This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. a pair separately for each (species). refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. abandoning each previous (element). and lust altogether. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. and thinking of naught. self-restraint. and about the return. serving mother and father. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . the material cause of all embodied (selves). This is what is called the destructible. A man who is a friend of all. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. The practice to which the good adhere. And as regards that. penance. purity. who endures all. he becomes indifferent to everything. Learn from me exhaustively. is released. honoring deities and guests. honoring preceptors. He who is not pious and not impious. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). which I am now about to declare. the grandfather of all people.action by which. takes place after a long time. Then seeking after the supreme seat. who is self-controlled. he is. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. moving and fixed. pure. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. And that I shall now proceed to state. who had been first created. Brahman. released in every way. by which all this is pervaded. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. wealth. And Prajâpati. never comes to an evil end. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. which protects people to eternity. He who is not attached to any one. who has subdued his senses. and who is self-possessed. indeed. adherence to prescribed regulations. and gain and loss. and absence of cruelty. he is. which is very difficult to cross. verily. too. but the other is immortal and indestructible. restraint of the senses. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. the body to be an unholy aggregate. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. who has no kinsmen. and whose self is free from affections. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. and causing good to be done. He who understands the Pradhâna. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. for among them it constantly abides. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and also tranquility. and likewise pleasure and pain. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. created the whole of the three worlds. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. is released who is equable towards both life and death. as he should act. (having) as regards the moving (creation). who contemns no one. who has no child. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. indeed. released from everything. who has abandoned piety. becomes happy. He who acquires that. pity. who is devoted to tranquility. and ruin to be connected with action. and which is known in the world as the highest. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. is released. constant restraint of the organs. And he. free from vanity and egoism. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). From that he created the Pradhâna. From this is produced piety. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. compassion to (all) beings. and (what is) agreeable and odious. What I say is all correct and proper. points out (what) piety (is). who is free from the pairs of opposites. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. having made a body for himself. Gifts. one going the round of various births. life as a Brahmachârin. He who has no enemy. and who has no desire. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness.
and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. free from the pairs of opposites. void of belongings. Thinking of a quarter seen before. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. and having no cause. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. and abandoning the transient body. and always concentrating his mind. tranquil. he is not afflicted by anything. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. since he is the lord of the triple world. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. Restraining the senses. devoid of form. is released. meditating in that habitation. the soft fibers stand for the self. he is released. death. he remains steady to the self. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. he assumes bodies at pleasure. he has no fear. after extracting them from the Muñga. who has practiced penance. then there is no ruler over him. constant. being habituated to exclusive meditation. always full of birth. than which there is nothing higher. he gradually obtains tranquility. devoid of qualities. The body is called the Muñga. is released. and casting aside old age and death. and unknowable. which consist in pain and grief. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. and old age. void of sound. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. he perceives the perfect one. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. he sleeps at ease. void of color. recognizes him (afterwards). Restraining the . he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. when (all) beings are afflicted. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. he is indeed released. and who has no desire. As a person having seen one in a dream. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. like an Aswattha tree. perceives the self in the self. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. He whose self is concentrated. Leaving this human frame. without belongings. unmoving. Seeing the self void of smell. like fire devoid of fuel. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. Then freed from all impressions. there is no death for him. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. And as one may show the soft fibers. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he.. He who is free from all impressions. Then the talented Brâhmana. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. and freed from old age and grief. void of touch. who is free from attachment.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. When (all) beings are destroyed. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. and having first performed rigorous penance. and of a tranquil mind. indestructible. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. and who is self-restrained. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. then he. Weapons do not pierce him. ‘This is he. one should fix the mind on the self. looks on this universe as transient. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental.body. When. he grieves not and exults not. Remaining within (that) city. One who does no action. void of taste. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. searching for his own faults. saying. and having his senses subjugated. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. Properly concentrating his self. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells.
and (keeping) the passages confined. distinctly? How. final emancipation. O son of Prithâ! For. tongue. which is difficult to explain. nor by any of the senses. palate. he perceives the self. The soul sees the self come out from the body. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. Adopting this doctrine. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. neck. What I have spoken. and faces on all sides. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. and of the excretions. he stands pervading everything in the world. – went away as he pleased. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. He should meditate on his teeth. he has cars on all sides. and marrow. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. too. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. He is not to be grasped by the eye. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances).’ Thus addressed by me. and also the means for its acquisition. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. he has eyes. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. and likewise the seat of the heart. where one. and also the heart. I will go away. – with. attain the supreme goal. and do you (too) go away. For as to that eternal Brahman. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. heads. and Sûdras likewise. do the flesh. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. who are constantly intent on their own duties. and muscles. too. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. reaches immortality and is ever happy. O Krishna! that pupil. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. a mental smile. Have you listened to this. O Mâdhava! I replied.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. as it were. he attains final emancipation in me. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. even those who are of sinful birth. too. possessed of great penance. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. and throat likewise. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived.group of the senses. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. and determination regarding . This whole mystery I have declared to you. women. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. That talented pupil. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. The world of the gods. and abandoning his body. Vaisyas. It is my belief. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. and how also to blood? And how. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. He has hands and feet on all sides. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. And then depending upon it thus. forsaking the body. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. too. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it.
but is to be apprehended by the mind. that which sees. and that which is to be understood. verily. that which is to be drunk. It is not to be smelt by the nose. that which is to be touched. that which is to be seen. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. that which touches. It is devoid of smell. and that which understands. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. these are the seven great officiating priests. and energetic. depending on you as (my) husband. mind or speech. that which is to be seen. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. shall I go to. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. While the paths (of action). and their selves tranquil. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. From birth to the destruction of the body. that which is to be smelt. and imperishable. and on which it rests. that which thinks. and who are harsh and undiscerning. indeed. and that which hears as the fifth. and the ear as the fifth. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. and also that which is to be thought of. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. (namely). produce them in their wombs. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. that man of a tranquil self. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. and Udâna also proceed. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. full of faith. From this the Prâna. Apâna. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. that which cats. That which smells. the mind and the understanding. That is called the Udâna. CHAPTER V On this. by act. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. The mortal. that can be caught (by the touch). which occurred.misery. Concentration of mind comes to him. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. and into it they enter. and the skin. devoid of color and sound. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. and not to be tasted by the tongue. When that is asleep. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). and likewise that which is to . in which the materials are visible. This is all that is to be said. action. In the interior. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. there is nothing further than this. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. that only do the men of action engage in as action. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. or seen. Whatever action there is. devoid of taste and touch. does exist among (all) beings. seated in seclusion. or heard. that which is to be drunk. possessed of talents. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. that which is to be touched. A Brâhmana’s wife. The nose. and the moon together with the fire. and the eye. are destroyed by demons. shall I reach. O son of Pându! who. That which is to be smelt. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. What goal. And mark this always. too. Samâna. good or bad. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. and likewise that which is to be heard. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). (in the form of) a dialogue. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and the tongue. Vyâna. you who live renouncing (all) action. and (observe) good vows. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months.
the tongue. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. and light as the fifth. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. verily. these are the ten oblations. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. requires everything knowable (as its offering). and Mitra. and the discharge of semen. that (in) my (view). In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. and Vishnu also. But. which is the generator of all entities. highest knowledge. urine. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. O beautiful one! Sound. or tone goes to your dominion. That is called the movement of the mind. and excrement. these seven. air. The immovable. destroy our doubts. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. ‘Mind (is superior).’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. from that is produced determination. from that another is produced. smell. too. The ear. the nose. are words produced. or letter. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. verily. mind and understanding. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. therefore. (Thus) we have heard. action. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. they were perfectly filled with light. and taste. wind. But inasmuch. The goddess speech. the two feet. from that doubt is produced. the two hands. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. though . are named wombs. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. ‘I. there are two minds. words. From that is produced smell. immovable and also movable. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. yield (you) your desires. Prajâpati.be heard. verily. is with me. motion.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. Whatever mantra. verily. was the universe duly divided. are the fuel. space. sun. To that you are superior.’ But speech thereupon said to him. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. they relate this ancient story. and the wealth is the pure. ‘Say which of us is superior. from that is produced sound. Earth. The mind is the ladle. the movable is in your dominion. And in that very (principle). The quarters. First. are ten sacrificial priests. these. and they are offered up into the ten fires. that indeed is the movable mind. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. the genital organ. moon. Then the lord of speech was produced. and into this the offering is thrown. earth and fire. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. and the mind runs after them. indeed. from that touch is produced. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. and the anus. which is the instrument of knowledge. speech. verily. and (though) developed. from that is produced color. color. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. from that is produced taste. that which is to be thought of. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). and also that which is to be understood. these. the offerings are ten. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. And the mind. and hence the mind is in need (of it). and the knower is the upholder of the body. verity. Indra. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. water. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. touch.
