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THE OTHER OTTOMAN SERHAT IN EUROPE: OTTOMAN TERRITORIAL EXPANSION IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA IN FIRST HALF OF 16th CENTURY
Dino Mujadžević *
Özet AVRUPA’DAKİ DİĞER OSMANLI SERHATI: 16. YÜZYILIN İLK YARISINDA BOSNA VE HIRVATİSTAN’DAKİ OSMANLI TOPRAK GENİŞLEMESİ 16. yüzyılda Osmanlıların Avrupa’da ilerleyişi çok sayıda araştırmanın konusu olmuştur. Akademik çalışmalar Osmanlı fetihlerinin başlıca ilerleyiş istikametine yoğunlaşmıştır: Macaristan, Avusturya ve daha az da olsa Polonya. Sadece yerel öneme haiz Osmanlı kuvvetlerinin savaştığı Adriyatik denizi ve günümüz Hırvatistan ve Bosnası arasındaki Drava nehri arasındaki, Osmanlı hududunda askeri ve siyasi gelişmeler büyük ölçüde göz ardı edilmiştir. Bu çalışma, 16. yüzyıl boyunca “daha az” önemli olan bu hududda Osmanlı ilerleyişinin ana güzergâhını ve olaylarını aydınlatmayı ve Osmanlı devletinin bu bölgeye asker sevkine daha fazla yoğunlaşmadığının sebeplerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Çağdaş Osmanlı yazarlarının ve modern zamanın akademisyenlerinin tarihçilik anlayışına bu bölgeye İstanbul’un ilgi eksikliğinin etkisi de tartışılacaktır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Osmanlı, Bosna, Osmanlı fetihleri Abstract Ottoman expansion in Europe in the 16. c. has been subject of large body of research. The scholarship concentrated on main direction of Ottoman conquests: Hungary, Austria and to lesser extent Poland. Military and political developments on
Ph.D., Croatian Institute for History, Zagreb/CROATIA
in this part of Central Europe – Hungary and Austria . conquered by Ottomans. whose sholarship was much admired and even copied by later generations of Ottomanists. Catholicism and Ortodox Christianity. This paper tries to illuminate main directions and events of Ottoman expansion on this frontier of «lesser» importance during the 16. where only Ottoman troops of local significance fought. Ottoman historiography itself gave greatest importance to sucesses of Ottoman arms in Danube region. 100 . were largely overlooked. and tries to stress main reasons why Ottoman state didn't put more focus on military push in this region. as well as in modern scholarship are also discussed. I. Since the early 19th century. was felt very strongly in Catholic and even Protestant West. is not taken into account here. The impact of lack of interest of Istanbul in this region to historiographical representation in works of contemporary Ottoman authors. 1 (2012) One of the major Ottoman studies topics during the long history of this scholarly field is research on Ottoman conquests in Middle Danube region in Central Europe in the 16 century. Hungarian kingdom was the only authentic Western country – in late medieval terms . Ottoman European campaigns of 16. To this contributed also the fact that Austrian and Hungarian researchers of Ottoman history and philology were actually pioneers in this field. torne by its main division between Heterodox Bosnian Church.Dino Mujadžević the Ottoman frontier between Adriatic sea and river Drava in today's Croatia and Bosnia. The shock of defeat by Muslim Ottomans in plains of Pannonia. Ottoman conquests GAMER. This gave rise to large body of works about wars against Ottomans . attributed very often to divine punishment. so much that wars in Asia and other parts of Europe remained somewhat in shadow. Much smaller neighbouring Medieval Bosnia. On the Ottoman side this region attracted the bulk of interest. There are several reasons for it.and Ottomans in general. Since main Ottoman war effort was concentrated in this region.that was. Bosnia. c. Key Words: Ottomans. modern studies of Ottoman military and political history continued focusing on the Middle Danube region. century were in works of Ottoman historians by far and large indentified with warfare in Hungary and Austria. at least largely. both in Europe and later in Turkey.
