NASA

CR 61228

CLASSROOM

TRAINING

HANDBOOK

- ULTRASONIC

TESTING

Prepared

under

Contract Division

NAS 8-20185

by

Convair General

Dynamics San Diego,

Corporation Calif.

c:

:

<

i

for NATIONAL

George

C.

Marshall AND

Space SPACE

Flight

Center

AERONAUTICS

ADMINISTRATION

N68-28790
(ACCESSION

NUMBER)

2

(PA_s)

..

(NASA CR Ol_ TMX OR AD NUMBER)

c77, 2<Y g/

(CATEGORY)

GPO CFSTI

PRICE PRICE(S)

$ $

Hard copv Microfiche
ff 653 July 65

(HC) (MF)

PREFACE

Classroom training of those Ultrasonic Although contains NASA's

Training handbooks persons Testing formal material programs

Handbook designed Testing. for

- Ultrasonic use in the It is intended

Testing classroom that this

(5330.18) and handbook Programmed

is one be used

of a series exercise in the

of

practical

portions instruction Handbook -

of Nondestructive

who

have

successfully Vols. training I-III).

completed

Instruction

(5330.13, classroom that

is not

scheduled

at the

present

time,

this

handbook

is beneficial tightly

to personnel scheduled equipment, The failure

engaged

in Nondestructive of only small

Testing. quantities of

involve

procurement

space vehicles and ground support the first as well as later models. failure. approach A major with These each are piece This requirement for to Nondestructive share the of the people Testing.

requiring the of one article necessitates

extreme in reliability for could result in mission a thoroughly disciplined

complete

reliability

responsibility who conduct before or

for

assuring the

such tests

high that mission. must

levels

of reliability Testing confirm -is no room

lies personnel. or reject for --

NASA,

other

Government

agehcies,

and contractor monitor The to its decision

Nondestructive ultimately There be right

of hardware for

it is committed

error -- no chance the first time.

reexamination.

unquestionably

General George Huntsville, The and Space

technical C. Marshall Alabama

questions Space 35812. handbook Quality 35812.

concerning Flight Center,

this

publication Quality

should

be referred Assurance

to the Laboratory,

and Reliability

recipient comments Flight

of this for Center, Alabama

is encouraged of errors and in this Reliability

to submit initial Assurance

recommendations compilation Laboratory to George

for

updating C. Marshall

correction

(R-QUAL-OT),

Huntsville,

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This handbookwas prepared by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corporation under NASA Contract NAS8-20185. Assistance in the form of process data, technical reviews, andtechnical advice was provided by a great many companies and individuals. The following listing is an attempt to acknowledgethis assistance andto express our gratitude for the high degree of interest exhibited by the firms, their representatives, and other individuals who, in many cases, gave considerable time and effort to the project. Aerojet-General Corp. ; Automation Industries, Inc., Sperry Products Division; AVCO Corporation; The Boeing Company; Branson Instruments, Inc. ; The Budd Co., Instruments Division; Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.; General Electric Co. ; Grumman Aircraft; Dr's Joseph & Herbert Krautkramer; Lockheed Aircraft Corp. ; Magnaflux Corp. ; The Martin Co. (Denver); McDonnell Aircraft Corp. ; North American Aviation, Inc. ; Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute;
Division St. Corp. Louis of Almar-York Testing Company, Inc. Inc. Rohr Corporation; Inc. ; William Southwest C. Hitt; Pioneer Industries, Institutt Products

Research X-Ray

Laboratories,

; Uresco,

ii

................ .......................................... COMPARISON AND TRANSDUCERS PROCESSES 7 .....................CLASSROOM TRAINING MANUAL ULTRASONIC CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER 1 ................. TESTING INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLES EQUIPMENT TECHNIQUES CALIBRATING CALIBRATING TESTING UNITS 3 . 4 5 6 ............................................ SELECTION OF NDT iii ............ ................... 2 .............................................................

r I .

.................. APPLICATIONS PHILOSOPHY CRITERIA .. ................................................ Arrangement Locations ............................ ............................................................................ 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-5 103 104 105 106 107 108 INDUSTRIAL TESTING PERSONNEL TESTING TEST TEST ! i PROCEDURES OBJECTIVE i | ...................CHAPTER TABLE 1: OF INTRODUCTION CONTENTS Paragraph 100 I01 102 ! ! ! | ! Page GENERAL PURPOSE DESCRIPTION 1............ .................... ................ OF CONTENTS ................... OF ULTRASONIC TESTING ................ 2........... .................. ............................................. ...................

.

testing. of contents. Major paragraphs. chapter and tables consists are 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: Equipment Testing Calibrating Calibrating Comparison GENERAL complexity that and ensure Of the with PURPOSE purpose required proper of the of this test finished test. d.p?_ECEDiNG PAGE BLANK NOT. Chapter Chapter 1: 2: Introduction Ultrasonic applications c. g. and testing ground many available. CHAPTER 100 The ment. e. support proequip- cedures procedures. of space Nondestructive of these ultrasonic of nondestructive is concerned. handbook technique. areas and of the of doubtful or assistance in interpretation DESCRIPTION ARRANGEMENT material contained OF CONTENTS in this handbook is presented in a logical sequence and consists and testing and testing philosophy with description of procedures. The Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter S of each figures. product. FILMED. procedures handbook is widely is to provide assurance interpret. 2. and evaluation. The of: a. and which expense reliability testing number this of space (testing 1: INTRODUCTION programs vehicles without dictate and test destroying) fabrication associated provides used. knowledge to enable make them is used a sound test results of ultrasonic to: decision that ascertain the as to require to assure by quality and test evaluate. principles capabilities techniques testing tran and units sduc er s selection of NDT processes LOCATOR first page of a table listed in each of contents table for the chapter. b. 101 The testing that the the results retest quality either 102 1. . f. those or combination recognize the fundamental personnel of techniques.

personnel conducting CRITERIA by appropriate applicable test they are before block documentation. cally variety quality 104 The INDUSTRIAL of the metallic plastics. in assemblies. personnel is no substitute and the highly item be must for It is imperative qualified under equally tests knowledge.103 Because of both tubing. at the cost. been is to assure fabricated set and test maximum of many results must reliability To these meet of space accomplish associated reliability. attention procedure. to ensure to the is accomplished. materials. 105 PER SONNE L that personnel and the To make keep responsible test procedures. approach. correction for of past ultrasonic history. revealing assurance TESTING basic reason and such of dissimilar basic and APPLICATIONS characteristics nonmetallic ceramics. continually qualified. use of new for of the ultrasonic test equipment Ouality testing. testing in material effective to test castings. personnel. composition) tools available a variety sheet. of ultrasonic developments. PHILOSOPHY for use etc. and ultrasonic (variations of the most is capable of economi- subsurface discontinuities it is one of nondestructive ground support standards have testing hardware. testing experience similar or checking that the test must specimen tests objective into revised are formulated on like or from similar that test analysis specimens. to perform are and discovered reduced and support The and criteria must article be tested sub-assemblies Using earliest must be tested individually are this tested is part of a building before individually time. responsi- of personnel to be incorrect or inadequate be brought of responsible incorporation 1-4 . There testing and assurance be trained materials. in a to testing. OF ULTRASONIC of ultrasonic products Since such TESTING it is used forgings. Nondestructive philosophy required they are which dictates required articles reliability every Testing to perform that vehicle techniques. 106 When TESTING required using test must with a technical understanding optimum abreast (specimen). materials. formation bility adequately vision for concerning conducting and and discontinuities. It is the procedures Procedures of the and are found supertest in- Approved specimen. NASA standards. each item in assemblies. as welds. unsatisfactory resulting and faulty in higher system possible 107 TEST PROCEDURES procedures review available performed.

2.4mmmm. objective. 108 TEST OBJECTIVE b l. Evaluation of test requires understanding of the | | ! i = 1-5 . with pre- acceptable standards. nature of the and discontinuity unacceptable without material impairing in accordance the material. c. means The objective of: a. No test is successfully procedures completed and results until an evaluation of the test results test is made. Disclosing Separating determined the recorded image related to a discontinuity in the specimen b. of ultrasonic testing is to ensure product reliability by providing a Obtaining a visual under test.

.

.......... 2............................................................. ......... 4..................................... .................................................. 3. 4..................... 4....................... 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-19 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-22 ................... TRAVEL General Comparison Shear and Transducer General Mixed Shear Surface ....... Modes ................................................................. ................................................................. . ...................................................................... ...................... 2........ ................ Critical Critical Angle Angle of Critical ............. Angles . ....... 5................ .............. Calculation 2-1 ..... of Longitudinal Surface Waves Beam AND Mode Wave Wave Angles MODE 213 REFRACTION I.. ................. . Conversion Generation Generation 214 5......... 4............ General Shell's Law .................................................................................................. Typical Problem-Solving Method CRITICAL ANGLES OF REFRACTION i..... TESTS Page 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-8 2-I 0 2-I0 2-I 1 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-16 2-17 2-i and Shear Wave ..... 3............. 3.... 2..................................... ................................ Calculations 215 3................ . CONVERSION .. ..... .... MOTION .......................... .................................... 2.......... General Sweep Sweep Range Summary REFLECTION .. Summary SNELL'S LAW I............. Delay Length Markers ............. FREQUENCIES VELOCITIES MODES 210 211 212 SOUNDBEAM SOUNDBEAM WAVE i........ ... .................. 3................................................................... ........................................................................ 2..... General First Second ... RELATIONSHIP DISPLAY OPERATION .... ........CHAPTER 2: PRINCIPLES TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraph 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 GENERAL ENERGY EARLY WAVE WAVEFORMS SONIC ... .. ............. ............. 2-22 2-23 2-23 2-23 2-23 2-25 2-25 7 GENERATION PIEZOELECTRICITY SOUNDBEAM TIME/DISTANCE OSCILLOSCOPE OSCILLOSCOPE i........................................................

.. 2-32 2-32 2-32 ................ ....... ......... ......................................... ............ ................................ ................................................ 220 COUPLANTS i....................... ............. Patterns ....... • ° .................. 2........... Modes ................. 5......... 3.................................................................................... Impedance Energy Selection OF TEST Roughness or Contour Conversion Grain ............. .......... ° • • • • 2-32 2-35 2-36 2-36 2-37 2-37 2-37 2-38 2-38 2-39 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Specimen Specimen 222 Orientation RESONANCE i..... 2-26 2-27 2-27 2-27 2-28 2-28 2-29 2-29 2-30 2-30 2-31 2-31 2-32 2-32 2-32 ............ • • J ° • • • ° • .......................................................... 2-2 ...... 4...................................................... ................ • ..... .......................................... ..................... RAYLEIGH LAMB i......... 3......... ........ .. General Lamb Lamb General Acoustic Reflected Couplant General Surface Shape Mode Coarse ............. ...... ................. 3........... 2..TABLE Paragraph 216 217 SOUNDBEAM SOUNDBEAM I............ .................................................. Generation Wave Generation Measuring Contact Tube Reflection Ultrasonic Cathode-Ray Delay Length Markers Adjustment Adjustment . 2..................................... General Material Standing Thickness Summary Sound and Depth THICKNESS Characteristics Waves Calculations of Discontinuity MEASURING ............ ............................................ ................ ........ Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Wave Ultrasonic Soundbeam Time/Distance Typical Typical Sweep Sweep Range 2-9 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-14 .............. 2............................................ SPECIMEN ON SOUNDBEAM 221 INFLUENCE ........... Test Display ................................ ... 3... of Test Within Particles Specimen Test Within Test ....................... ............................... ............................ 218 219 General Beam Soundbeam WAVES Wave Wave OF CONTENTS (CONT) Page ATTENUATION SPREADING Spread WAVES ............ 4........ Types ..................

Lamb Wave Modes ............................ 2-16 2-26 2-26 2-31 Critical Angles...... Patterns ....... Longitudinal and Mode Conversion Normal Incident Beam Angle Angle 5* Incident 1st 2nd Critical Critical _aear Wave Modes ... Compared ........................... .................... ................................ Contact Testing ............. Lamb Waves & Asymmetrical Surface Effect Effect Caused Zone. Beam ........................................................... 2-31 2-33 2-34 2-34 . .. Waves ........ Testing ........ Wave Block Mode Diagram ............ Effect ............................................................TABLE Paragraph Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figur Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure V OF CONTENTS(CONT) Page 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 e 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 Pulse-Echo Longitudinal Unit... ............... Differences Immersion ............ by Beam and Far Spread Zone .......................... 2-35 2-36 2-38 Standing Ultrasonic Critical ............................................................................... Table Table Table Table Velocity Angles........................................................................ ................................ 2-15 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-24 2-28 2-29 2-30 ......... Angle Calculation of Refracted .................. Near Waves or Surface ..... ......... Beam Spread in Steel Soundbeam Radiation Rayleigh Symmetrical Irregular Convex Concave Mode Dead Back Surface Surface Conversion Zone...................... .....

V V .

it ripples as surface are i. The energy. and shear.000 speeds second C. waves propagated in the At any liquid. 201 Sound by its second.BLANK NOT FILMED. of frequencies is about suPersonic to describe cycles per and is never of 200 thousand as a synonym for ultrasonic. CHAPTER 200 GENERAL may (16 Kc).F Several types of waves are possible with sound energy traveling through solid matter. or Rayleigh of a solid ultrasonic light. or transverse. beams. little High-frequency absorption. vibrations completed travels from that a medium. second per speed testing. is the velocity of time of sound (V) is given by the V = _. The pitch oscillate actual which of the resultant or cycles their the about particles moves note fixed is determined in one positions in mean of complete medium. when tion each 202 v away wave. sound MOTION by a vibrating (F) or the making through source. an interface completely type soundbeams 2-5 . waves where at right the order wave may angles to the along motion the of the free sound. vibrations manner acting of light particle same surface or another ultrasonic or refracted. is possible. or compression._ECEDING PAGE . or It shear surface waves boundary a few partiThe of very to produce across of the they or sound as directed. to crest. object are waves.e. to those objects a gas. the same direction as the motion of the the particle vibrations within are are certain so that known in a direction limits. as sound hear term notes six with octaves used 2: PRINCIPLES Ultrasonics ear.. wavelength. The same time amount the taken disfor the If sound tance wave for the is always to travel source equation: and it is known of one one complete complete wavelength a distance to execute X. Normal second a pitch above is used too high higher middle to be detected than 16.000 greater per cycles than the adults (20 Kc). These are longitudinal. are between bundled these light the "ray'lee") of the possess focused. as a boundary of solid. is moving the number up the body. are In ultrasonic commonly frequencies to 25 million ENERGY is produced frequency Particles. waves. For to a depth of only (pronounced of magnitude vibrations be reflected. used. shortest visible similar solid with These waves where the particle vibrations are in sound. up to about by the human cycles 20. It is the progressively. wavelength properties in homogeneous with and almost very wavelengths this reason. surface cles. of sound be defined may The which in air. do not travel particles in a direcslightly WAVEFORMS waves are the measured same from trough to trough as the vibration. The or from crest (k).

in contact or testing. vibrates through as did the 2-2 shows a couplant. flaws. for detecting The establishment is credited immersion is struck These The with a mallet. rigidity. which piece. In the practical parts the and by hitting turn of this covering 1940's. 204 When shown century. instrument and C.first of basic C. testing F. in sonar detection are applications. it with a second where the whiting Dr. As with in liquids echo-sounding enabling or gases. mode wave and surface longitudinal pulses echo discontinuities. for a tonal parts Then was the . difference. developed to W. Sound Wave a short Generation pulse of electrical tuning may the fork. kerosene the part quality applying struck assumed pulse-echo standards and D. a transducer transducer surface piece. the piece. waves tuning travel fork it vibrates through air soon and die produces ear sound waves as produce by compressing to the of the listener vibrations out and no longer MALLET 'LISTENER STRONGER WAVE TUNING FORK WEAKER WAVE Figure waves. In areas early the part to be cracked. hits soundbeam etc. absence of shear of their Ultrasonic only because modes are propagated Longitudinal. Hitt by they centuries. test front in ultrasonic (crystal) then of the with travels test the 2-1.. from of the possible 203 For vibrations. 2-1.reflected. EARLY SONIC men TESTS tested Around to the part with a mallet. soundbeam through 2-6 :: . deep-seated them with a mallet railroad coat looked Firestone and listening men inspected wet. GENERATION fork the air. transducer. excites from to the with the the Similarily. presence in the shear. of whiting. in solids. current The oil. the ultrasonic and location. Figure pulses traveling which be water. WAVE a tuning in Figure the first Erdman. system A.

strike reflections or transducer. into For example. deflection This factors. transformed type the electrical trace exact as a vertical or oscilloscope. pulsed vibrations propagate a speed and elasticity material. . a high-frequency The refers prefix "plezo" two syllables current. or transmitter is derived phenomenon should applies from electrical a Greek like the word words pulses "pie" to a "piezo"to and "ease. be picked react they in the reflect they are same most or.4. vibrates. and the back before the the back soundbeam Ultrasonic waves surface of the test reflection to travel through the is received. on a cathode "A-Scan. on. crystal is applied mechanical or oil. soundbeam cases. with vibrations into the depending a coupling the density medium. amplified. the crystal. VIBRATING TRANSDUCER ULTRASONIC WAVES \ TEST ELECTRICAL PULSE PIECE Figure 205 PIEZOELECTRICITY practice." to as the of vibrated. energy such through meaning when electric be pronounced when then through factors. REFLECTION vibrations object. line the they high-frequency an interrupting may then Within and presented tube energy. way of the in most as light. Ultrasonic Wave Generation In actual electric" press. knowledge of the flected as echoes The Figure echo from 2-3 shows is deduced test piece material and its from both the discontinuity discontinuity that the time is received required for construction. current the an electric crystal conversely. and test material. them These other Piezoelectricity the to a reversible This transmits among whereby an electric transforms a crystal. same energy or base is called nature being a are repiece. by the up by a second. the test of SOUNDBEAM ways. '_ The first 2-2." ray This In many when These crystal again. not from give direct several of a horizontal of presentation about most the important (CRT) does Ultrasonics information the reflection. crystal. produces the Into water object the 206 test crystal.

TEST

PIECE

TRANSDUCER

\

I

\
BACK SURFACE_

DISCONTINUITY

Figure

2-3.

Soundbeam

Reflection and distance for the

piece to the discontinuity and back is only 2/3rds of the time soundbeam to reach to the back surface and return. 207 The pulse tion) pips) instant The TIME/DISTANCE one-way or main from from that longer the the the distance on the CRT and bang RELATIONSHIP for the the soundbeam (soundbeam produce or base the on the distance line initial screen. measurements screen distance base are line waves screen, to travel as shown traveling two sharp on the pulse the rises appears farther

to a reflecting In Figure through water screen. on the the left 2-4.

surface The in this The side from

can initial

be

measured

or oscilloscope echo surface trace occurs, an echo right and bang

illustracalled screen. precise

reflecting main time

or indications

(usually of the

the horizontal before

oscilloscope

is received,

echo

a discontinuity

or interface As mentioned sion, the 208 Figure it will number

appears earlier, be seen of units

to the time that involved

related. may

In later

discusto match

the oscilloscope in one-way

be adjusted

(as shown).

OSCILLOSCOPE 2-5 shows

DISPLAY ultrasonic Notice actual positions contact of the test of the test setup piece and the resulting indications surface, display or pips on on the

a typical screen. to the

the oscilloscope screen in relation and back surface. In the surface appeared above

the position

displayed front

discontinuity,

illumination, the initial grid

the pulse marked

indications or front "4. " The

on the surface

oscilloscope on the These grid

screen marked

were "0" were

adjusted and the

to back

superimpose just

pip "1."

pip on the

discontinuity,

without

adjustment, accom-

to the right

of the grid

marked

adjustments

2-s

_,

TIME

INITIAL PULSE

FRONT SURFACE Jl

OF PLATE II (ECHO)------71

)
PLATE IMMERSED REFLECTOR IN GLASS BEAKER PLATE

ROUND TRIP TIME (4 UNITS)

OSCILLOSCOPE

SCREEN

Figure

2-4.

Time/Distance

Measuring

------b.

TIME INCH SCALE 0 1 2 3,

I
SURFACE PULSE) FRONT (INITIAL BAC K SURFACE

I
TEST

I
SPECIMEN

1

FRONT SURFACE

_j

IL.
1

DISCONTINUITY

2

3

TRANSDUCER (DISCONTINUITY LOCATED ABOUT 1-1/4 INCHES WITHIN PART) OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN

Figure

2-5.

Typical

Ultrasonic

Contact

Test

Display 2-9

plished by varying two controls LENGTH or RANGE. 209 1. OSCILLOSCOPE GENERAL

on the instrument,

the SWEEP

DELAY

and

the SWEEP

OPERATION

The oscilloscope displays ultrasonic similar to a television picture tube. its electron The gun. This electronic glass, is coated glows screen emits ceases screen accelerated with tube is made display. compounds sistence. trons nozzle. determined, produced filament, these operation directed may The of specially-tested screen vary in composition at the phosphor and behind similar electrons are then the from similar light to in the for glow.

indications on a cathode ray tube (CRT) Figure 2-6 shows a typical cathode ray or bottle comes with called when various light In many a phosphor brightness, bombarded of glass sizes and end constructed a material a screen at one for and

which is tube and It picture perelecThe spray are a hot means, of a pinthe time

shapes.

compound. colors, by high-speed of the tube. with a water

Phosphor

to produce and produces the

A phosphor

electron to writing a definite At the gun.

gun in the base on a sheet time opposite The light to form period, end bulb. a beam electrons

be considered

its persistence of the tube, are which emitted is the

is prefrom size

electrons

electron

to the

filament

in an ordinary and bunched

By electromagnetic

HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION PLATES (PRODUCE HORIZONTAL SWEEP) ELECTRON

GLASS

TUBE

BASE CONNECTORS

V
PIPS

ELECTRON GUN

FOCUS AND ACCELERATION (PRODUCE ELECTRON BEAM)

VERTICAL DEFLECTION PLATES (PRODUCE VERTICAL SWEEP)

VIEWING SCREEN

HORIZONTAL SWEEP LINE

Figure 2-10

2-6.

Typical

Cathode-Ray

Tube

head altered when line. the the the right. along equals

when

it strikes testing,

the the the

phosphor direction, oscilloscope received. causes edge

screen. like This the screen

The

position a garden

of the hose, is called to sweep As soon shows

spot

on the

screen

is line

by changing there

pointing horizontal electron fixed to the left of the time zero speed a signal vertical relays pip The

of the a bright the from as the high a line known. time

electron horizontal sweep the left beam

beam. or base edge reaches too fast across left to to of

In ultrasonic

usually line beam speed. edge time and time, beam

is no signal to the edge, right

An electronic screen right screen. the line

circuit

at a certain to return

it is caused screen. line may represents from zero. distance. The length the

at a very draws required are this the and

speed, of light from The sweep

be seen

on the Distance distance

In operation, be determined time When

an electron when since the

is a measure

to move

speed

distance by speed may from a pip to test be the

multiplied oscilloscope causing from the back pips the

is known, is relayed deflection signals appears

horizontal to the plates,

adjusted transducer, appear front

to represent a voltage on the and back line. surfaces,

When to the transducer front

is applied When the the

reflected first and these

piece pip

surface

surface

appears some of the distance 2. The on it, used, SWEEP SWEEP

time later in the sweep, between the surfaces. DELAY DELAY control either operator to the operator the that constant. material first of the to the

spacing

between

is a measure

instrument or to the 2-7 the under picked pip. base test

permits left side, shows line (see

the

base while SWEEP

line,

and the

indications the is the

to be shifted remains the related 2-7, the and Notice to allow

right Figure

the spacing DELAY test or left in order setup).

between control to see

indications indications In Figure initial surface into 3. Now view. SWEEP

how the to the Figure

to shift

right

2--5 for

up the front In adjusting the the first

surface

pip (which DELAY, and back has

is also surface

the pips

pulse)

discontinuity to the far left, the distance

the SWEEP discontinuity two pips

the front

pip is moved

bringing between

not changed.

LENGTH delay, the SWEEP LENGTH or RANGE the front and

that the operator has adjusted the sweep

adjustment must be considered.

The operator may

wish to superimpose

back surface pips on the oscilloscope grid lines so that the distance relationship on the screen is related to the actual measurements of the test piece. To do this, the horizontal trace or base line is expanded, the pips displayed. back surface pips, always has the same a. or contracted, to change the distance between relationship, in proportion, in the test piece.

The locations of the discontinuity pip, in relation to the front and

The expansion or contraction of the base line is away from or toward the left side of the screen. That is,"ifthe sweep delay is set so that the start of the

presentation desired is at the leftside of the screen, adjustment of the 2-11

makes the away The the from sweep test piece allows or toward delay in any the with the the control desired viewing the a leftalso right-hand v pip which appears total to remain depth. RANGE MARKERS example. used to aid which in In the previous locating 2-12 the position of discontinuities. segment In Figure entire grids. stationary. the responses In effect. b. the grid lines on the Figure oscilloscope 2-9 shows screen Range were Markers. are . part 2-8. moves the Sweep Delay Adjustment pips from the delay part. is presented of the part at one on the is presented. the the depth sweep depth of the control In conjunction it possible across delay with to examine entire magnified segment of the part width of the CRT screen. controls. 4. to view along control._-_ TIME ---_ TIME OSCILLOSCOPE f SCREEN FRONT SURFACE RFACE SURFACE BACK ' O 1 DISCONTINUITY [ BEFORE ADJUSTING AFTER ADJUSTING Figure SWEEP hand makes segment screen SWEEP LENGTH it possible of the LENGTH to be moved 2-7. depth the SWEEP across the LENGTH screen is adjusted and to align to expand the pips the with view the of the screen at Two much tion. of the if not test the the SWEEP DELAY and the SWEEP time LENGTH screen regulate and what how por- part whole.

surface. is known shown in Figure discontinuity at a depth of approximately as determined Actually._. control line. more the front markers. (for spacing inches. etc. scale screen scribed The choice. made. the locadividing The and of the waves 11 inches the by the of any space discontinuity between convenient are adjustment The accurate surface is located into part. surface These pip and such markers or contracted to fit the Range marker and the from range 5. warm ing. TIME ---IP. switch knob the the part permits pip. matter moving first adjustments scale centering. the the base Sweep line Length to aid Adjustment in immediately are back the first identifying expanded reflection feet.P. space increments. function) MARKER measurements. on the sweep CRT sweep and vertical of personal across the ON switch screen. controlled by the RANGE MARKER frequency. usually This determines Sweep is turned focus. on-off selection of square to be 2-9. Markers frequency. brightness is considered is kept the brightness spot to form 2-13 . contains brightness line intensity on and horizontal a control allowed centerfor of the at a the a to concern: of the illumination. SUMMARY the up. higher the to the The the back as centimeters. The power intensity the after the instrument line intensity. MARKER control the Assuming in the closer example 5 inches. knob. TIME OSCI LLO SCOPE SCREEN BEFORE ADJUSTING AFTER ADJUSTING Figure set tion the the into the display just under within the front 2-8.

line The Markers astigmatism The on the on the horizontal CRT CRT line screen. spot point left screen. sharpness of the at the on the presentation. bang to the pips are exact no bright starting start the "how learned precise diagram The 2-10. screen is aligned manual comes timer from testing or rate surface the vertical and focus usually centering to coincide with for the the of various controls control set to place the scale control with zero ultrasonic the individual same source. The instrument generator pip initial test and the In contact identical. is is the initial that and pulse pulse piece. distance SOUNDBEAM ultrasonic vibrations units are FREQUENCIES have far frequencies beyond the available audible range. and adjust of each shows transducer water operation centering The or base the base the and pulse-echo that as shown. In a range but still from 200 Kc to 25 Mc. separated by the In immersion testing.OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN MARKERS J_jIRANGE (SET WITH 11 SPACES FROM FRONT TO BACK SURFACE PIPS) Figure minimum adjust the the determines sweep and The raises desired line. many controls maintenance ultrasonic the the front Is spiked travel instrument of a typical illustration testing. are by an electrical to the receiver-amplifier. shown heart pulse is also the 210 Most These front in Figure of the or main routed surface with the line scale lowers line are The block system. sweep of the Usually. operate from the capabilities sweep to" at the screen of the edge line 2-9. left Range end. instruments instrument. in the test propagate 2-14 . A simplified. line screen.

/r ./ 2-10. Pulse-Echo Unit. Block Diagram 2-15 . i OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN RECEIVER AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT \ f \ T SWEEP CIRCUIT PULSER CIRCUIT MARKER CIRCUIT 1 I TIMER (RATE GENERATOR) i I TRANSDUCER POWER SUPPLY " (TO EACH CIRCUIT) TEST PIECE Figure %.

material fine-grained ference be achieved

as waves material. in the form by using

of particle When of scattering lower

vibrations. using high may

Soundbeams frequencies Selection Ultrasonic material, by a coarse their angle be expected.

of all frequencies in coarse-grained Greater depth frequency

penetrate material, intermay by up to of attenwhen it soundmay in As used the

of penetration is governed

frequencies.

of test beams because structure

the nature of the particular problem. about 1 Mc, readily penetrate the test uation. surface difficult beam beams be used contact They are also small resolving more testing. of the scattered debit flaws. less side, is rough. to resolve with are a better scattered On the

with low frequencies, of the small amount and can be used is large, emit All available not a more higher-frequency making

of divergence transducers is that 10 Mc are

High-frequency A disadvantage

concentrated

power.

by coarse-grained Frequencies fragility of the

material. above thinner

frequencies transducers. decreases

in immersion testing, because

generally

high-frequency

the frequency and approaches 211

of sound vibrations the dimensions VELOCITIES travel or die through (ips the through

increase, the wavelength of the molecular or atomic

correspondingly structure.

SOUNDBEAM waves attenuated waves x 100,000 per to illustrate

Ultrasonic rapidly vibrational most second given largely, longitudinal,

solids

and liquids The velocity

at relatively of a specific material. to ultrasonic (cm/sec are 2-1, in each

high

speeds, for speeds are The

but of

are

out in gases. through various per For (cm//_ range density

mode, testing x 105) given

example, listed per in is due, manual are other by

is a constant

a given materials second sec). and

homogeneous related x 100,000 In Table These elasticity Velocity

authorities

in centimeters x 105). wide microsecond in the Table

or inches in this comparison among

convenience, of velocities.

velocities

centimeters

a meaningful material,

differences

in velocity

to differences

2-1.

Ultrasonic

Differences

MATERIAL

DEN SITY (G/CM 3)

VELOCITY

(LONGITUDINAL) MPH

CMAu SEC .033 •149 .267 .b25 1.280

AIR WATER

0.001 1. 000

738 3,333

PLASTIC

(ACRYLIC)

1.180 2.800 1.820

5,972 13,981

ALUMINUM

BERYLLIUM
r,,

28,633

2-16

x.j

factors. which almost 212

Density is less dense identical, WAVE

alone

cannot

account

for the extremely The acoustic times velocity as dense

high

velocity

in beryllium, and mercury are

than aluminum. yet mercury MODES

of water as water.

is thirteen

TRAVEL

i ! i
I

1.

GENERAL are made up of atoms (or tiny particles) lined up in straight lines to form

All materials lattices, the first column, movement compression, 2. Figure Note ducer shear

as shown in Figure 2-11. If we strike the side of this lattice, we find that column of atoms strikes the second column, which in turn strikes the third and so on, In this direction. wave in sequence. case, This mode. OF LONGITUDINAL & SHEAR WAVE MODES waves These is at right in the waves angles same are piece. called the type This motion produces direction motion a wave is called movement same the in the direcor particle-movement of soundwave is the as the wave-

Lion shown.

longitudinal,

COMPARISON 2-12 on the waves shows right because

two transducers on the left is producing

generating is producing kind a different

ultrasonic longitudinal of wave.

that the transducer

waves

and that the transto the wave-

the particle-movement

direction

TRANSDUCER /

WAVEDmECTIOM

WAVE FRONT

/

/

.j

Figure

2-11.

Longitudinal

Wave

Mode 2-17

..... -_ ..............

_

-

/TRANSDUCER WEDGE

/
TEST PIECE PLASTIC

I

I

I
MOTION

\

I
I i I \ \
SHEAR WAVE WAVE

1
LONGITUDINAL

Figure movement longitudinal wedge so that specific a_le, 3. Shear a plane erated waves about ............. strikes test only face SHEAR waves normal in a thin are 2 per the specimen. at a sharp waves are called cent test direction. waves.

2-12. The Note

Long{tudtnal velocity also, that

& Shear

Wave

Modes

Compared half that of the

V

of shear the

waves

is approximately transducer

right-hand

is mounted

on a plastic

the ultrasonic waves generated by the crystal enter the material at a depending on the velocity of soundbeam travel within the material. AND SURFACE are, in a sense, to the layer less surface As called corner. direction of particles than WAVES polarized on the as the free particle A special boundary waves, displacements type and of shear These propagate beam of a solid. are oriented is gena velocity surface with in

of propagation. "ray'lee") we_e_:_e wave transducers. travels

wave

Rayleigh

(pronounced shear=waves. plastic a surface The contact

As=sho_in:Ftgure2-13, 1o_- itudinal mode around that resulting transducers in a surface

wh.en a transducer in the reflection waves wedge in the occurring and surof sound shear travel

is:mounted

on a steeply:angled shown,

at an angle

a curve,

produce

angle-beam

=

_TRANSDUCER

WEDGE

\ \

SURFACE

D

\
\ SHEAR MODE \(j _ PARTICLE M(]T_N-

) () () ) () ) \

,,y/,
",,/
/

/,"

)

NOTE THAT BEAMS ARE IN THE LONGITUDINAL MODEIN EACH WEDGE. MODE CONVERSION OCCURS WHEN THE SOUNDBEAM ENTERS THE TEST MATERIAL.

Figure 4. TRANSDUCER may BEAM ANGLES when

2-13.

Mode

Conversion

Confusion

be encountered

angle-beam steel, from

transducers, for example, that of steel. will produce

designed are applied A transducer a beam

to produce

a

specific refracted rials with acoustic produce a shear-wave

angle in cold-rolled velocities different beam

to other matedesigned to

at 45 ° in steel,

at 43 ° in aluminum,

or 30 ° in copper. 213 1. REFRACTION GENERAL and medium description. in the normal occurs. medium, mode conversion of the ultrasonic to the entire The range direction, 2-14, beam of this when passing beams at an angle when is covered is incident through longitudinal cent from AND MODE CONVERSION

Refraction one material from one following specimen and and second

to another

is comparable When as shown

refraction (L) wave

of light phenomena soundbeam

passing in the to the beam, test the first

to another.

a longitudinal in Figure

(perpendicular)

it is transmitted as a 100-per

no refraction

2-19

_ !_. LMODE angle and (S) wave that this CONVERSION is rotated the longitudinal beams is known first and 2-14. area conin both a is transmitted. both times incident as the MIXED incident occur. and the and mode incident S-wave is a little because 1ST MEDIUM (WATER) conversion L-wave TRAN SDUCER---. If the Angle. 5 = Incident Beam V ... are the is rotated enters To sum beam occur. Refraction - As shown. varies is four the velocity refraction conversion produced. shear is reached 90 ° and where angle the angle. for quantity the second 2-15.( L-WAVE Figure 2-20 2-15... Normal Incident Beam from the beam "lst initial 90 ° position. Critical the longitudinal The angle angle occurs / f in the medium.__ TEST PIECE 2ND MEDIUM 90 ° (STEEL)... both " refraction second up: angle and mode further. is changed._ O Ii°-. percentages. in the the in Figure beam beam than twice of varying as the mode beams critical angle. As the version L and point between medium._ S-WAVE2 °'..TRANSDUCER 1ST MEDIUM TEST PIECE MEDIUM (STEEL) / \ I I ! I 2 o° j i I Figure 2. refracted beam ' As shown of each L-wave more the -- refracted and S-wave angle.

medium.. where the the L-wave medium. both refracted angles increase.. is positioned 2nd Critical GENERATION to produce 2-17 mode are shows conversion Rayleigh out. To SURFACE the has WAVE is now positioned only S-wave beam entire beams reaches region.._ I\\ _'/ 9:0 S-WAVE l'J ' SEAM . the L-wave as shown in Figure 2-16.. 4. as discussed in the next paragraph. and is reflected angle and of the S-wave In the produced. Rotating creased S-wave face. in the in the is inthe test water because sur- transducer Figure medium. not reflected surface in a liquid do not propagate SUMMARY summarize: shear the waves critical alone are angles are those angles For those bounding points each beyond side the of the area where transmitted.changedwhen the beam entered the second medium. 3. transducer Further 2nd Critical increases refracted shear-wave Angle. waves undergone to 90 ° . at the only beam beam.34.. they 5. The velocity of the shear wave is approximately half that of the longitudinal wave. waves of 27 ° . rotation the are Angle. the waves particle are easily are waves S-wave are angle L-waves. TEST PIECE \| _ ____/____ L-WAVE ____. In an air these reflected disturbance detected. 2nd Critical \. When beams Rotating the transducer to 90 ° . 1st Critical • Angle . The or gaseous damped an incident that the with angle only some shear medium. at the are 90". The first angle to reach 90° will be the L-wave angle. SHEAR WAVE GENERATION to produce an incident from the test surface. between 1st the the the Critical Angle..'_X\ \ A Figure 2-16. (ST E E L). S-wave second is increased The incident is reflected. through of the angle and transmitted angle incident 1st angle of 15 ° . As the incident angle is rotated further.

