ANUGÎTA The second discourse to Arjuna by lord Krishna Edited by Jay Mazo.

International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best

understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).

CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which

preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that

indeed. too. constant restraint of the organs. pure. but the other is immortal and indestructible. And Prajâpati. who has no kinsmen. wealth. and ruin to be connected with action. who is devoted to tranquility. who contemns no one. Then seeking after the supreme seat. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. He who is not attached to any one. points out (what) piety (is). He who understands the Pradhâna. abandoning each previous (element). moving and fixed. who had been first created. takes place after a long time. as he should act. indeed. and about the return. who has subdued his senses. which protects people to eternity. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. is released. which is very difficult to cross. life as a Brahmachârin. released from everything. is released who is equable towards both life and death. who has abandoned piety. And that I shall now proceed to state. the material cause of all embodied (selves). pity. Learn from me exhaustively. and gain and loss. released in every way. adherence to prescribed regulations. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. Gifts. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. created the whole of the three worlds. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). From that he created the Pradhâna. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. purity. becomes happy. he is. and causing good to be done. restraint of the senses. (having) as regards the moving (creation). and absence of cruelty. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. is released. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. which I am now about to declare. who is self-controlled.action by which. who has no child. free from vanity and egoism. and who is self-possessed. He who is not pious and not impious. and also tranquility. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. penance. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). never comes to an evil end. This is what is called the destructible. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. one going the round of various births. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . who endures all. the body to be an unholy aggregate. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. this is said to be the conduct of the good. by which all this is pervaded. serving mother and father. And as regards that. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. A man who is a friend of all. From this is produced piety. self-restraint. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). he becomes indifferent to everything. and who has no desire. Brahman. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. verily. the grandfather of all people. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. a pair separately for each (species). for among them it constantly abides. and whose self is free from affections. The practice to which the good adhere. honoring deities and guests. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. He who acquires that. having made a body for himself. and lust altogether. and (what is) agreeable and odious. He who has no enemy. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. and thinking of naught. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. honoring preceptors. compassion to (all) beings. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and which is known in the world as the highest. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. And he. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. What I say is all correct and proper. and likewise pleasure and pain. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. he is.

and freed from old age and grief. Properly concentrating his self. the soft fibers stand for the self. there is no death for him. unmoving. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. he sleeps at ease. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. who has practiced penance. constant. he grieves not and exults not. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. and unknowable. who is free from attachment. and of a tranquil mind. one should fix the mind on the self. One who does no action. he is released. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. like an Aswattha tree. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. free from the pairs of opposites. and casting aside old age and death. void of taste. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. is released. And as one may show the soft fibers. then he. void of belongings. he remains steady to the self. he assumes bodies at pleasure. devoid of form. When (all) beings are destroyed. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. when (all) beings are afflicted. he is indeed released. When. always full of birth. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. which consist in pain and grief. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. than which there is nothing higher. perceives the self in the self. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. Seeing the self void of smell. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). and old age. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self.. recognizes him (afterwards). he gradually obtains tranquility. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. Weapons do not pierce him. being habituated to exclusive meditation. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. indestructible. Then freed from all impressions. Restraining the . and having no cause. As a person having seen one in a dream. saying. Restraining the senses. like fire devoid of fuel. looks on this universe as transient. searching for his own faults. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. since he is the lord of the triple world. and who is self-restrained. meditating in that habitation. he has no fear. Leaving this human frame. without belongings. after extracting them from the Muñga. Then the talented Brâhmana. tranquil. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. Remaining within (that) city. death. he perceives the perfect one. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. and who has no desire. and having his senses subjugated. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. The body is called the Muñga. void of color. and having first performed rigorous penance. void of sound. He who is free from all impressions. ‘This is he. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. then there is no ruler over him. he is not afflicted by anything. Thinking of a quarter seen before. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. He whose self is concentrated.body. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. and always concentrating his mind. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. devoid of qualities. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. is released. and abandoning the transient body. void of touch.

– with. I will go away. and (keeping) the passages confined. He should meditate on his teeth. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. where one. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. final emancipation. heads. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused.group of the senses. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. and marrow. he attains final emancipation in me.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. O Mâdhava! I replied. nor by any of the senses. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. For as to that eternal Brahman. which is difficult to explain. He is not to be grasped by the eye. and muscles. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. he perceives the self. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. Have you listened to this. and determination regarding . O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. a mental smile. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. even those who are of sinful birth. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. O son of Prithâ! For. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. do the flesh. and abandoning his body.’ Thus addressed by me. who are constantly intent on their own duties. tongue. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. and also the heart. possessed of great penance. too. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. That talented pupil. – went away as he pleased. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. And then depending upon it thus. he has eyes. too. and also the means for its acquisition. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. The world of the gods. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. It is my belief. and do you (too) go away. he stands pervading everything in the world. and faces on all sides. attain the supreme goal. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. The soul sees the self come out from the body. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. and Sûdras likewise. forsaking the body. palate. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. and throat likewise. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. He has hands and feet on all sides. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. he has cars on all sides. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). This whole mystery I have declared to you. and how also to blood? And how. and of the excretions. women. reaches immortality and is ever happy. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. neck. What I have spoken. as it were. too. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). he attains in a short time to that Brahman. Adopting this doctrine. distinctly? How. and likewise the seat of the heart. Vaisyas. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. too. O Krishna! that pupil. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal.

Samâna. shall I reach. possessed of talents. It is devoid of smell. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. that which is to be seen. This is all that is to be said. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. the mind and the understanding. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. that only do the men of action engage in as action. O son of Pându! who. and (observe) good vows. that which cats. and likewise that which is to be heard. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. shall I go to. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. CHAPTER V On this. too. there is nothing further than this. and the ear as the fifth. and likewise that which is to . What goal. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. that which sees. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. Concentration of mind comes to him. and not to be tasted by the tongue. That is called the Udâna. that which is to be smelt. the Prâna and the Apâna moved.misery. and into it they enter. that which is to be touched. good or bad. and that which hears as the fifth. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. which occurred. verily. That which smells. Apâna. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. in which the materials are visible. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. (namely). The mortal. The nose. and their selves tranquil. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). From this the Prâna. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. and the tongue. That which is to be smelt. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. In the interior. and the moon together with the fire. (in the form of) a dialogue. that which is to be seen. that which thinks. Vyâna. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. does exist among (all) beings. that can be caught (by the touch). that man of a tranquil self. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). devoid of color and sound. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. full of faith. Whatever action there is. and Udâna also proceed. you who live renouncing (all) action. and who are harsh and undiscerning. seated in seclusion. devoid of taste and touch. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. are destroyed by demons. and imperishable. depending on you as (my) husband. that which is to be drunk. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. When that is asleep. And mark this always. by act. produce them in their wombs. and that which understands. and the eye. or heard. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. and also that which is to be thought of. It is not to be smelt by the nose. action. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. that which is to be drunk. but is to be apprehended by the mind. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. and that which is to be understood. A Brâhmana’s wife. these are the seven great officiating priests. From birth to the destruction of the body. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. While the paths (of action). O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. and energetic. that which touches. mind or speech. that which is to be touched. and the skin. or seen. and on which it rests. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. indeed. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all).

earth and fire. From that is produced smell. ‘Mind (is superior). which is the generator of all entities. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. smell.be heard. space. and (though) developed. though . wind. and the knower is the upholder of the body. But inasmuch. these seven. and also that which is to be understood. air. these are the ten oblations. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. The mind is the ladle. verily. Earth. and they are offered up into the ten fires. and hence the mind is in need (of it). mind and understanding. The goddess speech. highest knowledge. is with me. touch. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. (Thus) we have heard. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did).’ The Brâhmana said: Know. moon. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. the offerings are ten. the nose. and light as the fifth. The immovable. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. motion. the genital organ. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. ‘I. from that is produced determination. are named wombs. these. urine. too. water. And in that very (principle). they were perfectly filled with light. and the mind runs after them. there are two minds. The ear. O beautiful one! Sound. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. That is called the movement of the mind. that (in) my (view). verily. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. The quarters. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. action. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. from that is produced color. are ten sacrificial priests. requires everything knowable (as its offering). The ten organs are the makers of the offering. the movable is in your dominion. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. But. from that another is produced. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. from that doubt is produced. from that touch is produced. sun. these. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. And the mind. and into this the offering is thrown. and Mitra. and excrement. that which is to be thought of. verily. and Vishnu also. To that you are superior. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. they relate this ancient story. the tongue. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. words. color. from that is produced taste. the two feet. Whatever mantra. immovable and also movable. and taste. Prajâpati. verily. speech. the two hands. destroy our doubts. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. verily. from that is produced sound. that indeed is the movable mind. which is the instrument of knowledge. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs.’ But speech thereupon said to him. was the universe duly divided. ‘Say which of us is superior. are the fuel. Then the lord of speech was produced. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. or letter. Indra. are words produced. and the anus. and the wealth is the pure. yield (you) your desires. and the discharge of semen. First. therefore. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. verity. indeed. or tone goes to your dominion.

Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. when. like a cow. the ear. the eye. the mind. Dwelling in a minute space. the skin. the ear. The nose. and the ear as the fifth. the skin. The tongue. and which then goes into the Apâna. the mind. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. with divine power. the skin. the skin. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. and the eye. the eye. the tongue. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the understanding apprehends it. the skin apprehends them. On this. and the mind also. the mind. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). and the understanding also. So speech formerly spoke. the ear apprehends them. do not apprehend sounds. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the tongue. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. they relate this ancient story. The nose. they do not perceive each other. ‘Be pleased. The nose. the tongue. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). yields milk. the mind likewise. too. This excellent (speech). The nose. and the eye. and the skin. too. and the tongue. and the understanding also. the ear likewise. the ear. and the eye. the tongue. the nose apprehends them. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. do not apprehend doubt. do not apprehend tastes. Of those two. And these never know the qualities of each other. – a dialogue. and the understanding also. This cow-like speech. and the understanding also. flowing (forms). then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. Do you. the mind apprehends it. The nose. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures.impelled. do not apprehend colors. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. O you of a bright smile! is divine. the eye apprehends them. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and next the eye. and the understanding also. she ran up to Prajâpati. the skin. the ear likewise. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. verily. the tongue. the understanding. and the eye. The nose. The nose. O venerable sir? Tell me this. mind and understanding. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. the skin. the mind. It is always noisy or noiseless. the ear likewise. do not apprehend final determination. The mind said: . And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. the tongue apprehends them. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. do not apprehend smells. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. saying. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old.

and objects are standing. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). and the Udâna. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. both past and future. are the five sacrificial priests. the tongue does not perceive taste. the eye does not take in color. still. and if you enjoy enjoyments. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. (there is) pleasure and support of life. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. always meets death. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. (which is) like entering a house without a door. Without me. and indulged in dreams. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. who was born first. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. if you. then take in colors by the nose. too. when troubled by desire to enjoy. like an empty dwelling. Granted. and said to him. resulting from mental operations (alone). If when we are extinct. like fuel half dried and half moist. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. and not connected with objects of sense. then what you believe is true.The nose smells not without me. They formerly went to the grandsire. take in tastes by the eye. that the Prâna and the Apâna. you have no perception. One entering upon enjoyments. take in smells by the ear. without us. life is seen to be supported. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. Without me.’ Brahman said: . or if when we are absorbed. and take in sounds by the skin. even with the senses exerting themselves. they relate an ancient story. does run to objects of sense only. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. Besides. the senses never shine. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. The learned know this to be a great principle. Without me. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. all beings. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. rules are for the weak. the ear does not in any way hear sound. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. He shall be the greatest among us. I am the eternal chief among all elements. when our objects perform their functions. without us. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. a creature. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna.

all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. I am the greatest. and all support one another. go away happily. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. they again move about. Hear the reason why. Hear the reason why. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and on my moving about. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. owing to (their) specific qualities. You are not the greatest among us. and the Udâna.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. verily. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. is the greatest. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. they again move about. and again moved about. When I am extinct. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. The Apâna said: When I am extinct.’ The Vyâna moved about again. they again move about. And on my moving about. and again moved about. I am the greatest. The Vyâna only is subject to you. (Now) go where (you) like. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. Welfare be to you! Support one another. they again move about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. There are others moving about. and again moved about. Hear the reason why. because the Apâna is subject to you. All are greatest in their own spheres. and not greatest. they again move about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. I am the greatest. and on my moving about.’ Then the Apâna moved about. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. O beautiful one! spoke these words. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. and the Apâna said to him. O Prâna. ‘You are not the greatest among us. When I am extinct. and the Samâna. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. and on my moving about. When I am extinct. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. And the Prâna and Apâna. Being friendly with one another. the lord of (all) creatures. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest.’ The Prâna again moved about.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and the Samâna spoke again. I am the greatest. and the Samâna.He. who being extinct. I am the greatest. And the Prâna and Apâna. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. (which are) five. spoke to him. and pleasing one another. and the Vyâna also. and on whose moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. My own self is one only.

The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. and the . Day and night are a pair. the Prâna comes first into operation. hear me speak about that. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. From the combination of the semen and the blood. secondly. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. This is the effect of the Udâna.On this. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. the Apâna then comes into operation. which (move) upwards. that the fire verily is all the deities. the pleasure is produced from union. which is of excellent glory. The instrument. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or Samâna. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. and (it) is also produced from a sound. the Samâna and Vyâna. being accompanied by intelligence. (the quality of) passion. his Prâna. which (move) upwards. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. CHAPTER X On this. these. and emancipation. and the eye. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. and (it) is also produced from smell. too. too. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or downwards. From desire the semen is produced. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. that which is other than this first comes to him. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. between them is the fire. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. or transversely. the agent. between them is the fire. in which the offering is thrown. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. the action. First. The two – good and evil – are a pair. and the tongue. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. The smoke of that (fire). between them is the fire. and between them is the fire. or downwards. It is the teaching of the Veda. what comes into existence first. or Apâna. they relate this ancient story. the Samâna comes into operation again. indeed. The nose. (it) is also produced from taste. and (it) is also produced from color. Hear me. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. or Vyâna. or transversely. (its) ashes. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. their function is performed: then. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. and (it) is also produced from touch.

Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. and color. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. and sages. and the ear as the fifth. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. the self the Adhvaryu priest. is ruined. The gods. and the Dakshinâ. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. Living under that instructor. whatever is heard by the ear. The learned man. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. there is no second (different) from him. he who eats. and the gods. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the Stotra in which. He who smells. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. This being. On that Sâman hymns. there is no second (different) from him. he who sees. enjoy their own qualities.’ Hearing that. I move as I am ordered. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. and the snakes. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. he who thinks. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. The gods had been engaged in gifts. (about the) instruction of the snakes. being (himself) a ruler. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. There is one enemy. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. whatever is seen by the eye. and he who understands. is the upward life-wind. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. And cooking food for himself. and taste. approaching Prajâpati. are sung. there is no second director. and the demons. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. Smell. of which an illustration is stated. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. too. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. my fire of (high) qualifications. this. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. destroying this food again produces it. and whatever is smelt by the nose. the Sastra. (and) the seven Rishis. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. is the counselor in all action. the Brahman priest in which. To him who is not learned. these seven are causes of action. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. like water on a declivity. the Brahman. he who speaks. they relate an ancient story. On. Taught by that instructor. and the great sages . There is one kinsman. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. On this. there is no second (different) from him. Taught by that instructor. There is one hearer. agreeable and disagreeable. Impelled by that same (being). being possessed of qualities. mind and understanding. the Hotri priest. and touch as the fifth. Whatever is thought by the mind. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. These. the director. there is no second (different) from him. eating various (kinds of) food. and sages.skin. truth. CHAPTER XI There is one director. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. the venerable one said. sound. The eating of that which should not be eaten. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. by Prajâpati. who is the self of everything. he. shines dwelling within the body. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. And I am here devoid of qualities. final emancipation. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. the downward lifewind. they ran away in (various) directions. too.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. and he who hears as the fifth. whatever is spoken by speech. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. And among the learned who understand (everything). He destroys the food. There is one instructor. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. in a single syllable. ‘Om. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. each in its own place. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed.