Beihefte zur Wiener Zeitschrift füir die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Die Türkei: Systematische Bibliographie: von 1500 bis 1950. Studia Turco-Hungarica I. GAMER. Géza Dávid and Pál Fodor (eds.-H. K. Ottoman campaigns on this frontier. I. 14. including large detachements of troops of central goverment and other eyalets. E. 2000. Brill. 16. 1994. Ottoman historiography of Classical period brings also very little about warfare in this region and period and this is also true for Ottoman archival sources. E. Brill. Wien. Osmanische Festungsbesatzungen in Ungarn zur Zeit Murāds III. Die Eroberung von Fuelek durch die Osmanen 1554. Philologische Abteilung. 1 (2012) 101 . This situation is understandable. at least. Wien – Koeln – Weimar . and Habsburgs in Central Europe. 305350.Boehlau. In: Fikret Adanır and Suraiya Faroqhi (eds. Schwäbisch Hall. Eine historisch-quellenkritische Studie zur osmanischen Expansion im oestlichen Mitteleuropa. Hungarians. Markus Köhbach.. Caroline Finkel.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia Their view of Ottoman conquests and Ottoman serhat remains dominant even today. pp.roughly contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia during the 16th century remains to this day largely unknown to the Ottoman scholars outside this region. 1995. Claudia Römer. Rüttimann. Leiden.1 Nevertheless. Ottomans. Leiden. As I plan to demonstrate in full detail later. Bd.Jutta Kornrumpf. For the general bibliography of works dealing with Ottoman expansion on Middle Danube (among other issues) see: Hans-Jürgen Kornrumpf . 1593–1606. Géza Dávid and Pál Fodor. Budapest. 2002. To be fair. the part of the panorama of Ottoman conquests in Europe was sistematically overlooked or. Brill. were performed by smaller local forces and had no major targets as Buda or Vienna in Middle Danube. Leiden. under-researched. 1988. “Hungarian Studies in Ottoman History”. usually known as Serhat-ı Bosna. Bd. Yüzyılda Macaristan'da Türk Yönetimi. Osmanische Bibliographie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Türkei in Europa. As previously said. Karl-Heinz Rüttimann. J. The Ottomans and Balkans. Ottoman historians reported extensively on some early and later epizodes of Ottoman advance in this region: famous fall of Bosnia in 1463 and cathastrophic defeat of Croatian nobility at Battle at Krbava field in and description of terrible Ottoman defeat at Sisak in 1593 by 1 For the best introduction about Ottoman-Hungarian and Ottoman-Habsburg wars in 16th and 17th centuries. Ottoman war effort was by far and large concentrated in Middle Danube area. 1974. dargestellt an Hand von Petitionen zur Stellenvergabe.). J. so they naturally attracted far lesser attention of Ottoman chroniclers. 2001. Vienna. J. E. The administration of warfare: the Ottoman military campaigns in Hungary. The scale and development of Ottoman military involvement in the region between river Drava (border of Hungary proper) and Adriatic sea . see: Gyula Kaldy – Nagy. 35. The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Schriften der Balkan-Kommission. 1973.).
Those two kingdoms encompassed territory of contemporary Republic of Croatia and parts of contemporary western Bosnia-Herzegovina. Turska Hrvatska. 1998. Bošnjačka zajednica kulture “Preporod”. By the beginning of 16. vol. i. 1 (2012) 2 For the general introduction about Ottoman expansion in Western Balkans see: Historija naroda Jugoslavije. postanak i upravna podjela. human resources base for Ottoman akıncı incursions and conquests towards west. contemporary Croatia. century are reported scarcely. Sarajevo. Gazi Husrev-beg. 4-5. Golden Marketing. 1975. 1998. perspective. In the next hundred years Ottoman expansion in Europe continued mainly in direction of north-west and west. sancakbey of sancak of Bosnia and led or oversaw most of the GAMER.Croatia and Slavonia. But the events of first half of 16. Matica Hrvatska. Bosanski pašaluk. due to massive islamization. Beograd-Zagreb. In addition. still under Christian rule. most of the area of what is today Croatia consisted of two separate. is without a doubt.e. into the Central Europe. 2. Zagreb. with some short breaks. 1981. Mustafa Imamović. Area of contemporary Croatia and some parts of contemporary Bosnia. stood in early 16. was. c. 103-112. 102 . I. Ottoman rule extended over almost whole Balkans with northern borders just south of the rivers Sava and Danube. The theater of war between Drava and Adritic sea is. c. Historija Bošnjaka. vol.2 The person that marked the period of Ottoman expansion in western Balkans in first half of 16th century. and were separated roughly by river Kupa and mountains east to this river. 1999. some parts of contemporary eastern Croatia were part of territory of mediaeval Hungary proper – Požega and Srijem counties (županije). both united under common rule of Hungarian king. in spite of its smaller strategic significance for Ottoman Empire as a whole. on the path of the Ottoman advance towards Central Europe. alongide with its bigger. Vjekoslav Klaić. very interesting as it presents OttomanHabsburg war from much more intimate and close. Hrvati i Osmansko Carstvo. Prosveta. Most of the medieval Bosnia was absorbed into the Ottoman realm in second half of 15th c and this territory became large material and. At the beginning of this period. Nenad Moačanin. in later decades. Povijest Hrvata. Zagreb. 226-258. but historically and linguistically aligned Catholic Christian kingdoms . Zagreb. 1961. Hungary. Hazim Šabanović. but nevertheless bloody. During the period 1521-1541 this son of native Bosniak and mother from Ottoman dynasty.Dino Mujadžević Habsburg Croatian/Slavonian troops. more powerfull and better known northern neighbour. pp. Sarajevo. Ive Mažuran.