. or fracted of materials. Law has fied slightly refraction. Angle sound area Both the for and at the critical soundbeam the other.. optical from 1621. velocity L-wave L or S. sine the and test the and specimen. testing. equation to obtain solved in the first In other divided the wave for and second is substituted medium critical 214 1. e. Snell's For application. 2._ _'_ 27 • L-WAVE \ TEST PIECE \ J (STEEL)k_k \ SURFACE WAVE J 90 ° Figure 2-17. the longitudinal (L) beams when puted c. LAW couplant used in immersion testing. in the medium is simply being transmitted. in the first (in immersion In contact waves The Snell's testing). the soundbeam a Dutch from enters developed mathematician. medium. When words. meant or refracted Willebrord Snell's Snell in the test speciare refracted angles are been commodior Snellius. reoil. Rayleigh for are second of the velocity known.._TRANSDUCER. angle SNELL'S GENERAL the soundbeam velocities in the grazing incidence. or the wedge material used in contact testing. including 2-22 . soundwave. The other SNELL'S following angle. Angle there into the produces calculated of the into type the 2ridCritlcal Angle reflection medium. use Law. men. i. which Incident after was in ultrasonics. couplants: to explain LAW CALCULATIONS formula and the may mode be used to calculate the incident solids angle. its original the by a formula are different than the sound velocity passing' through the wedge or couplant test material. in the Law. immersed the resultant in water. second the no is total second energy is transmitted 2nd Critical angles for the are sine angular surface medium in the by the formula angle the if the velocities of 90 °. of 1.

shear the waves. Law. As the when the (medium are and Angle. between region lessening to mode region. the 1st Critical 90 ° . of the of incident of vibrations for in the material liquid under calculations the use in decimal x 10 -5 to obtain determining angles tables. incident is not as useful as is the only shear modes. thus when entering a second medium at material under test with a differing angles normal beyond confusing of the resulting the incident and beam. the second velocity beams shear cal where bined 2. Figure plastic second | V2 angle from refracted normal beam vibrations in the of the beam in the test in the material. soundbeams passing through a medium such as water or plastic (medium 1 for velocity an incident angle. are ANGLE is widened. of incidence The are sine given (abbr: of trigonometric fractions. wave angle is reached only shear angle-beam to produce is that when waves transducer. region shows are mounted and the of the only at an incident of the beam waves the are 1st and angle of 35" 30' in the with in the Angles. test. FIRST angle CRITICAL of incidence beam medium. incident between CRITICAL GENERAL OF REFRACTION As discussed previously. METHOD decimal (cm/p Velocities easiest one place in centimeters To convert Multiply microsecond handling. ! . This testing produced.Sin _1 _ V 1 Sin 92 Where 91 = incident _2 = angle V 1 = velocity V 2 = velocity NOTE: The quire given cm/sec 2. as and As the Snell's velocity refracted shear soundbeam is calculated produced 2nd Critical formula the 215 1. V2). an immersed at an incident of prime two conditions importance. on a first the steel. refracted longitudinal waves 2 for velocity and 1. to the right. refracted 2-23 the rein or fracted longitudinal adjusting exist second When considered. medium for angle PROBLEM-SOLVING a contact incident the In this in the known. For small conversion. sec) for move cm/sec.54 3. angle reaches selecting transducer First. TYPICAL 2-18 wedge. a contact and At this shear Angle point. or refraction Sin) ratios per sec in/sec to by cm/_ reare liquid or wedge. V1) are refracted medium is usually the 2. or wedge. is fixed ANGLES transducer angle angle case. the from 1st the soundof Criticomangle in a combination first signals critical subjected for are waves.

32. FROM TRIGONOMETRIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEM FOR LONGITUDINAL WAVES SOLUTION OF PROBLEM FOR SHEAR WAVES SIN 9_ (0.323(0.267 .323 GIVEN: STEEL SIN 91 = SIN 35°30 ' = SIN 0.58070) SIN 92 Vlr .58070 FUNCTION TABLES.267 SIN 92 = .58070 SIN 92 = .70236.2723 SIN 92 = 0.7024 _2 ALL LONGITUDINAL WAVES ARE REFLECTED.USEC VS = .58070) . NO LONGITUDINAL WAVE CAN EXIST. Figure 2-18.58070 SIN 92 = .585 CM//_SEC CM/.585(0.3 CM/#SEC 0.323 SIN 92 = . Calculation of Refracted Angle Z-24 . IF _2 90" OR MORE.267 CM//_SEC STEEL: NDBEAM V1 = .267 SIN 92 = 1.267 CM/HSEC VS .58070) .585 CM/_SEC CM/MSEC SIN 91(0. IS 92 44°37'FROM TRIGONOMETRIC SINE FUNCTION 0.585 0. ONLY SHEAR WAVES ARE PRODUCED BY REFRACTION.35°30'f SNELLIS LAW: _-SIN _2 V1 V2 SOUND VELOCITY: V 1 = VELOCITY VS = VELOCITY LONGITUDINAL SHEAR / REFRACTED PLASTIC: VL = .58070) SIN 92 V_ .267 V L .267 .

dampens produced for use when are the reRayleigh 90 °.e. using = 27 ° 9' for the soundbeam into is desired. a plastic critical as the for the approximate plastic testing. angle in the second medium. steel: in the case of the angle may be calculated with 1. wedge for testing contact on a plastic Sin ¢I Snell' s Law: Sin _2 Sin _1 Sin _2(1.J 2-25 . 45641 with divided 0000) 1st Critical velocity V1 V 2 (longitudinal wave) 0. the refracted the rial 3. Thus. reaches testing degree. a. with using the for than (V 1 = 0. These of bond failure in metal-to-metal CALCULATION soundbeam OF CRITICAL for the velocities of the first and second medium are known (V 1 and V2) . 267 cm/p 0. V 2 is given V 2 is again Table water 2-2 lists a shear ' for various wave the V 1 = 0. materials.r is greater couplant velocity is one for V 2 should be greater k. piece the waves liquid show units. At this testing. to make SECOND the shear case waves are CRITICAL incident beam angle angle Widening fracted and waves tests areas 4. test Angle all is reached shear waves medium. either in Table soundbeam For velocity than V 1. (V 1 = 0. V 1 = 0. Angle 0. 82662 critical medium wedge angles of uranium. 267 cm/_ materials the for the given L-wave uranium. In immersion of surface in experimental in detecting on immersed articles. either critical using the sine of 90 ° . the production of contact to a large in an air medium been promise have surface produced. within the limits shear wave enters the test piece in accordance The certain 1st Critical the Angle soundbeam is calculated enters the in the test that standard. L-wave sec). Divide cm/_ V 2 into sec. i. than in the the test approximate as the first angles (couplant) 2-3. exception the This used is because velocity which velocity angle-beam is less .longitudinal wave is totally reflected (its angle of refraction must be 90 ° ) so that the of with mate- penetrating ultrasound is limited the first condition. Second. for = 55o45 for sec sec If the 2nd Critical in steel: 2nd Critical test sec). as the sine of the refracted transducer mounted the formula for Shell's Law. Table lists 2-1. Surface experiments bonded ANGLES materials reflected. ANGLE further. 323 Angle. test immersion of testing to shear waves only. If the in the the with the 2nd Critical point. medium test b. 149 cm/p first same S--wave piece. 585 cm/p Angle. requirements method desired at the of the angle..

280. interruption to friction in the a material. STEEL STAINLESS TUNGSTEN URANIUM 302 17ST 7o 14 ° 15 ° 10" 29" 27 ° 29 ° 31 ° 51 ° VL=1. . grain boundaries and is less is greater by grain of the vibrating material are reduced within than than the in power material.566. .Table 2-2. TUNGSTEN 302 17ST 12" 25 ° 27 ° 28 ° 31 ° 18 ° 59 ° 56 ° 59 ° 68 ° VL=l. VS=.625.871 VS=.280.312 VS=. .518. Immersion Testing FIRST MEDIUM IS H2O TEST MATERIAL 1ST CRITICAL (_ 2ND CRITICAL (_ VELOCITY(CM/_SEC).287 NOTE: VL=LONGITUDINALVELOCITY. BERYLLIUM ALUMINUM. VL= VL= VL= VL= .323 VS=. VS=.193 15" 17 ° 26 ° NOTE: VL=LONGITUDINALVELOCITY.871 VS=.310 VS=.625.312 VS=.287 VS=. as though where or High-frequency are This size. energy 2-26 . STEEL STAINLESS.585. . VS=SHEARVELOCITY 216 SOUNDBEAM ATTENUATION waves. . and to the most passing scattering grain volume where where without due the through at the the losses. . BERYLLIUM ALUNIMUM. a free heat path transfer to damping.585. VS=SHEARVELOCITY Table 2-3. one-third grain Scattering attentuation important wavelength wavelength attenuation As the soundbeam is lost is lowered. Critical Angles. Critical Angles. VL= VL= VL= VL= VL= . grain size.323 VS=.310 VS=. particles. .338. In damping is considered boundaries.566. Contact Testing FIRST MEDIUM IS PLASTIC TEST MATERIAL 1ST CRITICAL g 2ND CRITICAL g VELOCITY (CM/ SEC).518. the attenuated loss losses ultrasonic by reflection are is proportional frequency is due travels through the wavelength.

54 to obtain centimeters. the straighter is less available used. Beam quency. face of the or straight-sided As the rectilinear at almost wavelength characteristic to be detected as a straight-sided some from projection of the transducer. greater crystal ducer small 1/2-inch 25. BEAM spread the the SPREAD in steel.54 inches Sin _b = 1. diameter of the 3/8-and as 5. For at lower of the been used there is given the beam. beam frequencies. the same At any frecrystal. of beam spread? by 2.0 through to greater transas the of spread at higher is often as 1/8-inch diameter of material. is its rectishape is prosoundbeam in reality at the beam the wavelengths of absolute a characteristic propagation.22 Sin @ = 0. the beam spreads face sine of the of the transducer. 2-27 . What Convert D to metric is the system half-angle of 1 Mc. 625 centimeter. contact shallow selected in Figure the The depth for smaller for surface. larger beam the spread. such testing 2-19. matter involved. A large-diameter transducer - _. 30012 = 17 °28' 2. with very little becomes divergence of the beam shorter. by multiplying 0. diffraction At this of the transducer. This Although or spreading. frequencies limited by the diameter transducers at various crystal.22-D diameter contact The transducer wavelength is used of the on sound- For example: Assume that a 1-inch aluminum at a frequency beam is 0.625 2. from of the the face center of the of the ratio X/D.217 1. spreading. than size have are frequencies. Also. Transducers at the higher is usually frequencies. the diameter testing. SOUNDBEAM GENERAL beam short ideal SPREADING An ultrasonic Because linear nounced approaches is considered there is always D2/4X distance outward This wave spread and of the the enough travels through shape. half-angle wavelength The of the ultrasonic to appear D is the to originate diameter radiating spread is a function where is calculated as follows: X Sin q5 = 1. X is the causes the beam to spread distance. all test frequencies.0 depths Mc. Fraunhofer the face of the transducer.

259 .581 . is such The reduction strongest considered the geometry central axis.0 2. 1875) at a distance lying waves at the edge to because from just traveling is edge. beams reflected lobes are SOUNDBEAM 2-20 shows when shown the PATTERNS the in the work. Figure transducer side ing. Beam Spread in Steel in beam is raised edge spreading from effects of the with 1.116 3/8 48" 10' 19"23' 8"34' 1/2 34 ° 14°25 6"25' DIAMETER (D) INCHES 3/4 21"52' ' 9"33' 4" 16' 1. manner of crystal that they In practical back primary beam creating is the spurious of consequence.SIN(_ = 1. to the reduction figure the when its are 2-19. only one for a 1/2-inch The diameter secondary Secondary or mountare away frequency Mc. O 16 ° 13' 7"9' 3"12' / POWER POINT (. transducer. the may waves of a block of disturbance in the on the down from the oscilloscope in an earthquake or from screen. component from cracks be seen are continue the principal Reflections surface off. is along a gradual in amplitude 218 RAYLEIGH waves on the are the WAVES travel over the surface they were of a solid studied surface a sharp side face and bear by Lord a rough Rayleigh discontinuities Rayletgh corner.25 by the specimen effects.22 -_- WHERE k = WAVELENGTH D = DIAMETER (_ = HALF-ANGLE OF BEAM SPREAD TO HALF-POWER POINTS / / FREQUENCY MC 1.0 caused test in steel Mc to 2.0 TRANSDUCER CM . intensity of the soundbeam from the axis.707 OF INTENSITY) Figure 3. neath the rounded 2-28 surface of water. edge and top face reflected . lower beon the Rayleigh waves they center. are reflected but if the resemblance (c.25 5.

Soundbeam waves travel a finger the of travel with Rayleigh Radiation travel around to the waves oscilloscope are is usually an elliptical the Patterns entire a cylinder. 1916). of incidence. direction the surface absorbed surface the travels can be easily moving one surface motion. Lamb when LAMB GENERAL wave theory Lamb at a given was waves velocity angle developed travel and along by Horace a test Lamb specimen in thin These The proper (c. with sheets are angle waves Lamb waves are produced to the waves the surface be comof ultrasonic a thickness by using transmitted of incidence comparable longitudinal into may wavelength. screen also called no more particle way around Rayleigh so the while than path a cube waves of any the as waves as shown if all are re- These They also by touching by observing work. surface.J 2-29 . soundbeam in Figure 219 1.0MC . traced of the surface along 2-20.259 CM D = 1/2 INCH Figure returning of its almost flection finger their The edges to the are completely over depth the along 2-21._. off._= WAVELENGTH ULTRASONIC AVEIN STEEL OF W O" = 34" _ = 14" O" F = 1.D = DIAMETER OFCRYSTAL . = . wavelength.25MC _. a predetermined of a sheet puted waves can be generated frequency.581CM D = 1/2 INCH F = 2. as follows: _. = . WAVES sending rounded point.

WAVE the waves sec Rayleigh 3. make them applicable The close that energy are to a wide first travel to the surface variety do of is a 5 Mc ultrasonic with a longitudinal beam. = Desired Lamb plate thickness. is a function of frequency.l Figure Where V L = Incident Vp DIRECTI PROPAGATION / SURFACE PARTICLE MOTION I 2-21. There LAMB are WAVE two general of waves produced in Lamb wave testing. of Lamb Both Up to an infinity mode propagates and which varies shown are of modes of each class with a phase velocity from in Figure infinity 2-22. Each and types frequency. 635 cm/p The ability 0. thick transmitting aluminum sec plate. down to thickness waves MODES incident and angles. Examples 2-30 the detection defects. 2. These are termed symmetrical and of vibration are possible that depends wave LAMB 2-4. VL Rayletgh or Surface Waves Sin _b Vp wave velocity. Lamb on plate velocity. 149 cm/_ in thin their or where near which for of Lamb requiring subsurface as with distance modes of practical waves to flow plates energy of problems not reveal the medium. along since waves. velocity of subsurface Where discontinuities. TYPES classes wave phase velocity which and the test material. 051-inch 0. asymmetrical waves. with . is contained it is desirable modes a con- detection longitudinal the higher of subsurface velocity modes are discontinuities employed. plate. Rayleigh the a phase problems. in a given plate. are useful. velocity proof In Table duced following in the plate in a 0. siderable required. in water.

2ND ASYM.8" 1) immersed size 220 1. COUPLANTS GENERAL of the the the practical source source because of a dry into and part. material.CLE OTION M t SYMM ETRICAL ASYMMETRICAL Figure 2-22. 25.THIN P LATE .335 .432 .6 ° 14.. 2ND SYM. One from tween surface material _-J inspection and of thin-walled 2) the testing tubing and plates for internal plates defects and or grain tubes. Symmetrical Table 2-4. & Assymmetrical Lamb Wave Modes Lamb Waves INCIDENT ANGLE PHASE VELOCITY MODE PRODUCED 33. little energy difference testing This is transmitting by interposing is placed through impedance the the ultrasonic a "couplant" with into energy bethe the is done If a transducer is transmitted in acoustic in contact interface interface. determinations._..067 CM//ISEC.279 ._ PARTICLE G MOTION J I°"ECT'O' PART.7 ° 12. IST SYM.572 .0 31. of welds in butt-welded problems the the test test great in ultrasonic specimen. IST ASYM.660 1. at the very of the 2-31 . 3RD SYM. 3RD ASYM. 4TH SYM.0 ° ° .267 .6" 7.6 ° 19.

reaches a bound- ary between it and a second medium while the remainder istic of each test material (z) and acoustic impedance medium. calculated discontinuities best 4. ideal The of matching and the the test is an interposed impedance solutions. the the second reflection different If the medium is reflected. the water impedance. the the of reflection. of air oil or water to ensure elimination INFLUENCE GENERAL highest specimen evaluating part as degree the holes. oil. as the is a product expressed: z=pv 3. in water-aluminum actual Many percentage waves reflection variables in a water-steel from shown is 88 percent. traveling through one material or medium. Acoustic occur another impedance medium specimen. Usually. added the an impedance impedances have Prestone. With testing understood geometry is obtained and such material test a standard. various be matched where becomes that may of the water. to the part 221 1. to a solid COUPLANTSELECTION impedances in ultrasonic of greatly with with This may testing different a couplant couplant to that oil.2. testing. bubbles as a transducer Experiments benzene. REFLECTED ENERGY system second is not the wave air. each through almost an interface 100 percent of interface For example. the that them alike. OF is adequate. ideal. When ACOUSTIC an ultrasonic IMPEDANCE wave. of the material and different has couplants. of geometric and material . The characterthat determines the of the amount density of reflection (p) and velocity is known (v). TEST SPECIMEN ON SOUNDBEAM of reliability and or other influence their effects in ultrasonic effects are targets. testing. however. The test for that method reflection. be vastly as surface Experience is with lkluid twice. For by keeping must When necessary. amalgams. may such in water-magnesium it is 54 percent. theoretical will of coupling it is 72 percent. contact of the transducer SAE 20 motor and For with the mercury. affect ultrasonic roughness of reflection. from some couplant of the which been a thin and one method source matches made soap-suds. is to drill then to use must In one fiat-bottomed be familiar 2-32 in one of the a reference with the or without operator in all. part of the energy continues through the second is reflected back into the first medium. transformer sugar are wet oil appears immersion couplant. transformer wetting agents to thoroughly using situations medium often into energy be transmitted occurs. when the influence A shortcut of variables and considered. interface the or minute that the medium theoretical combination percentage However. is between be viewed work. passes is air. variables. glycerin. properties parts six and the of test-specimen suitable standard. once energy will in each result direction ff in a In a pulse-echo of travel.

Rough a° SURFACE surfaces Loss be due the b. area returned boundary of the In the are one is sloped or contoured Figure where to the the surfaces 2-23 back the they shows surface of back specimen side. from ultrasonic amplitude at the indications from surface as follows: within the part. Angular loss waves surface from portions surface. Irregular Back Surface Effect 2-33 _ . the is caused power This which is caused by a lengthening pip into the side back the mask or secondary presence of the on the lobe frontoscilloscope energy.J 2-23. Widening for a lower of beam due to scatter to reduce from scatter. This of the loss surface may on discontinuities of the part to scatter or to roughness Loss surface and Side just is seen as a wide of transducer front-surface by reflection is normally This surface. ROUGHNESS distort of echo discontinuity. the rough surface or to a requirement frequency 3. SHAPE OR CONTOUR OF TEST SPECIMEN of the a test left test specimen to the in the sound point the cause with front area waves partial surface. of resolving echo. lobe below energy surfaces. reflection IMMERSED TRANSDUCER "° I TEST "__ SPECIMEN Figure _o. a few weak sound back boundaries reflection. an irregular is parallel surface. where are In actual so that the or total back the caromed practice. from until spread On the front die from at an angle to another are soundbeam attenuation.form or another.. out from each transducer. not reflected may transducer smooth condition of a discontinuity c. the operator will receive spurious or confusing indications from any of the following test specimen variables: 2.

from the boundary. be difficult discontinuity because but may surface. a test are Convex Surface with high Effect surface• After passing The to Figure through identify = 2-25 the shows concave signals specimen the relatively a concave in amplitude. soundbeam is narrowed test or focused. 2-24. specimen Considerable surface.signals a° are received by the transducer. and by beam the discontinuity size discontinuity amplitude than test specimen. IMMERSED TRANSDUCER \ /RE ECTEO Figure b. creating confusing test indications. A convex surface is illustrated on the The soundbeam Is widened by refraction boundary. / REFRACTED It I SPECIMEN • • DISCONTINUITY A " I Figure 2-34 2-25. Concave Surface Effect . == of unwanted reflections IMMERSED TRANSDUCER _ SURFACE I "W'l WAVE I / I/ I \1 / _ \ _. have less in a flat acoustic power as shown. after passing through the convex is lost signals by reflection Signals received at the reflected from the test from same spread. specimen shown in Figure 2-24.

in the test is known. beam beam. L-WAVE _"_'-_ S-WAVE_ / I Figure 2-26. at angles to the as they changed which are or a portransducer. by velocity at angles reflection conversion reflection. boundary reflected by the slow when If a direct because Soundbeams reflection slowed reflected is obtained. back they from calwill shape specimen is not points These mode then back of it as in the conversion behind of beam mode back changes which spread. of reflection.. with the shear shear rule beam beam re- of the longitudinal reflected is equal the of the longitudinal longitudinal of incidence half is equal angle.. beam. as the Figure will be about the beam is about velocity longitudinal shows soundbeam TEST SPECIMEN TRANSDUCER DING BEAM _ S-WAVE __. Mode Conversion Caused by Beam Spread .4. V L = Velocity V S = Velocity As the the that angle sine the incident of the angle half angle longitudinal shear beam beam beam to the angle in the test specimen. by the Law: reflected longitudinal culated to shear to longitudinal calculated of Snell's VL = _-S of the beam by the equivalent Sin ¢PL Sin ¢S Where: _L _S = Incident = Reflected angle shear of the of the longitudinal angle. to it.. back beam. during and are waves indications be identified conversion. to appear they are waves. When tion mode appear are are MODE the CONVERSION or contour case occurs the waves first WITHIN of the at the test TEST SPECIMEN is such directly contacted may echoes are that the soundbeam. or can be easily in accordance The velocity 2-26 reflected of the determined.

COARSE GRAIN PARTICLES WITHIN TEST SPECIMEN Coarse or large grain particles within the test specimen can cause scatter and loss of the wavelength is greater back reflection. If the frequency is lowered to the point where than grain size. test by the of the the or may discontinuity in the loss depip turned diszone. is proportional is flat to the loss surface. The spreading beam contacts the sides of the conversion part with grazing incidence. reflections transducer. Dead Zone.flections within a long solid test part. and Far Zone . Indications of the dead 2-27 trailing is determined If the When pulse is extended the dead dead-zone no indication discontinuity is just beneath beyond within be displayed. principal is probably depth the pulse of the near length specimen. 5. a small is angled indications the indication from A sudden from If the by the dead zone.---TRAILING ZONE _'_ I I I I EDGE OF PULSE OF DEAD ZONE) TEST SPECIMEN FAR ZONE Figure 2-36 2-27. will will cause case confusing of orientation.. to the directed indicates and parallel may In the If the away from caused test the also zones: is at the limit. to a consid- LEADING EDGE OF PULSE (EXTENT i _NEAR TRANS-_ DUCER I -. at an angle continuity. as the the the V discontiof of the discontinuity soundbeam. phasing effects erable degree as a function of position. is small. the test The reflection. but sensitivityis also lowered. The result may lie ORIENTATION orientation in the with loss its to the its and long size when AND depth axis DEPTH of the parallel are OF DISCONTINUITY discontinuity echo. back crease nuity. and the shown. causing discontinuity the proportion soundbeam. Depending on the material. in amplitude the scanning. particularly when the size of the particle and the wavelength are comparable. the resulting mode consists of mixed modes of longitudinal and shear waves. vary the echo If it is just amplitude dead zone. scattering losses are reduced. the presence to the are zone of a discontinuity. in the near zone. 6. by reflections surface. reflection. Near Zone. leading surface far edge of the discontinuity. shows depth edge to the zone. discontinuity the surface affected If the discontinuity to the pip of back three of the discontinuity compared to the Figure zone.

discontinuity beam on each originated from distance transducer in the the in the same far of the transducer optics) far of the transducer indication to the referred at D2/4_ of the is irregular from zone to as Fraunhofer from and near zone. it is possible thickness of a material T=N Where N = Any whole 2 of harmonics number = Wavelength T = Thickness 2. constant. center diffraction transducer. measure thickness detect when the the in the amplitude or fundamental transmitted of the waves resonant and reflected in the The with same to produce resotwo sides plane as frewaves material or multiples is a known frequency required thickness. but of an unknown measurements primarily it will discontinuities lying _ 2-37 .The depth of the near zone is determined by extending dimension lines from the the the zone. piece number Thus. of the medium. RESONANCE GENERAL the resonance tube. of its resonates test thickness at some piece. are occurs. test of crystal direction. side. varying is moved from to intersect with the spreading spreads outward as if it had This effect zone is sometimes to spread intensity may Beyond the (D = diameter be obtained near diminishes the beam Soundbeam indications across the it. the dis- transducer diameter. frequency. With surface coupling the the sults F as shown. the beam face. an exact at one %J wavelengths. which limit soundbeam). resonance nance smooth and MATERIAL thickness At this Since method in phase. = wavelength causing nuity tance 222 1. with resonant thickness called the are Longitudinal direction sample maximum vibration of the where These the in an amplitude voltage. CHARACTERISTICS of a given frequency the velocity a relatively material large and has increase reliable for also a characteristic of it. as the disconti- (from causes near of the a condition as the of the where amplitude exponentially inereases. below from the a crystal the crystal's crystal is excited. Each quency. of material in the is an accurate is used parallel. thickness. or oscillates increase thickness Resonance in its of half occurs measuring well waves The with Acoustic method. to express a consequent frequencies of the harmonic induced the cies. by means cause the The of the sample crystal sample by means and held of a suitable to vibrate is varied vibration in its of to is equal frequenof vibration sample resonance as: increase in until reof an on the THICKNESS MEASURING oscillator frequency contact frequency is maintained of vibration intensity. At this distance.

the ously test surface. antinodes transducer the In resonance of the (T) is equal TEST testing.5A = -- T =2k " Figure 4.5k h T =_ _-- V •-. respectively. other ultrasonic point of the such test- ing systems. thus wavelength be expressed V equation T = N. Velocity may THICKNESS is always CALCULATIONS equal as: V F V _-for as to the 2-28. continuas a at which thickness have resonance frequency. wave. under material series 3. piece. /TRANSDUCER ll T = 0. It differs point is the alloys. length. Standing Waves product of frequency and wavelength. WAVES occurs in test in that resonance the the is applied frequency much like the the is. varied. and 2X. -_ results in Substituting be expressed X in the 2T = N v F" T _ NF= 2 N 2_F which may 2-38 . or can be. the of the and thickness ultrasonic In a standing the points nodes a node wave of the wave. Similar of aluminum STANDING resonance number wave The side are patterns an almost constant resonant Thickness integral standing aatinodes. opposite material whenever material. to X/2. material Figure the is equal 2-28 points to an various as waveat the of the a node of half referred distance test wavelengths shows of maximum is a half and thickness displacement to as nodes between there 3X/2. of minimum at the displacement adjacent In the or adjacent illustration. frequency determining of transmission matches factor. T = 1. The test In general. PIECE is always standing X. materials.

90 0. system. indicated high-frequency into When This may electrical mechanical into resonance be a trace energy vibrations occurs. Example: if the In a resonance display. continuously energy and screen.11 sample of the What causes is the a resonant at 2. on the and a steel screen Mc. Using where the equation 2F in Mc velocity (0.80 (using cm= 0. For example: 0. 2-39 a surge is transformed specimen. 4.585 1. SUMMARY oscillator the electrical into is received an audible the transmits energy test by the tone.90 Mc inch T = 0. 5. transducer. to convert or by referring frequency T- to a table in million to thickness K F in inches. sample 3. 585 cm/_ T = Thickness 0. oscilloscope There. scale over the which The the K is T = 0.Since N is any whole may number be calculated it may be disregarded. of constants inch/seconds of the part a K table) by two. using equation: Where T = Thickness K = Constant F = Frequency of material (veloCity in million inch/second or Fundamental divided by 2). on a display or a flashing .128 5. in Mc (Resonant T = Frequency). thickness peaks Mc. on an indicator. electrical deflection neon to a transand of energy. (cm) T - V = 0.4 of the thickness oscilloscope.32 Actual a listing table thickness of velocity determinations constants are given made by placing oscilloscope is used screen.31 ? V T harmonic Mc. A variable-frequency ducer. Mc.90 in steel Mc average distance between peaks) F = Resonant frequency sec. 116 (K for steel) 0.128 frequency) inches a thickness (called divided in inches. a meter transformed deflection. velocity and Thus resor_ant V 2T = -_-or frequency V T = 2"F are and thickness known. transmitted vibrational amplified.21 test.

V 2-40 V . vertical indications appear on the oscilloscope screen. These indications are used to determine thickness as they indicate the frequencies required to produce resonance at the fundamental frequency or its harmonics. As the oscillator sweeps through the resonant frequency of the test specimen or through any harmonics of that frequency.The greatest accuracy is usually obtained with the oscilloscope display.

..................... 4...... Instrument for Testing Indications Testing Reference Resonance ...................................................... ........ ... 6...................................................... 8.. TANK AND BRIDGE/MANIUPLATOR .................... Blocks Set Set Blocks 305 3................... 3...................... Planes Types .. ................................................. 4.... .............. TRANSDUCERS ............................. 5.......................... Contact STANDARD 1......... 3-20 3-20 3-21 3-22 ........ Tank ....... Set .......... Couplant ............................................................................... ....................... ......... 2.. .............. 3O3 3.............................................. Equipment Equipment ................................... 3O2 General Controls A-Scan B-Scan . ..................... ....... 5............ 4...... Couplant ....... 304 7 Frequency COUPLANTS 1.. Page 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-13 3-13 3-17 3-18 3-18 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-19 ....... 3............. ....................................... 1 2 3 4 5 6 General Sensitivity Resolution Materials Crystal Transducer . Inductance-Modulated Capacitance-Modulated Manually-Tuned Bond Tester Resonance Transducers Resonance ...... ..................... 2................................................... 3........ ..... . ..................................... Bridge/Manipulator ..... ........... EQUIPMENT Instrument Instrument Instruments 306 RESONANCE 1.......... 2........... ............................................................................. General Immersion Selection ....................................... ............. General Area/Amplitude Distance/Amplitude Basic Special General Blocks Blocks TESTING ............................. REFERENCE BLOCKS ............................. 2...... 2.................... 7..................................................CHAPTER TABLE 3: OF EQUIPMENT CONTENTS Paragraph 3O0 301 GENERAL PULSE-ECHO 1............ UNITS ....... ............................ General Ultrasonic Equipment ......... Blocks 3-23 3-23 3-24 3-24 3-26 3-26 3-27 3-29 3-29 3-1 5. C-Scan ULTRASONIC 1...... ........................................

. ..... Flat and Contour-Corrected Transducers ....... Tester................. 3-4 3-6 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-14 3-15 3-15 3-16 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-20 ........... ................. Transducer Reference Operating Blocks Range . ........... Thickness Resonance Thickness Thickness Inductance Capacitance Resonance Functional Diagram.......................... Blocks Basic Blocks Blocks Set Grounded Grounded Area/Amplitude Distance/Amplitude ASTM Special Functional Meter-Type Oscilloscope-Type Stroboscopic-Type Reference Reference ........ Tester....... .. ....... ...................... Transducers ................... ....... ........ Thickness Inductance Tester..... .....TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT) Page Paragraph Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-26 3-27 3-28 3-29 3-30 Typical A-Scan B-Scan C-Scan C-Scan Typical Functional Ultrasonic Typical Typical Pulse-Echo Presentation Presentation Presentation Principle C-Scan Tank Paint-Brush Double Diagram.................................... 3-21 3-22 3-22 ............ of Operation Recording C-Scan ............. Transducer... Focused-Beam Contact Contact Shortening in Metal ................ and Unit Controls .. Manually-Tuned Bond Testers .. Externally Internally Reference Reference Blocks. ........................ .......................... Modulated 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-25 3-26 3-27 3-28 3-29 .................... Modulated Tester ... (Hitt) Transducer........... ............ Testing 9 Mc Resonance 3-2 ......................................... System ............. .................... 3-30 3-30 Brtdge/Maniuplator ................. Diagram...... .............. ...................... Tester Modulated ............................ .......................................... Stroboscopic Resonance Resonance Light Display .................................. Transducer Bridge/Manipulator Transducers Straight-Beam and Angle-Beam Transducers ........

units. one supply on power. After power is usually there by ON-OFF time delays switches to protect 3-3 fuses. tor. Controls supply. CONTROLS are pulser. of conflicting The and Manu- manufacturer's maintenance facturers' information. description a. and converts to ultrasonic it also receives into them the specimen electrical display. turning . supply which in the of the for unit. an oscilloscope to provide The timer referred generator. Pulser/Receiver. electronics of the given Each circuitry. 2. to another UNITS equipment according have to the similar manufacturer. a sweep image rate source generaof the generaof all tube) the is the by the test c. Circuits constitute from The the for a battery supply of current. introduces vibrations signals for The from ampli- energy specimen. unit and provides other this ultrasonic a review more in the testing specific equipment. instructions recommendations of theory. crystal vibrations within fication the and converts into test transducer electrical test crystal energy and reflected its and holder. source timer) specimen of short which are high-energy received. The of electrical and (triggered to the transducer. Display/Timer. to all makes. may vary The functions and from display. all basic from functions line of the supply or. display and the pulser test and generator Return routed to the (a thyratron energy pulses display with is the from unit. operation. All manual. d. Nomenclature following Supply. of controls The nomenclature of unit to another. signals marker received is usually needed specimen. from to the controls a visual to as the timing signals tor or clock. 301 1. The are applied pulser or pulse bursts amplified. (Figure for is sometimes 3-1) various timer. Power for b. instrument. some power is served contained consists Transducer. used such as power following provided receiver. functions unit provides providing varies the from basic one functions instrument essential a. information.CHAPTER 300 This GENERAL chapter covers the more in most for the 3: EQUIPMENT commonly-used cases. type of the instrument system. event supersede chapter PULSE-ECHO GENERAL makes of pulse-echo common s. controlled are certain in the Power and Supply.