have no fear afterwards. the great sages receive hospitality. This is the description of the forest. and nobody is afraid of them. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. and the demons. casting aside vows and actions. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. that. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. and the enemy. the learner. when there is no distinction from it. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. and the hills and mountains. which depends on knowledge. There is one fire here. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. who. And there is fuel here. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. and of beautiful colors. connected with the Brahman. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. and emancipation the fruit. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. the snakes. the Brahman his origin. And I have entered the great forest. the Brahman the instructor. Understanding it they practiced it. and is to be crossed by one singly. merely adheres to the Brahman. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. Having had one teacher. the Brahman water. full of brilliance. They are not afraid of anybody. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. There is nothing more subtle than that. there is no other happiness equal to.in restraint of the senses. (namely) the five senses. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. there is nothing larger than that. . and what the rivers. all engaged in different (pursuits). That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. The qualities are the fruits. and having a good mind. and seven guests. and the guests eat the fruits. There. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. the hearer. there is no other instructor. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. There is nothing smaller than that. seven (forms of) concentration. in various places. and causes of generation. He is rapt in the Brahman. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. Entering it. becomes a Brahmachârin. are always within the heart. the sages. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. with faces (turned) downwards. and fragrant. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. In that forest are seven large trees. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. when there is a distinction from it. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. and seven (forms of) initiation. There always dwell seven females there. and having been instructed with one word. owing to his desires. There is nothing more afflicting than that. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. seven hermitages. and do not exult. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. the Brahman the fire. But he who. the way to which consists in worldly objects. the gods. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. the twice-born do not grieve. another forest shines forth. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. The good who attain to that. which has contentment for its water. in which intelligence is the tree. seven fruits. Acting sinfully in the world. and mixed. The instructor. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared.

that will enter water. There is no offence on my part. of this goat have gone to their sources. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. and greatness. since the Vedic text is such. devote themselves to Brahman. Such. I see no color. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. whose sins are burnt up by penance. there is no taint on my natures. too. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. mother. (his) ear the quarters. as understood by Brâhmanas. then the sacrifice is for the goat. Dwelling in that (self). And understanding it. whatever in him is produced from water. or old age. nor even do I entertain any fancies. they act (accordingly). after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. the richest. Glory. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. Nature desires objects which are liked. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). and I do not touch. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. The life-winds. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. Those whose wishes are reduced. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. victory. father. brilliance.They absorb all the higher delights of people. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. merging the self in the self. . You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. and his life-winds likewise the sky. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. they are born so as not to lose courage. His eye (will enter) the sun. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. and as the constant entity underlying them. I perceive no tastes. On this. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. abide. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. together with their chiefs. nor yet do I hear various sounds. we do not rely on what is not visible. The teaching of the elders is. Not desiring any object of desire. If I spoke further. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. indeed. too. they relate an ancient story. take him (to them) and consult (them). Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. praise tranquility. Although actions are performed. being directed by the Kshetrajña. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. and I think only his unmoving body remains. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. is this holy forest. Understand that. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). censuring (the act) as destruction of life. And aspiring to that forest. and again emerge from the same. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. not hating any evil. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. perfection. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. or death. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. (This) creature will obtain welfare. Apart from them. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. enlightenment. After hearing their consent. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. this goat will not be destroyed. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. I see the individual self in the body. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). especially as he is dependent.

freed from delusion. you touch the qualities of the air. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. and (the quality of) goodness. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. Give them security. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. he was walking about near the sea. as we have heard. name him to me. what shall I do for you? The creatures. And to one who is free from these manifestations. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. Or what do you think. who might stand against me in the field. you believe. and I say (to you). performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. you hear the sound produced in space. . O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. such is the double manifestation of the self. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. a descendant of Kritavîrya. and who is released on all hands. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. who is devoid of expectations. possessed of a thousand arms. said. the mind. the tongue. O venerable sir! I approach you. who is alike to all beings. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. saluting him. And all these entities. and understanding it. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. there is no fear anywhere. my mind is enlightened. they act (accordingly). being directed by the Kshetrajña. who take shelter with me. proud of his strength. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. Once on a time. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). in the belief (that you are) the Lord. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. who has subdued his self. The ocean. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. The ocean said: If. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. too. The life-winds. Of these the indestructible is the existent. you drink watery juices.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. are being destroyed. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. (in the shape of) a dialogue. they relate an old story. have life. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. Say. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. you see the colors of shining bodies. together with (the quality of) passion. For having heard your opinion. and with joined hands.

and your vital part being pierced. As by its unsteadiness. whose penance was very great. the Kshatriyas. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. It is not proper for you. said to those sages. not forgiving his father’s murder. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. only pierce your own vital part. Râma also taking up a bow. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O noble one!’ But Râma. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). high-souled. ‘Desist. blazed forth. became Vrishalas. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. (Though) surrounded by enemies. who understood duty. became Vrishalas. being a Brâhmana. it wishes. to slaughter these kings. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. – having performed very difficult deeds. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects).’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. entered mountains and inaccessible places. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. went away. Hearing that. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. too. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. abandoning (those) great deeds. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. like a tree of many branches. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and taking swords and lances. and very firm in his vows. like antelopes troubled by a lion. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. together with the Sâbaras. to make all mortals perform action. Paundras. whose power was unbounded. a bodiless voice from heaven. do you perceive. which was heard by all people. his grandfathers.Then the king. too. full of great wrath. Then the power of Râma. turned to subtle (questions). you will die. Âbhîras. There was (once) a royal sage. In company with his kinsmen. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. taking up his axe. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. named Alarka. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. The mind said: These arrows. burning the hosts of the enemy. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. dear friend. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. with Rikîka as their head. Then some of the Kshatriyas. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. who was veracious. Seeing him killed and fallen. hearing that (story). he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. and blew away the army of the king. shot away volleys of arrows. Thus the Dravidas. They will. they relate an ancient story. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. What good. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. spoke sweetly to Râma.

he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors.Smelling very many perfumes. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. the skin hankers after them only. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and then you will lose (your) life. and your vital part being pierced. These arrows. the (ear) hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. one hankers after them only. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. this (tongue) hankers after them only. Hearing that. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. and your vital part being pierced. and your vital part being pierced. The tongue said: These arrows. The skin said: These arrows. The eye said: These arrows. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then said after consideration: – . They will only pierce your own vital part. The nose said. The ear said: These arrows. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. and your vital part being pierced. They will only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. you will die.

people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. When the bodily frame is destroyed. free from sloth. Perform a fearful penance. cut (it) off with sharp swords. a man even does what ought not to be done. pleasure. owing to these qualities. and engages in action. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. and being troubled by desire. properly . the best of talented (men). we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. who had become tranquil (in mind). and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. On this. Grief. but there is one. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. When vices were in the ascendant. Then directing his mind to one point. That avarice – cut (it) off. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. destroyed all foes. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. (that vice). vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). sloth. he reached the highest perfection. And at the expiration of life. is born again and again. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. and applied himself to concentration of mind. you will die.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. and after deliberating for a long time. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. attained high perfection. a courageous man. joy. thence you will obtain the highest good. the greatest.’ Do you understand this too. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. amazed. And the royal sage. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. and good (men) were oppressed. The understanding said: These arrows. and senses controlled. and delusion. Ambarîsha. He (then) restraining his own vices. Exultation. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. Sleep. being impelled by which. then anxiety comes into existence. and your vital part being pierced. and honoring good men. and he who desires. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. having a tranquil self. persistent hatred. he. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). For from avarice is born desire. wrath. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. according to qualities. of great glory. and again birth. Obtaining those. he became steady. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. Therefore. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. three foes in (this) world. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. verily. then uttered this verse. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. he meets death. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. being impelled by which. is energetic about subjugating others. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions.

so (is it) that of others too. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. though this country. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . or the whole earth is mine. avarice. Then when the delusion had gone off. or that everything is my domain. is subject (to me). then came the delusion on me. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. what belief you have resorted to.perceiving this. I looked for my own offspring. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. as the planet upon the sun. intelligence again came to me. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. who destroyed the one (chief vice). therefore) while you desire. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. Resorting to this conviction.’ Thus spoken to. Then on the expiration of the delusion. I looked for Mithilâ. a delusion suddenly came upon him.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. and enjoy while you live. Even this self is not mine. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. is subject to you. This is sovereignty. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. While that king of unbounded power was seated. When I did not find it among them. by way of punishment.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. What conviction have you adopted. Janaka said: Though this country. holding which. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. searching through the (whole) earth. and restraining avarice by courage. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. I believe. (Considering) whose this was. and. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. engaged in meditation. King Janaka. When I did not find it on the earth. to be terminable. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. and said nothing in reply. I cannot find my domain. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. Now hear the conviction. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. too. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. by the glorious Ambarîsha. And as mine. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. the king recovered himself. in all affairs. by which. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. there is no other sovereignty here. I wish. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue.