the understanding apprehends it. the tongue. too. and the understanding also. and the ear as the fifth. It is always noisy or noiseless. she ran up to Prajâpati. do not apprehend tastes. do not apprehend sounds. and which then goes into the Apâna. yields milk. the understanding. the tongue apprehends them. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. and the eye. the skin. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). and the understanding also. saying. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. and the eye. The tongue. the skin. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. flowing (forms). too. The nose. when. The nose. the ear apprehends them. the eye. the tongue. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. do not apprehend colors. the ear. The nose. and next the eye. verily. So speech formerly spoke. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. The nose. and the tongue. do not apprehend smells. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. the skin. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. and the skin. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. the skin. and the eye. the mind. the ear. with divine power. The nose. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. and the eye.impelled. The nose. the tongue. the ear likewise. the eye apprehends them. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the mind. the skin. ‘Be pleased. the ear. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. the mind. Do you. This excellent (speech). and the mind also. and the understanding also. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. like a cow. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. Dwelling in a minute space. do not apprehend final determination. and the understanding also. do not apprehend doubt. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. – a dialogue. they relate this ancient story. the ear likewise. the nose apprehends them. the tongue. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. the mind apprehends it. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. And these never know the qualities of each other. and the understanding also. mind and understanding. O venerable sir? Tell me this. the mind. the skin apprehends them. The nose. On this. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. the mind likewise. The mind said: . they do not perceive each other. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). the eye. This cow-like speech. the tongue. Of those two. the ear likewise. the skin. O you of a bright smile! is divine.
Besides. life is seen to be supported. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. The learned know this to be a great principle. and not connected with objects of sense. They formerly went to the grandsire. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. then take in colors by the nose. are the five sacrificial priests. a creature. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. resulting from mental operations (alone). (which is) like entering a house without a door. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. the eye does not take in color. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. Without me. all beings. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. and indulged in dreams. like fuel half dried and half moist. you have no perception. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. the ear does not in any way hear sound. and said to him. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. then what you believe is true. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. when our objects perform their functions.The nose smells not without me. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. I am the eternal chief among all elements.’ Brahman said: . You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. Granted. they relate an ancient story. and objects are standing. still. that the Prâna and the Apâna. and the Udâna. when troubled by desire to enjoy. if you. He shall be the greatest among us. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. (there is) pleasure and support of life. rules are for the weak. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. the senses never shine. Without me. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. take in smells by the ear. both past and future. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. too. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. who was born first. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. the tongue does not perceive taste. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. always meets death. If when we are extinct. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. without us. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. and take in sounds by the skin. like an empty dwelling. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. or if when we are absorbed. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). One entering upon enjoyments. Without me. even with the senses exerting themselves. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. take in tastes by the eye. without us. does run to objects of sense only. and if you enjoy enjoyments.
(which are) five. and again moved about. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. verily. and the Samâna spoke again. because the Apâna is subject to you. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. who being extinct. There are others moving about. I am the greatest. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. You are not the greatest among us. and on my moving about. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. and pleasing one another. When I am extinct. I am the greatest. (Now) go where (you) like. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna.’ Then the Apâna moved about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. and the Vyâna also.’ The Prâna again moved about. I am the greatest. Hear the reason why. O beautiful one! spoke these words. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. And the Prâna and Apâna. My own self is one only. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. When I am extinct. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. and again moved about. Welfare be to you! Support one another. is the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. And on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and not greatest. ‘You are not the greatest among us. spoke to him. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. and the Apâna said to him. and on my moving about. I am the greatest. When I am extinct. The Vyâna only is subject to you. they again move about. go away happily. the lord of (all) creatures.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman.He. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. Being friendly with one another. they again move about. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and all support one another. O Prâna. and the Samâna. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and again moved about. All are greatest in their own spheres. they again move about. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. Hear the reason why. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). and the Udâna. and the Samâna. and on whose moving about. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. I am the greatest. they again move about. Hear the reason why.’ The Vyâna moved about again. owing to (their) specific qualities. and on my moving about. they again move about. they again move about.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and on my moving about.
and the tongue. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. The smoke of that (fire). these. between them is the fire. which (move) upwards. First. This is the effect of the Udâna. and (it) is also produced from touch. or Apâna. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. too. between them is the fire. and the . what comes into existence first. the Samâna and Vyâna. between them is the fire. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. (its) ashes. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. The two – good and evil – are a pair. which (move) upwards. hear me speak about that. which is of excellent glory. the Prâna comes first into operation. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. or Samâna. Hear me. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. or downwards. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. or transversely. The instrument. the agent. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. in which the offering is thrown. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). they relate this ancient story. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from smell. Day and night are a pair. being accompanied by intelligence. or Vyâna. the Samâna comes into operation again. From desire the semen is produced. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. and (it) is also produced from color. the Apâna then comes into operation. their function is performed: then. CHAPTER X On this. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. secondly. indeed. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. (it) is also produced from taste. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. From the combination of the semen and the blood. the action. that which is other than this first comes to him. too. The nose. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. and between them is the fire. or downwards. and the eye. and (it) is also produced from a sound. that the fire verily is all the deities. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. his Prâna. It is the teaching of the Veda. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. and emancipation. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. or transversely.On this. the pleasure is produced from union. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. (the quality of) passion. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas.
the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. of which an illustration is stated. He who smells. the director. whatever is seen by the eye. The gods. There is one hearer. this. He destroys the food. I move as I am ordered. and the snakes. On. and the demons. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. Taught by that instructor. and the ear as the fifth. he who eats. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. Smell. the Sastra. they relate an ancient story. the Brahman. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. he. And I am here devoid of qualities. On that Sâman hymns. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. whatever is spoken by speech. he who speaks. they ran away in (various) directions. Taught by that instructor. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. and the Dakshinâ. there is no second director. and he who hears as the fifth. my fire of (high) qualifications. being (himself) a ruler. The gods had been engaged in gifts. And cooking food for himself. there is no second (different) from him. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. Impelled by that same (being). by Prajâpati. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. This being. agreeable and disagreeable. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. he who sees. On this. Living under that instructor. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). like water on a declivity. and sages. destroying this food again produces it. ‘Om. too. in a single syllable. and taste. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. whatever is heard by the ear. approaching Prajâpati. There is one instructor. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. are sung. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. these seven are causes of action. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. there is no second (different) from him. These. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). the Brahman priest in which. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. the Stotra in which. there is no second (different) from him.skin. he who thinks. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. and the gods. is the counselor in all action. To him who is not learned. (and) the seven Rishis. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. and whatever is smelt by the nose. each in its own place. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. (about the) instruction of the snakes. the self the Adhvaryu priest. being possessed of qualities. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. and the great sages . mind and understanding. There is one kinsman. CHAPTER XI There is one director. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. and touch as the fifth. there is no second (different) from him. shines dwelling within the body. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. too. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation.’ Hearing that. And among the learned who understand (everything). (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. final emancipation. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. The learned man. sound. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. Whatever is thought by the mind. and sages. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. The eating of that which should not be eaten. enjoy their own qualities. eating various (kinds of) food. who is the self of everything. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. is the upward life-wind. is ruined. and he who understands. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. the venerable one said. the downward lifewind. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. and color. the Hotri priest. truth. There is one enemy.
