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The solution to a ﬁrstorder linear diﬀerential equation with constant coeﬃcients,
a
1
dX
dt
+ a
0
X = f(t) ,
is X = X
n
+ X
f
, where X
n
and X
f
are, respectively, natural and forced responses of the
system.
The natural response, X
n
, is the solution to the homogeneous equation (RHS=0):
a
1
dX
dt
+ a
0
X = 0
The functional form of X
n
is X
n
= Ke
st
(K and s are constants). Value of s can be found
by substituting the functional form in the homogeneous diﬀerential equation:
a
1
dKe
st
dt
+ a
0
Ke
st
= 0
a
1
Kse
st
+ a
0
Ke
st
= 0 → a
1
s + a
0
= 0 → s = −
a
0
a
1
Constant K is found from initial conditions. As the initial condition applies to X not X
n
,
K should be found after X
f
is calculated.
Some functional forms of the forced solution, X
f
, are given in the table below. To ﬁnd
X
f
, the functional form is substituted in the original diﬀerential equation and the constant
coeﬃcients of the functional form are found.
Trial Functions for Forced Response
f(t)
Trial Function
†
a A
at + b At + B
at
n
+ bt
n−1
+ ... At
n
+ Bt
n−1
+ ...
ae
σt
Ae
σt
a cos(ωt) + b sin(ωt) Acos(ωt) + B sin(ωt)
Constants a and b are used to deﬁne the general form of f(t).
†
Constants A and B in trial functions are found from substitution in
the diﬀerential equation.
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 70
Example: Solve the diﬀerential equation below with the initial condition of v(t=0)=1.
dv
dt
+ 5v = 10
The solution is v = v
n
+ v
f
. v
n
is the solution to the homogeneous equation:
dv
dt
+ 5v = 0
Using the trial function v
n
= Ke
st
, we ﬁnd:
d
dt
_
Ke
st
_
+ 5Ke
st
= 0
Kse
st
+ 5Ke
st
= 0 → s = −5
v
n
= Ke
−5t
K will be found later from the initial condition.
To ﬁnd v
f
, we note that f(t) = 10 = constant. From the table of the trial functions, we
ﬁnd that the functional form of v
f
= A = constant. Substituting for v
f
in the diﬀerential
equation, we get:
dv
dt
+ 5v = 10 →
dA
dt
+ 5A = 10
0 + 5A = 10 → v
f
= A = 2
v = v
n
+ v
f
= Ke
−5t
+ 2
We now use the initial condition, v(t = 0) = 1, to ﬁnd K:
v(t = 0) =
_
Ke
−5t
+ 2
_
t=0
= 1 → K + 2 = 1 → K = −1
v = −e
−5t
+ 2
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 71
FirstOrder Circuits
First order circuits include only one capacitor or inductor (after using series/parallel reduc
tion). The solution of these circuits results in a “ﬁrstorder” linear diﬀerential equation with
constant coeﬃcients. It requires one initial condition.
Firstorder RL Circuits
Consider a ﬁrstorder circuit containing only one inductor. The rest of the circuit contains
only resistors and voltage and current sources. Therefore, the rest of the circuit is a two
terminal resistive subcircuit and can be reduced to a Thevenin or Norton form as shown.
Note that it is possible that the rest of circuit reduced to only a resistor, i.e., v
T
= 0.
the circuit
Rest of
OR
L
R

+
L

+
v L
L
L
+

v
L
L
i
L
i R
L
i
v T
v
T
N N
i

+
Solving the Thevenin equivalent circuit, we get:
KVL: R
T
i
L
+ v
L
−v
T
= 0
iv Eq.: v
L
= L
di
L
dt
Substituting for v
L
in KVL, we arrive at the general form of diﬀerential equation that
describes ﬁrstorder RL circuits:
L
di
L
dt
+ R
T
i
L
= v
T
If we use the Norton form for the resistive subcircuit, we will arrive at
L
R
N
di
L
dt
+ i
L
= i
N
which is exactly identical to the Thevenin form (R
N
= R
T
and v
T
= R
T
i
N
).
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 72
Firstorder RC Circuits
Consider a ﬁrstorder circuit containing only one capacitor. Similar to a ﬁrstorder RL
circuit, we can reduce the rest of the circuit to a Thevenin or Norton form as shown.
C the circuit
C
Rest of
OR
R C
C
C

