31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 1

Radio Network Planning and
Optimisation
Magdaleen Snyman
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 2
References
GSM, GPRS and EDGE Performance:
evolution towards 3G/UMTS
o T.Halonen, J. Romero, J. Melero
o Second Edition
o John Wiley & Sons
o ISBN 0-470-86694-2
Principles & Applications of GSM
o V.K.Garg & J.E.Wilkes
o Prentice Hall PTR
o ISBN 0-13-949124-4
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 3
3GPP
ITU
IMT2000
3GPP
GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS
FDD TDD
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 4
3GPP
Project Coordination Group (PCG)
TSG SA
TSG GERAN TSG RAN TSG CN TSG T
WG1 – Radio Aspects
WG2 – Protocol Aspects
WG3 – BTS Testing
WG4 – Terminal Testing: Radio Part
WG5 – Terminal Testing: Protocol Part
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 5
3GPP
TSG – Technical Specification Group
GERAN – Gsm/Edge Radio Access Network
RAN - UMTS (WCDMA) Radio Access Network
CN – UMTS/GSM Core Network
T - Terminals
SA – Service and System Aspects
http://www.3gpp.org/
UTRAN – UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 6
3GPP
See Numbering Scheme
and list of abbreviations
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 7
PROTOCOLS
LAYER 3
LAYER 2
LINK CONTROL
PROTOCOLS
LAYER 1
PROTOCOLS
CHANNEL
CODER/DECODER
INTERLEAVING
ENCRYPTION
MULTIPLEXING
& MULTIPLE
ACCESS DEMODULATOR
AND
MODULATOR TRANSMITTER
AND
RECEIVER
SPEECH
CODER/DECODER
to all blocks
Relations between specifications
(HAND-OVER, POWER CONTROL)
SYNCHRONIZATION
45.002 45.004 45.005 45.003
TS 45.010
44.005 & 44.006
43.020 & 23.221
44.004
46 series
24.007 & 44.018
23.009 & 45.008 & 43.022
3GPP - specifications
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 8
GSM System
BSC
BTS
BTS
Mobile
Station
Access Network:
Base Station Subsystem
HLR VLR EIR AuC
MSC
PSTN
Um Abis A
Core Network:
GSM CS network
SS7
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 9
GSM & GPRS network
Traffic and signaling
Signaling
TE Terminal Equipment
MT Mobile Terminal
MS Mobile Station
BSS Base Station System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
GMSC Gateway Mobile Services Switching
Center
MSC Mobile services Switching Center
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
AUC Authentication Center
EIR Equipment Identity Register
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
Um Air Interface
A, Abis Interfaces (GSM)
Gx Interfaces (GPRS)
External
IP Network
(Corporate
LAN)
Gi
TE MT
MS
BSC
GMSC
MSC/VLR
SGSN
EIR
HLR
AUC
GGSN
IP-Backbone
Network
External
IP Network
(Internet)
External
X.25 Network
Gs
Gf
Gr
BTS
Gb
Um
ISDN/
PSTN
Gn
A
Other
PLMN
Gp
BSS
Abis
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 10
VLR
TRC
BSC
PCU
HLR AuC EIR
BTS
Abis
SGSN GGSN 3G MSC
3G GMSC
PSTN
(Circuit
Switched)
Node B
RNC
RNC
Internet
(Packet
Switched)
Gb
Ater
A
IuCS
Iur
Iubis
IuPS
Gs Gn
Gi
GERAN(BSS) UTRAN
CORE(SS)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 11
Frequency Bands - GSM
8
7
6

M
H
z
8
8
0

M
H
z
8
9
0

M
H
z
9
1
5

M
H
z
E-GSM
MTX
GSM MTX
T
E
T
R
A

/
G
S
M
-
R

M
T
X
GSM BTX
9
6
0
M
H
z
9
2
5

M
H
z
E-GSM
BTX
9
3
5
M
H
z
9
2
1

M
H
z
T
E
T
R
A

/
G
S
M
-
R

B
T
X
RF ID
System P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900
Frequencies:
• Uplink
• Downlink

890-915 MHz
935-960 MHz

880-915 MHz
925-960 MHz

1710-1785 MHz
1805-1880 MHz

1850-1910 MHz
1930-1990 MHz
Wavelength ~33cm ~33cm ~17cm ~16cm
Bandwidth 25 MHz 35 MHz 75 MHz 60 MHz
Duplex Distance 45 MHz 45 MHz 95 MHz 80 MHz
Carrier Separation 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz
Radio Channels 125 175 375 300
Transmission Rate 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s

31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 12
Mapping Channel numbers
to Frequencies
P-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n 1

n

124 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
E-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n 0

n

124 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n-1024) 975

n

1 023
R-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n 0

n

124 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n-1024) 955

n

1023
DCS 1 800 Fl(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2*(n-512) 512

n

885 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95
PCS 1 900 FI(n) = 1850.2 + 0.2*(n-512) 512

n

810 Fu(n) = FI(n) + 80
GSM 450 Fl(n) = 450.6 + 0.2*(n-259) 259

n

293 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 10
GSM 480 Fl(n) = 479 + 0.2*(n-306) 306

n

340 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 10
GSM 850 Fl(n) = 824.2 + 0.2*(n-128) 128

n

251 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
GSM 750 Fl(n) = 747.2 + 0.2*(n-438) 438

n

511 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 30
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 13
Frequency Bands - UTRA
UL Frequencies DL frequencies
UE transmit,
Node B receive
UE receive,
Node B transmit
I 1920 – 1980 MHz 2110 –2170 MHz
II 1850 –1910 MHz 1930 –1990 MHz
III 1710-1785 MHz 1805-1880 MHz
IV 1710-1755 MHz 2110-2155 MHz
V 824 – 849 MHz 869-894 MHz
VI 830-840 MHz 875-885 MHz
Operating
Band
UMTS - FDD - Uses 5MHz spacing
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 14
UMTS channels
9612 to 9888 - 10562 to 10838
UE transmit, Node B receive
I
Additional
Downlink (DL)
UE receive, Node B transmit
General Band Additional
Uplink (UL)
General
-
II
9262 to 9538 12, 37, 62,
87, 112, 137,
162, 187, 212,
237, 262, 287
9662 to 9938 412, 437, 462,
487, 512, 537,
562, 587, 612,
637, 662, 687
III 8562 to 8913 - 9037 to 9388 -
IV 8562 to 8763 1162, 1187, 1212,
1237, 1262, 1287,
1312, 1337, 1362
10562 to 10763 1462, 1487, 1512,
1537, 1562, 1587,
1612, 1637, 1662
782, 787, 807,
812, 837, 862
4357 to 4458 1007, 1012, 1035,
1037, 1062, 1087
1037, 1062 VI 4162 to 4188 812, 837 4387 to 4413
V 4132 to 4233
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 15
GSM Areas
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC BSC
MSC
Cell
Location Area
MSC/VLR Area
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 16
"Hardware" view of a Sample Network
HLR
EIR
AUC
GMSC
ILR
MSC/VLR 1 PSTN
MSC Service Area 2
MSC Service Area 1
LEGEND
MSC Boundary
BSC Boundary
PCM Links
Base Station
MSC/VLR 2
BSC 1B
BSC 1C
BSC 2B
BSC 1A
BSC 2A
BSC 2C
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 17
"Software" view of a Sample Network
LA 1-B
LA 1-A
LA 2-D
LA 2-A
Cell 2-A-25
LA 2-B
HLR
EIR
AUC
GMSC
ILR
MSC/VLR 1 PSTN
MSC Service Area 2
MSC Service Area 1
LEGEND
MSC Boundary
BSC Boundary
PCM Links
Base Station
MSC/VLR 2
LA 2-C
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 18
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 19
Quantisation
q
7
q
6
q
5
q
4
q
3
q
2
q
1
q
0
T
s
2T
s
3T
s
4T
s
5T
s
6T
s
7T
s
8T
s
time
} }} }
Sampled
value
Quantisation
value
D = Quantisation error
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 20
Speech Coding
Sampling rate: 8000 samples per second
Quantisation: 8192 -> 2
13
, 13bits/sample
Required bit rate: 104kb/s
RPE-LTP Speech Coder Compress speech
to 13kb/s
20ms of speech is processed at a time –
260bits (at 13kb/s)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 21
Different Speech Coders
Excellent
Good
Average
Bad
Speech
quality
2 4 8 16 32 64
Bitrate
(kbit/s)
Hybrid coders
Increasing complexity
Waveform coders
Vocoders
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 22
RPE-LTP Speech Coder
Source
Analysis
Regular
Pulse
Vocal
Tract
Analysis
8 Taps
Long
Term
Predictor
S
p
e
e
c
h

