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Method; Beams and
Frames
Theory of Structure  I
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2
Contents
Method of Virtual Work:
Beams
Frames
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Virtual unit load
C
A
B
w
C
A
B
Method of Virtual Work : Beams and Frames
A
Cv
}
A
= A 
L
Cv
dx
EI
M m
0
1
Real load
1
r
A
r
B
x
1
x
2
R
B
R
A
x
1
x
2
B
r
B
x
2
v
A2
m
A2
x
1
r
A
v
A1
m
A1
• Vertical Displacement
w
B
x
2
R
B
V
2
M
2
x
1
R
A
V
1
M
1
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Virtual unit couple
C
A
B
w
C
A
B
• Slope
Real load
x
1
x
2
R
B
R
A
w
B
x
2
R
B
V
2
M
2
x
1
R
A
V
1
M
1
B
r
B
x
2
v
u2
m
u2
r
A
v
u1
m
u1
r
A
x
1
x
2
1
}
= 
L
C
dx
EI
M m
0
1
u
u
u
C
r
B
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Example 818
The beam shown is subjected to a load P
at its end. Determine the slope and
displacement at C. EI is constant.
2a a
A
B
C
P
v
C
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•Real Moment M
A
B
C
2a a
P
A
B
C
2a a
SOLUTION
•Virtual Moment m
A
Displacement at C
1 kN
x
1
x
2
a
m
m
A2
= x
2
x
1
x
2
Pa
M
M
2
= Px
2
}
A
= A
L
C
dx
EI
M m
kN
0
) )( 1 (
2 2
0
2
2
0
1
1 1
) ( ) (
1
)
2
)(
2
(
1
dx Px x
EI
dx
Px x
EI
a a
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
} }
, )
3
)( ( )
3
8
)(
4
)(
1
( )
3
)( ( )
3
)(
4
)(
1
(
3 3 3
3
2
3
1
0
2
0
EI
Pa a
EI
P a P
EI
x
EI
P x P
EI
a a
C
= + = + = A
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
Px
M ÷ =
2
3P
2
P
2
1
1
x
m ÷ =
u
m
A2
= x
2
M
2
= Px
2
2
1
1
Px
M ÷ =
2
1
1
x
m ÷ =
u
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A
B
C
2a a
P
A
B
C
2a a
•Virtual Moment m
u
•Real Moment M
Slope at C
x
1
x
2
1
m
x
1
x
2
Pa
M
M
2
= Px
2
}
= 
L
C
dx
EI
M m
m kN
0
) )( 1 (
u
u
2
0
2
2
0
1
1 1
) )( 1 (
1
)
2
)(
2
(
1
dx Px
EI
dx
Px
a
x
EI
a a
} }
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
), (
6
7
)
2
)(
1
( )
3
8
)(
4
)(
1
( )
2
)(
1
( )
3
)(
4
)(
1
(
2 2 3
2
2
3
1
0
2
0
EI
Pa Pa
EI
a
a
P
EI
Px
EI
x
a
P
EI
a a
C
= + = + = u
1 kN•m
a 2
1
a 2
1
a
x
m
2
1
1
÷ =
u
1
2
÷ =
u
m
2
1
1
Px
M ÷ =
2
3P
2
P
M
2
= Px
2
a
x
m
2
1
1
÷ =
u
1
2
÷ =
u
m
2
1
1
Px
M ÷ =
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Example 819
Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the
figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 250(10
6
) mm
4
.