and seven guests. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. and the guests eat the fruits. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. when there is a distinction from it. and what the rivers. The good who attain to that. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. The instructor. There is one fire here. There is nothing more afflicting than that. the sages. and having a good mind. and seven (forms of) initiation. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. casting aside vows and actions. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. connected with the Brahman. when there is no distinction from it. And there is fuel here. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. the great sages receive hospitality. in which intelligence is the tree. and having been instructed with one word. He is rapt in the Brahman. and emancipation the fruit. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. and the hills and mountains. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. and nobody is afraid of them. and the enemy. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. and is to be crossed by one singly. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. another forest shines forth. becomes a Brahmachârin. there is no other happiness equal to. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. The qualities are the fruits. seven hermitages. the gods. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. There. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. merely adheres to the Brahman. who. There is nothing smaller than that. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. the Brahman the fire. all engaged in different (pursuits). O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). There always dwell seven females there. there is no other instructor. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. the snakes. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. There is nothing more subtle than that. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. the twice-born do not grieve. and do not exult. Understanding it they practiced it. They are not afraid of anybody. seven (forms of) concentration. the hearer. Having had one teacher. But he who. in various places. which depends on knowledge. (namely) the five senses. which has contentment for its water. the way to which consists in worldly objects. the Brahman water. full of brilliance. owing to his desires. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. and of beautiful colors. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. the Brahman the instructor. are always within the heart. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. seven fruits. and causes of generation. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. This is the description of the forest. that. the Brahman his origin. . Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. In that forest are seven large trees.in restraint of the senses. there is nothing larger than that. and the demons. the learner. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. And I have entered the great forest. and fragrant. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. Entering it. have no fear afterwards. with faces (turned) downwards. Acting sinfully in the world. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. and mixed.
then the sacrifice is for the goat. being directed by the Kshetrajña. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). I perceive no tastes. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. and I think only his unmoving body remains. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. And understanding it. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. Glory. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. that will enter water. they are born so as not to lose courage. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. Understand that. enlightenment. and again emerge from the same. After hearing their consent. The life-winds. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. I see no color. victory. and his life-winds likewise the sky. as understood by Brâhmanas. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). the richest. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. of this goat have gone to their sources. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. too. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. His eye (will enter) the sun. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. (his) ear the quarters. and greatness. I see the individual self in the body. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. perfection. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. brilliance. Dwelling in that (self). is this holy forest. father. praise tranquility. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. And aspiring to that forest. or old age. they relate an ancient story. devote themselves to Brahman. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). Those whose wishes are reduced. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. There is no offence on my part. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. Although actions are performed. whatever in him is produced from water. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. On this. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. they act (accordingly). together with their chiefs. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. The teaching of the elders is. since the Vedic text is such. (This) creature will obtain welfare. too. and as the constant entity underlying them. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. this goat will not be destroyed. there is no taint on my natures. merging the self in the self. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. we do not rely on what is not visible. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. indeed. . nor yet do I hear various sounds.They absorb all the higher delights of people. especially as he is dependent. or death. and I do not touch. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. nor even do I entertain any fancies. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. not hating any evil. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. abide. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. whose sins are burnt up by penance. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. Not desiring any object of desire. take him (to them) and consult (them). Apart from them. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. mother. Nature desires objects which are liked. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. Such. If I spoke further.
O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. what shall I do for you? The creatures. the mind. too. freed from delusion. they relate an old story. he was walking about near the sea. The ocean said: If. (in the shape of) a dialogue. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. Or what do you think. have life. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. and I say (to you). the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. being directed by the Kshetrajña. Give them security. and (the quality of) goodness. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. For having heard your opinion. they act (accordingly). proud of his strength. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). the tongue. a descendant of Kritavîrya. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. and understanding it. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. Of these the indestructible is the existent. who has subdued his self. and who is released on all hands. you drink watery juices. name him to me. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. Say. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. saluting him. and with joined hands. such is the double manifestation of the self. The ocean. who take shelter with me. O venerable sir! I approach you. as we have heard. you believe. you touch the qualities of the air. And all these entities. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. said. together with (the quality of) passion. who might stand against me in the field. possessed of a thousand arms. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. who is free from the pairs of opposites. are being destroyed. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). there is no fear anywhere. . performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. Once on a time. you see the colors of shining bodies. who is devoid of expectations. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. The life-winds. who is alike to all beings. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. And to one who is free from these manifestations. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. you hear the sound produced in space. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. my mind is enlightened. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine.
Seeing him killed and fallen. only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. who understood duty. to make all mortals perform action. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. said to those sages. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. and blew away the army of the king. The mind said: These arrows. whose power was unbounded. dear friend. As by its unsteadiness. ‘Desist. Râma also taking up a bow. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. like a tree of many branches. Then the power of Râma. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. it wishes. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. – having performed very difficult deeds. O noble one!’ But Râma. and taking swords and lances. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. do you perceive. together with the Sâbaras. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. became Vrishalas. It is not proper for you. abandoning (those) great deeds. Then some of the Kshatriyas. being a Brâhmana. not forgiving his father’s murder. burning the hosts of the enemy. high-souled. too. whose penance was very great. Âbhîras. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. taking up his axe.Then the king. entered mountains and inaccessible places. and very firm in his vows. They will. turned to subtle (questions). ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. went away. What good. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). the Kshatriyas. hearing that (story). they relate an ancient story. like antelopes troubled by a lion. and your vital part being pierced. spoke sweetly to Râma. became Vrishalas. with Rikîka as their head. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. too. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. you will die. his grandfathers. shot away volleys of arrows. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). Paundras. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. Thus the Dravidas. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. which was heard by all people. full of great wrath. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. blazed forth. a bodiless voice from heaven. to slaughter these kings. who was veracious. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. named Alarka. There was (once) a royal sage. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. (Though) surrounded by enemies. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. In company with his kinsmen. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong.
and then you will lose (your) life. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. They will only pierce your own vital part. and your vital part being pierced. These arrows. and your vital part being pierced. They will only pierce your own vital part. The eye said: These arrows. and your vital part being pierced. Hearing that. Hearing that. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. you will die. the (ear) hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. one hankers after them only. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. The nose said. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. The ear said: These arrows. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. this (tongue) hankers after them only. you will die. the skin hankers after them only. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. the eye hankers after them only. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. he then said after consideration: – . The skin said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. The tongue said: These arrows. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced.Smelling very many perfumes.
owing to these qualities. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. being impelled by which. verily. attained high perfection. They will only pierce your own vital part. (that vice). joy. he became steady. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. and honoring good men. and engages in action. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. and delusion. and your vital part being pierced. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. of great glory. And at the expiration of life. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). Then directing his mind to one point. persistent hatred. That avarice – cut (it) off. he reached the highest perfection. the greatest. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). he. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. and after deliberating for a long time. When vices were in the ascendant. free from sloth. Perform a fearful penance. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. he meets death. properly . you will die. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). For from avarice is born desire. amazed. and being troubled by desire. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. Sleep. Ambarîsha. being impelled by which. Therefore.’ Do you understand this too. and again birth. then uttered this verse. according to qualities. but there is one. is energetic about subjugating others. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. thence you will obtain the highest good. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. and good (men) were oppressed. and senses controlled. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. is born again and again. The understanding said: These arrows.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. cut (it) off with sharp swords. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. destroyed all foes. Obtaining those. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. Grief. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. pleasure. who had become tranquil (in mind). then anxiety comes into existence. wrath. three foes in (this) world. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. sloth. a man even does what ought not to be done. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. a courageous man. When the bodily frame is destroyed. the best of talented (men). people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. He (then) restraining his own vices. and he who desires. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Exultation. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. On this. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. And the royal sage. having a tranquil self. and applied himself to concentration of mind.