S
y
n
t
h
e
s
i
s
Error
20ms
speech
36 bits
36 bits
188 bits
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 23
RPE-LTP Speech Coder
LPC Filter 8 Parameters 36 bits
Delay Parameter 28 bits
Gain Parameter 8 bits
Subsampling Phase 8 bits
Maximum Amplitude 24 bits
13 Samples 156 bits
Total 260 bits
LTP Filter
Excitation Signal
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 24
Channel Coding
Block Block Block Block
coder coder coder coder
50 Very important bits
132 Important bits
78 Not so important bits
1:2 1:2 1:2 1:2
Convolutional Convolutional Convolutional Convolutional
Coder Coder Coder Coder
456
4 Tail bits
53 bits 378 bits
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 25
Coding Schemes
# Info
bits
# Coding
bits
Code
Rate
Max data rate
(kbs) /TS
Required C/I (dB)
(BLER <10%; TU3 FH)
Modul
ation
GSM 260 196 0.5 13.3 9 GMSK
CS-1 181 275 0.45 9.05 9 GMSK
CS-2 268 188 0.65 13.4 13 GMSK
CS-3 312 144 0.75 15.6 15 GMSK
CS-4 428 28 21.4 23 GMSK
MCS-1 176 0.53 8.4 9 GMSK
MCS-2 224 0.69 11.2 13 GMSK
MCS-3 296 0.89 14.8 15 GMSK
MCS-4 352 1 16.8 23 GMSK
MCS-5 448 0.38 22.4 14.5 8PSK
MCS-6 592 0.5 29.6 17 8PSK
MCS-7 896 0.78 44.8 23.5 8PSK
MCS-8 1088 0.92 54.4 29 8PSK
MCS-9 1184 1 59.2 32 8PSK
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 26
Bit-interleaving
HalfBurst#1 HalfBurst#2 HalfBurst#3 HalfBurst#4 HalfBurst#5 HalfBurst#6 HalfBurst#7 HalfBurst#8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447
448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 27
Interleaving in GPRS and EDGE
EDGE MSC 7-9 interleave over half the
timeslots
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 28
“Burst” Interleaving
57 1 26 1 57 3 3
Normal Burst
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 29
“Burst” Interleaving
A/8
A/8
A/8
A/8
B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 A/8
B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 A/8
B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 A/8
B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 A/8
C/8 C/8 C/8 C/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8
C/8 C/8 C/8 C/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8
C/8 C/8 C/8 C/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8
C/8 C/8 C/8 C/8 B/8 B/8 B/8 B/8
D/8 C/8
D/8 C/8
D/8 C/8
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 30
Equalisation
Data S’ Data
? S ?
Correlator
Channel
model
“diff.”
Choose
“?”
so that
“diff.”
is
minimized
Received burst
Probable transmitted
bit pattern:
VITERBI
}
}
Can compensate for Delay Spread of up to 16µs
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 31
Modulation
I
Q
“1”
“0”
“1 bit per symbol”
GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 32
Modulation Schemes
I
Q
(0,1,1)
(1,1,0) (1,0,1)
(0,0,0)
(0,0,1) (1,1,1)
(1,0,0)
(0,1,0)
I
Q
“1”
“0”
“1 bit per symbol” “3 bits per symbol”
GMSK 8PSK
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 33
0
Frequency 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
User 1
User 2
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 34
TDMA Frame Structure
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Downlink C
1
Uplink C
1
N N + 1
TDMA frame no.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 35
Mapping of Logical Channels on
Physical Channels
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TDMA Frame n+x
TDMA Frame n+1
TDMA Frame n
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Physical Channel 5
890 915 MHz
TDMA Frame n+2
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
TDMA Frame
n n+1n+2 n+x
Physical Channel 5:
Logical Channel:
TCH TCH
FACCH
TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 36
Logical Channels
SCH
AGCH
PCH
BCCH
FCCH
FACCH
SACCH
SDCCH
RACH
FR HR
BCH
DCCH
CCCH
Control Channels Traffic Channels
Logical Channels
Frequency
Correction
Burst
Access
Burst
Dummy
Burst
Synchro
=nisation
Burst
Normal
Burst
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 37
TCH (Traffic Channels)
Used to carry speech and data
Types of TCH
o Full-rate (TCH/F)
o Half-rate (TCH/H)
26 TDMA frames
o 24 TCH
o 1 SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channels)
o 1 unused channel
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 38
Control Channels
Accessed by:
o Idle mode mobiles to exchange signaling
information required to change to dedicated
mode
o Dedicated mode mobiles to monitor surrounding
base stations for handover and other
information
51 TDMA frame format
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
o Broadcasts on the downlink information such as
base station identity, frequency allocation,
frequency-hopping sequences
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 39
Control Channels (2)
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) and
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
o Synchronize mobile to time slot structure of cell
Random Access Channel (RACH)
o Used by mobile to request access to GSM
network
Paging Channel (PCH)
o Alerts mobile to incoming call
Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
o Allocates an SDCCH to mobile for signaling
following a request on the RACH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 40
Logical Channels
∗Downlink
–FCCH info about frequency
–SCH info about TDMA structure & BSIC
–BCCH general cell info (LA, Power)
–PCH tells MS its being paged
–AGCH tells MS which signalling channel to use
–SDCCH info about call set-up sent to MS
–SACCH info about power and timing advance
–FACCH used for handover
–TCH speech
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 41
Logical Channels
∗ Uplink
– RACH MS asks BTS for Signaling channel
– SDCCH info about call set-up to BTS
– SACCH info about signal strength and quality
– FACCH handover info
–TCH speech
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 42
Frame Structure
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 hyperframe = 2048 superframes = 2,715,648 TDMA frames (3 hours 28 minutes 53 seconds 760 milliseconds)
0 1
(= 51 (26 - frame) multiframes or 26 (51 - frame) mulitframes )
1 superframe = 1326 TDMA frames ( 6.12 seconds )
0 1 2 3 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 47 48 49 50
1 (51 - frame) multiframe = 51 TDMA frames (235 ms) 1 (26- frame) multiframe = 26 TDMA frames (120 ms)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 TDMA frame =8 timeslots (120/26 ~4.615 ms)
1 timeslot = 156.25 bit durations (15/26 ~ 0.577 ms)
( 1 bit duration 48/13 ~ 3.69 micro sec )
TB
3
Encrypted bits
57
flag
1
Training sequence
26
flag
1
Encrypted bits
57
TB
3
GP
8.25
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
TB
3
Encrypted bits
39
Synchronization sequence
64
Encrypted bits
39
TB
3
GP
8.25
TB
8
Synchronization sequence
41
Encrypted bits
36
GP
68.25
TB
3
Mixed bits
58
Training sequence
26
Mixed bits
58
TB
3
GP
8.25
Fixed bits
142
TB
3
TB: Tail bits
GP: Guard period
Normal burst (NB)
(Flag is relevant for
TCH only)
Frequecy correction
burst (FB)
Synchronization
burst (SB)
Access burst (AB)
Dummy burst (DB)
2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047
0 1 2 3
24 25
47 48 49 50
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 43
Multi-frame structure
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 44
C
0
TS
0
0 4 9 14 19
F S B B B B C
0
C
0
C
0
C
0
F S C
1
C
1
C
1
C
1
C
2
C
2
C
2
C
2
20 24 29 34 39
F S C
3
C
3
C
3
C
3
C
4
C
4
C
4
C
4
F S C
5
C
5
C
5
C
5
C
6
C
6
C
6
C
6
40 44 49
F S C
7
C
7
C
7
C
7
C
8
C
8
C
8
C
8
I
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 45
Dedicated Control Channel
0 4 9 14 19
D
5
D
5
D
5
D
5
D
6
D
6
D
6
D
6
D
7
D
7
D
7
D
7
A
0
A
0
A
0
A
0
A
1
A
1
A
1
A
1
20 24 29 34 39
40 44 49
A
2
A
2
A
2
A
2
A
3
A
3
A
3
A
3
I I I
D
0
D
0
D
0
D
0
D
1
D
1
D
1
D
1
D
2
D
2
D
2
D
2
D
3
D
3
D
3
D
3
D
4
D
4
D
4
D
4
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 46
Mapping of Logical Channels
on Air Interface
Time slot
Carrier Frequency
0
0
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
B,C
D
T
T T T T T
T T D T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
3
T T T T T T T T
Legend:
B: BCH
C: CCCH
D: DCCH
T: TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 47
Call to an MS
9805024
BSC
MSC/VLR
TRC
BTS
BTS
1
2
4
5
2
2
2
3
1
4
3
5
6
PCH
PCH
PCH
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH/SACCH
TCH
MSC knows the LAI
SDCCH is
assigned
using AGCH
SDCCH is
assigned
using AGCH
SDCCH/SACCH
are used for call
set up. SDCCH
Used to allocate
TCH
MS and BTS switch
tothe identified TCH
frequency and
Time slot
MS and BTS switch
tothe identified TCH
frequency and
Time slot
PCH
RACH is used to request
Access to the network
RACH is used to request
Access to the network
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 48
MSISDN
National mobile number
International Mobile Station
ISDN number
MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN
CC NDC SN
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 49
IMSI
Maximum 15 digits
3 digits
2-3 digits
National MSI
IMSI
IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN
MCC MNC MSIN
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 50
IMEI
6 digits 2 digits 6 digits 1 digit
IMEI
IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + spare
TAC
FAC
SNR
spare
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 51
LAI
3 digits 2-3 digits Max. 16 bits
LAI
LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
MCC MNC LAC
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 52
CGI
3 digits 2-3 digits Max. 16 bits Max. 16 bits
Location Area Identity
Cell Global Identity
CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI
MCC MNC LAC CI
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 53
BSIC
BSIC
BSIC = NCC + BCC
NCC BCC
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 54
Traffic
Cases
When
MS is in
Idle
Mode
9600870
MSC/VLR-A
(LA1 + LA2)
MSC/VLR-B
(LA3)
LA1
LA2
LA3
1. 2.
5.
3. 6.
8.
4.
1. IMSI attach
2. Location updating, type IMSI attach
3. Changing cells within an LA
4. Location updating, same MSC/VLR
5. Location updating, new MSC/VLR
6. Location updating type periodic registration
7. IMSI detach
8. Implicit detach
7.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 55
IMSI Attach
9600873
MSC/VLR BSC/TRC
BTS
2.
1.
3.
4.
4.
RACH is used to
access the network
AGCH assigns a SDCCH
SDCCH is used to send
IMSI attach message to
The network
IMSI
Attach
VLR checks for
Subscriber record
VLR updates MS
status to idle
Acknowledgement sent to MS
IMSI Detach is a complement
to this procedure
•Remove the SIM
•Power Off
•HLR is not informed
•No Acknowledgement sent to MS
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 56
Location Updating,
same MSC/VLR
BSC/TRC
MSC
4.
3.
2
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
HLR
VLR
Authentication
performed
Using SDCCH
Authentication
performed
Using SDCCH
BCCH is checked
Location update Request
System acknowledges
the location update
request. Informs MS and
BTS to release SDCCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 57
Location Updating,
new MSC/VLR
9805058
BSC/TRC MSC
4.
4.
HLR
VLR
2.
3.
3.
1.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 58
Cases
which
Activate a
MS and
Cases
when MS
is in
Active
Mode
1. Call from MS (speech, fax, data, short message)
2. Call to MS (speech, fax, data, short message, cell broadcast)
3. Handover - intra - BSC
4. Handover - inter - BSC, intra - MSC
5. Handover - inter - MSC
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
BSC/TRC
MSC/VLR-A
MSC/VLR-B
BSC/TRC
BSC/TRC
GMSC
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 59
Call set-up MS to PSTN
9600875
BSC/TRC
4.
3.
2.
1.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
GSM/PLMN
5.
MSC/VLR TE
PSTN
RACH AGCH
Call request using SDCCH
Allocate idle TCH
B-number
SDCCH used for
•Marking the MSM active in VLR
•Authentication/Ciphering
•Equipment Identity register
•sending B-number to the Network
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 60
Call to MS from PSTN
HLR
GSM/PLMN PSTN
MSC/VLR
GMSC
Local
exchange
11.
10.
9.
8.
8.
9.
10.
11.
7. 11.
8.
8.
5.
4.
3.
2.
5.
1.
6.
1.
BSC/TRC
PCH
PCH
PCH
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
12
Allocate TCH
and inform MS
and RBS of this
TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 61
Measurements sent to BSC
9600877
Evaluation
and decision
about handover
Measurements from RBS and MS
RBS measures:
Signal strength and
transmission quality
on TCH, uplink
MS measures:
Signal strength and
transmission quality
on TCH, downlink
Signal strength
from neighboring
BTS
Measurement
reports from MS
are sent to RBS
BSC/TRC
MSC/TRC
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 62
Handover
Four types of handovers:
o Channels (time slots) in same cell
o Between cells within same BSC
o Between BSCs, within same MSC
o Between MSCs
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 63
Handover: Cells Controlled
by the Same BSC
9600878
old
new
BSC
2.
6.
1.
5.
3.
4.
5.
2.
Activate a new TCH
Info on new frequency, TS and output power
Handover access burst
TA info
Handover
complete
Release old TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 64
Handover: Different BSCs
but the same MSC/VLR
9600879
Old
BSC/TRC
4.
9.
3.
7.
5.
6.
7.
4.
new
BSC/TRC
MSC
1.
4.
8.
4.
7.
2.
HO required message with CGI
HO request
Activate a TCH
Info on freq, TS and Tx Power
HO burst
TA
HO complete
message to MSC
Release TCH
Release TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 65
Handover: Cells Controlled
by Different MSCs
9600880
old
BSC/TRC
4.
5.
8.
9.
10.
7.
new
BSC/TRC
MSC-A
1.
7.
3.
MSC-B
10.
2. 5. 10.
GSM PLM PSTN
11.
6.
HO required message with
CGI
Requests help
HO request Activate a TCH
Info & HO number
Link set up to target
msc
HO command
Freq, ts,
output power
HO burst
TA
HO complete
HO complete
New path set up in GS
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 66
SS Overview
HLR
VLR EIR AuC
MSC
PSTN
SS7
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 67
MSC – Mobile Switching Center
It is Switch
ALL calls are routed through at least one MSC
Generates CDRs (Call Data Records) that are
used for Billing
Service Provisioning – SMS and Supplementary
services are switched through MSC
DTI (Data Transmission Interface) handles
(HS)CSD ((High Speed) Circuit Switch Data)
Call
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 68
MSC – Mobile Switching Center
RP RP
MSC/VLR TRC
ETC
ETC
ETC
ETC
RP
CP SP
RPD
ST7
GS
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 69
SMS-C
MSC/VLR SMS-C
2.
1.
2.
RACH
AGCH
SMS on SDCCH
HLR
SMS - GMSC SMS - C MSC/VLR
1.
2.
8.
4.
3.
5.
6.
7.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 70
VLR – Visitor Location Register
Keeps record of all IMSI in MSC/VLR area
Info on each subscriber:
o Subscribed Supplementary Services
o Activity of MS (Active / Idle)
o LA (Location Area) of MS
o MSISDN
o TMSI
o IMSI
HLR
U
p
d
a
t
e
D
e
l
e
t
e
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 71
HLR – Home Location Register
Is a database that stores information on all
subscribers on the network:
o IMSI
o MSISDN
o Subscribed Supplementary Services
o MSC/VLR area
o Authentication information
Interacts with AUC (Authentication Center)
Coordinate info in VLR’s
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 72
EIR – Equipment Identity Register
Database containing three lists of IMEI:
o White listed
o Black list of all IMEI that has been barred
o Gray list – faulty or non-approved phones
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 73
AUC – Authentication Center
Subscriber Authentication
Provides ciphering keys
AUC
RAND
generator
Database
IMSI
Ki
A3
Authentication
Algorithm
A8
Ciphering
Algorithm
Ki
RAND
SRES
Kc
Request for triplets
from HLR (IMSI)
Triplets
(or many per request)
RAND Random number
SRES Signed Response
Kc Ciphering key
Ki Subscriber authentication key
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 74
Information stored on SIM
Security information
o Subscriber authentication key, Ki
o Ciphering key, Kc
o Supports Authentication Algorithm, A3
o Supports Ciphering key generation algorithm, A8
Other
o IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
o LAI (Location Area Identity)
o List of frequencies to be used for cell selection
o Forbidden PLMN
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 75
Authentication Procedure
MSC/VLR
1. RAND
3. SRES
MS
2. MS calculates SRES using RAND + K
i
(SIM-card) through A3 and Kc using RAND+K
i
through A8.
4. Compare SRES received from
MS with SRES in triplet. If they
are equal access is granted.
MSC/VLRMobile service Switching Center
MS Mobile Station
RAND Random number
SRES Signed Response
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 76
Ciphering Procedure
VLR
MSC
MS
1. M + Kc
2. M
Decryption
process using
A5
Encryption
process
using
A5
TDMA
frame no.
Kc
4. Encrypted
M’
c
M’
Kc
TDMA
frame
no.
3. Encrypt M
5. Decryption of M’
successful?
If yes
6. Ciphering
mode complete
A5 Encryption and decryption algorithm
M Ciphering Mode Command
M’ Ciphering Mode Complete
M’
c
Ciphering Mode Complete, ciphered
Kc Ciphering key
MSC Mobile services Switching Center
VLR Visitor Location Register
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 77
BSS Overview: BSC/TRC
RP RP
Group
Switch
MSC/VLR
SRS
RBS
ETC
ETC
ETC
ETC
RP
CP SP
TRAU
RP RPG
TRH
RPD
ST7
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 78
Remote BSCs
MSC BSC/TRC
TRC
(Remote) BSC
Abis
Abis
Abis
3 E1 TS per TRX;
16kb/s per TCH
Ater
16kb/s per TCH
“multiplexed”
A
64kb/s per TCH
“multiplexed”
A
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 79
Usage of E1
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
LAPD
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
LAPD
Synch
T
R
X
1
T
R
X
2
T
R
X
3
T
R
X
4
T
R
X
9
T
R
X
1
0
T
R
X
5
T
R
X
6
T
R
X
7
T
R
X
8
Abis
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
LAPD LAPD
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
Synch
LAP-D
Concentration
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
TCH TCH TCH TCH
Synch
Ater
TCH
TCH
TCH
Synch
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
Signalling
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
A
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 80
Radio Link Features
DTX (Discontinuous Transmission)
Dynamic Power Control
Frequency Hopping
Radio Link Measurements
Handovers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 81
DTX- Discontinuous
Transmission
Average Voice activity is around 50%
DTX is a feature that allows to be
transmitted only when there is something to
be transmitted
o Uses VAD (Voice Activity Detector)
Battery power
Improves the overall network quality by
reducing unnecessary interference
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 82
Dynamic Power Control
This enable the BTS and the Mobile to
transmit only the power necessary for
effective communications
Power Control Commands are via the
SACCH
This improves the battery life of Mobile
Phones
And it improve the overall network quality
by reducing unnecessary interference
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 83
MS power output levels
For GMSK modulation
GSM 400 &
GSM 900 & GSM
850 & GSM 700
DCS 1 800 PCS 1 900
normal extreme
1 1 W (30 dBm) 1 W (30 dBm) ±2 ±2,5
2 8 W (39 dBm) 0,25 W (24 dBm) 0,25 W
(24 dBm)
±2 ±2,5
3 5 W (37 dBm) 4 W (36 dBm) 2 W (33 dBm) ±2 ±2,5
4 2 W (33 dBm) ±2 ±2,5
5 0,8 W (29 dBm) ±2 ±2,5
For 8-PSK modulation
GSM 400 &
GSM 900 & GSM
850 & GSM 700
DCS 1 800 PCS 1 900
normal extreme normal extreme
E1 33 dBm 30 dBm 30 dBm ±2 ±2,5 ±2 ±2,5
E2 27 dBm 26 dBm 26 dBm ±3 ±4 -1.33 -4,5/+4
E3 23 dBm 22 dBm 22 dBm
±
3 ±4
±
3
±
4
DCS 1 800 &
PCS 1 900
Power
class
Tolerance (dB)
for conditions
GSM 400 and
GSM 900 & GSM
850 & GSM 700
Nominal
Maximum
output Power
Nominal
Maximum
output Power
Tolerance (dB)
for conditions
Nominal
Maximum
output Power
Tolerance (dB)
for conditions
Power
class
Nominal
Maximum
Nominal
Maximum
Nominal
Maximum
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 84
MS Power Control levels
norma
l
extrem
e
norma
l
extrem
e
0-2 39 ±2 ±2,5 29 36 ±2 ±2,5
3 37 ±3 ±4 30 34 ±3 ±4
4 35 ±3 ±4 31 32 ±3 ±4
5 33 ±3 ±4 0 30 ±3 ±4
6 31 ±3 ±4 1 28 ±3 ±4
7 29 ±3 ±4 2 26 ±3 ±4
8 27 ±3 ±4 3 24 ±3 ±4
9 25 ±3 ±4 4 22 ±3 ±4
10 23 ±3 ±4 5 20 ±3 ±4
11 21 ±3 ±4 6 18 ±3 ±4
12 19 ±3 ±4 7 16 ±3 ±4
13 17 ±3 ±4 8 14 ±3 ±4
14 15 ±3 ±4 9 12 ±4 ±5
15 13 ±3 ±4 10 10 ±4 ±5
16 11 ±5 ±6 11 8 ±4 ±5
17 9 ±5 ±6 12 6 ±4 ±5
18 7 ±5 ±6 13 4 ±4 ±5
19-31 5 ±5 ±6 14 2 ±5 ±6
15-28 0 ±5 ±6
GSM 900
Tolerance (dB)
for conditions
Power
control
level
Nominal
Output
power
(dBm)
DCS 1 800
Tolerance (dB)
for conditions
Power
control
level
Nominal
Output
power
(dBm)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 85
BTS Power Control Levels
BTS actual power level is
Max. power (dBm) – 2*N (i.e. 2dB at a time)
TRX
power
class
Maximum
output power
TRX
power
class
Maximum
output power
Micro Micro
1 320 - (< 640) W 1 20 - (< 40) W M1 (> 19) - 24 dBm M1 (> 27) - 32 dBm
2 160 - (< 320) W 2 10 - (< 20) W M2 (> 14) - 19 dBm M2 (> 22) - 27 dBm
3 80 - (< 160) W 3 5 - (< 10) W M3 (> 9) - 14 dBm M3 (> 17) - 22 dBm
4 40 - (< 80) W 4 2,5 - (< 5) W Pico Pico
5 20 - (< 40) W P1 (> 13) - 20 dBm P1 (> 16) - 23 dBm
6 10 - (< 20) W
7 5 - (< 10) W
8 2,5 - (< 5) W
Maximum
output power
Maximum
output power
TRX
power
class
TRX
power
class
For a normal BTS, the maximum output power
measured at the input of the BSS Tx combiner
For a micro-BTS or a pico-BTS, the maximum output
power per carrier measured at the antenna connector
after all stages of combining
GSM 900 & GSM 850 &
MXM 850 and GSM 700
DCS 1 800 & PCS 1 900
& MXM 1900 micro and
GSM 400 & GSM 900 &
GSM 850 & MXM 850
DCS 1 800 & PCS 1 900
& MXM 1900
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 86
Effect of DTX and PC on Quality
2.00%
3.00%
4.00%
5.00%
6.00%
7.00%
8.00%
9.00%
10.00%
0 10 20 30 40
Time (hours)
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
%HOIU
%HOID
DTX + PC Off
PC Off
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 87
Radio Link Measurements
RxLev (in GSM units: reports signal strength
above –110dBm – maximum 63 i.e. –47dBm
RxQual
RxQual BER (%)
0 <0.2%
1 0.2% -0.4%
2 0.4%-0.8%
3 0.8%-1.6%
4 1.6%-3.2%
5 3.2%-6.4%
6 6.4%-12.8%
7 >12.8%
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 88
Radio Link Measurements
The Mobile reports to the BSC (via the BTS) every
SACCH period (480ms):
o Serving Cell Signal Strength (on allocated TCH)
o Serving Cell Signal Quality
o BCCH, BSIC and RxLev of the 6 strongest neighbours
The BTS reports to the BSC
o The Signal Strength from the Mobile
o The Signal Quality from the Mobile
o The BTS power control level
o The MS power control level
o The TA (timing Advance)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 89
Handovers
A handover is initiated when
o A Neighbour Cell exceeds the signal strength of
the serving Cell with CRH for more than the
specified period (e.g. 5 Seconds)
o Excessive Timing Advance occurs
o The Signal Strength (uplink or downlink) drops
below a said minimum
o The signal quality (uplink or downlink) drops
below a said minimum
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 90
Handover
The BSC contains the following info
o Traffic Measurements for each Cell
o Cell list with CGI, BCCH frequency, BSIC &
TxPower
o Neighbour list for each Cell with
CGI, BCCH & BSIC and “CRH” (Cell Reselection
Hysteresis) and other handover parameters
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 91
Frequency Hopping
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Downlink C
1
Uplink C
1
N N + 1
TDMA frame no.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Downlink C
2
Uplink C
2
N N + 1
TDMA frame no.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 92
Frequency Diversity
Raleigh fading is frequency dependant
f
0
f
1
Position
S
i
g
n
a
l

