For it discover the latter than the former. he shows that the Demiurgic principle is difficult to be found. O Socrates. is of another kind. except in ex the science {Retaining to divine natures? But if he particularly reminds hibiting us of this in the Demiurgic cause. same way as they were. is but the psychical from the is This truth. however. ns lie says in the Philebus. where. union to intelligibles. and without it contact primarily receives. first lemmas pertaining In the second exhibits the hypotheses of the whole of physiology. but the former place. should not be able to employ itself.gt.ssence that is without figure. since we likewise assume this faith. which comes into contact with . and as he says in (he Republic. and illuminates the intellectual For uniform truth [or truth and is the orders.&quot. the Demiurgus. which must now assumed. that other physiologists tri-. and collects to the theory of it . Another kind of truth is written in the Pha-drus. wonder. ln-ing through intelligence. therefore. said to as in the extension of breadth the third from the intelligible the !M&amp. which in souls. from the good. light proceeding imparts purity. in many places admits the truth of beings. which the r. also. he defines the mode of the discussion. and difficult to be known. does Plato deny that scientific language may be employed about any other of the natures that subsist always invariably For in what does Plato differ from other physiologists. The one also must he conjoined to intelligibles. intellectual breadth being lilled intellectual. which. and not that which is irrational. Plato however theologists. The truth proceeding from intelligibles. and the generation of the language in every accurate and consistent with Tima-us the five. concerning the Gods. nor about Neither. conformably to characterized by unity] is of one kind. the latter being three. And in the .nsfer the Hence that we may not be affected in the cause to physical powers. and is conjoined For the psychical light. \ve ought not to the same. may lie through science with the objects of science. therefore. as it appears to me. and when found to speak of it to all men. that it is difficult to find it. as of truth is situated. IK* from the intelligible. but the other to sensible*. if asserting many respect tilings about many universe. and separated from all rational animadversion. And this much in answer to the doubt. without colour.

the very tiling which Is it is now asserted. ticipate ligibles For things which are assumed from sense par of conjectural discussion hut things which commence from intel largely For possess that which is irrcprehensible. Imt such as are assimilated to (hem. that he energizes dianomakes these things prior to those. are not adapted to dianoetic objects. is co-divided with ? physical point For every tiling which subsists in a phy What. and cannot he confuted. and is is is not simply a point. someone may that the circles say. as the Oracle says. For it is necessary that he should not expert to hear perfectly Accurate arguments in physical discussions. in con* sequence of our imbecility. the and that he Demiurgns himself. should be according to points! Hut a point there of this kind in a partible. nor such as are truly It is besides this he scientific. thus also the discussion of it. we relinquish the truth of things. So that what not accurately adapted to a thing of this kind. neither is what is said of scientific objects adapted to sensibles. in them bisect each other Hut do we not fall off from accuracy. not with the accurate.ite slionld lectual know. makes a commixture of faith and truth.&quot. but with an approximation to it. eo-suhsist is with the intellectual of the father. mingled from physical powers and an intel physical works. principles from The assertions therefore. and to make that when sjwaking of eternal beings. as is the assertions concerning intelligibles. ex but as in objects of belief. not on account of the nature of the tiling? Or. then. is there not likewise a subject. when ? we are satisfied. For intelligibles are the paradigms of dianoetic natures. do we not sjvak accurately concerning the heavens when we say. What. which he is ho prepares the auditor to receive in a proper manner the discourse about to make. much more will the assertions re if specting sensihles themselves IK I deficient in accuracy [and truth]. in physical substances. For . so a point indeed.HOOK ii. that as the and divine essence. they also are reprehended this through immaterial forms. M hat then. . This however relinquishes that which is truly impartible. yet is it reasons! when we receive indeed. that he consults. when we say of etically. nature ? What distended with interval its ? is is impartible. not necessary that section is then-fore. there without inter val in a nature sical body. respecting Consider then not from uni\ersal hibit the irreprehensihle. sense. and showing how they we are compelled to divide that which is impartible. but said of a point. which is eternal temporal.] TIM/FUS OF PLATO. and also. that the greatest circles in the iica\ens bisect each other. as in intelligible*. 293 third place. the heavens. li-j. So that provide for the universe.gt.ht \vorld for &quot. rei]iii&amp. In short. and dianoetic natures of sensibles.

IIH conjectural. answer to the doubt. anil the generation of the universe. perfectly together with an explanation ascends as far as to the principle is of being. . \iz. uhich is truly a circle. and on account of our nature being human.&amp. and at another. And according to the first alone. some one should ask us. So great therefore is the caution v&amp. ledge. to be occupied in things of a says this.ce. without interval? For each is a universal hut . Now therefore looking to the first form he thinks tit to call it conj ctural know exisiling being. that at l&amp. If. and are in a subject. and the Ci oJx it contains.lt. nut being stable and clear. and not indivisible.&amp. thus be corrected with a about ninny&quot.gt. by the subjects it. what these many things . father.And he adds. or equalities or any tiling else of this kind are in sensible* . therefore. main/ things being nx^rled about many IK. being many. however. therefore things of this kind may he asserted of all material natures.gt.v llo IIH. 1 or duiloc- 1 c knowledge l&amp. \Vcsummarily. the whole of what is here said which being attended with difficulty on account of the construction of the words. the ohjection and is trilling.\.u an explanation of causes alone stable&quot. not wonderful. as\crting main/ are. \&amp. alludes to. He necessary necessary account of the tiling known. as not speaking about sensible*. are the concerning the Gods.//&quot. each of tluse many.. of contact*. e. bisections. because it is that a discussion should not be accurate in But it is nature. and adorns it in conjunction with the So that when we speak of circles in the heavens. these- tilings afterwards showing &quot. to this last form. concerning the generation of the universe.gt.n should not be aide to employ accurate language. he sa\s. say. small addition. we do not say partible. cssary iiiblcitl of ^i-rr/jor fi^ in llii&amp. soul winch adorns the mighty heaven. he allows the appellation of science to be given to physiology. a twofold respect. indeed. to the its subject unhvpolhelical. another time. But the natures in the heavens are an impartihle reason and form. to In and produces its second form..lt.gt.gt.. Here again. is not that which is truly equal impartihle. // therefore.201 it is PROCIA S ON THK [BOOK if. that either circles. to rt:jil ir^ruv tit\. universal is and thus we are consistent with Plato at one time defines science. Since equalities. For this science pre-establishes the principle which truly truly principle. And thus much in may &quot. Sucrtite*. by t/ic principles not being hypotheses. you mutt not wonder. he also calls dianoetic knowledge science. It also has for Hut according reasoning* fiom cause.gt. of And according of cause. and that however. we sjM-ak accurately. . he asserts that there is one science [i. &quot. dialectic] which possessing an essence. ourselves. r/r 1 It ii etiilmlly is no&amp.

HOOK ii. from the essence of the things. For these assertions are not conformable to philosophic caution. makes all other men to be destitute of science. they do not receive the to and irreprehensible. material natures becoming material. and that which is contingent. and common]. . in vt hat he writes. And requisite to embrace a knowledge co-ordinate to them. seek for nothing farther than this. in a way perfectly remote from generation. But the Stoics say that there is the same virtue of fiods and men. necessarily. indeed we were in the heavens. And Emj&amp. and from universal. we should perhaps be less deceived but here dwelling in the last part of the universe. from the imbecility ot that by which physical objects are For if it be requisite to know any tiling concerning them. by asserting of himself that he knew all things.] TIM/T. eternally.edocles announces that he imparts truth herself. But in the surveyed. so that they Tbt word yiytwvkotvir it wanting in (he original. and the modesty of Socrates. calling mind that I [in who speak. and beini. you receive to racy us in a twofold respect of the privation of stability and accu For from im physical discussions. This however is 095 not the case with others.-t. For we are allotted the human nature. it is that you who if my a judges. which is adapted definition of things scientific immaterial and impartible forms. from separate natures. * To Wisdom summit rapidly lie leaps. very far from emulating the piety of Plato. * If therefore we shall afford arguments no to less probable than others.gt. The Gods. For by 1 intellectually perceiving they generate all things. it is also But this is sense. Hut Heraelitus. that which is temporal.US lie OF PLATO. from impartible partible. and that. most remote from them. second respect. and which is partible. it is proper are to be satisfied.&quot. know that which is generated. however. \ve employ sense in a gross and erroneous manner. and in want of irrational knowledge. But the human nature brings with 1 it a life which is material and dark ened by the body. tir. if . which Plato employs in what says. have the human nature So that fit probable narration concerning these things. becoming indi in Thrums reminds vidual and partial natures. luring. such as are situated in a foreign seat.

apprehension of them. .such also is their knowledge. llencr.May we not reply. For we must not characterized by the natures of the things known. in celestial nature-. proximity in tin- home things. because its sight is Ajlgurrd inception. who collect the same things respecting them from dilleient hypotheses. and to pursue the becomes prudent men TIuiiiHide ord moryhr. intellection. or that fancy that knowledge is what is not stable is also not stable with the (Jods. we are tilled with much of the conjectural. thus to speak about things of this kind. it MTIUIS uecvsiary to redd roiro. as we have rlx-u lirn. such as they arc.olm-rvcil. at the bottom. of su|K-itic ies. one may say. since we dwell remotely. eternally. and di\ine that which for the most For in natures. On this account. and] pure. Nor Farther still. and midefiled and. mation of this truth ? Again however accuracy in the this 1 may be assumed from what has been said. stably and eternally. in some affording that it especially HN arguments no less probable than others? . . immaterially dispersed multitude. ami What then. that which is changed according dark and impure.sense lect totally. for this but we asserted by him which it would have been better not to ha\esaid . they know they are immaterial. are we to be satisfied with Plato in physiologi/iug. pi-rUins to iho rulour. eternal. antecedently comprehend to time. that because the thing known is one. and with that w hich is material. that the want of For to from our imbecility theory of the images of being. if knowledges are essential in the (Jods. part takes place. the knowledge does it follow. as the philosopher Porphyry savs. Hence they imcoiitaminated purity. Hut not adventitious. also is evident from those that are conversant This as it is said. immaterially. 1 by intel and hr. unitedly. For rou here. with them. therefore. the (Jods contractedly comprehend these in their unity. by reason universally. united. in a manner [transcendently lumi every thing preternatural.PKOCLUS ON THE intellectually perceive [BOOK n. arises But the knowledge of them we require phantasy. of the universe. For the same thing is known by diunity indeed unitedly. we are satisfied in sublunary apprehending Hut again. others through epicycles. on account of the instability of their subject matter. and many other organs. and others through evolvents. we must be satisfied with sense. sense. must admit that the mode of know ledge \arieswiththedi\ersitiesofgnosis tic natures. [in all these] preserving the phenomena. . and ina K the pluntasy |*neives morphotically. and uniformly. them after the above-mentioned manner. and their intel also is one. through employing and material instruments. by the phantasy morphotically. Would it not therefore be superfluous to add any further confir nous ligence is . figure. tluou Ji eccentrics. indeed. passively.

he The Gods indeed know these things in a more excellent manner. &quot. the perfect. may be very properly said to For our language. If therefore.K n. ur^us. You speak most excellently. For we are men. &quot. and we shall receive what sub you say. our discourses. Hence. and exert a partial form of life. In the Hepuhlie. the persons are images. than others. and it is replete necessary to pardon human nature. I likew &quot. where Socrates disposes the discourse. in what depart from is here said. while secondary first are established in themselves. Moreover. a certain al&amp. nature. Aoyor rrrnrouly printed for t . very properly itself. resemble J latoj indicates. you advise.BO. beings enerjri/e.o. and scientificAnd it also indicates his analogy to the Demiis For as he.\t excellent&quot. indicates indeed. word &quot. lut 1 oi a conjectural fables. which the word jau^y /A/e [used here by is with crassitude and irrationality.r shall afford arguments no less prbtmltle than the things thcmxetvcx. Proceed therefore.md the medium Icxs. and are filled with much satisfied&quot. 2 I .nw. through the love of all-various wonder. In the next place. and bring sequent melody. and shall not dc. receives what Tima-us says. The words lirir.s . is the best of causes in works. we tmixf times.ary to read wn\v. O Titmrus. thr. t. is 297 to say more. not Socrates. for the latter all former loss.por. nature of the doctrine of Timacus. to him. in In the It ll of rorlus. after present. I. .] TIM/I: rs OF PLATO. but is medium between (In- dissimulation and arrogance.iert the nature of I he object* nf kno.s also Timanis the lx?st in discourses. we shall receive what you say in every reffuct Tor vrj\ov 1 it ii nccc. intellectual. is to say what in no respect in less. Plat. those that are manner. VOL. Your preface indeed we won to a conclusion the derfully approve.rla/c. the words no may not only be said of men former and speculators of nature.gt.. are placed in body. then more subordinate natures are elevated to the participa tion of them. Hence Socrates. nor^ver^e to inferior natures. and do not Hut when more divine themselves. Tima-us was silently Hut here exhibiting his own judgment about what was said. admirable of which For in the things natures ener-i/e. lie is surrounds Timseus with in all through wonder the a greater decree united For possible praise. As if he had said. ise. lut also of the conjectural things themselves. Tun. in every respect as 1 &quot. we mast he satisfied with an approximating knowledge of tliem.