I pervade every single thing that is in this world. together with guests. (namely) for the gods. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. is (to be found) a description of it. namely. and even over heaven. dwelling with preceptors. that a certain thing should be done. and my intelligence is very frivolous. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. according to your own understanding. I am not such. With your heart intent upon the real entity. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. and narrow. the spoke the understanding.subject to me. where. the instructor is the upper Arani. not by the body. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. Actions have a beginning and an end. I am a Brâhmana. Hence. and also without qualities. it is not laid down. to households. is perceived as by bees. I am emancipated. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. the Bhûtas. for this purpose. or among mendicants. have their understanding full of tranquility. that. action and knowledge. or. and a certain thing should not. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. Then the Brâhmana. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. Whatever creatures there are in the world. the Pitris. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. A good means is found. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. I am a forester. This path is traversed by the understanding. All these actions of mine are. or residence in forests. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. and the body is tied down by action. by which that (entity). The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. movable or not moving. by which those who understand that proceed. and confused.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. indeed. you have guessed. verily. smiling. Sovereignty over the whole world. nothing exists that is a cause of him. and which does not turn back. You are the one person to turn this wheel. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. or by one whose self is not refined. come here today to learn (something) about you. In the (rules for) final emancipation. you will certainly come into my self. or else this knowledge. observing vows. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. And those who. the nave of which is the Brahman.

turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. And we. ‘I’ (he said).and hears. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. and accurately. who was possessed of (the . O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. something about the highest good. who preserved (all) vows. as may here be practicable – unperceived. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. in hundreds and in thousands. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. is I myself. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. A talented pupil. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. Speak. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. between a preceptor and a pupil. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. and also desirous of final emancipation. Vâsudeva said: On this. are afraid of worldly life. indeed. There is none else here who can explain these questions. And he. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña.’ The preceptor. One should adopt as many of these things. and those whose form is perceived. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. truly. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. (when he was) seated. I pray of you with (bowed) head. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. too. and what sin? These questions of mine. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. am come to you (who are) venerable. likewise. all of various descriptions. (which are) means of direct perception. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. who put (his) questions properly. ‘whose goal is the highest good. connected with final emancipation. Listen to that. Arjuna said: Where. put (his) questions with joined bands. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). who had approached him (for instruction). what penance. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor.

who was like (his) shadow. and so forth. in Brahman’s mansion. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. I will state to you today. is esteemed highest. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. Formerly. . the branches of which are the great egoism. who understands the creation of all entities. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. the gross elements the smaller boughs. the present. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and casts off birth and death. the great sages. is released from misery. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. desiring knowledge. after having traveled over all paths. The preceptor said: All this. which is eternal. even while dwelling in this world. and likewise of the castes. and the seed of which is the Brahman. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. penance is the truth. and has no egoism about anything. and who are the constant creators of the people. The Brahman is the truth. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. the future. and becoming wearied of their own actions. the sages. He who does not desire anything. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. who are possessed of knowledge. are full of the truth. and Visvâmitra. namely. there is no doubt of that. Vasishtha. and Atri also. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches.necessary) qualifications. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. met each other. And those twice-born (sages). when thus spoken to by the sages. Understand that. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. who was tranquil. full of humility. and the severance also. and likewise Bhârgava. Gautama. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. They live by penance. the senses. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. is emancipated. desire. and also Kâsyapa. the entities are born from the truth. and is eternal. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. was declared by Brahman. and wealth. and piety. and renunciation as the best penance. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. I will state to you. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. which is always possessed of leaves. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. Brihaspati. which ought to be apprehended. Bharadvâja. always possessed of flowers. which belongs to olden times. Prajâpati also is truth. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. saw Brahman. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. and likewise unity and variety. and of the four orders. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. and who is devoid of egoism. on which all entities subsist. from whom (all) sin has departed.

And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. . Light. want of discrimination. one sees not these. and are joined to one another. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. Where darkness is restrained. eleven. its characteristic. and of the highest seat.distinctly. I will speak to you. and passion is the match of goodness. He who. never comes by delusion. and the five great elements. such is the eternal creation. which is in a state of equilibrium. which you should understand. it also appears combined (with others). This is the nature of darkness. (but) having four quarters. in aggregation and separation. and next after that too. and getting rid of all bonds. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. Learn. O noble ones! from me. will now be stated together with the reasons. encircled by the. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). immaturity (of intellect). and also all the deities. and darkness the match of goodness. Delusion. of all beings. and immutable. violation of (the rules of) conduct. space. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. rigid in his vows. faith. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. which depend on one another. and likewise serve one another. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. and goodness is also the match of passion. fear. and which are bridges of piety. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. He who accurately understands the elements. consisting of three qualities. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. I will subsequently state the means to that. all-pervading. being constituted by the three qualities. and attend on one another. indecision about actions. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. The great self. the unperceived likewise. goodness there prevails. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. It has three qualities. When it prevails. as accepted by good men. air. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). avarice. grief. want of memory. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. learn those accurately. haughtiness. Passion is said to consist in activity. blindness. among all beings. the second is that of householders. passion. and five constituent principles. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. and is the cause of successive (acts). attains to all the spotless worlds. The true nature of their characteristics. The order of foresters. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. everlasting. which is productive of pleasure. and likewise also egoism. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. The wise always speak of piety as one. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. and of the understanding as ruler. sun. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. nihilism. and those three channels run on. finding fault with good acts. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. Indra. he. Darkness. the whole of the qualities. next after that is that of foresters. and goodness. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. appears to be production. Light. Where passion is restrained. Prajâpati. ignorance. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. passion there prevails. now speaking exhaustively. Its characteristic is also impiety. and is called delusion. sleep. and it is constant in sinful actions. lightness. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. want of liberality. which are all coupled with one another. Goodness is the match of darkness. casting aside sin. the ten senses and the one (sense). all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. these are called the three qualities.

wishing for pleasure. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. doers of sinful acts. want of faith also. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. want of straightforwardness. indeed. Who. desire. evilconducted men. sink into darkness. frenzy. slaughter. There. power. and also its qualities. or deaf. animals. These dark.behavior of the lowest quality. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. or lisping men. that one sees the real in what is unreal. and worms. Learn. strength. and also animosity towards people. anger is called the great obscurity. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. evil disposition. argument. demons. want of liberality. Injuring (others). I have now duly described to you. And whatever such people there are in this world. peace. bonds. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. affliction. sinful action. are found in various places in this world. want of faith. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. going beyond the Sûdra womb. by cutting. how. Darkness. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. pointing out others’ weaknesses. abuse . understands this properly. the great obscurity called anger. (namely) the brute (species). and vain eating. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. fierceness and cruelty. breaking. becoming men of meritorious actions. valor. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. Coming to a sinful womb. connected with delusion. deluded convictions. vanity. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. Reviling. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. who are sunk in darkness. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). the great delusion. and whatever vain gifts. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. who. (or become) the immovable entities. and death the blinding obscurity. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). beauty. and also its source. all these qualities. as Chândâlas. delusion. Whatever vain actions (there are). preservation. animosity. sages and saints and gods become deluded. vindictiveness. insects. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. and serpents. thinking of (this) world. and also creatures born from eggs. stolidity. They go to the hell. want of forgiveness likewise. buying and selling. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. birds. toil. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. unfriendliness. anger. harboring evil thoughts. they are all held to be dark. endurance. pleasure and pain. cold and heat. and want of forgiveness. vilifying. repining. beasts of burden. and growing old in their own duties. delusion. this is considered to be dark conduct. exercise and quarrel too. and growing old in (good) actions. who break through (all) regulations. And whatever other states of mind. animosity. want of knowledge. touching other people’s weak points. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. they exert themselves. pride of performance without (actual) performance. the thought (that this or that is) mine. lassitude. war. wrath. and all quadrupeds. and idiots. who bear the marks of their own actions. this is considered to be dark conduct. backbiting. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). Such is the Vedic text. that is considered to be dark conduct. battle. piercing. want of self-restraint. vanity. going into inferior ways. indeed. deaf and dumb men. to be born in the lower hell. all these are dark qualities.