MATERIAL VELOCITY IN #SEC SWEEP SELECTORS FOCUS MARKER. INTENSITY 7. the initial justment.1 23 4 5 6 7 x. display SCALE are made. low FREQUENCY controls one control usually marked consist sensitivity video display SENSITIVITY. VERNIER 2. and Display/Timer. COARSE 3. 16 15 14 16. a REJECT controls are a clean provided. VERNIER POWER. THRU transducer use of another R (receive) A TEST of the transducer receiving for NORMAL for with the transmission a range available of FINE provided A selector of operating frequencies and For control is COARSE frequencies given usually cycles. through vided transmission to permit jack switch T and marked Gain or level a T (transmit) use as a transmitter. ON/OFF. VERTICAL 5. for ls proan connecting provided for R jacks. control is in mega- transducer for the receive transducer. elements 3-1. 19. seldom unit require are: After with ILLUMINATION the their screwdriver functions adjustments The ad- controls for the display . 17. SENSITIVITY. HORIZONTAL 6. COARSE Figure circuit b. for transducer testing. SWEEP DELAY. THRU/NORMAL REJECT FREQUENCYSELECTOR PULSE TUNING PULSE LENGTH DRUM DIAL. during The is adjusted by testing. OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN 4. specimen single one jack of ultrasonic LENGTH transmit transmitted TUNING circuits are into the test For to PULSE controls. same 9. 13 TRANSMIT JACK RECEIVE JACK TEST. 10.J 17 1. COARSE MARKER. selectors with c. 15. 12. 13. 11. or pitch-and-catch one for or double testing. 14. SWEEP DELAY. exception usually and screwdriver-adjusted ON-OFF controls POWER. noise The of the eliminated. 20. SENSITIVITY. VERNIER 8. energy and and For Unit Controls Pulser/Receiver. 18. connected called Jack is with only. SCALE ILLUM ASTIGMATISM Typical instrument pulse PULSE the Pulse-Echo warm-up. ON/OFF. 21. 22.

(4) FOCUS. Controls horizontal position of display on the oscilloscope (3) INTENSITY. display. accurate the timing timer from control of square marker cirmarker controls with or clock. screen. to position reflection screen. Controls vertical position of the display on the oscilloscope (2) HORIZ. on the of back control screen on the Controls. Control). (5) ASTIG. display specimen. purpose there as scribe will control on a ruler. introduced screen. to serve the is activated selection. screen. a back of the controls. is used to select the desired type of (4) IF-VIDEO. Correction). cuits may are The marker circuit provides display also square marks waves on the This for switch of the sweep circuit line same or left Usually. turns power of grid and that on for lines. be located or STC.(1) VERT.E Markers. ILLUM. is improved The full-range of damping. controls coarse to suit the with side Other is also right or astigmatism across Dual oscilloscope control that of electron SCALE Clockwise usually and material used (6) POWER entire Timer which DELAY the visible d. rotation consist fine and adjusts illumination DELAY rate test pulse of the initial unit provide of SWEEP thickness the SWEEP pulses left adjustments. in amplitest speci- Corrected a drop the or TVG tude of signals men. TCG (Time to compensate deep timer ON-OFF or fre- CALIBRATION marker spacing Since ADJUSTMENT The higher and the more involved on the DAC and Varied reflected to permit the frequency. which olution adjusts The discontinuities pulse the duration by higher is shortened train values switch by the applied DAMPING control Res- length of the wave to the transducer. V out of the by a MARKER be a MARKER selection the the closer measurements. or multiples reflections Other are: refinements not always provided (1) . IF-VIDEO IF (intermediate frequency) or VIDEO. Kj 3-5 . (3) Damping. screen. transit Varies Adjusts brightness of trace distortion beam of display on the as desired. which are at the generated. (Time (2) DAC Time (Distance other like Gain) from Amplitude units used called are STC for within (Sensitivity Gain). controls are The side of by changing focus for oscilloscope Corrects time and unit. the unit. waves. MARKER quency.

Gated-alarm are within gated or low voltage TRANSDUCER units enable This may areas driving current is selected VOLTAGE switch. or strip chart recorders units or Delay. of the screen. The the The A-SCAN A-scan material horizontal EQUIPMENT is a data test line on the on the presentation screen oscilloscope method screen to display as indicates the shown returned in Figure time signals 3-2. relay. or zoned gates these is accomplished be monitored automatically to operate facsimile Gated-alarm (a) Start loscope (b) Length visual or aural alarms. as follows: control of the gate is used on the for ad- START of the or DELAY edge Justment leading oscil- LENGTH gate or WIDTH or the location control of the is used gate for adjustment trailing (c) of the Alarm Level or Sensitivity. of the edge. A-Scan Presentation 3-6 V . (from left from V system under base of an oscilloscope elapsed A FRONT SURFACE REFLECTION C_r _ B C DISCONTINUITY RESPONSE BACK SURFACE REFLECTION OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN Figure 3-2. or Width. High for the transducer with the Alarm.(5) Transducer Voltage. The alarm LEVEL or SENSITIVITY control is used for adjustment of the gate vertical threshold to turn on signal lights or to activate an alarm a socket is provided for connecting the alarm components. the use within of automatic by the test alarms setting up specimen. The length gate usually The location have gate three These signals and to external controls are also passed control devices. On some units. on to (6) Gated when Signals specific. relay to external 3. discontinuities controllable appearing detected.

pro- phosphor of the motion Image-tracing of the spot transducer the Image-traclng amplitude of the system the intensity modulation or brightening signals received. with of the image on the coating. EQUIPMENT equipment. in proportion to the screen in synchrooscilloscope screen by use of a Iongin addition to the basic components of the A-scan unit. soundbeam screen equipment position vertical or pips the units front Chief to determine incorporate to evaluate of the discontinuity surface. time represent For Conversely. or distance and with other of penetration indications be used from A-scan phosphor. spot on the along oscilloscope sample. As the drum electrically The o_her turns. the terminals of the amplifier in the to the helix mounted on the helix between the bar and the helix contact . useful on the and the where the distribution is of interest. may the or back advantage the sample. cross-section to evaluate a permanent cross-section oscilloscope amplifier/position of the sample the and shown vertical routed Figure Y axis the horizontal persistence are long screen 5. C-scan speed tinuities commonly printing bar C-SCAN equipment automatic in a plan used and displayed. soundbeams. be used the size a given the ultrasonic screen. be calibrated across of distance of the velocities. printing a chemically-treated as shown to one terminal sliding in Figure of the output is connected point a narrow edge and is connected ultrasonic test unit. sample to photograph EQUIPMENT is intended scanning view.to right). drum. 4. may Most shows can the signal into sweep the amplitudes. functions: Retention persistence b. of this size and an oscilloscope a medium-persistence amplitude information is of the it provides needed discontinuity. velocity terms sonic flected depth spread. a helix recorders to provide a permanent testing. coated that dimensions and in the the vertical or depth sample The to the factors. of the is particularly within a sample tube. Deflection nism c. are made signals and shape As to the are of in to The large B-scan 3-3. paper 3-4. The record C-scan that of the test when the The between has highdisconmost a is used but provides use drum in ultrasonic no depth displays is passed bar or orientation information. The vides B-SCAN B-scan these a. enough for Chief advantage view of the scanning. These deflection the are sweep known. the ultraof the rein specimen. when to determine intensities discontinuity. connections ray discontinuities sweep cathode X axis. directly. entire the B-scan and the cross-section equipment is that a longdiscontinuities within it image the is retained oscilloscope In high-speed record.

BAR 3-3. HELIX DRUM HELIX Figure 3-8 3-4. paper..F moves point drum ment oscilloscope PRINTING .. current at the with contact of the the moveto the across amount line across whenever _ the Variations produced paper surface. movement of print-out the test One revolution is also amplitude connected of scan. is synchronized amplifier transducer a signal _ (pip) of predetermined . C-Se_ Presentation .r '_ _ TRANSDUCER 1 _.-_ TE ST SPECIMEN 1 i'_ Figure back determine produces of the and forth the one so that. FLAWS is displayed.OSCILLOSCOPE I I SWEEP Y-AXIS J 9 TIMER SCREEN_ X BEAM INTEN SITY I AMP"F'ER_ _ POLSER ] -/4----(_ X-AXIS MECHANICAL LINKAGE ._. . The B-Scan Presentation in electric on the The paper... _ION __r.

large water 3-8. Drive units are necessary consist move some equipment of a bridge the bridge from early for and along side units testing high-speed manipulator. bridge. the recording Figure determines The the front amplitude 3-7 shows and back of the surface gating signal signals circuits. discontinuity 3-6. although manually RECORDING PAPER FEED MOTION OF TRANSDUCER DISCONTINUITY Figure 3-5. not indicate produce occurs the as the in the printing length bar and contact. a functional AND BRIDGE/MANIPULATOR Ultrasonic ning corder rails. mounted bridge/manipulators specimens. are discontinuities. scan lines. surface. The extent indicates the size of the recording. discontinuity shown a shaded as shown The represented discontinuity. On others. (pip) diagram by the instrument required to produce a change of the C-scan system. scans of the the in the in Figure outline width In this the test manner. 302 I. unit the to side are and tank along scana reside the of immersed as shown units units the to support power move a pulse-echo in Figure manipulator automated. from and the the produce specimen alarm a change are sensitivity on the control eliminated of the marked (or unmarked) area of the recording The same signals that generate the pips on the C-scan from setting recording. ULTRASONIC GENERAL tanks over while Most and test a fairly transversing of these units TANK on the recording. A-scan. the transducer above C-scan outline recordreof absence the disoutline discontinuity test 3-5. C-Scan Principle of Operation . of some lines where may be indicated (no line) of the areas in Figure by the the white remainder represent is repre- print-out recorders and the may be reversed continuities specimen sented by blank space. directly as specimen. and The specimen. power are Modern tank. to indicate a record The the Some the by the so that C-scan of discontinuities is produced projected seen depth scan as the from of the line.a change the recording of the corders the the of the test ing does of current indicates specimen.

t'3 I_TRANSDUCER i I TESTING DEPTH l-I _='_ Figure operated. ULTRASONIC ultrasonic tank TANK may On most 3-7. Functional units._ T Diagram.ON_ * _ _. The shown. recorder C-Scan System mounted 1 _" l'v / .Po_.Figure 3-6. _'_ 3-10 . "_.o. Typical C-Scan Recording X Y X BEAM GATE DEPTH l_ IRATE I GENERATOR POS._-. as 2.T._x-_xl._. automatic a C-scan is also on the bridge be of any size or shape to accommodate the test specimen.

a carriage The unit manipulator intended The at each to provide stripped-down end so the is mounted -- a means version bridge of scanning shown may in be easily the on a traversing SEARCH OR mecha- ___CABLE _SCANNER. water.. or more tank bottom is deaerated of sufficient and agent. brackets test a wetting lazy-susan turntables couplant comfort. Ultrasonic for The For Tank coverage water operator controls. TUBE < __ -'_"---. and Bridge/Manipulator of the specimen are in the provided tank the water by a foot on the is clean. _"_r___. specimen. Bridge/Manipulator 3-11 . is primarily transducer._:.__J MANIPULATOR Figure x_z 3-9.Figure The for water usually 3. temperature at 70 ° F by automatic BRIDGE/MANIPULATOR bridge/manipulator specimen 3-9 along has the with a bridge tank side unit an immersed with rails. The test Figure moved water support depth Adjustable of the containing maintained is usually 3-8.

resolving cause the a wide. manufacturer in a standard is its reference Even transducers do not always ability by the block. of the matter displayed After material the transmitting and relays system.nism. the oscilloscope sound hears condition and for that to the instrument it is visually sensitivity on the testing capabilities described of a transducer. in a standard reference block. transucer indications from response frequency. In ultrasonic energy. transducer back part the ear of the echoes system of the wher'e is the transducer. information screen. 3. and the up-down movementof the search tube. with all power cords secured overheadto allow movementof the bridge along the full length of the tank. The traversing mechanism is an integral componentof the bridge assembly. an artificial is unique material oscillosize flatto by Transducer discontinuity a specific the same is measured sensitivity scope screen. three are most lithium piezoelectric and polarized lead materials ceramics. the echo echoes two targets together example. signal. at right angles to the surface of the test specimen. When automated. enabling movementof the manipulator from side to side. MATERIA LS common sulfate. present barium titanate. are at quartz. TRANSDUCERS GENERAL h. refers for after the to its surface. The search tube is usually held rigid. front-surface shocked or bursts front-surface ringing discontinuity "ringing" of its beneath transducer voltage energy A small 4. produce to detect amplitude Precise of the same identical echoes of its size. used The and in ultrasonic most common zirconate transducers ceramics titanate. The the The most the testing. bottomed hole. or vibrating. surface. by two terms: are and resolution. metaniobate. having Long been "tails" by the ability the The to separate time required by a large of sound echo. Locking knobs are provided on the manipulator to allow positioning of the search tube in two planes for angle-beam testing. The transducer high-amplitude. is masked discontinuity. 303 1. for 2. SENSITIVITY sensitivity of a transducer sensitivity transducer. RESOLUTION resolution from echo pulse. as shown. from the the or from resolving a small to stop is a measure a ringing just power close of a transducer in depth: just beneath power. the traversing mechanism. lead . The and for Transducer at a specific sensitivity is rated by its ability to detect depth. small from and on a given a given discontinuities. electric motors are addedto power the bridge carriage. The pulse-echo unit andthe recording unit are also mountedon the bridge.

Quartz it is the least and is very resists energy and wear-resistant. by moisture. high uniformity mode efficient suffers generafrom of the commonly interference voltage to drive it at low frequencie b. and electrical. are cut crystals used are in transducers to the perpendicular cut are X-axis cut and in either produce Y axis one and of two perpendicular longitudinal produce sound shear 6. Natural planes. pattern pattern of smaller varies to maintain narrow crystals. energy. transducers scanning 3-13 rectangular (in cross-section) . Ceramic. intensity transducer. generally are a. Quartz in development chemical. for a given have transmit The the and shapes the greater more large very shapes are larger frequency. quartz of new hard aging. well are on low the efficient of ultrasonic by relatively and have operate practically are limited interference. They intermediate affected very fragile. Quartz. the factor small made TYPES in a limitless transducers. ability sound thin the Size from result the extremely of much small exis a the very the trans- Transducers to 6-inch perience contributing straighter beams small test are paint-brush requirement to its applications. do not Lithium age interference. stability. because and chipping. to the TRANSDUCER are wide and the of the part.a. Lithium receivers sonic sion limited 5. Unfortunately. is necessary a long. transducers matched entire so that length Paint-brush for are the of the made up of deeper of sizes many instance. are the other are hand. V The are They polarized generators ceramic unaffected transducers. The very wide little uniform paint-brush carefully over beam the sensitivity. for (less The used many performance. The for energy narrower detecting into soundbeam high-frequency larger to gain to lower discontinuities. a tendency transducers and and are are on the they and to age. conversion c. The waves. beam number The special For spread) transducers transducers penetration. most voltage. to use PLANES such crystals Y-cut sulfate below is very 165 ° F. sound as quartz. of a transducer transducer. so are limited susceptible Paint-Brush a mosaic of the This provide beam single-crystal high-frequency transducers frequencies ducers to breaMng Transducers. it is being excellent liquids of acoustic conversion s. and also It also less. up to about some mode low mechanical Sulfate. used and requires materials. X-cut waves. usable strength. with has most tor the In the past. transducers materials were and thermal used almost used less exclusively. has It is insoluble good but. 300 ° C. as a generator little soluble by mode in water. Lithium sulfate energy most efficient of ultraconverand of ultrasonic energy. at temperature CRYSTAL crystals.

unit transa Double ducer receiver two Transducers. transducers that direct oriented the the sound normal transducers. (perpendicular) Angle-beam angles are use at an angle also a wedge. transenergy of transducers than soundbeam 90 degrees. paint-brush Illii r Ili l llllllllill A (" CRYSTAL BEAM LENGTH Figure b. at right oriented transducers into the test surface transducers and the surface transducers to the used surface between by mode usually specimen. plate ducer test means Transducers. is the ing. the transducer to the the test test are and specimen energy from into specimen. In the receiver. interference. In immersion angulation 3-14 . of plastic. a typical shows purpose more and is to quickly sensitive exact location discover are of the discontinuities then used discontinuities. and stacked types while the single mounted unit.! U--__X large test the Figure COAXIAL surfaces. In contact between the testing. sound angle-beam into the to direct at the angle. Transducers or angle-beam are also classified The surface. 3-10. 3-10 and their Smaller. cross is in essence other testthe Figure crystals 3-11 single transducers pitch-and-catch and the straight-beam testing. in the to define transducers transducer. in that. the used as either term "straightinto is transmitted Angle-Beam straight-beam beam" the other tinuities face. are shows C. orientation. by side or paired by a sound of double separated both barrier transducers. Typical The double Paint-Brush transducer Transducer differs may the from double the single only. specimen. discontinuities Angled waves face test 90 and to propagate conversion. only. of the desired test specimen Angle-beam at an angle disconslze surand testing. to determine 180 degrees shear. surface to locate the to the surface. size. may transducer and in the same be a transmitter for for or both transmitter double They receiver. one transducer be mounted for angle-beam to block transmitter In all cases. shape. holder is the side testing.

. the added plates or the front as frontthe to angle... and energy radii distance are sharpen transducer often added effects surface various On contact or liquids.-_/_ _ _ CRYSTAL _CONNECTOR/ ii iiiiiiiiiiiii ELECTRODES// _m_.. soundbeam straight Unit or and is accomplished the soundbeam transducers Transducers..._ l _ I_/CONNECTOR s._ _ • I?iiiiiiii ii:i!!!i!i!!iiiii ii::il. surfaces cylindrical sound-travel transducers. Typical Double Transducers the test angle part of a straight-beam at the desired 3-12. Straight-Beam and Angle-Beam Transducers 3-15 .i 3-12.-..0._ GROUND CRYSTAL _ _ " " \ " "J_" ANGLE-BEAM TRANSDUCER (CONTACT) PLASTIC WEDGE STRAIGHT-BEAM TRANSDUCER (IMMERSION) Figure M._ ACKING . reasons. to the surface Frontal to direct perpendicular known the between points lenses.< CONN EaT OR--.P ANGLE-BEAM (PAIRED) STRAIGHT-BEAM (STACKED) Figure of the Both do 3-11. the fragile substances shaped These angled by varying Into the are transducer to direct shown in Figure Faced the are Focused for to protect of foreign units at all Other crystal the frontal from sound and lenses members wear.. are wear breakage.. on curved out the contour-correction indication by evening _ SIGNAL SEALED CASE. to protect harmful electrode.._b __.

.. --SPHERICAL LENS GREATER CONVERGENCE DIVERGENCE -I NEW POINT OF FOCUS IN METAL FOCAL DI STANCE IF IN WATER BEYOND FOCUS-.I --_ . very Focused small moves in this the transducers beam its case. resolution. point to the In Figure intensity when increased beam enters increased intensity surface) sensitivity. moving also the closer test the 3-13.. Focused-Beam Shortening in Metal . closer the discontinuities its usable soundbeam transducer. A comparison Other acoustic of flat lenses and contoured the transsoundbeam in Figure focus FLAT TRANSDUCER CONTOURED TRANSDUCER Figure from creased maximum The beam surface. to the transducer near-surface WA'r E_ L ... Transducers focused. 3-13. the intensity. _ . Flat and Contour-Corrected as light into beams a long.. the are narrow. L I ] Figure 3-16 3-14.. towards the as shown of maximum test which concentrate in a relatively blunt-pointed ts capable Focusing the effect of detecting but lens. the test is The of in- transducer.. of a second produces improves shortens because the also. (which V ts refracted. small has intensity specimen The sound much energy area. 3-14.-'/ _ _ FOCUSED SOUND BEAM // J _.. point of range.transducer ducers and is shown the test surface.

.. Figure These 3-16. grounded. 010 to 2.. 0. of the crystal provides reasonably surfaces. are also area. transducers transducers water-proofed. coaxial are 7. looked In a smaller compared inches. connection.ii)_isiSii:-iis?S::i_ "__--_ ELECTRODE EXTERNAL _11111111111111111111_ .//.isi..//_J_/_ N_ ::5. on the the front and are When face in Figure an internal internally the in use they All angle-beam In addition. to the reduced the true by simply dis- energy is being a smaller This is true.. sensitivity. Figure test the Contact Straight-beam 3-15 shows and the surface both are the straightgrounded crystal surface. The tics higher higher The cable completely 3-15. submerged._ . ground. and in one transducers in which through of two ways. only Externally Grounded materials as shown for are since including with transducers smooth an electrode on electrically-conductive the unit is faced. factor Sensitivity the crystal Most testing in its shorter use. the Basic characteristhe the related. Contact are used Transducer. are made for useful thickness will be relatively indications. immersion-type completely immersion-type FREQUENCY frequency are affected the the higher SELECTION is a determining for sensitivity...0 transducers contact the type ground Contact angle-beam Transducers.2 frequency. the Transducer thinner 25 Mc. are also testing limited frequency. frequencies between 3-17 .:|i:ii!ii!)). J . the frequency the but contact wavelength. large noise beam. is done at to 10 Mc of a transducer by the need the shorter the and is related thickness ultrasonic is generally to wavelength: wavelength. combined of focused of other irrelevant is approximately The range 0.LJ disturbing concentrating because continuity noise transducers e° effects the indications a smaller of rough sound area surfaces into and metal at. contacts one face of the test is made CASE COAXIAL C 0 N N E C T 0 R _. testing. and crystal._'.

i _" WEAR P_T: RYSTAL Figure because contact a.. as the A couplant sound this the name implies........ less the the larger the transducer.... and the face of the b. test surface can that couplant solids... The sure all air COUPLANTS GENERAL couplant..GNAL iii! / CONNECTOR I CONNECTOR ... by excluding the be any of a vast satisfy requirements: A couplant transducer A couplant wets both the and excludes is easy surface all air of the between test specimen them. efficient between of liquids..... 10 Mc are are: of a transducer.. even by smoothing transducer semi-liquids. At any beam. complishes variety following a.ELECTRODES Ii. penetration is poor.. greater attenuation.. sensitivity.... for Contact use above Transducer. the straighter the sound- c.. the the penetration less the and the The less and of a transducer. but the the beam sensitivity resolution... The the uation b.. given but the frequency.iiii!ii:i . the Internally too thin and Grounded fragile for practical crystals testing..... is used transmission transducer transducer irregularities test and surface. surface test The of the surface couplant and will test to enac- specimen.. to apply... S. 3O4 1.///////_ / CASE .. 3-18 ..COAXIAL C0 NN ECT 0 R _ _..... between from out the and the pastes..... couples the the transducer face to test of the The some to the and the surface.... the deeper spread. ground Other higher soundbeam is also lower the the considerations the frequency and greatest frequency the straighter and (least beam but the spread) atten- the greater and the sensitivity resolution. 3-16..

and is an excellent of the and sura contacted slightly transducer. deaerated comfort. that but of the test is easy transducer surface. the water with an added is is used a couplant. One-part couplant. test be detected. In all cases. agent. to remove.standard ultrasonically-inspected and heat holes. tap water. agent. blocks test The blocks. controls. STANDARD GENERAL REFERENCE BLOCKS In ultrasonic dard. reference for used that are the all discontinuity standard a given test. in ultrasonic the will may indications be any Ultrasonic testing from one are of many compared reference reference the part. present discontinuity stock treat. specified. specified testing. depends smooth (such used primarily glycerine surfaces. consistent 305 1. results. by comparing of known Standard to meet are was made added series Evaluation combination at which a sensitivity of discontinuities from same made depth is accomplished same material. A eouplant A couplant A couplant the test is harmless has has specimen. selected as possible. oil and grease on hot with or vertical surfaces. e. In contact faces wetting For are used. COUPLANT nothing for at 70°F COUPLANT the by the is often rough Heavier choice used of couplant on relatively light couplant oils are more a tendency an acoustic preferably and free of air bubbles. indication size standard to standardize the setting test to evaluate things: quired. blocks is the are bottomed reference predetermined with A. instrument/transducer or gain the size. or solid particles in the d. drilled only flatdiscontisets series of B or Discontinuities represented by carefully three blocks. agent. specimen from block grain -nuity discontinuity indication Standardizing is performing all discontinuities within with carefully of sound so that most the the them from it verifies it establishes or larger. f. surfaces with on the condition two-parts oil) and with water. area/amplitude familiar Alcoa t 3-19 . to the test specimen on the test between and transducer. indications at the are blocks are the an artificial of the size. to a reference blocks blocks. by automatic For operator temperature maintained CONTACT testing. than clean. face and to stay impedance approaching that of the 2. IMMERSION testing. blocks the Alcoa one that Test in a.c. intentionally. ultrasonic or sets often does equipment stanof called and two as reof the the test reference selected. A couplant is homogeneous case of a nonsolid. surface. In immersion wetting usually 3. painstaking standards care The attenuation. the as SAE 20 motor on rough is as thin a wetting effective. surfaces.

in the As implied. the SET blocks. has 3 3/4-inches is drilled No. or gain screen with 3-20 for DISTANCE/AMPLITUDE Alcoa all series with end. distance/amplitude blocks. for display size and that of discontinuities it will increments. that a No. 6 NO. blocks confirm they hole as 8 block. Area/Amplitude BLOCKS SET Reference Blocks blocks deep blocks test diameter shown size so that set vary consists in length to the holes. distances Sets are: through are cylindrical drilled available in the with 1/8in as of 1/16-inch blocks. A set BLOCKS consists diameters e. On instruments .g. flat-bottomed surface at one 5/64. 5-3/4-inch blocks within the on the the serve the test sensitivity in eightg-tnch increments. 2. Similar stock. of nineteen holes of the to provide metal and 1-1/4 at varying setting readable over. block. a 3/64-inch the of the in size from 2-inch of checking (height) increase made long 1 block the block diameter linearity indication of the diameter and through numbers of the on the round test 1 15/16-inches center 8/64-inch refer hole.. andthe ASTM basic set of blocks that combine area/ and distance/amplitude blocks in one set.Hltt. inch half-inch a reference material. hole is. No. hole 1/64-inch 3-17. 7 NO. I THROUGH NO. The each the FBH that screen square. 13 Fl r-1 F-1 [--I II II 5/64 Ii I I II I I ___LA_ _1_1_ 6/64 7/64 ENLARGED VIEW OF HOLES (NO. in Figure 3-18. through to 5-3/4-inches flat-bottom The 1/16-inch. area/amplltude TEST SURFACE NO. system. 5 NO. from and 1-inch B or Hitt 3/4-inch These the 8/64-inch as the serve 3-17. of in to the of eight are deep shown flat-bottomed in Figure (FBH) in the bottom 3 block a means flat-bottomed oscilloscope Area/amplitude increases provide amplitude to the are in proportion reference blocks discontinuity. distances inch diameter diameter. to evaluate They of the all test also Distance/amplitude depths standardizing indications but will as a reference of a given discontinuities system of smaller oscilloscope screen so discontinuities not flood indications of no interest. are or 2-inch same metal hole. 4 HOLES NOT SHOWN) I I ii I I 8/64 Figure 3. AREA/AMPLITUDE Alcoa series A 3/4-inch The diameter. The center 3/64.

diameter hole. 5.2 1/8 DIMENSION 1/4 A 318 112 A ! i 5/8 1/16 3/4 7/7 3/4 1 1/4 I 3/4 i e DIMENSION B 3/64 5/64 8164 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 3/4 i/4 3/4 1/4 3/4 1/4 3/4 C equipped. material. 3-19 provide important Alloy etc. area/amplitude 5) and shows to that working If test attenuation. varying a basic of the from blocks blocks the 5/64-Inch (No. of 3 inches to the distances FBH. prodiameter relationship.t ---. 1/4. the FBH test that One test and also block surface metal to the have has 3/4-inch a 3/4-inch flat-bottom of 1/8. of 3 3:inch with surface 8/64-inch the three metal distances with the In this vide FBH Figure or or the basic 8 blocks the seven distance. tance cation the front these amplitude of the Figure 3-18• Distance/Amplitude Reference Blocks (Hitt) blocks correction) are used to set the STC (sensitivity of a given screen. The BASIC ASTM BLOCKS basic set drilled SET consists in the each and 6 of ten center have inches diameter No. have set. In sound of identical velocity.. and material impedance. The inches metal the two and 6 deep. available. material be degree properties must be the same. 4. It is 3. distar_ce blocks 3. remaininches. all are affect not of hot of the similar forging. ing and next 3/4. content. acoustical they the similar cold specimen. 3-21 . metal set. 2-inch at one from a 5/64-inch from FBH and and the and blocks end. flat- bottomed FBH The 1/2. relationship. time size control) will or produce DAC an (disindifrom so that on the a discontinuity oscilloscope same amplitude regardless of its distance surface. test distances. blocks holes a metal seven 1-1/2. rolling. that distance/amplitude test heat the block treatment.

Basic Set IIW (International calibration use. i II II I_T. "PLASTIC I I I I "_''"_ SU RFACE B I ii ¸ iiii i __UlllATURE ANGLE BEAM F_re 3-22 3-20. TARGET--. Special Reference Blocks .FLAT-BOTTOM HOLE (FBH) DIA . I. block.. I I METAL DISTANCE (SEE TABLE) I --. ASTM Refereace Blocks. are articles.._.. INCHES INCH 1/8 5 1/4 5 1/2 5 3/4 5 1-1/2 5 3 3 3 5 3 8 6 5 6 8 FBH DIA IN 64THS Figure 5. examples it is often C and the of other necessary miniature reference to make angle one beam of the standards in common irregularly-shaped HOLE / ""' 40" 2 DIA HOLE 50" 60" ' 'L V _._L.06 / Institute shown of Welding) in Figure reference 3-20.....--_._.09 I "_ I POINT SURFACE A L-I_ _ J II SURFACE D I lea . The field SPECIAL BLOCKS 3-19.1 I INSERT II II II Ii .. For . _SURFACE block.____ E(SEE TABLE) ..-3/4 INCH METAL DISTANCE.

into holes. discontinuities these by careful the basis artificial study for machining in the in the of the article. on the Mc. placed a reference saw cuts. 035 inch. thickness and the testing in the type The 3-21 equipment shows are available and diagram capacitor.STANDING . width by an range of or the at are of freinstrument of presentation a functional circuit current oscillator the control in the is modulated electrically-variable frequency motor-driven over lower a limited frequencies or by a motor-driven frequencies such of scales by changing At high range. Several these quency with In some disconof an article by detesting by subsequent is developed then of discontinuities. RESONANCE GENERAL types instruments modulation.__ $_EP AMPLIFIER TRANSDUCER _. use of 15-30 for accuracy harmonic is obtained ranges lines as 0. calibrated multiple INDICATION S _._ OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN 4. method and of a typical either The variable high Wide tuning inductor tuning Primarily. 005 to 0. of fiat-bottom tinuities In other structive standard. Functional Diagram.. they will the by adding etc.m THICKIILr!. SWEEP CIRCUIT COAXIAL ?CALES VARIABLE OSCILLATOR CABLE. IJ I WAVES V TEST SPECIMEN Figure 3-21.S M THOUSJ_MDTH$ OF" All IliCH . ki! _ll . an oscilloscope is adjusted TESTING EQUIPMENT of ultrasonic differ Figure display.test articles are cases. be removed technique detection of the study artificial cases. Resonance Thickness Tester 3-23 . so that standard notches. commercially. become a special and then individual verifying The results ultrasonically. investigation. STEEL MIO ALUMml. I_Xji I _C_ t. 306 I. the form article. inductor capacitor.

2. measurements up to 3 inches. transducer. 3-22. at a minimum of interchangeable oscilloscope limited. range. circuit.used for coverage of a wide thickness range. therefore.75 to 1. vertically. eating nesses. the change.065 to 0. made length at high the the of transparent from the The on the variable instruments near 30 Mc are by use over the and aluminum directly placed transducer are inserted 3-22 and 3-23) in the oscillathe capaciof indiThick- Inductance-modulated tuning tance. the 3-24 outer capacitor oscilloscope sweep of the axis an oscillator into the capacit)r screen. working Figure 3. a corresponding a frequency is deflected screen. Typical wide-scale ranges are 0. ranging components low oscillator of 0. trace has with on the oscilloscope a rotating the capacitor. instrument. of the trace motor-driven of the frequencies. oscillator these If the between Coaxial from 3 is removed to ex- is usually frequencies at low frequencies. The a neon lamp neon with the oscilloscope indicates line of capacitance If this giving lamp flashes capacitor tube the 3-24. scales.510 inch at 1 to 2 Mc. Inductance Modulated CAPACITANCE-MODULATED instruments whose display. 004 inch. Meter-Type Thickness INSTRUMENT have Tester. 080to 0.5 Mc and 0. cable feet from tend variable relatively they thickness inductor is adjusted are to change capable harmonic screen. to the cables to 25 feet Inductance-modulated have an electrically inductor have attained. indications in Figure disc rotates rotor the across rotation the Capacitance-modulated driven For zontal change horizontal range has of harmonic instrument.640 inch at 0. frequency a series mounted on horiThe is connected through Each of the produces is synchronized cycle frequency range. stroboscopic-type in phase shown As the . circuit circuit which contains brushes with a motoror wipers. tor V INDUCTANCE-MODULATEDINSTRUMENT (Figure instruments control when current frequencies of steel may oscillator extension distance of the be read plastic. disc cathode-ray resonant frequency as edge.

stroboscopic quadrant flashes a pattern then of apparently stationary harmonic (center knob The thickness shown) until division lines most nearly indicator then points to the thickness. Stroboscopic-Type Thickness Tester. through rotates Inductance the the readout Modulated slot in the lights scale disc frequency of the dial. Thickness rotation. coincide with the light pattern. Capacitance Modulated 3-25 .Figure with upper because the scanned of the 3-23. form operator The Viewed Tester._j 3-24. Oscilloscope-Type of each these effect. in inches. on the thickness scale. Figure x.

of constant to the on the coupled instrument The unit The of the amplitude. of the of instrument specimen. instruments such portable are as 0. lack face of bond of the played tal the or delamination transducer as a function are its thus is driven developed vibration varlable-frequency is proportional of frequency shown is disof crysWhen panel are screen. a resonant of a panel attached the an 8-inch width sweeps pitch at 100 These small. TESTER Functional Diagram.4.5 units available type to 2. INSTRUMENTS are tuned. audible indicated is made version ities quency resonance signal produces 3-25 a typical functional diagram narrow-modulating frequency meter. Manually-Tuned Resonance Tester tester is an ultrasonic-impedance in bonded current structures. instrument thick per steel Mc. MANUALLY-TUNED instruments units. on the panel. modulating for a fundamental produces an audible of 0. its physical characteristics. Figure is manually modulating over a very range If this tone by increased on a circular table. If the Modulating sweep produces sound.0 from the that are with percent test less for either of the complicated a resonance narrow is base an is or Manually-tuned than wide the larger that frequency tuned system manually frequency. in thick Using plates: Mc. amplitude oscilloscope pattern to a bonded and therefore system transducer voltage crystal used for checking by a at the and screen. to vibration. ranges. second is 0. is produced in a loudspeaker or a headset. example. Characteristics oscilloscope regarding vibration transducer as a distinctive is acoustically resistance information vibration. Frequency/thickness or is computed detect with each laminar plate will resonance conversion on a condiscontinufreseven 700-cps modulation. narrow produces deflection slide wide rule usually shows The range. The BOND bond 3-25. 3-26 V . 0145 signals.1 indication. to the instrument Simultaneously. A decrease decrease in thickness in the due to a laminar audible discontinuity a proportionate INDICATOR LOADING lq TUNABLE R-F OSCILLATOR CRYSTAL V I __COUPLANT HEADSET I I I MANUAL TUNING Figure 5. in a headset.