or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. so (is it) that of others too. When I did not find it among them. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. I believe.’ Thus spoken to. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. What conviction have you adopted. And as mine. engaged in meditation. I looked for my own offspring. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. Even this self is not mine. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. is subject (to me). Resorting to this conviction. is subject to you. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. by which. too. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin.perceiving this. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. avarice. a delusion suddenly came upon him. to be terminable. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . or the whole earth is mine. then came the delusion on me. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. there is no other sovereignty here. I wish. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. searching through the (whole) earth. who destroyed the one (chief vice). O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. in all affairs. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. When I did not find it on the earth. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. I cannot find my domain. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. therefore) while you desire.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. Now hear the conviction. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. by way of punishment. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. holding which. and. as the planet upon the sun. King Janaka. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. and enjoy while you live. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. the king recovered himself. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. by the glorious Ambarîsha. or that everything is my domain. and said nothing in reply. This is sovereignty. Janaka said: Though this country. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. While that king of unbounded power was seated. Then on the expiration of the delusion. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. I looked for Mithilâ. Then when the delusion had gone off. though this country. and restraining avarice by courage. what belief you have resorted to. (Considering) whose this was. intelligence again came to me. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs.
or by one whose self is not refined. Actions have a beginning and an end. I am emancipated. the Pitris. and which does not turn back. Then the Brâhmana. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. and my intelligence is very frivolous. for this purpose. the Bhûtas.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. is perceived as by bees. or. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. it is not laid down. come here today to learn (something) about you. With your heart intent upon the real entity. that. smiling. and a certain thing should not. movable or not moving. the nave of which is the Brahman. observing vows. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. Hence. together with guests. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. I am not such. you will certainly come into my self. and even over heaven. namely. and narrow. or among mendicants. you have guessed. In the (rules for) final emancipation. And those who. according to your own understanding. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. I am a forester. Sovereignty over the whole world. that a certain thing should be done. (namely) for the gods. to households. the spoke the understanding. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. I am a Brâhmana. and also without qualities. not by the body. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . is (to be found) a description of it. A good means is found. action and knowledge. have their understanding full of tranquility. by which those who understand that proceed. and confused. by which that (entity). know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. This path is traversed by the understanding. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. indeed. All these actions of mine are. or else this knowledge. dwelling with preceptors. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. and the body is tied down by action. Whatever creatures there are in the world. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. nothing exists that is a cause of him. You are the one person to turn this wheel. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. the instructor is the upper Arani.subject to me. or residence in forests. verily. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. where.
You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. ‘I’ (he said). And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts.’ The preceptor. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). and those whose form is perceived. (when he was) seated. and accurately. all of various descriptions. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. And he. (which are) means of direct perception. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. Speak. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask.and hears. in hundreds and in thousands. connected with final emancipation. indeed. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. And we. I pray of you with (bowed) head. what penance. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. am come to you (who are) venerable. ‘whose goal is the highest good. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. something about the highest good. Listen to that. who put (his) questions properly. who was possessed of (the . O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. who had approached him (for instruction). Arjuna said: Where. put (his) questions with joined bands. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. Vâsudeva said: On this. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. One should adopt as many of these things. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. A talented pupil. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. who preserved (all) vows. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. and what sin? These questions of mine. There is none else here who can explain these questions. truly. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. is I myself. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. are afraid of worldly life. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. as may here be practicable – unperceived. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. too. likewise. and also desirous of final emancipation. between a preceptor and a pupil. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects).
desiring knowledge. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. Gautama. on which all entities subsist. and the seed of which is the Brahman. and Atri also. who understands the creation of all entities. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. the sages. met each other. The Brahman is the truth. Formerly. Prajâpati also is truth. and so forth. I will state to you today. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. the present. and is eternal. And those twice-born (sages). Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and also Kâsyapa. . in Brahman’s mansion. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. is released from misery. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. They live by penance. and of the four orders. and casts off birth and death. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. the great sages. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. and has no egoism about anything. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. He who does not desire anything. which is always possessed of leaves. desire. full of humility. in the holes of which are the sprouts. after having traveled over all paths. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. Understand that. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. there is no doubt of that. Brihaspati. and likewise Bhârgava. when thus spoken to by the sages.necessary) qualifications. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. Vasishtha. saw Brahman. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. and wealth. and likewise of the castes. who are possessed of knowledge. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. and likewise unity and variety. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. the entities are born from the truth. the senses. and who is devoid of egoism. which belongs to olden times. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. The preceptor said: All this. from whom anger and vexation have departed. from whom (all) sin has departed. and Visvâmitra. the future. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. was declared by Brahman. Bharadvâja. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. and piety. I will state to you. who was like (his) shadow. who was tranquil. and renunciation as the best penance. penance is the truth. is esteemed highest. and becoming wearied of their own actions. always possessed of flowers. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. is emancipated. which ought to be apprehended. and who are the constant creators of the people. namely. and the severance also. which is eternal. even while dwelling in this world. the branches of which are the great egoism. are full of the truth. the gross elements the smaller boughs. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner.
takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. (but) having four quarters. which depend on one another. and immutable. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. it also appears combined (with others). and also all the deities. Passion is said to consist in activity. and of the understanding as ruler. casting aside sin. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. as accepted by good men. fear. of all beings. Where passion is restrained. he. now speaking exhaustively. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. and of the highest seat. lightness. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. indecision about actions. The true nature of their characteristics. and it is constant in sinful actions. . attains to all the spotless worlds. nihilism. I will subsequently state the means to that. and next after that too. O noble ones! from me. such is the eternal creation. It has three qualities. sun. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. Prajâpati. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. avarice. When it prevails. faith. haughtiness. The wise always speak of piety as one. violation of (the rules of) conduct. The great self. air. Goodness is the match of darkness. and goodness is also the match of passion. immaturity (of intellect). which is productive of pleasure. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). Delusion. next after that is that of foresters. grief. and passion is the match of goodness. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. and are joined to one another. Light. I will speak to you. want of liberality. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. all-pervading. the unperceived likewise. goodness there prevails. The order of foresters. and goodness. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. want of memory. the ten senses and the one (sense). and likewise serve one another. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. and is the cause of successive (acts). CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). its characteristic. finding fault with good acts. will now be stated together with the reasons. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. passion. learn those accurately. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. and the five great elements. which is in a state of equilibrium. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. one sees not these. Where darkness is restrained. among all beings. ignorance. and likewise also egoism. and darkness the match of goodness. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. the whole of the qualities. This is the nature of darkness. He who accurately understands the elements. blindness. the second is that of householders. and which are bridges of piety. and five constituent principles. He who. consisting of three qualities. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. everlasting. rigid in his vows. in aggregation and separation.distinctly. and is called delusion. which are all coupled with one another. passion there prevails. and attend on one another. eleven. want of discrimination. space. appears to be production. and getting rid of all bonds. encircled by the. and those three channels run on. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. Learn. which you should understand. sleep. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. never comes by delusion. Darkness. these are called the three qualities. Indra. Its characteristic is also impiety. being constituted by the three qualities. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. Light.