and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. truth.’ affection generated by the qualities. doubt. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. receipt of gifts vain. for articles. belongings. enlightenment and happiness also. haughtiness. for living creatures. unbroken piety. and future entities in this world. gambling. absence of backbiting. censure. and labor vain. righteous feelings. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. minuteness. freedom from delusion. and attachment also. abandonment on all hands. and to be gods. management. the ceremony of Vashat. for women. good behavior. joy. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. devotion. obedience. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. bad gifts. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. the ceremony of Svadhâ. have (their) currents downwards. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. and also sacrifice. and make Tarpana. and unblamable. vows and regulation. attendance. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. The power of governing. vexation. forgiveness. The man who always understands these qualities. (on another). Getting rid of all sins. (holding) knowledge to be vain. Born again and again in this world. for men. he attains the highest in the next world. gets rid of all passionate qualities. compassion to (all) creatures. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. vows vain. ostentation. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. auspicious rites. pleasure and delight. liberality. laudation. absence of calumniation. (good) conduct vain. Thus. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. and for houses. not full of desires. gifts and acceptance of gifts. perceive (everything) aright. humility. disgust. straightforwardness. devotion to dancing. association with women. valor. and also sacrificing and study. learning vain. courage. they rejoice. theft. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. absence of stinginess. harboring desire. modesty. They are said to have their currents upwards. expiations. equable everywhere. wakefulness. joviality. and create (various) bodies. contentment. prowess. devoid of egoism. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. absence of cruelty. indifference. and of the quality of goodness. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. purity. beneficial to all creatures. dexterity. vexing (oneself). emancipation. sacrifices vain. common scandal. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. slaughter. and instrumental or vocal music. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. those talented men reach heaven. harmlessness. who adhere to the quality of goodness. heedlessness. all these qualities. freedom from laziness. these men. defiance. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. nobility. absence of fear. one obtains whatever one desires. boasting. who are enveloped by passion. The . the duty of the good. penance vain. purity. freedom from expectations. devoid of expectations. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. equability. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. contumely. by means of nature. piety vain. forgiveness. disrespect and respect. life as a Brahmachârin. policy. service. and also want of faith. faith. joy. whose conduct is of this description. Confidence. They give and receive. self-restraint. and free from grief. wealth. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction.uttering falsehoods. The men who meditate on past. pleasure. present. contentment. absence of wrath. treachery and likewise deception. service vain. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. praise. Understanding this according to rule. salutation. and actions with expectations.

they feed on one another. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. eternal. The light in the sun is goodness. Among immovable entities. Of all these acting with one another. the heat is the quality of passion. They are attached to one another. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. and lust. the qualities of passion are variable. all that is (made of) these three qualities. but differing in development. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. and being free from all misery. evil-doers likewise are darkness. abiding in those of the upward current. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. constant. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. and the conjunctions. the unperceived. and travelers. For they act with cause or without cause. Passion. and the highest. Seeing the sun rising. evildoers are alarmed. these are the three qualities. piety. and passion also. in union. and the enlightener.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. immovable. feel the warmth. production and absorption. and the qualities. the present. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. And as long as goodness and darkness. unperceived. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. unborn. not small. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). goodness. So in all shining bodies. destruction. freed from the body. holy. passion in the Kshatriya. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). threefold are the worlds. darkness. And where goodness is developed. passion. the men of the quality of darkness. Where passion is developed. The past. the passionate remain in the middle. half-months. and moving about collectively. existent and also non-existent – all these. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. immutable. and the Udâna. goodness. there: exist three qualities. go down. unshaking. and threefold the path. and likewise months. is said to be. and the future. and likewise follow one another. The three qualities – goodness. the Prâna. nature. They perform their journey together. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. Darkness. there darkness should be understood to be little. moving in a body. and passion likewise to be less. and goodness likewise to be less. threefold the sacrifices performed. The day should be understood to be threefold. there darkness should be understood to be little. wealth. Threefold are the gifts given. The creation of the qualities is eternal. And whatever there is in this world. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. abiding in those of the middle current. being connected with the lowest quality. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. Even from afar. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. change. . not developed. The sun is goodness developed. There is no doubt of this. (consisting) of the three qualities. but is not attached to the qualities. there passion should be understood to be little. Pradhâna. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. seasons. enjoys the qualities. the night is stated to be threefold. They all depend on one another. so long is passion said (to exist) here. goodness. suffering trouble from the heat. and goodness likewise to be less. womb. in the Brâhmana. in the lower entities. he. the increase and diminution will now be stated. the Apâna. threefold the gods. years. and its pure operations. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. The man who always understands these qualities. Where darkness is increased. abiding. is released from all qualities.

it likewise charms the world. It is a deity. and who are always possessed of a good heart. inexhaustible. taste. it causes all this to move. memory. he among all people comes not by delusion. and are inconstant. that talented man. and thus that source of all entities. creates (them). touch. whose minds are clear. he is the governor. who have pondered on the self. the great self. Caused by the production of avarice. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. it is full of light. attain greatness. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). who have subdued wrath. the operations (connected with these) have causes. movable or immovable. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. who are possessed of knowledge. the transcendent. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. Minuteness. courage. is (afterwards) called egoism. In these five great elements. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. verily. these being emancipated. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. When. creatures are deluded. ancient being. water. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. and insignificant. They are born one from the other. means of perception. it is said to be the first creation. and are dissolved in the reverse order. and of the mind. connected with . touch. Sound. the valiant. the supporter of consciousness. and whose senses are subdued. It has hands and feet on all sides. the light. and smell. the understanding. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. and light as the fifth. heads. color. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Knowing that (great self). of universal form. it is the creator of the three worlds. and smell as the fifth. the Prajâpati. the source of all qualities. who are talented. who are devoid of egoism. and likewise cognition. has been dissolved. Sambhu. it is that from which the people are produced. taste. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. that is said to be the second creation. not different from one another. and by its own light. means of knowledge. it stands pervading everything in the world. it has eyes. who are true to their promises. and faces on all sides. that from which the changes take place. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. lightness. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. intelligence. who practice meditation. Then when every entity. the final dissolution approaches. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. Vishnu. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. Now people who comprehend the understanding. Brahma. and as that from which the changes take place. who are not avaricious. air. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). abides transcending the understanding. space. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. and likewise color. the producer of the deities. were the five great elements born – earth. and their name is delusion. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. and golden. who are constant at concentration of mind. the producer of the entities.