A
5 m
B
3 kN/m
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SOLUTION
•Virtual Moment m
A
A
5 m
B
1 kN
x
1 kN
x
v
m
A
1x =
x
•Real Moment M
A
5 m
B
3 kN/m
x
3x
2
x
V
M
= ÷
2
3
2
x
Vertical Displacement at B
}
A
= A
L
B
dx
EI
M m
kN
0
) )( 1 (
EI
m kN x
EI
x
EI
dx
x
x
EI
3 2 4
5
0
3
5
0
2
375 . 234
)
8
3
(
1
2
3 1
)
2
3
)( (
1
5
0

= = = ÷ ÷ =
} }
) 10 250 )( 10 200 (
375 . 234
4 6 6
3
m
m
kN
m kN
B
÷
× ×

= A
= 0.00469 m = 4.69mm,
1x =
= ÷
2
3
2
x
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SOLUTION
•Virtual Moment m
u
A
5 m
B
1 =
x
•Real Moment M
A
5 m
B
3 kN/m
= ÷
2
3
2
x
Slope at B
}
= 
L
B
dx
EI
M m
m kN
0
) )( 1 (
u
u
EI
m kN x
EI
x
EI
dx
x
EI
3 2 3
5
0
2
5
0
2
5 . 62
)
6
3
(
1
2
3 1
)
2
3
)( 1 (
1
5
0

= = = ÷ ÷ =
} }
) 10 250 )( 10 200 (
5 . 62
4 6 6
2
m
m
kN
m kN
B
÷
× ×

= u
= 0.00125 rad,
x
1 kN•m
x
v
m
u
1 kN•m
x
3x
2
x
V
M
1 =
= ÷
2
3
2
x
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Example 820
Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the
figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 60(10
6
) mm
4
.
A
C
D
B
5 kN
14 kN•m
2 m 2 m 3 m
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A
C
D
B
5 kN
14 kN•m
2 m 2 m 3 m
A
C
D
B
2 m 2 m 3 m
1 kN
•Virtual Moment m
A
•Real Moment M
0.5 kN
0.5 kN
x
3
x
2
6 kN
1 kN
}
A
= A
L
B
dx
EI
M m
kN
0
) )( 1 (
} } }
+ + ÷ =
3
0
3
2
0
2 2 2 1 1
2
0
1
) 0 )( 0 ( ) 6 )( 5 . 0 (
1
) 14 ( ) 5 . 0 (
1
dx dx x x
EI
dx x x
EI
1
1 1
5 . 0 x m =
A
x
1
2 2
5 . 0 x m =
A
m
A
m
A
14
x
3
x
2
x
1
M
1
= 14  x
1
M
2
= 6x
2
2
0
2
0
)
3
3
)(
1
( )
3
5 . 0
2
7
)(
1
( ) 3 (
1
) 5 . 0 7 (
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
2
0
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
0
1
x
EI
x x
EI
dx x
EI
dx x x
EI
+ ÷ = + ÷ =
} }
) 60 )( 200 (
667 . 20 667 . 20
= = A
EI
B
= 0.00172 m = 1.72 mm,
1 1
5 . 0 x m =
A
2 2
5 . 0 x m =
A
M
1
= 14  x
1
M
2
= 6x
2
Displacement at B
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A
C
D
B
5 kN
14 kN•m
2 m 2 m 3 m
A
C
D
B
2 m 2 m 3 m
•Virtual Moment m
u
•Real Moment M
0.25 kN
x
3
x
2
6 kN
1 kN
}
= 
L
B
dx
EI
M m
m kN
0
) )( 1 (
u
u
} } }
+ ÷ + ÷ =
3
0
3
2
0
2 2 2 1 1
2
0
1
) 0 )( 0 ( ) 6 )( 25 . 0 (
1
) 14 ( ) 25 . 0 (
1
dx dx x x
EI
dx x x
EI
x
1
m
u
m
A
14
x
3
x
2
x
1
M
1
= 14  x
1
M
2
= 6x
2
} }
÷ + ÷ =
2
0
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
0
1
) 5 . 1 (
1
) 25 . 0 5 . 3 (
1
dx x
EI
dx x x
EI
) 60 )( 200 (
333 . 2 333 . 2
= =
EI
B
u
= 0.000194 rad
1 kN•m
0.25 kN
0.5
0.5
m
u1
= 0.25x
1
m
u2
= 0.25x
2
2
0
2
0
)
3
5 . 1
(
1
)
3
25 . 0
2
5 . 3
(
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
x
EI
x x
EI
÷ + ÷ =
M
1
= 14  x
1
M
2
= 6x
2
m
u1
= 0.25x
1
m
u2
= 0.25x
2
Slope at B
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Example 821
(a) Determine the slope and the horizontal displacement of point C on the frame.