among other sultan's forces. but also occupied permanently large parts of southern medieval Croatia and came to the shores of Adriatic. 7-21. restoring John Zápolya's power in most parts of Hungary and 3 For the detailed biography of Gazi Husrev-beg see: Behija Zlatar.) and victory over Hungarian army in battle of Mohács (1526). Sarajevo. the Hungary and associated kingdoms of Slavonia and Croatia were in disarray and without king. pp. after 3 decades in which Ottomans didn't advance in this area. After this the whole valley of Vrbas came to his control and Bosnian Ottoman army came to the forntiers of Slavonia on rivers Una and Sava. Mustafa Imamović.3 Ottoman advance towards west from Bosnia started actually a decade earlier under Selim I. the other pretender who enlisted help from Ottoman sultan and became his vassal. vol. 5-6. In 1527. Sarajevo. as well as the largest part. last major Christian stronghold in former medieval Bosnia. surrendered to Husrev-beg. Between 1512-1514 Bosnian Ottoman forces took from Christians forts in northern (Srebrenik) and western (Ključ) Bosnia. and the new sancaks of Klis and Krka were soon formed to be formed. 1 (2012) 103 . and the new Bosnian sancakbey Husrev was one of the major players. During the period 1527-1536 Ottomans fought directly against Ferdinand. pp. Bosnian Ottoman army took almost the whole area of medieval Croatia south of the Velebit mountain – controlling by this access to Venetian coastal towns in Dalmatia – and Croatian regions of Lika and Krbava. Bosnian Ottoman military sucesses changed political. to the trone in order to recive help from the outside for the mere survival of this kingdom. GAMER.4 After the Mohács. 4 Seid M. 232-238. Under his leadership Bosnian Ottoman troops. and other defeats by the armies of the new sultan Süleyman. During the period 1522-1527. took part in successful siege of Belgrade (1521. In Slavonia and Hungary civil war broke out between supporters of Ferdinand and John Zápolya. Anali Gazi Husrevbegove biblioteke. demographic and economic face of this region. where Hungarian king died. Gazi Husrev-beg. Gazi Husrevbeg. “Husrevbegov boravak i rad u Dalmaciji”. Orijentalni institut u Sarajevu.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia Ottoman military operations from Bosnia towards west. 23-40. pp. Habsburg archduke and brother of emperor of Holy Roman Empire Charles V. Historija Bošnjaka. With ascension of Süleyman the Lawgiver to the throne in 1520. The heart. of medieval Croatia came under Ottoman rule at that time. Ottomans offensive in Europe started in earnest. Traljić. I. Behija Zlatar. 2010. the fortified town of Jajce. Croatia elected Ferdinand. In 1527.