l
e
v
e
l
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 93
Frequency Diversity
Diversity: combining two or more
uncorrelated versions of the same signal
For “conventional” frequency diversity the info
is sent on two different frequencies at the
same time.
To be uncorrelated the two frequencies
should be more than 1/(multi-path spread),
where the multi-path spread is dependant on
the environment.
For urban areas the frequencies should be
more than 600kHz apart
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 94
Base Band Frequency Hopping
Controller
CALL 2
Tx and Rx on f
1
Controller
CALL 3
Controller
CALL 4
Controller
CALL 1
Tx and Rx on f
2
Tx and Rx on f
3
Tx and Rx on f
0
“Baseband Bus”
for routing bursts
C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
0
f
0
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
2
f
3
f
0
f
1
f
3
f
0
f
1
f
2
Number of frequencies equal to number of transceivers Number of frequencies equal to number of transceivers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 95
Synthesised Hopping
Controller
CALL 2
Tx and Rx hopping
Controller
CALL 3
Controller
CALL 4
Controller
CALL 1
Tx and Rx hopping
Tx and Rx hopping
Tx and Rx hopping
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
0
f
0
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
2
f
3
f
0
f
1
f
3
f
0
f
1
f
2
Number of frequencies more or equal Number of frequencies more or equal
to number of transceivers to number of transceivers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 96
Why does hopping work?
Review interleaving
If one timeslot gets completely lost during
transmission 1/8 of two speech frames are lost.
At the receiver the speech frames are de-interleaved
The channel coding can recover from the 12.5%
BER.
Interleaving and Channel Coding is part and parcel
of the GSM standard - it works even without hopping.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 97
Interleaving and Channel
Coding work always
FER and SQI vs.RxQual
-10
0
10
20
30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
RxQual
S
Q
I
/