RESONANCE instrument may indicate are a. shown on the Figure face 3-26 shows oscilloscope two types screen. be displayed by warning on a meter.shown patterns on the are oscilloscope. resonant Audible responses. thickness contains readings of battery-powered a stroboscopic with a modified light slide a capacitance-modulated. cording. presented with range a time of the Oscilloscope as bright-line base scale transducer. heard type Each notes. of indication by stroboscopic including on an oscilloscope a loudspeaker or a pair discussed paragraphs. over the Indication. of the Oscilloscope peaks which cathode One type with cover are ray on large-screen interpreted 17 to 21 inches indications by placing a transparent b. in conjunction motor-driven. automatic or reof head- Resonance responses phones. from visual or audible. resonance the operating tube. Visual lights. types. portable presentation. sweep of the rule instrument The oscilharmonic indications cathode ray frequency are tubes. of bond testers. Bond Testers INDICATIONS are of two basic lights. arrangement v 3-27 . in the following 3-26. Typical test of each © TUNING 3 7 @ 21 SWEEP50_160 : @ i SENSITIVITY3_60i 21 0 INTENSITY 0 FOCUS I I BAND HORIZONTAL VERTICAL 2JL 3 INTENSITY FOCUS FREQ SHIFT POWER CAL _ OFF OUTPUT ON r_ Figure 6. vertical These face long. INSTRUMENT indications screen. Stroboscopic displays instrument lator Indication.

in others. Automatic gating signals Indication. 3-27. other with meters. warning a resonant in a loudspeaker on the variations on a finger of the frequency or a hand instrument. material cuits 3-28 are a "normal" of this condition is included trips a relay. Into a number of groups according used. The slide rule is then rotated until the m_rks on its harmonic scale match up with the light pattern. The thickness of the test specimen is then read on the thickness scale. that When the instrument tone lights up when are an audible warning lights produces mounted worn is produced lamp. holding tinuities or headphones. is made to flash at the instant the sweep capacitor sweeps the oscillator through the fundamental frequency or any harmonic frequency. Gating by small. as they do not Interfere with or alarm system. gated A loss a recir- in turn marking device. /NEON BULB /. test edge circuits to oscilloscope instruments and location oscilloscope so that within which to detect resonance of the allowable specimen usually limits are marked lines or markers. or discon- Headphone. and is viewed through an arcshapedwindow under a circular slide rule.matching type. determines the width on the screen of the The gated gate signal is adjusted of the gate. from the headset. vertical resonant limits. The stroboscopic effect of the rotating disc results in a steady light pattern related to the thickness of the test specimen. are encountered. automatic sorter. Stroboscopic Light Display For field work.-" Figure C. added limits. shownin Figure 3-27. This neon lamp is fastened to a disc that rotates with the sweepcapacitor. multiple gating each other. test With specimen._CASE THICKNESS SCALE • HARMONIC SCALE ROTATING °'sc . Meter or Warning Light Indication. For The automatic recording thickness of the range indications. some units. a wire is connected to a ring the transducer. . To sort to thickness. Recording are pre-set within thickness d. battery-powered units are equipped for indication lights. operates signal a strong the indicating or absence corder. A small neon lamp..

higher the the shows shown. 8. the standards is standardized and material reference thicknesses thickness for adjusting to the of the blocks. is matched example. FINGERTIP _ PENCIL SWIVEL _ RIGID RIGHT ANGLE STRAIGHT RIGID _ CONCAVE SPRING _ FLAT SPRING Figure 3-28. use The The selected. specific transducer For than operating transducer REFERENCE units require Many test of transducers shown oscillator with available selected. the is related 3-30. Resonance Transducers 3-29 . On these of reference equipment thickness Standard blocks. a very reference carefully block ground to predetermined degree of taper. used variety The range normally range. TRANSDUCERS with FOR crystals resonance RESONANCE made for of quartz. to the an oscillator frequency frequency sensitive and barium as titanate are are generally in a 3-28. RESONANCE resonance block in Figure with before TESTING testing proceeding to the are fine BLOCKS the test.7. The the resonant example. transducer oscillator and sizes in Figure frequency with 3-29 As of the selected. an oscillator 10 to 20 percent a 4 to 8 Mc tuning a 9 Mc transducer. For is tuning Transducers for ultrasonic of shapes resonant is used Figure testing. types applications. in steps at each or test retest Ultrasonic the instrument ference specimen shown wedges at the beginning of each with test. of the of the maximum frequency is most of a 9 Mc transducer at its natural in relation frequency. to sensitivity. TESTING ceramic.

0. the test can be measured the micrometers. is used standardizing instrument.0 2.0 10 Figure point is clearly 3-29. Resonance Testing TAPERED REFERENCE BLOCK Reference Blocks 3-30 . STEPPED REFERENCE BLOCK Figure 3-30.0 6.0 8.0 IN MEGACYCLES 4.5 1.0 FREQUENCY 3. 9 Mc Resonance When specimen the Transducer test specimen for Operating Frequency with Range calipers or indicated.

. Angle-Beam 4......................... 2......... .............. ............................... Selection Selection ....... . ..................... .. 4.......... 407 Figure Figure Figure and Wheel-Transducer Distance and Moving Adjustment Wheel Techniques . 1-42 4-43 4-46 ......... Reference Standards TESTING PROCEDURE 1.. 2........ General Typical Typical Contact Testing Procedure .. General Typical Immersion Standardizing the Typical Contact .......... 3........ TECHNIQUES Techniques ..............CHAPTER TABLE 4: OF TECHNIQUES CONTENTS Paragraph 40O 401 GENERAL IMMERSION 1........ 4.............................. ....... Page 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-10 4-11 4-11 4-11 4-12 4-12 4-13 4-13 4-13 Procedure Testing .. ........................ 3......................................... 1........ ....................................... 2..................................................................................................................... System . ........ 4-13 4-17 4-19 4-23 4-28 4-28 4-29 4-34 4-41 4-41 .. 4-6 4-6 4-7 Bubbler Techniques Wheel-Transducer CONTAC T TECHNIQUE S .. Resonance Resonance TABLES Testing Procedure Test Results ........ .............. 402 General Immersed .... Typical 3.. Testing Immersion Testing ..................... Procedure 405 5............. 3........................................ Angle-Beam INTERPRETATION 1........ ......... Techniques ....................... ................. General Frequency Transducer 403 404 r_ _ 4.............. Surface-Wave PREPARATION 1.............. ........ Straight-Beam Techniques Techniques Techniques FOR TESTING ................................................................... 3....... ............................. General 2....... Typical REFERENCE 4-1 4-2 4-3 Bubbler Water-Path Stationary TECHNIQUE .................... ........... . OF TEST RESULTS ......... 2. . 3.. Immersion Test Indications Contact Test Indications 406 RESONANCE 1.............. Transducers ................. General ................ 2...................

......11 4-14 Single-Transducer Double-Transducer Echo Technique Echo Technique Techniques ............................................ Adjustment ... Adjustment Sweep Delay Effect .......... Block. Sound-Path Increased Measurement Sensitivity 4-24 4-25 4-26 4-26 4-27 4-27 4-28 .. ................. Technique ................... Basic Lucite Indications Checking Path Sweep Wedge Length from Sensitivity ................. ............... Force-Oriented Discontinuity ......... Discontinuity Indications ....... ...... Reduced Back Reflections from Porosity ................. Effects on Display .................... .. Adjustment 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-23 Sweep Adjustment .......... ............................................................ Test Hole Size Comparison .... Grain Long Size and Indications Interference Short Pulse ............. Standardizing Indications .............. ....... .... .TABLE OF CONTENTS {CONT) Page Paragraph Figure 4-4 Figure 4-5 Figure 4-6 Figure 4-7 Figure 4-8 Figure 4-9 Figure 4-10 Figure 4-11 Figure 4-12 Figure 4-13 Figure 4-14 Figure 4-15 Figure 4-16 Figure 4-17 Figure 4-18 Figure 4-19 Figure 4-20 Figure 4-21 Figure 4-22 Figure 4-23 Figure 4-24 Figure 4-25 Figure 4-26 Figure 4-27 Figure 4-28 Figure 4-29 Figure 4-30 Figure 4-31 Figure 4-32 Figure 4-33 Figure 4-34 Figure 4-35 Figure 4-36 Figure 4-37 Figure 4-38 Figure 4-39 Figure 4-40 Figure 4-41 Wheel Transducer Angular Capabilities ..................... Amplitude Range of 1/64 to 8/64 Flat-Bottomed Holes Large Discontinuity Indications .... Plate ........ Angle-Beam Contact Technique ...... Scanning Butt-Weld Testing With Angle-Beam Transducer Weld Inspection Calculator ..... System Adjustment......... Block................................ Dead-Zone 4-35 4-35 4-36 4-36 4-36 4-37 Typical Contact Test Effect of Lamination W4d Indications Using Porosity Surface and Slag Indications in Weld Seam Crack Indication Using Angle-Beam V 4-2 ... Multiples ........................ Through-Transmission Shear-Wave Technique Surface-Wave Typical Transducer Sweep Delay Technique Immersion .................................... Block.............................. 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-10 4-10 4................................. ............... ....... .... 4-30 4-30 4-31 4-31 4-32 4-33 4-34 ............ on Back-Reflection Multiples ..... IIW Test IIW Test IIW Test I1W Test Weld Test Block.. Reject Control Back-Reflection Marker Effects ............................. Typical Contact Contact Testing System Reference ................ ....... Normal to Test Surface ............................ .. Irrelevant Indication from Contoured Surface ................................

........ .................. Crystal Wedge Transducer Standing Wave Patterns Resonance Test Blocks Typical Resonance CRT Transparent CRT Display CRT Bond Displays Tester . ........ ...................... Display ............................................... Thickness Scale of Back-Surface of Discontinuities Display of Reflection ......................... ........................... Variables ..................... 4-37 4-38 4-38 4-38 4-39 4-39 4-39 4-40 4-40 4-41 4-43 4-43 4-44 4-44 4-45 4-46 4-46 4-47 4-48 Indication of Near-Surface Coarse Grain Indications Irrelevant Irrelevant Irrelevant Irrelevant Irrelevant Irrelevant Indication Indication Surface-Wave Surface-Wave Indication Indication from from from from Edge Reflection Indication with Plastic Loose ........ . .................................. ..... ....................TABLE Paragraph Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Table Table Table 4-42 4-43 4-44 4-45 4-46 4-47 4-48 4-49 4-50 4-51 4-52 4-53 4-54 4-55 4-56 4-57 4-1 4-2 4-3 Two-Transducer OF CONTENTS (CONT) Page Indic ations ........ K Table Percentage Acoustic Resonance Properties Testing... Discontinuity .......... Specimen Specimen . .................. . Cylindrical Long Bar ................... Two Transducers .............. of Materials Constant ............ .........

v_j 2. . 2.

CHAPTER 400 GENERAL of ultrasonic or immersion with units. are than front with the liquid one film of two basic is used a couplant. are used to detect near-surface the concentrated used and The soundbeam. Any where squirter water. a contact is used material of the techniques as a fairly superimposed testing. in the top is the beams of a water-filled of focused membrane concentrate techniques. a column is mounted of the the unit use when technique. a further refinement wheel-transducer techniques IMMERSED immersed The both for the transducer through and the the test into specimen the material. initial in water. the the test crystal. are when from as the for methods: in direct On some mounted soundbeam unit or at a disthrough wide reduced are over is In contact transducer membranes or flexibIe considered water. the test the initial plastic through together. with coverage testing testing. of the (much and is a unit with on the the The of these glass). wedges. TECHNIQUES techniques transducer where tire that is used and the rolls the in the test immersion are the is transmitted method: immersed through An adaptation mounted tube like couples light immersed in water. specimen. distance front following a waterproof appears surface paragraphs. soundbeam technique a magnifying transducer of a liquid-filled A flexible surface.NG £AGF= BLANK NOT _ILMED. techniques transducer into the display because ultrasound of sound In the immersion of contact IMMERSION GENERAL one of three the technique. or column. of the shows close from path between first. These a substance pulse In immersion specimen.PREGED1. In the accomplished testing. transducers through in Figure 2. a thin only plates. or one are of the immersed using many either angle- in water. bubbler In the wheelto the passed are shown test or axfe of flowing both specimen where test transducer end soundbeam technique. on the the lower soundbeam bubbler and wheel-transducer technique In all three that 4-1. is directed generating water a straight-beam beam techniques focused-beams continuities The the transducers both soundbeam with longitudinal waves for generating shear waves. minute dis- usually straightdirection. transducer tube. surface The as contact display reflection transmitted on the reflection following. testing testing distance are must straight-beam manipulation be considered units and that acof complTsh through control in immersion 4-5 . in immersion angle-beam water-path In many automatic scanning discontinuities or to define operations. surface. TECHNIQUES technique. The pulse with water and are with wear units other and the the the 4: TECHNIQUES Techniques contact contact contact the face transmitted usually very tance a water space velocity discussed 401 1.

Bubbler and Wheel-Transducer Techniques testing. inches thickness important signalling the test 4-2 the water on the is greater to travel back steel. C TECHNIQUE BUBBLER TECHNIQUE Figure 4-1. the test second the first 1/4 that reflection screen velocity appear The on the that reflec- is about on the for of aluminum oscilloscope setting water-path screen of this and to four is 1/4 automatic to clear A rule inch. This through test pear tions. path Careful cause misinterpretation. SUPPLY WHEEL-TRANSDUCER T . for is done is particularly V oscilloscope setting confusion recording of unwanted the water operations. plus area adjusted done so that ttme required required front front screen the water distance is gated distance to send the soundbeam will not surface therefore.WATER-FILLED TEST SPECIMEN TIRE [ 0 . specimen. In water. of water path part. inch metal of the when and area shows This distance is the distance between than properly. Figure 4-2. Figure relationship. Water-Path Distance Adjustment 4-6 . between the the time the face the of the transducer for the surface and as first or equal sound and the test surface.NSO. through the apone of is usually When oscilloscope sound will 1/4 path in steel. shown signals of thumb correct distance.

Contact soundbeam waves in the surface-wave The the wheel that the axle wheel runs material transmay angled be wheel wheel in a fixed position. be mounted illustrates of the on a stationary stationary in Figure mounting transducer shown straight-beams. bubbler cylindrical regularly-shaped of flowing longitudinal (perpendicular) surface or is adjusted WHEEL-TRANSDUCER wheel-transducer is projected mounted rotate the past The as freely. and tire across is moved ducer. The and method. generating waves. technique for which for are determined shear by the longitudinal waves.as or to project in Figure CONTACT GENERAL techniques wave test TECHNIQUES are mode divided desired: for into three categories. fixture. of plate. material to the to produce soundbeam is usually strip. The BUBBLER bubbler TECHNIQUES is essentially through an automated and other through test surface shear a variation a water system a column for waves. waves immersion test scanning parts. The into the specimen. it. position to project shown technique through in the The soundbeam transducer._ jWHEEL OVER MATERIAL _--J -- MATER.. TIRE _ /_/TRANSDUCER / . Figure and material.WATER-FILLED TIRE WATER-FILLED TRANSDUCER. may is held of the tire immersion into the test method specimen. technique producing . and used in straight-beam angle-beam Rayleigh technique or Lamb transmitting Transducers specimen. Stationary and Moving Wheel Transducers . while apparatus where wheel moving in that the column for of the into high-speed water.AL I MOVES Figure 4-3. is pronormal at an angle the technique is projected used the with forms. jected to the 4.3. on the be mounted the on a mobile or it may 4-3 angle 4-4. soundbeam is directed where The sheet. and the 4-3. TECHNIQUES is an aspect a water-filled axle. constructed beams 402 i.

soundbeam. for more information technique specimen (perpendicular to the pulse-echo This technique the internal received back surface for through interrupt a.straight- Echo beam ducer and produced with single Figure 4-5 shows the single the single unit.SOUND BEAM DIRECTED IN FORWARD DIRECTION i \ =. straight-beam transacts as both transmitter waves into the specimen and projecting receiving echoes lying in the beam surface is rough reflected from the back surface and from any discontinuity path. the transducer a beam of longitudinal unit." SOUND PROPAGATED INTO MATERIAL AT 45 ° ANGLE SOUND BEAM DIRECTED TO THE SIDE 90" SOUND BEAM ANGLED TO THE SIDE AND FORWARD ANGLE OF PROPAGATION POSITION MAY OF WHEEL BE VARIED MOUNTING BY YOKE ADJUSTING Figure these for techniques a eouplant... STRAIGHT-BEAM straight-beam TECHNIQUES is accomplished test surface) by projecting to obtain where in the are a soundbeam reflections into the from test the to test the test. The double transducer unit is useful when the test or when the specimen shape is irregular and the back sur- . held Wheel Transducer contact with Angular the material Capabilities v in direct selected using a thin. Techniques. transmission with two transducers. are The 4-4. causing Echo a reduction reflections is also used discontinuities signal. or double.. The s. to remain is relatively transducers liquid thin. the or from intermediate discontinuities. in use. With receiver. and film test recouplant is high enough in viscosity the eouplant on contact on the surface during fer to Chapter couplant 2. most contact testing. transducers. For 3: Equipment.

back 4-5. sound discontinuiof sound the soundbeam a reduction in this technique._ UNIT // / \\ \__/ / / _.J SOUND REFLECTED BACK TO TRANSDUCER FROM DISCONTINUITY AND BACK SURFACE Figure face the is not parallel other receives. the ties beam in the is picked energy in Figure The travels up at the path reaching the 4-7. Is receiving mitter b. even tzansmits the though receiver the transand unit in Figure discontinuity the In this echoes. Echo One 4-6.J I I I I . unit is not directly reflectors. and the as material surface surface... one on each side of the test specimen One unit unit the acts as a transmitter a soundbeam to the by the cause unit. For opposite receiving best results and into unit.-SOUND REFLECTED TO UNIT RECEIVING / \- Figure 4-6. Technique transducer case. Two transducers are used in the technique.TRANSDUCER t I I I . with as surface Single-Transducer the shown and over front surface. Throu_h-Transmission through-transmission shown receiver. RECEIVING TRANSMITTING UNIT. in the the the Any amount other as a transmitter through opposite receiving of the projects material. Double-Transducer Echo Technique .. Techniques.

testing. sulfate receiver TECHNIQUES is used test material titanate technique angle to the test Usually. Through-Transmission Technique available generaLor of acoustic energy. For example. According be mixed transducers selected. Shear-Wave Technique . 4-8 from 4-7. in the to transmit may sound waves to the are longitudinal into angle used the and test shear. To avoid coneffects encountered with strai_ht-beam trans- TRANSDUCER TRANSDUCER / / \ \ / / Figure 4-8. predetermined or surface surface. Is the best unit selected. material the shear at a wave only. The modes Figure fusion ANGLE-BEAM angle-beam produced modes. is the a barium unit. in angle-beam shear-wave shows an angle-beam unit dead-zone and near-zone scanning plate and pipe material. lithium 3. best available receiver of acoustic transmitter unit is used with a selected.TRANSMITTING UNIT UNIT i _DISCONTINUITY REDUCES AMOUNT OF ENERGY TO RECEIVING UNIT Figure transmitter unit and the receiver energy.

unable markings in steel techniques for of the or tubing. Allowances of penetration Angle-beam material. of large. specimen discontinuities RayIeigh surface-wave material. the the test. This In the may the test be too large to fit in the is moved case require Figure i 4-9. in the 403 1. this rupted flected unit.ducers. proceeds is reof the shape trans- In technique. Surface-Wave Technique 4-11 . to generate is shown in Figure PREPARATION GENERA test L Ultrasonic mine ment fixed the preparations technique. where ducers indicate 4. direction of irregular Angle-beam by an arrow straight-beam soundbeam waves. encountered. material the beam are made at an acute boundaries. to contact that for show shear and all is reduced soundbeam. reverses when which placing are by successive back path pipe are the zig-zag to the for taken specimen it is interangle-beam testing by a discontinuity to account the by the units or boundary effective sheet by case and are length plate where transducer. portable For appropriate specimen may then. of technique. The parts with the a thickness soundbeam deflections less enters than the from 5/8 test the inch are tested with angle-beam angle until direction the used and and because for units. project beam are waves the is technique test specimens The FOR soundbeam reflected. tank. identified angle specimens surface. and of refraction SURFACE-WAVE surface-wave into For test the test TECHNIQUES requires where transducers surface-wave TESTING special at a grazing near-surface are used technique angle-beam angle where or transducers almost all surface that of the surface 4-9. test specimen available to deterequipexample. testing begin Many unit with variables an examination components affect to the are the test immersion of the selected choice site. zig-zag welds. from to perform structures.

material. relatively thin In contact material.). of surface the shape of the specimen. studied in forgings. several unit a lower back may frequency reflections to turn be used. to the forging and crack. High sonic are common standard common discontinuities. (welded. discontinuities transducer example. permit cause In contact penetration a loss testing. of two 3/8-inch the for 15 Mc unit welds testing (no deeper decreases a given For units is raised. more directive. etc. units.testing the test riveted. an operating is established. surface elongated discontinuities usually defect parallel and discontinuities a sample is a longitudinal to metallurgical If possible. test specimen For flow a transducer is carefully example. are used using sensitivity 2 inches). etc. 10 Mc is usually waves resolution and maximum depth of ultra- to greater sensitivity. over resolution the opposite is required. in the rolling is chosen. material. as to the up any most is selected. in the A sample the are the part in immersion Low frequencies but specimen may testing. the number methods of parts of joining to be tested. angle-beam transducers. in specidirection. parts and a permanent test scanning with practical. or a high- is required. number technique odd-lot some When equipment. Each covers a large an immersion One-of-a-Mnd case will or require automatic be tested most test. 15 Mc frequency. the nature bonded. The temporarily. testing program is desirable. testing. analysis. are applied it obtained. and of identical with jobs study setting its may Other test factors are: roughness. transducer (10 to 25 Mc for immersion and 5 to 10 total number of back reflections. be necessary frequency 3. is sectioned FREQUENCY test frequencies the subjected SELECTION are an advantage frequency. scan. If there is no Successively If near-surface retest following from and lower frequencies side. to and a reference determine laminar plate the men 2. test of near-surface soundbeam is used to evaluate penetration with a high-frequency Mc for contact) and observing back until may echo. or probable found to the parallel plate are in pipe and portable recording contact efficient frequency The If the record may testing technique. be suitable. for for high-speed greater than in the In immersion transducer transducer areas diameter spreading other considerations scanning to detect in detecting Note that the include gross small with other the possibility of using or. 4-12 . lines. a paintbrush a focused beamis and discontinuities. as the one frequency in near-surface diameter. test 10 Mc and testing. the low-frequency TRANSDUCER transducer previous SELECTION is largely governed by the optimum frequency as determined selection paragraph.

is familiar acteristics of the several times. test hole. to clarify to familiarize Reference variations in to with basic operating Vs operating and design. studied cases. a watertight cable end to the upper end of the cable to the scanner "R" tube. to differ sample determine artificial to serve From and nature matched the test specimen discontinuities in the indications received specimen nature to metallurgical probable or notches are found which specimen. The TYPICAL following IMMERSION immersion components immersion Figure 4-10 TESTING PROCEDURE begins for the to Chapter immersion is adequate operator that for these with 3: the assumption testing Equipment. The the testing by an intelligent theory. study discontinuities. introduced in other establishes In all application cases. b. test in Chapter provided specimen For analysis. TESTING GENERA following operator PROCEDURES L procedures for immersion procedures manuals and contact used testing in ultrasonic are intended testing. discontinuities as a basis these studies. c. test discontinuities is determined in the test by careful an acceptance material program number the true and magnitude of the of discontinuities is determined of the specimen a sensible 404 1. Connect Connect instrument d. In some specimens. Turn the the coaxial other panel.4. use in this with the procedure operating be repeated as a charfor that system all are testing tank. shows metal Until procedure Refer a typical of the required assembled requirements. on the of the coaxial receptacle instrument on and allow it to warm up for a few minutes. 4-13 . acoustic block. of the for material form in the comparison are standards adequate or nearly from from subjected and with level allowed is established its of holes are for described many test in the block in detail situations. distance the new simulated specimen. REFERENCE ultrasonic These properties In most from test the cases. the Make tube and sure the O-ring is in place transducer. sample the and the 3: the test likely a to Commercial Equipment. specific equipment r manufacturer nomenclature is recommended 2. A test block with test of equipment immersion at the equipment a 3-inch system. of basic sample this and into the are reason. Install it is recommended procedures the transducer for on the lower end of the connection scanner between tube. a. system. the STANDARDS reference standards are matched responses is sectioned.

Lower scanner tube. .__ TRANSDUCER <_ )! j>_ .. These (a) controls Intensity.. . signal amplitude.Adjust Off. into the water block surface. so that the f. Frequency Sensitivity Pulse Pulse Sweep RejectSweep .e. (io) If required. above the test as follows: frequency.. Delay Minimum.Set initial pulse at first index mark on left side of sc r e e n. left end nently screen TANK WITH MOTORIZED frequent minimum care spot on the intensity in adjusting. by adjusting transducer face is about 2 inches Position (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) instrument panel controls the manipulator.Tune for for 2-inch maximum division. on the . visible inner trace face with of the no bright cathode-ray on the spot at unit may be adjusted.--SCANNER TUBE .Low.. LengthTuning . (8) Markers(9) Test (Normal Off. burn for a line long level Transmission) controls require for Use or of brilliant periods. display adjustment...ANIPULATOR TEST SPECIMEN SUPPORT FOR TEST SPECIMEN Figure 4-10. 4-14 Typical Immersion System . g.Set to transducer .. as it is possible to remain to permatube if a high BRIDGE is allowed _._. Place test block in tank on underwater support.. or Through screwdriver do not Adjust of trace. 20% of range.Normal._.

Note that the __= move the scanner distance between tube slightly up and the first front-surface Some of the as fast as the multiples water-travel the test block. the pips distance between applicable. block.) % I /TEST [J r1 . surface distance. so that Adjust as the the soundbeam transducer signals 4-11. are called Adjust water the (second distance BACK SURFACE m J TRANSDUCER OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN.(b) Horizontal screen. and horizontal over by the (normal) Place trace ltne each at zero for scribe line. Normal to Test Surface 4-15 . the sured of the oscilloscope visible screen. Vertical Focus vertical Positioning. and Astigmatism. and the first move These frontmovement back reflection remains constant.. unless As pulse dial face is the sweep which left is always is used tt to the The sweep in Figure frontso that measurface top water-travel next pip to the distance (where (2 inches) reflection. Transducer Adjustment. on the the two pips is the to Preset) same and as the the measured of 2 inches between j. L. initial the screen transducer switch off the of the screen. indide- interrupted the top the from the hole test perpendicular to the surfaces left pulse side surface to obtain maximum amplitude shown in Figure This more shown is the is the first and bottom pip at the the initial large to move of the of the and right io Observe cation lay 4-11. across the screen at a rate twice fast-moving surface INITIAL PULSE observed pips will other indications. of the sharpest trace h° Move is not from the transducer an area flat-bottomed test block (FBH). Place sweep start at the left edge of the (c) (d) Positioning.) L. Observe to the right of the first front-surface reflection. Figure 4-11. on both Adjust lines. and subsequent by vertical pips reflections). Adjust distance test block. down over reflection Using the manipulator.

vertical water multiple reflections._-_----'-]_ TOP SURFACE SURFACE OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN Figure .of the scanner tube first front and first k. front-surface width of the the reflection. 4-12. to the left is posias at the left __ _. In Figure INITIAL PULSE -. Position the Adjust SWEEP to move the first reflection first back reflection under screen. the initial The first grid line does not appear between the Adjust SWEEP DELAY and off the oscilloscope tioned shown under the first 4-12. Align square the last 4-13. so that the back-surface to move screen. Sweep Adjustment . Sweep Delay back Adjustment to the right. as shown in Figure the entire MARKERS. wave vertical grid The material markers may with line at the right side of the depth is presented across of depth the is desired. The If measurement markers be expanded TOP SURFACE ___ BACK SURFACE PE = Figure 4-16 4-13._ _ pulse and the water path front-surface reflection side of the screen. edge or contracted turn as on leading of the first V screen.

testing of material the a suitable transducer frequency on instrument. STANDARDIZING is defined the responses which and the Select tested. equipment two Hitt (distance/amplitude) blocks of the same material should being have tested a metal and a 3/64-inch test blocks in the immersion tank. Adjust of one from inches. pip. the fiat inches laterally bottom Move or centimeters until (FBH).desired m. for the and being to Set up equipment. refer to step f. Water multhe transducer multiple reflections. the as shown if the 4-14. IMMERSION matching the test those Standardizing block acoustic with as the from match or gain standard case. the water-travel surface so that distance transducer (second the first are twice the front-surface front and the screen. inch. as fast maximum The as the height pips the reflection) indication or pip does not appear first back-surface reflections. a combined in Figure 4-17 . from the multiple between tiple the pips match should the front the first be 1/2 block. in the response the material. except is shorter second block that the metal transducer and normal face block. warm b. down across the indication Move the signal first and the observing screen assures the FBH.) The should distance c. of the test is set and turn the depth maximum Increase back and screen. over to the of the the upper surface Adjust to the block of the longest including the No. flat-bottomed One block distance (Note: If the metal distance of the longest available test block than the thickness of the test specimen. the slightly water surface. 3 FBH. pip is 1 inch. the Once actual type allow reference block system may the test has is begin. Position off-center. response is received gain For to produce plus at least for measured a minimum one height of the pip from example: FBH second half-height pip height the FBH. transducer oscilloscope TESTING of responses specimen. sensitivity properly. SYSTEM from In this specimen. nearest diameter to the thickness of the hole (FBH). as the material in the test specimen. L_ transducer A maximum front-surface serve the soundbeam of back-surface laterally instrument full-height until is normal number maximum or sensitivity the FBH. is received for the the FBH from desired and Move the signal observe test hole the on the sensitivity over forth indications THE 3. from of the block. 2 inches. same top surface the pips up and move Manipulate This purpose. the test properties standardized. a. Place Select material up. strength second FBH of 3 pip pip is transwater other to the will identified by moving oscilloscope at a rate to produce that ducer d. to represent the transducer block amplitude.

hole drilled Practice and are of the flat-bottomed proceed Disregard step testing. are With is manufactured matching 3/64-inch accordance continue the with d.e. material diameter with with test steps the the test lower the distance than test The the of the block base. block (Note: (which of Due 1/2-inch near-zone actual of these step. blocks. If there either pulse or lengthen B FRONT-SURFACE FLAT-BOTTOM PIP HOLE PIP PIP HOLE PIP . increase sensitivity are that to obtain from he will thickest a matching to detect combined received instrument which operator size be able area hole with discontinuities. worthwhile. same height specimen the flat-bottomed is shorter thickness dimensions. specimen.). height minimum display is produced. up the E 127-64. height. of first with FBH When setting both If the pips ) not reach pips full height. the than (for produced the step Meain the com- and compare pips is less combined combined displayed height of both in the or signals of the previous combined of the example: both of the in the blocks. observe FBH pip FBH check whether as in the may pips the second the test step.) this. step the and in the (f. metal a special length. longest block being to in step To remedy to the ASTM c. of back-surface the back-surface reflection. or sensitivity. pips the the pips the assures equal the and first settings. to make block c. test test 3 inches). block. ducer special required block in the Recommended through set as the e. the of attenuation. Standardizing Indications E BACK-SURFACE FLAT-BOTTOM WATER-MULTIPLE PIP ° Figure 4-18 4-14. . Without has one sure height previous bined less the than and changing metal one-half height the FBH instrument distance).: OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN JJl IL. for increase Perform pips. over the longest If it is not considered equipment being tested. available steps Move pips duration. and V the transevidence the until gain mateof the in This test rial is not required (referred tested. in the near-zone to the following unless b. and second height the proper the gain previous to the effect. available of the and machined this block. f. material and observe over material and observe of back and number is a loss frequency.

the Reference TYPICAL following CONTACT contact Figure Plate new testing 4-15 shows for TESTING procedure for use a typical with PROCEDURE begins the contact procedure operating contact the with the testing system.Set initial pulse at first index mark on left side of COUPLANT__----_'_'_ /TESTSPECIMEN t II I1 II I Figure x_. system.Set to transducer . 10% of range.Adjust . b. turn for 1-inch frequency (5 Mc). on the instrument opposite panel. the instrument instrument on and panel contact on the allow control it to warm sas follows: up for a few minutes. cable.Tune for from minimum.- 4-15. Typical Contact System 4-19 . . Turn procedures cable be repeated to the "R" receptacle transducer a 5 Mc straight-beam. 4. . assumption system are An ASME as a simulated characteristics several times. The test Until required area. Position (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Frequency Sensitivity Pulse Pulse Sweep Reject Sweep screen. end of the that all the in the Ultrasonic specimen. Connect Install coaxial c. it components of equipment assembled Standard test of the is adequate that the these coaxial in this operator is familiar is recommended a. Proceed with testing. maximum division.Low. signal amplitude. Delay .several back-surface pips are obtained. Length Tuning . d.Off.Quarter .

Set control so that the back-surface pip is 3 inches high.I COUPLANT f. Move the transducer back and forth over the oiled surface and observe the changes shown on the screen. Vary SWEEPcontrols to causethe back reflection to move to the left toward the initial pulse. Turn REJECT OFF for remainder of test. Short pulse increases resolution. Vary the PULSE LENGTH control and study the action displayed on the screen. or more depth in the material. In other words. Place a few drops of couplant (oil) on edge surface of test plate opposite large test hole. (9) Test (Normal or Through Transmission) . Note that the smallest pips disappear completely when enoughreject is applied. O ASME ULTRASONIC REFERENCE PLATE O O II II Figure 4-16. Position the transducer over the large hole in the test block and vary the amplitude of the indications by adjusting the SENSITIVITY control. e.Off.(8) Markers . REJECT is used to clip off "grass" or unwantedsignals as shownin Figure 4-17. g. Contact Testing iI II Reference II Ii II Plate 4-20 . h. Move transducer to area of test block where hole reflection pips are eliminated. Hold transducer in contact with test block at oiled surface as shownin Figure 4-16. as shownin Figure 4-18. Observe that more pips appear and move in from the right side of the screen. Turn on the REJECT control and observe the effects on the display. The new pips are multiples of the first back reflection and are equally spaced on the trace. Only the initial pulse and the back reflection are shownon the screen. The SWEEP controls may be adjusted to enable the operator to see more time..DUCER _. if the metal distance from top to TRAN_. i.A. Observe indications or pips appearing on the oscilloscope screen.Normal. and long pulse increases penetration.

the alternate MARKER._ACE PiP SWEEP Figure _-J 4-18. travel transducer ten as 4-17. the ALTERNATE to position DISPLAY the marker SHIFT trace VERTICAL just below control._ /SURFACE PULsEINITIA[\f _".REJECT OFF ON Figure bottom is 6 inches. Obbelow 60 inches of soundbeam j. trace. Back-Reflection Multiples 4-21 . Remove serve the (1) the main Turn marker (2) Adjust the beam the reflected block markers as test appearance trace line. line. INITIAL _ /BACK _/FIRST BACK /1/PULSE/ _ " /. the main with trace a screwdriver. square-wave markers and VERNIER Adjust FINE follows: controls clockwise and observe MARKER widening. multiples the from of Reject Control of the is back Effects reflection back and turn on the and on represents forth.

". I . left off at As to see to be onto switch to the moved material with combinations.. OFF. i J I ' I FULL SQUARE I i Figure 4-19. the measuring two or more square is fully understood. block. to coincide (4) Replace initial SWEEP side just 4-19. enables permits the limited to a specific the screen. the first initial Only pulse a small the ko Vary side the SWEEP of the screen delay or less as of the DELAY screen. 4-22 Marker Adjustment .. measurement example. several waves waves. and set the SENSITIVITY a 2 1/2-inch as shown in Figure 4-21. marker appear initial until the square waves. in the test block.(3) Adjust start the of the the pulse ALTERNATE to set initial the pulse. PULSE< \//_SUR FACE PIP I i . edge transducer and the back first with controls between on the back test block are at first at an area shown at last index of the index mark initial where mark on left as only the Adjust right Adleading reflection pulse three leading on the screen. I.. shown and in Figure edge pulse of the back transducer reflection.. of the to move that the 4-20. to position reflection full on the side. length delay in previous "i. reflection to become display the back sweep discussed more It is important to understand sweep Sweep material. BACK INITIAL _/FIRST I . I UP I . viewed back operator area pulse area of the on the the the initial of hole for test by (5) Move counting until for the number use of scale distance of markers. DISPLAY start of the SHIFT first HORIZONTAL marker control. Move Position the transducer to obtain over the largest hole hole signal. and the MARKER reflection has familiar screen. shown block sweep or and time controls Observe in Figure is visible. the of screen. over test block full hole Try square and measure to the Turn back depth other inch. index marks. with with the a screwdriver. length step area material.