(b) Draw the bending moment diagram and deflected curve.
E = 200 GPa
I = 200(10
6
) mm
4
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
1.5 EI
EI
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A
C
•Virtual Moment m
A
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
x
1
x
2
1
x
2
x
1
M
2
= 12 x
2
12 kN
16 kN
12 kN
m
2
= 1.2 x
2
m
1
= x
1
1.2 kN
1 kN
1.2 kN
•Real Moment M
M
1
= 16 x
1
 x
1
2
}
= A
L
CH
dx
EI
mM
kN
0
) )( 1 (
} }
+ ÷ =
5
0
2 2 2 1
2
1 1
6
0
1
) 12 )( 2 . 1 (
1
) 16 ( ) (
5 . 1
1
dx x x
EI
dx x x x
EI
} }
+ ÷ =
5
0
2
2
2
6
0
1
3
1
2
1
) 4 . 14 (
1
) 16 (
5 . 1
1
dx x
EI
dx x x
EI
) 200 )( 200 (
1152 600 552
)
3
4 . 14
(
1
)
4 3
16
(
5 . 1
1
5
0
6
0
3
2
4
1
3
1
= + = + ÷ = A
EI EI
x
EI
x x
EI
CH
= + 28.8 mm ,
M
2
= 12 x
2
m
2
= 1.2 x
2
m
1
= x
1
M
1
= 16 x
1
 x
1
2
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A
C
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
x
1
x
2
x
2
x
1
M
2
= 12 x
2
12 kN
16 kN
12 kN
m
2
= 1x
2
/5
m
1
= 0
1/5 kN
0
•Real Moment M •Virtual Moment m
u
M
1
= 16 x
1
 x
1
2
}
= 
L
C
dx
EI
mM
m kN
0
) )( 1 ( u
} }
÷ + ÷ =
5
0
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
6
0
) 12 )(
5
1 (
1
) 16 ( ) 0 (
5 . 1
1
dx x
x
EI
dx x x
EI
}
÷ + =
5
0
2
2
2
2
)
5
12
12 (
1
0 dx
x
x
EI
) 200 )( 200 (
50 50
)
3 5
12
2
12
(
1
5
0
3
2
2
2
= =
×
÷ =
EI
x x
EI
C
u
= + 0.00125 rad ,
1 kN•m
1/5 kN
M
2
= 12 x
2
m
2
= 1x
2
/5
m
1
= 0
M
1
= 16 x
1
 x
1
2
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+
+
60
60
M , kN•m
16
12

+
V , kN
4
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
12 kN
16 kN
12 kN
A
CH
= = 28.87 mm
u
C
= 0.00125 rad ,
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Example 822
Determine the slope and the vertical displacement of point C on the frame.
Take E = 200 GPa, I = 15(10
6
) mm
4
.
5 kN
3 m
60
o
2 m
A
B
C
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•Virtual Moment m
A
•Real Moment M
3 m
B
C
30
o
Displacement at C
3 m
B
C
30
o
x
1
1 kN
x
1
1 kN
C
30
o
n
A1
v
A1
m
A1
= 0.5x
1
1.5 m
1.5 kN•m
1 kN
m
A1
= 0.5x
1
x
1
5 kN
1.5 m
x
1
5 kN
C
30
o
N
1
V
1
7.5 kN•m
M
1
= 2.5x
1
x
2 2 m
A
1.5 kN•m
m
A2
= 1.5
x
2
5 kN
2 m
A
7.5 kN•m
x
2
1.5 kN•m
1 kN
v
A2
n
A2
m
A2
= 1.5
x
2
7.5 kN•m
5 kN
N
2
V
2
M
2
= 7.5
}
A
= A
L
Cv
dx
EI
M m
kN
0
) )( 1 (
} }
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
2
0
2 1 1
3
0
1
) 5 . 7 )( 5 . 1 (
1
) 5 . 2 ( ) 5 . 0 (
1
dx
EI
dx x x
EI
) 15 )( 200 (
75 . 33 75 . 33
) 25 . 11 (
1
)
3
25 . 1
(
1
2
0
3
0
2
2
3
1
= = + = A
EI
x
EI
x
EI
Cv
= 11.25 mm ,
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•Virtual Moment m
u
•Real Moment M
3 m
B
C
30
o
x
1
1.5 m
1 kN•m
x
2 2 m
A
1 kN•m
m
u1
= 1
m
u2
= 1
2 m
A
3 m
B
C
30
o
x
1
5 kN
1.5 m
7.5 kN•m
x
2
7.5 kN•m
5 kN
M
1
= 2.5x
1
M
2
= 7.5
x
1
5 kN
C
30
o
N
1
V
1
}
= 
L
C
dx
EI
M m
m kN
0
) )( 1 (
u
u
} }
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
2
0
2 1 1
3
0
) 5 . 7 )( 1 (
1
) 5 . 2 ( ) 1 (
1
dx
EI
dx x
EI
) 15 )( 200 (