ert?uaded by what tlie preface.e. with all his might that which is ordered him . \\hichalso on this account they are assumed. considered. then-fore. -(titiunx. and subsists according to intellect. this is &quot. indeed. And some are.y persuade himself. it 1 Instead of n Ttiu {tt uui in this is necessary to read rt TV ti?n. some through images and symbols. is assumed from modulations adapted to These the harp.gt. exhibit the theory of the logy. 4 From thence therefore. are in tin.gt. plat*. nut others Martial. to these melodies. Let us narrate then on account of what certain cause. railed firecontrd. indicates the comprehension of total concep |&amp. however. 1 shown what the form is of the object of inquiry. But the word vopof mtlotly.* indicate what kind of jx. but others are defamatory it is usual to arrange the preludes. are certain melodies. to the tiling Iwcause likewise. are enthcastic. and of A tion through images or symbols one part of which unfolds the union. some are another the separation of mundane natures. For tai * votw vwirilcocuv rrad *a is ct iroiwy vvvtifoiuy.gt. you advise. And proceeds from. 1 on account of the goodness of its producing causes. and things previously demonstrated the discussion. artificer constituted All that has been Ix-fore said delivers to us preparatives for the whole of physio Ami of these. but Of the prefatory parts also. some of \\hich are Minervnl. &quot. l&amp. it is All tiling therefore. being harmonious. sesses total to each. and what are the requisite qualifications of what the nature is of the auditor. Th word fjrpionj omitted in the original. the composing generation.&quot. right to be preface&quot. because eternally remains. and to the teacher. ami arranged in a manner adapted it For melodies are culled such things as are tit vo/xovf lti:cs t because they remain immutable. preface itself. Hut the word tm ludy contributes all the visible partible proposed to be order of things. and pos powers separated from each other. teacher says.gt. preface also of the whole discussion is prefixed. but . Prior. that it Farther still the word tions in the hypotheses. ami this universe. and it-cause are distributed from each.rson he ought to who rightly receives That he ought assiduously to adhere to discussions concerning divine natures. . the demonstra world. others are as it were lemmas demonstrated through the hypohypotheses. of manner*. and also hypotheses.PROCLUS ON THE us [BOOK n. 1 For iara r rt here. it seems requisite to rfad iaru rouro. 1 For in on what 1 from them it depends. to perform l&amp.&amp.

conceiving that the discovery of tlie linal cause will For as the good is the cause of all beings.e 299 placed is theses. For when an upright condition. among For the particulars respecting the mode of diseussion. Hence Timanis refers For having found the form of the world through the hypotheses. as it appears to does not energi/e without design. . generated. and makes nature . will a not intellect for itself.Hut again. lie inquires what the final cause is. as the demi ciple. as for instance of matter. so intellect in fabricating. and most ancient of causes. But this is the same as conformably to the food. and the final cause? For lieHence also. he now wishes to assign the most principal. and it is the their subsistence from the good. For though the worthy man frequently the sake of the body. lx&amp. these also derive For all things are for the sake of it. nor does he principally regard the good of the subordinate but he does this also for the sake of a similitude to divinity. How much more therefore.gt. of these the fit that the generation good of such things as the paradigm is not hypostatic. the assertion that the discussion of it is eikotolo. and a divine intellect. performs all things according to intellect.] T1NLEUS Or PLATO. the final. if there is a final cause of the me.y [or speaking from probability]. For the Demiurgus is supposed to be intellect and a God. composition of the world. Plato does not investigate in the beginning. but as if this was acknowledged by all men.. and not chance. most venerable. in ? much greater degree fabricate all the sake of the final cau^e appears to perform something for to him of the thing. nor indefinitely. which he particularly desires in the fabrication of things. is consequent. and e/1 eclive cause. man who things lives according to intellect performs every thing for the sake of good. as it is said in the Epistles. But if intellect is the maker. For since the the other causes to this one cause. may the things demonstrated. And all cause of beautiful things.BOOK ii. . For to the demonstration that the world appro Tima-us commencing the fabrication of the universe. it it neceary to read OOMV pr\ tartr airoi. there as the soul is certainly it is that for the sake of x hich in the fabrication of things. these things having received an of the world should proceed from this as the first prin For all things are from the good. and also the paradigmatic. yet this is not the end that to Ix 1 his most intentional end. gives subsistei ce to all things conformably to divinity.gt. For ov*v r e /ir mr airioi here. is the urgic intellect is not the cause. l&amp. so likewise it is beautiful incitation. must the Demi- urgus of the uniterse fabricate for the sake of good. begins from the to him the most good. in as some say. cause. priate end. And of such tilings indeed.

is \\hat ho\\e\er genciation.f c-j.eiit aUo it mu. For has heen said tlr. should he -aid that IMato calls the heav en the universe. as. and tlie perfection of to this is the ascent to those who love And as lar that which is generated. that \vhich is generated.lt. world was surrounded with the remaining hulk of is accustomed yet at the same time. . hiniM-lf. n-lnit it he requisite to follow the Aristotelian prohlems.tr&amp. and what kind it it is.n n/nc/i. For again.)r it it he necessary to adopt tlic Platonic causes.gt. the philosopher Others again I to call this likewise generation. . for the sake of \vliat it heintj. he says. hut that Iliad. Uut these entirely not w and-r liom the next meaning of For the )emiiii -us ly is represented ivorld. And gem ration itself a part of the universe. all a&amp. to call the linal cause 010. These causes also received the final same s:\\ s. uilh rtUttic-n lu tc/tic/t. lor the rest and principal part.md likewise the di\ iiiity of \\w paradigm. form X J o. s of IMato . and as it were the is small .j irhtch.it it is unit-rated indeed. the demiurgic cause by \ihich .ise is ilivim- the greatest pail of the woild. the goodness of the maker. heca . that these appellations are adapted to the discriminating science of the philosopher.lt. and matter ^ vj. it as separately in fashioning place. It is usual however.And as we proceed. from necessity gene the demiurgic cause. to contemplate liuth. to discover the linal cause of tlie fahricntiou ol tlie \vorld. is.&amp. aj)])ellaliol)s iicct&amp. ihe instrumental cau^-e o/ c.j.lt. was Generated. v . \\e shall point out the rest from cause he i&amp. for thf also called the whole. liH|niring concerning the paradig But concerning matic cause. except that at ])ie&amp.gt. or heciMise the universe it is the most head summit of . place. material natures. or/. hody for the sake of that the this. (.300 \Vhether therefore.gt. tlie and what is the universe? Some indeed 1 h\ generation understanding siihhmary t!i&amp. and IMato also says. he says. tln uugh which . nil ticcount of which JY in&amp. Inch of the paradigms. IMato. . accord* JL In u/nt/t . it is lit alter the demiurgic cause and the paradigm.gt.lt. the paradigmatic cause rriGT . after of a t/iiii&quot.niit from IMato For now investigating the en of ichnt cau*c. the universe account it I ROCLUS ON THK [LOOK n.&amp.gt. the linage of And it is also requisite hesides this to consider. viii.-t he said. call matter generation. call the universe the whole \\orld. it however. it is necessary to in\ estimate on rrhut hut is is. rr//// rdaii n to i.gt. and separatt is the whole jl i&amp. (he words theniM-l\&amp. rated //// a certain cansi*.lt. or ivi. other causes are suspended from this..

lt.// things.&amp. pcnuaiu-Hci/. llinv were these things subsisting Iroin \\liich the universe being. and all generation./ nh is parts.//.1-:US OF PLATO.v ( still. For one part ol it consists in the formation of bodies. as \vhen he says.. the most principal \\lmle is that which immaterial or intelli ami without gible. that the fabrication of the world is to be under twofold respect. f&amp. (lie / &amp. tin s is the universe. and visible] is l&amp. &amp. manifests tlie firm:.generated.and [i.oi which that whom main Farther adorned from matter [as the subject]. and . the former copulates the present and past times.&amp. Perhaps also. r&amp.er|X y/ and For Trnitnv lirrf. the u-hule orderly * distribution in order ///.gt. this uhole i. to be the formaand perfection of the universe.lt.lt. (tie must be called t iteration. I fence the formation &amp.v//V///f. For bein^ constituted perfect from perfect parts. Since howe\er.&amp. to the universe. place.gt.rrr T-&amp. but the other.lt.i\es a division to generation opposite to that of matter. and the latter indicates the perfection and the. according to the one harmony of \\holes. it si-nilies that union and &amp. was the paradigm IMato adds tb.lt. though i^ manifesting by it should is be a \\hole. scj)./]emph.v.y still. lie i. is sensible.lt. For it is one Our preceptor however in a stood thiiig to fashimi bodies themselves. by tilings written Plato.ir. IJut the world say is meant by composition? Ierhaps it indicates that neration of it is from composed from many things. was constituted. e. which is sensible and IJut For every all thin-j corporeal. is partial. says. for this .\e this particular. For lie savs every thin.gt. and the one conipletitm of the n/iirerse.] TIM. in adapting bodies to the completion of one world. is significant For the collocation of of union. the word But all things to one.gt. must necessarily be rejected. but another to harmoni/e them (ieneratiem f! when (ion fashioned. he r 7io here by Plato.se words manifests continual luity of the fabrication. through figures. badie. stability [in accede to it from the total fabrication.\ed |&amp. with respect to the //i words irvwrr^. dissimilars. and that the -&amp. it is uercssary to read irXai-. or universe.ro ( Farther co.e^s of the fabrication of the world./ composed / row jmrtx has a prc-cotiah-td production of ic/iic/i taken place bedm n matter.gt.gt. .ii. must be said the Wholeness of bfin^ a motion [or tendency] tluit iclt t&amp. proi-.tely. Ihiis tihall and that truly \\lntherit be intellectual And what is much concerning &amp. . they denominate the universe.. and not the intellable that all.gt. // may be a patli to vliolc in :t hich the parts are comprehended.. or tangible.lt. For the former of the.sensible.fthe ^inspiration of and stability w/V/i. and generation. nor the intellectual all. for particle ////. re/on. this \\as deiiiinr-ie it on this account partial. interval.gt.r.///o.

but the other. paradigm. and which is always consummately effected with invariable sameness . prior final to the cai^e this xxhole of the reasoning after all the others. are entirely ridiculous. For the good ami one who is good are not the name. Lire oniillrd in . such also it is the energy which its possesses. demiurgic.gt. and inquiring \xhetherthe xxorld xxas generated. \\hether is simply so and one. and is exempt from all things. no envy is ever ingenerated about any thing. but the other intellectual Frir 1 the paradigm and as the one txxo-fold. Fora* . And the one the rules oxer is it all intelligibles . so fabricates own proper essence.short. but not is the soxereign ruler of intelligibles in and if subordinate to the paradigm And in . discover the int. or is unbegotten. lhe.gt. llic original. greater degree inferior to the king of all intelligible*. but in him because produces by very bein&quot.302 PROCLUS OX THE [ B00 n. And nmply good. and another a perfective good. He was who is good. participa tion of the former. &quot. intelligibles is themselves. manifest to every one. . 1 and from &quot. l&amp.se distinctions therefore U-iug made. but the latter a wholeness which is allotted an existence in fulness. you diminish its subsistence as simply good. that it U tis generated frith re la (ion to an eternal adducing the conclusion is what here said. enunciation. // mis generated and as when explor it i.v imitating through assertion. r/v/. the xxhole is of xxhat it is hnestigated comprehended. avro is lifrr.-. also lie proposing to good. both the past and the present time through the same names. he prexiotisly adds. For the former imparticipable itself by list If. let us next consider the beginning of it you say that it is In the lirst place. n-aJ a TO. and the at once collected comprehension of the is For in this colon. its And as it is.&quot. The signi fying likewise. but the latter is good through i&amp. For such as it is the nature of that which it is effective. every certain God is a certain good. . he . therefore. one being a demiurgic.s ing the paradigmatic cause. or whether* is is the demiurgic goodness. the one because goodness it the final cause. Thofe \xho call the Demiurgus the good. adds prior to the \\hole demonstration. as 1 lato xxheii inxestiualing the form..&quot. llect add&amp. is if indeed it is the same with paradigm. . duction. Hut the gumlis not a certain but is a much good. thus &quot.&quot.&quot. intelligible.eing is prior to the Demiurgus.gt. good. in dicates that the divine fabrication proceeds through sameness and similitude. another a xixific. mundane &quot.

very essence of the Gods. he were intelligible beauty we should say that intellect was a God through beauty. and produces by its very existence. possesses its subsistence as demiurgic. every God r. Demiurgus. but .xists as a (iod. unically comprehends the demiurgic number of forms simply so. these successive. So that the demiurgic intellect likewise. resemblance of soul ? What is it which makes intellectual souls to be such. except the participation of the first Clod. and in another prior to first the Demiurgus. by the paradigm. the paradigm.ROOK ii. is an efficacious paradigm. intellectual. it U wccswry to read . l&amp. paradigm is corroborated by unity. is the cause and fountain of some things.l-US OF PLATO. because it produces with it . and which is an illumination of total intellect? What therefore can deify intellect. And these subsist in one way indeed. providential. or a demiurgic. But since the first God is the good. is the maker. and by goodness. thus also with respect to goodness. But the viz. and supermundane good. l . For if we wish 10 explore what it is which makes a God. but the other which is in the Demiurgus of wholes.gt. For on account of this. account of the goodness which it contains. so far as intellect.gt. or a \i\ific. the intellect which is in the Demiurgus. i. and an intelligible essence. except the intellect that is in them. and the forerunning illumination that proceeds from him? What therefore is the first? If indeed. You have therefore. but is allotted an order subordinate to others. is or a connective characteristic. intellect. and comprehensive of all intelligible animals. And * if you are willing so to speak. intellect also through partici Hence this is the h\parxis of the Gods. For naturally adapted to have an intellectual perception and knowledge of beings. and the pating of goodness is a God. For tprcr this place. the in goodness is the OIK. sii|&amp. one kind is another is in the demiurgic intellect. except tin. and is not alone perfective of intellect.s the fountain of all intelligible. on intellect indeed. The bein^ also which is in him. and is not only gnostic of being.] TIM. is goodness. but to encrgi/e providentially is divine.eriniindanc or mundane. but the latter bein^ a certain goodness. And the former indeed. or what is it makes each of the bodies that are animated to be so. 303 being primarily eternal and united. if it be lawful so to speak. that we shall find that is nothing else than goodness.ecause it produces on account of it. According to And on account of this lie has a this likewise. And intellect indeed in making is relalion to corroborated by both these. whether he be it intelligible or intellectual. in the goodness.