then the Brahman shines (before him). the cause of the whole course of worldly life. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. the motion of which is downward. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. and depending upon one another. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. as connected with the self it is called the eye. and the organ of generation. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. Understanding these. the presiding deity there is the Moon. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. as connected with the self. and space. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. nose. and the presiding deity there is the wind. as connected with the self. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. and five the organs of action. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. Those born from eggs. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. these are helpless and powerless. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. those born from germs. self-consciousness. excluded from the self. ear. and speech are restrained. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. is speech which relates to all the gods. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. such is the group of organs. the Udâna. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. as connected with the self it is called the ear. The second entity is air. as connected with the self it is the nose. The fifth entity is earth. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. He whose skin. and worms of the like description. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. the two feet. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). Space is the first entity. next as connected with objects (it is) color. The mind should be understood to be among both. And the eleven organs. the presiding deity there is Rudra. The Prâna and the Apâna. is called the organ of excretion. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. The ear. and together with speech. as connected with objects it is motion. water. which follows after the five entities. This is said to be the . as connected with objects likewise it is smell. as also all reptiles. the organ of excretion. The Apâna wind. This group one should subdue first. the producer of all beings. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. as connected with objects it is taste. and the Vyâna also. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. and the presiding deity there is fire.flesh and blood. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. the tongue. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. and understanding unswerving. who perceive the truth. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. as connected with objects it is actions. the two hands. and the presiding deity there is the sun. As connected with the self. and the understanding is the twelfth. the skin. and the presiding deity there is Soma. the two eyes. As connected with the self they mention the mind. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. and speech as the tenth. and the presiding deity there is Indra. mind. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. Likewise (there is) egoism. and the presiding deity there is lightning. eye. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. those born from perspiration. The third (entity) is said to be light. the Samâna. as connected with objects. as connected with objects it is the semen. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. as connected with objects it is excretion. As connected with the self. the nose also as the fifth. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. the mind is the eleventh. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. tongue. Then first. and whose mind is pure.

which is difficult to move in this mortal world. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. this same (body). as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. which is made up of the five elements. then being self-illumined. together with the immortals. and being concentrated in mind. which is uninterrupted. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. gift at a sacrifice. and which rests on the real (entity). that he is released from all sins. (namely) sacrifice. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. and released from everything. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. however. Such is the doctrine of the learned. curtail it. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. and hold them by the mind. and which is full of the Brahman. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. next as connected with objects it is color. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. unfit to be seen. the presiding deity there is Soma. A knowledge of this. for (every one) who is born. and those which move crookedly. which is full of passion. the objects of the senses. bursting through the earth. . Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and likewise the sound is space. are the beings born from wombs. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. fearful and unfathomable. and is sanctifying. pleased with contacts. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. and the feeling of touch is air. The fifth element is earth. the presiding deity there is the sun. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. It is settled.second (mode of) birth. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. Understand about them also. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. O chief of the twice-born! and know. He who duly understands this. is ever happy. which is free from attachment. having his cravings destroyed. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. which are born after the lapse of some time. Restraining objects of desire within the self. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. the flowing (element) water. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. The world. which is surrounded by the five currents. Space is the first entity. The third is called light. The fourth should be understood to be water. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. that the body in which the color is fire. When everything is absorbed into the mind. (viz. which has nine passages and two deities. One should place all these together. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. Such is the teaching of the ancients. The second entity is air. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. and is named delusion. and inferior. and the five great elements. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. in which one lives alone. Those beings. and restrain it. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. too. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. It is a great ocean. and sacred study. should cast it aside. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. are said to be born from germs. and who is devoid of passion. and full of delusion. and than which there is nothing higher. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. which produces attachment to subtle (topics).) the senses. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities.

and also as various. Him. which are difficult to get rid of. the Pippala. and the ocean among rivers. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. demons.Desire. the uncreated Hari. all companies of Brâhmanas. likewise. and . avarice. The Nyagrodha. (all these). He is the supporter. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. the Mahendra. and seeing the self within the self. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. the Trikûtavat. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. he then perceives that highest (principle). She is called Pârvatî. the Sveta. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. and Yakshas. and the Meshasringa. the Nîla. (am lord). and the creator. Such is the highest creation among all entities. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). and Nâgas. and birds. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. Varuna is the king of the waters. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. these are the princes among trees in this world. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and also all the great sages. the Vindhya. of Gandharvas. the Sinsapâ. changing from time to time. and Pisâkas. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. Kings desire piety. lose all their qualifications. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. Understand this. ever extol. Freed from all sins. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. among vehicles the elephant. Agni. and likewise the Sâlmali. For he is the ruler of men. who has beautiful eyes. the Pâriyâtra. and delusion the reservoir. Understanding everything. and the moon among the Nakshatras. and the bands of Rakshasas. the Sahya. Soma is the lord of herbs. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. snakes. He verily is Vishnu. and of all entities whatever I. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. who am full of the Brahman. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. the Guruskandha. and among females a male. and among denizens of the forest the lion. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. the Jambu. the Bhâsa. rejoice in this world. and Prajâpati. and demons. and great. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. Purandara of (all) deities. the sun is the prince among the planets. and Rakshasas. Non-destruction is the highest piety. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. and go into wrong paths after death. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. the north among the quarters. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). The Himavat. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and the Koshthavat mountain. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. among cattle also the bull. there is no doubt of that. fear. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and likewise the bamboo and willow. treachery. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. Kinnaras. and Pitris. likewise. the creator. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. these are the princes among mountains. and the bands of Bhûtas. and falsehood also. and Varuna. and Yakshas. and Mitra. concentrating the mind within the mind. wrath. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. of gods. and also gods. Understand him to be the ruler. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies.

(the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. and transcending death and old age. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. As to the smell of the earth. The quality of light is color. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. and that is comprehended by the understanding. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. The Purusha knows it. (though) concealed. which is void of symbols. And crossing beyond darkness. Hence a man who understands piety. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. free from the ceremony of salutations. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The qualities created again and again. and transcending the qualities. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. To (this) positive comprehension. abandoning qualities. and having his sins destroyed. Only the Kshetrajña attains. and about the means for its comprehension. he repairs to that which has no second. that is comprehended by the nose. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. transcendent. (else) attains. The characteristic of mind is meditation. middle. Thought is the quality of mind. there is no doubt of that. the essence of water. and that is comprehended by the ear. It is stated that day was first and then night. which is great. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. sound is the characteristic of space. is purely knowledge. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. and from the svâhâ ceremony. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. who resides in the tongue. do not know themselves. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. to the truth. in this world. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. together with names and characteristics. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. The (sensation of) touch. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. The earth is the source of . And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. being nonintelligent. The Kshetrajña. who is unmoving. no one. and hear it. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. And the moon likewise. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). and homeless. the unperceived (is appointed). to be created and tied down to a beginning. know. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. The quality of space is sound. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. and the Mahat of knowledge. is smell. And I always see. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). and end. giving prominence to knowledge.destruction is of the nature of impiety. the characteristic of mind is thought. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. the characteristic of earth. middle. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. is perceived by the skin. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. and that is comprehended by the eye. taste is the characteristic of water. then enters into the Kshetrajña. and knowledge. the characteristic of renunciation. and end. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. he is the Supreme Lord. verily. The characteristic of devotion is action. the supporter of all beings. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. belonging to the air. Taste. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. is always comprehended by the tongue. and the creation. action the characteristic of men. color is the characteristic of light. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. is the Kshetrajña. that months have the bright first.

gold (is the first). and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. among sacrifices. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. water is the best. and the twice-born among men. The sun is the first among shining bodies. too. who is devoid of egoism. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. of which the environment is home. Of all ages the Krita is the first. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. These are the qualities of the elements. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. whatever is prescribed in this world. and the same is also the end of everything. and regulations. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. the offering (into the fire) is the best. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. water of tastes. Among all precious things. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. Pisâkas. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. of all words. which is measured by months and half months. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. is the source of the entire universe. without distinction. and life ends in death. of which the pole is the mind. the ocean is the first-born. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. who is full of the Brahman. which rotates in space and time. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. all this ends in destruction. observances.smells. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. the end of grief ever pleasure. I. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. all ascents end in falls. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. among (sacrificial) animals. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. the eastern quarter is the first. and Yakshas. the mud for which is penance and regulations. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. study. likewise. . And among all immovable entities. Kinnaras. the ever holy field of Brahman. likewise space is the source of sound. And the unthinkable. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. there is no doubt of that. and of men. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. the fastenings in which are vexations. there is no doubt of that. the Plaksha. whose senses are subjugated. snakes. Of all mountains. the goat is mentioned (as the first). (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. Bhûtas. The great Vishnu. which is full of actions and instruments of action. Dânavas. is everchanging. gift. All action ends in destruction. that of householders (is the first). All accumulations end in exhaustion. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. and among all reptiles. which is sustained by the qualities. fire is said to be the first of the elements. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. all that is called Sâvitrî. The Syena is first among birds. and Rakshasas. is stated to be the first. death is certain for whatever is born. which moves through (all) the worlds. the noise of which is trouble and toil. Sacrifice. there is no doubt of that. which abounds in old age and grief. penance. There is no end for knowledge. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. And of all gods. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. Îsvara is the lord. the end of pleasure is ever grief. which is lit up by the great egoism. all associations end in dissociations. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. and the Prâna lifewind. Of all orders. Prajâpati of deities.