COMPARABLE SIZE OF SIGNAL HOLE Figure MJ 4-21. that of signal amplitude control is related and Turn ject cult the on the REJECT may affect its signal use from CONTACT testing repeat lineartty. 4-20. of the the difference that in the the transducer of the hole over height signals.. The ANGLE-BEAM angle-beam INITIAL _ TESTING procedure /HOLE PROCEDURE is similar to the previous procedure used contact SENSITIVITY ADJUSTED FOR 2-1/2-INCH _. / INCREASED S ---_ EXPOSEDwEEPDELAY _ Figure Move the height m.. it is best and the 5. step of the "1. " The size test Observe control use is used of rewith diffichecking amplitude make the If reject both reject to leave discretion.. in Figure Observe discontinuity.. the Sweep smallest as shown Delay hole to the Effect and size observe 4-21.BACK T A INII L PULSE SURFACE / / PIP MOVED TO LEFT SIDE OF REEN SC _ _J!____ . test block of a discontinuity it on while specimen. .. responses may evaluation is used.__TIM E SEGMENT. Test Hole Size Comparision 4-23 . or impossible..

in Figure at equal Hold 4-22. . Adjust across SWEEP the transducer LENGTH on the so that oiled five surface reflections 4-22. Select a 5 Mc straight-beam transducer and connect it to the instrument coaxial cable.I..Quarter .Set initial pulse at first index mark on left side of (8) (9) c. Delay . 20% of range.W. IIW Test Block. Basic Sweep Length Adjustment .for straight-beam testing. An I. A IN. and allow it to warm as follows: up for a few minutes. MarkersTest (Normal drops . screen as shown in Figure © O m m 0 _L O--. a.Low.Tune for from minimum. except that the soundbeamenters the test material at an angle to the surface contacted. (International Institute of Welding) test block is recommended for use in this procedure as a simulated test specimen. b.Adjust . maximum division. 2 8 10 TRANSVERSE Figure 4-24 4-22.-------- "7-4 6 WAVES. Place Off. turn for 2-inch frequency (5 Mc). intervals the a few straight-beam d.Off. signal amplitude. or Through of couplant Transmission) (oil) on edge .Normal. Set the Turn on instrument instrument controls (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Frequency Sensitivity Pulse Pulse Sweep Reject Sweep screen. Length Tuning .Set to transducer . surface as of test shown appear block.

Note the distance betweenthe 4-inch mark andthe back reflection pip. instrument is standardized to positions at each shown. Observe the location of the back reflection received from the test block arc. maximum to a test the k. Is exactly sweep and transducer 4-25. to those Reshown as necessary indications g. reflection sensitivity amplitude Now that the of the m m i 4 I O --J "III 0 'III 2 III 4 II 6 _[I-I 1 Ill 8 it11 I0 ----I A A = SOUND PATH LENGTH IN LUCITE B Figure _'_ 4-23. Place test the block transducer.25 Mc anglebeam transducer. Remove the straight-beam transducer and replace it with a 2. Adjust SWEEP LENGTH so that the reflection from the arc occurs at the 4inch mark. Increase the instrument sensitivity to sucha level that reflections from the 0. f. in Figure J.and to obtain 9-inch marks on the similar screen. Distance on the screen now accurately represents distance of soundtravel in the test block. Place the angle-beam transducer on the test block as shown in Figure 4-23. These signals are normal and shouldnot be confused with signals from discontinuities or the back reflection. the initial pulse is broadened and small signals appear close behind it. angle-beam in Figure reflection specification.e. adjust that the Move the given sensitivity ts obtained in each the for each In the of the indication control specification. This is a result of reverberations within the plastic wedge on the transducer. I. h. These adjust reflections instrument 4-24. When on the until working of the occur near the 8. This is the distance represented by soundtravel in the Lucite wedge on the transducer. 060-inch hole andthe 90° groove in the test block can be recognized. IIW Test Block. until the indicated position. Reset frequency control on instrument panel. Lucite Wedge Sound-Path Measurement 4-25 . Note that with the angle-beam unit.

between scanning the scanning until a discontinuity / © -. Checking V 4-26 . the the skip With path acoustic be tested. test alongside touching screen. IIW Test Block. 1 k 0 1 2 . surface unit 4-26. to completely transducer Continue and Contact. the properties Place weld. center the Figure weld. Sensitivity in a steel steel plate plate by on 1/2 seam.3 4 t'". C Indications steel angle-beam the and 5 6 7 8 tt on the 9 10 Figure the may 4-24. move shown scan in the test in a zig-zag progressing with remain is other. o 1 2 Sensitivity 8 9 10 4-25. as to the from of the centerline mark specimen the path.-. must a good uniform located.. distance the from along couplant. of the the from block. _.]- =- L 7 Figure Illilll 8 IIW 9 Test I0 D Block. along the aid Determine on the plate marks full on to the skip observing distance the weld the soundbeam indications one at a finger Draw and of the one the chalk test 2 chalk one at the parallel skip the distance transducer. L . unit Increased a butt-weld butt-welded of the reduced seam.

under the transducer. The calculator has of the soundbeam. Weld Test testing in the Scanning is shown weld. .THE THICKNESS OF THE PLATE. The slider has been adjusted for been adjusted so that the entry point coincides with the 0 point on the the exact thickness of the plate E . path the in butt-weld discontinuity would require a sliding curately by making that a scale considerable calculator This is avoided duc er. instrument is shown at the top. trans- The using soundbeam locate trigonometry. 4-26. center calculator. Path in Figure time and 4-27.THE EXACT ANGLE OF THE BEAM. rule._CHALK MARKS Figure I. and the of the The bottom The part of the of the illusscreen a section shows of the a plan position soundbeam. E T . i _ __. Butt-Weld Testing with Angle--Beam Transducer 4-27 ._ I _ I Figure 4-27.THE ENTRY POINT OF THE SO'UND BEAM. m. unnecessary over the To acsketch or by effort.. by using is mounted Figure tration The 4-28 shows shows area how the calculator weld view area works.

transducer requires They are not inter- a 45 ° angle-beam TEST RESULTS a 45 ° calculator._ _ I . I I lllJ_"-I _I 1 41 . \ I . discontinuities from standard These orientation.I DISCONTINUITY I LOCATION r--- / / I i I 15MM.NIT. The position discontinuity is read point on the rule.OSCILLOSCOPE SCREEN _ .3_. 405 i. and angle to related or compared depths having shape.. I cil_ _ _----. . as contact cause be resolved roughness. used in the field. sometimes difficulty probable material.f ../r_uL. I .g.<..t "_._ " 35MM SCALE OF SHEET J I J' " . position.. These calculators are available for each of the various angles in standard e. location of an unknown . I I o._ I / I . I I''% .. DEPTH OF DISCONTINUITY I I . such the may type impedance the which to the are the test discontinuities of ultrasonic with phenomena reference contour.. representing off the the beam screen. all considered from 4-28._/ / I '1 TEST SPECIMEN • " Figure (30mm) on the the same thickness fracted changeable. Ultrasonic are rate usually for bottomed nuities. Weld with of the Inspection the sloping Calculator line. OF angle-beam transducers. indications Impedance of incidence 4-28 subsurface to those or diameters.I i i I IL • I l_\x I . test within blocks comparisons and and the test are specimen flatfairly accuof discontidifficult ultrasonic conditions.AL PULSE---__ 1t11111 B I I nl _ " .. interpret. INTERPRETATION GENERAL test holes evaluating Test are This to the of the are indications of varying the size. themselves..DISCONTIN UITY ECHO .5/. path. and size by experience surface the in relating of discontinuity when evaluating surface attenuation. and at re- at Its intersection rule. I _" TRANSDUCER / I_ BEAM PATH '. the depth of the discontinuity is read on the scale.. conditions.

be determined an indication. or total Indications. from with The actual block and to the learns to discriminate which are called indications of no interest. the of discontinuity amplitudes test of the are is moved surface on A-scan from with pulse-echo from surfaces the the of the specimen of the larger over does reflection so that test than the has discontinuity the test units. soundbeam transmitted discontinuity. between false the the discontitest speci- nuity men. is determined pared energy. 2. relationship continuity comparison Figure indications reflections. when comthat saturates the display. nearly the all The of the dimensions but is three4-29 sound of the is moved as shown discontinuity discontinuity reflection is typical. are of back are the Individual by analysis reflection. in Figure the still partial may receiving 4-31. by comparing as smooth the estimated the In this amplitude refracted. discontinuities usually test-block within in the the hole than of reflection a discontinuity. distance the crystal an indication meaning.30. surface distance INDICATIONS displayed amplitude compared the of the as the size that case. encountered materials discontinuities fiat and plane its to the as well relatively the display the maintained. of the crystal the surface and crystal specimen the energy size extent that the are article. with bottom smaller eter. ! . it are test actual block. the discontinuity is not may satu- indication since the reflection. and that TEST generally of three are As not the factors: small. discontinuity transmitted turned nuity With rate through a.discontinuity i by its a test experienced defects echo amplitude. Small Discontinuity in the Indications. of wrought ingot The shown block are to the to the forces in Figure test flat-bottomed east A significant aluminum rolled. size. usually produce Since loss the of back If the Discontinuities an indication reflects the distance that are large. as the large with by the of time plane. TYPICAL test IMMERSION indications. similar operator those in alloy. A loss amplitude no quantitative is evidence is maintained of back or reflected does with used small from indicate the the or absence is absorbed. small. while b. no back is not reof the disconti- not determine discontinuities. also The simplest shape. by measuring transducer discontinuity is not fiat. diamechoes of a flata bit diamwhile of the the Immersion interpreted loss eter. this method the loss Discontinuities test-specimen block discontinuity is generally evaluated is still the length in one sound crystal. or irrelevant indications. Evaluating comparison discontinuities. block hole The number relatively or extruded tend Such part. method and back is to compare reflections. transducer and evaluated echoes. of the discontinuities Foreign wafer-thin the disby in into in ultrasonic or porosity during of the testing fabrication. to orient in fabricating discontinuity indication and its a range parallel are of test amplitude a discontinuity of the as shown ultrasonic indication with 4. Large Discontinuity with the crystal size. used surface are forged. of the 4-29.

over close and together. the article lying back possibility be tested of two discontinuities. of the the Force-Oriented third side.FRONT SURFACE _DISCONTINUITY / BACK SURFACE \ DISCONTINUITY _o_ _r-_'_\ Figure dimensional. the scanning extent from 4-29. all four is suspected. 1/64 2/64 3/64 4/64 5/64 6/64 7/64 8/64 Figure 4-30 4-30. article the dimension If the may Discontinuity may _ Indication __o_c_ be determined from by turning sides. Amplitude Range of 1/64 to 8/64 Flat-Bottomed Holes .

Reduced Back Reflection from Porosity 4-31 . Figure and the indications 4-32 shows the displayed from a FRONT SURFACE ---J I. indications and a dispersion received from fine precipitate test specimen. particles. Loss when among the of Back causes 4-31.--- SOUND TEST SPECIMEN • j FRONT SURFACE \ BACK SURFACE / TEST POROUS SPECIMEN Figure v 4-32.FRONT SURFACE BACK SURFACE FRONT SURFACE DISCONTINUITY I A llll /I I FAE Figure c. in the absence of reduction of very a sound Evaluating of significant or loss it occurs discontinuities. Large Discontinuity loss of back Indication of back individual reflection. reflection are: is most large imIn this grain size. portant case. Reflection. porosity.

depth. it is a good amplitude Reflections tween the is the given toured moved indication toured suspected in localized transducer face piece sharp edges within times from machined transducer FRONT Note that the back reflections from the porous plate When of all the considering indications indications that is passing are over that the may test be irrelevant. located over of sheet spike to be reflections reflections. are reduced considerably. the were surface SURFACE indication SURFACE IRREVELANT METAL SPOON IS INSERTED IRRELEVANT INDICATION AT POINT A TO ELIMINATE POINT A m v TRANSDUCER / . Irrelevant Indication from A Contoured Surface . remained to a smooth was moved indications of the of the to be reflections a discontinuity. transducer as the flat-area Where or false contoured in Figure edge type to decrease from an actual will tend with increases. indication At the amplitude of the area the diminish increase. in befrom which at a from a conis of the the conof the is strong as the suras a to a the are is will plate As the relasomesuch Near specimen. of indication part. of the to false rise time the area flat cause within the from spurious required test indications for specimen. a thick appeared with which a contoured as contrasted may off by interrupting shown likely This edge finish. of back when shiny object If a suspected indication surface. the 4-33. same distance surface. of the front will the may result in responses sometimes mistaken for result from sound from indication as the time. same the received to return will Moving discontinuities. is moved be shielded metal. over surface signal sound a discontinuity results the transducer amplitude over amplitude back discontinuity to be consistent around a foreign pips. to be suspicious while unusually consistent displayed reflections at a time appearance transducer from fillets and concave surfaces front and back surfaces which are These as the the flat the will areas. article plate. reflection.. aluminum received. For 1/3 Articles surface. spurious about the BACK / example. indication soundbeam from with usually Reflections Broad-based a contoured no loss occurs smooth. observed.similar specimen with porosity. Irrelevant rule and Indications. [ //"'_'_ __CONTOUR A Figure 4-32 4-33. sometimes transducer surfaces of the with indications. the of rectangular 1/2-inch give shapes. d. or pip. an irrelevant along as are the a reflection surface.

(high lated. the large at a comparatively The to evaluate soundbeam surface. around is manipuIn this a relatively along in distance at an angle the discontinuity manipulation to the surface display Bursts is intended principal but lie as the smooth to the is moved fit this of sound in large of 45 ° to the f. Grain Size Indications 4-33 . indications abnormally Unusually indications. it is best to detect the area to scan angled-plane of the plane. Discontinuities oriented with plane at an angle to the front surface _ire sometimes difficult to detect Usually. the because category. extremely Apparently smooth the this surface. at an angle transducer forgings to cause With initially discontinuity. received large large as shown from grain-size grain the size same results in the 4-34. base line Angled-Plane Discontinuity Indications. film in shape generated They are and magnitude. surface type with of indication possibly wax crayon results from a on the eliminated jelly. Size the Indications. surface. type test specimen same with of back loss Grain note "hash" In some _ in Figure In the of material in a total © FRONT SURFACE BACK SURFACE FINE-GRAIN STEEL FRONT SURFACE __"HASH" (FROM PHOTOMICROGRAPHS) SURFACE / COARSE-GRAIN STEEL Figure 4-34. illustration. may fine produce grain.tively surface nearby thin uniform waves edge. to strike that indication tend the have moves change to lie gain setting discontinuities. principal evaluate. their and sensitivity). at right fiat. or noise clear cases. discontinuities of the and high transducer its magnitude. reflecting from by coating or a very of petroleum e. case. the angles of the travel. later.

soundbeam because is separated such path. or high temperature during hot working and subsequentimproper annealing of the test specimen. specimen Discontinuity initial of the Figure where With As of the in immersion discontinuity display. pip by the separation the because when pulse. responses obscures transducers. are is near in contact testing. in Figure may obstruction the block. pulse. and variadifficult loss article of are all indications. of as a In as shown may be entering no reflections testing. factors a. produce irrelevant effects that are sometimes testing. to detect. Dead-Zone Interference _ I . In immersion of these be achieved near-surface interference.. Contact cussed discussion TYPICAL test in the CONTACT TEST in many paragraphs when contact INDICATIONS instances. from the signal surfaces amplitude.reflection. Only the by inserting front displayed a standoff. similar to those Little to immersion disindications. of the to the initial test the initial pulse at the front surface of the test specimen of coupling. are similar test are or identical indications. surface indications. test initial material. contact 4-35. initial pulses be effective discontinuities a comparison discontinuity Typical INITIAL PULSE by the ringing Typical Indications.r r \ TEST SPECIMEN I r Figure 4-34 4-35. previous be given will on immersion indications additional Interference from tions in efficiency to recognize back major reflection. of the and in contact used of the The during water pulse Dead-Zone the by the front-surface can testing. distance in evaluation Indications. after from plastic most difficult pulse "tail" applied b. These conditions are usually brought about by prolonged or improper forging temperatures. dead which path.SU RFACE TRANSDUCER_ f /_II DEAD ZONE FRONT SURFACE_ _ I . initial-pulse 4-36 the shows zone is the length are initial the of the pulse testing. discontinuities the short straight-beam near-surface Shortening obscured of long and the surface. indications _IBACK \/" encountered in ultra- _/. 3.

with the B shows as porosity cracks are Figure is located weld the in the and 4-41 4-39. seam tions shear by a reduction reflection reflections testing of indicated.NU. same between the back In angle-beam zones reflections of the which detected clearly for weld.SCONT. those sheet from and Long and Short Pulse found Effects on Display as in back shown in Figand flaking. display such as nonmetallic in Figure forging the cracks. A illustrates plate and view B shows a reduction in the distance when the transducer is moved over the lamination. as shown zones. the The fusion weld a 4-38. produce when fusion center slag a discontinuity 4-40. bursts. Typical Contact Test Discontinuity Indications 4-35 . received Laminations multiples normal received welds. #1 CRACK FLAKING SEAM Figure 4-37. a satisfactory in view but in this commonly case. plate are View seams. from a discontinuities inclusions.TY PEC. discontinuities indicausing indi- as shown wave with in Figure sometimes shows an angle-beam a surface-wave I D O B I D B INITIAL PULSE REFLECTION DISCONTINUITY i - 1-11 NON-METALLIC INCLU$1ON 17K] _. has weld A of Figure area is shown View such Surface transducer. shown in forgtngs._BABLE RESONANCE LONG PULSE . include in rolled as shown 4-36.MEN TEST S SHORT PULSE IITY Figure sonic ure testing 4-37..

Effect of Lamination on Back-Reflection Multiples WELD NEAR EDGE DISCONTINUITY FAR EDGE A B Figure 4-39. Weld Indications Using Angle-Beam Contact Techniques SEAM POROSITY SLAG \ \ Figure 4-36 4-40.kj VIEW A VIEW B Figure 4-38. Porosity and Slag Indications in Weld Seam .

single test or transmitted Figure using not interfere indications transit time advantage separation angle-beam transducer.BACK SURFACE REFLECTION '. I \_ \ \/ / II ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER TO ENTRANT BEAM REFLECTED AWAY NOT FROM BY A SURFACE SURFACE. causes when reflections the test or "hash" Irrelevant the width Indications.. pulse shows 4-42 With does the The pitch-and-catch with received testing.. across in Figure is attempted INITIAL PULSE CRACK IRFACE WAVE INDICATION g Figure 4-41. specimen. Two-Transducer Indications 4-37 kj . resolution. FROM TO SURFACE / '..cation using tion. near-surface the left 4-43 Lucite a relatively two transducers. of the display. recepfrom soundthe in two transducers./ I I "-._-__ ECHOES SURFACES PARALLEL I ENTRANT RETURN TO TRANSDUCER. . Surface Crack Indication Using Angle-Beam Technique /TRANSMITTING /RECEIVING TRANSMITTED PULSE TRANSDUCER_TRANSDUCER DISCONTINUITY //?. / .02 to improve through to the Figure of the of the is moved in the shows immersion an indication a discontinuity material. ducers beam initial inch from as with are when pulse below c. PARALLEL Figure r • 4-42.'. the surface in the the surface initial of the test specimen.. / I I _\ \ / / ..-Y. a crack the thin used passing testing. Coarse-grain as shown material 4-44. wedge same gives way the Paired an additional water-path from transin that occurs only 0.

In testing specimens. transducer surface conversion turning straight ducer. Irrelevant Indication from Cylindrical Specimen . diameter cause soundbeam in Figure by changing A more also to a larger testing waves during straight-beam unwanted INITIAL PULSE DIRECT REFLECTION ADDITIONAL (SPURIOUS) REFLECTION Figure 4-38 4-45. the additional sides 4-46. Coarse or reduce Grain the Indications effect of these unwanted by using when pips of the long test the following face the reflections. When is not will occurs as reflected soundbeam Surface 4-44.DISCONTINUITY 0. echo frequency. in Figure as shown 4-45.02" BELOW SURFACE BACK REFLECTION TRANSMITTED TEST SURFACE Figure 4-43. lessen generated this the frequency direction test surface. Indication of Near-Surface Discontinuity Figure at a high lower transducer. an angle-beam of the backmode and retrans- To eliminate and testing curved appear from shear will change the cylindrical to fit the as shown the waves. striking problem of the soundbeam especially specimens. specimen directive.

INITIAL PULSE BACK LONGITUDINAL REFLECTION S HEA R____. with 4-48. IRFACE WAVE INDICATION i Figure 4-48. _ RECEIVER . transmitted cause movement indication of the to have recognized to move two straight-beam of the This type soundbeam it is possible to the is easily PULSE component receiving of unwanted reflection INITIAL by varying SURFACE WAVE REFLECTION Figure 4-47.. Irrelevant Surface-Wave Indication with Two Transducers 4-39 .... 4-46. when across Irrelevant they the reflect Indication from will the with the from edge Long of the the Bar test Specimen specimen caused a small as transducer. unit shown as shown by the When surfacein the dissurin Movement of the transducer display transducers.___=_-__ . ._ :TED SHEAR WAVE INDICATIONS Figure irrelevant Figure face testing wave Figure wave indications 4-47..__ _.. Irrelevant Surface-Wave Edge Reflection INITIAL PULSE TRANSMITTER..

I Irrelevant Indication from Plastic Wedge A B Figure 4-40 4-50. the apparent discontinuity indication moves away from the initial pulse. As the prolonged ringing effect results in a reduced capability of the system to detect discontinuities. When this happens. Irrelevant Indication from Loose Transducer Crystal . Using angle-beam transducers. the crystal in the transducer may come loose or fracture. a certain amount of unwantedreflections are received from the wedge.tance between the transducers and watching the indication. With continued use. the indication is characterized by a prolonged ringing which addsa "tail" to the initial pulse as shown in Figure 4-50. These indications are shown immediately following the initial pulse in Figure 4-49. INITIAL WEDGE REFLECTI( I Figure 4-49. the transducer is discarded or repaired. Whenthe transducer is lifted off the test specimen. the reflections from within the wedgeare identified becausethey are still present on the display. when the distance is increased.

frequencies.-------_""'" THICKNESS = 1/2 WAVELENGTH (2ND HARMONIC) 2 MEGACYCLES -----.-----THICKNESS _. length resonant and a continuous resonance Standing-wave when frequency the frequency of longitudinal by causing at some for to the from the point.x. of sound beam multiples) checking over are shown the to the test specimen. Standing Wave Patterns 4-41 / i ._1 I = 2 WAVELENGTHS L -- Figure 4-51.. decreases. As primarily but it will thickness when received for also this thickness detect frequency of a given measuring discontinuities material (or its When transmitted to vibrate waves are material... As shown. has of material lying in the with same each energy in the a characteristic is applied cause material test speciof the 4-51. specimen. thickness the formula: is determined TEST SPECIMEN REFLECTED WAVE TR SDUCER 1 MEGACYCLE F / INCIDENT WAVE (FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY) L_-----------_.7. several the wavelength up within patterns related is increased.x..s. wavea range set in Figure Since fundamental a waves into the or fundamental a continuous of increased surge men.. are standing amplitude is varied occurs frequency are indications. waves transducer and standing frequencies the wavelength of the thickness.. frequency. (3RD HARMONIC) 3 MEGACYCLES __ THICKNESS = 1-1/2 WAVELENGTHS 4 MEGACYCLES (4TH HARMONIC) [_ .406 1.-- THICKNESS = 1 WAVELENGTH ------. The two plane as RESONANCE GENERAL resonance sides smooth test as the TECHNIQUE technique and resonant beam surface. -. is used parallel.

that the to Chapter procedure. between fundamental harmonics). from frequency frequency instruover a scale On most and is the fundamental readout difference actual a meter. Connect on the the on instrument allow it to warm and install up a few minutes. Using display. or plate selected for plate. b. instruments harmonics the the using appear an oscilloscope on the between screen any (CRT) as pips.V F --m 2T Where: F ____ fundamental velocity thickness frequency of longitudinal of the material. or a scale over a stroboscopic of charts or tables to compute frequency A constants the frequency The of each difference on the or K table into given the type K factors between chart is located light display. ments require charts thickness conversion of the by2. the transducer coaxial cable to the end of the cable. any two adjacent and the Other instruTo use these harmonics corresponding the thickness the per second. for resonance in the given material V T = = waves With its always ments. the thicknesses. the is read two adjacent are thickness measurements CRT display. Turn requirements and equipment. frequency or table. RESONANCE resonance assembled for the TESTING testing PROCEDURE the assumption at the test of the is made area. equipment description and necessary Refer Equipment. 461 megacycles K = T and substituting V . Assuming fundamental Zrequency formula compute the thickness by using the the following values for K and F: 4-42 0. Adjust nesses Place For e. In the operator 3: TYPICAL following has longitudinal determined. 2. on a section a standard and of sheet indications match the known thick- d. transducer example. the use the off. tobe T resonant frequency difference the any two adjacent resonant f. display. a suitable Figure oscillator opposite couplant. used are is also constant table for frequency-thickness to obtain derived in million by dividing inches by dividing in inches. a. and observe typical instrument until the thickness marked on the test block. is or tables. c. wave K factor material in the velocity of material. 4-52 shows place transducer reference on test test block blocks. this exercise. The harmonics a direct the fundamental resonant or pips. 1/4-inch determine thickness the Of steel Observe (the the display.

Figure show 4-53 above the shows the fundamental a typical CRT sweep Resonance frequency display.-_ 4-53. 461 T = (fundamental 0. constant Resonance obtained (fundamental 0. instruments and Two its oscilloscope the screen are harmonics resonance indications projecting horizontal /- 7 RESONANCE INDICATIONS CRT SCREEN--_. HORIZONTAL SWEEP . 116 0. 116 Test from Blocks K table) frequency) K) frequency) megacycles resonant (constant resonant T (thickness) 0._'_/ REFERENCE BLOCK BLOCK Figure K F = = 0.w/ Figure *. TYPICAL RESONANCE using TEST an on RESULTS (CRT) as shown pips. Typical Resonsnce CRT Display 4-43 .461 (steel 4-52. display..25 3.

/ / SPECIMEN \ [_ TRANSOUCER H SMOOTH SURFACE VARIABLE SURFACE PITTED OR CORRODED SURFACE Figure 4-44 4-55. and is the base is a function material The and By placing superimposed a transparent CRT thickness in Figure 2nd..090 ].140 150 . 0. 090 to 0.0 _J_LL_L. 133 inch. for aluminum of 0._L LL [__LI I 120 . 4-54.lltJlJillIl Ill 2ND HARMONIC [-J--[--[_ . 100 or 0.ll_0 . 180 inch.. is obtained. test.II0 .Ii0 _L.170 I I i il llfilJl llJJJlIIlJlll. designed readout made Their line for height the represents under scale covers signal of frequency. CRT Display of Back-Surface Variables .I . as for 4-54. conditions. is indicated Figure Where 4-55 is 0. The 3rd.line.LJ.130 .120 j. face of the over and CRT. 100 inch. the their a direct position thickness along scale. CRTCREEN-. used from indiTUBE Resonance by a decrease shows smooth surface TUBE which thickness.LO 150 . 160 . I S . The each left Transparent indication Thickness is read The Scale and also the as 0. 148 inch. are is read once corrosion. correct thickness three different produce thickness testers CRT sharp._ ALUMINUM THICKNESS IN INCHES Figure 4th harmonics right since for indication it appears detecting are shown..LLU_LI . in signal amplitude caused by reduced various material displays strong back-surface TUBE CATHODE-RAY CATHODE-RAY CATHODE-RAY TRANSDUCER / SPECI_/. 100 or 0.160 170 180 Y ill II'lllllJllllJlllir I _!_J_L-JJ 3RD HARMONIC 090 .133 . shown a range strength over the or amplitude. HORIZONTAL SWEEP . indication. .1.

characteristics are good. structures. size. honeycomb soundness Usually ical ing is bond size tested test. frequencies. or four as resonance the or voids are similar a very tester represent from is used indications is appearance substandard for indicating are shifting indicated. responses resonance with is the similar compared tester obtained specimen to a "GO-NO-GO" Indications over The possible the a given Indications mean standards. surfaces Corroded Gross by produce surfaces several produce indications weak are also of varying signals detected strength resonance The or over frequency a wide with range and of re- discontinuities changes shows ultrasonic of the obtained is appearing moved or bond the along set up on the for the test observing 4-56 types three in the several locations indications instrument Figure various with a plate thickness screen. indications detecting testers is has transducer by the or specimen. size. i ! CRT the then of the it is material. of all or of the For bond Lack disappearance areas quality in or indications. mismatch.3/4 THICKNESS DISCONTINUITY AT A SHARP ANGLE DISCONTINUITY AT 1/4 THICKNESS DISCONTINUITY CLOSE TO THE SURFACE Figure 4-56. CRT Displays of Discontinuities 4-45 ! R_ i . a given being for each The a void space pattern size of the function considered ultrasonic pattern. 4-57. closely as reference physical simulate bonded CONDITION TEST SPECIMEN TRANSDUCER CATHODE-RAY SOUNDPLATE L TRANSDUCER STRADDLING EDGE OF DISCONTINUITY NJ lie [UJ_ DISCONTINUITY AT 1/2 THICKNESS DISCONTINUITY AT . impedance in Figure of known discontinuity.cations. or from empty an of bond and bond to to a laminar high shown a void a bonded gage. duced resonant resonance resonance from direct CRT variable amplitude. within the material made up of the the under By A typadjustpattern test. by some or containing measuring Discontinuities a sudden of the bonded of discontinuities. instruments indications. minimum as is below must requirements.

8 0 14 1 2 0. 4-2 reflection. materials 4-1. ALUMINUM STEEL NICKEL COPPER BRASS LEAD MERCURY GLASS QUARTZ POLYSTYRENE BAKELITE WATER OIL (TRANSFORMER) 21 O z 24 0. a number of materials. shear for wave resonance Table 4-1. must Bond have Tester Display marked "void" and "non-void" clearly a high are percentage in Table given of acoustic and for 4-3. Percentage L_J FIRST MEDIUM z _J o.2 0 (.8 O 50 77 79 75 73 62 8 40 46 O 42 76 75 71 68 55 6 32 17 1 0 72 88 89 87 86 79 75 65 68 12 18 0 74 89 90 88 87 80 76 67 71 17 23 0. Constant REFERENCE follo_ing and TABLES reference of high acoustic tables. is an indication K values mismatch.6 4-46 ..3 27 29 22 16 8 1 0.2 O 3 9 12 7 5 0 1 16 19 13 I0 1 0 2 31 34 19 23 9 4 0 0. given are Longitudinal in Table of Reflection velocities.SCREEN RESONANCE Figure specimens areas. 407 In the density. testing.) 18 0.:. impedance impedance of various Table being tested and also 4-57.3 0.

530 2.3 4.420 1.290 1.580 1.bSEC.577 .56 1.780 1.560 4.18 .600 1.450 1.980 149 2.312 .450 .720 1.279 .001 2.070 .610 3.550 5.300 3.82 8.051 . AIR ALUMINUM 2S0 ALUMINUM 17ST BARIUM TITANATE BERYLLIUM BRASS (NAVAL) BRONZE (P-57o) CAST IRON COPPER CORK GLASS. i SURFACE VELOCITY VR=CM.635 .uSEC.353 .240 .629 .212 223 .299 •167 . TRANSFORMER PLASTIC (ACRYLIC RESIN-PLEXIGLASS) POLYETHYLENE QUARTZ.343 .520 1.593 .960 .339 .120 2.311 .92 1.180 12 1.201 • 193 .25 1.350 4. .260 400 2.280 . WAVES SHEAR WAVES VELOCITY VT=CM/.SEC.950 127 320 IMPEDANCE i ZT--GMX1000/ CM 2 -.216 .3 .563 .120 • 199 .180 2. i00 ° E i 4-47 . Acoustic Properties of Materials LONGITUDINAL DENSITY VELOCITY P=GM/CM 3 VL=CM/_SEC.153 .759 .279 .25 1.420 2. PURE MAGNESIUM.770 9.710 .8 8.010 865 765 2.557 .579 .980 1.SEC.86 7.192 .74 10.67 7.010 6.9 .670 2.265 745 - 2.313 788 780 1.20 10.5 7.310 .871 .287 .290 1. WAVES IMPEDANCE ZR=GMX1000/ CM z .750 310 2.54 19.267 . FUSED SILVER STEEL STAINLESS 302 STAINLESS 410 TIN TITANIUM (TI 150A) TUNGSTEN WATER ZINC .500 2.24 2.850 2.09 8.360 .SEC.320 2.159 .566 .420 5.290 .51 2.324 .240 242 6.518 .1 1.310 .650 2.460 1.335 .625 .261 19.279 .960 4. O0 7.287 .033 .420 5.226 .585 .312 .344 .330 3.80 .296 .720 1.138 .720 765 698 .550 1.314 . AM 35 MOLYBDENUM NICKEL OIL.00 11.1 8.4 1.149 .320 199 798 539 3.323 .033 1.466 .71 2. PYREX GLYCERINE GOLD ICE LEAD.417 •310 .264 717 499 339 2. PLATE GLASS.398 .332 .03 7.610 .500 2.375 .787 • 195 .443 .512 .Table 4-2. MATERIAL IMPEDANCE ZL=GMX1000/ CM 2 .241 825 1.216 .3 1.235 1.063 .i12 840 868 1.7 8.610 I32 .800 4.670 2.

028(APPROXIMATELY) 0.116 0.000.026 (APPROXIMATELY) 0. STAINLESS STEEL TEFLON TIN TITANIUM TUNGSTEN TUNGSTEN-SILVER URANIUM WATER (FRESH) ZINC ZIRCONIUM PLEXIGLASS) BASE) CONSTANT K(1.0525 0.0245 .078 0.093 0.052 0.087 .092 .036 0. 124 0.114 0.092 0.0.0.113 0.Table 4-3.121 .076(APPROXIMATELY) 0.0.II0 0.) 0.121 0.188 . O00 IN.102 = = 4-48 V .082 0. PLATE GLASS.070 O.116 O./SEC.066 0.0. Constant K Table MATERIAL ALUMINUM ALUMINUM OXIDE BERYLLIUM BRASS BRONZE (P-5%) CAST IRON COPPER CORK GLASS. Resonance Testing.252 0.064 0.102 O.0.071 0.0205 0. POLYETHYLENE PHENOLIC LAMINATE(PAPER RUBBER QUARTZ SILVER STEEL. 110 0.0.115 0.I12 0.065 0.086 .0335 0.114 0.093 0.i15 0.049 0.114 0. CAST STEEL.Iii 0.131 0.047 0.0695 0. PYREX GOLD ICE LEAD MAGNESIUM MOLYBDENUM MONEL NICKEL PETROLEUM PLASTIC(ACRYLIC RESIN.010 0.106 0.I14 0.126 0.I18 0.193 0.108 0.

... Curve Curve Curve Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 C L Distance/Amplitude Characteristics Pattern ...... 5-12 5-12 . 3............................... CALIBRATION Check Check Reference Reference Area/Amplitude Bail Area/Amplitude Axial Beam Distance/Amplitude PROCEDURE ....................... 502 1........................ 2......... ....................................................... .............. 4............ ...................................... TYPICAL Area/Amplitude Distance/Amplitude Transducer Standard Standard Typical Steel Typical Transducer Transducer .. Design Response Response Response .............. Blocks Block ...................................................... Check 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-10 5-3 5-5 5-8 5-9 5-10 ............................ .. ......... .....CHAPTER 5: CALIBRATING OF TESTING UNITS C Paragraph 500 501 GENERAL STANDARD 1.......................................... ..... 2................................. ... General Materials Shapes General TABLE CONTENTS Page .................. 3........................... .. REFERENCE BLOCKS .......