the a. the But such are the bein-s which are indi natures posterior to these. hi. For one of them. he said rightly. and is int. rciuiile to read TOVTO yap. lifrc. but at another. another by mandate. it is which iK Yond even is intellii-ibles themselves: for impnrticipable goodness.-oimt of -modm-ss he produces all things so far as he liefor such is the. litre. -liable iutcll. of things vliiclt tuhisl in tune. .rr mr^u 1 For T. b^Mnj. but so till tiling / .iod.M.pwi.gt.-lf-sullicieMcy from envy.tra(V t r&amp. term is. perceiving says he. uhile MV follow Plato.^er -eternal nature of his iln hic hypar.t to have in tlicse we are filled inlelhrt not anything ] . ha\e of the world.d. of the super-eternal unities. 1 Tor loiru.V Jar therefore.-nvy is never in-enerated in in him about But some one may say. is si-niticant of eternal p. analogously to a kin-. cc^ary to r. wi LL BK.l. is significant of eternal things.&quot. are fn-qnently purified \N ith envy. what is there [ivmarkaWe] ? For this does not happen even to men that are moderately ^ood.nis must not admit a il.lt.P the same Drmiur-us in and on ac.lt. in. &amp.gt. but in those things m which we have less things. &amp. to the architect.t ill till* I l.tifieci CiK&amp.u But the It-nn about time passively ell ected.r r/. and another by the first indeed. IM. that intelligible And So the if maker is tin- which unitedly comprehends all the numlwr intellectual intellect which gives subsistence to after tliis manner. II. is Mnilic:int of s.lt. perfect. Since however the Demiur-us is -m. MU I ! u^. makes [as this triad in the it artificer.an^ .-rfectioi TluMer. since we indeed. The words then-fore.iCC i-or/rr-i &amp.lt.. an explanation of ibis kind.Dnuiiir-i from the one Di. r anything. the pre-exists conformably . is than we think we ou-l. envious since souls are at one therefore tiever.ve If h\ve\er is j. his tunics In.rt^rui. the term WAS. recur to impassivity. . &quot.-miurAmelias t wen-] by eontrectation. for the sake of oth.304 PROCLUS ON THR in [BOOK n.gt. &amp.JV &amp.gt. that Amelius said that there are three deiniur^i one Demiurtow. I 1 For a/&amp. What however.. being indicated.demiurgic by his will. hut the third is second And it-ill alone. For and the .-rr.ir * he is a du. is also intellect.-ctually lein^. mul sof. himself . But the paradigm of forms. //r TIVM gwJ.iis.a. v holes. as the Demiurestablished prior to both. to the Hie . the consummately gent of time.lt. in the term WAS.gt. . it is !&amp. . ihc supcr-plntan/. For // and the term term WAS tr/// be adapted tn the natures prior to // rterinil natures.v f.d.c is divulses the thiv. his nry l&amp..v the intellectual perceptions of he produces frus iv intellect. the term is pertains tn and the term w ILL K. is arranged analogously to the manual his will alone. intrlliH lc /ic j:.

yet is is is . according to which every trulydeity For it differs in no respect from goodness. is inherent in all good which subsists according to participation. and not according to parti( ipation . not habit another.vc/* by participation.ttrinr omittrd T m. is for a man to be able to benefit. in consequence of making a he perfect negation of envy ? But what kind of transcendency is it possible to find concerning the Gods ? For all the appellations and words which are employed about them. a di\ine nature. so good itself is primarily good. For what kind of indigence can there be is in such transcendent participation in the abundance ? What imbecility 1 there in almighty deity t. this passion iif us being mingled from in assertions pleasure and pain. and not on account of its own proper essence. but it is excluded from it at a great distance. For the first is mingled with its same manner as adventitious beauty is mingled with deformity. none. and is a God through participation. no rnvy. But if any one of secondary natures should be said to be a God.J the TIMJEUS OF PLATO. VOL. after the same manner. good according to primarily good. but keeping the good confined to himself. 305 meaning of the term mtus. as Socrates has shown in the Pliilebus? Envy likewise. it is impossible for envy to approach to a divine nature. in the and primary good another. which primarily good. I. tiali/. and rendered good. nor from itself. i liUo is accustomed to call indigence . so far as it is di\ine. in the original. For to be pained from the goods pertaining to other*. Is not envy therefore. OixVci if tfiiotoi. he calls Love the rcant of things beautiful and good. and which For adventitious good is one thing.* just as in the Banquet. sso that neither to the sun. For as which indigent of good. For as intellect itself first intellect. which the philosopher appears exterminating it from a divine essence. Is it because there are many kinds of envy that adds none? Or is it said through transcendency. V. 2 Q . too. naturally adapted to be perfectly exempt from this alone. Hence. existing being a God. since it is essen- And envy v aho l/ic -cant itself of good assume at present. ? What i. it is superior to all it is impossible for dark ness to approach. is it i-nvy. But the second is wholly boniform. a pain arising from the goods belonging to others.ed in goodness itself. is contrary. is primarily good. is generative of Hence light. to me it especially to is For is . This participation therefore. it is among the num ber of things drilled.BOOKII. t Plat. is the of each thing. is good itself. and yet not benefiting.&quot. or good. about the cavities f the earth. are beneath their dignity. and as the beautiful itself therefore this is ? It What primarily beautiful. is And the the third.

but that which in is above intellect is partici is pated b) is it. (Jo. is to if some one should say it participation. good by hi* very being. according to and the goodness which eonncctn which the deity of the Pemiurgus. i not u participation.iou of (he (Jodi from the principle of li^-lil.gt.lt. as some say. or rather gic intellect therefore. Nor. is consequent to the before-mentioned axioms.!. being good.sentu-. a* In- &amp. generative all 1 or this goodness is not a certain power.tll participation For he is united to the one itself. indigent not primarily good. lhing. so f. Nor is it will. being [BOOK n.of demiurgic essentiali/. As want of intellect. is it an is itself of itself [i. lut the union prior to intellect ol another. is kind it may be.* The demiur are the mo-t ancient and venerable of all things. and not according therefore. . i:\ii&amp. trimwhich uccedeu from another tiling. |)urlKi|Jitt of nothing inprrior For tlie |ir&amp. not superior to intellectual .entiali/ed exiting as soul. e.gt. an iii 1 -llablf unfolding into For a^Ouiot here. are united to the vnc itself. in short. Soul for it is indigent of init. Being therefore entirely void of this.gt.cd in existing as intellect. because the Gods every God but there is not anything which is participated by him .nl ciXW.ir as it is a (iod.&quot.lized being a God. things.gt. that Thin however envy is the same with good.-rt&amp. the participation of intel by but every thing is the indigence of good incited and intellect are indigent of good.. but it is that As therefore. jH-rtains to itself alone J.. powers. but an a^fr(/i return. Nor is it a habit. exempt from all envy. it For the first colon [or or -.tum as a God is primarily so. indigence &quot. but the measure hahit pertains to anoilier tiling different from haliit . lirrr. but soul is is because adapted to become envy&amp.gt.. one kind as we have said being evil. is twofold. every intellect is euer-ies. anil . but the other not.t. and transcends all indigence of whatever For whether it subsists according to diminution.lt.gt. and is prolific.gt. read ^Oorui. in e\i&amp. he was willing that all things should become as This 1 much as possible similar to himself. For intellectual union is of one kind. and a partial is the superior to envy. ii Wo it nfreoary t\ir to 11 n 4 . a all to liiinxlf. but goodness i-s&i-ntial \\hich unites essence. or according to deviation.lt.gt. because they are not primarily good. in but intellect participated by superes&amp. connects hvpostasis.gt. hut will proceeds from of all power. and aseiery soul it.&amp. and is inellable. is es&amp.. and doen not proceed out of it. for it.o is e&amp.306 fountain of good ? PKOCLUS ON TI1K The DemiurgUN therefore. scends ul! indigence. lect . \. intellect lellert.. so tar as a God. But a God. thus also in is goodnes&amp.entialued. i. thus al&amp.gt. i&amp.

and to benefit all tilings. hi* intellect participate* of his goodness. For being and because he especially benefits all things. the maker of the universe is superior exempt from all imbecility. by participating of a certain divine and of arcane and ineffable impressions. but he caused them to become For a* other things besides this. urgus does not rank among deified is natures. but diffcrAtticus says. the measure of good. the participation of someother by* is primarily good.J TIM. manife&amp. And this indicates the extension of providence. nor indefinite. there is nothing in the universe solely evil. naturally adapted to receive them. whole fabrication of things. so that neither is there any thing disorderly. colon comprehends the demiurgic peculiarity. but all things participate of beauty and order. a God. nor without the inspection of providence.ii a participate Instead of ro in this deity. as Thus inul is dpi tied by the participation of intellect . it it necesory and body lo read TV ^irra^ttf. the carpenter makes all that he makes to be artificial. he wished to supply all things with the participation of good.lt. as the good . benefiting generated natures . as every thing which deified.gt. which accede to them from the nature.rytiy pbce. in order that all things may this third But become as much as possible similar to itself. a greater thing than which each to all indigence. he is . one God is imparticipable. If therefore. bcraiiM. is indicative of the demiurgic and effective cause. 1 good But that which is entirely imparticipable. he impart? to signifies the eternal all things by illumination. For he does not say that he was good ness. of the participants is by no means adapted to receive. And goodness itself being are good by participation. . is But intellect and primarily good.ts that the Demiurgiis is participate. as 1 TheDciniurgus. because deity accede* to oul a% soul Ihiough thf intervention of intellect a is deified by the participation of medium. desiring to fill all tilings with itself. 1 * ^tTo&amp. and the hyparxis of tlie Demiurgus. isgood itself of both the Iwfore-mentioned And that is which is participated. but that he another participate. IK. And since with respect to deity. For not only to be good. to proceed to all things. and this eternally. wliicli constitutes his hyparxis. medium . so far as he is a God. indeed. for instance. But he who is good participates i of goodness. so far as they are Hence he made all things similar to himself. and all is (lie medium natures of such a kind as the intelligible and intellectualordersof the Gods are said to be. If likewise. the second colon shows that the OemiAgain.HOOK ii. 307 part of the sentence] manifested the order. is For one thing such. but that he was good. according to other paradigmatic reasons. and the extended. but another nature. but on account of the super-plenary.EUS OF PLATO.

diately good 1 unitedly. there is the same mode of interrogation. one rnt things according to a different reason [or productive principle]. and at another imbecility. how being unadapted for an infinite time. we forget that we thus deprive him we sav it Hut if he was not able. thus also the DemiurgiH. it is Demiurgus produces eternally is extended through that the to a perpetuity which perpetual. when he says. Porphyry however. liii good. that the wish to From communicate good. [but in the \\orhl distributed!) ]. rendering them with relation to paradig forms which distribute their essences. But if it was it whether was it from this nature being unadapted or adapted? If therefore was not this nature which prevented the universe from existing.k what it is the reception of harmony. For we shall take away from its subject nature that the universe did not exist before. was adapted. Hut it is not imme of always receiving good. .30fl PUOCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. in consequence For in him all things are contained like its generating father. because was because he was not willing. it But if it was unadapted. are omitted in (lie original. from the in time. have power. For these are is And he it is by But is every thing [truly] beautiful That in these. according that it is always generated with the whole of time. was it because he also did not subsist order! Or is it not unlawful to assert this. admitting ood. symnu try. therefore be admitted. thinks fit to matic causes. did not energi/ing. For if the uni\erse was eternal natures. and order. stilt or will there be and the Demiurgus more so? Let it something primarily unlx-gotten. Plato therefore manifests that good God UJ that which wax dimnlcrly into order. or from its subject nature U ing without For if from the Demiurgus. becoming to be so. them good . causing HO far as lie i* but another a bed . and whether ? ? concerning make all things generated. \\as it Demiur-us that it did not exist before.lt. says by the reception of \\hiehgcneraare good. he makes these tilings. &quot. through easy to infer. beautiful. came it to be now changed [into an adapted condition]? Whether did it move itself ? But it is not the The words t K TV tow f tr/prj/if wt. eternal. it is absurd that he should at one time of o-oodness. all that has been said. lint according to things to himself. . thing to be a ladder. assimilates all a&amp. world is but is always ^cm-nited or arrangement. that it was in he not fabri \\ hether then. and in other respects in vain For eternally Khali we him. or because he was not able? cate. and not \\ith generated as in perfect reality. consequence of the Demiurgus It indeed he vsas not willing. and that it is not always incorruptible. therefore.