Behija Zlatar. pp. which now became sancak Požega. demographic and cultural influence in Western Balkans. I. Šibenik. which saw many administrators. 40-53. so the Ottomans were compelled to intervene to curb Ferdinand's power. coming in large numbers from sancak of Bosnia.Dino Mujadžević besieging unsucessfully Ferdinand's capital Vienna twice. Husrev-beg joined in with Bosnian forces during Ottoman unsuccessful campaign against Vienna in 1532-33.in area west of Požega. where he helped Ottoman troops from Seminderne (Smederevo) sancak under command of Mehmed-beg Jahjapašić during the campaign to crush the Christian resistance in former Požega county (županija). During 1537 and 1538 he crushed last Habsburg pockets of resistance in former medieval kingdom of Croatia in immediate hinterland of Venetian Dalmatia – forts Klis. 1 (2012) 104 . His Bosnian troops even took the city Požega itself. GAMER. but incursions and «low intensity conflict» persisted. Nadin and Vrana – consolidating Ottoman power there for the next hundred years. 7-21. Traljić. After securing borders of sancak of Bosnia to the north. timarlik holders and other population. Venetain control. Gazi Husrev-beg. by the 1536 Ferdinand grew stronger and controlled also Slavonia and roughly one third of Hungary. i. In 1540 he also took the control over the fort of Dubica in Una valley paving the way for Ottoman penetration towards heart of medieval Slavonia Zagreb. the pillar of Ottoman military. e.5 After Husrev-beg's death in 1541 Ottoman advance was only temporarily stopped and his immediate successor at post of sancakbey of Bosnia. both Christian and Muslim. Split) remained under Christian. In this area only Dalmatian islands and coastal towns (Zadar. Ulama-beg in 1550 went on to become sancakbey of Požega and continued Ottoman conquest of mediaeval Slavonian territory between rivers Drava and Sava. This was his last sucess on this front and he died next year. Husrev-beg led Bosnian Ottoman army in 1536 in expedition to other side of river Sava. But. launched in 1543 a successful offensive against Slavonian Habsburg troops . ending by that one of the most important – but often overlooked periods in history of Ottoman Bosnia. who became sancakbey of Požega in 1541 . After he took 5 Seid M. Ulama-beg.together with Husrevbeg's kethüda Murat-beg Tardić. This became foundation of Bosnian influence in the Požega sancak. “Husrevbegov boravak i rad u Dalmaciji”. Ottoman advance towards Croatia and Slavonia was halted in this period. Husrev-beg immediately turned to the southern flank. pp.
7 Under military leadership of Husrev-beg. According to western sources Bosnian Ottoman forces that besieged Klis in 1537. which was the major operation of Bosnian Ottoman army around that time. 6 Much southern. which was created under Mehmed II. were numbering 8 000 men. Serbia (south of Sava and Danube) and Montenegro and resulted in disappearence of Ottoman population and heritage in these areas. In comparison Ottoman army that participated in campaign against Hungary in 1526 numbered 55 000 men and the Ottoman troops that were sent against Vienna in 1529 numbered. I. 246-289. at least. Fatih. as the case of conquest of Požega testifies. Zagreb. vol. in Western Balkans in first half of 16th c. The military operations led by Husrev-beg and other Bosnian sancakbeys and commanders in this area had little or no support from forces of central Ottoman goverment. and became largest military power.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia important towns of Čazma and Virovitica 1552. 1 (2012) 105 . Historija Bošnjaka. Habsburg and Venetian counterattacks in period between 1594 and 1718 reduced Ottoman presence in Western Balkans to present day Bosnia-Herzegovina. 2009. joined occasionally. after the defeat and death of Bosnian vali Hasan-paša at Sisak in 1593. which were never or almost never deployed in Western Balkans. 6 For biography of Ulama-beg see: Dino Mujadžević. Finally. Ottoman Bosnia came out its territorial nutshell. 28. who was later named by Bosniaks the «Gazi» and is considered as the greatest hero and benefactor of the country. Other campaigns against lesser Christian strongholds were fougth with lesser number of troops. pp. 89-107. The formation of Začasna sancak was the last Ottoman advance in the region between Drava and Sava. GAMER. between Sava and Adriatic Ottoman advance continued in Una and Kupa vallies for next fourty years. so to speak. and only forces of neighbouring sancaks. primarily Seminderne. These forces were relatively small and underequipped and very only matching the scarse Christian Croatian-Slavonian military forces. u svjetlu osmanskih arhivskih izvora”. new Ottoman sancak called Začasna was formed. “Osmanska osvajanja u Slavoniji 1552. but Ottoman successes were not spectacular as before. 7 Mustafa Imamović. pp. 120 000 soldiers! These troops consisted of numerous detachment from almost all eyalets of Empire and troops under command of central government. Ottoman conquests in Western Balkans were finally checked. Povijesni prilozi.