indeed. toil. stolidity. as Chândâlas. by cutting. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. becoming men of meritorious actions. Who. and idiots. affliction. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. beauty. piercing. vilifying. anger is called the great obscurity. understands this properly. and all quadrupeds. are found in various places in this world. pointing out others’ weaknesses. vindictiveness. going beyond the Sûdra womb. evil disposition. wishing for pleasure. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. frenzy. going into inferior ways. abuse . lassitude. These dark. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. touching other people’s weak points. delusion. or deaf. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. and also creatures born from eggs. this is considered to be dark conduct. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. want of faith. preservation. unfriendliness. evilconducted men. all these qualities. And whatever other states of mind. or lisping men. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. they are all held to be dark. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. sinful action. slaughter. sink into darkness. power. they exert themselves. vanity. (or become) the immovable entities. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. animals. and worms. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. and vain eating. Learn. want of forgiveness likewise. beasts of burden. this is considered to be dark conduct. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. Reviling. animosity. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. who are sunk in darkness. who break through (all) regulations. who. indeed. pleasure and pain. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. war. Injuring (others). and growing old in their own duties. thinking of (this) world. all these are dark qualities. bonds. want of faith also. deaf and dumb men. buying and selling. valor. want of self-restraint. delusion. I have now duly described to you.behavior of the lowest quality. endurance. repining. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. pride of performance without (actual) performance. argument. and whatever vain gifts. insects. Coming to a sinful womb. vanity. peace. sages and saints and gods become deluded. They go to the hell. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. who bear the marks of their own actions. and also its qualities. cold and heat. strength. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. deluded convictions. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). want of straightforwardness. doers of sinful acts. Whatever vain actions (there are). and serpents. animosity. And whatever such people there are in this world. battle. to be born in the lower hell. want of knowledge. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). that is considered to be dark conduct. breaking. the great delusion. that one sees the real in what is unreal. the thought (that this or that is) mine. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). (namely) the brute (species). Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. Darkness. and also its source. harboring evil thoughts. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. connected with delusion. backbiting. and also animosity towards people. want of liberality. and want of forgiveness. the great obscurity called anger. exercise and quarrel too. Such is the Vedic text. birds. There. fierceness and cruelty. how. and growing old in (good) actions. wrath. desire. and death the blinding obscurity. anger. demons.
both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. salutation. freedom from expectations. auspicious rites. nobility. and labor vain. straightforwardness. forgiveness. emancipation. whose conduct is of this description. doubt. The . policy. common scandal. present. and also sacrificing and study. (holding) knowledge to be vain. who are enveloped by passion. and make Tarpana. compassion to (all) creatures. righteous feelings. for men. by means of nature. treachery and likewise deception. those talented men reach heaven. all these qualities. modesty. vexing (oneself). piety vain. for living creatures. absence of wrath. and future entities in this world. receipt of gifts vain. gambling. attendance. for articles. absence of backbiting. defiance. joy. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. and actions with expectations. disgust. service vain. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. management. wakefulness. life as a Brahmachârin. freedom from delusion. ostentation. and create (various) bodies. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. contentment. and instrumental or vocal music. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. wealth. The men who meditate on past. these men. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. and to be gods. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. he attains the highest in the next world.uttering falsehoods. absence of fear. humility. absence of calumniation. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. They are said to have their currents upwards. devoid of expectations. freedom from laziness. faith. and also sacrifice. vows and regulation. pleasure and delight. boasting. praise. prowess. Born again and again in this world. purity. indifference. sacrifices vain. and unblamable. gifts and acceptance of gifts. the ceremony of Vashat. and for houses. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. and also want of faith. Understanding this according to rule. haughtiness. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. absence of cruelty. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. heedlessness. they rejoice. contumely. Confidence. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. devotion. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. purity. and free from grief. penance vain. devoid of egoism. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. learning vain. contentment. belongings. and of the quality of goodness. harmlessness. abandonment on all hands. harboring desire. unbroken piety. courage. pleasure. laudation. beneficial to all creatures. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. disrespect and respect. obedience. (on another). dexterity. joy. slaughter. truth. expiations. enlightenment and happiness also. joviality. censure. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. theft. have (their) currents downwards. perceive (everything) aright. service. equable everywhere. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. The man who always understands these qualities. Thus. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. forgiveness. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. They give and receive. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. devotion to dancing. minuteness. liberality. equability. good behavior. association with women. bad gifts. one obtains whatever one desires. valor.’ affection generated by the qualities. Getting rid of all sins. vows vain. the ceremony of Svadhâ. (good) conduct vain. for women. who adhere to the quality of goodness. gets rid of all passionate qualities. not full of desires. and attachment also. self-restraint. absence of stinginess. the duty of the good. The power of governing. vexation.
and likewise follow one another. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). but differing in development. and goodness likewise to be less. Even from afar. and goodness likewise to be less. and being free from all misery. all that is (made of) these three qualities. suffering trouble from the heat. and the highest. the passionate remain in the middle. . They are attached to one another. the heat is the quality of passion. there passion should be understood to be little. and passion also.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. And as long as goodness and darkness. is released from all qualities. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. threefold the gods. unperceived. existent and also non-existent – all these. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. and likewise months. is said to be. Pradhâna. The day should be understood to be threefold. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. unborn. the Apâna. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). nature. there: exist three qualities. these are the three qualities. Where passion is developed. not small. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. and the qualities. Where darkness is increased. years. Darkness. there darkness should be understood to be little. threefold are the worlds. They all depend on one another. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. The light in the sun is goodness. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. The creation of the qualities is eternal. and the future. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. The past. abiding in those of the middle current. goodness. the men of the quality of darkness. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. and travelers. the unperceived. and the conjunctions. destruction. And whatever there is in this world. change. Among immovable entities. moving in a body. eternal. darkness. so long is passion said (to exist) here. Passion. And where goodness is developed. womb. in union. Of all these acting with one another. he. They perform their journey together. immutable. the present. The man who always understands these qualities. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. goodness. The three qualities – goodness. in the Brâhmana. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. (consisting) of the three qualities. being connected with the lowest quality. evildoers are alarmed. and moving about collectively. feel the warmth. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. abiding. wealth. half-months. there darkness should be understood to be little. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. and threefold the path. unshaking. holy. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. the increase and diminution will now be stated. the night is stated to be threefold. and the Udâna. the qualities of passion are variable. passion. the Prâna. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. passion in the Kshatriya. and passion likewise to be less. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. but is not attached to the qualities. Seeing the sun rising. threefold the sacrifices performed. and lust. in the lower entities. goodness. they feed on one another. There is no doubt of this. Threefold are the gifts given. piety. and its pure operations. So in all shining bodies. enjoys the qualities. seasons. The sun is goodness developed. immovable. go down. and the enlightener. evil-doers likewise are darkness. freed from the body. constant. not developed. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. For they act with cause or without cause. production and absorption. abiding in those of the upward current.
a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. and are dissolved in the reverse order. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. that is said to be the second creation. movable or immovable. abides transcending the understanding. taste. who practice meditation. and their name is delusion. air. and likewise color. creates (them). and smell as the fifth. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. who are devoid of egoism.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. the light. and faces on all sides. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. it causes all this to move. whose minds are clear. and whose senses are subdued. connected with . intelligence. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). the valiant. Caused by the production of avarice. and light as the fifth. touch. courage. means of perception. the final dissolution approaches. ancient being. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. who have subdued wrath. it is full of light. memory. and are inconstant. he is the governor. and insignificant. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). inexhaustible. who are constant at concentration of mind. not different from one another. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. water. it has eyes. Sound. and thus that source of all entities. and as that from which the changes take place. attain greatness. the producer of the deities. who have pondered on the self. creatures are deluded. and smell. the source of all qualities. Then when every entity. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. They are born one from the other. it is said to be the first creation. It is a deity. and who are always possessed of a good heart. Now people who comprehend the understanding. Brahma. the Prajâpati. and by its own light. the supporter of consciousness. In these five great elements. the understanding. Minuteness. who are possessed of knowledge. it likewise charms the world. verily. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. means of knowledge. that talented man. who are not avaricious. It has hands and feet on all sides. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. When. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. he among all people comes not by delusion. touch. Vishnu. who are talented. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. has been dissolved. the producer of the entities. heads. the great self. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. who are true to their promises. were the five great elements born – earth. lightness. and of the mind. the operations (connected with these) have causes. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. color. and golden. taste. Sambhu. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. Knowing that (great self). is (afterwards) called egoism. the transcendent. these being emancipated. space. it stands pervading everything in the world. it is that from which the people are produced. of universal form. and likewise cognition. that from which the changes take place. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. it is the creator of the three worlds.