for the one is essentially illuminative. assertion subverts the perpetuity of the world. motive.] T1MJEUS 01- PLATO. to IM. and powerful especially receives this most principal or proper principle from prudent men. always imparts it in energy. which subsists for should Income similar to himself? The an same made all infinite time in becoming to be. Demiurgus ? 30 j. is well-ordered and decorated its with beauty. for the Demiurgus is always good. it things therefore. but from this the eternal production suspended of the Demiurgus. He therefore. For as the sun.BOOK self- ii. he also was then good. the perpetuity of the universe. he always wished to impart good to it.gt. things. perpetual . and imitating him. as it is fire . other calefactivc. being willing indeed. and from this. Hence. For the orderly distribution of the universe sufficiently manifests the demiurgic power. lest he should have an imperfect power. progeny of the demiurgic cause. it should sustain the paoion of the good. &quot. For neither does the worthy man wish to efli-ct other things than likewise. If how ever. not being but becoming to he perpetually. and the confused and disorderly nature. Since the universe however. the perpetuity of the universe is suspended from the goodness of its maker.gt. he always imparts good in energy. as long as it exists.lt. has appeared to some to be without (jod. the world is always generated. will receive it with the who greatest rectitude. thus lest which is always good. and the goodness of him who Tor if the Demiurgus was good. illuminates 1 all things. vilest natures. as we have said.&quot. Was it therefore if moved by the And why was all it not moved by him before. always wishes to impart but unable. he always makes that which is good. and was willing that things extension therefore of providence i* from the goodness of the father. Timjrns assigns the final Demiurgus. but th&amp. Hence the world is such as he lie The world then-fore is perpetual. For matter. according 1 to cause which extends itself to the goodness of the which uniting himself to the first.remote from divine providence. But if he always makes it. nrcr ttarv (o read . and fire. heats as Ion::. being the clearly demonstrates divine production. Uut if the Demiurgus was always able to impart good.i*tcnt the goodness of the father. and is not a stable And the perpetuity. that is able to effect. on account of privation of form and morphe. The visible order of with is consnh&amp.&amp. it is For rnraXi/j-arrt.

is a The effective cause therefore.310 PROCLUS OX THE [BOOK n. Hence the world is perfected indeed. For the name of principle But by the addition of most principal. and are in the It must be said however. About the good the order of intelligible and intellectual natures subsist: but about the intelligible.For intellect subsists on account o{ the good. it is nrresvirv to rcacl vrp. Hence Plato intellect which is in us.m in thi place. orooi. cause.sake of which all things sub-i^t. habit. effects themselves. For the first principle is that which primarily produces all things. Since also in dogmas concerning of things. is necessary that the the highest causes it speaker should have the intellectual and the auditor a prudent judgment. that and powerful principle.final is most For it is that for coming animated and inspired with life. ij rwv tonTvv For the iato^i. or the most proper comprehends also concauses. he indicates For the most principal principles are the causes of generated natures but concauses are subservient to other things. because the good indeed. that those- may not cause? good * and the final any casual person say some-tiling concerning God hear the multitude asserting that Cod is And do we not every day and Jlut God *pktn vfiiithout true virtue is but a name. ax P lot i nun saj/s . so the goodness which dignity in each. he calls the final cause the most principal. Tor r|* otTOI dinar here. but it is most perfect. are the path between matter and the whole arrangement which * is truly .&amp. . and the sions concerning the gocd. and which i* truly the end of fabrication. What then. For the demiurgic [i. thinks who assert something concerning the ino. he generates all things. because indeed it is motive of causes themselves. and the perfection itself of tfit universe. but the more principal. paradigmatic tin. all paradigm intelligible. and that their auditors and powerful principle. us we hair before observed.lt. from which other things are suspended. and principal. and the Demiurgus intellectu. so far as it wholes. is And the total fabrication. this is especially requisite in discu&amp. For as pate* of good. on account of the good which is in us. and of the union which extends through is in each thing has is the leader of all things. on be i the. intellectuals principal cause.st proper should he prudent men. and this Timaeus denominates the most proper and powerful principle. OTUJ requisite to read rijr mrioi . principle e. but the also. should receive what they say with the greatest it is necessary. partici the good first the On these accounts therefore. hut is moved from thence moves the is from the principle]. rectitude. moves first that which is generated. It l intelligible is superior to the intellectual order. subsists. ?f rn 1 vorpuv lianoopnoit. n ru. is paradigmatic principle moved bv goodness. that generation and tiie iiorld.gt.il. Instead of *tpt ft rn oijrnr. but prior to intelligibles.

and in a way allied to&quot. comprehend this cause discursively. dmum-ic ? angels. in the first place. speak must he received as uttered by prudent men. not according to wisdom. to every way extended masses. l.. when we con one fabricate cainu paternal production of thirds. and evolving all the demiurgic providence. proceeding indeed from intellect and intelligence. the whole orderly distribution and progression from it. uniformly comprehends every final and the most divine of tion. causes.lt. what we 1 as much The For the divinity was willing that all things should be good. and in the third place. who dance anil chance. between intellectual beings. a casual assertion. This also the discourse concerning to partibles. who precede as in a solemn and Gods who receive demiurgic [as were] procession the Gods however.&quot. celebrates the final cause apophthegmatieally . he was willing that all thing. since we are in a certain respect media Urtwot-n more divine natures and the multitude. Plato adds. it delivers iu an evolved &quot. no cnry is ever ingeneratcd about any and being entirely -coid of thi. But from the natures above man. and from thirvs with out interval. Hence too. next place. but according not da-moiis also know the goodness of the father. and that as possible should be evil. assert . he who especially. it in the adumbrating. powers from the possess this knowledge uniformly.the natures prior to them. But the words.ed with hating this knowledge pru dently and wisely.ut we must be sntisf. For the asser he was ^ood. //. to it .&quot. nothing divine fabrication. .lf&quot. For prudence isa medium between intellect ami opinion . hut ruling over a life destitute of intellect. oil tic is Do sfwktn of hi/ the multitude. 1 because one will of intellect. For the assertion concerning this principle must be received from prudent especially men. For such is human prudence.s. an-els intellectually. da nums with undeliled purity. manner. discursively . round him. Hence. cerning the most proper principle.. and interval.J TLNLEUS OF PLATO. much as possible similar after the tohini*&amp. The third The word ^Kt^irwi is oniiltcd in the original. and those that are deprived of intellect. him :t/io is cood. so that a ritrht judgment will be concordant with it. and intellectual production proceeds from impartible* from things united to such as are multiplied. and ail the parts of fabrication. he adds the divided theory of And what he now says represents to us intelligence proceeding into all multitude. things should become as &quot. eternally. it. something better than this assertion must be sought and from the multitude.&quot.

and the third of knowledge. into being. therefore. goodness. And thus much con is . and the third . and that which proceeds pertain to providence. being is life. &quot. so scientific. as goodness to to will. but the second or w hich has the form of the one. but proceeds as far as to the will of from his will. [BOOR n. After these. For providence from will. he was good&quot. this ineffable intelligible also is )&amp. lie wished to make all things good. life science.m.md ev-ential production. power For essence.311 assertion. begins from good. if it be requi //^// possessing its undefined and incomprehensible to survey in this. For since the first division was. heini. to but will exhibiting the super-plenary. and energy being . he made them and tin.-t we may understand how it is union itself. to l&amp. sessing anever-failing and infinite and exiting self-perfect. which is super-essential from brings is one. goodness But power. and that which is to will.-i. and science science. the second is know from both. is PROCLUS ON THE in continuity with the second.cing triply divided. .gt. Hence. into science. and the perfective. Grst.iagain. so is essence to is power. But if he wished. and the second with the on this account the second And the third the father. and the desirable tive. to that which and the object of the have an order the analogous to For to connective. the sufficient. is will. stable. And as will to providence. likewise ledge. likewise. from the one of itself exempt nature. the uniform. and providence imparting According however. ineffable. . and uncircumscribed. and the timlethe ejjicacioux.suspended assertions. conjoined with goodness. triads into the object of science. For the efficacious. universe obtained an elegant arrangement. are pertain For the self-begotten. delivers the whole of his providential energy. from what has been said. and the genera the perfect i-cc of works.. and united hvparxis of the triad. into essence. the extended. and the scien For the first of these indeed. And . firmly established in this triad. but will from goodness. Jiled. vitality. the and energy essence indeed. indeed. and science. and that which comprehends and And energy. measures all things li-long scientific. life.gt. and the intellectual.eing four in number. but power pos allotted pel lection progression.n. cerning the order and connexion of the us however survey what will is. receives a triple di. the second of soul tific. intellect analogously For the first of these is the supplier of existence. is goodness the pro\idencc. was good. These and the third is that which receives its is divided completion is therefore. is that whi-li is kno\. the triad which is characterized by site indeed precedes. and the object of science to energy. is to intellect. For if he beginning to be so. power. life. The unity.gt. intellect. in order that I&amp. goodness producing perfect. analogous to will.

and reptiles. power. and provi dence hut as intelligible. We reply. -ie is. he not only fabricated these. since able and willing to generate being through their goodness. if hewas willing that this should be the case. And neither let there be any thing wanting even of the last of beings. the Demiurgus also is a God. Self-subsuteut super-e ^mtidl natures for to tliese the avrn. . Plat. those that rank as the second proceed from these 1 those of the third order proceed from these and ripnotov * is orniltcd in the original. 3 J3 imparlicipable indeed. from the first to the last of things. But it is all tilings are not good. let there IK? a progression as far as to matter itself. are the resemblances of divine Since therefore. material. if it And in thus what manner. For it may be said. he was not willing that all things should be good. and energy . viz. And those in the fifth and last rank are bmliei. if it is is l&amp. however. the good would destroyed . being allotted the last order. Tim. and let us give a transition to all beings. and remains to inquire much concerning will. If. and a of wholes. or itttlj. For every thing which generates But the less excellent nature not existing. therefore say. generated.] TIM /EUS OF PLATO. it would be requisite that the progression of things should stop at the Gods and undcOled essences. . and every thin&quot.ve dnided about bodiet. is as far as to But we say. the nature) lbt .. better than that which that which is the last of things. would become and not l&amp. Tlioie in the fouilh. that all things should be good. Tor he was not willing this is possible. to this. he would have stopped his fabrication at the Gods. but also fabricated such as are worse. 2 R . I. through and antecedently comprehends all things. if if all tilings unprolitic are good. that if the progression of things was only as far as to the Gods. nor any vacuum. and Ins life. providence. are souli. all things would not be For first good. For what vacuum can there b when things characterized by 1 itself .e therefore. and men. Tlir next to ihesc aro intellect*. but also brutes. he has essence.e natures they Our opponents the Gods. The monad also which he knowledge intellect. 1 them have the first order.gt. Those in the third rank. But after the Gods. however. to Consequent ho good. have the first subsistence. yet in consequence of an arrangement as the last of things. and an so far as he is a Cod possesses is suspended from unity. and as intellect. how the Demiurgus wished all thin--* and that better natures should alone exist. will. he possesses goodness. the progression of things extends only as far as to the For if a divine nature is unprolific how is it good ? will be unprolific. more excellent will have no subsistence. the progression good. primarily belong*. If he had been willing. therefore. Let there the God*. Gods. and 1 1.gt. VOL.

and \\ let the generation of beings il be extended as far as to is in ? nothing but hether is there nothing ev is in these. to give heat. deity is dillerent from their habitude To divinity therefore relation to parts different from that of parts to each other. how can he be good? For it is the divinity was willing there should in . the production of things may orders. you will \\i. to M e must say. nothing is evil.314 others . these also to a good purpose. according to the analogy subsisting from on high as far as to the all beings from the one. well-ordered progression of I^t. you apprehend 1 to For this thing it is good.gt. if which said to be evil. itr. and ulter-motive natures. iii MI wauling thr original. doubt. therefore. lcliev ing. For he uses these not even of the things which are called evil. and on each side of term another . ? the third rank. pletion from the above-mentioned in many ways. all these things b. be evil. . self-motive natures hating the all Immoveable natures In-ing second.eing ! being first the continuity in things. and matter. And again that the habitude of things w ilh reference to For whole. acknowledged. indeed. For some have been led by but others have been induced to deny a providence. or shall we admit in bodies. and to wholes is not evil but good. But again.-. And I divinity was not 1 willing there exist contrary should be how can it have a subsistence to the will of the father of all things. being naturally adapted For so far as it is a evil.. PROCLt S ON THE [BOOK u. be destitute of all good. that there a certain respect. And the same thing is to a part indeed to suffer by it. therefore. to partial natures there is a certain evil. Tht !&amp. and that there what i* called depravity evil entirelv consequence of For il. according to our with respect to things subsists in a different preceptor. For all beings derive their com In short. being.gt. all things are good. is Until if is not lawful for the good to effect any thing elve than what evil. be shown to be continued last of things. of \\hicli are the last of tilings. have a with reference to us. that the habitude of divinity manner from that of ours. those natures subsisting which are dissimilarly similar these l&amp. what can be deficient established. that if providence has a subsistence. and if you are willing so to speak. and in souls this doubt to take away province of that which that is essentially good to benefit every thing. just as it is ot which is essentially hot. and those in the fifth rank Such. conformably the doctrine ot Plato. but to the universe. those in the fourth rank are generated from things characterized by the others only . however. For something will Such therefore is the. good. and so is far as it participates of a if certain order.

