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# Dynamics Laboratory Observation Note Book

By

Mr.B.Ramesh,

M.E.,(Ph.D),

Associate professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119 Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna University, Chennai.

ii

**St. Joseph’s College of Engineering
**

Jeppiaar Educational Trust

(Christian Minority Institution) Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Road, Chennai – 600 119

ME 2307

Dynamics Laboratory

Observation Note Book V Semester Mechanical Engineering 2010 – 2011

Name Roll No. Reg. No. Year Branch Section

: : : : : :

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Syllabus ME2307 DYNAMICS LAB Aim: OBJECTIVES: i) To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery. effort etc.Watt. Analyzer. 12. Porter. 4. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Oscillating cylinder Mechanisms. Motion curves and study of jump phenomenon 7. 5. b) Multi degree freedom suspension system – Determination of influence coefficient. Static and dynamic balancing machine. Dynamic balancing machine. 11. Whirling of shaft apparatus. 3. Balancing of rotating masses. 2. for Watts. Proell. a). Porter. Epicyclic and differential gear trains. 10. 8. 0 0 3 2 LIST OF EQUIPMENT (for a batch of 30 students) Cam analyzer. Vibrating table Vibration test facilities apparatus Gear Model Kinematic Models to study various mechanisms 1. Double crank. Slider Crank. Motorised gyroscope.T.Undamped and Damped Natural frequencies. b) Forced Vibration of Cantilever beam – Mode shapes and natural frequencies. b) Vibration Absorber – Tuned vibration absorber. 8. 6. Crank Rocker. b) Kinematics of single and double universal joints. 6. (b) Balancing of reciprocating masses. c) Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table. b) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia of axisymmetric bodies using Turn Table apparatus. Students should be familiar with the use of the following device/equipments depending upon availability. Cams – Cam profile drawing. Motorized gyroscope – Study of gyroscopic effect and couple. compound. a) Transverse vibration of Free-Free beam – with and without concentrated masses. Oscilloscope Vibration Shaker F. 9. Whirling of shafts – Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads. 7. 4. 9. a) Kinematics of Four Bar. a) Determination of Mass moment of inertia of Fly wheel and Axle system.F. and (9) Dynamic Balancing Machine. c) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using bifilar suspension and compound pendulum. 10. 3. a) Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and Double Rotor systems. Governor . a) Single degree of freedom Spring Mass System – Determination of natural frequency and verification of Laws of springs – Damping coefficient determination.. and Hartnell Governors. Vibration of Equivalent Spring mass system – undamped and damped vibration.Determination of range sensitivity. Tachometers – Contact and non contact Dial gauge Stroboscope Accelerometers – Vibration pickups Displacement meters. a) Study of gear parameters. ii) To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing. b) Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple. 2. Double rocker. 5 . 5. Governor apparatus . Proell and Hartnell governors.

11. 12. Forced vibration phenomenon of equivalent spring mass system with different damping condition. Undamped free vibration of equivalent spring mass system. 6 . 08. 07. 10. 13. Porter Governor Proell Governor Torsional vibration of single rotor system Torsional vibration of two rotor system Undamped free vibration of spring mass system Determination of whirling speed of shafts Compound Pendulum Hartnell Governor Bifilar suspension Cam analysis Balancing of rotating masses Determination of Gyroscopic couple Determination of influence coefficient (Multi degree freedom suspension method) Determination of transmissibility ratio by using Vibration Lab Determination of frequency of transverse of given square sectioned shaft with concentric fly wheel load. 02. 16. 17. 14. 04. 15.Contents 01. 05. 03. 09. 06.

Date of Sub. M.) Associate Professor.(Ph. INDEX Name of the staff : Sl.D. ReStaff Date marks sign 7 . Date Name of the Experiment No. B. Department of Mechanical Engineering. of Expt 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Page No.ME 2307 Dynamics Laboratory Observation Note Book Prepared by: Mr. Ramesh.E.

8 .

Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M. Apparatus Required: 1. DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. Measuring tape. fabricated frame. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added. 9 . and inserted into the drive unit. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. 3. No. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. : Porter Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the porter governor. The following simple procedure may then be followed. Porter arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement.S. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. where applicable. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor. A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided. Sleeve weights 4.Exp. The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction.