the organ of excretion. and the presiding deity there is the sun. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. This is said to be the . and the presiding deity there is Mitra. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. then the Brahman shines (before him). as also all reptiles. Then first. the two eyes. mind. as connected with the self it is called the ear. ear. excluded from the self. Understanding these. as connected with objects it is motion. Space is the first entity. the Udâna. He whose skin. as connected with objects it is excretion. and five the organs of action. such is the group of organs. The fifth entity is earth. self-consciousness. as connected with objects it is the semen. next as connected with objects (it is) color. the two hands. the presiding deity there is Rudra. and whose mind is pure. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. as connected with objects. the tongue. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. and speech as the tenth. and speech are restrained. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. The mind should be understood to be among both. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. as connected with objects it is taste. and together with speech. and understanding unswerving. and the presiding deity there is lightning. who perceive the truth. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. This group one should subdue first. and the organ of generation. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. nose. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. as connected with the self. the two feet. and space. the skin. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. which follows after the five entities. The Prâna and the Apâna. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. the Samâna. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. As connected with the self they mention the mind. water. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. The second entity is air. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land.flesh and blood. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). and the Vyâna also. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. the presiding deity there is the Moon. and depending upon one another. As connected with the self. the nose also as the fifth. and the presiding deity there is Indra. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. the motion of which is downward. the mind is the eleventh. Those born from eggs. and worms of the like description. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with the self it is the nose. Likewise (there is) egoism. and the presiding deity there is fire. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. those born from perspiration. The third (entity) is said to be light. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. tongue. The Apâna wind. and the presiding deity there is Soma. the producer of all beings. as connected with objects it is actions. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. is speech which relates to all the gods. is called the organ of excretion. And the eleven organs. those born from germs. As connected with the self. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is the wind. these are helpless and powerless. eye. The ear. as connected with the self it is called the eye. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. and the understanding is the twelfth. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound.
as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. . The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. fearful and unfathomable. Such is the teaching of the ancients. which is surrounded by the five currents. and being concentrated in mind. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and those which move crookedly. bursting through the earth. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. the flowing (element) water. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. and the five great elements. It is a great ocean. (viz. and is sanctifying. is ever happy. too. It is settled. The third is called light. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. and which rests on the real (entity). and released from everything. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. The world. When everything is absorbed into the mind. in which one lives alone. and sacred study. this same (body). and inferior. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. which is difficult to move in this mortal world.) the senses. next as connected with objects it is color. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). Restraining objects of desire within the self. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. He who duly understands this. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. and likewise the sound is space. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. then being self-illumined. for (every one) who is born. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. having his cravings destroyed. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. the presiding deity there is the sun. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. which is full of passion. and which is full of the Brahman. Space is the first entity. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. The fifth element is earth. pleased with contacts. which is free from attachment. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. O chief of the twice-born! and know. should cast it aside. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. which is made up of the five elements. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and full of delusion. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). and who is devoid of passion. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. which are born after the lapse of some time. Those beings. that the body in which the color is fire. that he is released from all sins. and hold them by the mind. are said to be born from germs. the presiding deity there is Soma. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world.second (mode of) birth. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. and the feeling of touch is air. (namely) sacrifice. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. together with the immortals. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. unfit to be seen. gift at a sacrifice. the objects of the senses. and than which there is nothing higher. and is named delusion. Understand about them also. which has nine passages and two deities. curtail it. The fourth should be understood to be water. One should place all these together. and restrain it. however. which is uninterrupted. A knowledge of this. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. are the beings born from wombs. The second entity is air.
who am full of the Brahman. the Vindhya. changing from time to time. and the bands of Bhûtas. Understanding everything. which are difficult to get rid of. these are the princes among trees in this world. lose all their qualifications. wrath. and Yakshas. and go into wrong paths after death. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and delusion the reservoir. Kinnaras. Purandara of (all) deities. likewise. and Nâgas. and demons. and Pisâkas. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. For he is the ruler of men. and the bands of Rakshasas. and Pitris. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. and the moon among the Nakshatras. there is no doubt of that. the Pippala. Him. Agni. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). Such is the highest creation among all entities. the Jambu. and Prajâpati. the Sveta. and likewise the Sâlmali. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. and also as various.Desire. among cattle also the bull. and among denizens of the forest the lion. Kings desire piety. and the Meshasringa. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and Yakshas. these are the princes among mountains. and also all the great sages. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. and also gods. ever extol. the Nîla. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. treachery. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. the Sahya. who has beautiful eyes. the Guruskandha. demons. He verily is Vishnu. (all these). and Mitra. the Pâriyâtra. and Rakshasas. He is the supporter. The Nyagrodha. the creator. Understand him to be the ruler. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and the creator. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. and seeing the self within the self. he then perceives that highest (principle). of gods. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). of Gandharvas. and falsehood also. She is called Pârvatî. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. Non-destruction is the highest piety. the Sinsapâ. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. rejoice in this world. fear. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. Varuna is the king of the waters. concentrating the mind within the mind. and likewise the bamboo and willow. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. The Himavat. and the ocean among rivers. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. and among females a male. avarice. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. snakes. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. Freed from all sins. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. the Bhâsa. Understand this. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. the north among the quarters. and great. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. the sun is the prince among the planets. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. and of all entities whatever I. (am lord). O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. likewise. the Trikûtavat. and birds. the uncreated Hari. and Varuna. and . all companies of Brâhmanas. the Mahendra. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. Soma is the lord of herbs. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. among vehicles the elephant. and the Koshthavat mountain.
which is void of symbols. The quality of space is sound. and hear it. The quality of light is color. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. who resides in the tongue. and transcending the qualities. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. Taste. Only the Kshetrajña attains. and end. in this world. and the Mahat of knowledge. and transcending death and old age. sound is the characteristic of space. who is unmoving. verily. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. the characteristic of earth. And I always see. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. then enters into the Kshetrajña. know. to be created and tied down to a beginning. and knowledge. The qualities created again and again. and that is comprehended by the understanding. (though) concealed. he is the Supreme Lord. is the Kshetrajña. middle. As to the smell of the earth. is always comprehended by the tongue. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. free from the ceremony of salutations. and from the svâhâ ceremony. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. and that is comprehended by the ear. and that is comprehended by the eye. belonging to the air. The characteristic of mind is meditation. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. no one. and having his sins destroyed. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. The earth is the source of . Thought is the quality of mind. It is stated that day was first and then night. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. he repairs to that which has no second. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. giving prominence to knowledge. the unperceived (is appointed). abandoning qualities. To (this) positive comprehension. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. is smell. action the characteristic of men. is purely knowledge. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). color is the characteristic of light. (else) attains. Hence a man who understands piety. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. that is comprehended by the nose. And the moon likewise. transcendent. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. together with names and characteristics. The Purusha knows it. which is great. is perceived by the skin. and homeless. being nonintelligent. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. the characteristic of renunciation. to the truth. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. the supporter of all beings. and about the means for its comprehension. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. The (sensation of) touch. And crossing beyond darkness. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. the characteristic of mind is thought. middle. The Kshetrajña. taste is the characteristic of water.destruction is of the nature of impiety. do not know themselves. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. that months have the bright first. the essence of water. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. and the creation. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. and end. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. The characteristic of devotion is action. there is no doubt of that.