one being that of divinity which benefits the depravity that is so abundantly seen . necessary to read *-o\vop(tror. which participate of the goodness of the Demiurgus according to the measure of their order [in the scale of beings].ilIe If.* but the other being that of recipi&amp. 315 make gond entity. itself. evil. if it ranks among beings? things. is much more that there should be such a thing as evil no subsistence. may he clearly says. nothing is evil. For that which participates of being. is prior to being. it to itself \* prior to be beyond ovon that which in no resj)ect whatever is. that itself. indeed. Hence evil.it which is roost distant from which the procession of being ends. there is nothing evil according to the power of divinity and of recipients. generation. requisite to read TO/MI. and not that which &amp. has no kind of subsistence. That we assert these things. and you make it good to other And.lt. which is in no respect whatever it is. Hence it i For *o\vapaTov. that the &quot.&quot. nts. and that which howrver. parts with good. they take away the fabrication of the world. conformably to the opinion of Plato. all such is produced within the heavens.HOOK ii. For Invause there and also corruption. so posterior For that which is most distant from the good is evil. it a with good. and order. however. participates also of unity. subvert the prolific power of wholes. For power is twofold. and bound gus who rendered all things similar to himself.gt. fofd 1 is ml ilir/J. has more of subsistence than im.os&amp. In consequence therefore of he Demiurgus being willing that be nothing evil. For Tfipi here.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO. you give place among beings. participates likewise of good. if it is. . and is not entirely pates of good Who therefore made it to be such? Who of order. but tfut winch is mo*l distant from tfi rril iltrlf is ponterior to nonentity. that is which entirely evil lias participates of unity.lt. and colours evil itself with good. and as are * Tht good HtrlJ . beautiful things. ? It is evident that filled it is the Demiur- For he both wholes and But if he benefits all things. and confound I the nature of things first and last. in ihr gflod for it H tli. how is it possible it should not. injustice. that which is preternatural has a subsistence. but evil is complicated If. evil but this impossible. deprived imparted to it measure. But if certain persons accuse him as there should the cause of evil.it Nothing or non-being is not tii. but from its former habit.gt.&amp. partici because e\il has not an unmingled subsistence. because he gave subsistence to partial natures. and indefinite. it is . For as the *il itself is to the nothingness of non heinir. world obtained from its maker For all in the Politicus. therefore. be easily seen from his writings.

some And eternally preserve their things are wholes. however. other things. that the out and what is primarily good. the province of fire Ami he asserts that certain partial causes of evil. says he. it is tion subsists according to mutation. For be generation. always able to preserve their proper good. on this account that which is not conformable to reason At the same time. with good. The words others. will neither possible for evils to be abolished. is allotted a certain resemblance of brauliful through the goodness of the maker of the become thrse particulars Plato assigns no other cause of good than God. For it is universe. and yet preserve their own good. But therefore. and partial da-mons. it terminates in actions. evil revolves necessarily in the mortal place. precede multi tude and this on account of the indefinite diffusion of evil. &quot. If.gt. For genera a certain mutation. through which he manifests that evils do not derive their subsistence from divinity. however. such as a partial intellect. but every thing divinity. possess good secondarily and partially. as is the case with such in their choice. supplying Such things. nor of snow to heat. evince that the causes of evil the&amp. and alter-motive.it not be according to Plato. but in others. are partial and indefinite. but others parts. But in the Hi-public. not only themselves. and are transmuted in a becoming manner. because the deformity of matter fills partial souls with inelegance. nor of that not.PROCLUS ON TUG And [BOOK n.e to refrigerate. because there is nothing \\hich is entirely evil. nor revolve from necessity about the mortal therefore. But such as are parts. as are parts.should should be corruption.&quot. all subsistence. but that they and this place of our abode. of pails. vi/. they are perfectly good. produce and such as arc indefinite. in the Thca-tetus he says. is in a certain respect accomplished conformably all to justice and For we may make the following division: Of that the world contains. which is aH-&quot. but others are not own good. that it is for nature. For it is not in evils us in thin-s that are good. them to be in the Cods. and which is exempt from all beings. bodies as are generated and corrupted. some are alter-inotive. and also necessary that there is if it is necessary that there . .ood to are to be admitted. but also parts therefore. and says that certain other causes of evils are to be investigated. that which in no respect whatever has a subsistence. So that and is benefited through the according to him evil exists. some With respect to wholes. But if (here is . and cerium. is from partial causes. some have ev il established And but others self-motive. ol self-motive natures. are suspended from the providence deriving their subsistence from of them. And of these. through an association with it. bonifonn providence of the Demiurgus.

so likewise . cause that which is effected by and entirely deprived of order. not destroyed with reference to which .HOOK ii. so far as they are individuals. for it is either air or water. For they is suffer the punishment of their cogitation alone. also which follows from his who chooses hellebore For ing to species. to it indeed it is good. the action is intemperate or unjust. jLet us. others to such as differ accord life. a certain thing. it is And it not good. is indeed with respect to itself disordered. it is evil but . it can destroy the whole arran^eBut again. some are good to all things. (hat hut is necessary that the preternatural should secretly introduced. nor yet to all diseased bodies. partial natures which are self-motive indeed. as it there the God* a certain punishment of mere imagination. is not tjood to all men. when he who chooses not only deserves the retribution consequent to his choice. so far as it is conformable to justice.] TIMvEUS OF PLATO. it is introduced according to justice. direct our attention to what remains. For since impulses and actions arc from choice. actions follow elections. subvert divinity) . according to justice. For. becoming actually de far as they sutler from the universe. said. it is not evil. nor to those by whom it is done. and conformable to divinity. it is l&amp. it ? their energy to be evil to themselves. but in simply evil.e 317 corruption. or they suffer the punishment of their will. that those who deliberate about betraying a suppliant. tin? universe. but is to them the greatest so far as it proceeds from them and is directed to them. those who perform a particular manner. the action is not good. to such partial tures as energize selt-inotively. nor to all bodies. of their choice (just as but so directed to themselves. they destroy their life. they undergo the punishment it is said. and is impelled in a certain way. but with respect to the For if though it should be universe has an orderly arrangement. so far as proceeds from the universe to them. therefore. na is and who stop their depravity as far as to their choice. inent of things and whose energy is directed to externals. since govern us inwardly. yet in a certain respect this also is good. and is good to this individual and this particular For of goods. destroyed would not dissolve the order of the universe.gt. And so far as their energy is praved . And simply. As. and as they reward taneucent choice. impulse and will. and others to individuals. viz. it is or something else into changed thus also that which is preter natural. and is salutary from Whether. which is corrupted. is indeed corrupted with reference to itself. how is it possible that when having a preternatural subsistence which is of itself nothing when deprived of all order. therefore. it is but good to one who is*Jiseased a certain principle. indeed. however. but that but to him conduct.

gt. localise it is necessary there . is not on this account natural to the soul since she is essentially the mistress of her choice. and which verges to ditleivnt lives ? over choice is from divinity. to these it must be said. For the animated body has an and yet disease. For this is the ward of itself. IMtOCLUS But it ON THE l&amp. )r shall we say il is necessary there should be wholes that are self-motive. the choice good but all things participate of providence. il . and good. or draws it downward [to an For order. . Kvil.terred to another and another is good.s from divinity.lt. . certain persons should ask on what account an evil-producing cause had at first a subsidence. are aNo stlf-molMe For air riirmi licr it u uecesinr) to read awimtnuii.gt. choice also i. may said. it is And if indeed the choice to its is from a depraved soul. 1 For the proprr parts of self-motive whole. inferior condition of being]. Hut how is And how possible they should be wholes. that the progression of beings is continued. but through the sc!f-moti\c power. that there should be this life also. but is of certain respect If. which is not also in a peculiarity of self-motive powers. Whether. .e [ B 6oK 11.sary therefore.gt. are at a certain time lilxrated from habitude. if deprived of their proper parts* will the continuity of beings he preserved. 1 Mi ^rtrjf/m is omitted in the original. so a depraved choice becomes its own punishment. and if this he tin* case. therefore. though it should not rank among wholes. is it necessary that there should not be every self-motive life ? But we shall thus take away many natures that are divine. . For the choice proper order. however. and also partial and altcr-motive natures. however. it is according introduces punishment to (he electing becomes punishment in him \\ho chooses. it all choice cither elevates tlie soul. 1 medium . but entirely destroy the intermediate natures. hut if it transfers that which chooses it.318 they punish the contrary. and that no vacuum is left among them. evil . It is nece&amp.n&amp. but we are self-motive indeed.should Ix. a partial nature. how ran choice itself have that which is conformable to justice and divinity? May we not reply. causing the For as a beneficent choice becomes truly the re soul to apostatize from good. \i/. which is same time partial ? And which a and the bond of things which have a it were an arrangement contrary to each other.sence of this kind and a power of an ambiguous If therefore that wliicli has dominion nature. but there is no necessity there should be sell-motive parts ? &amp. such as at the through the partial form become connected with habitude.sclf to justice* soul. Hence there is no evil.gt. For the electing soul alone is tr&amp. for it is essentially corruptible essential tendency to disease in beings. an e&amp.gt. Or rather. . if wholes Mid self-motive il 1 natures have a prior existence.

or was not willing. . either generation will he necessarily stopped. souj being liberated from her partnriency and stupid astonishment is base.&amp. For if parts were generated iioiu wholes. tin. to the nature which is in us. are lovely vehemently admire them. disease this particular is 310 nature not which is according to nature. therefore. use of good. but liberate the soul from the . Plato in appears to consume him who Millers it. in it far as subsists according. is For so the Again. a part to he corrupted. Farther therefore. it Laws defines what punishment is. And he -who is incapable of being healed without a certain action.l. that order that. in order that the wholes may he preserved.gt. indeed. it is in it is good nutriment to he changed.gt. necessary that what is generated from other things.KOOK is n. allotted to connect indeed evil to the partial body. but accidentally from the sonl.j T1M/EUS OP PLATO. they perform them with repentance. it possesses good. vi/. and the things generated should remain. but (Hridcnlally from divinity. till those that tation. !&amp. evil.lt. For it is changed lor ihe into another tiling. when they are the objects of hope. may begin to be puri to those that For base and unjust actions. Hence that which is evil to a partial nature is good to the whole life of the world. but when accomplished. is incited to the performance of it. they demonstrate their own imbecility. Hence. to justice. they are the subjects of medi cause the soul to be latently diseased but when they have proceeded into energy.ood to the wholeness of bodies. For taking place from things of a finite nature. which are always prior to parts. about that which fied. the whole must wholes not existing. considered as producing all things good. For he was willing. lint resuming the inquiry after another manner from the are asked whether divinity was willing there should beginning. indeed. all things would he rapidly consumed.v iyra/icroy in this ]&amp. or mutation to partial natures will IK. if we l&amp. Evil also. consi still. we reply that he was both.gt. And when. it is ueccunry to read. and resembles the opening of ulcers. ro /HI bvyapitwr. if is it admitted that divinity gave subsistence to the soul. and repenting of her own evils.uc. so far as it is evil.derived from other things.gt.e has any dered as imparting being to all things. inconsequence of wholes becoming partial natures.&amp. thus also to every nature good for order to the preservation of the animal. Hut he was not For he concealed evil in the willing. so far as it essentially good. originates from a divine cause. a continued ahlation fail. hut is t. sliould As.lt. And if jou are willing to argue physically. For every thing in the universe which kind of bring proceeds from the demiurgic cause. For TO n&amp. evil is produced ctfc/iliallil indeed from a partial soul.

for .gt. ing to the whole of their life And . receiving every thing that was visible.iL&amp. and there is vanquished by a portion of good. whole intellectual evil. punishment accord For he who does any the object thing irrational.lt.gt.i&amp. as remains. Xor are the pom&amp. nor in such as are subsists iu tional for these energize of symmetry inform. but that which rules over all things. but moved in a confused and disorderly manner. be led it &quot.f litre. . or whole bodies. is implied to that which is of his choice. and leads into energy that which pre-existed in hi* neither in intellectual natures for the imagination.as viuch as written superfluously. to not any being which is not words. and which was not in a state of rest. But of these with reference to each other. does it from choice. . that is it being perpetual. for according to nature. it is evident. for all genus wholes an* exempt from It evil. mains. after good it . exhibit but others according to partial energies.Thus . nor in whole souls. since much possible. from evil all is .een Arid from necessary to the perfection of the whole of things. between form and matter. and as tence.i u.US ON Till: thin r -0 o.lc t of good. (or all their essences are derived from divi for these subsist according to nature. all these aspire. also should not have a For it was not subsis shadowy is what has tilings are l&amp. the privation it And iu bodies. that every thing evil it exists according to a parypo$tasi$. it i necessary to reJ. latter was in every respect For vvufitri&amp. aavfitnT/iif. it must be iu partial souls. neither nity .gt. evil it as possible nothing is destitute of good. and that at the so that all things arr good through the will of divinity. nor in matter. For they do not signify an imperfect power. that the w ill of divinity is not vain. and benefits all things through an abundance power good with reference him.3lf) 1MIOC1. is free In short. same time it is coloured by good . conceiving that the better than the former.gt. ome. Bui these. &quot. Hence it is it re neither irra in such as are rational. For all said. in the essences of . that it must be in their energies. or resemblance of subsistence. indeed. most disgraceful parturition. nor iu their powers But with respect to souls. From which also it is evident. and always subsisting according to nature. that generation existing. for it aspires after the But it consists in the privation of symmetry supervening ornaments of form. or iu partial bodies. is neither wishes to rule over matter. therefore. from disorder into order.&quot.

