OLAP – On Line Analytical Processing

Session Objectives
People. Passion. Excellence

Objectives: At the end of this session, you will be able to: > Define On Line Analytical Processing > Understand the need for OLAP and applications of OLAP in BI > Describe the various OLAP solutions and Architecture > Comparison of different OLAP architectures > Evaluation parameters to be considered for selecting an OLAP tool


What is OLAP?
People. Passion. Excellence

> OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) applications - designed for online ad-hoc data access and analysis. > Data organized into multiple dimensions. > Access to analytical content such as time series and trend analysis views and summary level information. > A set of functionality that attempts to facilitate multidimensional analysis. > Offers drill-down, drill-across and slice and dice capabilities.


OLAP - Fast Analysis
People. Passion. Excellence

• • •

On Line Analytical Processing

No piles of paper, please! Establish patterns Data-based

Fast Analysis of Shared Multidimensional Information


number of products we can analyze 5 .g. year !!! 2 or 3 • Types of values we can handle ? E. agent. analysis by branch.g. Cost 1 or 2 • How many levels can we handle ? E. Passion.Need for OLAP People.g. Excellence • Dimensions can we think in ? E. Sales. product. Profit.

Passion. region. Linear analysis = reports Many totals are at one level Difficult to identify the key parameters 6 .Need for OLAP People.g Sales influenced by product. distribution channel. Excellence Many parameters affect a Measure (value) e. time.. etc.

Excellence 7 . Passion.OLAP in an Enterprise People.

Excellence Departments:  Finance  Marketing  Sales  Manufacturing Analytical Capabilities: > Used by analysts and managers.Uses of OLAP People. Passion. such as total revenues by customer profile. > Offers aggregated view of the data. by geographical regions. by product line. 8 .

Passion. 9 . financial.Functionality of OLAP Tools People. > Appropriate tools to access data from a relational database. > Advanced statistical. Excellence > Provides the decision support front-end for data warehousing. and analytical calculations. > Appropriate tools to access or manage multidimensional data.

Features of OLAP Applications People. Excellence OLAP analytical features > Multi-dimensional views of data > Calculation intensive capabilities > Time intelligence The OLAP Calculation engine in OLAP tools have a wide range of built-in calculations such as: > Ratios > Time calculations > Statistics > Ranking > Custom formulas/algorithms > Forecasting and modeling 10 . Passion.

Evolution of OLAP .

year. For example. Passion. day. and week are all part of the Time Dimension. month. 12 . > Measure: The property that can be summed or averaged using pre computed aggregates. Excellence > A Star Schema is a dimensional model created by mapping data entities from operational systems > It has a central table (fact table) that links all the other tables (dimension tables) together > Dimension: The same category of information.Star Schema People.

Passion. Excellence > Facts or Measures are the Key Performance Indicators of an enterprise > Factual data about the subject area > Numeric. summarized 13 .Facts and Measures People.

when and where qualifiers to the measures > Dimensions could be products.Dimension People. Excellence What was sold ? Whom was it sold to ? When was it sold ? Where was it sold ? > Dimensions put measures in perspective > What. customers. time. 14 . Passion. geography etc.

Passion. Excellence 15 .Star Schema People.

Excellence 16 . Passion.Star Schema Example People.

Passion.Star Schema with Sample Data People. Excellence 17 .

Passion. – A cube is a collection of facts and related dimensions stored together in arrays. Excellence Cube – Multi dimensional databases store information in the form of cubes. Geography Sales HR Time Product .CUBE People.

> Measures: These are the data values that are summarized and analyzed.Basic Terminology of a Cube People. typically from a coarse-grained level (for example. Examples of measures are sales figures or operational costs. Year) down to the most detailed one (for example. 2002 or 21Jan2002). Day). > Cells: These are the intersection of one member for every dimension and store the data for measures. All attributes in a hierarchy belong to the same dimension. > Members: The individual category values (for example. Passion. Excellence > Hierarchy: A hierarchy defines the navigating path for drilling up and drilling down. > Levels: These are organized into one or more hierarchies. 19 .

Basic Terminology of a Cube People. Excellence Time > Dimensions consist of – Dimension Name 1999 Level 2000 YEAR Of Detail 2001 – Level – Hierarchy – Member Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 QUARTER Q2 20 . Passion.

Passion. Excellence  Add up amounts for day 1  In SQL: SELECT sum(amt) FROM SALE WHERE date = 1 sale prodId p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p1 storeId s1 s1 s3 s2 s1 s2 date 1 1 1 1 2 2 amt 12 11 50 8 44 4 81 21 .Aggregates People.

Aggregates People. sum(amt) FROM SALE GROUP BY date sale prodId p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p1 storeId s1 s1 s3 s2 s1 s2 date 1 1 1 1 2 2 amt 12 11 50 8 44 4 ans date 1 2 sum 81 48 22 . Passion. Excellence  Add up amounts by day  In SQL: SELECT date.

Another Example People. product  In SQL: SELECT date. prodId sale prodId p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p1 storeId s1 s1 s3 s2 s1 s2 date 1 1 1 1 2 2 amt 12 11 50 8 44 4 sale prodId p1 p2 p1 date 1 1 2 amt 62 19 48 rollup drill-down 23 . Passion. sum(amt) FROM SALE GROUP BY date. Excellence  Add up amounts by day.

max. Excellence > Operators: sum. count. median and avg > “Having” clause > Using dimension hierarchy – average by region (within store) – maximum by month (within date) 24 . min.Aggregates People. Passion.

Passion.The MOLAP Cube People. Excellence Fact table view: sale prodId p1 p2 p1 p2 storeId s1 s1 s3 s2 amt 12 11 50 8 Multi-dimensional cube: p1 p2 s1 12 11 s2 8 s3 50 dimensions = 2 25 .