+
v
+

v C
C
C R i
i
+

v
i
C
T
v
T
N N
i
+

Solving the Thevenin equivalent circuit, we get:
KVL: R
T
i
C
+ v
C
−v
T
= 0
iv Eq.: i
C
= C
dv
C
dt
Substituting for i
C
in KVL, we arrive at the general form of diﬀerential equation that de
scribes ﬁrstorder RC circuits:
R
T
C
dv
C
dt
+ v
C
= v
T
The Norton form will also lead to an equation similar to above.
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 73
Natural Response of FirstOrder Circuits
t = t
0
L R
R
T
T
v
+

As the natural response of a circuit is generic to the cir
cuit and is independent of the driving sources, we con
sider the natural response (no sources) ﬁrst.
In these circuits, the inductor or the capacitor is
“charged” with a voltage or current source, a switch
opens or closes removing the source from the circuit, and
letting the capacitor or inductor discharge in a resistor.
i
R L
+

v
L
L Natural Response of RL Circuits
A generic RL circuit with an initial condition of i
L
(t = t
+
0
) = i
0
is shown. For t > t
0
, we have:
KVL: v
L
+ Ri
L
= 0
L
di
L
dt
+ Ri
L
= 0
I.C.: i
L
(t = t
+
0
) = i
0
It is a good idea to write down the initial conditions (again) next to the diﬀerential equation.
Since the RHS of the equation is zero, there is no forced solution. The functional form of the
natural solution is i
L
= Ke
st
. Substituting this functional form in the diﬀerential equation
(to ﬁnd s), we get:
i
L
= Ke
st
di
L
dt
= Kse
st
LKse
st
+ RKe
st
= 0 → Ls + R = 0 → s = −
R
L
i
L
= Ke
−(R/L)t
Deﬁne time constant, τ, as τ =
−1
s
=
L
R
→ i
L
= Ke
−
t
τ
Constant K is found from the initial condition, i
L
(t = t
+
0
) = i
0
:
i
L
(t = t
+
0
) = i
0
= Ke
−
t
0
τ
→ K = i
0
e
+
t
0
τ
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 74
t +5τ t
0
o
t
0
L
L
o
0
t
t
< 1% i
v
i
i
Thus:
i
L
= i
0
e
−
t −t
0
τ
and v
L
= −Ri
0
e
−
t −t
0
τ
Current and voltage waveforms are plotted in the
ﬁgure. After several time constants (5τ is ade
quate), the current and voltage decay away and
the circuit reaches its steady condition.
+

v
C
C
i
C
R
Natural Response of RC Circuits
A generic RC circuit with an initial condition of v
C
(t =
t
+
0
) = v
0
is shown. For t > t
0
, we have:
KVL: Ri
c
+ v
C
= 0
RC
dv
C
dt
+ v
C
= 0
I.C.: v
C
(t = t
+
0
) = v
0
Substituting this functional form for v
C
in the diﬀerential equation we ﬁnd s = −1/(RC).
Deﬁne time constant, τ, as τ =
−1
s
= RC → v
C
= Ke
−
t
τ
Constant K is found from the initial condition, v
C
(t = t
+
0
) = v
0
and we arrive at:
v
C
= v
0
e
−
t −t
0
τ
and i
C
= −
v
0
R
e
−
t −t
0
τ
t +5τ t
0
t
0
0
t
C
o
t
C
o
v
< 1% v
v
i
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 75
FirstOrder Circuits with DC sources (Step Response)
t
u(tt )
t
0
u(t)
0
1
1
t
Unit Step function is deﬁned as:
_
u(t) = 0 for t ≤ 0
−
u(t) = 1 for t ≤ 0
+
Deﬁning t
= t −t
0
, one can see that u(t
) = u(t −t
0
) is:
_
u(t −t
0
) = 0 for t ≤ t
−
0
u(t −t
0
) = 1 for t ≤ t
+
0
Step functions are one way to illustrate switched circuit as is shown in the example below.
0
t = t
0
u(tt )
C
R R
C
s
v
s
v
+