They likewise say. matter was brought inelegantly. farther add. prior to that which is [they add]. disorderly and confuted. and lamhlichus. that Plutarch and Atticus are not only guilty of impiety towards the Demiurgus. and producing according to time things which are con-subsistent at once. that which is without. brought For the participation of it into order. because every thing which is generated w We may also observe. For. or his prolific power.] whence was the motion except from soul . and what order allotted from fabrication. and that what is governed hy it is conducted confusedly and the They Demiurgus commenced. and produced an orderly motion. previously sur veys bow the whole corporeal-formed composition is when considered it. the world indeed. form. it is neceary I. hut likewise. which moved this matter. intellectual. in the Laws. and the presence of soul. it is also necessary prior to the perfect.lt. to read &amp. and likewise a malevolent soul. the one being corporeal. Tim. is here rightly asserted. Plato beginning from the latter. either entirely subvert his benefi cent will. reprobate this opinion. that a l&amp. we may be able to by perceiving and the demiurgic orderly distribu determine what the nature is of the corporealit is that he does this. that 1 For Lwr^arurji berr. that Plato wishing to indicate the providence proceeding from the Demiurgus into the universe. was rendered prudent.rnefi- cent soul instructs in an upright and prudent manner. and the nume rous and mighty goods of which they are the causes to the world. in addition to what a composite. And by itself the arrangement derived from soul. but the other decora tive. understand what i* literally. tion of things. in order that formed essence by itself. prior to that which has arrangement. but language dividing that which is generated from its maker.self by itself. 321 here said time. and that the malevolent soul participating of intellect. For both these concurring. hut that a malevolent soul is moved disorderly. P&/. and also the supply of intellect.] TIM/tUS OF PLATO. and their followers. as admitting in wholes. Plutarch of Cherona and his followers.BOOK ii. 2 S .r*i/jariiji. and the presence of intellect. the imperfect and that which is without intelligence. that since the 1 demiurgic production is twofold.gt. as testifying for them the generation of the world from a certain Tliey also any that unadorned mutter existed prior to the generation of the universe. And that the world should be perpetually fabricated by him. supposes with the greatest propriety. Porphyry however. it was from a disorderly soul ? It is said therefore. always existing. and also Aiticus. that when the fahrication of the world hy into a state adapted to the com position of the world. VOL. [they and if the motion was disorderly add.

nor again. that one thing pertaining to it \\as not a subject funproduced by the Demiurgus]. Concerning matter it however. the Demiurgus is . each thing when this distinction takes place. Ix-ing analy/ed into another. For Plato clearly says. nor consisting way of another matter. however. PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK n. what the . and the manual artificer. the adorner. Hence. or whether in was generated. becomes a if it is tiling of this kind.being the maker. which are the forerunners of their distinct sub sidence . is among but the other entirely immaterial and simple. in order that the one may be entirely perpetual. and without God. which the Demiurgus . nor its But participates of supernatural powers.gt. he produced the whole of it. l&amp. For he first constitutes its essence. and the if same and the dillerent.admitted. it is artist. And of soul indeed. So that he did not assume one part of it as already existing. but investigates whether it is unbegotten arid not generated by a cause. says that matter God . it is evident of the corporeal nature within soul. every thing corporeal is moved in a way perfectly confused and disorderly. we have shown how itself. t\\o principles of wholes are to IK. and has been considered by us elsewhere.gt. is as he says. The present discussion it is perpetual. of which as elements it consists. he produces the first bodies. then it moved. A little after this however. And there is no occasion indeed. that the Demiurgus fashioned the whole With respect to soul however. not being generated by a cause. the visible nature receiving certain vestiges of forms. the Plato now says he assumed If then-fore. matter and God. nor however.gt. derived. and demonstrates that if it so from what cause. 1 and obtaining an appropriate position nnd order in the universe. which is spect to body. neither God producing matter. This tiling therefore. For its motion is such.-&amp. so far as pertains to itself. and the mixture of these. is the cause of the first forms. IS ow. divinity But with re incorporeal. when it is surveyed as not yet partici For when the universe pating of intellect.eing perfectly adorned. to say much about that which is moved in a confused and dis orderly manner.3-&amp. Plato For then delivers to us the demiurgic providence about the fabrication of bodies. and animated by an intellectual soul. he produced the elements of soul. from which order be disorderly. by a prudent soul. and add another. as Plutarch and Atticus say.vhibit men. the number of those which are very much investigated. is For Aristotle indeed. this is true. evident that the generation of body is a part of his fabrication. motion will represented as fashioning the whole of a corporeal nature. as not being a composite. neither by intellect. it is to these requisite to e. and that he alone produced its orderly distribution. and whether according to Plato. some one may enquire whether it is mi be gotten. another unbegotten.

lt. but chaos of infinity.not conception of Plato on \ who gave . is evident from what Plato says further on. producing every thing stable. the first subsistence to matter. and Plato constitutes the former from the latter . hound and the divine and the visible orders of things . eflectirc 1 i. viz.3 . but from the less excellent. that he likewise produces the infinity which is here. every thing motive. Does he not therefore give subsistence to mat from another order. and s &amp. Thr highest God. Hence likewise. or if you are willing. &amp. or the ottr. from the first infinity.* &quot.&amp.gt. Orpheus likewise delivers the very same For as Plato twothings. being. ) matter..-1 TIM. hut place a mother. from if which bodies and all beings derive their infinity. 3 tin For that the Demitirgus is subject.t infinity prior to things that are mingled inthesiimmitofintelligibles. been demonstrated by us elsewhere. from the equal itself. ether being the cause of hound every where. as we have said.T-. If therefore. vix. them. which is the last infinity. In bound. it is evident. Hence. And from these two principles he generates both infinity. according to t!ie maternal and paternal peculiarity. II. is the first ind ineffable cause of matter. hod ies are from hound and It is what is the hound is in what the infinity? evident indeed.. he ^\ likewise gives subsistence to And this indeed. from simi litude itself. mat things . just as he produces the hound which is here from the hound which is there. and the source of Pleasure and connexion . genera appear* there fore through these things to divide matter oppositely as it were to the Demiurgus. But since every w here sensible* are ana logous to intelligible causes.andfromthencu extends its illumination as far as to the last of to him. produces thus too the theologist gives subsistence to ether and chaos from time . and after the same manner all sublunary animals and plants. account also these are prior to forms. the similar. from the one being also. God gives subsistence to all infinity. told causes from the one. [or far as it is being in being characterized by t/icone] power.US is OF PLATO. . it is in ter this a certain respect good and infinite. It lias however. ter &quot. place. he H re that God* exhibited tie clearly writes. the equal which is here. hut to produce generation from the Demiurgus and matter. tion and (hat generation is an offering.lt. which has an arrangement prior to the Demiurgus the Phik-hus therefore. and the evolution of them into light. that we say matter infinity. say and also the infinity of beings. as for instance. effective of sameness. and the most obscure and formless On being. from the more excellent principle indeed. so thai is which according proceeds from the one and being.gt. that these three things preceded the generation of the world. composition&quot. and hut form hound. that he establishes the fir&amp.

it it avri\v. * The first hvpostasis of intclligibles being itself. n separation (^(apif^a). super-celestial ? 4 do I say this of the Gods themselves and mundane causes. is e. because Proclus in the Introduction to this work observes that Nature 1 Goddess through being deified. never failing progression. may he said to reside here. but is ought evidently a to be inserted.unity which he contains. p.. and the other above light. the unilluminated. &quot. the tradition of the Egyptians asserts the same deficiency of power. of produces matter so far as she is [a Goddess] and according to the hyparxis herself. the one being below. ineffable nine of all become* the illumine principle. And matter indeed primarily subsists from these principles [bound and infinity].1-24 PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK 11. allotted a formless nature.OTT.r from essentiality (tx TTJ otwiorijrof). but there is neither bound. is not any deficiency. and the last infinity by And it is indeed Hence also matter is dissimilarly assimilated to the first infinity. subsist there in a way more excellent than the infinite subsist. O he is not the cause of matter. and not according to a transcendency. the nature \vhich is defined. fi. to aikenrd. .&quot. It is pro materiality (U&amp. as being infinite. according to the. 1 * The word See lamblif. matter from the &amp. indeed. f For as there which is is one kind of ignorance wlncli is below knowledge as being the defect of it. irpoi avr^v awetptur. through indigence. us being the receptacle (xtupa) and place offorms . But Plato also produces it according to second and third principles. unstable. first Hence conformably to this assertion. but a transcendency of all that is luminous. and inde But finite. according to which likewise he is a God. and the infi nite are inherent. but according to his demiurjric being.lt. however. Oc Mvsti-rns. silence. the successive orders of being. For being very near. being that iu which our ascent to the ineffable terminates .] infinity. thus also. necessary to read rpoi i 1 For vpoi mirrijK hf re. rr For the divine lamhlirhus relates that according to Hermes thin O s conrernin & it. which mingled from bound and Per because this liypojtasis through proximity to the petual darkness therefore. as being a&quot. For en here. For according to this she participates of the first cause. and another above know ledge. tior a buttom. And why For the nature of the universe likewise. am. but of bodies so far as they are bodies. but a Moreover. there are two kinds of darkness.gt. it is requisite to lead ion. tior a scat about it. The Demiurgus therefore. as Damarcius admirably observes. And these. by other things.. the lust infinity may be denominated a perpetual darkness. if it be lawful o to speak. is 5 also the cause of the last matter. Orpheus produces Fur there perpetual darkness* and hypostasis of intelligible*. of difference. and connected which matter also is comprehended. that Plato derived from Hermes an opinion of this kind concerning matter. original. intelligible and intellectual. it dwe!U as it were in the adytum of that truly mystic This darkness. In matter however. viz.TOJ is produced bable therefore. 1 Otoiii omitted in the 3f).

however.lt. and survey the meaning of each. For the idolic and indistinct: being moved in a confused and disorderly manner. but the 1 1 : .everything that was visible&quot.BOOK n. in and permeates conjunction with the paradigm.e the offspring tf being. as Timauis says farther on. For every thing which participates of and of union.gt. was incorporeal and without quality. lie produces in conjunction with those that intellect. v all things. to the one. and prior to fabri For superior energi/e prior to secondary causes. leave nothing solitary. For ra or airrav here. however. life. life. it is necessary to read it i* Instead of 4 a^im^ty in this place. you wish to disjoin primordial causes. is 32. and representations. and in the next place. paradigm transcendently illuminates them by his very being. &amp. The word thus then. quality]. and the which proceed from them. but the paradigm. second subject presence of forms produces different motions in it. requisite to read n^qnr. read ra air vrwr. nor the e. So that they neither signify matter. all the orders of Gods prior to the Demiurgus illuminate. is uecrssary to read rara ro tr. of l&amp. 4 you will find that the good which is the cause of things does not extend. are primary. But the words. That also which lives of is and is one. Instead of * On it this account it is likewise the cause of mra TO ij- here. body void of But the visible nature is that which* [i. now participates of forms. is also the cause of matter.* to a royal intellect. but he gives the greatest extent from his more elevated powers. in the first place. as to his Lei us therefore return to the words of Plato. makes urgus. And all such things indeed. as he produces through according to his secondary powers. however. he is the cauve of the intellectual supply imparted to the universe. Hence generation which he contains. According of the animation which perxades things. participates also is. from his divinity. For such things as lie produces according according to being. he is the all cau&amp. many he does not produce many things according to Noras many things according he does according to life . For C4ij/rrara here. and possesses certain vestiges.u. but according to his intellect. and the Demiurgus cation.l TIM/EUS OF PLATO. These. not true.eing. prior to the Demi to those things to which the energy of demiurgic providence If therefore. . suspends the whole orderly distribution of things from the goodness of the Demiurgus.gt. viz. to the life and of corporeal qualities. and is bein rr connected through its own projKT unity. The converse. fcrarr&amp. &quot. 1 so Nor does he give subsistence to as the fountain of as he docs according to being. These things.gt. s For it would not be visible if it they show that this visible nature is corporeal. we providence have elsewhere more fully discussed.