25 . 26 25 . 26
) 5 . 7 (
1
)
2
5 . 2
(
1
2
0
3
0
2
2
1
= = + =
EI
x
EI
x
EI
C
u = 0.00875 rad,
Slope at C
1 kN•m
x
1
C
30
o
n
u1
v
u1
1 kN•m
m
u1
= 1 M
1
= 2.5x
1
x
2
1 kN•m
n
u2
v
u2
m
u2
= 1
x
2
7.5 kN•m
5 kN
N
2
V
2
M
2
= 7.5
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Virtual Strain Energy Caused by Axial Load, Shear, Torsion, and Temperature
• Axial Load
}
=
L
n
dx
AE
nN
U
0
Where
n = internal virtual axial load caused by the external virtual unit load
N = internal axial force in the member caused by the real loads
L = length of a member
A = crosssectional area of a member
E = modulus of elasticity for the material
• Bending
}
=
L
b
dx
EI
mM
U
0
Where
n = internal virtual moment cased by the external virtual unit load
M = internal moment in the member caused by the real loads
L = length of a member
E = modulus of elasticity for the material
I = moment of inertia of crosssectional area, computed about the the neutral axis
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• Torsion
}
=
L
t
dx
GJ
tT
U
0
Where
t = internal virtual torque caused by the external virtual unit load
T = internal torque in the member caused by the real loads
G = shear modulus of elasticity for the material
J = polar moment of inertia for the cross section, J = tc
4
/2, where c is the
radius of the crosssectional area
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• Shear
}
=
L
s
dx
GA
vV
K U
0
) (
Where
v = internal virtual shear in the member, expressed as a function of x and caused
by the external virtual unit load
V = internal shear in the member expressed as a function of x and caused by the
real loads
K = form factor for the crosssectional area:
K = 1.2 for rectangular cross sections
K = 10/9 for circular cross sections
K 1 for wideflange and Ibeams, where A is the area of the web
G = shear modulus of elasticity for the material
A = crosssectional area of a member
~
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• Temperature
dx
T
1
T
2
T
2
> T
1
dx y
c
T
y d )
2
( ) (
A
=o u
dx
c
T
d )
2
( ) (
A
=o u
}
= u md U
temp
}
A
=
L
temp
dx
c
T
m U
0
)
2
(o
T
2
c
c
T
1
AT = T
2
 T
1
c
T
2
A
= 
T
1
T
2
y
y
c
T
2
A
y
T
2
> T
1
T
1
O
du
2
2 1
T T
T
m
+
= du
M
M
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Example 823
From the beam below Determine :
(a) If P = 60 kN is applied at the midspane C, what would be the
displacement at point C. Due to shear and bending moment.
(b) If the temperature at the top surface of the beam is 55
o
C , the
temperature at the bottom surface is 30
o
C and the room temperature is 25
o
C.
What would be the vertical displacement of the beam at its midpoint C and the
the horizontal deflection of the beam at support B.
(c) if (a) and (b) are both accounted, what would be the vertical
displacement of the beam at its midpoint C.
Take o = 12(10
6
)/
o
C. E = 200 GPa, G = 80 GPa, I = 200(10
6
) mm
4
and A =
35(10
3
) mm
2
. The crosssection area is rectangular.