the mud for which is penance and regulations. too. water is the best. Îsvara is the lord. observances. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. and Yakshas. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. there is no doubt of that. which is measured by months and half months. who is devoid of egoism. the end of grief ever pleasure. there is no doubt of that. which is sustained by the qualities. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. gift. study. death is certain for whatever is born. is everchanging. the noise of which is trouble and toil. penance. Prajâpati of deities. among (sacrificial) animals. all ascents end in falls. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. who is full of the Brahman. among sacrifices. the end of pleasure is ever grief. Dânavas. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. snakes. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. and among all reptiles. And the unthinkable. Bhûtas. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. and life ends in death.smells. Pisâkas. is stated to be the first. and regulations. of which the environment is home. And of all gods. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. I. the ocean is the first-born. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. Among all precious things. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. of all words. all this ends in destruction. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. which is full of actions and instruments of action. Kinnaras. The sun is the first among shining bodies. the fastenings in which are vexations. Of all orders. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. which abounds in old age and grief. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. there is no doubt of that. and Rakshasas. whose senses are subjugated. likewise space is the source of sound. And among all immovable entities. is the source of the entire universe. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. and of men. the eastern quarter is the first. likewise. of which the pole is the mind. water of tastes. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. which moves through (all) the worlds. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. without distinction. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. the goat is mentioned (as the first). that of householders (is the first). Therefore one whose self is tranquil. the ever holy field of Brahman. There is no end for knowledge. and the twice-born among men. All accumulations end in exhaustion. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. The great Vishnu. Of all mountains. fire is said to be the first of the elements. Sacrifice. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. which is lit up by the great egoism. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. all associations end in dissociations. The Syena is first among birds. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. gold (is the first). and the same is also the end of everything. All action ends in destruction. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. . Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. and the Prâna lifewind. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. whatever is prescribed in this world. the Plaksha. Of all ages the Krita is the first. These are the qualities of the elements. all that is called Sâvitrî. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. the offering (into the fire) is the best. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. which rotates in space and time.
conquers heaven. With regard to those three duties. The householder. or of cotton. they are pious duties. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and full of faith. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. and should stand. and also receiving untainted gifts. and who understands the Vedas. There should also be a girdle of muñga. and constant in veracity and piety. That man among all creatures. and which is (never) fatigued. together with the immortals should cast away. study. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. released from all impressions. should return (from his preceptor’s house). who is self-restrained. who is devoted to Vedic rites. This wheel of life. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. the sage who understands piety. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. and should always associate with good men. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. behaving like good men. all the world. and who has duly observed vows. and with one’s external organs restrained. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and also the beggar. and take exercise (duly). and should give and receive gifts. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and which is extended by means of attachments. the imperishable source (of all). transcending all pairs of opposites. and alms. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. (That) sage. Always devoted to his own wife. the forester. and check. this has been celebrated from ancient times. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. kind. to follow it is good. and released from all sins. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. should be kind. gift. should behave like the good. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. making gifts. And as to the other remaining three duties. should avoid heedlessness. should. sit. abridge. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. take food without decrying it. and equable to all creatures. the speed of which is like that of the mind. possessed of forgiveness. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. who is pure. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. and which is devoid of consciousness. he should have matted hair. is never deluded. and sacrifice. and be of pure vows. to such a one the (word) good applies. with the permission of the preceptor. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). and the Brahmachârin. which is unchecked. and have his sacred . who is of rigid vows. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. or also a deerskin. and self-restrained. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. attains the highest goal.which is large. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. The Brâhmana householder. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. which moves towards joy and pleasure. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). with his senses restrained. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. in the way above stated. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. who is thus devoted. One should learn and teach.
Refined by means of all ceremonies. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. having a mind free from envy. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. always dexterous. he should not go following after another. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. He should move about the world like a worm. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. and reaching the highest seat. He should honor guests. restraint of the external organs. and roots and Syâmâka grain. addicted to sacred study. is esteemed. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. who is concentrated in mind. full of forgiveness. He should not parade (his) piety. freedom from (the habit of) carping. freedom from anger. and should not . He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. the sage should become free from all action. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. and should eschew dwelling with friends. and of rigid observances. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. living on fruits and leaves. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and be agreeable to all beings. and also straightforwardness. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. fruits. air. and restrained in all his senses. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). A householder. A man should always bathe in clean water. always in forests. In summer. not deceptive and not crooked. and leaves. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. and which have come spontaneously. and always living within the forest. And with his senses restrained. performing sacrifices. Restraining the external senses. Nor should he beg for too much alms. (Such) a Brahmachârin. Eating only a little. and depending on the deities. or a forest. or again a forester. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. and devoted to veracity and piety. being restrained in mind. and concentrated in mind. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. astringent. conquers heaven. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. he should move about in a secluded place. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. seeking merely to sustain life. and in the rains. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. One who is thus devoted. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. or a Brahmachârin. and continent. or a river likewise. always with clean water. looking out for the (proper) time. kind. or bitter. preserving his hair and moustache. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. He should without sloth feed on water. he may dwell in one place. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). He should honor a guest who comes. and free from avarice. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. eating little. and when he goes about for alms.thread. pure in body. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. should not enter a town again. does not return to birth. and likewise no sweet juices. Offering safety to all beings. veracity. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. his path being pointed out by the sun. in order. or which are pungent. kind. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. He should not make any accumulations. life as a Brahmachârin. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. be engaged in sacred study. or the foot of a tree. When eating. and should not rejoice if he obtains. free from passion. or the cavern of a mountain. nor should he eat when honored.
after understanding all these. Freed from all attachments. or the mind. Rejecting all things. nor Vedas. is emancipated. which is free from anxiety. devoid of smell. or cause to be performed. foot. or the assemblage of people. there is no doubt of that. One who knows the truth. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. There the understanding reaches not. nor reflect on that which is past. . or involving any destruction of life. and who understands the truth. egoism. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. without a head. flowers. One should not hate. and should avoid (all) controversies. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). and in whom the senses. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. One should not think of what is not come. Though undeluded. devoid of taste or touch. not finding fault with piety. and who is free from salutations. pebbles likewise. imperishable. and the Purusha likewise. and self-controlled. being released from all bonds. and the objects of the senses. absolute. the unperceived. should act without a purpose. nor valor. who is free from desires. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. should meditate. and mind. one should disregard the present. exclusively pondering on one point. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. nor the deities. He should perform piety. and being equable to all beings. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. which is unattached. he attains to the highest seat. and should not take (anything) unasked. Those who perceive the self. understanding. should not teach. a wise man should always share (with others). devoid of color. they never die. and also devoid of sound. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. who is free from egoism. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. sacrifices. who is free from expectations. One should not perform. mind. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). One should eat what is consecrated by faith. who is free from attachments to any entity. one attains heaven. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. always dwelling in all entities. and should be void of (all) belongings. who understands all truth. which is without hands. untainted. nor should one wish for gold. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). or by speech. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. without a stomach. as they come. depending on none. with his accumulations exhausted. who is attached to the self. nor worlds. One should not perturb any other (person). verily. and understanding are absorbed. nor penance. But owing to the helplessness of people. he gets emancipation. nor the senses.follow his own (mere) desire. and though dwelling in a house. and who is dependent on none. divine. and leaves. water. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and free from distress. and then. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. any action involving expectation of fruit. He should not receive from others. One who has anything to do should take earth. being devoted to pious conduct. He should not defile anything by the eye. he should act in the manner of the deluded. Nor. by an accurate determination about the truth. which is to be understood. or back. moving and unmoving. which is free from the operations of the qualities. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. should be free from attachment. and which is also devoid of flesh. and the five great elements. and stable. who is free from the pairs of opposites. He should not appropriate another’s riches. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. The senses. and without fixed appointments with people. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. nor should he ever give to others. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols.
developed from the qualities. death. and old age. which cause birth. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and who is devoid of egoism. he is called intelligent. and despises nothing. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. Abandoning all action. go to the happy path by penance. is emancipated. even dwelling in this world. and whose minds are refined. even for (the space of) a wink. which abides in all entities. a creature is emancipated. and which is fed upon by all creatures. The highest Brahman is very far off. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. and free from egoism. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. becomes eligible. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. Restraining the self in the self. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. and with an understanding comprehending all. then understanding the Kshetra. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. and renunciation the best penance. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. But as to that other who is above them. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. and devoid of qualities. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. And restraining the life-winds again and again . through the tranquility of the self. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. is released from misery. always possessed of flowers. and some as transcendent and without misery. and which is the essential element in knowledge. whether agreeable or disagreeable. the sprouts within which are the senses. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. there is no doubt of that. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. for assimilation with the Brahman. who are pure. everlasting. understands that which is beyond nature. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. becomes fit for immortality. there is no doubt of that. is emancipated. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. The learned man who perceives. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. by tranquility only. He who desires nothing. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. (which are) unchanging. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. there is no doubt of that. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. There are these two birds. and being untainted. it is free from the pairs of opposites. of unthinkable qualities. association and dissociation. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. the great branches of which are the great elements. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. devoid of qualities. and supreme. transcending passion. attaining to the self. devoid of knowledge of nature. and the side branches the objects of sense. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. and (as it were) non-intelligent. which is always possessed of leaves. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. (When) the inner self. Penance is said to be a light. The men of talent. and likewise unity and diversity.