1 Speed . X ( mm ) Diameter of rotation . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement . No. r ( mm ) Controlling force .Tabulation: Sl. F (N) 2 3 4 5 6 . mm Radius of rotation .

kgf .Observation: Mass of each ball. N = speed . m = mass of each ball . F = mω2 r .g . kgf ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where. rpm r = radius of rotation . rps Radius of rotation vs Controlling force . m Mass added Formulae: Controlling Force.m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed (ii) = = . N Where.

Model calculation: Reading No. : --------- 12 .

13 .Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the porter governor are determined.

14 .

Proell arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added.S. The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed.Exp. 3. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. The following simple procedure may then be followed. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. : Proell Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the proell governor. 15 . The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. Sleeve weights 4. The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor. Measuring tape. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. fabricated frame. Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. where applicable. and inserted into the drive unit. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided. DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. Apparatus Required: 1. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. No.

mm Radius of rotation . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement .Tabulation: Sl. No. F (N) 2 3 4 5 6 16 . 1 Speed . X ( mm ) Diameter of rotation. r ( mm ) Controlling force .

rpm r = radius of rotation . m Mass added Formulae: Controlling Force.Observation: Mass of each ball.g . kgf . m = mass of each ball . kgf ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where.m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed = = . N = speed . N Where. rps (ii) Radius of rotation vs Controlling force 17 . F = mω2 r .

: --------- 18 .Model calculation: Reading No.

Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the proell governor are determined. 19 .

20 .

Apparatus Required : 1) Shaft 2) Spanner 3) Chuck key Description of the setup: One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy disc free to rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft.35 x 1011 0. N/m2 . Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations. The ball bearing support to the flywheel provides negligible damping during experiment.8 . Twist the rotor through some angle and release. kgf . Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam. Repeat the procedure for different lengths of shaft. mA = 3. d = Diameter of disc A . cm . Specially designed chuck is used for clamping the end of the shaft. Thus length of the shaft can be varied during the experiment. Note down the length of the shaft.55 23 4. : Torsional vibration of single rotor system Date Aim : To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.3 + 1. DA = Mass of disc A.Exp. No. cm .5 = 0. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck. The bearing housing is fixed to side member of the main frame. The bracket with fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any convenient position along the beam. G = Shaft diameter . 4) Measuring tape 5) Stop watch and 6) Weights : Observation: Modulus of rigidity.

Tabulation : Sl. L ( m) Time taken for n = 5 oscillations . 1 Length of the shaft. No. t ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 2 3 4 5 .

Hz .Formulae: Experimental period of vibration . sec Where.m Polar moment of inertia . T exp = tm / n . m4 Experimental frequency of vibration . N/m2 L = length of the shaft . kgf DA = diameter of the disc A . Ip = ( π / 32 ) d4 . mA = mass of the disc A . Moment of inertia. I = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) . m = ( G Ip ) / L . G = modulus of rigidity . Hz . Nm Torsional stiffness. sec Where. Nms2 Where. = mean time taken for n oscillations tm n = number of oscillations = 5 Theoretical period of vibration . T theo = 2π { sqrt (I / Kt ) } . F exp = Theoretical frequency of vibration . F theo = 1 / T exp 1 / T theo . Kt Where.

: --------- 24 .Model calculation: Reading No.

25 .Result: The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

26 .

mm . Mass moment of inertia of any disc can be changed by attaching the cross lever with weights. : Torsional vibration of two rotor system Date : Aim : To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two rotor system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. Deflect the discs A and B in opposite directions by hand and release. mB Modulus of rigidity of the shaft. mm . mm . kgf 27 . DB Mass of the disc A. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Fix the discs A and B to the shaft and fit the shaft in bearing. Apparatus Required : 1) Shaft 2) Spanner 3) Chuck key Description of the setup: Two discs having different mass moment of inertia are clamped one at each end of shaft by means of collet.3 1.725 .5 0. N/m2 . kgf . G Shaft diameter . Both discs are free to oscillate in the ball bearings. DA Diameter of the disc B .35 x 1011 5.Exp. kgf . d Length of the shaft between discs. Repeat the above procedure with different equal masses attached to the ends of cross arm. No. L Mass of the cross arms with bolts and nuts = = = = = = = = 230 200 3.74 0. This provides negligible damping during experiment. Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations.m . 4) Measuring tape 5) Stop watch 6) Weights and 7) Cross arms Observation: Diameter of the disc A . mA Mass of the disc B. Fit the cross arm to the disc A and attach equal masses to the ends of cross arm and again note down time.