.

of the sample. 5: NOT [:ILI_ED. confidently an accurate calibrated whmh standard.!PRECEDING PAGE BLANK. sample is done in a specific Techniques) of material as nearly testing system physical properties sample as possible. For GENERAL calibration of dispIayed within the standards. Standard Reference Blocks . ultrasonic standard reference blocks are Figure 5-1. TESTING UNITS CHAPTER 500 Periodic Iinearity rant effects may expect the 4: to reference operator rial and dardizing Chapter size sample rigid ment 501 1. to standardizing REFERENCE of the is given considerable to calibration instrument (Figure to sample 5-1) variables. instrument standards. (refer shape of the is based of the test on a instrutest the mateStanto and IrreIesystem to ensure eliminated instrument to known the equipment or standardize to values reference dimensions acceptance attention of the BLOCKS display instrument special the When of discontinuities blocks. and with matches of ultrasonic indications testing Once adjust CALIBRATING testing and unit the are units is frequently proper is calibrated the of the and unit test within made test by calibrating to the required the values test to establish performance. STANDARD GENERAL the purpose of equipment calibration.

manufactured hole Alcoa. and balls. 3. longitudinal etc. the couplant. rection both area accuracy SHAPES (Figure 5-2) are usually of blocks may which manufactured are used.. the equipment the material of the test specimen. hole increments. in sets same size of the one inch. reference reference on steel pins consist blocks are referred checking when to as off-the-shelf instrument calibrating. mounted in rectangular set for A basic blocks consists pins and set or cylindrical corcombines for of in which are reference Commonly. aw of varying Shapes blocks for are Area/Amplitude usually made the size Standards. of a series in couplant of eight diameter lengths. block. the material may be differIn such cases. same same of each of varying-diameter of the of the For blocks. sizes. MATERIALS but with Practice Ultrasonic standard reference blocks are made of carefully selected aluminum alloy bar stock (refer to ASTM Recommended Practice E127-64). flat bottom is made hole and hole set Area/amplitude standard reference with of rectangular or cylindrical blocks each block as nearly only variable is the block block. a flat-end of 3/4 for finished perpendicular 2/64. as described in Chapter 4. consists each and are used with a standard available size from flat-bottomed sources such as stanperformance steel Area/amplisize. axis of the The driI1 and is in a progression drilling as smooth with of 1/64th inch. dards. carbon. Techniques. area/amplitude checked of a series immersed distance/amplitude reference by using a fundamental steel bails. one correction. Various other types of blocks are made from plastic. information. are Reference which on steel standard. The drilled in the bottom center of each to the vary 3/64. is made diameters example: block to 8/64 in each by final as possibIe . are most reliable when nearly matches of the reference block used for checking performance ent than the material found in subsequent test samples. inch hole or 5-4 to a depth The bottom cutter. in each 1/64. etc. shape. Standard shapes. tude length. are etc. diameter flat-bottomed holes. of the equipment is standardized to the variables of the material under test. and one set and distance blocks for two sets responses diameter. be used. sensitivitycorrections and adjustments for metal distance made on special reference blocks of a material which most When calibrating.. blocks of blocks and immersed of a series of varying made blocks flat-bottomed holes in the bottom further Distance/amplitude in a series varying E127-64. shape. for drilled in various into one end. refer to ASTM Recommended 2. magnesium. steel. readily for Automation A fundamental checking mounted reference with Industries. When testing materials. same and blocks standard. shapes These and Inc. The shape as the others in the set.

VARYING DIMENSION FOR DISTANCE/AMPLITUDE BLOCKS. of the hole to a constant oscilloscope from is directly top surface. as nearly inch is to the others and in the 3/4 is varied./64-INCH INCREMENTS. ]. is directly diameters. and or amplitude. Standard Reference Block As will As are Design be seen each also hole to area used later.f- HOLE PERPENDICULAR TO TOP SURFACE (A). holes in the bottom diameter. pip that block As size block are each height usually hoie center: 5/64 bottom related blocks. distance. bottom diameter. to the top surface when of the block. PARALLEL WITH TOP SURFACE. Standards. pierced one 1/16 block over of the block. immersed. each by centering of the eight Shapes similar the The sized distance same for Distance/Amplitude to area/amplitude shape drilled as the blocks./4-INCH FLAT COUflTERBORE FOR PLUGGING HOLE. E = HOLE DIAMETER. 5/64-INCH DIAMETER FOR ALL DISTANCE/AMPLITUDE BLOCKS. Rectangular or cylindrical are made in sets with eachblock set. 3 INCHES FOR AREA/AMPLITUDE BLOCKS. HOLE BOTTOM (C) PARALLEL WITH TOP SURFACE (A). B = METAL DISTANCE. Figure 5-2. tude which fiat made to the hole to the bottom. D = BACK SURFACE. C = FLAT-BOTTOM HOLE SURFACE. 5-5 . block. of the pip at a constant Steel consists ends which standard. inch the except of each in depth. height bails.-----2" TO 2-1/4 DIAMETER w-----" 1 1 fc 3/4" '_''E (SEE NOTE) A B(SEE NOTE) A = ULTRASONIC ENTRY SURFACE. use block. fiat-bottomed. tops of standard surface diameter to the surface the of the block.j parallel the lated bottom. VARYING DIMENSION FOR AREA/AMPLITUDE BLOCKS IN ]. the reflected pip size of varying steel displayed on the related oscilIoscope. of the pins the instrument pin tops. bottom size the area is reis located of the hole standard pins The with pins installed parallel is are of v. perpendicular calibrated b. from rod. --. Various of a long protrude as an area/ampli- corporations 2 inches drill With of the transducer an unusual by eight side to 1/2 with the inch area/amplitude press-fit diameter.

Bridge and Manipulator. deaerated water is used when as a couplant. of several commercially available pulse-echo ultrasonic b. differing at temperature. 15 steel quality. disset both basic compared -. reASTM set of diameter i. to the from reference and 1/8 be used. Fundamental sponses. and relations 5/64 inch transducer are normal and provides to each and other. is used comparing responses g. assuming" conditions a. the same reference Clean blocks. transformer. Immersion large block. metal which When A basic for the that for by using set example. c. e. accurate positioning of the transadequately in two vertical supports planes corrections set. and set h. is necessary each . A suitable immersion balls. The test frequency transducer shall be 15 Mc. a 3 inch length Standard. voltage with regulation ensured by a voltage regulating d. with an Frequency. fine The angular manipulator adjustment Blocks. are 5/64 responses responses reference containing holes. Any container accurate is satisfactory positioning of the that will hold couplant and the and reference is to allow transducer Couplant. tank. of varying Reference accomplished an area/amplitude a distance/amplitude Area/amplitude distance contain Distance/amplitude compared holes. equipment Instrument. Transducer. inch diameter quartz. enough Tank.502 i. may blocks. operational An immersion frequency Line of 3/8 of 15 Mc. in size such blocks surface of corrosion to 1 inch increments. area and distance of ten blocks blocks diameter The bridge is strong enough to support the maniputo allow smooth. In the TYPICAL GENERAL following and Test CALIBRATION PROCEDURE paragraphs. ball in the as a tee pin. calibrating described marks diameter area/amplitude is the in 1/16 to hold and of bali-bearing inch an alternate free ranging device. lator and rigid enough ducer. Reference continuity of blocks area and consisting between 8/64-inch between Test sensitivity are metal which the 3/64 relations distance combines ASTM are -. testing a typical as follows: Any ealibl_ation procedure will be covered. the The same from water. Test instruments. Power Source. f.

height indication the same indication shown. of 1/32 of the is adjusted gage b. the instrument on the blocks the b. Plot a curve line below of the above ideal from point cent The recorded point the limit example straight plotted range cation to the ward The per play. indications as shown curve in the (in this in Figure instrument. the block the transducer. Replace steps distance which reference c. set. by projecting until the that height For each height in the non-linear the actual of indication is intercepted. surface (a block Position the containing transducer distance This inch. example} range ideal the are and a vertical curve instrument the different (CF) height of indication (CH) and factor 5-3. In the from Amplitudes in the are linear of indiincreased line upAmplitudes a f. between a + or . off-center.2. height is done the the factor range. diameter surface the blocks} be used Place inch upper between 5 area/amplitude hole} of the face accurately. Repeat a water 8 blocks control ray tube until screen. for record except indications. each of the the for other the blocks No. Move the hole d. in the 7 and No. Adjust obtainable remaining cathode in the repeat e. block each for block each distance with and block. normal the front soundbeam of the block. height correction in the non-linear because is displayed. The from alternate AREA/AMPLITUDE linear each range of the for a. to obtain block. serves This top surface a of the pip height proves A maximum reflection of the to the is perpendicular surface number of back reflection pips purpose. indication . crystal within and the at a water of the block. from the that in the block. (CI-I) in can actual in actual amplitude is plotted When the is computed dis- of interception of maximum difference defines amplitude between corrected of indication corrected (CF). and gain set. the pip height Do not is 31% of the this step maximum for the laterally until the maximum response is received from c. the CHECK is determined reference as follows: reference immersion sIightIy and the block tank. the transducer bottom. the deviation corrected (AH) is the way. correction is not constant.tolerance crystal. where the of responses deviates of linearity response are This the limit instrument the limiting linearity of linear point and no correction curve. a 5/64 over distance a the of 3 inches by obtaining blocks (steel the balls ultrasonic may responses as an of the instrument area/amplitude-type reference a No. the curve the is required. to the surface surface by using Manipulate maximum indication the same block. Maintain of 3 inches require a water of the the defines of 6 inches.

o_ " . DIA _. 2/64TH =4. 3/64TH = 9. INTERMEDIATE PIP HEIGHTS IN PROPORTION) Figure by adding follows: the 5-3. ranging in size The immersion that in step d._ 5/64. z o F-- 100 AH = ACTUAL HEIGHT CF = CORRECTION FACTOR I I IDEAL LINEARITY_ / _lw.. instrument obtainable 1/2 tained mum curve 3.. 7/64TH =49. I I I I 30 40 50 60 RELATIVE AREA UNITS . each of fifteen steel balls.v 60 I 6/64"_ 40 '< _. steps a. The inch responses from inch in diameter following gain on the previous control steel oscilloscope ball.mA . DYNAMIC RANGE: 64 TO 1.80 -ADD CORRECTION FACTOR z__ TO ACTUAL HEIGHT TO uJ OBTAIN CORRECTED HEIGHT -J m AH + CF = CH 8/64" DIA-CHJ ° -/ 7/64" DIA. INDICATIONS WITHIN +5% OF IDEAL ARE CONSIDERED LINEAR. is 50% of the positioned distance are is adjusted screen For inch ball..- 4/64 3/ J" _ POINT OF STANDARDIZATION I I l NOTE: IN THIS EXAMPLE. in the .eA-.. 5/64TH = 25.CHm/_ cg f . as correction AH gi + range CF = CH instrument may also be determined by recording the from method the the maximum over for plotted maxion a The linear of the ultrasonic 1/8 to 1.. t. in 1/16 inch increments. 4/64TH = 16. The resultant following procedure: on a curve._'2/64" DIA 0 4"1/64" DIA 0 10 20 70 (RATIO: 1/64TH = 1.. 5-4. AND 8/64TH =64._. Typical Area/Amplitude factor directly Response to the actual Curve indication height. 6/64TH = 36.0 is used./ i < CH = CORRECTED HEIGHT ----.. through until each the wtth the f...--AH t CF o< . and The diameter is main- constant at 3 + 1/32 transducer is positioned response from each as shown in Figure recorded DISTANCE/AMPLITUDE distance/amplitude CHECK of the instrument are determined by obtaining of varyindica- characteristics from a 5/64 each inch the ultrasonic responses ing metal distance with tions are recorded of the reference blocks in a set of blocks diameter hole in each block.(.. except transducer the water indications the pip height bail.." / / "_LIMIT OF LINEAR RESPONSE 20 z LU n.

1:: LLI 80_ 70 -AH = ACTUAL HEIGHT CF CORRECTION FACTOR CH = CORRECTED HEIGHT ADD CORRECTION FACTOR TO ACTUAL HEIGHT TO OBTAIN CORRECTED HEIGHT . at a water of the of 1/32 inch. and the Bail Area/Amplltude containing from the a 5/64 the transducer distance block. INDICATIONS Wl [HIN +5% OF IDEAL ARE CONSIDERED LINEAR. which . block a + or . Place metal the block. purpose.-J IDEAL LINEARITYn_ / CH I_ _) CF . maximum reference laterally Adjust the obtainable block until the maximum gain cathode of the control ray other response until tube blocks is received the pip screen.f/7 LINEAR RESPONSE OF STANDARDIZATION C* < t_ .- NOTE: 2O IN THIS EXAMPLE. the A maximum c. 000 inches Position surface off-center.. pip height proves that from the normal the front soundbeam number to the surface of back surface of the block. height from is hole instrument on the with each 25% of the d. in the set. except when the basic Maintain water set is used. Response inch Curve hole hole surface the the with a in of the face a reference distance immersion slightly crystal crystal. AH + CF = CH I O9 Z O w }-< m Z h3 .v 4O 3O # /. to obtain This the top surface serves a reflection surface of the to the reflections block.. flat-bottomed tothe the this upper distance between of 3. the 5-4.. 6O 5O J / S . of 3 inches a gage between accurately. Replace steps b. distance the Repeat and c. is perpendicular block. top surface over Adjust bottom. of the within and b. f.. I0 -_ i/8 3116 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 11/16 INCHES 3/4 13/16 7/8 15/16 1 BALL DIAMETER. Steel bIock. for of 3 inches each block and record the indications."'- /9 / / _CSy P. tank. Figure a. for each block.tolerance by using Manipulate maximum indication of the same the transducer. Move the transducer bottom.

5 METAL 3. following I 15 MC i procedure.0 to the the recorded near inch field indications (fresnel) indication.5 DISTANCE. checking t FREQUENCY: i 90 Z O TRANSDUCER: .0 6.. / 0... CHECK during as modified pattern ultrasonic curve or plot are than can test from also equipment by the a 1/2 test inch calibration. of the the 2.0 In the inch inches example indication increases.5 2. A beam distance in this instrument equipment Transducers. 000 inches. 4.DIAMETER QUARTZ WATER DISTANCE: I 1 3 + 1/3. attenuate as shown zone in Figure from beyond an 8/64 inch Plot a curve 5-5. 60 W r_ 50 40 h O W "i b-Z 30 20- F /_ rw W IO / POINTOF STANDARDIZATION / - ---. 4. with called the maximum apparatus characteristics be calibrated cannot in this with In the the be accomplished special procedure.0 1.0 4.?.0 2. diameter from that the the steel same curve the are characteristics determined ball steel and immersed ball beam used ultrasonic the 6: transCalithe analysis at a plot with of by To improve of the recording in water.requires diameter e.5 6. the 0. lOO TEST i or distorted a distance/amplitude of 3 inches. extends As the distance or decrease indications in height.0 5.. instrument.0 3. Typical Distance/Amplitude Response Curve . a water distance of 6 inches for one block containing hole with a metal distance of 3. other used be obtained to remember transducer in this To ensure equipment It is well not valid the one used procedure if the is subsequently A complete commercial accuracy.5 1. fixed any water test recorded transducer testing ducer brating may transducer.0 INCHES FOR NON-LINEARITY) (INSTRUMENT CORRECTED Figure 5-10 5-5.5 7.J rn 80 70-- 1 / ./8-1N CH . in Chapter used for for the procedure.5 5.5 2. TRANSDUCER accuracy shown..2 INCH [ m r_ Z W .

plot and the recorded the is moved back that the beam using care each remains centered shown in Figure transducer 5-6. 3/8 inch while are displacing of the side total the indication is observed or maximums four entire scans. ducer The scan should profile 30 per face the passes symmetry by rotating not vary has of the of the height over the more side transducer. Vary the water inches. Record tance. for in the shown any retest. c. b. The 5-7. of the the ball. distance curve on a curve an acceptable It is important 1. allowable occurence of these Determine the transducer beam pattern by relocating the manipulator obtain a 3 ± 1/32 inch water distance from the 1/2 inch diameter steel to the travel. maximum at a top obtainable oscilloscope Exercise with distance of the the of 3 + 1/32 ball. beam transducer than lobes 10 per with of the is shown While Three scanning from the distinct laterally. a° Adjust water surface this the instrument on the gain control screen inch beam from care until the the pip the face on the height transducer is 50% of the positioned transducer maximum of the ball. magnitude to bali transeach lobes observed. transducer perimeter a symmetrical than beam 20 nor pattern of the beam more than or plot soundbeam. bail lobes The the produce no less lobe.75. exercise care in using the manipulator beam center on the center of the bail. transducer of the center to the in producing a true indication Record by locating point center of standardization. set the water distance at 1/4 inch. of 1. The maniuplator is set to allow a range in water distance of 0 to at least 6 inches from the face of the transducer to the ball surface. steps of in this or succeeding distance in 1/8 inch increments through a range of 1/4 to 6 the maximum indication for each increment of water distime the transducer on the bail.25. of the is checked cent by making about will 45 degrees. the instrument. center d.transducer is the same as that prescribed in the previous paragraphs for calibrating the instrument with reference blocks. of the for 5-6. for the and to demonstrate the particular transducer that 3 inches the as peaks distance/amplitude at water deviation shown. As to locate the the maximum transducer indication. which cent An acceptable magnitude transducer magnitudes center in Figure of an acceptable . Record Do not readjust the instrument gain control the procedure. indications axial test is similar in the The peaks instrument to the curve is 1/16 (corrected used curve occur inch. in disin non-Iinearity) sponse The Figure tances water e. After standardizing Again.

3/8-INCH DIAMETER QUARTZ.¢ t-_ .J .. . WITH OPERATIONAL FREQUENCY OF 15 MC.I f_ U. '22 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/4 \ 5/16 3/8 (INCH) TRAVERSE ACROSS FACE OF CRYSTAL Figure 5-12 5-7..z 40 ZI.¢ hi P/ 40 30 2O 10 illllll 0 I 2 3 WATER DISTANCE.." -rn.8O 7O V 60 POINT OF z O I h< J 50 STANDARDIZATION z i LLJ .W< TARGET . w J w_ e_.1/2-INCH DIAMETER STEEL BALL AT A WATER DISTANCE OF 3 ±1/32 INCH..- BO 70 60 50 \ IMERSlON TRANSDUCER . Transducer Beam Pattern V ...30 AJ SIDE LOBE MAGNITUDE SHOULD BE 20%-30% OF CENTER LOBE.z i_e.. Transducer Axial Distance/Amplitude Characteristics 110 101 C/L (CRITICAL POINT) t. INCHES 4 A - O I . 5 6 Figure 5-6.

............................... 4.............. 7.................... Measurements ............. .................... 3................... 7................ OF TRANSDUCER BEAM ............. Page 6-3 6-3 6-3 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-6 6-6 PROFILES ....... 6-6 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-7 6-9 6-9 6-10 6-10 6-10 6-11 6-11 6-11 6-12 6-4 6-5 6-8 6-9 6-9 ....... . System ............. Measurements Cylindrically-Focused ......... Method .............. 6. 2.................................................................... Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 Equipment Camera Typical Flat-Disc Focused Functional Recording Transducer Transducer Transducer Diagram Method .......................... .. ........... Measurements .......... 8.......... Profiles Symmetry ... 5.................. Setup ..... Display RECORDING 1.................. Wideband Receiver ........ Cylindrically-Focused Transducer ANALYSIS OF TRANSDUCER DATA 1....... . EQUIPMENT CALIBRATING CALIBRATING .............. .... 604 General Test Function Recording Manipulative TRANSDUCER .................... ............... 2.... 3........................................................................................... ................................. 6.................. Data Sheet ........................ Measurements Transducer .. General Waveform Frequency Damping Sensitivity Focal Beam Beam Length Amplitude Width and . 6-10 Reflector Targets ........................... 8........................ ..... 2.. Pulser ............. ................... 3.............................. Equipment QUALIFICATIONS TECHNIQUE EQUIPMENT ..CHAPTER 6: CALIBRATING OF TRANSDUCERS TABLE CONTENTS Paragraph 600 601 602 603 GENERAL GENERAL GENERAL 1.... ............... General Flat-Disc Focused 6O5 4........ ........................................... Factor ........................................................................................................... 4.............. Transducer Transducer Measurements Measurements 9..... 5.................................... ..

V .

a dynamic of an open-shutter measurements materials CALIBRATING be expected recorded inspecting in specifying TRANSDUCER GENERAL used of the Equipment sonic screen. beam GENERAL the a ball CALIBRATING calibrating bearing. screen. transducer NOT FILMED. the to accurately is capable signals over the plot camera sent and measure of reproducing received With soundbeam used the send-receive an exact transducer. provide photographic instrumentation transducer size. the which the and natural without will amplified special recording beam for accurately the mode crystal of a perma- Specialized measuring is excited operation. the delay target.-PRECEDING PAGE BLANK CHAPTER 600 GENERAL transducers. on the amplifor the potenis to data in- In general. because misalignment 601 in appearance characteristics. sensitivity. spike received The for distance. EQUIPMENT of the signal of using a smalI is scanned in profile. held to the over related the TECHNIQUE consists reflector. damping. the or a thin wire beam transducer of the relating moving and by use for a changing waveform and response oscilloscope portion the as a distance/amplitude transducer stationary. is photographically of the unit. resuIts immerbeam. of poor and bond manufactured anomalies to lens to the may same exist and individual Acoustic or backing. is moved beam. 6-3 moves a transducer transducer by the reflector. factor. frequency. are used or articles. 602 techniques such focal or caltbrating as frequency. usually of parts of variations though have in the in crystal identical cutting. produced when these be used 603 1. received record. beam sym- equipment characteristics metry. sion tank. coupled on the on the The to the system of an ultraoscilloscope also motion. circuits. of the beam or selecting recorded unrectified precision More formation transducer tiometers. RF waveform sensitivity manipulative recording uniform test reflector by the in the ultrasonic is produced At the highest is analyzed With symmetry may transducers equipment. As the tude with technique a flat over RF post. film. QUALIFICATIONS and receiving that will equipment transducer are manner describe damping not distort is required characteristics. TRANSDUCERS 6: CALIBRATING Ultrasonic specification. areas assembly. transducer in some pages distortion. plot return The using camera. and nent the wideband transducer by a voltage The information and and signals To analyze in a fashion by the following is displayed measuring. of the is then potentiometers is produced the beam distance/amplitude An open-shutter oscilloscope on Polaroid to record profile . GENERAL EQUIPMENT transmitting variables. characteristics indication.

timer triggers oscilloscope. pulses through tube transducer crystal.2. METHOD how the response curve is recorded with an open-shutter camera. unit repeatedly fed and the back pulser which consists the the which. a functional unit. Figure an then triggers the amplifies both In operation. Equipment Functional Diagram . in inches. The Lucite plant. signals which Potentiometers are fed into motion of the electrical The horizontal dis- oscilloscope. Figure of of milling into crossfeeds. TEST transducer or SETUP is placed so the is by in a couplant immersed placed the use data in the tank (similar and to a small reflector accurate are aquarium) viewed motion made through of the the scanning on the the of cou- V glass transducer soundbeam table A reflector ensured convert controls of transducer produced FUNCTION 6-1 shows delay with by with transducer crossfeeds position tance are 3. a sharp pulser. adjustable RECORDING 6-2 shows time. return the delay The signals unit equipment. a timer. at 4. spike the later diagram and and of the wideband instrumentation receiver. I DATA SWEEP DELAY [ PLATES HORIZONTAL I <o "TRANSDUCER :0 _ TIMER I SCOPE I 1PULSER I VERTICAL PLATES RECEIVER WIDEBAND I Figure 6-1. horizontal X or oscilloscope Y directions display of crystal shows traverse simply Either movement switching potentiometers.

calibrated This information in damping. is a scope-mounted photographing. screen. profile transverse across first longitudinal by switching recordings of the is obtained. are crossfeeds that the required are for used. uniformity. mounting turning or disturbing transducer. so that rotated made two data one. delay to the reading potentiometers. beam. for this a viewing dimensional Polaroid. of the recording are mounted a plot are is calibrated potentiometers. shutter port MANIPULATIVE elevating length are has division the plot. The to the of the other beam movements. the precise which Two sweep distance one one without plot 90 ° from soundbeam consist of the by the the on the is made the in inches of slide Precision and focal heavy screws use trace per measurements. uniformity across curve of the the is oscilloscope produced. in thousandths is related crystal and camera are used to delay describing the RF presentation of the the in the and response transducer.The data potentiometers. as variations a permanent of an inch to specific record soundsuch non- abnormalities lens composition. Two and one sprocket the in thousandths develop micrometer of an inch. By this method. fitted moved and target the micrometer of data EQUIPMENT and transversing screw slides. mechanisms Milling calibrated and chain the table drives screen. Camera Recording Method 6-5 . UTTER TRAVERSE ACROSS TARGET SCOPE POT _ii_l _ DATA DELAY ACROSS SCREEN Figure 6-2. on the By relating oscilloscope oscilloscope. for use while system thickness. with across bezel on the then. featuring 5. A recommended a lock-open as shown.

5 to To prevent RF amplifier 60 Mc. L vertical A recommended amplifier oscilloscope is the Tektronix is dc to 30 Mc with 6-6 . DISPLAY An effective without Type system sufficient plug-in. point 7. second. In Hanford balltransthe as small in diameter surface in that transducer geometry size to detect. a flat-topped is held from flat the reflectors reflectors compared the fairly small AEC areas. This quency with demands resonant ducers. the flat equal Best difficulty surface. ) nanoseconds. crystal into much To analyze abnormal less than the natural freThis transducer duration damping characteristics. pen. The size wavelength influence flat provided results target cases. diameter In one a bad In most transducers. of ball varies with ducer crystal large produce REFLECTOR reflector and will particularly of the will of the ball prevent beam. a wideband of 1. 8. flat-disc those transducers. 9. Unless signal used. analysis of high-frequency second and (5 to 25 Mc) recommended (A microsecond is 0. produced experiment. than distortion analyzing amplitude while eliminate to the crystal about example. precision calibrating is maintained of the of the transducers. they transducer obtained with are experienced Selection Reflectors to actual circular transducers used normal of each of ultrasonic small discontinuities and lens. PULSER test a 29-mii requires of the pulse a pulser and thaf_ will of the with the short pulse the capability. pulse as possible. is one a gain a receiver with of about with 40 db. sotmdbeams reflector the with the TARGETS targets are invalid as small to less carefully chosen. transducer on the a ball distort steel balls ball surmeasuretarget may peruse frequency. is adequate much size soundbeam as possible. In this the are frequency When signal post not offer pendicular in holding profile recording.6. time A recommended a bandwidth response SYSTEM has of I0 nanoseconds. of the reflecting the are produce when is held information. by the a fine-line proportion. in size a flat. focused as possible. rise is used. adequate to the reflectors the the beam diameter imperfections. Laboratories. the transducer oscillation. measured. one period with a rise is excited of the time natural transof 10 a voltage not drive For duration a pulse frequency the as short crystal. of the can The seriously diameter effective target case. bandwidth Bandwidth and rise time to present the Type a rise information 547 with time a distortion. traversed than Spherically-focused by unfocused performed ball from transducers. selected face This ment post. 025 microseconds is one-millionth a nanosecond is one-billionth WIDEBAND the RECEIVER received signal from becoming receiver and distorted. testing. is expected reflector used to detect of one-eighth to detect very for testing smaller is small. or For for one-quarter and larger undue diameter is used.

a return to four-beam waveform a permanent FOCUSED amplitude profiles. If the depth of field for a focused transducer is required. length over that ball determine alignment of wire ball while for diameter beam ball.010 features microsecond. a waveform is obtained and two beam amplitude profile plots are taken with the transducer traversed in the X-axis and the Y-axis. over ball is proball the diameter profile may be taken at points A wedge-shaped duced is used reflector by the for which a concave lens. the beam inside and outside the focal point. produced the problem be avoided same and lens of maintaining by substituting factors radii. base recording transducer 604 i. profiles translating traversing selection. along over the beam reflector. Figure positioned been lel These signal provide 3. depends crystal are the may size. profiles. recorded face parallel drill are paths plus transducer which held has paral- i transducer taken scans from record along shown. crystal size. still produce signal width along and i. With Figure 6-5 shows the basic transducer the reflector stationary. sheets methods are used prepared. to obtain as shown transducer in Figure The beam 6-3. along the length. 4. levels for profiling. narrow. Two the beam wire. CYLINDRICALLY-FOCUSED soundbeam. following paragraphs ! ! TRANSDUCER a beam over fiat. is usually the beam diameter frequency. cylindrically-focused measuring the beam length width of the focused TRANSDUCER in width transducer by traversing beam as shown and MEASUREMENTS unfocused has the immersed 6-6. length. TRANSDUCER MEASUREMENTS measurements for a focused transducer. the drill picked butt and the the are up by a fiat-disc end of a metal crystal four transducer.capability expansion J of 0. for mounting of photode- and recording of transducer analysis. a piece wire on the amplitude and then by translating beam width across the ball 6-7 . Correct A steel transducer across in Figure depends on the frequency. that are desirable This scope for combination offers delay beam and time profiles. and lens A rule of thumb is to select as small a reflector adequate Since the | radii of the transducer as possible which will being tested. RE_ORDING GENERAL data records various FLAT-DISC 6-4 cut while and the shows in water polished OF TRANSDUCER BEAM PROFILES Transducer graphic scribe 2. profile a reflector The MEASUREMENTS plot flat over of responses made end the from of the reflector with transducer transducer..e. a stationary taken a moving on a photograph of individual characteristics.

. (WAVEFORM) . /_\ -) DAMPING FACTOR TRACE A 3..MICROSECONDS VOLTS C. 2 •5 (Y DIRECTION) MICROSEC/cM VOLTS/CM BEAM WIDTH TRACE B OR DIA. INC.. Typical Transducer Data Sheet . 0.039 DRIVER PULSE: 0.. 065 . FOCAL LENGTH. B C COURTESY AUTOMATION INDUSTRIES.._SMCS -' V FOCAL 20 LENGTH 0.TRANSDUCER ACOUSTICAL ANALYSIS FREQUENCY DAMPING FACTOR. FOCUSED DATE TYPE HOUSING STYLE 3/16 1/4 RAD. CRYSTAL LITHIUM SULFATE REFLECTORS USED: DIA. _//\ '/<X---_ i --_ TRACE TRACE 18o.. FREQUENCY 15 MC CRYSTAL LENS SIZE._ TRACE A.. 0.558 INCHES MICROSEC WATER PATH (ROUND TRIP TIME) B.039 DIA. 3DB AMP.. 5' RG 62 TIME .-36o...\. STEEL BALL AMPLITUDE 15o CONNECTING CABLES: LENGTH TYPE DRIVER PULSE: RECEIVED RO 62 SIGNAL TRACE DBDOWN A PULSER TO CRYSTAL 5' RECEIVER TO SCOPE . Figure 6-3. B.0 • 004 INCHES C._....039 DIA. o MICROSEC/CM VOLTS/CM MEASURED TRACE FREQUENCY A 17'__. STEEL BALL INSPECTOR A.1 2. STEEL BALL DURATION. 0.. 2 •5 (X DIRECTION) BEAM MICROSEC/CM VOLTS 'CM SYMMETRY: • 004 INCH/'DIV AF: . BEAM SYMMETRY SERIAL NO-. o.007 POINTS INCH/DIV /.. BEAM WIDTH/DIAMETER.

PI BEAM PROFILES BEAM PROFILES REFLECT( RETURN SIGNAL WAVEFORM PATH FLAT-DISC CRYSTAL Figure 6-4. Fiat-Disc Transducer Measurements BALL REFLECTOR RETURN SIGNAL WAVEFORM X-BEAM PROFILE FOCUSED TRANSDUCER Y-BIEAM PROFILES Figure 6-5. Focused Transducer Measurements 6-9 .

that is measured is a measure energy the used and compared to of the acoustic when testing of frequency medium.RETURN SIGNAL WAVEFORM BALL REFLECTOR P_ATH WIDTH PROFILE REFLECTOR I PATH LENGTH PROFILE Figure 6-6. the return signal waveform This record is calibrated scale. For each each transducer of the main headings the on the transducer data profile sheet plots are discussed. tested. the actual the desigu frequency. If the is taken with With depth the which is determined the ball of field reflector are for the nearer by the focused than the beam-length in this area focal beam of the in the point measurement point is also the stationary moved is required. 3. measurement amplitude. a determination in this test. scale and time on the horizontal damping factor. Cylindrically-Focused Transducer Measurements The area. In the are analyzed 2. is the frequency The actual frequency of transducer operation frequency measurement is the frequency is recorded. the focal beam the to points soundbeam and beyond 605 i. profile transducer. permitting FREQUENCY is recorded photographically in millivolts on the vertical of crystal frequency. with the transducer stationary. WAVEFORM highest amplitude portion of the beam. waveform and beam as follows. beam point the selected at the waveform for the beam-width of highest recorded. DATA ANALYSIS GENERAL following OF TRANSDUCER paragraphs. wave in the water this material. as determined by the profile shots. At the (by moving actually) point. and sensitivity. As this of the To record acoustical 6-10 .

to resolve of cycles of damping to the transducer damping to re- crystal ability the arriving is reached. is recorded transducers. of the size to detect. factor. time required the number a measure related of the a damping to a quiescent by the The The is a measurement excitation. to detect very transducers. smaller than the beam sizes steel also units culties a small bali. length inch balls sizes of focused transducers. pens. is directly ability time. to the reacting transducer factor. is small. or roughly flat. the together in a given Sensitivity energy test actual ducers. the path With 0. along traversing lengthwise as factor sensitivity. if the frequency. defects a flat. oscilloscope path Focal screen at which is recorded is obtained 6-11 . of complete signal The cycles from frequency per the bail may unit target is analyzed. to detect The measured.050 tiny length. the with of the plus the signal shc_ccn in trace of the wideband in volts A of Figure is calibrated centimeter measure to measure amplification of sensitivity pulse constant. transducer. are much small. The length length FOCAL focal length respect to the voltage. in the These If diffidirection.the base) 4. LENGTH information a maximum manually is not photographed return by the signal time base but is recorded on focused measurement on the as the water transducers. smaller damping the better two signals SENSITIVITY refers reflected sensitivity. for width the ranging testing small discontinuities. for and the 6-3. duration known balls used are are The from have for focused diameter vertical in volts pulse down held of the and the been measuring tips used diameter. 6-3 is known: DAMPING of crystal of positive in amplitude. equal Trace period A in (time- Figure be calculated number FACTOR damping half Trace factor of time Extent number cycle produces to return generated is measured cycles that state when of the very within A in Figure after by the the 6-3 damping that of the reflected the factor are this which greater is defined than the for This the as the first half method crystal RF pulse indicates measurement. for reflector to the from vary ability with of the the transducer target. solve 5. For crystal the crystal the minute and lens. diameter amount In general. in size transBeam in a the to a relatively to the small geometry beam ultrasonic reflectors compared transducer is expected used of fiat successfully straight-beam circular reflector of one-eighth is adequate. The reflector is also in size focused from units. The to 0. close By counting pulse. equal of sound used. peak-to-peak or in decibels 6. in the width fine wire per dimension be laid experienced may as a substitute the amplitude receiver amplitude known.030 These beam beam of ballpoint the beam in aligning in are of cylindrically-focused and ball along unfocused while the received. the illustrates first this reflected signal.

is affected in damping. to one crystal screen. 7. or at the critical of the is recognized And through conditions lens and centering bonding as variations analysis in the of these patterns envelope may in lenses variations. highest records delays recording is pro- RF signal oscilloscope cycle a distance/amplitude lower envelope. thickness. transducer WIDTH components. which shutter the respect symmetry lens individual system with The in turn of the cycle next of each signal The half the the kM amplitude the scale vertical in millivolts and horizontal composite The cycle calibrated across across amplitude the next motion transducer held open. highest ampli- of recording to each produces other. for major show amplitude of transducer of transducer potentiometer With each This cycle another the envelopes return travel. and abnormal variations. can be identified. in electrodes horizontal axis. The cycle of the camera duced.betweenthe excitation pulse and the water path position at the point of maximum amplitude response. target the drives photographs or centimeters. or misalignment. AND SYMMETRY directly from the width 3-db down of the points profile beam profile on each envelope side of the be caused and small profiles. superimposed symmetry of operation of the BEAM beam response of these in the curves curves from with individual is indicative of uniformity of these or thickness. have also been Non-symmetry Porosity linked to distortion in beam 6-12 . The transducer is held over the center of the ball target and moved toward or away from the ball until the maximum reflected signal is received. so on. a data recording records and each respect the curve. send-receive by variations modes of the transducer. width is read calibrated Non-symmetry soundbeam. displayed profile propagated normal by backing imperfections on the peak. The BEAM beam with AMPLITUDE profiles scale the PROFILES on the calibrated in mils. tude The curves bonding 8.

