The

mechanism explained earlier were not enough to explain all heat transferred.
There The

is another mode of heat transfer.

energy we received from sun cannot come to us through conduction or convection because they requires a medium to transfer the heat.
But So,

there is no medium in the vast region between sun and earth. the solar energy comes to us through yet another medium called radiation.

Radiation heat is thought of as electromagnetic waves or quanta, an emanation of same nature as light and also radio waves. When a body heated, the thermal excitation of molecules results in emission of photons. Photons may be considered as little bundle of energy. The photons which having the wavelength in the range .38 * 10-6 m to .78 * 10-6 m are perceived by the eyes.

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All the bodies radiate heat. Transfer of heat by radiation occurs because hot body emits more heat than it receives and cold body receives more heat than it emits. Radiant energy requires no medium for the propagation and will pass through vacuum.

1. 2.

It doesn’t require any medium. Radiant heat can be reflected from surfaces and obeys the laws of reflection.

3. 4. 5.

It travels with velocity of light (3*108 m\sec.)
Like light, it shows interference, diffraction and polarization. Radiant heat invisible to human eyes.

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Wien’s law. Kirchhoff’s law. Stefan Boltzmann's law :According to this law the total emissive power of a black body is directly proportional to the fourth power of temperature. i.e. q α T4.
q = ε.σ. T4. Where q = flux (W\m2) σ = Stefan Boltzmann constant= (5.67 * 10-8 W/ m2. k4.)

T= temperature of surface in kelvin.

Spray drying process Industrial uses For making powdered milk. Pharmaceutical capsule.

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Another examples are:Respiratory gas exchange in lungs. Moisture pick up from lakes.

Air coolers.

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