Gazi Husrev-beg and Murat-beg Tardić and unsuccesfull large Habsburg counterattack that year recieved much more attention by Peçevi. Skradin on Adriatic in 1521/229 or Ilok. Other contemporary authors write even less about this region in early 16. 79-80. 172-173. some of the most important reports are actually taken from Western sources! Some of the stories presented by Ottoman historians are not very reliable. Erdut and Osijek in 1526. vol. Tarih-i Peçevi. 1.12 It seems that Peçevi used some earlier Ottoman chronicles for these reports. Dino Mujadžević. Nevertheless. In: Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. “İbrahim Pečevija (1574. vol. Ottoman conquest of Požega in 1537 under leadership of Mehmed-beg Jahjapašić. Having very only very limited data on these events from Ottoman sources. Events of this era and area were reported relatively rarely and without any depth. Predgovor. 12 Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. Historija. pp. 1. not very much intersted in relatively great succeses of Bosnian Ottoman arms in area between Drava and Adriatic in first half of 16. probably Künhü-l-Ahbar by Mustafa Ali of Gelibolu. Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen und ihre Werke. Probably the best example for treatment of serhat-ı Bosna by classical Ottoman historiography is early 17.. c. but also had Bosnian Muslim roots and was very much keen to celebrate Ottoman Bosnian successes. Slavonski Brod. vol. Osmanski povjesničar Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine podrijetlom iz Pečuha”. Fehim Nametak.10 Bosnian sancakbey Husrev-beg was briefly mentioned in context of fall of Jajce in 152711 and fall of Klis 1537 and some other towns in hinterland of Dalmatia. 1. Historija. c. 89. late 16th and early 17th not much of Gazi Husrev-beg era was preserved by earlier authors or oral history to be transmitted to further generations. 2000.1649. 9. 5-14. I. monumental work by Ibrahim Peçevi. vol. 126. 1. p. 192-195. 379-394. Peçevi mainly concentrates to short descriptions of conquests of only several towns or forts mentioned by name: i. Sarajevo.e. GAMER.. vol. Moreover. pp. by his time.). El-Kalem. pp. he apparently used extensively 8 For the life and work of Ibrahim Peçevi see: Franz Babinger.Dino Mujadžević Ottoman historiography of Classical Age was. 9 Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. Historija. 2009. 10 Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. Scrinia Slavonica. Historija. p. . Even the Gazi Husrev-beg – famous in Bosnia itself – never received much attention by Ottoman narrative sources. 11 Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. 1. c. Historija (Bosnian translation of Tarih-i Peçevi). 1 (2012) 106 . pp. vol. pp. 1923.8 He was the native of neighbouring Ottoman Hungary. curiously enough.
according to them greatest enemy of Christians who shed so much Christian blood. Even the description of Ottoman warlord Mehmed-beg Jahjapašić is given according to Western sources: he was. “Osmanska osvajanja u Slavoniji 1552 u svjetlu osmanskih arhivskih izvora”. pp. see Dino Mujadžević. Ottoman leadership saw no reason to invest heavily into military conquest of area between Drava and Adriatic Sea since there were no prized political targets such as Hungarian capital Buda or Austrian Vienna and other centers of population. for this episode.c. are indispensable. pp. kefere böyle yazmışlar). These is probably the reason why Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija. most probably Hungarian historian Miklosz Istvánffy. which during that period stereotypically concentrate on Ottoman side of the events. which was subject of numerous Ottoman legends as kızıl elma and seen as Empire's main target.14 As previously stated. in this area contemporary Western sources.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia Western sources (küffar tarihleri. vol. The region between river Drava and Adriatic sea had lesser population than its northern neigbours. so called mühimme defters – and could be valuable for this sort of research are virtually non existent for this period. Archival sources that depict warfare – royal decrees (fermans) and its summaries. Historija. Earliest preserved mühimme defters date back to 1552 and could be only helpful for research of Ulama-beg's campaign against Virovitica and Čazma in summer of 1552. 89-107. Description of epizode of 1537 distinguishes itself by many details about Habsburg side. For mühimme defters of 1552.13 Ottoman archival sources bring very little information on Ottoman conquests between Drava and Adriatic during early 16. 1. usually not present in Ottoman narrative sources. I. Tahrir and other defters are no help due to the sort of information they provide. Due to scarcity of both Ottoman narrative and archival sources for student of Ottoman campaigns in first half of 16th c. that he was even sick after he ordered murder of a group of Christian prisoners after defeating them in vicinity of Požega. 13 14 GAMER. 1 (2012) 107 . 177-178. which are more abundant. Also the terrain of Western Balkans was rough – especially Dinarid mountains – with weak road infrastructure and it was far more difficult to transport men and equippement in this area than in Pannonian plains of Hungary. which also had Danube as important mean of transportation. With Ottoman sources alone we wouldn't be able to build a coherent picture of Ottoman military inolvement in this crucial period.