IA ( Nms2 ) Moment of inertia of disc B . ( kgf ) Moment of inertia of disc A .No.Tabulation: Sl. IB ( Nms2 ) Time taken for n = 5 oscillations ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 1 2 3 . Mass added to the disc A.

sec = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) = mB ( DB2 / 8 ) = ( G Ip ) / L .m . sec mean time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 5 = 2π { sqrt [(IA IB) / Kt(IA + IB)] }. Moment of inertia of disc A. Nm = modulus of rigidity of the shaft . Nms2 . Hz Experimental frequency of vibration . Ip Where. G L Polar moment of inertia . N/m2 = length of the shaft between discs . T exp Where. F theo = . m = = ( π / 32 ) d4 shaft diameter 1 / T exp 1 / T theo . tm n Theoretical period of vibration .Formulae: Experimental period of vibration . IA Moment of inertia of disc B. F exp = Theoretical frequency of vibration . IB Torsional stiffness. T theo Where. d = = = tm / n . Nms2 . Hz . Kt Where. m4 .

Model calculation: Reading No. : --------- 30 .

31 .Result: The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two rotor system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

32 .

sec = . Measure the free length of the spring.m = = = tm / n . Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Observation: Length of the spring before loading Formulae: Stiffness of the spring. : Undamped free vibration of spring mass system Date Aim : To determine stiffness of the given helical spring. tm n Theoretical period of vibration . Attach the other end to the platform and add some weight. K exp Deflection. Observe the time taken for n = 20 oscillations. N/m ( Length of the spring after loading – length of the spring before loading ) . No.Exp. Stretch the spring through some distance and release. T theo 33 mean time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 20 = 2π { sqrt [ W / ( g Kexpm) ] }. X = = Load / deflection = W / X . Repeat the steps from 3 to 6 for other known weights. Apparatus Required : 1) 2) 3) Helical spring Platform Weights 4) 5) Measuring tape and Stop watch : Description of the setup: It consists of an open coil helical spring of which one end is fixed to the screw rod and a platform to the other end. period and frequency of undamped free vibration (longitudinal vibration) of spring mass system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. sec . Experimental period of vibration . Note down the deflection. This platform is used to add weights and a lock nut is also provided to clamp the weights added. T exp Where.m Fix one end of the helical spring to the upper screw rod.

K exp = W/X (N/m) Time taken for n = 20 oscillations ( sec ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Period of vibration ( sec ) T exp T theo Frequency of vibration ( Hz ) F exp F theo 2 3 4 K expm = . ( kg ) 1 (N) Length of the spring after loading (m) Deflection.No. X (m) Stiffness. W Sl.Tabulation: Load added.

F theo = 1 / T theo .Where. F exp = 1 / T exp .N Kexpm = Experimental mean stiffness . N/m Experimental frequency of vibration . Hz Theoretical frequency of vibration . Hz Graph : Deflection vs Load added . W = Load added .

: --------- 36 .Model calculation: Reading No.

37 . i) ii) Experimentally. K expm Graphically = = .Result: Stiffness of the spring. N/m . N/m The period and frequency of undamped free vibration (longitudinal vibration) of spring mass system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

38 .