%
F
E
R
Non-Hopping (calls on BCCH-carrier)
Non-Hopping (calls on BCCH-carrier)
Hopping with 20% load
Hopping with 20% load
FER
SQI
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 98
Synthesized hopping
Synthesised hopping provides:
o Higher capacity for the same quality.
o Simplified frequency planning.
o Can implement new transceivers without new
frequency plans
But
o It costs more
o Can not be implemented with filter combiners - might
impose limit on #TRX/cell
o Complications with implementation combined with
Base Band hopping
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 99
Base-band hopping
Base band hopping provides:
o Lower cost
o Some frequency diversity gain
o Can be implemented on all equipment
o Hence no limit on number of TRX’s
But
o Require frequency plan with upgrade
o More complex planning
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 100
Frequency Diversity Gain
Frequency Diversity Gain vs Number of Hopping Channels
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Number of Carriers
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Cyclic Random Poly. (Cyclic) Poly. (Random)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 101
Interference Diversity
Extent of Interference diversity depends on:
o Interference load (DTX and Power Control)
o Frequency reuse: low re-use -> low gain;
Dependant on area type.
o Number of Frequencies (less -> less gain)
o Cyclic or Random
Interference diversity gain reached with 25%
load, 12 frequencies in Urban area with
random hopping is 2.5dB - mostly it is less.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 102
Co-channel interference
D
The total co-channel
interference experienced at
the yellow spot is the sum of
interference of all six cells
with the same frequency
The interference from one
co-channel interferer can be
written as
I =KD