1 (2012) 108 . 1994. but sometimes uneasily. have lived largely dispersed all over the area living side by side. I. especially in the regions near the always changing Ottoman-Christian demarcation line. This led to tectonic political. Roman Catholics and Ortodox.15 15 For overview of these developments see: Noel Malcolm. Bosnia – a short history. mostly fleeing before the Ottoman advance or coming directly from Ottoman territory. either as a result of Ottoman state policy of resettlement. Migrations of Christian population. led to loss of roughly half of territory of what is now Croatia to Ottomans. c. since first half of 16. 67 and passim. large parts of Catholic native population fled or were resettled by their feudal lords from eastearn parts of contemporary Croatia that were about to be taken over by Ottomans. but often deserted. either fleeing from Ottoman army or rule. That was mixing of different ethnic identities in relatively small area. Many people were enslaved during Ottoman Bosnian campaigns – according to some estimates. directed and executed mainly from neighbouring Ottoman ruled Bosnia under Gazi Husrevbeg. c. Beside the fact that Muslims. for better or for worse. as much as 8% of population of Bosnia’s largest town Sarajevo was of slave origin in 1528. Similarly territories that remained under Christian rule were populated by new Christian immigrants. as in Western parts of Balkans during Ottoman rule. which were defendended by Venetians.Dino Mujadžević Ottoman Bosnians never attempted to besiege heavily fortified Dalmatian towns on Adriatic coast nor to land on eastern Adriatic islands. besides its influence on creating and spreading of some ethnic and religous identities. ethno-religious. Ottoman authorities arrranged for the newly conquered. Probably.. Christians and Jews coexisted freely. famine and massive emigration were omnipresent during the wartime years. During this period. Probably most famous example is territory of Ottoman eyalet Bosnia where two different South Slavic Christian communities. it is worth noting that different Christian ethno-religous communities lived dispersed and mixed. In addition to massive loss of human life and material devastations. London. GAMER. Macmillan. left one other lasting blueprint. regions of Croatia to be settled by Muslim and Christian Catholic and Ortodox population from other parts of Ottoman Empire. Ottoman invasion in first half of 16. nowhere in Europe so many ethnic and religous groups co-existed. They were not as important as northern regions and access to them was too costly. p. cultural and linguistical changes.
and paralel spreading of variant of old štokavski dialect. Without Ottomans the political situation would stay very different and there would probably be separate statehood traditions/kingdoms: Croatian. largely spoken by Ortodox Vlah population. Slavonia (and Dalmatia) got its crucial features right about this time. Štokavski dialect in different forms became exclusive language of Ortodox Christians. The most important feature of these changes is large spreading over these areas of neo-štokavski Southern Slavic dialect. Ithaca. I. The older Catholic population left in organized or unorganized fashion for secure places in western Hungary and Austria. Slavonian and even Dalmatian along the coast. led to deminishing. GAMER. Statehood tradition of what is now Croatia – comprasing Croatia. Montenegro and Serbia before and after Ottoman conquests in the first half of 16th c. 1984. Western parts of medieaval Croatia and Slavonia never came under Ottoman rule. of Catholic Christian kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia. 1 (2012) 109 . but became nucleus for future Croatian statehood and nationalism precisely because of Ottoman pressure. As we said. century to their political unification due to reasons of defence.and not a single Croatian!16 16 For history of linguistic and national unification in Croatia see: Ivo Banac. until the early 16th century Croatia and Slavonia were two separate autonomous dominions – although historically connected – under Hungarian crown. Instead of two noble assemblies (sabor) and two viceroys (ban) Croatia and Slavonia had one sabor and one ban. Ottoman conquests in early 16th century. Cornell University Press. most of Muslims of South Slavic origin and Catholics of Bosnia and Croatia. century in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Linguistical implication of these events are immense for whole Southern Slavic area. but this also had resulted by ending of political fragmentation in this area. but Ottoman excursions and conquests of parts of their territory led in the first half of 16. Vlahs of both Christian denominations replaced lingustically and culturally different Catholic population in largest part of newly conquered territories in first half of 16. territorially and otherwise.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia One of the most striking examples for that process is difference between linguistical situation in Bosnia. spoken largely by Catholic Vlah population. Croatia. The National Question in Yugoslavia.