2) The speed of rotation of the shaft is gradually increased. 4) The above procedure is repeated for the remaining shafts. m4 39 .m Shaft 3(steel) m3 = 0. 3) When the shaft vibrates violent in fundamental mode ( I mode ).23 x 1011 . : Determination of whirling speed of shafts Date Aim: To determine the whirling speed for various diameter shafts experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. E (for copper) Length of the shaft. m E = Young’s modulus for the shaft material. rpm Theoretical whirling speed. E (for steel) Young’s modulus. δs = (5wL4) / (384 EI) Where. Apparatus Required: 1) Shaft – 3 nos.00511 m l3 = m : Formulae: = {0. No. N / m2 . w = weight of the shaft per metre .00484 m l2 = m = = = 2.0584 kg d1 = 0.16496 kg d2 = 0. Procedure: 1) The shaft is to be mounted with the end condition as simply supported.06 x 1011 1. A special design is provided to clear out the effects of bearings of motor spindle from those of testing shafts. N / m2 . N/m2 I = Mass moment of inertia of the shaft = ( π / 64 ) d4 . 4) AC voltage regulator 2) Digital tachometer 3) Chuck key and Description of the setup: The apparatus is used to study the whirling phenomenon of shafts. Nctheo Static deflection due to mass of the shaft (UDL). the speed is noted down. This consists of a frame in which the driving motor and fixing blocks are fixed.Exp. Observation: Young’s modulus.16051 kg d3 = 0.0031 m l1 = m Shaft 2 (copper) m2 = 0.27 )] } x 60 .4985 / [sqrt (δs / 1. N/m L = Length of the shaft. L Shaft 1 (steel) m1 = 0.

w ( N/m ) Whirling speed ( rpm ) Ncexp Nctheo 1 2 3 .No. I ( m4) x 10-12 Weight of the shaft per m.Tabulation: Sl. Diameter of shaft (m) Mass moment of inertia of the shaft .

.

Model calculation: Reading No. : --------- .

Result : The whirling speed for various diameter shafts are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values. 43 .

44 .

Exp. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) Observation: Length of the steel bar. kgf Support the steel bar in any one of the holes. No. Ktheo = = = t/n . : Compound Pendulum Date Aim: To determine moment of inertia by using compound pendulum and period and radius of gyration of the given steel bar experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values. T theo Where. T exp Where. The bar is supported by the knife edge. t n Theoretical periodic time. Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension. 3) 4) Stop watch and Measuring tape : time taken for n oscillations number of oscillations = 10 = 2π { sqrt [ ( Ktheo2 + ( OG )2 ) / ( g (OG)) ] }. It is possible to change the length of suspended pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes. sec = = = = . cm 45 . Apparatus Required: 1) Steel bar 2) Knife edge support Description of the setup: The compound pendulum consists of 100 cm length and 5 mm thick steel bar. cm . sec = Theoretical radius of gyration = ( L ) / 2√3 .575 . Allow the bar to oscillate and determine Texp by knowing the time taken for n = 10 oscillations. L Number of holes Distance between two holes Mass of the steel bar Formulae: Experimental periodic time. cm 1. Note the length of suspended pendulum to measure OG.

3. 14. 17. I ( Nms2 ) Sl. 2. 18. 15. 9.Tabulation: Distance of C. 8. 16. K exp K expm = . t T exp ( sec ) Periodic time ( sec ) T theo Radius of gyration ( cm ) K theo Moment of inertia. OG ( cm ) Time taken for n = 10 oscillations . 19. 5. 11. No. of the bar from support. 1. 13. 7. 10. 12. 4. 6.G.

OG Experimental periodic time.m = mean experimental radius of gyration = mass of the steel bar . Nms2 .G. cm = 2π { sqrt [ ( Kexp2 + ( OG )2 ) / ( g (OG)) ] }. sec = m Kexpm2 . kgf . T exp Moment of inertia . of bar from support . Kexpm m = distance of the C. I Where.

: --------- 48 .Model calculation: Reading No.

Ktheo 49 = = = . Nms2 . Kexpm Theoretical radius of gyration . cm . cm .Result: i) ii) iii) Moment of inertia of the given steel bar Mean experimental radius of gyration.

50 .

The sleeve position and speed are then recorded. 3. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then switch off the motor. where applicable. Hartnell arm setup Description of the setup: The drive unit consists of a DC electric motor connected through belt and pulley arrangement. A rpm indicator with sensor to determine the speed. 51 . The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of sleeve movement possible. Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains steady. The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball bearing. DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed variation. Digital speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. : Hartnell Governor Date Aim : : To determine the characteristic curves of the Hartnell governor.Exp. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical direction. This enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor. Sleeve weights 4. Digital rpm indicator with sensor 2. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve displacement is measured using the formula. Measuring tape. Proell and Hartnell ) are provided using same motor and base. and inserted into the drive unit. No. The Hartnell governor provides means of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. The following simple procedure may then be followed. Apparatus Required: 1.S. Procedure: The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating weights and spring. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M. The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a weight sleeve to which weights may be added. fabricated frame. The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve of the governor. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided.