..................................... 7-10 7-14 _ ... SEMICONDUCTORS HOT TEARS ........... ......... AND METALLURGICAL Page 7-3 7-3 7-3 7-3 DISCONTINUITY DISCONTINUITY DISCONTINUITY ANA LYSIS 7.... HYDRAULIC MANDREL ... APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS .........................................................................CHAPTER 7: COMPARISON TABLE AND OF SELECTION CONTENTS OF NDT PROCESSES Paragraph 700 701 7O2 7O3 7O4 GENERAL METHOD NDT ............................... IDENTIFICATION ................................................ CRACKING CRACKS ZONE CRACKS HEAT-AFFECTED HEAT TREAT ................................ SELECTION CATEGORIES CHARACTERISTICS ........ ..................................... EMBRITTLEMENT ........ ................................... ........... 7-60 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 NDT BURST COLD FILLET METHODS .....6 7-6 7-8 7-10 ......................................................... SHUTS ...................................................... 7-30 7-32 7-34 .... 7-36 7-38 7-40 7-42 7-44 7-46 7-48 7-50 7-52 7-54 7-56 7-58 .......................................................... .. .............................................................................. ... SURFACE THREAD TUBING HYDROGEN HYDROGEN INCLUSIONS INCLUSIONS LACK OF SHRINK CRACKS CRACKS FLAKE CRACKS ...... SEAMS SEAMS ...................... CORROSION INTERGRANULAR 7-1 V ............................................................................................................ LAMINATIONS LAPS LAPS AND AND MICRO-SHRINKAGE GAS POROSITY UNFUSED STRESS POROSITY CORROSION TUBING DRAG ........................... ................. PENETRATION ..................................... ............................................. 7-26 7-28 ..... . (rNCONEL "X") ................................................................. 7-16 7-18 7-20 7-22 7-24 ................... . (BOLTS) CRACKS CRACKS GRINDING CONVOLUTION ........

........................................................................................................ ................... Laps Laps Gas Stress Hydraulic Mandrel Hot Tear Semiconductor Intergranular and and Seams Seams Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Dis continuity Corrosion in Rolled in Wrought ..... ....................................... Magnetic Ultrasonic Eddy Particle Test . Test ................................. ............ Current Radiographic Test Burst Discontinuities Cold Fillet Grinding Convolution Heat-Affected Heat Surface Thread Tubing Hydrogen Hydrogen Weldment Wrought Treat Shrink Crack Crack Flake Shuts Crack Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Cracks Zone Cracks Crack Crack Discontinuity Cracking Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity Discontinuity .................... .... .... Discontinuity Threads Material Micro-Shrinkage Porosity Unfused Porosity Corrosion Tubing Drag Discontinuity 7-2 ........ 7-41 7-43 7-45 7-47 7-49 7-51 7-53 7-55 7-57 7-59 ............................... Discontinuity Lack of Penetration Discontinuity ... .... Discontinuity Embrittlement Inclusion Inclusion Discontinuity..TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT) Page Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-24 7-25 7-26 7-27 7-28 7-29 7-30 7-31 7-32 Liquid Penetrant Test ............................................ ............................. .... ............................................... .... ...... Test ......................... Discontinuity .... ................. ........ 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-6 7-6 7-9 7-11 7-13 7-15 7-17 .......... . ....................................... 7-61 .... .... Lamination Discontinuity .......... ............................................................. .................... 7-19 7-21 7-23 7-25 7-27 7-29 7-31 7-33 7-35 7-37 7-39 ......................................... .......................

specific processing. Each illustrationshows the three elements involved in all five tests. which are or ingot. NDT be accomplished with a specific method. limitations of testing manufacturing (metallurgical. 706 through various for inclusion 732 are tn this were only a discontinuities of the a few conditions many of those industry. the will SELECTION be reviewed are selection in paragraphs with the of discontinuities which would standards. inherent. the differentmethods in each test category. discontinuities not be radically configuration. melting solidification _- 7-3 . (inherent. as type of discontinuity machining. of discontinuity. DISCONTINUITY that hundreds During of design. and the processes structural. and the methods discontinuity and their will capabilities be shown. chosen. selection processing) all will help determine one test method over another. CATEGORIES and environment DISCONTINUITY of the specific discontinuities and service. and tasks that may 702 The part space only ent 703 Each as the 1. are divided into with three categories general categories: classified materials. or service). 701 METHOD IDENTIFICATION sequence ultimate Figures 7-1 through 7-5 illustratefive NDT methods.CHAPTER 7: COMPARISON AND SELECTION OF NDT PROCESSES 700 The GENERAL purpose of this chapter is to summarize the NDT methods the which characteristics may of various to detect types each of type discontinuities. is associated ferrous manufacturing INHERENT DISCONTINUITIES are There Inherent related those are discontinuities two types. and Such limitations variables or of detection of a specific or plating). Wrought. a. if applicable. that associated products changed of the under aerodiffer- section. The when (heat relationship applied treating. material Each and of these the is further or nonferrous processes to whether the discontinuity configuration. and to list be employed between to the the various NDT process. wrought to the discontinuities and original cover those discontinuities of the metal that are related to the solidification Inherent of the discontinuities molten:metal.

Ultrasonic Test . Magnetic Particle Test ELEMENT PROCEDURE TASK LOCATE DISCONTINUITY PERSONNEL_- TESTING DETERMINE BOND TECHNIQUES I MEASURE THICKNESS EQUIPMENT ]-_ SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS I V Figure 7-4 7-3.ELEMENT PROCEDURE TASK PERSONNEL VISIBLE DYE PENETRATE TESTING DETECT SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES TECHNIQUES_-'- I EQUIPMENT _-- FLUORESCENT PENETRANT TESTING SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS Figure 7-1.NIQUESI I TESTING WET VISIBLE SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS I EQUIPMENT TESTING __WET FLUORESCENT Figure 7-2. Liquid Penetrant Test ELEMENT PROCEDURE TASK TESTING DRY VISIBLE I PERSONNEL_ LOCATE DISCONTINUITY TEC.

Radiographic Test 7-5 . Eddy Current Test C ELEMENT PROCEDURE TASK OBSERVE FUNCTION __ TESTING FILMLESS PERSONNEL m DISCONTINUITY LOCATE J TECHNIQUES I "I X-RAY FILM TESTING DETERMINE BOND I __ TESTING GAMMA RAY FILM APPLICATIONS SPECIALIZED I Figure 7-5.ELEMENT PROCEDURE TASK ---I i MANUAL CONDUCTIVITY TESTING CONDUCTIVITY MEASURE I HARDNESS DETERMINE PERSONNELI-'_ MANUAL DISCONTINUITY TESTING DETECT DISCONTINUITIES I TECHNIQUES MANUAL COATING AND PLATING THICKNESS TESTING MEASURE PLATING THICKNESS MANUAL OR AUTOMATIC PHASE ANALYSIS TESTING EQUIPMENTI----DIMENSIONAL DETECT CHANGES AUTOMATIC MODULATION ANALYSIS TESTING APPLICATIONS SPECIALIZED I I Figure 7-4.

that are would those discontinuities of the cast excessively which article. are It to the melting. d. discontinuities processes and plating. (parallel irregularly and/or or normal shaped. extruding. as machining. will characteristics actual cover: photos Origin and location of discontinuity (surface. analysis (how the discontinuity is produced 705 I. been and the specific and takes of the but article. gating. welding. Orientation Shape Photo (flat. Discontinuity and reference cussion a. SERVICE DISCONTINUITIES cover such those discontinuities corrosion. to manufacturing high pouring temperature. c. into Such reduce of nondestructive to a point This consideration an evaluation needless where the zoning testing the design upon have the reduces brought structural as the that engineer as well is based application environment in no way characteristics of the have rejection of material otherwise acceptable. 2. The the may the end NDT METHODS APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS GENERAL technological level of test of the now selectively Ioading reliability would accomplishments reliability zone end product product. Service service 704 treating. Metallurgical of manufacture). it does in the field reproducibility article. Cast. Processing manufacturing heat 3. or internal). that are related to the various rolling. or spiral). 7-6 . related includes variables Inherent those such cast discontinuities casting. b. ANALYSIS discontinuity The dis- DISCONTINUITY CHARACTERISTICS encompasses that illustrate AND METALLURGICAL an analysis examples of the specific of the discontinuity. and stacking. PROCESSING handling. discontinuities as inadequate entrapped gases. near surface. and at what stage (micrograph e. DISCONTINUITIES are those such discontinuities forming. that are fatigue. overall view of the discontinuity). related to the various discontinuities conditions as stress and errosion. typical to the grain). and solidification be inherent feeding.b.

testing. For NDT applicable material. 7-7 .b Just size a die zoned less The the as the will forging for rigid structural depending that the rigid control has same control application on the large level the where masses the within method the article and the varies. which NDT will satisfy can nondestructive design the objective same the of the reliability OF THE method and not assume methods produce 2. material. that under many The Limitations not only discontinuity conditions structural limitations discontinuities the do not permit discontinuity. and extremely the allowable thin web and discontinuity For sections zoned example. combinations mentioning intent of environment. b. the rapidly that 706 through when developing 732 are NDT in that field of preference chapter techniques particular be kept the order discontinuity. are permit can be applications where testing requirements must article same also type select discontinuities. d. to other test capability many to the and the cases various service the NDT methods reliability are listed slightly all of this the will vary of the for one different limitations chapter with test the ai'ticle applicable affect is may of matelocation. or environment. a planned analysts of the NDT in paragraphs However. f. would for vary of manufacture for whole configuration. The the also rial new must NDT be made methods of the develop for listed for may knowledge each for that alter article each of the requiring discontinuity above variables. in mind of test reviewing it should preference. The higher. larger method that all forging of material structural not require of acceptance structural specialist specific for NDT for the forging. methods NDT NDT methods upon be capable is based of performing variabies Type and origin of discontinuity processes Material Accessibility Level manufacturing of article of acceptability available desired Equipment Cost To satisfactorily task The order portion and 3. and with aware In addition. other The discontinuity and that several of one selection it should NDT method be In selecting kept over in mind another a. SELECTION the that may METHOD the may evaluation supplement the such same as: of a specific each task. LIMITATIONS limitations the test. but these in many reasons. c. that may be if you standard. factors that be applicable environment. e. associated are made a specific of the is fulfilled of a valid influence selection NDT test. of discontinuity. affected.

Forging processing ment b. are limited or exposed (2) d_ to surface TESTING and near surface evaluation. varying degrees of burst which they resemble a crack. L_ V definite a very testing breaks sharp reflection is capable by other areas. should first Not normally previously be removed is to be applied to an article dye penetrant by prolonged all traces of dye penetrant in applicable solvent. cavities the grain. Bursts are not have a spongy appearance even if it should occur at the often large and very seldom and. forging. used. Testing diameter. and other articles under 0. center. therefore. DISCONTINUITY or internal. tears. BURST CATEGORY. cleaning PENETRANT penetrant METHOD. or excessive working or metal A burst does from a pipe. results. MATERIAL. . 250 inch MAGNETIC (1) Usually internal Results PARTICLE TESTING ferrous METHOD material that has surface C_ used on wrought burst. METHODS ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Normally Bursts producing (3) Ultrasonic could (4) Nicks. on the APPLICATION TESTING used are for AND LIMITATIONS METHOD the detection in the of internal material on the bursts. during bursts the ANALYSIS are surface or internal temperature. D healed subsequent working.-q 706 1. rolling. or ruptures extruding which operation. Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material CHARACTERISTICS Straight Usually rolling. NDT a. 3. and scope. is distinguishable are attributed to move- at an incorrect forging. When LIQUID fluorescent tested. 2. (See varying Found Figure in size 7-6. is gas bubbles produce ultrasonic b.) with large material inter- or very required in wrought METALLURGICAL a. of detecting NDT tool adverse not be detected gouges. or irregular parallel with or extruding. article raised may methods. during c. tight. Not normally used. Surface faces which 4._.L. rod. EDDY CURRENT TESTING METHOD. foreign test material. restricted to wire.

thickness METHOD. the wrought capability used.So RADIOGRAPHIC as the size. direction and material TESTING of the burst. of radiography. Burst Discontinuities 7-9 . Such variables discontinuity material. close restrict Not normally interfaces. A FORGING EXTERNAL BURST B BOLT INTERNAL BURST C ROLLED BAR INTERNAL BURST D FORGED BAR INTERNAL BURST Figure 7-6.

parallel to the used Rene (2) appear regular. masking thereby MAGNETIC (1) (2) Normally The some cations portion PARTICLE used for TESTING the nature screening METHOD of ferrous materials. surface cold shuts in both ferrous and nonv PENETRANT TESTING Normally ferrous Will used to evaluate materials. C OLD SHUTS Inherent Ferrous and Nonferrous Cast Material v. will the over that more surging. directions. DISCONTINUITY CHARACTERISTICS smooth indentations on the cast surface resembling Surface and subsurface. presence prevent prevalent . Cold METALLURGIC shuts are produced AL ANALYSIS during casting or meeting of one films formed molten of two surface on cold. 2." for the testing not of nickel 0. be penetrant "X. it occurs. particle a duplex obtained which not result a crack from strong material. other that do one indiin metallurgical cases arise exhibits magnetic from of 431 corrosion-resistant testing structure Indications within the and or other magnetic harmful retentivity discontinuities. metal. splashing. APPLICATION LIMITATIONS METHOD.) 4. streams before sluggish produce with They the cold several may result coming metal from from flQws factor are or gates. or any sprues surfaces They in a mold AND NDT a. 3.5 (such 41) should may have exceed which may castings of the surfaces penetrants (recesses. and flanges) any detection may of a dispermit configuration of wet developer orifices. as reasonably (3) Liquid InconeI (4) Certain removal (5) Geometric buildup continuity. cross continuous. and indication. section of the or area base percent intermittent in which alloys sulfur. may be blind from which excessive be difficult. meet will metal. interrupted Also. different it. (See Figure 7-7. the V 7-I0 . MATERIAL.707 1. Generally a forging lap. a fusion of interposing where in castings METHODS LIQUID (1) pouring. solidification surface two which are of metal other shuts. as a smooth.j CATEGORY. steel are is such These wherein does not.

inherent material restrict A SURFACE COLD SHUT B INTERNAL COLD SHUT C SURFACE COLD SHUT MICROGRAPH Figure 7-7. configuration by radiography. Appear definite Casting detected as TESTING detectable METHOD by radiography while testing for other casting dis- (2) a distinct dark smooth outline. RADIOGRAPHIC (1) Normally continuities. TESTING may line or band of variable length and width. ULTRASONIC article testing. EDDY figuration CURRENT and TESTING METHOD. and (3) have inaccessible areas which can only be d. variables Not recommended.e. rule lend Cast structure to ultrasonic and configuration do not as a general themselves e. the use Article of this conmethod. Cold Shuts Discontinuity 7-11 . METHOD. Not recommended.

failure. METHODS ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Used LIMITATIONS extensively A wide selection of transducers evaluation for fillet crack. (3) (4) Will appear Structural to paint etc. which NDT a. and reliable and established standards be used reproducible METHOD results. APPLICATION TESTING propagates . PENETRANT used TESTING during Normally in-service ferrous overhaul and nonferrous or troubleshooting. corrosion in holes. LIQUID (1) (2) sensitivity. the of head-to-shank in magnitude fatigue failure. the created. inward. spot in diameter are place. (4) Ultrasonic should b. MATERIAL. 2. and in similar for moisture. may clear result indication. phenomenon. Being sharp a definite reflection. 3. alkaline deoxidizer (5) Entrapment areas may under cause fasteners. although usually May be used confined for both to the nonferrous. whereby These risers surface stress at the occurs. fluctuates can cause Fatigue inward. due to the under penetrant's splices. propagation the scope pattern will be a very by using (Actual can be monitored ultrasonics. DISCONTINUITY Located (See Figure Service Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material kJ CHARACTERISTICS of the fillet with the shank of the bolt and progressing at the Junction 7-8. Surface. During the tensile are and such the tensile built as between application Ioad loads in.708 1. bolts. ) equipment to give has extreme break V (3) in the material. from coating exposure removers. Fillet this FILLET CRACKS (BOLTS) CATEGORY. 4. Junction due where operation at the in service of the mechanism.) METALLURGICAL cracks bolt occur where repeated to the starting is surface ANALYSIS a marked stress loading point change risers takes where starts AND METHOD for service associated and discontinuities equipment enable of this on the type. as a sharp damage strippers. of high strength steels solutions. affinity V 7-12 .

Not normally more compatible used for detection to the detection of of Other type of discontinuity. TESTING Surface METHOD. of e. methods are in the annealed heat treatment. RADIOGRAPHIC fillet cracks. evaluate discontinuities of crack would be difficult due to size C A FILLET FATIGUE FAILURE B FRACTURE AREA OF(A) POINT OF FAILURE SHOWING TANGENCY C CROSS-SECTIONAL FILLET SHOWING AREA OF FATIGUE CRACK TANGENCY POINT IN RADIUS iN %. in relation Not normally of this to the type thickness used for detection to of material.J Figure 7-8. indications.7 pH is only slightly magnetic becomes strongly magnetic after netic particle tested. but when it may be mag- d. indication with a heavy buildup. condition. Fillet Crack Discontinuity 7-13 . MAGNETIC (1) (2) (3) (4) Normally Will Sharp PARTICLE used TESTING METHOD on ferrous sharp bolts. TESTING NDT METHOD. EDDY fillet this CURRENT cracks.c. appear fillet as clear areas may produce non-relevant magnetic 17.

angles to the plated.709 1. CRACKS k. MAGNETIC (1) (2) Restricted Grinding although in which (3) Magnetic and PARTICLE to ferrous cracks case are they TESTING materials.J Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous DISCONTINUITY Very shallow occur and CHARACTERISTICS and They ceramic sharp are at the Grinding found that root. appear as irregular. MATERIAL. NDT a. These The ground thermal overheating wheel. generally cases may at right angles network to grinding of cracks field. APPLICATION PENETRANT used TESTING on both cracks. may appear. and usually. 7-14 . materials cracks are at right of grinding. (See but not always. ground. checked. direction case Figure 4. discontinuity to indicate and require the penetration that to the have (4) Articles the prior been and degreased of the may still have solvent time for entrapped evaporation in discontinuity should be allowed penetrant. indication of fine most ferrous Normally tion of grinding penetrant pattern are the (2) Liquid shattered will lines. by lack ANALYSIS surfaces overheating of or poor cut. direction. METHOD sufficient application b. AND LIMITATIONS METHOD and nonferrous materials for the detecfrequently of the coolant. or (3) Cracks longest difficult time. Surface. in extreme a complete be parallel to the size magnetic sensitivity depth below decreases the surface as the of grinding crack decreases as its increases. Similar are heat to heat generally treated treat cracks chrome operations. hardened 7-9. subjected to grinding METALLURGICAL of hardened by local caused feed. cracks is too Grinding are rapid caused usually a dull or improperly or too heavy METHODS LIQUID (1) 6. ) in groups. 2. GRINDING CATEGORY. in highly articles. introduces surface being cracks. 3.

equipment Not normally has application... cracks for detection than ultrasonics. • .c. Not recommended and small. T. for TESTING METHOD. nonferrous METHOD. RADIOGRAPHIC grinding methods cracks. of grinding for detection Other NDT of e. Not normally are more used used for detection and can be of Eddy current a specific TESTING Other to this the capability developed d.. B GRINDING CRACK PATTERN NORMAL TO GRINDING C MICROGRAPH OF GRINDING CRACK Figure 7-9. forms ULTRASONIC grinding better cracks.. type of discontinuity METHOD.. Grinding Crack Discontinuity 7-15 ... cracks. EDDY grinding CURRENT cracks. are more TESTING Grinding suitable are too tight m A TYPICAL CHECKED GRINDING CRACK PATTERN . r [ t . adapted for detection faster. of and or NDT economical.

(4) Liquid replace (5) The type penetrant radiographic of marking the area and magnetic particle testing testing. METALLURGICAL rough 'orange which The service pits and peel' stretches roughened ANALYSIS effect the of convolution material (vibration cracks contains and cracks small is the pits result attack which may form of either such stress stresses photograph. ULTRASONIC convolution and internal sonics.g. in direction Situated on the (See in size periphery Figure 4. 2.710 CONVOLUTION CRACKS I. METHODS APPLICATION TESTING LIMITATIONS RADIOGRAPHIC METHOD (1) Used extensively for this type of failure. micro METHOD. DISCONTINUITY Range of the 7-10. Not normally used for the detection of Configuration fractures are of the article (double-walled all factors which restrict the convolutions) use of ultra- Co TESTING As itself METHOD. MATERIAL. used testing. grease may pencil affect the on titanium) structure used of the may supplement but not and ultrasonic material (e. a forming risers. that act operation treatment.. Subsequent on these or from chemical flexing) in the as pickling surface application form fatigue introduce as shown AND accompanying . (3) Orientation of convolutions to X-ray source is very criticalsince to X-ray may not register those discontinuitieswhich are not normal on the film due to the lack of difference in density. for the the detection of convolution does cracks. b. ) Processing Nonferrous CHARACTERISTICS from micro and fractures extend to open fissures. in the case method Not normally of ultrasonic of testing. CATEGORY. Surface. 3. The convolutions longitudinally of rolling. to identify article. EDDY tion CURRENT of discontinuities TESTING cracks. (2) Configuration of article and location of discontinuitylimits detection almost exclusively to radiography. configura- not lend to this V 7-16 . NDT a.

A TYPICAL CONVOLUTION DUCTING B CROSS-SECTION OF CRACKED CONVOLUTION C HIGHER ORANGE MAGNIFICATION PEEL OF CRACK SHOWING MICROGRAPH CRACKING OF CONVOLUTION ON SIDES WITH PARTIAL Figure 7-10. Convolution Cracks Discontinuity 7-17 .d. e. LIQUID detection they creates are PENETRANT of convolution internal a serious TESTING cracks. which and are problem superimposed of entrapment. Not applicable. MAGNETIC TESTING METHOD. Although Not recommended the discontinuities over an exterior shell for the are surface. Material is nonferrous. METHOD.

more Not normally used for the detection suitable. (i. May contribute to structural failure of article. c. or blended due to manufacturing processes should not be penetrant tested until the smeared surface has been removed. methods METHOD Discontinuity orientation and surface (i) Used where specialized applications have been developed. (3) Demagnetization of highly heat treated articles can be very difficult due to metallurgical structure. (2) Prod burns are very detrimental. DISCONTINUITY Often zone quite ZONE Processing Ferrous and CRACKING %J (Weldments) Nonferrous CHARACTERISTICS deep and very (See ANALYSIS zones contain prior of weldments more than to welding. that and require NDT a. (2) Material that has had its surface obliterated. 2. affect 4.30% carbon in severity are prone with to this increasing type of tight. . Surface. are required to develop valid tests. especially on highly heat treated articles. sharp versus rounded e. 3. METHODS MAGNETIC preheating . AND TESTING LIMITATIONS METHOD increases 0. METALLURGICAL of heat-affected Steels Hot cracking carbon failure content. APPLICATION PARTICLE (I) Normally used for ferrous weldments. ULTRASONIC TESTING other NDT TESTING METHOD. factors in deflecting the (2) Rigid standards and procedures (3) The configuration of the surface roughness root radii and the slope condition) are major sound beam.711 1.) parallel with the weld in the heat- of the weldment. (3) Liquid penetrant testing after the application of certain types of chemical film coatings may of the discontinuities. MATERIAL. Figure Usually 7-11. HEAT-AFFECTED CATEGORY. LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING METHOD (1) Normally used for nonferrous weldments. blurred. b. be invalid due to the covering or filling of heat-affected zone cracking. RADIOGRAPHIC origin make d. 7-18 .

• | A MICROGRAPH OF WELD AND HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE SHOWING CRACK NOTE COLD LAP WHICH MASKS THE ENTRANCE TO THE CRACK B MICROGRAPH OF CRACK SHOWN IN(A) .eo EDDY detecting used CURRENT nonferrous TESTING zone cracking. used has for the detection of of heat-affected as magnetic capability it is not as universally penetrant.. Eddy discontinuities..j Figure 7-11. surface particle METHOD. or liquid Not normally current equipment however. Heat-Affected Zone Cracking Discontinuity 7-19 .

3. METHODS APPLICATION PARTICLE AND LIMITATIONS METHOD treat cracks are normally detected by mag- MAGNETIC (1) For netic (2) TESTING heat ferrous particles materials. (keyways strength may be set up by unequal causing it or cooling. HEAT TREAT CRACKS Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought and Cast Material CATEGORY. particles and liquid penetrant are more direct and economical. During heating thickness. on the part. ) ANALYSIS cooling may stress process movement exceed risers localized of the occur the tensile stresses article. cracks may 5.4. or areas rapid changes and heat in material treatable thickness. Likely points of origin fillets. NDT Where built-in develop. 2. and (See Figure discontinuities 7-12. The magnetic particles curved indications. be used in LOX systems must (3) Materials be tested or articles that will eventually with compatible penetrants. or (3) are areas with that would develop stress risers. LIQUID (1) (17. Seldom in areas follow with rapid a definite change pattern of material which have and can be in any thickness. structure 17. forked. MATERIAL. Surface. DISCONTINUITY Usually CHARACTERISTICS and forked. METALLURGICAL the heating These and nicks. TESTING METHOD C. Likely magnetic points (2) of origin would be the same as those listed above for particle testing. such as keyways.7. Originate machining marks. restricted stresses or unequal or grooves} cross-sectionaI additional of the material to rupture. and indications wilI normally be straight. PENETRANT TESTING materials METHOD liquid penetrant testing is the recommended For nonferrous method.712 1. been exposed deep direction sharp to the 4. 7-20 . EDDY (1) (2) CURRENT Normally Magnetic not used. stainless of age hardenable 431) may produce irrelevant indications. (4) Metallurgical steels b. fillets. surface of the material. testing. a.

d. TESTING If used the METHOD. methods normally are more discontinuities surface detected i A FILLET RELIEF AND MATERIAL THICKNESS RADIUS CRACKING (LOWER CRACKS LEFT) (TOP CENTER) / B H_E'AT TREAT CRACK DUE TO SHARP MACHINING MARKS Figure 7-12. used for detection indication of heat of a a definite Recommended TESTING Surface for designed be surface. used easily for detection of by other e. Heat Treat Cracks Discontinuity 7-21 . ULTRASONIC treat cracks. discontinuity. Not normally will show mode would Not application. scope pattern wave METHOD. RADIOGRAPHIC heat NDT treat cracks.

direction CHARACTERISTICS face and of the shalIow. 7-13. heat causing application. may run Range parallel in size or very to open transverse 4. MATERIAL. ANALYSIS are generally article. will not normally that are they since magnetic of grease be damaged should fittings. from SURFACE CATEGORY. (3) Areas might solids TESTING are METHOD tested parallel do not by magnetic to the interrupt magnetic or distort particle field the method. which (3) Assemblies or press developing by bolting. weld. 3. 2. SHRINK CRACKS (Welding) and Nonferrous Processing Ferrous DISCONTINUITY Situated small. (See fusion and Figure zone. during PENETRANT shrink penetrant control which fittings TESTING cracks are Surface Liquid in-process equipment for are will can be used weldments.713 1. be masked bearing before races. PARTICLE weIdments discontinuities indications in a hot air dryer should be avoided or by similar means. heating. Surface heating stresses Restriction cooling. welding. out after and mask the adjoining (4) When articles are dried sive drying temperature the penetrant. deep. material up excessive o APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS METHOD normally is easily detected portable and by liquid and penetrant. intermittent will seep both ferrous joined retain nonferrous riveting. area the may during material either set up in or welding of the movement may or cooling or expansion) in a localized of the the tensile also set strength (contraction to crack. MAGNETIC (1) (2) Ferrous Surface produce field. the penetrant. METALLURGICAL shrink that cracks exceed of the or welding NDT a. surfaces. or other similar solution items that or clogged by the suspension or magnetic 7-22 . Surface. to prevent evaporation excesof b. testing. of welding.) and base Cracks metal. the on the tight. METHODS LIQUID (1) (2) the Heating result of the of improper material stresses.

Surface Shrink Crack Discontinuity 7-23 . RADIOGRAPHIC of surface other types TESTING METHOD. ULTRASONIC surface particle) shrink give of NDT penetrant results. During the surface METHOD. A TRANSVERSE CRACKSIN HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE B TYPICAL STAR-SHAPED CRATER CRACK C SHRINKAGE CRACK AT WELD TERMINAL J v Figure 7-13. of magnetic e. configuration L. EDDY (1) (2) CURRENT TESTING METHOD welded be used pipe where and tubing. TESTING cracks.c. for are detection and faster. of discontinuities. confined or encircling to nonferrous coil could article d. better of weldments be detected. Other forms are more Not normally radiographic indications Not normally (liquid economical. Normally Probe permits. used testing may used and for the detection for discontinuities.

cracks as fine discontinuities and propagate METHODS LIQUID (1) (2) NDT a. and kerosene are not PENETRANT TESTING Fluorescent Low surface recommended When applying penetrant is recommended such tension solvents cleaners. 2. thread. DISCONTINUITY Cracks (See are CHARACTERISTICS transverse 7-14. resulting from roots and and/ to the grain (transgranular) starting at the root of the Figure METALLURGICAL failures and/or cracks. configuration CURRENT cracks. MAGNETIC (1) (2) Normally IrreIevent ation. LIMITATIONS METHOD over as gasoline non-fluorescent. 4. MATERIAL. does Not recommended itself for detecting testing. 3. Not normally would require for detecting equip- speciaIized ULTRASONIC cracks. thread configuration not lend to ultrasonic 7-24 . overspraying. Thread TESTING METHOD. act on the stress risers cracks may start in the direction APPLICATION of applied AND High cyclic stresses created by the thread submicroscopic stresses. b. liquid adjacent penetrant areas (3) to components should within an assembly masked or structure. EDDY thread ment d. if adaptable.714 1. used hydrocarbons in structural TESTING The article damage METHOD. THREAD CRACKS Service Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material CATEGORY.) ANALYSIS type are not uncommon. Cleaning may c. result the be effectively to prevent PARTICLE used TESTING METHOD on ferrous materials. Surface. may result from the thread configur- magnetic indications (3) titanium and 440C stainless to the in halogeneated material. of this flexing Fatigue Fatigue vibration produce or 5.

METHOD. TESTING Surface specific connected.e. their Not recommended are Fatigue best screened of this cracks for detecting method very be are by NDT type would detection by radiography A COMPLETE THREAD ROOT FAILURE B TYPICAL THREAD ROOT FAILURE MICROGRAPH ROOT OF (A) SHOWING CRACK AT BASE OF D MICROGRAPH OF (B) SHOWING CRACK AT THREAD ROOT TRANSGRANULAR L Figure 7-14. for the surface difficult. discontinuities condition. Thread Crack Discontinuity 7-25 . RADIOGRAPHIC thread designed tight and extremely cracks.

Testing of ferro-magnetic TESTING used variety for material may be difficult. METHODS EDDY (1) (2) APPLICATION TESTING for CURRENT used METHOD of this type of discontinuity. b. NDT a. ) Inherent Nonferrous CHARACTERISTICS on the inner surface (I.D. limitations. may cold material ANALYSIS be attributed reduction may the heating in the to one of the have and annealing rate been cracking operation. and transducers of this varying type. and wall thickness equipment (3) b. Co RADIOGRAPHIC (1) Not normally TESTING used for METHOD detecting tubing cracks.715 1. high sulfur content are available for screening on heavy of equipment internal transducers discontinuities have contact an adverse Ultrasonic Certain which temperature may have nickel ultrasonic will have couplants effect on high alloys. on the the cold inner worked surface material of the was tubes of the following: embedded when embrittlement during Insufficient occurring 1200-1400° F range. Tubing (See 4. 2. 3. DISCONTINUITY cracks Figure formed 7-15. (0. AND LIMITATIONS 5. cracks Improper Foreign causing heated c. 7-26 . to the annealing temperature with possible cracking tube or a combination during fabrication. parallel to direction of grain flow. a.). 156 inch} are well within Normally The detection diameter (1 inch) capability. METALLURGICAL I. Tubing TUBING CRACKS (INCONEL "X") _J CATEGORY. ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Normally A wide tubing (3) (4) METHOD gauge tubing. MATERIAL.D.

would Not recommended to process for detecting and (eddy current and ultrasonic) are more economical. TESTING METHOD. d. Tubing Crack Discontinuity 7-27 . Not applicable.(2) Discontinuity graphic orientation and thickness of material govern the radio- sensitivity. forms and of NDT reliable. PENETRANT cracks. (3) Other faster. Internal discontinuity be difficult eo MAGNETIC nonferrous PARTICLES under normal TESTING conditions. Material is +LL " TYPICAL CRACK ON INSIDE OF TUBING SHOWING COLD LAP C MICROGRAPH OF (B) Figure 7-15. METHOD. LIQUID tubing interpret.

are usually hairline bars. flakes appear flakes found as bright Sometimes are in heavy silvery known steel areas. DISCONTINUITY fissures surface parallel (See cracks with Figure in a fractured they appear when the revealed grain. it may be necessary to magnetize 7-28 . b. AND METHOD for the detection of hydrogen flake. 7-16. On an checks generally billets. extremely METALLURGICAL are only NDT a. Internal etched and and 4. and scarfing scale. internal in heavy METHODS ULTRASONIC (!) (2) Used fissures ANALYSIS attributed of hydrogen forgtngs. Surface irregularities of back reflection. Where the general deep tool marks may obliterate the detection (4) direction of a discontinuity in two or more is questionable. flake will (3) On the A-scan presentation. 3. tool materials prior to any marks. directions. transformaUsually and decreased solubility alloy o APPLICATION TESTING extensively Material in the wrought condition can be screened either the immersion or the contact method. MAGNETIC (1) (2) Normally Flakes hairline PARTICLE used TESTING METHOD articles. AI1 foreign removed gouges.716 1. Flakes tion found aligned HYDROGEN CATEGORY. The will determine the method most suited. hydrogen the screen or as loss of back reflection. 2. successfully using surface condition LIMITATIONS steel to stresses during produced cooling after by localized hot working. as chrome thin and forgings. (loose testing. may appear as hash on (4) oil. FLAKE Processing Ferrous CHARACTERISTICS surface. cause grease) loss should such be as nicks. dirt.) as short They discontinuities. with (3) Machined surfaces of the flake. by machining. and resemble chrome checks or on finished machined discontinuities appear as short cracks. MATERIAL.

Hydrogen Flake Discontinuity 7-29 . its location and orientation with respect to the material surface restricts the application of radiography. v. The metallurgical structure of ferrous materials limits their adaptability to the use of eddy current. RADIOGRAPHICTESTINGMETHOD. d.. Discontinuities are very small and tight andwould be difficult to detect by liquid penetrant.. Not normally used for detecting flakes. EDDY CURRENT TESTINGMETHOD. Not recommendedfor detecting flakes.e. Not recommende_dfordetecting flakes. The size of the discontinuity. e._ A 4340 CMSHAND FORGING REJECTED FORHYDROGEN FLAKE CROSS-SECTIONF(A) SHOWING O FLAKECONDITIONIN CENTER OFMATERIAL Figure 7-16. LIQUID PENETRANT TESTINGMETHOD.

) or direction. (4) Care or (5) should the as pickling at the Operations generate face 5. embrittIement. c. and/or plating Found or in and Service DISCONTINUITY Small. for detecting surface plating METHOD for detecting and size on the Subsequent deposit discontinuity. ULTRASONIC (1) (2) TESTING used Not normally Article this hydrogen do not. surface wave 7-30 . LIQUID (1) (2) PENETRANT used TESTING METHOD hydrogen are extremely may embrittIement.717 1. heat exposed nondimensionaI material to free hydrogen. HYDROGEN CATEGORY. tight. of the NDT a. or delayed creating immediate APPLICATION PARTICLES indications embritflement magnetic particle AND LIMITATIONS TESTING appear METHOD as a fractured are randomly pattern. and difficult Not normally Discontinuities to detect. 2. orientated and may cracks field. in general. lend themselves to configurations of "testing. treated subjected Figure METALLURGICAL such hydrogen material METHODS MAGNETIC (1) (2) Magnetic Hydrogen follow (3) Magnetic plating. MATERIAL. testing should be accomplished before and after be taken to produce article steel with no confusing by overheating. magnetic cold working. b. 3. mask the small. cleaning prior to electroplattng This hydrogen embrittlement or electroplating penetrates and the surcracking. Surface. ANALYSIS and surface in highly material 4. has capability method (3) Equipment Recommend of detecting_ technique. EMBRITTLEMENT Processing Ferrous CHARACTERISTICS (interface) that was (See with no orientation to pickling 7-17. is non-magnetic or irrelevant indications cause damage to the resistant 301 corrosion but becomes in the annealed condition. of the material. hydrogen embrittlement .