The carrier level is
C= KR

C/I = (D/R)
γ
/6
R
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 103
Re-use distance
v
30°
u
D
D = (i
2
+ ij + j
2
)
½
2Rcos 30°
D = (i
2
+ ij + j
2
)
½
(3)
½
R
Number of cells in the
re-use pattern
N = i
2
+ ij + j
2
i (1,2,3,4 …..)
j (0,1,2,3,4 …..)
D/R = (3N)
½
i
j
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 104
The Hexagon
Area of a hexagon:
A = ½. 3 (3)
½
R
2
Distance between centers
of two adjacent cells:
d = (3)
½
R
R
d
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 105
Traffic calculations revision
An Erlang
Erlang B Table
Examples of Traffic channels
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 106
Problem
The average traffic generated by one user is
10milliErlang/Subscriber
The population density is 50 people/km
2
Assume a phone penetration of 80%
You are implementing a CS-2 system.
You have 48 (1-48)channels available
Assume free-space propagation …i.e. γ = 2
Draw the re-use pattern and assign frequencies to
the cells.
Calculate the site to site distance that you will
need to implement.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 107
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 108
C/I = (D/R)
γ γγ γ
/2
Sectorisation
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 109
4/12 Cell Pattern
Frequency
Groups
A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3
Channels 1 2 3 4
13 14 15 16
5 6 7 8
17 18 19 20
9 10 11 12
21 22 23 24

A3 A2
D3
D1 D2 C1
C3
C2
B1
B3 B2
17
21
13
9
10
5
22
16
12
24
8
20
3
15
7 11
19
23
2
14
6
18
A1
1
4
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 110
Adjacent Channel interference
for co-channel interference C/Ic=9 dB
for adjacent (200 kHz) interference C/Ia1=-9 dB
for adjacent (400 kHz) interference C/Ia2=-41 dB
for adjacent (600 kHz) interference C/Ia3=-49 dB
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 111
Adjacent channel interference
Relative
power
(dB)
0
-10
-20
-30
-50
-40
-60
-70
-80
0 200 400 600
Frequency from the carrier (kHz)
measurement bandwidth 30 kHz measurement bandwidth 100k Hz
1200 1800 6000 3000
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
Relative
power
(dB)
0 200 400 600 1200 1800 6000
Frequency from the carrier (kHz)
measurement bandwidth 30 kHz
measurement bandwidth 100 kHz
Edge of TX
band + 2 MHz
3000
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 112
Co-channel interference
# Info
bits
# Coding
bits
Code
Rate
Max data rate
(kbs) /TS
Required C/I (dB)
(BLER <10%; TU3 FH)
Modul
ation
GSM 260 196 0.5 13.3 9 GMSK
CS-1 181 275 0.45 9.05 9 GMSK
CS-2 268 188 0.65 13.4 13 GMSK
CS-3 312 144 0.75 15.6 15 GMSK
CS-4 428 28 21.4 23 GMSK
MCS-1 176 0.53 8.4 9 GMSK
MCS-2 224 0.69 11.2 13 GMSK
MCS-3 296 0.89 14.8 15 GMSK
MCS-4 352 1 16.8 23 GMSK
MCS-5 448 0.38 22.4 14.5 8PSK
MCS-6 592 0.5 29.6 17 8PSK
MCS-7 896 0.78 44.8 23.5 8PSK
MCS-8 1088 0.92 54.4 29 8PSK
MCS-9 1184 1 59.2 32 8PSK
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 113
Effect of γ and C/I
gamma 9 12 13 17 36
2 18 33 42 102 7965
2.5 12 18 21 42 1323
3 9 12 12 24 399
3.5 6 9 9 15 171
4 6 6 9 12 90
C/I (dB
Minimum
frequencies
Assuming 3 sectored sites
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 114
Spectral Efficiency
Erlang/Hz/km
2
Using the previous problem as starting point
– calculate the spectrum density that could
be achieved if the sites were sectorised.
Compare with the omni-cells
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 115
Benefits of sectorisation
Higher gain antennas are available – better
penetration
Less cost for same traffic density
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 116
Underlay / Overlay - MRP
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 117
Cell Splitting
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 118
Hierarchical Cells
Umbrella Cell:
Macro Cell: Antenna above average rooftop height
Micro Cell: Antenna below average rooftop height
Pico Cell: Indoors
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 119
C/I reduction from DTX
C/I values
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50
Signal Level
P
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y

D
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C/I
C/I DTX
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 120
Interference reduction from
Power Control
The level of the transmitted signal is reduced
to what is required for the specified Receive
Signal and Quality levels.
o Assume Urban Environment where 90% of the traffic is in
the regulation area
o The average in building expected received signal is -
60dBm
o Assume a desired signal level of -92dBm
o For affective power control the average interference
level, and the average signal level will be down by 32dB.
The effect on the C/I is difficult to determine.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 121
Interference Reduction from PC
Interference Levels
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0
Signal Level
P
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b
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b
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y

D
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Interference
Int. DTX
Int. PC +DTX
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 122
Carrier Reduction from PC
Carrier Levels
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0
Signal Level
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
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i
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y

D
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t
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b
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Carrier
Car. DTX
Car. PC + DTX
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 123
Impact of PC on the C/I ?
C/I values
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50
Signal Level
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

D
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s
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b
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i
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n
C/I
C/I DTX
C/I PC + DTX
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 124
Frequency Hopping
with DTX and PC
• Power control: 0
• DTX: 0
• TS active: 1
• No call: 0
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 125
Hopping with DTX and PC
C/I values
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50
Signal Level
P
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C/I
C/I DTX
C/I PC + DTX
Hopping
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 126
Effect of DTX and PC on Quality
2.00%
3.00%
4.00%
5.00%
6.00%
7.00%
8.00%
9.00%
10.00%
0 10 20 30 40
Time (hours)
P
e
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c
e
n
t
a
g
e
%HOIU
%HOID
DTX + PC Off
PC Off
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 127
Planning for FH network
Use separate frequency blocks for TCH and
BCCH
o BCCH frequency channel must be Always On
o No hopping over BCCH.
Plan TCH layer:
o MAL : Mobile radio frequency channel
Allocation List
o HSN: Hopping sequence number
o MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset
o MAI: Mobile Allocation Index
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 128
Selecting a BCCH block
Why a BCCH block?
o Identifying the source of interference
o Re-evaluation of the neighbour list
o For collecting data for a measurement based
plan
Optimum size?
o Where a change in a BCCH carrier will on
average make the same difference as a change
in a TCH carrier in the optimised plan
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 129
Selecting a BCCH block
BlockSize
Total Number of Carriers Available
AverageTraffic TCHlayer Scaling
BCCH
perCell DTX PC on
=
× +
_ _ _ _
( / ) ( , ) 8 1
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 130
Frequency Hopping
MAI 0 2 1A 2A 3A 1B 2B 3B 1C 2C 3C
1 1 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2 2 4 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
3 3 1 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
4 4 2 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
4 1 2 3 2 4 3 1
28 1 10 19 10 28 19 1
10 19 28 1 28 10 1 19
HSN =x
TRX1 on 1A has MAIO = 0
TRX2 on 1A has MAIO = 2
MA MAIO
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 131
Automatic Frequency
Planning Tools
Coverage
Analysis
Interference
Matrix
Propagation
Predictions
Separation
Constraints,
etc
Frequency
Plan
TRX
Requirements
etc
AFP Tool
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 132
Automatic Frequency Planning
Model of Network
Model effect of particular
assignment on quality
Propagation Predictions
Drive Test Data
Handover Statistics
Live Measurements
Cost Function:
Sum of remaining
interference and
other penalties.
Quality
Change:
Frequency
BSIC
HSN, MAIO
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 133
Interference Matrix
The “conventional” interference matrix
represent:
o The Traffic that will be interfered on if two
“radios” were assigned the same frequency;
o The area that will be interfered on if two “radios”
were assigned the same frequency –
o pixel by pixel.
o Need ACCURATE propagation predictions and
traffic distribution maps.
o What is the cost of accurate enough
predictions?
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 134
Generating the
Interference Matrix
2.5 km
2.0 km
2 m Resolution
2.5 km
2.0 km
50 m Resolution
Microcell Service Area ≈ 1 pixel
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 135
Probability of C/I>9dB
Cummulative Probability Distribution
for C/I exceeding 9dB
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Calculated C/I (dB)
P
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b
a
b
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t
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a
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C
/
I

w
i
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l

b
e

b
e
l
o
w

9
d
B
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 136
AFP
Implements a mathematical optimisation
method or Artificial Intelligence method to
minimise
Cost = C
ij
δ
ij
+ A
ij
δ
ij
o δ
ij
= 1 if radios i and j are assigned the same(adjacent)
frequency,
o δ
ij
= 0 else
By changing the frequency assignments to
the different cells
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 137
What are the true aims in
Cell and Frequency Planning
What will really give optimum quality?
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 138
The inputs to Cell Planning
T
r
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f
f
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:

(
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a
f
f
i
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d
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s
t
r
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b
u
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i
o
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m
a
p
s
)
S
p
e
c
t
r
u
m

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
Cost / Money
GoS
QoS
Quality
Coverage
Speech Quality
System Choice - C/I
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 139
Quality
Voice Quality
o Impacted by the FER (Frame Erasure Rate /
Probability
o And to some extent by the BER (Bit Error Rate /
probability)
Dropped Calls
o Radio Link Timeout based on unsuccessful
SACCH frame - FER
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 140
C/I to FER
Frame Erasure Rate
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
-5 0 5 10 15 20
C/I(dB)
1
0

l
o
g
(
F
E
R
)
Frequency Hopping
on 8 freqquencies,
Random Hopping
Non-Hopping
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 141
Measurement Based
Frequency Planning
Using Mobile Measurement Reports how
will you go about generating the optimal
Interference Matrix?
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 142
The first Measurement
Based Plan
Johannesburg’s Central Business District
12km×12km
65 sites (≈350 cells)
477 carriers
Despite questioned cluttered data and propagation
prediction models
very low dropped call rate of about 1.4% was very
often achieved
partly due to dedicated optimisation
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 143
Cell Traffic Recordings was used to collect Mobile
Measurement Reports on all the cells
With the mobiles measuring on all BCCH channels
The process took about a month.
The signal strength of the serving cell and the
reported neighbours was used to calculated the
C/I and eventually the FER.
The average FER for each server-interferer
relation was calculated.
and multiplied with the traffic on the serving cell
Measurement Based
Frequency Planning
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 144
The
Sanity
Check
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 145
Using
MMRs in
Frequency
Planning
Dropped Call Rate
0.90%
1.10%
1.30%
1.50%
1.70%
1.90%
2.10%
2.30%
0 10 20 30 40
Time
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
Traffic
1.29%
%Drop
DayAvg
P
l
a
n

I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
e
d
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 146
Measurement Based Frequency Plan
Dropped Call Rate
0.90%
1.10%
1.30%
1.50%
1.70%
1.90%
2.10%
2.30%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time
P
e
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c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
0
.
1
%

p
e
r

d
e
v
i
s
i
o
n
)
Traffic
Previous Minimum
%Drop
DayAvg
M
e
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m
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t

B
a
s
e
d

P
l
a
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r
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i
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P
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d
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t
i
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s

a
n
d

D
r
i
v
e

T
e
s
t
s
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 147
The
Results:
Quality
Intra-cell Hand-over and TCH Dropped
due to Bad Quality
2.00%
3.00%
4.00%
5.00%
6.00%
7.00%
8.00%
0 10 20 30 40
Time
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
o
f

t
c
a
l
l
s

f
o
r

H

a
n
d

t
c
a
s
s
a
l

f
o
r

T
)
%HoBUQ
%HoBDQ
Traffic
%TBQDis*50
P
l
a
n

I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
e
d
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 148
Data Sources for the
Interference Matrix (1)
Propagation Predictions
o Well established conventional method
o Based on Predicted Carrier to Interference
ratios that is often translated with a “C/I weights”
curve
o Integration with AFP tools eases use
o Suited for new networks with many new cells
o Dependant on elevation and clutter data that
often has limited accuracy
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 149
Neighbour relations statistics
o Well suited for very tight plan
o Too little information for a less tight plan
o Hand-over statistics not directly related to C/I
o Can not model interference from non-
neighbours
Data Sources for the
Interference Matrix (2)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 150
Drive Test Data
o Measurements done with network set on measure on all
BCCH channels
o Independent of accuracy of elevation and clutter data
o Extensive measurements necessary for interference
matrix
o Difficult to deduce interfered traffic from data
o Drives are limited to roads and does not include high
rise buildings
o Effort in importing into an AFP
o Often used to supplement propagation predictions
Data Sources for the
Interference Matrix (3)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 151
Live Data: Mobile Measurement Reports
o Mobile Measurement Reports are collected with the cell
set to measure on all BCCHs
o Data reflect the actual traffic distribution as well as the
actual C/I. (“as the customer sees it”)
o No additional neighbour relations or exceptions required
o Extensive data collection - slow process. Requires the
network to be fairly mature and stable.
o Difficult to model new sites
o Takes some effort to import into an AFP.
Data Sources for the
Interference Matrix (4)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 152
Prediction vs. MMRP
LIMITED accuracy
o Propagation predictions
o Clutter and Height data
o In building
o Traffic distribution
Cannot represent new
sites
MMR limitations:
o RxLev: -110 -> -48dBm
o Only integers
o Only six neighbours
o BSIC decoding
problems
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 153
Combining Data Sources
….one of the remaining challenges. E.g:
o How to complement the shortcomings of the
mobile measurements reports with the
propagation predictions to include new cells.
o How to combine limited measurements with
predictions.
without
o Spoiling good data with bad data.
o Skewing the matrix, e.g. when drive test data is
available for only part of the network.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 154
Penalties for AFP
A “bare necessity” approach i.e. set
penalties only when
o it is required by law or
o It is required for feasibility – e.g. filter combiner
separation
o it will assist in the improvement of network
quality
o Is penalties to avoid adjacencies required?
The size of the penalties must reflect their
importance and effect on network quality
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 155
Examples of Scaling Factors
Difference in interference introduced
o Traffic load on TCH channels
o Power Control
o Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
o Over-laid Under-laid - depend on effectiveness
of implementation
o Synthesizer Hopping - dependant on fractional
load
Difference in immunity to interference
o Frequency Diversity Gain of Hopping Networks
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 156
Interference Load
The core questions:
o How much interference will assigning the same
frequency to a carrier in Cell A and Cell B
cause ?
o How much less will that be after DTX?
o How much less will that be after Power Control?
Interference Load
o How much signal or potential interference is
carried on a particular carrier
o Interference Load = Traffic on Cell
8 * #Carriers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 157
Interference Load Reduction
For BCCH
o Interference Load = 1
For Non-Hopping TCH without DTX and PC
o Interference Load = Traffic on TCH Carriers
o 8 * Number of TCH Carriers
After DTX
o Voice Activity Factor 40% on TCH channels
o Interference Load = 0.4 * Traffic on TCH Carriers
o 8 * Number of TCH Carriers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 158
Interference Load Reduction
After Power Control ?
o Consider a very simplified model:
C/I = Server SS / (6* Interferers SS)
Reducing the signal level of the server and of the
interferers by approximately 10dB:
C/I = 0.1* Server SS / (6*0.1* Interferers SS)
Approximately unchanged.
o Practical implementation suggest a definite
interference reduction - by 60%
o Interference Load = 0.6 * Traffic on TCH Carriers
o 8 * Number of TCH Carriers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 159
A few terms
Frequency Allocation Re-use
o FAR = Total Number of Frequency Channels
Number of Frequencies per Cell
Effective Re-use
R
eff
= Total Number of Frequency Channels
Average number of TRX per Cell
Fractional Load
o L
frac
= Number of TRX per Cell .
Number of Frequencies per Cell
Hardware Load
o L
HW
= (Busy Hour Traffic) / (TN /TRX)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 160
A few terms
Frequency Load
o L
freq
= L
HW
L
frac
Effective Frequency Load
o EFL =. Busy Hour Traffic per Cell .
(TN per TRX for Traffic).(Total # FreqCH)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 161
Optimum # carriers to
Hop over = 24/6
Optimum frequency Re-use
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Frequency Reuse = #TCH carriers / #TCH per cell
E
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p
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S
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6MHz available f or TCH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 162
Quality vs Capacity
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Average Erlang per Cell (Capacity)
(deduced from Spectrum Utilisation)
M
i
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p
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(
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)
The challenge: To maximize Quality * Capacity
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 163
Major Interferers
Effect of reducing major interferers
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%
0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00%
Per cent age of Cel l s cont r i but i ng t o I nt er f er ence
Cummulative Contribution
With 5 sites' interference removed
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 164
What criteria would you
use for site selection?
Close to traffic – most effective Power Control
Contained (high γ )
o In building
o In valleys rather than on top of mountains
What effect will an unbalanced link have?
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 165
What criteria will you provide an
Automatic Cell Planning tool with?
Interference Matrix
MMR
Frequency Allocation
Propagation Predictions
Traffic distribution - GIS
Possible sites
Equipment used
Effective Frequency load
Hand over areas
Income: Coverage
of potential traffic
Cost: cost of
changes / sites
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 166
Changes in ACP
Site Selection
o Set of viable sites
o Propagation prediction
Prediction model (accurate)
DEM
Clutter
Buildings
o Traffic distribution
Demographic
Antenna parameters (Tilts & Azimuths)
Upgrading
o Cell Statistics
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 167
Changes in ACP
Radio Parameters
o Transmission power
o Cell Hysterises
o Cell Hierarchical Level
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 168
Evaluating automatic tools...
Automatic Frequency Planning Tools
o Must Allow various data sources to be imported
o Must model the network accurately (e.g. Model
hopping accurately)
o Must be simple to use, hence most of the
modelling should be integrated
Automatic Network Optimisation
o Must be reliable and accurate enough to allow it to
run free with very little manual input
Automatic Cell Planning
o Cost function is so complex it should come with
the tool... and allow manual changes
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 169
MS Sensitivity
GSM 900 MS
o for GSM 900 small MS -102 dBm
o for other GSM 900 MS -104 dBm
DCS 1 800 MS
o for DCS 1 800 class 1 or class 2 MS -100
/ -102 dBm *
o for DCS 1 800 class 3 MS -102 dBm
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 170
BTS sensitivity
GSM 900 BTS
o for normal BTS -104 dBm
o for micro BTS M1 -97 dBm
o for micro BTS M2 -92 dBm
o for micro BTS M3 -87 dBm
o for pico BTS P1 -88 dBm
DCS 1 800 BTS
o for normal BTS -104 dBm
o for micro BTS M1 -102 dBm
o for micro BTS M2 -97 dBm
o for micro BTS M3 -92 dBm
o for pico BTS P1 -95 dBm
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 171
Defining
Quality
Speech Quality (BER, FER)
Dropped Calls
Coverage
Call Set-up success
Handover stats
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 172
To do
Cell Planning
Frequency Planning
Link balancing
Neighbour lists
o Handover parameters
Power Control
DTX
Dimensioning
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 173
Idle mode location
The path loss criterion parameter C1 used for cell selection and reselection is
defined by:
C1 = (A - Max(B,0))
where
A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - P
P= Maximum RF output power of the MS.
All values are expressed in dBm.
The reselection criterion C2 is used for cell reselection only and is defined
by:
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
- TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME - T)
for PENALTY_TIME <> 11111
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
for PENALTY_TIME = 11111
Where for non-serving cells: H(x) = 0 for x < 0
= 1 for x >= 0
for serving cells: H(x) = 0.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 174
GPRS cell selection
A= RLA_P - GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B= GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - P
C32(s) = C1(s) (serving cell)
C32(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) -
TO(n) * (1-L(n)) (neighbour cell)
TO(n) = GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) *
(GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) - T(n)).
L(n) = 0 if PRIORITY_CLASS(n) = PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
1 if PRIORITY_CLASS(n) ≠ PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
H(x) = 0 for x < 0
1 for x ≥ 0
C31(s) = RLA_P(s) - HCS_THR(s) (serving cell)
C31(n) = RLA_P(n) - HCS_THR(n) - TO(n) * L(n)
(neighbour cell)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 175
The inputs to Radio
Network Optimisation
T
r
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f
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:

(
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a
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f
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d
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t
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b
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i
o
n

m
a
p
s
)
S
p
e
c
t
r
u
m

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
Cost / Money
GoS
QoS
Quality
Coverage
Speech Quality
System Choice - C/I
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 176
Quality Capacity product
Quality vs Capacity
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Average Erlang per Cell (Capacity)
(deduced from Spectrum Utilisation)
M
i
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u
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E
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a
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p
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D
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(
Q
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)
The challenge: To maximize Quality * Capacity
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 177
Link balance
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 178
Neighbour
List for
1883B:
Propagation
Predictions
1883A 1883A
1883C 1883C
236A 236A
236D 236D
1569B 1569B
294C 294C
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 179
Neighbour Lists for 1883B :
Measurement Based Methods and Handover Statistics
Potential
Neighbour
Percentage of
Reports it was
the Strongest
Percentage of times it
was 3dB stronger
than the server
Recommended
by Complete
MMR method?
Handover
Attempts
Succesful
Handovers
Hand
overs
Returned
Drops at
Hand
over
1883A 10.36% 4.64% Yes 742 730 9 3
236B 8.73% 6.03% Yes 1186 1166 3 17
1883C 5.56% 2.01% Yes 449 444 4 1
294C 5.49% 5.56% Yes 1052 1031 9 12
236D 4.02% 1.78% Yes 479 472 1 6
236A 3.25% 3.01% Yes 251 241 3 7
1569B 2.86% 2.63% Yes 498 488 8 2
980C 2.01% 1.85% Yes 413 401 5 7
1569C 1.70% 1.16% Yes 0 0 0 0
294B 1.62% 2.32% No 117 112 4 1
2150B 1.47% 2.16% No 295 268 24 3
340B 1.00% 1.31% No
251A 0.93% 2.47% No
1933C 0.70% 2.86% No 328 1 319 8
408C 0.62% 1.70% No 21 21 0 0
251B 0.54% 1.55% No
409B 0.46% 1.47% No
2441B 0.39% 3.09% No 424 421 0 3
236C 0.31% 2.09% No 127 119 8 0
519B 0.23% 1.93% No 59 57 0 2
84A 0.15% 2.09% No
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 180
Example 2 : Neighbour Lists
Small but
essential
neighbour
Unnecessary
“Neighbour”
Typical
Neighbour
Typical
Neighbour
Server
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 181
Example 3: Cell Planning
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 182
Example 3: Link Balance
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 183
Performance in Technical Terms (1)
Traffic carried
o Erlang: “Average number of trunks
occupied during a period”
o “MinuteErlang” or “Accumulated Traffic”
Perceived Grade Of Service
PGoS
#ofCallAttemps - #ofCallSuccesses
#ofCallAttempts
100% = ×
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 184
Performance in Technical Terms (2)
Dropped Call Rate
Average traffic carried before a call
drops
Dropped%
# ofDroppedCalls
# ActiveofCalls
= × 100%
Minut eErlangPerDrop
Minut eErlangCarried
of DroppedCalls
=
#
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 185
Contributors to Lack of
Performance
Failures at any point of the network
contribute performance degradation
A chain is as strong as its weakest link:
The Radio Link
Hence the emphasize on the
performance at cell level.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 186
Cell Statistics (1)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 187
Cell Statistics (2)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 188
Cell Statistics (3)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 189
Cell Statistics (4)
Traffic in Erlang:
Minute Erlang
Average Erlang
Traf f ic Level Accumulat or
Number of Accumulat ions
.
. .
. .
= == =
Minut eErlang Average Erlang Measurement Period = × . .
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 190
Cell Statistics (5)
Dropped Call Rate
o
o
% 100
HOINSUC TMSESTB
TNDROP
% Dropped ×

=
Dropped
DroppedCalls
CallsAct iveOnCell
% = == = × ×× × 100%
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 191
Cell Statistics (6)
Perceived Grade Of Service
PGoS
CallAttemptsToCell CallSuccessesToCell
CallAttemptsToCell
=
− # #
#
( )
100%
HOINxQA TCALL
HOINSUC TMSESTB HOINxQA TCALL
PGOS
B D, U, x
B D, U, x
×
|
¹
|

\
|

(
¸
(

¸

− −
|
¹
|

\
|

=


=
=
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 192
Cell Statistics (7)
Call Success Rate
o A parameter that combines the effect of
congestion, setup failures and dropped calls
o
CallSuccessRat e
t msest b hoinsuc t ndrop
t call hoinxqa
x UD B
=
− −

=

, ,
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 193
Cell Statistics (8)
Congestion and Failures on Control
Channels also influence PGOS.
o Hard to distinguish between call setup and
location updating
o Hence to need to determine performance
of Control channels:
Dropped Control Channel Rate
Control Channel PGOS
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 194
BSC statistics (1)
In essence the BSC statistics is a
summation of the Cell statistics.
e.g.
PGoS
tassell tcassel
tassell
AllCells AllCells
AllCells
=

∑ ∑

31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 195
MSC statistics (1)
Traffic and congestion counters are
available for each directions and origin of
traffic flow.