X ( mm ) Radius of rotation . r ( mm ) Controlling force . N ( rpm ) Sleeve displacement . 1 Speed . No. F (N) 2 3 .Tabulation: Sl.

N = speed .m . N Where.Observation: Mass of each ball. m = mass of each ball ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 where. ro X a b = = = = = = . kgf .m . rps initial radius of rotation sleeve displacement . m Initial radius of rotation.m .m Graphs: (i) Displacement vs Speed (ii) Radius of rotation vs Controlling force 53 .m where. kgf . rpm r = radius of rotation .m = ro + X ( a / b ) .m . F = mω2 r . ro Formulae: Controlling Force.

: --------- 54 .Model calculation: Reading No.

55 .Result: Thus the characteristic curves of the Hartnell governor are determined.

56 .

cm . Note the suspension length of each cord must be the same. sec Where. Procedure: 1) 2) 3) Suspend the bar from chuck and adjust the length of the cord ‘L’ conveniently. cm . It is possible to adjust the length of the cord by loosing the chucks.g . cm .Exp. No. In this case the body under investigation is bolted to the centre. Other ends are secured in the bifilar bar. Observation: Distance between two cords. Apparatus Required: 1) 2) 3) Vibration lab machine Measuring tape Weights 4) 5) Stop watch and Bar : Description of the setup: A uniform rectangular section bar is suspended from the pendulum support frame by two parallel cords. The suspension may also be used to determine the radius of gyration of any body. tm = mean time taken for n oscillations n = number of oscillations = 10 = = = = . Radius of gyration of the combined bar and body is then determined. Allow the bar to oscillate about the vertical axis passing through the centre and measure the periodic time T by knowing the time for say n = 10 oscillations. Repeat the experiment by mounting the weights at equal distance from the centre ( D / 2 as shown ).l Mass added Formulae: Experimental periodic time. T exp = tm / n . Top ends of the cords pass through the two small chucks fitted at the top. 2a Distance from centre to cord. a Length of the bar. : Bifilar Suspension Date Aim: To determine the radius of gyration of given bar by using bifilar suspension and periodic time experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Suspension length, L ( cm ) Time taken for n = 10 oscillations ( sec ) t2 t3 t4 t5 tm Periodic time ( sec ) T exp T theo Radius of gyration ( cm ) K exp K theo

t1

1

2

Kexpm =

Experimental periodic time, T exp Where, Kexp a L

= = = =

[ (2π K exp ) / a ] [ sqrt ( L / g ) ] experimental radius of gyration distance from centre to cord suspension length

, sec , cm , cm , cm , sec , cm , cm

= [ (2π K theo ) / a ] [ sqrt ( L / g ) ] Theoretical periodic time, Ttheo Theoretical radius of gyration, K theo = l / ( 2 √3 ) Where, l = length of the bar

Model calculation: Reading No. : ---------

60

cm The periodic time of the given bar is determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values. cm . Kexpm Theoretically. Ktheo = = .Result: Radius of gyration of given bar: i) ii) Experimentally. 61 .

62 .

With jump. (b) An eccentric cam with flat follower. Description : The machine is a motorized unit consisting of a cam shaft driven by a AC/DC motor. Jump phenomenon: The jump phenomenon occurs in case of cam operating under the action of compression spring load. reason while assembling following precautions should be taken: (a) The horizontality of the upper and lower glands should be checked by a spirit level. highly flexible cam follower systems.. The machine is particularly very useful for testing the cam performance for jump phenomenon during operation.Exp. A spring is used to provide controlling force to the follower system. i. This machine clearly shows the effect of change of forces on jump action of cam follower during operation. The follower is properly guided in gun metal bushes. It is used for testing various cam follower pairs. jump or bounce out of contact with the cam. Clearance and backlash are taken up : . The shaft runs in a ball bearing. (a) Circular arc cam with flat follower. Crossover shock occurs in a positive drive cam mechanism when contact moves from one side of the cam to the other. This condition is most likely to occur with low values of damping and with high speed cams of quite flexible follower trains. This is undesirable since the fundamental function of the cam follower system. for any. This is a transient coefficient that occurs only with high speed. high noise. : Cam Analysis Date Aim : To draw the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower using the given apparatus. Jump and crossover shock: A cam follower retained against the cam with a compression retaining spring will under certain conditions. At the free end of the cam shaft a cam can be easily mounted. Weights on the follower rod can be adjusted as per the requirements. Should the unit be disassembled. the constraint and control of follower motion are not maintained. No. The arrangement of speed regulation is provided. (c) Sharp edged cam with flat follower. cam and the follower separate owing to excessively unbalanced forces exceeding the spring force during the period of negative acceleration. (b) The supporting pillars should be properly tightened with the lock nuts provided. The unit is provided with the push rod in the two bush bearings. A graduated circular protractor is fitted co-axial with the shaft and a dial gauge can be fitted to note the follower displacement for the angle of cam rotation. vibrations and poor action. Also related are the short life of the cam flank surface.e.