should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). (That) sage. and with one’s external organs restrained. which is unchecked. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. the speed of which is like that of the mind. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. and take exercise (duly). he should have matted hair. and should give and receive gifts. should avoid heedlessness. and also the beggar. who is thus devoted. sit. and be of pure vows. behaving like good men. and self-restrained. and should stand. and who has duly observed vows. and also receiving untainted gifts. and released from all sins. who is of rigid vows. in the way above stated. released from all impressions. This wheel of life. With regard to those three duties. to such a one the (word) good applies. with his senses restrained. making gifts. and which is (never) fatigued. this has been celebrated from ancient times. who is pure. they are pious duties. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. which moves towards joy and pleasure. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. should behave like the good. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. all the world. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. or of cotton. the imperishable source (of all). One should learn and teach. study. The Brâhmana householder. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. And as to the other remaining three duties. and who understands the Vedas. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. to follow it is good. with the permission of the preceptor. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. and equable to all creatures. is never deluded. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. and alms. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. take food without decrying it. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. and the Brahmachârin. and sacrifice. and should always associate with good men. possessed of forgiveness. conquers heaven. That man among all creatures. together with the immortals should cast away. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. and constant in veracity and piety. who is devoted to Vedic rites. kind. attains the highest goal. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. transcending all pairs of opposites. should. and which is devoid of consciousness. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. should be kind.which is large. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. abridge. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. and have his sacred . The householder. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. should return (from his preceptor’s house). who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. Always devoted to his own wife. who is self-restrained. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. the sage who understands piety. gift. and check. the forester. and which is extended by means of attachments. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. or also a deerskin. and full of faith. There should also be a girdle of muñga. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth.

And with his senses restrained. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. A man should always bathe in clean water. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. He should not parade (his) piety. seeking merely to sustain life. always dexterous. and depending on the deities. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. his path being pointed out by the sun. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. and should not . be engaged in sacred study. or a Brahmachârin. or a river likewise. always with clean water. does not return to birth. addicted to sacred study. pure in body. and should eschew dwelling with friends. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. or a forest. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. being restrained in mind. and devoted to veracity and piety. Nor should he beg for too much alms. A householder. and continent. living on fruits and leaves. conquers heaven. always in forests. He should without sloth feed on water. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. astringent. who is concentrated in mind. and should not rejoice if he obtains. and always living within the forest. not deceptive and not crooked. and roots and Syâmâka grain. and in the rains. He should move about the world like a worm. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and of rigid observances. freedom from (the habit of) carping. or bitter. performing sacrifices.thread. kind. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. nor should he eat when honored. should not enter a town again. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. (Such) a Brahmachârin. eating little. or which are pungent. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. having a mind free from envy. or again a forester. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. and free from avarice. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. and when he goes about for alms. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. In summer. in order. He should honor a guest who comes. preserving his hair and moustache. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. is esteemed. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. restraint of the external organs. Restraining the external senses. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. free from passion. Refined by means of all ceremonies. and leaves. and concentrated in mind. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. One who is thus devoted. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. and restrained in all his senses. He should honor guests. veracity. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). freedom from anger. he should move about in a secluded place. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. Offering safety to all beings. kind. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. fruits. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. or the foot of a tree. or the cavern of a mountain. and also straightforwardness. He should not make any accumulations. and likewise no sweet juices. When eating. the sage should become free from all action. looking out for the (proper) time. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. he should not go following after another. and which have come spontaneously. and be agreeable to all beings. life as a Brahmachârin. Eating only a little. and reaching the highest seat. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). full of forgiveness. air. he may dwell in one place.

which is unattached. devoid of taste or touch. and who is dependent on none. foot. verily. any action involving expectation of fruit. imperishable. devoid of smell. should meditate. should not teach. is emancipated. or by speech. and in whom the senses. Those who perceive the self. There the understanding reaches not.follow his own (mere) desire. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. water. divine. should be free from attachment. untainted. and should be void of (all) belongings. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. with his accumulations exhausted. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. the unperceived. or cause to be performed. being devoted to pious conduct. and understanding are absorbed. after understanding all these. and without fixed appointments with people. and leaves. nor should one wish for gold. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. or involving any destruction of life. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. which is without hands. He should not receive from others. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. nor the deities. and mind. which is free from anxiety. and the Purusha likewise. One should not perform. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. Though undeluded. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. he should act in the manner of the deluded. He should not defile anything by the eye. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. and free from distress. nor the senses. depending on none. and being equable to all beings. nor valor. absolute. who is free from expectations. without a stomach. nor reflect on that which is past. one should disregard the present. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. as they come. egoism. . nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. nor worlds. Rejecting all things. One who has anything to do should take earth. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. The senses. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. should act without a purpose. nor should he ever give to others. One should not hate. who is free from the pairs of opposites. One should not perturb any other (person). he attains to the highest seat. and stable. and which is also devoid of flesh. not finding fault with piety. exclusively pondering on one point. he gets emancipation. who is free from desires. or the mind. understanding. there is no doubt of that. and who understands the truth. mind. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. and who is free from salutations. who understands all truth. and also devoid of sound. who is free from attachments to any entity. flowers. always dwelling in all entities. nor penance. one attains heaven. devoid of color. they never die. and the five great elements. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. pebbles likewise. moving and unmoving. without a head. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). and should not take (anything) unasked. or the assemblage of people. and self-controlled. One who knows the truth. who is free from egoism. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. One should not think of what is not come. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. who is attached to the self. and though dwelling in a house. a wise man should always share (with others). by an accurate determination about the truth. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). which is free from the operations of the qualities. being released from all bonds. Freed from all attachments. Nor. and should avoid (all) controversies. and then. or back. which is to be understood. nor Vedas. But owing to the helplessness of people. and the objects of the senses. He should perform piety. sacrifices. He should not appropriate another’s riches.

and supreme. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. which is always possessed of leaves. devoid of qualities. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. there is no doubt of that. Restraining the self in the self. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. and which is fed upon by all creatures. there is no doubt of that. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. and some as transcendent and without misery. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. attaining to the self. And restraining the life-winds again and again . The highest Brahman is very far off. and which is the essential element in knowledge. is released from misery. and being untainted. always possessed of flowers. Abandoning all action. even for (the space of) a wink. (When) the inner self. and likewise unity and diversity. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. becomes fit for immortality. even dwelling in this world. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. and whose minds are refined. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. who are pure. devoid of knowledge of nature. and free from egoism. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. is emancipated. of unthinkable qualities. transcending passion. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. Penance is said to be a light. whether agreeable or disagreeable. association and dissociation. a creature is emancipated. go to the happy path by penance. and who is devoid of egoism. through the tranquility of the self. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. and despises nothing. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. (which are) unchanging. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and the side branches the objects of sense. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. and renunciation the best penance. understands that which is beyond nature. and old age. becomes eligible. He who desires nothing. for assimilation with the Brahman. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. there is no doubt of that. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. and devoid of qualities. The learned man who perceives. the sprouts within which are the senses. There are these two birds. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. the great branches of which are the great elements. then understanding the Kshetra. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. which abides in all entities. and (as it were) non-intelligent. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. is emancipated. developed from the qualities. it is free from the pairs of opposites. which cause birth. death. The men of talent. But as to that other who is above them. by tranquility only. he is called intelligent. and with an understanding comprehending all. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. everlasting. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived.

Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. and others that that is not so. harmlessness. that fits one for immortality. and others nothing. and others tranquility.by control of the life-winds. and others that there is no doubt. Some people extol action. we are deluded. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. and others (that it is) mixed. (saying) this is good. and our mind is distracted. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. such is their relation. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. Some are for taking food. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. and come to no determination. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. who were the best of sages. the venerable. and (others) that it exists not. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. holy. equability. some knowledge. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. Some people (say) meditation. Some people are for bathing. and some given up to destruction. . believe it to be one. abandonment. and some for pain. courage. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. And. some are in the midst of doubts. others that that is not so. some various kinds of enjoyments. some are for pleasure. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. that it exists. and others say that is not so. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. Some (say) everything is doubtful. too. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. some say that is not so. others are intent on fasting. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. some for the omission of bathing. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. truth. always esteems that. who are devoted to knowledge. But that is not correct. Thus having first a tranquil self. Some are devoted to harmlessness. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. but others extol penance. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. be obtains whatever he desires. Some learned men. and others. some wish for riches. some are for merit and glory. Some say both time and space (exist). and renunciation. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Some extol everything. and those who ponder on the element. Some (say) means should be resorted to. knowledge. this is good. of ten or twelve (modes). We wish. Some Brâhmanas. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. nature. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. Some extol final emancipation. and others indigence. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and others again (that it is) manifold. Some have matted hair and skins. there is no doubt of that. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. too. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Some are devoted to goodness. People are acting. gifts. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and others. others distinct. straightforwardness. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. and other persons sacred study. having again felt doubts.

that is deemed to be the greatest duty. Now I will proceed to. afflicted by reason of the chariot. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. and who are infidels in their conduct. he goes in the carriage. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. so should one understand. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. free from any connection with expectations. It has been explained in the above mode. through delusion. deliberate on it properly. Learn that. travels with great discomfort. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. It is established that nature is the property of the being. and nature is stated to be the object. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. devoid of parts. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. the light shines. The subject is always the being. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . throwing aside the boat. being born again and again. such is the progress of the men of understanding. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. where the carriage-path stops. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. For the talented man who knows (these) means. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. and void of intelligence. Thus nature is perceived. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. rejoice in this world. goes in the water without fatigue. go verily to hell. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. perceive correctly. O Brâhmanas! Well now. While there is oil and wick. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. and soon crosses the reservoir. But those wise and talented men. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. and who knows about the qualities. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. I will declare to you what you ask of me. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). One sees a man traveling in a chariot. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. Non-destruction of all creatures. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. Hearing it all. who perform actions with faith. This is the highest seat. and to be constituted of the qualities. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. Even brought into contact with all qualities. and in essence free from the qualities. a learned man remains untainted. He abides in everything alike. I will tell you something more. As far as there is a carriage-path. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. Understand this. attains supreme happiness. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. and may even be destroyed on the way. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. and going swiftly. free from vexation and holy in character. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. though it is the object of enjoyment. So travels the talented man. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. and is connected with (all) knowledge. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. and who entertain avarice and delusion. comprehending the gradations one above the other.

Shadga. said to be of six descriptions. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. together with Gândhâra. the great elements. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. color likewise. diffusive and compact also. One who has come by delusion through affection. and void of color. so does it result to them. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. and grey likewise. void of taste. black. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. repairs to the imperishable self. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. Rishabha. Sweet. thus is light said to have three qualities. Now space has one quality. – thus should smell. red likewise. slippery. And as action is performed in this world. that is called the Pradhâna. sharp. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. air is said to have (these) two qualities. narrow. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. Madhyama. Sound. Thus sound. and water. astringent. above egoism is understanding. and also productive in its essence. touch. the divine source of all entities. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. and taste. should be understood to be of five qualities. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. touch. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. namely. taste. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and above that understanding is the self. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. but they do not yield products. glutinous. are stated to be the qualities of water. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. touch. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. hurtful. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). and rough. Learn about their properties. short long. above that is the unperceived. I will now give (some) information about taste. touch. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. hard. which is a development of water. White.carriage and pedestrian. sweet. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. Space is the highest element. smooth. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. Sound. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. who speak the truth. bitter. Rough. yellow. compact. and likewise Pañkama. or sound. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. sour. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. which belongs to the earth. be understood to be of ten descriptions. and are conversant with piety. abounding with movables and immovables. And touch is the quality of air. and above the unperceived is the being. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. it is said that light has three qualities. air is said to have two qualities. Smell always belongs to the earth. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. and of (many) ingredients. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . egoism is above that. Sound. too. green. sour. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. and who identifies himself with every being. square. and earth. and smell as the fifth – these. to be of twelve descriptions. which is produced in space. which is void of any smell whatever. and of the elements respectively. and clear also. and bitter likewise. Now space has one quality. cold and hot likewise. broad. Sound and touch also should be understood. The quality of light is color. and that is stated to be sound only. From egoism is produced the development. is of four qualities. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. and color likewise. tender and clear also. and likewise color. soft.

Medicines. The understanding proclaims its power. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. one who steals. and it is the goal of all living creatures. are born here again and again. and next the developments produced from the elements. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. Gandharvas. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. men. and includes movables and immovables. Whatever is difficult to obtain. difficult to learn. and the understanding for a drag. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. gods. He who understands him understands the Vedas. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. a man gets rid of all sins. Those who best understand the self. has the mind for a charioteer. is released from. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). and having their minds always tranquil. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. even from those five elements. Pitris. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. not by actions. That learned and talented person verily. the mind. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. Born from that same unperceived (principle). (Those) men. enter the highest world of the great. is adorned with planets and nakshatras.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. obtain the great and highest world. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. like billows in the ocean. and in which the understanding is the drag. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). all that can be accomplished by penance. One who drinks spirituous liquors. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. for penance is difficult to overcome. which is the unperceived. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. For all acquisition has penance for its root. they go near Prajâpati. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. This is the eternal mystery. and ends with the gross objects. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. and devoid of egoism. And in like manner. that sin only by penance well performed. those who have achieved perfection. again acquiring knowledge. and abandons everything as fruitless. and it is called the Kshetrajña. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. they are the very first to be dissolved. the mind itself is the individual self. The mind always presides over the great elements. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. And he who is released. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. That which begins with the unperceived . movable or immovable. That individual self. the creators of the world. and difficult to pass through. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. a sage should sit down self-restrained. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. one who destroys an embryo. goes to the highest goal. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. and who are free from egoism. The senses. nor by a cause. all the elements. (sacrificial) animals. always reach perfection by penance. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. perceive the triple world here by penance. and (after) these developments. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. Asuras. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. Such is the upward gradation among entities. These Brâhmanas. beasts and birds. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. Pisâkas. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. one who kills a Brâhmana. and being full of egoism. and herbs. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. Gods. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. difficult to vanquish. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. and all other creatures movable or immovable. all have been created by nature. Râkshasas.

I wish to see him. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. Then will you attain perfection. with your consent. O Lord! then tell it me. I have now declared everything to you. changeless. Two syllables are death. Arjuna said: Who. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. who is without expectations. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . If you have love for me. and not mine is the eternal. O noble person. always duly act (according to it). incomprehensible. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. is fit to be heard by me. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. unmoving. did everything (accordingly). O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. he dies not. in consequence of these means. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. O Krishna! and who the pupil.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. too. Expelling all impressions. This is the eternal piety. and then attained to the worlds. who is without attachment. he understands that holy Brahman. then you will acquire perfection. than which nothing greater exists. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. having done all he should have done. And. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. Then when this piety is duly practiced. was that Brâhmana. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. O Janârdana! If this verily. not full of action. Mine is death. Vâsudeva. Some men of dull understandings extol action. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. O best of Brâhmana. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. And when the understanding is clear. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. and who looks alike on everything. which is uncreated. And now. indeed. three syllables the eternal Brahman. Knowledge brings forth the being. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). attained to that seat. getting rid of all sins. changeless. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. and restraining the self in the Self. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. sages! Act thus forthwith. And the pupil. he attains tranquility. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. Do you.

O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. Be pleased. Dhanañjaya replied (saying).When Krishna spoke these words. who is of a devout heart. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.’ Om Tat Sat .

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