C. Hungarians. Eine historisch-quellenkritische Studie zur osmanischen Expansion im oestlichen Mitteleuropa. Hrvati i Osmansko Carstvo. J. I. 1593–1606. vol. Historija Bošnjaka. London 1994. “Hungarian Studies in Ottoman History" F. Macmillan. V. Povijest Hrvata. Leiden 2000. Zagreb 1998. G.. Fodor.. Kornrumpf H. The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest. The Ottomans and Balkans. Budapest 1974.. Adanır and S. 14. 1 (2012) Mažuran. Moačanin. – P.Dino Mujadžević Sources Babinger. E. and Habsburgs in Central Europe. 1923. Beograd-Zagreb 1961. Zagreb 1999. Prosveta. N. Wien–Koeln–Weimar– Boehlau 1994. 110 . Bosnia – a short history. Yüzyılda Macaristan'da Türk Yönetimi. G. The National Question in Yugoslavia. N. J. Historija naroda Jugoslavije. Leiden 1973. Turska Hrvatska. Beihefte zur Wiener Zeitschrift füir die Kunde des Morgenlandes.). Banac. I. Dávid. Osmanische Bibliographie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Türkei in Europa. GAMER. Bd. Ottomans. Malcolm.. Brill. Kaldy-Nagy. Matica Hrvatska. E. Golden Marketing. Leiden 2002. – J. Klaić. Studia Turco-Hungarica I. The Administration of Warfare: the Ottoman military campaigns in Hungary. Die Eroberung von Fuelek durch die Osmanen 1554. Ithaca 1984. 4-5. Sarajevo 1998.J. I. M. Imamović. Cornell University Press. E. Kornrumpf. Vienna 1988. Köhbach. Brill.. Faroqhi (eds. Zagreb 1975.. Finkel... 16. Brill. Bošnjačka zajednica kulture “Preporod” . vol. J. F. M. Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen und ihre Werke. 2.
2000. vol. “Husrevbegov boravak i rad u Dalmaciji".-H. D. Orijentalni Institut u Sarajevu. Traljić. El-Kalem. 28. Historija (Bosnian translation of Tarih-i Peçevi). . Rüttimann. 1 (2012) 111 . Šabanović. 5-6.Extant Private Libraries of Oriental Manuscripts from Bosnia Mujadžević. Sarajevo 2010. Scrinia Slavonica. M. I.. vol. Bosanski pašaluk. dargestellt an Hand von Petitionen zur Stellenvergabe. 35. Zlatar. Wien 1995. 9. C. “Osmanska osvajanja u Slavoniji 1552.. Die Türkei: Systematische Bibliographie: von 1500 bis 1950. Sarajevo. Nametak. Gazi Husrev-beg. Anali Gazi Husrev-begove biblioteke”. Osmanski povjesničar Hrvatske i Bosne i Hercegovine podrijetlom iz Pečuha". Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Slavonski Brod 2009. Schwäbisch Hall 2001.. H. Povijesni prilozi. Bd. B.1649. K. Sarajevo 1981. Predgovor. Römer. Rüttimann K. Sarajevo.. u svjetlu osmanskih arhivskih izvora". Schriften der Balkan-Kommission.. “Ibrahim Pečevija (1574.). Zagreb 2009. Philologische Abteilung. vol. H. S. In: Ibrahim Alajbegović Pečevija.. F. vol. Osmanische Festungsbesatzungen in Ungarn zur Zeit Murāds III.. GAMER.. postanak i upravna podjela. 1.
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