3-D Cube People. Passion. Excellence Fact table view: sale prodId p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p1 storeId s1 s1 s3 s2 s1 s2 date 1 1 1 1 2 2 amt 12 11 50 8 44 4 Multi-dimensional cube: day 2 day 1 p1 p2 s1 p1 12 p2 11 s1 44 s2 8 s2 4 s3 50 s3 dimensions = 3 26 .

Example People. …) Store … … Hierarchies: Product  Brand  … Day  Week  Quarter roll-up to week Store  Region  Country Product Time 56 units of bread sold in LA on M 27 . price. Excellence roll-up to region NY SF LA Juice Milk Coke Cream Soap Bread 10 34 56 32 12 56 M T W Th F S S Dimensions: Time. Store roll-up to brand Attributes: Product (upc. Product. Passion.

Passion. Excellence Example: computing sums day 2 day 1 p1 p2 s1 p1 12 p2 11 s1 44 s2 8 s2 4 s3 50 s3 .. sum p1 p2 s1 56 11 s2 4 8 s3 50 s1 67 s2 12 s3 50 129 p1 p2 sum 110 19 rollup drill-down 28 .Cube Aggregation: Roll-up People..

stores s2. Excellence day 2 day 1 p1 p2 s1 p1 12 p2 11 s1 44 s2 8 s2 4 s3 50 s3 store region country p1 p2 region A region B 56 54 11 8 (store s1 in Region A. Passion.Aggregation Using Hierarchies People. s3 in Region B) 29 .

Passion.People. Excellence Slicing  In SQL: SELECT * FROM SALE WHERE date = 1 day 2 day 1 p1 p2 s1 p1 12 p2 11 s1 44 s2 8 s2 4 s3 50 s3 TIME = day 1 s1 12 11 s2 8 s3 50 p1 p2 30 .

OLAP Solutions and Architecture .

OLAP . Excellence Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) can be done on: > Relational databases > Multidimensional databases OLAP products are grouped into three categories: > Relational OLAP (ROLAP) > Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) > Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP) 32 .Classification People. Passion.

MOLAP People. Passion. Excellence Brand Geography  Multi-dimensional OLAP  MOLAP is a technology which uses a multi-dimensional database that stores data as n-dimensional cube 33 .

Excellence non-live connection •Used for updating the MOLAP data cube only LAN Data Mart Server •RDBMS •Connectivity Middleware MOLAP Server •MDDBMS/Data Cube •MOLAP Application Desktop Systems MOLAP Client Tools Router Firewall Issues: • Size of Data Cube • Cubes deployment • Size of Update Data Set Intranet Internet Thin Clients •WWW Browser 34 .Architecture of MOLAP People. Passion.

Powerplay Transformer  Essbase (Hyperion Software)  Holos (Seagate Software) 35 . Excellence  Oracle's Oracle Express Server  Cognos .MOLAP Products People. Passion.

Architecture of ROLAP People. Excellence LAN Data Mart Server •RDBMS •Connectivity Middleware ROLAP Server •ROLAP Application Desktop Systems ROLAP Client Tools Issues: • Aggregate Awareness • Response Time •Network Capacity Router / Firewall Intranet Internet Thin Clients •WWW Browser 36 . Passion.

Passion.ROLAP Products People. Excellence  Brio Query Enterprise  Business Objects  Metacube  DSS Server  Information Advantage 37 .

Passion. Excellence LAN MOLAP Server •MDDBMS/Data Cube •MOLAP Application ROLAP Server •ROLAP Application Desktop Systems HOLAP Client Tools Router/Fire wall Issues: •Cube elements •Integration with RDBMS 38 .Architecture of HOLAP People.

Excellence  Holos (Seagate Software)  Microsoft SQL Server OLAP Services  Pilot Software's Pilot Decision Support Suite  SAS 39 . Passion.HOLAP Products People.


Passion. Excellence Architectural Features Number of Dimensions MOLAP Ten or Less ROLAP Unlimited Support for Large number of users Scalability Complex Multidimensional analysis Volume of Data storage Limited support Good Poor Easier to achieve Good Difficult to achieve Up to 50 GB Hundreds of Gigabytes and Terabytes Storage of Information Through cubes SQL result sets User Interface & functionality Common access language Nature of Data Good Normal NA SQL Stores summarized data Stores Detailed as well as summarized data 41 .Comparison of Architectures People.

Drill across and Slicing /Dicing Instant response Supports complex functions like %change. Passion.. Drill up.Strength and Weakness of MOLAP/ROLAP People. (Data is stored in Star schema or Snow flake schema. ranking etc. Calculated from cubes Multidimensional analysis Query performance Value added functions Drill down. Excellence Parameters Application design MOLAP Essentially the definition of dimensional model and calculation rules ROLAP It uses twodimensional tables that are stored in RDBMSs. Slicing and Dicing Slower Limited value added functions User – defined calculations Calculated (On the fly )from the database 42 .) Summary tables are implemented in the relational database Aggregation techniques Measures are precalculated and stored at each hierarchy summary level during load time Drill down. Drill up.

Excellence Parameters Processing Over head for large input data sets Support for frequent updates Resource requirements Industry standard Access to the database through ODBC MOLAP High Cannot handle frequent update of cubes High No current standards The databases have proprietary API and do not provide access through ODBC. Passion.Strength and Weakness of MOLAP/ROLAP People. ROLAP Low Suitable for frequent updates Low SQL standard Provides access through ODBC 43 .

Excellence In this session.Session Summary People. Passion. characteristics as well as the merits and demerits of various OLAP solutions. > Explained architectures. > Discussed about the evolution of OLAP. We have > Understood the need for OLAP and significance of Multidimensional analysis in a Data Warehouse. 44 .

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