Tabulation: Forward stroke Angle in degree Follower lift in mm Dwell Return stroke Dwell Follower lift = .mm Circular arc cam with flat face follower – Diagram : 64 .

keep the initial spring compression at a certain level and observe jump speed for different follower weights by adding them successively and plot the graph of follower weights vs jump speed. through that the system will vibrate at a new frequency after jump begins and then analysis of the motion using the old frequency is not a true description of the motion. then. Thus to set up a criteria for jump. It must be noted. Upward inertia force = Downward retaining force [W/g] ω2r = W + S This is the equilibrium of force equation when jump will just start.during the crossover and impact occurs. Procedure : Rotate the cam shaft with the help of the hand through some angle and note down the angle of cam rotation indicated on the protractor and the corresponding follower displacement indicated in the dial gauge. the system should be investigated mathematically to determine if jump exists. Roth Bart states that jump will not occur in high speed systems if at least two full cycles of vibration occur during the positive acceleration time-interval of the motion. The speed of cam rotation and stroboscope frequency of neon lamp are gradually and simultaneously increased and at the time of jump to occur the follower is seen to loose contact with cam. ω = sqrt[ (g/r)(1 + (s/W) )] This relation shows that as the follower weight increases the jump speed goes on decreasing. W = weight of follower assembly ω = angular velocity = [2πN] / 60 rad/sec S = spring force (kg) = stiffness of spring x compression length r = distance according to the geometry of cam = l / (2π) where l is lift of the follower. The resulting motion now gets rather complicated because the mass. Spring Ko loses its compression whenever X exceeds by the amount of Ko was initially compressed during assembly. The effects can be reduced by preloading the system to remove backlash. Crossover takes place on the rise or return motion when the acceleration changes sign and when the velocity is at its peak. ω2 = [(W + S) / (Wr) ]g Therefore . by designing for low peak velocity and by using rigid follower train. it is necessary to calculate the pre-compression of K. The jump speed thus can be obtained from the stroboscope. Probably a good first approximation could be obtained by concentrating a portion of the mass at the bottom of spring and treating the motion as a system of two degrees of freedom. This figure can probably be reduced slightly for appreciable amounts of damping. Spring ko loses compression when jump begins and is carried motion with the mass. Continue the experiment for 65 . To observe the phenomenon of jump(use of a stroboscope is necessary). When jump occurs the follower pounds on the cam surface giving a good thumping sound. must be redistributed. To study the effect of follower assembly weight on the jump speed when the spring force is kept constant. too. he states. If a smaller number of cycles exist during this period. This condition can be expressed by the equation : [Bl K] / 360 ≥ 2 where Bl is the angle through which the cam rotates during positive acceleration period.

Displacement. velocity and acceleration diagrams of the flat face follower : Calculation: 66 .

67 .

Profile of the circular arc cam : 68 .

different angles of cam rotation and draw the graph X vs θ. where X = displacement of the follower from reference initial position and θ = angle of cam rotation with reference from axis of symmetry chosen. Observation : Base circle radius or minimum radius of the cam. r2 = mm mm Result: Thus the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower has been drawn. 69 . r1 = Nose radius . The exact profile of the cam can be obtained by taking observations X vs θ. The X vs θ plot can be used to find out velocity and acceleration of the follower system.