A B
C
2 m 2 m
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26
A B
1 kN
x x
A B
C
2 m 2 m
P
SOLUTION
}
= A
L
i i
bending
dx
EI
M m
0
}
=
2 /
0
)
2
)(
2
( 2
L
EI
dx Px x
2 /
0
)
3 4
(
2
3
L
Px
EI ×
=
) 200 )( 200 ( 48
) 4 ( 60
48
3 3
= =
EI
PL
= 2 mm,
}
= A
L
i i
shear
dx
GA
V Kv
0
}
=
2 /
0
)
2
)(
2
1
( 2
L
GA
dx P
K
) 35000 )( 80 ( 4
) 4 )( 60 ( 2 . 1
4 2
2 /
0
= = =
GA
KPL
GA
KPx
L
= 0.026 mm,
shear bending C
A + A = A
= 2 + 0.026 = 2.03 mm,
P/2
P/2
M
diagram
PL/4
x x
x
P
2
x
P
2
P/2
P/2
V
diagram
• Part (a) :
0.5 kN 0.5 kN
m
diagram
1
0.5
0.5
v
diagram
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27
•Part (b) : Vertical displacement at C
SOLUTION
A B
1 kN
x x
m
diagram
0.5 kN 0.5 kN
1
T
room
= 25
o
C ,
T
1
=55
o
C
T
2
=30
o
C
260 mm
Temperature profile
5 . 42
2
30 55
=
+
=
m
T
A
Cv
= 2.31 mm ,
}
A
= A
L
Cv
dx
c
T m
kN
0
2
) (
) )( 1 (
o
 Bending
}
A
=
2
0
) 5 . 0 (
2
) (
2 dx x
c
T o
2
0
)
2
5 . 0
(
) 10 260 (
) 25 )( 10 12 (
2
2
3
6
x
÷
÷
×
÷ ×
=
A B
C
2 m 2 m
55
o
C,
30
o
C
260 m
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28
A B
1 kN
• Part (b) : Horizontal displacement at B
x
0 0
T
room
= 25
o
C ,
T
1
=55
o
C
T
2
=30
o
C
260 mm
Temperature profile
5 . 42
2
30 55
=
+
=
m
T
A
BH
= 0.84 mm ,
}
A = A
L
BH
dx T n kN
0
) ( ) )( 1 ( o
 Axial
}
A =
4
0
) 1 ( ) ( dx T o
4
0
) )( 25 5 . 42 )( 10 12 (
6
x ÷ × =
÷
1 kN
1 1
n
diagram
A
BH
= 0.84 mm
A
Cv
= 2.31 mm ,
A B
C
2 m 2 m
55
o
C
30
o
C
260 m
Deflected curve
A B
C
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29
P
A B
C
55
o
C
30
o
C
260 m
• Part (c) :
A
C
= 2.03 + 2.31 = 0.28 mm,
A B
C
A
C
= 2.03 mm
P
=
A B
55
o
C,
30
o
C
A
C
= 2.31 mm
+
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Example 824
Determine the horizontal displacement of point C on the frame.If the
temperature at top surface of member BC is 30
o
C , the temperature at the bottom
surface is 55
o
C and the room temperature is 25
o
C.Take o = 12(10
6
)/
o
C, E = 200
GPa, G = 80 GPa, I = 200(10
6
) mm
4
and A = 35(10
3
) mm
2
for both members.
The crosssection area is rectangular. Include the internal strain energy due to
axial load and shear.