+

Step response of an RC circuit
Consider the RC circuit above. The switch closes at time t = 0 and the capacitor has an
initial voltage of v
0
. For t > 0, KVL results in Ri
c
+ v
C
= v
s
, or:
RC
dv
C
dt
+ v
C
= v
s
I.C.: v
C
(t = 0
+
) = v
0
We have found the natural solution to RC circuit to be:
v
C,n
= Ke
−
t
τ
and τ = RC
To ﬁnd the forced response, v
C,f
, we note that the RHS of the diﬀerential equation is a
constant. Table of trial force functions on page 70 indicates that the forced response should
also be a constant, v
C,f
= A. Substituting for v
C,f
in the diﬀerential equation, we get:
RC
dA
dt
+ A = v
s
→ v
C,f
= A = v
s
v
C
= v
C,n
+ v
C,f
= Ke
−
t
τ
+ v
s
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 76
Constant of K is found from the initial condition: v
C
(t = 0
+
) = v
0
:
v
C
(t = 0
+
) = v
0
= Ke
−
0
τ
+ v
s
= K + v
s
→ K = v
0
−v
s
Thus, the capacitor voltage waveform is:
v
C
(t) = (v
0
−v
s
)e
−
t
τ
+ v
s
If we wait long enough, (mathematically: t →∞, practically: 5τ) the circuit will reach DC
steady condition again, current in the capacitor becomes zero and its voltage reaches v
s
as
can be see either from the circuit or from the expression for v
C
(t).
0
0
t +5τ
t
0 0
t +5τ
t
t
s
t
C
s
C
0
v /R
i v
v
v
If the switch was closed at time t = t
0
instead of time zero, the capacitor voltage waveform
would be (let t
= t −t
0
and switch closing at t
= 0):
v
C
(t) = (v
0
−v
s
)e
−
t −t
0
τ
+ v
s
Since v
0
is the initial value of v
C
and v
s
is its ﬁnal value , the above equation can be rewritten
as:
v
C
at Time t
=
_
Initial Value of
v
C
−
Final Value of
v
C
_
×e
−
t −t
0
τ
+
Final Value of
v
C
In fact, all voltages and currents in the circuit (also called “state variables”) will have the
same waveform:
State Variable
at Time t
=
_
Initial Value of
State Variable
−
Final Value of
State Variable
_
×e
−
t −t
0
τ
+
Final Value of
State Variable
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 77
Step response of an RL circuit
t = t
0
i
R L
+

v
L
L
i
s
Consider the RL circuit shown. The switch closes at time t = t
0
and the inductor has an initial current of i
0
. We can ﬁnd the
inductor current waveform following the procedure similar to
one used for step response of RC circuits.
Alternatively, we can use the “state variable” formula identiﬁed above. Here the state
variable of interest is i
L
. The time constant of the circuit is τ = L/R. The ﬁnal value of
the state variable is i
L
(t → ∞) when the switch is closed and circuit has reached a DC
steady state condition. Replacing the inductor with a short circuit, we ﬁnd i
L
(t →∞) = i
s
.
Substituting in the “state variable” formula above, we get
i
L
(t) = (i
0
−i
s
)e
−
t −t
0
τ
+ i
s
Procedure for Solving FirstOrder Circuits
1. If the initial conditions are not given, use DC steadystate analysis to ﬁnd the initial
conditions (v
c
and i
L
)
2. Solve the time dependent circuit:
a) Direct solution using KVL and KCL, nodevoltage and mesh current methods, etc.
b) Reduce the circuit to simple RC or RL circuits above and use the formulas.
12Ω
2Ω
6Ω
Ω
18 V
1
F
+
c
i
v

t = 0 12
12
+

Ω
2Ω
6Ω
Ω
c
v
+

18 V
18 V
A
i
c
v =v
12
12
+

Example 1: The circuit is in DC steadystate for
t < 0. Find i for t > 0
As the initial conditions are not given, we need to
solve the DC steadystate circuit for t < 0 ﬁrst.
We redraw the circuit at t < 0 (switch is closed)
and replace the capacitor with an open circuit.
We proceed with solving the circuit with node
voltage method. As the 2 Ω resistor does not carry
any current, v
A
= v
C
. Then:
KCL at v
A
:
v
C
−18
12
+
v
c
6
+
v
C
12
= 0
v
C
= 4.5 V for t < 0
Nojump condition leads to the initial condition for t > 0: v
C
(0
+
) = v
C
(0
−
) = 4.5 V. Note
that although we like to ﬁnd i, the initial condition is obtained for v
C
as nojump condition
only applies to v
C
and i may have a discontinuity at the switching time.
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 78