GoS
NICONG
NCALLS NICONG
ORG IEX
ORG IEX ORG IEX
=
+
×

∑ ∑
,
, ,
100%
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 196
MSC Statistics (2)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 197
Overall Network Performance
SuccRat e
t cassel t ndrop
t assell
NICONG NUNSUCC
t assell
AllCells AllCells
AllCells
AllMSC ORGIEX AllMSC ORGIEX
AllCells
=



×
∑ ∑

∑ ∑

( , ) ( , )
100%
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 198
Problem Diagnostics (1)
A problem is a problem if it affects
performance:
o Dropped calls
o Congestion on traffic or control channel
o Setup failures of calls.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 199
Problem Diagnostics (2)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 200
Problem Diagnostics (3)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 201
Problem Diagnostics (4)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 202
Problem Diagnostics (5)
Interference - Cell 234B
o High number of dropped calls
o High intra-cell handovers due to bad quality
o High U2-U5 uplink interference counters
Missing Neighbour Relation or Measurement
frequency - Cell 1375A
o High dropped call rate
o High Tfail%
o Possibly high congestion.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 203
Problem
Diagnostics
(6)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 204
Problem Diagnostics (7)
Transceiver failure - 1456A. (see next slide)
o High dropped call rate
o High Tfail%
o High ICM counters
Congestion due to limited capacity - 184A
o High Congestion rate
o Other counters are normal.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 205
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 206
Problem diagnostics (8)
Neighbour Failing - 184A
o Sudden rise in traffic
o Sudden rise in congestion
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 207
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 208
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 209
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 210
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 211
GSM Signaling Layers
Layer 1 (physical layer)
o Physical transmission
o Channel Quality Measurements
o Uses many channel structures
o E1 2Mb/s links (64kb/s PCM)
o GSM 44.04 for Air interface;
o GSM 48.54 for Abis
o GSM 48.04 for A
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 212
Layer 2 (data link layer)
o Multiplexing of layer 2 connections on signaling
channels
o Error detection and correction
o Flow control
o Routing
o Across Um interface uses LAPDm (a slight modification
of LAPD protocol used in ISDN)
o Across Abis uses LAPD
o Across A interface, uses MTP and SCCP of SS7
o SAPI=0 Identifies radio signaling procedures
SAPI: Service Access Point Indicator
GSM Signaling Layers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 213
Layer 3 is sub-divided into 3 sub-layers
o Connection Management
o Management of Location data
o Subscriber identification
o Management of added services ( SMS, call
forwarding)
GSM Signaling Layers
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 214
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
MM: Mobility Management
o Location updating
o Registration
o Security and authentication procedures
o Assignment of TMSI
CM: Connection Management
o Call control (CC): Manages call connections
o Supplementary Service support (SS)
o Short Message Service support (SMS)
MM and CM pass un-interpreted by BTS or BSC
to MSC via DTAP
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 215
RR: Radio Resources Management
o Establishment, maintenance, and termination
of radio link between MS and MSC despite MS
movements.
o Allow point-to-point dialogue even during
including cell selection and handover
procedures
o Monitoring and forwarding of radio connections
o Handled by BSC, BTS and MS
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 216
RR messages are mapped on BSSAP:
o Cipher mode management
o DTX management
o Handovers
o Call re-establishment
o Load Management
o SACCH procedures
Power Control, Timing Advance,
Mobile Measurement Reports
o BCCH info
Cell Selection info
CGI
Idle mode info (other BCCH frequencies)
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 217
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
BTS Management (BTSM)
o SAPI 0 is used for messages to and from the
radio interface
o SAPI 62 is used for Operation and Maintenance
messages between BTS and BSC
o SAPI 63 is used for layer 2 management
functions
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 218
Layer 2 Signaling Protocols
Message Transfer Part: MTP
o Interface to Physical Layer
o Ensures reliable transmission and delivery of
the signaling traffic
o Provides flow control – sensing node failure
o Routing, Distribution, Traffic Discrimination and
Network Management
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 219
Layer 2 Signaling Protocols
Signaling Connection Control Part: SCCP
o Managed by MSC
o Involves the following protocols:
From the Mobile
• MM: CM service request
• RR: Paging Response
• MM: Location updating request
• MM: CM re-establishment request
From the MSC
• BSSMAP: handover request
o Uses local addressing based on subsystem numbers
o Provides functions to handle congestion and failure
conditions
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 220
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
Base Station System Application Part:
BSSAP
o Split into Base Station System Management
Application Part : BSSMAP and Direct Transfer
Application Part : DTAP
o Handles messages not transparent to BSC
o Supports all procedures related to single calls
and resource management
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 221
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
Direct Transfer Application Part : DTAP
o Transfers messages between MSC and MS
o (MM & CM messages are transparent to the BSC
MAP (Mobile Application Part)
o SS7 top layer protocol
o Responsible for signaling between different entities in
network, such as between HLR and VLR and EIR
o Access and Location management
o MSC-MSC handover,
o Security functions
o SMS and supplementary services
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 222
Layer 3 Signaling Protocols
Transaction Capabilities Application Part:
TCAP
o Provides universal calls and functions for
handling requests to distributed application
processes
ISDN User Part : ISUP
o Controls interworking (e.g. call setup) between
PLMN and other networks.
Intelligent Network Application Part: INAP
o Implements intelligent supplementary services
(e.g. free call, time dependent routing functions)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 223
CSD call
BSC/TRC MSC/VLR
DTI
PSTN
ISDN
PAD
PAD
PSPDN
1.
2.
1.
2.
3. 5.
4.
6.
6.
2. Connection between ms
and network is set up.
Authentication performed
3. MSC analyses
the BC. B. no and
BC are transferred
to the DTI
4. The DTI is
configured to perform
the required service
(fax, modem service)
5. DTI reroutes
the call to MSC
6. MSC routes the call to the
destination NW. The
connection may be through
an existing NW (PSTN/ISDN)
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 224
GPRS network
Traffic and signaling
Signaling
TE Terminal Equipment
MT Mobile Terminal
MS Mobile Station
BSS Base Station System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
GMSC Gateway Mobile Services Switching
Center
MSC Mobile services Switching Center
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
AUC Authentication Center
EIR Equipment Identity Register
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
Um Air Interface
A, Abis Interfaces (GSM)
Gx Interfaces (GPRS)
External
IP Network
(Corporate
LAN)
Gi
TE MT
MS
BSC
GMSC
MSC/VLR
SGSN
EIR
HLR
AUC
GGSN
IP-Backbone
Network
External
IP Network
(Internet)
External
X.25 Network
Gs
Gf
Gr
BTS
Gb
Um
ISDN/
PSTN
Gn
A
Other
PLMN
Gp
BSS
Abis
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 225
Reference
http://www.cs.hut.fi/~hhk/GPRS/
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 226
GPRS protocol stack
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 227
Air Interface
Share the Physical Layer with GSM
On demand PDCH
o PILTIMER
Dedicated PDCH
PDCH can be shared by users
o TFI – Temporary ID to distinguish between
mobiles on same PDCH
o USF – Indicates when the MS can transmit on
the uplink.
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 228
Coding Schemes
# Info
bits
# Coding
bits
Code
Rate
Max data rate
(kbs) /TS
Required C/I (dB)
(BLER <10%; TU3 FH)
Modul
ation
GSM 260 196 0.5 13.3 9 GMSK
CS-1 181 275 0.45 9.05 9 GMSK
CS-2 268 188 0.65 13.4 13 GMSK
CS-3 312 144 0.75 15.6 15 GMSK
CS-4 428 28 21.4 23 GMSK
MCS-1 176 0.53 8.4 9 GMSK
MCS-2 224 0.69 11.2 13 GMSK
MCS-3 296 0.89 14.8 15 GMSK
MCS-4 352 1 16.8 23 GMSK
MCS-5 448 0.38 22.4 14.5 8PSK
MCS-6 592 0.5 29.6 17 8PSK
MCS-7 896 0.78 44.8 23.5 8PSK
MCS-8 1088 0.92 54.4 29 8PSK
MCS-9 1184 1 59.2 32 8PSK
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 229
Modulation Schemes
I
Q
(0,1,1)
(1,1,0) (1,0,1)
(0,0,0)
(0,0,1) (1,1,1)
(1,0,0)
(0,1,0)
I
Q
“1”
“0”
“1 bit per symbol” “3 bits per symbol”
GMSK 8PSK
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 230
Routing Areas
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC BSC
MSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC BSC
MSC
PSTN
Similar to Location Areas in GSM
(Very often the same as LA, RA<=LA)
RA update is send to SGSN
•(if SGSN changes all GGSNs are informed
•Done when MS is in Ready state
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 231
Active Mode
The Mobile does cell selection
o Based on “idle mode” type measurements
o Send message to the network when it changes
cells
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 232
BSC SGSN
(OLD)SGSN
HLR
AUC
MSC/VLR
1. MS sends message to SGSN “Attach Request”
2. If the MS is unknown to the SGSN it asks the old SGSN about IMSI and Triplets
3. If MS is not known by old SGSN it sends an error message to the new SGSN and
the new SGSN asks the MS about the IMSI
6. Update MSC/VLR if it’s a new
Location Area
7. SGSN tells MS about
new TLLI
GPRS ATTACH
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 233
PDP Context
PDP: Packet Data Protocol
It is the connection between the MS and the
GGSN
Typically it is a IP-connection
PDP address = IP address
APN: Access Point Name = Internet Domain
Name – GGSN translate that to an IP
address
NSAPI: Network Service Access Point ID
TID = IMSI + NSAPI
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 234
QoS
Precedence / Priority
o High, Medium or Low
Reliability
Delay
Throughput
o Mean
o Peak
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 235
What does EDGE require?
31 January 2008 3GPP CE at UP 236

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