but according to the. hut of their effects. that the Demiurgus is the one cause of all things. For they say. Hence this thing which is invested with form prior to order. order. hut of the production of form. he produces indeed in one. of order. j But the Demiurgus is the cause of order. exempt from the demiurgic providence. The paradigm. or adorning things by different powers. paradigm in him. disjoin causes. so far as they are forms. and then the Demiurgus is present with it. &quot. and eternally. at once. The word i. but it especially receives something from the latter when it is arranged and adorned. but others the extension of superior causes. e. for forms. this things which are beyond both.s therefore receiving. nor is there a generation of this. /however. has these representations of forms from the paradigm which is in its own nature intelligible From this order like wise.&quot. For according to the good. for every form i. Since all with form. that a different work participates of a different power. some as far as to proceeding as far as to things that are hibt [i. receives matter from the good.320 it* PROCLUS ON THE [BOOK 11. being invested with forum. artificial peculiarity. cssentinli/ing. and according to his artificial peculiarity. form. From thence Fur the first matter does not possess a great variety .diflerent things proceed from a different peculiarity contained in him. . way according to his goodness [or (he good which he derives from the ineffable]. through the paradigm indeed. For he will !* the same though we may survey all powers in the Demiurgus. since matter indeed partici pates of the former prior to the fabrication of the world. and inserts in them order. Demiurgus receives the subject of It now varirgated with certain vestiges of may also be said. divinity who receives and who drlivers. if you you say. you must conceive. entirely leaps fortli the generation of abundantly-various matter. and invests bring the case. the Demiurgus was absent. from which the things. A she produces like wise collectively. when according to the hypothesis. but of that matter uhich has tCAtiges thejorerunners offorms from which it is evident that the paradigm and the Demiurgus dilli r from each other. uml of the order in forms. but the Demiurgus receiving forms from the paradigm adorns them with numbers. and of it* participation For order is tin* reason of things that are arranged. it After this manner tln-retbre. If also j and as we may say. Hmce the Dctniurgua received matter now advancing to the also Plato says. he produces matter. the Oracles produce abundantly-various matter. but in another way according to his own paradigmatic. may be said to indicate the para digmatic cause which forms. to hodies]. are the progeny of the paradigm . subsist always and at once.s n measure. in not the cause of matter. form and order. that participation of forms. causes therefore.

will in the as much as possible&quot. iyc&amp. the excellent in both in order In that according to him. Again. what he there supposed after it. For if he produces by \ things and it is necessary that he should. and by a diminution of his his very being or existence own powers. he/ may either produces by a separation of parts from himself. . and knowledge. led it from life. lectual is But the word to his will &quot. which and power.&quot. that order is first in the Demiurgus. lie l&amp. natures. the third. not ascribe to him deliberate choice. hypothesis alone imparts to the subject a nature from which motion is derived. but that which in effects. the words. that icas in every reject better than fhis. viz. And thus much for this he particular. Plato says. and ranks in the second place. is the third. &quot. But Plato following Orpheus. in expression being rci/Iing* and power in the expression the third place. requisite to read . And goodness indeed is paternal. with the first &quot. by goodness. know the order which in the Derniurgus. signify the participation of intellect. f/ c. from the Politicus. did not is about to arrange disorderly is natures. the words. For (lie nature of it being irrational and not governed by divinity. intellect effective may abide in itself.gt. &quot. separating the Demiurgus from the world.BOOK ii. or abiding such as he . Previously assuming therefore.] TIM. says. the Demiurgus received .&quot. but power is maternal. &quot. and an essentially ronnasrent desire. Goodness therefore is the is first.EUS OF PLATO. conceiving indicates the demiurgic and an intel intelligence. what kind of order can it he able to preserve? This however is evident. according touhich also he Aristotle therefore. but power is is with viz. and intellect. in the same manner 1 as fire. it i. which is an ambiguous tendency . but the word that represents to us the order pro-existent is in the Demiurgus.gt. which from him.lt. that he led itfrom disorder into The word (his also has an indication of the disorder then present which order. analogous &quot. disorder into order.which 32? But the words. all things intellectually.&quot. &quot. this motion being produced without intellect. For in conceiving. and intellect. Again. of the triad. Hence supposing here in conjunction with fabrication. and the whole For the Demiurgus being prior to parts. and pertains to the (irst pmccr. in order that we) . lie places however. is [without any For l]\tv hcrf . is gnostic. signify that order is better than disorder. where. but may in no respect of secondary natures. For it was thus said. he introduces the privation of order to the motion of the visible nature.y the Lairs. made all to exist sensibly. characterizes dinne providence these three things. which him. xas not in a state of rest but moved? show that the &amp. he adds intellectual knowledge in the term. that it was moved by a certain fate.

subsist in him not make according to the whole of itself. Instead of kafloWhcre. therefore. of their government. At the same fused prior to that time. subsisting in. he does not alteration J. that matter is moved by to each other the Demiurgus and ideas. That according to time likewise. he produces that which is is. order exists in one is way in effects. (wai/TO njTOf) and primarily. undiminished. which gives subsistence to itself. conjoining These also say. and participate of order. and disorder to order. So likewise Plato presupposes these two effective of ornament. produces by a separation of parts from himself: for neither absurd nature diminished in producing the hair or teeth.adorned.lt. In the next place. and from each other. they differ from each other. through this indeed. But if remaining that which he his very being. For that which is diminished. an unbegotten.PROCLl S ON THE &amp. the patrons of cally. who admit that there are many principles. complicated and being of itself. Titans against the Olympian Gods.. but through a separation of parts. matter exists which is sensible. A necesiary to read ov ia9 . that lie which he produces wholly similar to himself. is it fit to preserve an exempt essence. he opposes Atticus and his followers. j They that it differ therefore. that it may be able to arrange things disorderly. he to say. in supposing deserves however not to be omitted. and in another in paradigms. It is however. both being without genera tion from a cause. but the latter is order itself. Hence. let us concisely narrate the sacred conceptions which the philosopher Porphyry here delivers. the unbegotten is common to them. Hence. the unadorned and that vthich is fabrication of these may IK. and preserve its own e.128 [BOOK n.ssence in undefiled purity. or any other of the parts of is Much more therefore. the exigence of a confused and disorderly nature prior to the For as they introduce the wars and seditions of tFle of the world. \ uot by the unbegotten. he produces by make that similar to himself. And thus much concerning It the meaning of the words. and the body. /Let there however be. and is borne along in a con and disorderly manner. produces successive natures by his very being. by which they i differ by something else. as they say. does All things therefore. They however speak theologi For they arrange in opposition to the Olympian Gods. that Plato here imitates the theologists. but irrational and malevolent soul.exempt from them. that the former things. then. In the first place. For the former with disorderly natures. and may IK. irrationality to reason. But Plato philosophically transfer* order from the Gods to the -subjects bodies. But external natures are the images of his allness. matter and God.

but to ^Farther * recur from the characterize principle ! . and subsisting contrary to each other. the casual will have dominion over the preservative. it absurd to make is evil eternal.eing l&amp. and makes them commensurate to each other. to assert that the irrational is prior to reason. should differ by the generated. in Tim.gt. For why than the is the one more is ? sufficient is to iNrlf. one of them their aptitude derived themselves adapted to coalition. nor. and the ascent will be ad infinitum. but the other corruptive For it absurd to say. Plat. and therefore instead of reading. in short. preservative. and that chance has dominion prior to intellectual in the Republic. to things that differ.gt.gt. not be unbegotten. many common monads. Nor in thus speaking do they attend to the Athenian guest. rirr aytrqror rwr aycrip-wv orrwp. who says. and neither is in want of the other? is adorned. nor is it without God. cannot render Again. or eternity. if if each of them from more immutable. and without a cause. But if something else is the cause of their difference.e unbegotten natures. or indestructible. that this is the fountain of stupid opinion. IVor to Socrates who says. the concurrence of sueh-like principles will principles. it it the highest principle not alone. is to be contrarily dirided. art. but (he other to adorn. Unless they say. is is Farther still.) or the unbegotten nature of matter makes matter to be corrnptive. In the next place. whether is that something else gotten . that it is be pre the unbeto thing unbegotten is preservative. or every thing the unbegotten nature of God makes God to be unbegotten corruptive. what is the cause to them of their difference. however.gt. 1 and which makes the one is servative. that is necessary to has not another it Is (^ for this does not yet demonstrate dignity [but that the printhe original. cirr * It is necessary here to supply aytv^Tov rwf. So that again.BOOK u. that things without generation.] TIM/EUS OF PLATO. we must read. generated. For these princi ples being divulsed from. that to their it is not proper to remain in multitude. L 2 T .e oilier. VOL. as the cause of their difference. For araia* hffe. subverted. it U DCCCSUrjr tO read nia .gt. it should be the the cause ot l&amp. whence adapted to For it is necessary there should be something which connects bolh. l&amp. is For that which divine. we must investigate something else prior to For it* these. as aycrfTwr orrwr. not similarly honorable with that which it equally unbegotten. that this also arises from chance. l&amp.c It will therefore It is impossible. so as to render the one but the other corruptive. it is absurd that cause of things unbegotten or if unbegotten. (for either every is if unbegotten or generated ? For if it is generated. that it should .e irrational. in the same manner as the good. for cause there will be no cause of difference l&amp. by this its still.

principle. but the trood of intelligible natures. increase and nourish and mo\es its instrument [the body]. that true ll Thus also the the body.lt.ia\\nv ** ra afif&quot. essentially possesses the at different times. things.S&amp. &amp.gt. averting dilleivntly from what they 1 a-. by their very being. in which he says that all things are about For if all things are converted to him. and that his Epistles. always demiurgic power but if he does not. read. also. soul by its very existence animates. [BOOK n. powers energi/e by their \ery being.ni ovltv .gt. but the presence of soul alone accomplishes the. But this will be. For the body does not perceive or palpitate in coiiM-qneiice of our pre-deliberation . but that which is changed differently God fabricates. he will have a connascent If therefore adscititious. is power of effecting it . 1 has its existence in fabricating. and not only of certain things be derived from thence. W fr. does he become perfect. there there were.rai r. his power will be ad&amp.lt. lAgain. ^ J&amp. thenif one fctill. where he asserts things to one principle. that the principle lor the principle to exist. tritive powers. only of certain things. and will be simultaneous with the things that proceed from it. augmentative and nu How there l&amp.gt. and subsist his sake. . vivifies.. the the principle is subverted. X. it which is Farther the existence qf principle disorderly.M-rl this however. are for all things since what all. up^n.-e energies./. is omitted here in the original. they say. case. in which dialogue lie clearly says. he calls the king of all. l and the principle will be no it less than things posterior to when subverted from things posterior to it not existing. since they frequently say. that it adorns that consists in this.eing artificial.pt. For if God will not IMJ the be more [indepen cause of all is But if lie also rules over matter. the woihl not If however this be true. This too is manifest from the ever you may assume that all things are from bound and Phih-bus. not knowing exists without fabricating They But airain. rrj a . tt TLVTUV. that God did before.gt. and that tin. of KU 1 oi&amp. about him. ci&amp. &quot.gt. every thing which is always naturally adapted to a certain thing. is that which shows that Plato refers all And this is e\ident from the Republic. it is not po-sihle existing. ^\Xo&amp. that it is the principle of certain things. and not many principles.&amp. and from not fore. Instead . from being imperfect. but dent] principles than one. . r.cititious. that the sun This is likewise evident from the sun the offspring of the good. will not But if this be the case. he is the principle of \vill .gt.gt. an artificer ? The second head therefore after this.lfttvt)i fitT at-r^- . Again is the cause of \isibl.330 ciplc of all PROCLUS ON THE principles].-.

generated. Hence. vi/. or at a certain time ? For if he was willing at a certain time. and likewise those who admit the principle to be being itself. For ideas are not separated from .sccrm necessary to rrad ro it nyn W *nv nn rtt t . subsisting by themselves apart from it but intellect being converted to itself. that it Because. third place. in which dialogue many. the offspring of the Gods. the aptitude of It is should have \trrn had been disorderly. resembling in themselves forms impressed in wax. Nor is is the Demiurgus the along in first God. neither always good.] TIM/F. M always effective. Every arose thing good. indeed existing. But they introduce ideas as things inefficacious. . it Instead of TO c aynOor war. and therefore and the Demiurgus always arranges the confused the world is always adorned and disorderly nature. not have been adapted since the disorderly motion of it is inaptitude. not being itself disorderly. For if God was willing to bring all things into order. . On what account. from the one being. Moreover. For he is always good. a For the certain first God is every intellectual essence. become arranged. For if it . For every from being without order. or from matter. therefore. and situated external to intel lect.er- neither proper to begin from the multitude of beings. Nor does a irrational soul superior to move that which soul is borne confused and disorderly manner.gt. an absurdity follows. Hence the Athenian guest assimilates the energy of intellect to the circulation of an accurately-fashioned sphere. how was he willing ? Was he always w illing. monstrates. sees all forms. from the resistance of matter. For God observed this. any thing Plato. bodies but being moved in a disorderly manner. he confutes those who assert that beings are [alone] dent. 1 and the order of them when. this was either from himself. how came it to be now adorned it And ? if this became adapted to receive the it. say they. Nor. however. there is |&amp. another.US OF PLATO. is is onepre-cxistentrausc. therefore.HOOK ii. itj brought into order. But if from himself. but these are From what is said also in the Philebns this i* evi fected by the one principle. in short. which always exists. but from the one itself. neither to do the principles which they assume per intellect. that it is nor In tain the.] would Hence matter is not the cause of the privation of order and ornament. which one principle and many principles. For he is troduce this privation of is order? It was that we might survey how the generation of bodies one thing. necessary therefore. did the universe. For they are incaact or iroiijruor. demiurgic productive power. For he de but that of Ihcse principles themselves there God. did Plato hypothetically in is the will of God the cause of this. 331 infinity.

with a wheel. asserts that disorder assumed and says that those things will to hypothe prior to order. merely according not follow for which the hypotheses are assumed. are the passions about the body. Hut the cause of these is a phantasm. becomes present with the subject from art instantaneously. in order to render matter pliant. though yet without distinction. the to matter. and becomes red. without a divine cause. effect things of this kind. that which is invested to forms. And these. For a man blushes through the imagination of what is base. and sentto the view. but is consuhsistent \\ith order. a divine intellect ef fecting this by artists are in its very being. that . though it is m-ver separate from them. is something different from con- with their motions. to such as are able to behold the visions which they externally priIf therefore human arts. To this we reply. the imaginations of partial souls. and through the conception of something dreadful is terrified. and his body is rendered pale. but take away it The reasuti iVit// howcccr. or polishing. and would not in bliort be in want of any instruments. accedes to bodies from siibsistent Plato. should gi\e the sensible nature . shows that disorder Aristotle. but energizes by being present alone. but that Plato saw that which is formless prior Thus too. is assumed prior to order. and what they wish to accomplish. and who are also able to produce illuminations. why is it wonderful that the subsistence to Demiurgus. wishing to indicate the order which themselves. is that in which JMato demonstrates the mode of fabrication. indeed. form would immediately accede removed. which he infers want of instruments to their energy. and to exhibit certain divine forms by their motions. ur Jonn. For because they have not dominion Hut this is evident from the instruments which they over every kind of matter. all the impedimenta being Hence if there was no impediment.332 PROCLUS ON THE He net [BOOK n pableof arranging themselves. generating. is however. boring. as For the hypotheses of geometry are of is the case in geometry. the phantasy produces many passions about the body by its very energy alone. which by their very existence are effective of the energies of thrmons. inaptitude of the recipient of form. themselves able to effect geometrical conclusions. by the intellectual intuition of the universe. which does not employ impulsions and mechanical contri Farther still. there arc certain powers superior to us. though it never was prior to it. that the unadorned ought to he admitted prior to the adorned. all which operations do not insert form. who employ efficacious imaginations. indeed. or elaborating use. that which is material immaterially. in addition to those that have been already considered. Moreover. theologists assert that vances. blames him who sis. that it is not said after this manner according to hypothesis. with form. through many arguments. The fourth head.