_:. " A DETAILED CRACK PATTERN OF HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT . F_ -J EDDY CURRENT TESTING METHOD. Many variables inherent in the specific material may produce conflicting patterns. METHOD. RADIOGRAPHIC hydrogen embrittlement TESTING is in most embrittlement. e. Figure 7-17. B HYDROGENMBRITTLEMENT E UNDER CHROME PLATE C HYDROGENMBRITTLEMENT ROPAGATED E P TI-_I_UGH CHROME PLATE L. Hydrogen Embrtttlement Discontinuity 7-31 . The sensitivity cases in excess Not recommended required to detect of radiographic for detecting hydrogen capabilities.d._: : . Not recommended for detecting hydrogen embrittlement.

generally absorbent absorbent globules linearly. They may be metallic throughout or nonthe or be linearly distributed or scattered weldment. density by a lighter such as loose (4) Forci_ material test results. 5. may (See appear Figure Processing Ferrous and (Weldments) Nonferrous Welded Material CHARACTERISTICS Inclusions singly 7-18. will appear on the linear or scattered inclusions Non-metallic round singly. CURRENT or flux may invalidate b. to thin may be required e° MAGNETIC (1) (2) Normally Confined or near PARTICLE not used to machined surface. or in V (i) This NDT (2) Metallic erratically small (3) appear on the radlograi_h or elongated white spots groups. radiograph shaped root film the weldment. Surface metallic INCLUSIONS CATEGORY._ *. is universally used. splatter. discontinuities are surface 7-_2 . as sharply defined. and wilI Less more of or elongated or scattered in the fusion is indicated or irregularly throughout zone by a greater film scales. 4. TESTING for detecting weldments METHOD inclusions where the in weldments.k 718 1. appear material materials or at the density. of the as contours shadows occurring They weld. if valid results are to be Normally Established obtained. and may be isolated round. foreign Non-metallic other non-metallic and the base metal.. NDT a. density sulphides. Metallic METALLURGICAL inclusions or base are to the weld metal. DISCONTINUITY and and subsurface. 3. METHODS or between APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS RADIOGRAPHIC TEsTINGMETHOD method inclusions shaped. EDDY (1) (2) TESTING confined standards METHOD wall welded tubing.) ANALYSIS generally material particles entrapped of metals inclusions in the of different are weld oxides. the as compared slag weld or metal may be any shape. MATERIAL. 2.

_.... applications testing:: i--.. _ E-ST!_-G fissures... ..:._ ... .... Inclasions :._......._i _ii. .. configuration may l'equire- :: ....E. L_QUm PEN'ETRAN_ arelormaiiynot open E ¸ ......._'_T:'_... irregularly shaped..:_ _=:_ _... . • the ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Not normally Specific ultrasonic TESTING used detecting...._:)..._-_...Nqt applicable..i__ -v_. _:: : of:design oi" of article _ : ....._.. - indivtdually or clustered. e.._7_ . _ _..T_OD .._ .. (4) Discontinuities between d..._..." . _._ _ . 0 7-33 . when and the improper surface may magnetic go undetected particles METHOD for Conta6texists of the article.>_. inclusions....(3) The indications would and appear Jagged.>iii... would not be too pronounced.

MATERIAL. They may be individual or clustered. (2) Testing of ferro-magnetic c. CATEGORY. The other type lines. (i) Normally used for thin wail tubing and small diameter rods. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (i) Normally used on machined (2) Inclusions will appear as a straight intermittent or as a continuous indication. There are and Found two quite types: tightly one adherent. METHOD surface. Non-plastic remaining in the to evaluate appear as definite within clustered condition or conditions on different back reflection. Numerous small scattered "noise". appearing material. during METHODS ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Normally Inclusions billet Non-metallic the solid 5. 3. EDDY CURRENT TESTING METHOD is critical. the metal. APPLICATIONS TESTING used will AND METHOD inclusions in wrought interfaces material. should be perpendicular to the possible. in forged. 2. METALLURGICAL inclusions or ingot. Small a loss in excessive LIMITATIONS are inclusions caused are by the caused existence by particles of slag or oxides in 7-19. planes causing conditions cause (3) Inclusion orientation in relationship to ultrasonic beam (4) The direction of the ultrasonic beam direction of the grain flow whenver b. DISCONTINUITY (original with and likely large Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material CHARACTERISTICS bar) long or surface (after lines in groups. as extruded. short rolled a comparatively straight parallel to flow lines to flow to occur mass (See is non-plastic. billet state NDT a. and not parallel Figure ANALYSIS (stringers) melting.719 INC LUSIONS 1. ) machining). (3) The magnetic technique should be such that a surface or near surface inclusion can be satisfactorilydetected when its axis is in any direction. Subsurface is non-metallic Often and 4. 7-34 . materials can be difficult.

surface. Not normally Inclusions for detecting are generally TESTING not openings in the material RADIOGRAPHIC designed METHOD. Wrought Inclusion Discontinuity 7-35 . == = ] C TYPICAL INCLUSION PATTERN ON MACHINED SURFACES B STEEL FORGINGSHOWINGNUMEROUS INCLUSIONS J C MICROGRAPH OF TYPICAL INCLUSION D LONGITUDINAL CROSS-SECTION ORIENTATION OF INCLUSIONS SHOWING Figure 7-19. NDT methods f e. suitable for detecting for surface testing are more surface inclusions. LIQUTD (i) (2) PENETRANT used TESTING METHOD inclusions in wrought material. Not recommended. is critical since inclusions Certain types of steels are more prone to inclusions than other.(4) A knowledge of the grain flow of the material will be parallel to that direction. (5) i i d.

METHODS APPLICATION TESTING AND LIMITATIONS RADIOGRAPHIC (1) Used lack (2) Lack area METHOD variety of welded articles to determine the extensively of penetration. ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Commonly Complex themselves (3) METHOD specific applications. 3. NDT a. parallel with Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Weldments CHARACTERISTICS Generally the weld. center on the of the radiograph at the as an elongated junction of multipass dark and It may weld be continuous or intermittent and may bends. metal was cold a deposited. of penetration of varying appear on a wide wilI length in the appear width. caused by fast a welding or too . bead. of ultrasonic (4) 7-36 . Internal running 4. irregular (See Figure and filamentary 7-20.720 i. test results is difficult unless equipment wail weldments do not lend configurations. appear on the scope as a definite break or a crack and will give a very sharp reflection. Caused LACK OF PENETRATION CATEGORY. MATERIAL. ) oeeuring at the root and METALLURGICAL by root Also face ANALYSIS of joint not reaching welding fusion rate. DISCONTINUITY or external. Sensitivity levels di s c ontinuitie s. (3) Lack of penetration source is critical. to ultrasonic Lack of penetration will discontinuity resembling Repeatability is standardized. 2. TESTING used weld for orientation in relationship to the radiographic (4) govern the capability to detect small or tight b. or thin testing. temperature too large before weld rod.

c. indication of varying indication of varying width. EDDY CURRENT TESTING METHOD (i) Normally used to determine lack of penetration in nonferrous welded pipe and tubing. appears TESTING where backside appears as an irregular METHOD of weld is visible. Lack of Penetration Discontinuity 7-37 . Lack used where backside of weld is visible. of penetration PENETRANT used LIQUID (1) (2) Normally Lack of penetration width. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING other nonferrous articles can meet of the equipment. A INADEQUATE ROOT PENETRATION B INADEQUATE ROOT WELDED TUBE PENETRATION OF BUTT C INADEQUATE FILLET KNOWN AS BRIDGING WELD PENETRATION k. METHOD (i) Normally (2) e. Residue any left by the as an irregular (3) penetrant and the developer could contaminate re-welding operation. (2) Eddy current can be used where the configuration requirement d.J Figure 7-20.

PARTICLE fabricated and reflection techniques are applicable for TESTING from METHOD materials are normally tested for ferrous particle. a thin material. interface with and as a definite a loss of back (4) transmission sections. blister. AND LIMITATIONS METHOD material makes may selected methods the geometry their detection depending and orientation of lamination directional generally result aligned parallel seam. METHOD materials. the material manual be used thickness or method contact or immersion (3) Lamination reflection. DISCONTINUITY and internal. TESTING on nonferrous Normally 7-38 . Through very b. by working. Inherent Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material CHARACTERISTICS Fiat. of the in forged. generally film (See aligned Figure parallel the 7-21. LIQUID (1) thin will appear for testing. 2. over-alI of determining or depth PENETRANT used of the lamination. Surface surface Found 4. MATERIAL. LAMINATIONS CATEGORY. Laminations to the work inclusions. material. MAGNETIC (I) Articles lamination (2) (3) Magnetic Magnetic size c.721 1. are flat- Laminations surface tened of the impurities NDT a. 3. capable intermittent the indication. or segregations material. appear is not by magnetic indication particle will testing as a straight. extremely contain roiled and thin. work May of oxide between METALLURGICAL are separations ANALYSIS or weaknesses They and are may made be the thin.) to the surfaces. extremely o METHODS ULTRASONIC (i) For APPLICATION TESTING gauge heavier (normal (2) Numerous to the wave beam) modes limited upon to ultrasonic. elongated that of pipe. extruded. Automatic are adaptable.

and thereby and honing. or mask seriously cleaning or blasting surface limit of the may smear surface of material lamination. TESTING Laminations thereby METHOD.250 IN. TESTING the method METHOD. surface do EDDY tions. used sheet to detect stock.(2) Machining. PLATE B LAMINATION IN 0. laminaof liquid penetrant (3) Acid testing. the effectiveness is essential. CURRENT If used. have very making recommended thickness changes detection radiographic i i ! I ! i _7 A LAMINATION IN 0. close alkalines Thorough lapping. must Not normally to thin be confined Not small ej RADIOGRAPHIC laminations of the X-ray beam. for detecting in the almost direction impossible. BAR SHOWING SURFACE Figure 7-21. Lamination Discontinuity 7-39 .040 TITANIUM SHEET C LAMINATION IN PLATE SHOWING SURFACE O'RIENTATION D LAMINATION ORIENTATION IN 1 IN.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING METHOD as (1) Magnetic particle indications would generally appear the same liquid penetrant. (3) Foreign material may not only interfere with the penetration of the penetrant into the discontinuitybut may penetrant in a nondefective area. major appearing diameter as hairline of the thread. thereby cause an accumulation of may occur tend to killthe fluorescent qualities in fluorescent penetrants. Dye penetrants due to rolling operation. cracks. NDT a. in rolled of rolling. threads minor. (2) Liquid penetrant indications will be circumferential. DISCONTINUITY Wavy Found lines. and 4. MATERIAL. LAPS AND SEAMS Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Rolled Threads CATEGORY. 7-22. slightlycurved. (4) Surface of threads may be smeared sealing offlaps and seams. 2. Surface. (2) Irrelevent magnetic indications may configuration. intermittent or continuous indications. APPLICATION PENETRANT AND LIMITATIONS METHOD TESTING (1) Compatibility with both ferrous and nonferrous materials makes fluorescent liquid penetrant the first choice. b. Laps and seams individuallyor in clusters. very and tight. (5) Fluorescent and dye penetrants are not compatible. result from the thread (3) Questionable magnetic particles indications can be verified by liquid penetrant testing. CHARACTERISTICS often quite (See deep in the Figure and sometime pitch.) in direction METALLURGICAL ANALYSIS faulty or oversized dies or an overfill of material may over and flattened into the surface of the thread but not During the rolling operation.722 1. cause material to be folded fused. METHODS LIQUID . 3. 7-40 .

configuration Not normally is the Not restrict restricting used for detecting factor. TESTING Article METHOD. of radiographic Size TESTING and testing. capability. Laps and Seams Discontinuity in Rolled Threads 7-41 . recommended ultrasonic configurations METHOD. for detecting Iaps e. ULTRASONIC and seams. for detecting laps d.e. Not recommended restricts orientation of discontinuities the capability A TYPICAL AREAS OF FAILURE LAPS AND SEAMS B FAILURE OCCURRING AT ROOT OF THREAD C AREAS WHERE LAPS AND SEAMS USUALLY OCCUR Figure 7-22. RADIOGRAPHIC and seams. TESTING Thread METHOD. EDDY laps CURRENT and seams.

LAPS AND SEAMS %J CATEGORY. Figure Lengthy. for the Therefore. or slightly and continuous curved or be individual or clustered (4) Magnetic magnetizing crack buildup current is necessary. at a small openings tubing. an overfill surface 5. DISCONTINUITY a. seams They may may appear as a straight. or tightly Laps plate. from elongated of the to seams the processing adjacent Laps or forging. discontinuity and the may may operations. spiral. APPLICATION PARTICLE particle LIMITATIONS METHOD for ferrous and seams may material. in the cracks. ANALYSIS blowholes. 2. be detected by this TESTING is recommended laps and near-surface (3) Laps and indication. usually with usually the surface Found not very in wrought pronounced angle. part and small. forgings. be folded flattened or sizing over or into the tears introduced The in earlier distance between the 7-23. direction splits. they rod. intermittent. 3. may adherent have surface bar. fissures rod and at times associated 4. with tubing. may in a plane 7-42 . Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Wrought Material CHARACTERISTICS Wavy usually smeared (See lines enter closed. detection of a a greater (5) Correct technique the discontinuity should be used lie when examining nearly for parallel forging laps since to the surface. exist fused.723 i. magnetizing of laps and seams than is very that used small. of roiling is very result of the sizing occur from material. processing Laps during resulting on any AND of the article. MATERIAL. METHODS MAGNETIC (1) (2) Magnetic Surface method. Seams METALLURGICAL originate and innerfaces are similar During may but not NDT a.) often grain quite and deep and sometimes spiral when very tight. improper corners in material roiling. may being forging. Lap since and Surface. Do Seam parallel rolled Surface.

to test technique to machining. RADIOGRAPHIC laps and seams METHOD. beam. Not recommended Although the ratio for detecting the between discontinuity size and the material thickness _in most cases. ULTRASONIC (1) (2) Normally Surface length. of the depth. to detect especially Liquid Laps is recommended may be very by liquid (3) Liquid penetrant testing of laps and seams can be by heating the article before applying the penetrant. TESTING in wrought the METHOD evaluation of laps by eddy and current seams where in tubing article and pipe. evaluation size of Iaps seams._l imnnssible. TESTING METHOD for nonferrous tight and difficult material. TESTING used wave and METHOD wrought permits and material accurate prior improved slightly c._. Normally Other tion articles and size be screened configura- e. thereby making exceeds 2 % of sensitivity small thickness change in the radiographic detection A TYPICAL FORGING LAP B MICROGRAPH OF A LAP Figure 7-23. and seams will appear as definite inner (3) d. discontinuities have a very direction of the X-ray _ 1m.b° LIQUID (1) (2) PENETRANT penetrant and seams penetrant. Ultrasonic faces within indication the metal. material. of laps EDDY (1) (2) CURRENT used TESTING for can permit. Laps and Seams Discontinuity in Wrought Material 7-43 .

. areas. occurs. APPLICATION TESTING of the low melting .724 1. LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING METHOD surfaces. Small filamentary voids in the grain boundaries appear as concentrated porosity in cross section. DISCONTINUITY CHARACTERISTICS Internal. will. porous the condition has been cut. shrinkage If sufficient will leave range point cona it Shrinkage molten void.) ANALYSIS the metal by its is in a plastic areas by the appearance or semi-molten the time state. They should never be used unless approval is obtained. therefore. stituent The metal cannot flow into different as it cools. 2. MATERIAL. which are indicative of cavities in the grain boundaries. and by the withdrawal is identified in the plastic Micro-shrinkage from the grain NDT a. METALLURGICAL occurs void while (See Figure 7-24. The appearance hairline to a massive (4) Penetrant may act as a contaminant by saturating the micro casting affectingtheir abilityto accept a surface treatment. 4. MICRO-SHRINKAGE Processing Magnesium Casting CATEGORY.. (5) Serious structural and a dimensional damage to the article can result from the improper use of acids or alkalies. METHODS RADIOGRAPHIC is caused boundaries. of micr0-shrinkage.. These conditions (1) Normally_t!sed on finished machined (2) Micro-shrinkage is not normally open to the surface.. (2) Micro-shrinkage resembling will appear on the radiograph as an elongated swirl feathery streaks or as dark irregular patches. b. AND LIMITATIONS METHOD (i) Radiography is universally used to determine the acceptance level . 7-44 . 3. be detected in machined (3) The appearance of the indication depends on the plane through which varies from a continuous porous indication.

e. - ACK £ A CRACKED MAGNESIUM HOUSING B CLOSE-UP VIEW OF (A) C MICROGRAPH OF CRACKED AREA F Figure 7-24. MAGNETIC nonferrous.c. Micro-Shrinkage Discontinuity 7-45 . EDDY CURRENT to eddy TESTING Article current. applicable. METHOD. of discontinuity TESTING Cast structure METHOD. configuration Not and recommended type for detecting do not lend micro-shrinkage. and TESTING article Not recommended configuration Not are for detecting microfactors. is restricting PARTICLE METHOD. Material BUSHING =i. themselves d. ULTRASONIC shrinkage.

May also Processing Ferrous and Nonferrous Weldments CHARACTERISTICS Rounded Scattered be concentrated ANALYSIS by gas entrapment cleaning AND METHOD method for the detection in the molten metal. LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING METHOD (1) Normally confined to in-process control of ferrous and nonferrous weldments. 7-46 . (2) The radiographic image of a 'round' porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with smooth edges. 3. ULTRASONIC TESTING METHOD axis sometimes several times (1) Ultrasonic testing equipment is highly sensitive.725 1. 4. APPLICATION TESTING LIMITATIONS (1) Radiography is the most universally used NDT of gas porosity in weldments. (3) Foreign material such as loose scale. too much moisture or elongated. EDDY CURRENT TESTING METHOD (1) Normally confined to thin wall welded pipe and tube. (See shaped the with weld or without or isolated 7-25. (2) Surface finish and grain size will affect the validityof the test results. flux. NDT a. capable of detecting micro-separatlons. or splatterwill affect validity of test results. b. DISCONTINUITY or subsurface. 2. Porosity GAS POROSITY CATEGORY. or improper or preheating. ) a sharp in small discontinuity Figure METALLURGICAL in welds or filler METHODS RADIOGRAPHY is caused metal. Established standards should be used if valid test results are to be obtained. c. MATERIAL. (2) Penetration restricts testing to a depth of more d. Surface groups. uniformly at the root teardrop throughout or toe. at the point. than one-quarter inch. while 'elongated' porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with the major longer than the minor axis. on the base 5.

MAGNETIC (1) (2) PARTICLE used Not normally Only surface not be clearly porosity defined be evident. caution (iron and must oxide). contaminating TESTING to detect would since the rewelding METHOD gas porosity. evaluation.(2) Liquid surface Extreme magnetic entrapped penetrant testing. becoming materials operation. it is neither Near strong surface porosity would or pronounced. like magnetic particle. Gas Porosity Discontinuity 7-47 . e. is restricted to (3) be exercised and liquid to prevent penetrant any cleaning from material. A TYPICAL SURFACE POROSITY B CROSS-SECTION POROSITY OF (A)SHOWING EXTENT OF C MICROGRAPH OF CROSS-SECTION SHRINKAGE POROSITY SHOWING TYPICAL Figure 7-25.

726 1. 2.
3. Internal.

UNFUSED

POROSITY

CATEGORY. MATERIAL. DISCONTINUITY Wafer-thin which

Processing Aluminum CHARACTERISTICS fissures aligned forged, ANALYSIS to porosity is oxidized processing, which is in the cast ingot. shape. of a foreign in an extremely During If the the rolling, they parallel with the grain Figure flow. 7-26. ) Found in wrought

kj

aluminum 4. Unfused forging, surface will not or void.

is rolled,

or extruded.

(See

METALLURGICAL porosity of these fuse

is attributed operations the discontinuities

or extruding during

it is flattened

into wafer-thin resulting

internal

or is composed

material,

subsequent

thin interface

,

NDT a.

METHODS ULTRASONIC (1) (2) (3) (4) Used

APPLICATION TESTING for be tested fixes

AND METHOD

LIMITATIONS

extensively may

the detection in the the

of unfused

porosity. configuration. in all three directions. it may be

Material Ultrasonic Where necessary the

wrought

as received of the void

testing general to test

location of the

direction from several and

discontinuity

is unknown,

directions. article porosity configuration to the will material

(5)

Method determine surface.

of manufacture the orientation

subsequent of the unfused

b.

LIQUID (1) (2)

PENETRANT used porosity with

TESTING on nonferrous will the appear grain.

METHOD machined as a straight Liquid articles. line of varying is restricted lengths run-

Normally Unfused

ning parallel evaluation. (3) Surface obliterate the (4)

penetrant

to surface

preparations by masking of liquid agitation

such the

as vapor surface

blasting, discontinuities,

honing,

or sanding

may

thereby

restricting

reliability

penetrant

testing. in a large container may produce foaming.

Excessive

of powder

7-48

c.

EDDY unfused

CURRENT porosity.

TESTING

METHOD.

Not

normally

used

for

detecting

d.

RADIOGRAPHIC (1) (2) Not normally

TESTING used for

METHOD detecting are which unfused difficult that porosity. to detect the by a method be which parallel

Wafer-thin measures and

discontinuities density or

requires X-ray beam. METHOD.

discontinuity

perpendicular PARTICLE

to the

e.

MAGNETIC nonferrous.

TESTING

Not

applicable.

Material

is

A

FRACTURED SPECIMEN SHOWING UNFUSED POROSITY

B

UNFUSED POROSITY EQUIVALENT TO 1/64, 3/64, 5/64 AND 8/64 (LEFT TO RIGHT)

C

TYPlCAL UNFUSED POROSITY

D

ULTRASONIC SCOPE PATTERN OF (C)

S

rF.,.j

Figure

7-26.

Unfused

Porosity

Discontinuity

7-49

727 1. 2. 3. Surface. material; 4. Three

STRESS

CORROSION Service Ferrous and Nonferrous

CATEGORY. MATERIAL. DISCONTINUITY Range however, METALLURGICAL factors are static likely from

CHARACTERISTICS shallow transverse to very cracks deep, are and usually also possible. follow (See the grain flow 7-27.) of the

Figure

ANALYSIS for stress, faster residual the phenomenon 2) the presence to this levels at high of stress type corrosion to occur: environment, Stress from corrosion of stress. (applied) and

necessary tensile that to occur include

1) a sustained 3) the use is much The type loading. NDT a. more

of a corrosive of failure. as those of stress

of a material of stresses

is susceptible

than at low levels external

(internal)

as well

.

METHODS LIQUID (1) (2)

APPLICATION

AND LIMITATIONS METHOD used for the detection cleaning spraying of stress of articles, and corrosion. extreme of

PENETRANT penetrant preparation, must

TESTING is normally application,

Liquid In the care the

and final over

V

be exercised articles.

to prevent

contamination

surrounding cleaning

(3)

Chemical may evaporate.

immediately the test

before results

the if the

application solvents are

of Iiquid

penetrant time to

seriously

affect

not given

(4)

Service will removed.

articles

may

contain and

moisture invalid

within results

the if the

discontinuity moisture

which is not

dilute,

contaminate,

b.

EDDY (1) (2)

CURRENT

TESTING used

METHOD stress corrosion. of resolving with equipment stress corrosion where

Not normally Eddy article current

to detect

equipment

is capable is compatible

configuration TESTING used are

limitations.

c.

ULTRASONIC (1) (2)

METHOD to detect stress corrosion. to surface of material and require

Not normally Discontinuities surface

perpendicular

technique.

7-50

d.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE
(1) (2} Not normally Configuration netic particle used

TESTING to detect

METHOD stress corrosion. nonmagnetic condition exclude mag-

of article testing. TESTING used

and usual

e.

RADIOGRAPHIC (1) (2) Not normally Surface application. with the use

METHOD stress detected technique. corrosion. by NDT can method shown designed stress for such

to detect are proper best

indications of the

However,

radiography

and has

corrosion

%.v

FRACTURED ALUMINUM ALLOY DUE TO STRESS CORROSION

COUPLING

-----7 ¸¸

Figure

7-27.

Stress

Corrosion

Discontinuity

7-51

discontinuities Foreign embedded Laps Seams in the material coming into the surface are the result in contact with of the tube. which which eariler being folded over splits during and not fused. may not be clearly de- (3) The specific fined. METALLURGICAL tubing ANALYSIS are usually one of the following: material and being Hydraulic a. Intergranular ment. and which then are the tube b. (See Figure shallow 7-28. 2. LIQUID (I) (2) TESTING for METHOD tubing discontinuities. Surface deep. c. they TUBING Processing Aluminum and 6061-T6 Service CHARACTERISTICS Range will which in size has from short to long. corrosion from cracks. may not be successfully tested Universally Heavier due for testing tubing (0. material that would invalid All material should the test results. Testing of ferro-magnetic be free material of any be difficult. Test results discontinuities (4) (5) (6) may not be valid unless controlled may foreign by known standards. . faster. standards is more reliable.) to very tight the and be found in the direction of the grain flow with exception of stress corrosion. 3. no direction. elongated and tears rolling. of material blowholes. 250 and ability of various to the penetration nature of the equipment. 7-52 . PENETRANT used b. introduced originate processing. MATERIAL. d. and with established Not normally detecting Eddy current is more economical. HYDRAULIC CATEGORY. METHODS EDDY (1) (2) is due to the presence of a corrosive environ- o NDT a.728 1. APPLICATION TESTING used walled AND LIMITATIONS CURRENT METHOD of nonferrous above) tubing. DISCONTINUITY and Usually internal.

PARTICLES TESTING METHOD. L= ULTRASONIC (1) (2) TESTING used METHOD for detecting tubing over range discontinuities./" Figure 7-28. RADIOGRAPHIC (1) (2) Not normally The size TESTING used for discontinuity METHOD detecting tubing discontinuities. configuration of material of the for this article group and type of discontinuity for and the screening limit the use of radiography of discontinuities. Material A INTERGRANULAR CORROSION B LAPIN OUTER SURFACE OF TUBING C EMBEDDED FOREIGN MATERIAL D TWIN LAPS IN OUTER SURFACE OF TUBING . MAGNETIC is nonferrous. Hydraulic Tubing Discontinuity 7-53 . e. d.c. testing since it is faster and non- Not normally Eddy current is recommended for this ultrasonic of surface and more economical ferrous material.F "N_. Not applicable.

729 i. 2. 3.

MANDREL CATEGORY. MATERIAL.

DRAG Processing Nonferrous Thick-Wall Seamless Tubing

V

DISCONTINUITY

CHARACTERISTICS from shallow even gouges to ragged within the gouged area. (See

Internal surface of thick-wall tubing. Range tears. Figure 7-29. ) 4. During passes portion the Certain 5. METALLURGICAL the manufacture the offset tubing material of material ANALYSIS of thick-wail roils. may may are break more seamless

Often a slug of the material will be embedded

tubing, mandrel

the billet follows over the embedded

is ruptured this mandrel. into than the others. fracture,

as it' a As it does walI.

through of the types NDT a.

As the loose prone be scored

piercing or have to this

and be forced the type

surface

of the

slug

of failure

METHODS EDDY (i) (2) (3) (4)

APPLICATION TESTING for testing are the

AND LIMITATIONS METHOD testing may of thin-wall pipe or tube. materials.

CURRENT used

Normally Eddy

current

be confined

to nonferrous

V

Discontinuities Several factors

qualitative,

not quantative affect output

indications. indications.

simultaneously METHOD the screening

b.

ULTRASONIC (1) NormaIly drag. (2) (3) i4)

TESTING used for

of thick-wail

pipe

or tube

for

mandrel

Can be used Requires

to test

both

ferrous one side

and only.

nonferrous

pipe

or tube.

access

from

May be used automatic

in support

of production

line

since

it is adaptable

for

instrumentation. of mandrel indications TESTING used drag drag on the or tear scope. will produce very sharp and

(5)

Configuration noticeable

c.

RADIOGRAPHIC (1) Not normally of mandrel (2)

METHOD it has been instrumental welds. around the circumference in the detection

although during

examination several

of adjacent exposures

Complete coverage of the tube.

requires

7-54

(3)

This slow

method and

is not for

designed large

for volumes only

production of pipe

support or tube. and

since

it is very

costly will

(4)
do

Radiograph

disclose TESTING discontinuity

two dimensions

not the

third. for detecting

f

LIQUID mandrel

PENETRANT drag since

METHOD. is internal METHOD. are Most not

Not recommended and wouId Not close

not be detectable. for surface detectto be

e.

MAGNETIC ing mandrel

PARTICLE drag.

TESTING particles.

recommended to the will occur drag

Discontinuities

enough

detectable by magnetic less stainless steel.

mandrel

in seam-

C

A

EMBEDDED

SLUG

SHOWING

DEEP GOUGE

MARKS

B

SLUG BROKEN LOOSE FROM TUBING WALL

C

ANOTHER TYPE OF EMBEDDED

SLUG

D

GOUGE ON INNER SURFACE OF PIPE

Figure

7-29.

Mandrel

Drag

Discontinuity

7-55

730
1. 2. 3. Internal. diodes, 4.

SEMICONDUCTORS

k.$
CATEGORY. MATERIAL. DISCONTINUITY Appear resistors, Processing Hardware CHARACTERISTICS sizes damaged, capacitors. ANALYSIS such lead as loose between connections AND wire, internal are the weld splash, and flakes, case, of processing solder and balls, and shapes (See and Figure various 7-30. ) degrees hardware. of density. Found They may and Service

in many aligned, and

be misformed,

or broken

internal

in transistors,

METALLURGICAL discontinuities inadequate

Semiconductor loose leads, or voids in seals

clearance

elements product

inclusions errors.

or around

.

NDT a.

METHODS

APPLICATION TESTING

LIMITATIONS

RADIOGRAPHIC

METHOD method for the detection of discontinuities

(i) Universally used as the NDT in semiconductors.

(2) The configuration and internal structure of the various semiconductors limit the NDT (3) Semiconductors method to radiography. that have copper heat sinks may require more than one

technique due to the density of the copper. (4) Internal wires in semiconductors aluminum, may are very fine and may be constructed

from materials of differentdensity such as copper, silver, gold and If the latter is used with the others, special techniques be needed to resolve its reliability. require the highest sensitivityto resolve. may

(5) Micro-particles may

(6) The complexity of the internal structure of semiconductors of discontinuities due to masking by hardware.

require additional views to exclude the possibilityof non-detection

(7) Positive positioning of each semiconductor interpretation. (8) Source angle should give minimum (9) Preliminary

will prevent invalid

distortion. may be accomplished using

examination of semiconductors

a vidcon system that would allow visual observation during 360 degree rotation of the article.

V
7-56

b,

EDDY struction

CURRENT of the

TESTING discontinuities. article

METHOD. Nature

Not recommended of discontinuity to this form

for detecting and method of NDT. for detectof con-

E-

semiconductor

do not lend TESTING

themselves METHOD.

c.

MAGNETIC

PARTICLE

Not recommended

ing semiconductor d.

discontinuities. METHOD. Not recommended for detecting

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING semiconductor discontinuities. ULTRASONIC conductor TESTING METHOD.

e.

Not recommended

for

detecting

semi-

discontinuities.

A

STRANDS

BROKEN

IN HEATER

BLANKET

FINE

CRACK

IN PLASTIC

CASING

MATERIAL

{

C

BROKEN

ELECTRICAL

CABLE

D

FOREIGN

MATERIAL

WITHIN

SEMICONDUCTOR

Figure

7-30.

Semiconductor

Discontinuity

7-57

MATERIAL. DISCONTINUITY or near Occur CHARACTERISTICS Appear as ragged (See line Figure of variable 7-31. to testing will cause an invalid surface hot tears. level may in relation may kJ not be sufficient to detect fine surface hot (3) b_ MAGNETIC (1) Hot tears magnetic (2) Article PARTICLE that are TESTING exposed method. AND METHODS APPLICATION TESTING testing and the LIMITATIONS RADIOGRAPHIC (1) Radiographic structure (2) METHOD is the first choice may since the material and is cast discontinuities be internal to the source surface. of thin rupture of the where heavier up by the more of metal. Hot Tears sections 5. cast material. Internal HOT TEARS Inherent Ferrous Castings CATEGORY. or in groups. magnetic should material co LIQUID (1) (2) PENETRANT penetrant penetrant TESTING METHOD for nonferrous evaluation. The sensitivity tears. singly branches.731 i. (tears) surface originate adjoin are by non-uniform while its are stresses masses set cooling temperature which resulting is still are slower in stresses in the rapid brittle cooling to cool. 2. Liquid Liquid is recommended is confined to surface 7-58 . which range. difficult. particle be used not removed can for detect final prior near analysis. influence Orientation of the hot tear the test results.) width and numerous surface. ANALYSIS caused metal METALLURGICAL cracks the may that NDT a. 3. 4. and METHOD to the surface can be screened with particIe configuration metallurgical composition may make demagnization (3) Although radiography (4) Foreign test.

not lend Not when testing.(3} The ing use the of penetrants porous structure on castings and affect may be may the poor act as a contaminant to apply a long surface period for with cast by saturatfinish. Hot Tear Discontinuity 7-59 . hot do ULTRASONIC tears. of this to ultrasonic TESTING structure to eddy of time. %J (4) d. along current Not with testing. EDDY tears. ability after Repeatability of indications TESTING METHOD. the recommended complex for detecting do hot configurations A TYPICAL HOT TEARS IN CASTING HOT TEARS IN FILLET OF CASTING C CLOSE-UP OF HOT TEARS iN (A) D CLOSE-UP OF HOT TEARS IN (B) Figure 7-31. not METHOD. recommended associated detecting structure Discontinuities themselves CURRENT Metallurgical lend themselves type e.

732 I. DISCONTINUITY or internal.) ANALYSIS to intergranular corrosion are: cormicro-openings nature direction or corrosion with product following no definite is visible the grain pattern. corrosion Figure boundaries METALLURGICAL factors a. Surface appear from the 4. singly the fact or that (See very CORROSION Service Nonferrous CHARACTERISTICS A series of small The insidious in any corrosion extend 7-32. little may of tntergranular corrosion Intergranular material. 2. (3) Radiography may not determine rosion will occur. Two INTERGRANULAR CATEGORY. or heat Either treat that is prone to intergranuIar stainless steel. MATERIAL. RADIOGRAPHIC penetrant solution may TESTING METHOD present a cleaning or removal problem. (3) seriously Cleaning in solvents corrosion. stress atmosphere to a cor- of these conditions coupled wiI1 result in intergranular LIMITATIONS METHOD choice due 5. results surface. may release chlorine and accelerate intergranuIar (4) Trapped b. the susceptibility with b. METHODS LIQUID (i) APPLICATION AND PENETRANT penetrant of discontinuity. 3. cleaning TESTING is the first Liquid type to the size and location of this (2) Chemical operations may contaminate immediately the article before and the application affect of the liquid penetrant test results. of on the May in groups. (1) Intergranular corrosion in the more with radiography. may create attack. advanced stages has been detected (2) Sensitivitylevels may prevent the detection of fine intergranular corrosion. that contribute Metallurgical rosion such Improper intergranular rosive structure of the material as unstabilized 300 series relieving corrosion. on which surface the Intergranu]ar corV 7-60 . NDT a.

i _- f- . the output can be used lend themselves readily material Metallurgical indications. EDDY (1) (2) (3) CURRENT Eddy Tube current or pipe TESTING METHOD for the screening to this may of intergranular method seriously of NDT affect corrosion.c. recommended and material for restrict detect- e. MAGNETIC ing the use PARTICLES corrosion. METHOD. Intergranular Corrosion Discontinuity 7-61 . " " . ULTRASONIC equipment has TESTING the METHOD• to detect TESTING Type Not normally intergranular Not used although the capability corrosion. FROM SURFACE CORROSION Figure 7-32.1 . testing.% -j A MICROGRAPH SURFACE OF INTERGRANULAR SUBSURFACE CORROSION CORROSION SHOWING LIFTING OF FROM #____ B MICROGRAPH ONLY MINOR SHOWING EVIDENCE NATURE OF OF INTERGRANULAR IS EVIDENT CORROSION. of discontinuity intergranular of magnetic particles. structure of the d. : g .

V .