12
12
12Ω
2Ω
6Ω
Ω
v
c
v
c
18 V
1
F
+
A
i
v
+

We now proceed to solve t > 0 circuit:
Method 1: Direct solution:
Both nodevoltage and meshcurrent methods
lead to 2 equations. As we are interested in v
C
,
we proceed with nodevoltage method:
KCL at v
A
:
v
A
6
+
v
A
−v
C
2
+
v
A
12
= 0
2v
A
+ 6v
A
−6v
C
+ v
A
= 0 → v
A
=
2
3
v
C
KCL at v
C
:
v
C
−v
A
2
+ i
C
= 0 →
v
C
−v
A
2
+
1
12
dv
C
dt
= 0
where we substituted for i
C
from the capacitor iv equation. The above are two equations
in our two nodevoltages v
A
and v
C
. Substituting for v
A
from ﬁrst into the second, we get:
6v
C
−6
_
2
3
v
C
_
+
dv
C
dt
= 0
dv
C
dt
+ 2v
C
= 0 and v
C
(0
+
) = 4.5 V
As the RHS of the diﬀerential equation is zero, solution consists only of the natural solution.
Using the trial function of Ke
st
, we ﬁnd:
sKe
st
+ 2Ke
st
= 0 → s = −2
v
C
(t) = Ke
−2t
and K is found from the initial condition:
v
C
(0
+
) = 4.5 = Ke
−2×0
→ K = 4.5 → v
C
(t) = 4.5e
−2t
(V)
We can now calculate i from our node voltage equations:
v
A
(t) =
2
3
v
C
(t) = 3e
−2t
(V)
i(t) =
v
A
(t)
12
= 0.25e
−2t
(A)
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 79
Method 2: Reduction to Thevenin form:
In this method, we reduce the circuit into a simple RC circuit by separating the capacitor
from the circuit and ﬁnding Thevenin equivalent of the remaining twoterminal subcircuit:
12
1
F
i
2Ω
6Ω 12Ω
12
1
F
12
1
F
6Ω
2Ω
6  12 =
Ω 4
We have solved this circuit before and the solution is:
v
C
(t) = v
C
(t = t
+
0
) e
−
t −t
0
τ
with τ = RC
t
0
= 0 and v
C
(t = t
+
0
) = v
C
(0
+
) = 4.5 and τ = RC =
6
12
= 0.5
v
C
(t) = 4.5e
−2t
(V)
We now need to go back to the original circuit to calculate i, for example, by writing the
nodevoltage equations and use v
C
to ﬁnd the other parameters as was done above.
i
t = 1 s
10 V 10 V
25 150 mH Ω
50 50 Ω Ω
L
+
−
+
−
i
i
10 V
Ω
50Ω
L
L i=0
75 +
−
Example 2: The circuit is in DC steadystate
for t < 1 s. Find i
L
for t > 1
We redraw the circuit at t < 1 (switch is in the
upper position) and replace the inductor with
a short circuit. We also replace the 50 and
25 Ω resistors in series with a 75 Ω resistor.
As the 75 Ω resistor is in parallel with a short
circuit, it will carry a current of zero. Then,
by KCL, the current in the 50 Ω resistor will
be i
L
. Then,
KVL: −10 + 50i
L
= 0 → i
L
= 0.2 A
Nojump condition leads to the initial condition for t > 1: i
L
(t = 1
+
) = i
L
(t = 1
−
) = 0.2 A.
We now proceed to solve t > 0 circuit:
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 80
i
Ω
50Ω
L 10 V
75
−10 V
150 mH
+
−
v
L
v
L
+
−
Method 1: Direct solution:
Nodevoltage method leads to one equation as
opposed to meshcurrent method that leads to
2 equations. So, we proceed with nodevoltage
method:
KCL at v
L
:
v
L
75
+ i
L
+
v
L
−(−10)
50
= 0
2v
L
+ 150i
L
+ 3v
L
+ 30 = 0 → 5v
L
+ 150i
L
= −30
iv Eq.: v
L
= 150 ×10
−3
di
L
dt
5 ×150 ×10
−3
di
L
dt
+ 150i
L
= −30
5 ×10
−3
di
L
dt
+ i
L
= −0.2 and i
L
(t = 1
+
) = 0.2 A.
As the RHS of the diﬀerential equation is not zero, we need to ﬁnd both the natural and
forced solutions. The natural solution can be found by using trial function of i
L,n
= Ke
st
:
5 ×10
−3
sKe
st
+ Ke
st
= 0 → s = −200
i
L,n
(t) = Ke
−200t
To ﬁnd i
L,f
, we note that the RHS of the diﬀerential equation is a constant. Using the
Table of trial functions for forced solution on page 70, we ﬁnd i
L,f
= A. Substituting in the
diﬀerential equation, we get:
5 ×10
−3
dA
dt
+ A = −0.2 → i
L,f
= A = −0.2
i
L
(t) = i
L,n
+ i
L,f
= Ke
−200t
−0.2
Constant K is found from the initial conditions:
i
L
(t = 1
+
) = 0.2 = Ke
−200
−0.2 → K = 0.4e
+200
i
L
(t) = 0.4e
−200(t−1)
−0.2 (A)
Method 2: Reduction to Thevenin form:
In this method, we reduce the circuit into a simple RL circuit by separating the capacitor
from the circuit and ﬁnding Thevenin equivalent of the remaining twoterminal subcircuit:
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 81
i
i
i
50Ω
L
L
−0.2
50  75= 150 mH
Ω 30
Ω
50Ω
L 10 V
75 150 mH Ω 75 150 mH
= 0.2
10
50
+
−
We have solve this circuit before and the solution is:
i
L
(t) = (i
0
−i
s
)e
−
t −t
0
τ
+ i
s
t
0
= 1
i
0
= i
L
(t = t
+
0
) = +0.2 and i
s
= −0.2
τ =
L
R
=
150 ×10
−3
30
= 5 ×10
−3
i
L
(t) = [0.2 −(−0.2)]e
−200(t−1)
+ (−0.2)
i
L
(t) = 0.4e
−200(t−1)
−0.2 (A)
o
v
1
C
i
v
c
c
i
c
i=0
u(t)
+
−
v
+
−
R
+
−
+ −
Example 3: Integrator Find v
o
if v
C
(t = 0) = 0.
We replace the OpAmp with its circuit model. As
the current ﬂowing into the OpAmp is zero, the
current in the resistor is the same as i
C
. We also
note the connection between output and inverting
input terminal so negative feedback exists:
Negative Feedback: v
n
= v
p
= 0
Ohm’s Law: Ri
C
= v
1
−v
n
= v
1
Capacitor iv: i
c
= C
dv
C
dt
= C
d(v
n
−v
o
)
dt
= −C
dv
o
dt
Substituting for i
C
from Ohm’s law into capacitor iv equation, and integrating the resulting
equation we get:
v
1
R
= −C
dv
o
dt
→
_
t
0
dv
o
dt
dt
= −
1
RC
_
t
0
v
1
(t
)dt
v
o
(t) = −
1
RC
_
t
0
v
1
(t
)dt
since v
C
(t = 0) = v
o
(t = 0) = 0. As can be seen, this is an integrator circuit–the output
voltage is proportional to the integral of the input voltage waveform.
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 82
o
v
1
i
c
i
c
i=0
u(t)
C
v
c
+
−
v
+
−
R
+
−
+ −
Example 4: Diﬀerentiator: Find v
o
if v
C
(t = 0) = 0.
We replace the OpAmp with its circuit model. As
the current ﬂowing into the OpAmp is zero, the
current in the resistor is the same as i
C
. We also
note the connection between output and inverting
input terminal so negative feedback exists:
Negative Feedback: v
n
= v
p
= 0
Ohm’s Law: Ri
C
= v
n
−v
o
= −v
o
Capacitor iv: i
c
= C
dv
C
dt
= C
d(v
1
−v
n
)
dt
= C
dv
1
dt
Substituting for i
C
from Ohm’s law into capacitor iv equation, we get:
−
v
o
R
= C
dv
1
dt
→ v
o
(t) = −RC
dv
1
dt
As can be seen, this is a diﬀerentiator circuit–the output voltage is proportional to the
derivative of the input voltage waveform.
The above two circuits, the integrator and the diﬀerentiator, together with inverting and
noninverting summers are the building block of analog computers.
Example: Design an OpAmp circuit to ﬁnd v
o
(t) = 10v
s
(t) +
_
t
0
v
s
(t
)dt
.
o s
B
A
c
C= 1/R
+
−
R
v
+
−
R
R
v
R
R
+
−
R
v
v
v
A
= −
_
t
0
v
s
(t
)dt
v
o
= −v
A
−v
B
= 10v
s
(t)+
_
t
0
v
s
(t
)dt
v
B
= −10v
s
(t)
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 83
Example: Design an OpAmp circuit which solves the diﬀerential equation:
d
2
v
o
dt
2
+ 2
dv
o
dt
+ v
o
= v
s
(t).
Rewrite the equation in the form:
d
2
v
o
dt
2
= −2
dv
o
dt
−v
o
+ v
s
(t)
The block diagram of the circuit is:
Inverting
Amp.
Inverting
Summer
dt
0
dv
v
0
dt
0
dv
v
0
v
s
−v
s
0
dv
2
dt
2
Integrator Integrator
and the circuit itself is:
s
o
C= 1/R
C= 1/R
+
−
R
R
v
v
+
−
R R
R
0.5 R
+
−
R
+
−
R
MAE140 Notes, Winter 2001 84
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