. nor lawful. He likewise convolves the world on her knees. of the such as the nail* dry all each part of contains parts. such as the blood and phlegm of the adipom parts. of thu moist parts. and For human seed produces man. whatever p. as is demonstrated in that dialogue. else than that is which most beautiful.irt you may take of the and they seed. to Olympus and great whom Hcav n are giv n in charge. according Oracles of Night. without contact interval And.&quot. For all these. But the fabricator of all tilings is eter nally established in himself. to effect any thing Themis universe. on which account also. soft parts such as the lungs and the liver . leading that which is disordered into order. i* and renders the world similar. For reasons [or productive powers] generate these. to. is the fabricator is of this universe. in conjunction with Jupiter. for But it neither was. and of the ex as the membranes. and without interval. 333 is ? tangible. jignitifs both ihe ami lawful. it ought not is stance. Hence also she remains a virgin to the prior to the progression of the Demiurgus. Conformably therefore to this divine cause of order. being not at all in want of matter to their existence. the triad of the Seasons. as the marrow and fat. as the nerves . indeed. of the thick-set parts. you are every where void of bulk. the substances of similar parts. She is therefore the monad of all the mundane order. of the bitter parts. But she produces. and from her the is order of the universe indissolubly connected. if something which in and extending impartibly that wliich possesses to be considered as an admirable circum incorporeal. For she very properly assumed in the beginning of the fabrication of the is the cause of the demiurgic sacred laws. those that are compact. or rather from that which is without bulk. and connects Goddess of justice. parts out quality. it ucd here by Tlato. she preserving the order of it perpetually immutable and unshaken. who it so much larger than the the differences of the solids. and those that are hollow of the . and the hair. Much more. panded parts and those that in a certain respect are composed of them. as the bile. is the demiurgic reason able to produce all things. derive their subsistence . as the saliva from a small bulk . as for instance of the bones. And a dense cloud to open. seed. . Socrates in the Republic calls her Necessity.] TIMJEUS OF PLATO.BOOK which i!. imparts beauty to This word whith all things. 1 and abiding is in himself produces the universe. it For will find in all things. of the with . or to close. therefore. the Demiurgus also. is that which is best.

says that mo&amp. being most beauti pended from. For the sim is&quot. and the similitudes of things second to such as are first. . being united Themis.t not lawful fur him to concede any thing that is it is false. he found that among the things which are naturally visible. is susj&amp. but as to an time his divine union and intellect. a reasoning process. exhibiting. and continually passes in these causes to another . By ever be more beautiful than a whole work which possesses intellect. wonderful manner endeavours to prove that Flato knew the a silent way from one of demiurgic causes. For being himself moat excellent. intellect. the beautiful. are adapted to the Demiurgus . no whole work destitute of intellect would &quot. . as Themis the guardian of thfi divine laws. The terms also avw and if. the term is. but they m:ike the generations of secondary from first natures to proceed in an orderly series. . PKOCLUS ON THE nodV. that which is &quot. also the term wax. ful. renders the universe most excellmt. plicity was added. is the cause of beauty. in order that at one and the same eternal hypostasis may be rendered manifest. is that he any thing else does not exterminate deformity. being a man. and better than all intellectual perception. For if Socrates.&quot. rnergi/ing with Themis.gt. on account of their connexion. he was good. account also. he very properly causes the world to be most beautiful because the first and intelligible beauty itself is sus Hence the world likewise. and the peculiarity itself of drily.ended And is because the good from the Demiurgus. being himself it is Deminrgus. are more adapted to the term WHS. For which is above Now 1 that which participates [of deity] is most excellent.gt. and preserve the connexion of on this divine beings. are very appropriately assumed with he had called the Demiurgus good. and is in goodness.gt. who likewise always present with neither was nor him? And thus much concerning this particular. as to a God indeed. ou this account also the best of fathers gives subsistence to the most beautiful ofl -pring. therefore. as being super-eternal.334 with himself. how to possible is I* we should and s:iy that the demiurgic intellect effects than what autil ul. however he calls him the most excellent. 11. But the words. as being a deified intellect. Farther still. who is the best [of fabricative causes]. it best : for before this. or to obliterate the truth. and then For Timanis says. no one of the Amelins in a different 1 Notf 11 for erroneously printed here t&amp. the term WHS .

giving subsistence to each thin::. according to its pro|&amp. The divine lamhliclnis however reprobates all such interpretations. in tliu place. I fence. yet since he comprehends in himself the cause fabrications. he who one. and all the bulk of bodv. and he who assumes or receives is another. because lie ix the Demiurgus of intellect. nor things. fabricating total and total soul. For Xoyio /xoy ix a distributed or divided evolution of parts. it i&amp. vhich invariably the is fabricative of essence . necessary to arrange a monad prior to the multitude.ii.gt. 335 if they were one and the same.gt. as composing parts. we think it fit one and whole Demiur- gus. and does not by different powers fabricate dilleient things. he is said to make them by a reasoning process. and so far as he is a God. and generates it. that Tiimcus discourses about one and the shall now remind the reader that this must admitted. 1 For *vKT( cr&amp. If however these do not doubt. .gt. hence by one intellectual perception. he pro the world. that the divine lamblichus should consider. and have their existence. nfcary to wad r&amp. were] manual operation. be the producing cause of all things. the former indeed collectively and totally. whether the Moreover. the world in duces the parts adorns the whole. indeed. but arlists and scientific men then doubt when they are indigent of the habits by which the former Income artists. Mtit by a reasoning process. We For if same Demiurgns. and a distinctive cause vf For it docs not pertain to one who doubts. or a reasoning process. accord is one animal.. but soul in body. For they placed intellect in soul. the second by intelligence and intellectual perception. as very superfluously devised. since neither does art.rcrair*rm. is not multipoint. and these as wholes.c &amp. reasons is anoth* r. but discoursing about them as makes by but tin 1 his will alone. [i. and the latter men of science.] TLNLEfS OF PLATO. divine causes themselves.gt. and which is according to energy reasonings are connected. in addition to his being the father of all things ? For of let the same Demiurgus so all far as he is good. through the union of the demiurgi with each other. For all of them are Since now also he who rr///. collectively .&amp. but in another (he parts . latal natures. and thus together fabricated the universe. But he defines Xoj/rr/ioc.lt. and indeed have already observed. if there are many demiting.gt.] it is l&amp. to be that which causally precedes ihird by [as it beings. he ing to which also. ng reason can be assigned why intellect should science doubt .lt.v is one I)emiurus. same from which all itself.er cause. being an intellectual world. but the latter in a distributed manner. and one is all. and produces in one way the whole. there is a multitude in the demiurgi. And the first.

these two things existing prior to calls the intelligible in the 1 now the generation of the universe. but others according to nature. naturally introduction he inquires. and which subsists preternaturally as with reference disorderly to fabrication. known. is For intelligence one.isible.lt. are also naturally visible. both such as an: the objects of intellection. this Xoy&amp. they are sensibles For these are not yet arranged in tinperfectly absurd. exist paradigmatically in the natures prior to him. Perhaps too.e which it is not fortunate cvon for a partial soul to incline? 1 It is better therefore. and such as are deprived of intelligence . distributive of the one into multitude. and of those that do not participate of intellect. and it is among the number of things impossible.&quot. paradigms of the Demiurgus. Demiurgus should what kind of representation can he receive of material tilings. shortly after says the therefore. be &amp. are. since truly existing being comprehends uniformly the cause of intellectual natures.ect however is to the tilings which are naturally visible.gt.oj &quot. it is necfssary to read aioijrw*. as intellect perceived to be inherent in that which is animal.gt. just as is XoyKrju. process. whether an eternal or a generated Hence.lt. are in their own things nature dark and irnmanifest but those which are naturally visible are truly things And . that they some visible with relation to MS.$r. to think that things of this kind are For that these are visible is evident from the things which Tima-us intelligibles. &amp.&quot. For all things . is fit doubt place. as the divine larnbliehus interprets tin words. and are resplendent with divine light.7.gt. since this to partial souls but a union with the intelligible causes of the parts of pertains the universe. paradigm of tin universe must be admitted. discourse of Timanis. being and generation.r/Lioj is not through the want of that which taking But the Demiurgus produces the whole world by collective of multitude into intelligence. For his words &quot. Hut intelligibles are things of this kind.. Such therefore the meaning of by a reasoning to say that With resj&amp. indeed which are visible with relation to us.70 PROCLUS ON THE Hence is [BOOK n. As many and such are That the ideas. will be evident if we consider. to l&amp. . or For how can he verge to that which is converted to them. than And where in else can the Demiurgus find the causes of generated is intelligibles? For in dention with him not a fortuitous thing. that the less excellent. And the intellectual beings which are there. nor a syllogistic process. natures. and a suney and plenitude from thence derived. are J or Kojfrwv here. as he had called that which is moved in a confused and manner visible. Demiurgus perceives.

endued with intellect. that nothing destitute of intellect. but the things which proceed from them.cfore 1 For vxrftrtpor read vrcprrpwr. but there pre-existing according to cause. Because indeed. intelligible we have said. he inserted life in that which was moved in l&amp. but the other is deprived of it. than the individuals of the other.ect more venerable according to For art is in many res|&amp.1IUS Or PLATO. Hence the Demiunrus looking thither.gt. deprived of intellect. he likewise perceived the separation which in here between the beings there. the Demiurgus good. will be belter than that which possesses it.ccts more accurate [in this instance figure than the latter. the privation of intellect and the irrational : the causes themselves being intellectual. hut in others. than the genii* of the otlier. is every where better than another. Tim. and the man made by the of the statuary. For all things there [i. For better than horse. the genus of the one. that secondary enrrui/e on account of more principal causes. where also Plato calls But extending himself to the natures which are things in every respect Gods. the cause of beauty.gt. it does not entirely follow that the one is better than the other. on this account. Plat. you assume a certain part of man and possession itself of intellect. as intellect. the cause objects pos* -sses the intellectual nature of the things caused.-ctj / Let no one therefore fancy that Plato makes the division of forms to be into those that possess in the all and those that are deprived of world] are. For goodness But Ix-cause he mnde the universe to IK. let us survey how Plato says. the difference of these existing as in works.] of a superior TIM. a certain part of horse. rendered the world animated. e. according to the If however. very properly admits that what possesses intellect is more venera ble than that which is without it.gt. For though all things there are of intellectual perception. when the one possesses intellect. and intellects. Hence lie thus says. and a certain man than all horses.that are deprived of intellect.gt.eauty fills the first intellect with to l&amp.gt. which possess.e endued with intellect. And Because also he made the universe l&amp. For through what other thing c-m body l.BOOK M. most beautiful. art than nature]. yet in some of them. For soul proceeds from intellect. 337 hut the rest. I. JJccause likewise he he imparted to it soul. it he rendered its own power. One whole therefore. of an inferior order. Again however. he made the world to be most beautiful. VOL. man is and the individuals of the one. and those. is the former in every resj&amp.e able to participate of intelligible beauty [than intrlh. but the former is is Wing suspended from the latter. intellects. Nor if you assume man fashioned by nature. 2 U . the latter being more perfect than the former.

uniform is and eternal. But according to Plato. the image of animal itself. Or how does he see some things which are the paradigms of intellective. not those only animal itself. is of generated it is neces also necessary that ishould ha\e a soul. jiiirtiripate For this being well arranged.e manner may what is here said. eternal sary that it impartible and the universe should be endued with and temporal. and at the same time partible. of the four elements]. . and intellect of beauty. !&amp. which are not separated in animal itself? But he mentions the forms of this animal itself.gt. The Demiurgus likewise.338 a PROCLUSONTHE [n