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
1.5 EI,1.5AE, 1.5GA
EI,AE,GA
260 mm
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31
B
C
Moment, m (kN•m)
A
B
C
Shear, v (kN)
A
5 m
6 m
A
C
B
Virtual load
1
x
2
x
1
1.2 kN
1 kN
1.2 kN
1.2
1
1.2
1
1
1
1.2 1.2
6
6
1x
1
1.2x
2
B
C
Axial, n (kN)
A
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B
C
Shear, V (kN)
A
B
C
Axial, N (kN)
A
A
B
C
5 m
6 m
2 kN/m
4 kN
x
1
x
2
12 kN
16 kN
12 kN
Real load
12
4
12
4
16
4
16  2x
1
12 12
60
16x
1
 x
1
2
12x
2
60
B
C
Moment, M (kN•m)
A
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33
•Due to Axial
x
1
x
2
¿
= A
i i
i i i
CH
E A
L N n
kN ) )( 1 (
AE
1.5AE
AE AE
) 5 )( 4 )( 1 (
5 . 1
) 6 )( 12 )( 2 . 1 (
+ =
5 m
6 m
AE
m kN 
=
2
6 . 77
) 10 200 )( 10 35000 (
6 . 77
2
6 2 6
m
kN
m
m kN
CH
× ×

= A
÷
= 1.109(10
5
) m = 0.0111 mm,
B
C
Virtual Axial, n (kN)
A
1.2
1
1.2
1
B
C
Real Axial, N (kN)
A
12
4
12
4
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34
•Due to Shear
x
1
x
2
1.5GA
5 m
6 m
GA
}
= A
L
CH
dx
GA
vV
K kN
0
) ( ) )( 1 (
2
5
0
1
6
0
1
) 12 )( 2 . 1 (
2 . 1
5 . 1
) 2 16 )( 1 (
2 . 1 dx
GA
dx
GA
x
} }
÷ ÷
+
÷
=
GA
m kN
x
GA
x
x
GA

= + ÷ =
2
2
2
1
1
4 . 134
) 4 . 14 )(
2 . 1
( )
2
2
16 )(
5 . 1
2 . 1
(
5
0
6
0
) 10 35000 )( 10 80 (
4 . 134
2 6
2
6
m
m
kN
m kN
CH
÷
× ×

= A
= 4.8(10
5
) m = 0.048 mm,
B
C
Virtual Shear, v (kN)
A
1
1
1.2 1.2
B
C
Real Shear, V (kN)
A
16
4
16  2x
1
12 12
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35
•Due to Bending
} }
+ ÷ =
5
0
2 2 2 1
2
1 1
6
0
1
) 12 )( 2 . 1 (
1
) 16 ( ) (
5 . 1
1
dx x x
EI
dx x x x
EI
= 0.0288 m = + 28.8 mm ,
}
= A
L
CH
dx
EI
mM
kN
0
) )( 1 (
EI
m kN x
EI
x x
EI
3 2
3
2
4
1
3
1
1152
)
3
4 . 14
(
1
)
4 3
16
(
5 . 1
1
5
0
6
0

= + ÷ =
) 10 200 )( 10 200 (
1152
4 6
2
6
3
m
m
kN
m kN
CH
÷
× ×

= A
x
1
x
2
1.5EI
5 m
6 m
EI
B
C
Virtual Moment, m (kN•m)
A
6
6
1x
1
1.2x
2
B
C
Real Moment, M (kN•m)
A
60
16x
1
 x
1
2
12x
2
60
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36
T
1
=30
o
C
T
2
=55
o
C
260 mm
Temperature
profile
•Due to Temperature
A
CH
= 0.0173 m = 17.3 mm ,
}
A
= A
L
CH
dx
c
T m
kN
0
2
) (
) )( 1 (
o
}
÷ × =
÷
5
0
2
6
) 25 5 . 42 )( 10 12 )( 1 ( dx
T
m
= 42.5
o
C
 Bending
 Axial
A
CH
= 0.00105 m = 1.05 mm ,
}
A = A
L
CH
dx T n kN
0
) ( ) )( 1 ( o
} ÷
÷
×
÷ ×
=
5
0
2
3
6
2
) 10 260 (
) 30 55 )( 10 12 )( 2 . 1 (
dx
x
A
B
C
5 m
x
1
x
2
260 mm
30
o
C
55
o
C
T
room
= 25
o
C
B
C
m (kN•m)
A
6
6
1x
1
1.2x
2
B
C
n (kN)
A
1.2
1
1.2
1
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A
B
C
2 kN/m
4 kN
•Total Displacement
Temp CH Bending CH Shear CH Axial CH Total CH
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( A + A + A + A = A
= 0.01109 + 0.048 + 28.8 + (17.3 + 1.05) = 47.21 mm
A
CH
= 47.21 mm
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Technology, Taxila, Pakistan
38
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