Some people (say) meditation. . courage. and our mind is distracted. some are for merit and glory. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. some say that is not so. but others extol penance. (saying) this is good. others distinct. Some are devoted to goodness. gifts. and others. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. and others tranquility. some are in the midst of doubts. Some say both time and space (exist). By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. the venerable. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. And. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. and come to no determination. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. who are devoted to knowledge. Thus having first a tranquil self. knowledge. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. believe it to be one. we are deluded. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Some have matted hair and skins. and renunciation. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). People are acting. there is no doubt of that. truth. some are for pleasure. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. Some (say) means should be resorted to. some for the omission of bathing. Some people extol action. having again felt doubts. and others nothing. Some are devoted to harmlessness. and others indigence. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. and others say that is not so. some knowledge. straightforwardness. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. But that is not correct. We wish. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. who were the best of sages. and others again (that it is) manifold. and others that there is no doubt. Some (say) everything is doubtful. harmlessness. Some Brâhmanas. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. holy. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. this is good. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and those who ponder on the element. Some learned men. that it exists. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. Such is the doctrine of the learned. some various kinds of enjoyments. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. nature. that fits one for immortality. Some are for taking food. always esteems that. some wish for riches. of ten or twelve (modes). others that that is not so.by control of the life-winds. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. abandonment. equability. and others (that it is) mixed. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. and others. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and some given up to destruction. too. Some extol final emancipation. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. and other persons sacred study. Some people are for bathing. Some extol everything. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). be obtains whatever he desires. too. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. such is their relation. others are intent on fasting. and others that that is not so. and some for pain. and (others) that it exists not.
For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. travels with great discomfort. and nature is stated to be the object. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. Learn that. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. While there is oil and wick. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. The subject is always the being. Even brought into contact with all qualities. he goes in the carriage. through delusion. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. and who knows about the qualities. Non-destruction of all creatures. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. and who are infidels in their conduct. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. being born again and again. Hearing it all. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. O Brâhmanas! Well now. go verily to hell. It is established that nature is the property of the being. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. perceive correctly. though it is the object of enjoyment. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. so should one understand.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. throwing aside the boat. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. goes in the water without fatigue. But those wise and talented men. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. and may even be destroyed on the way. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. He abides in everything alike. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. Understand this. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. I will declare to you what you ask of me. such is the progress of the men of understanding. This is the highest seat. So travels the talented man. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. As far as there is a carriage-path. who perform actions with faith. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. afflicted by reason of the chariot. rejoice in this world. and soon crosses the reservoir. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. Now I will proceed to. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. free from vexation and holy in character. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and who entertain avarice and delusion. devoid of parts. comprehending the gradations one above the other. I will tell you something more. and to be constituted of the qualities. attains supreme happiness. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. For the talented man who knows (these) means. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). undoubtedly wishes for destruction. It has been explained in the above mode. a learned man remains untainted. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. deliberate on it properly. and is connected with (all) knowledge. and going swiftly. and in essence free from the qualities. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. free from any connection with expectations. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). One sees a man traveling in a chariot. where the carriage-path stops. Thus nature is perceived. and void of intelligence. the light shines.
Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. above that is the unperceived. and above that understanding is the self. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. touch. it is said that light has three qualities. soft. and of the elements respectively. Sound. is of four qualities. narrow. and taste. to be of twelve descriptions. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. who speak the truth.carriage and pedestrian. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. and smell as the fifth – these. and above the unperceived is the being. are stated to be the qualities of water. touch. the divine source of all entities. diffusive and compact also. together with Gândhâra. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. which is void of any smell whatever. tender and clear also. and water. Sound. and clear also. cold and hot likewise. White. and earth. and color likewise. bitter. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. The quality of light is color. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. hurtful. sour. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. Smell always belongs to the earth. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). sharp. air is said to have two qualities. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. slippery. green. compact. sweet. One who has come by delusion through affection. which belongs to the earth. Now space has one quality. square. Now space has one quality. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. which is produced in space. and are conversant with piety. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. that is called the Pradhâna. should be understood to be of five qualities. or sound. red likewise. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. Learn about their properties. yellow. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. touch. I will now give (some) information about taste. And as action is performed in this world. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. be understood to be of ten descriptions. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. And touch is the quality of air. glutinous. short long. touch. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. too. Space is the highest element. broad. and void of color. above egoism is understanding. From egoism is produced the development. Sweet. and likewise Pañkama. so does it result to them. and of (many) ingredients. and bitter likewise. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. said to be of six descriptions. air is said to have (these) two qualities. and grey likewise. which is a development of water. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. taste. astringent. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. and also productive in its essence. thus is light said to have three qualities. – thus should smell. Shadga. and that is stated to be sound only. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. and rough. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and likewise color. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. smooth. black. egoism is above that. void of taste. namely. Sound and touch also should be understood. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Rough. repairs to the imperishable self. Madhyama. Sound. sour. but they do not yield products. abounding with movables and immovables. color likewise. Thus sound. hard. the great elements. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. and who identifies himself with every being. Rishabha. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise.
and ends with the gross objects. and devoid of egoism. and in which the understanding is the drag. That which begins with the unperceived . The mind always presides over the great elements. has the mind for a charioteer. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. movable or immovable. again acquiring knowledge. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. Gandharvas. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. that sin only by penance well performed. Pisâkas. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. all that can be accomplished by penance. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. The senses. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. goes to the highest goal. like billows in the ocean. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. a man gets rid of all sins. Born from that same unperceived (principle). attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. one who steals. obtain the great and highest world. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. gods. one who destroys an embryo. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and all other creatures movable or immovable. That learned and talented person verily. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. and having their minds always tranquil. and who are free from egoism. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). and herbs. And in like manner. and it is the goal of all living creatures. That individual self. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. and includes movables and immovables. not by actions. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. Asuras. men. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. all the elements. and (after) these developments. And he who is released. Medicines. and difficult to pass through. perceive the triple world here by penance. all have been created by nature.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. and being full of egoism. always reach perfection by penance. even from those five elements. and next the developments produced from the elements. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). Gods. Pitris. they go near Prajâpati. one who kills a Brâhmana. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. (sacrificial) animals. difficult to vanquish. The understanding proclaims its power. for penance is difficult to overcome. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. difficult to learn. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Râkshasas. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. is released from. the creators of the world. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. those who have achieved perfection. which is the unperceived. are born here again and again. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. He who understands him understands the Vedas. nor by a cause. For all acquisition has penance for its root. Such is the upward gradation among entities. These Brâhmanas. the mind. This is the eternal mystery. Those who best understand the self. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. and the understanding for a drag. a sage should sit down self-restrained. they are the very first to be dissolved. One who drinks spirituous liquors. beasts and birds. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. enter the highest world of the great. and it is called the Kshetrajña. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. Whatever is difficult to obtain. (Those) men. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. the mind itself is the individual self. and abandons everything as fruitless.
O best of Brâhmana. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. Then when this piety is duly practiced. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. Then will you attain perfection. in consequence of these means. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. he understands that holy Brahman. If you have love for me. and restraining the self in the Self. And the pupil. getting rid of all sins. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. I have now declared everything to you. not full of action. changeless. And when the understanding is clear. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. O Janârdana! If this verily. with your consent. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Knowledge brings forth the being. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. Mine is death. then you will acquire perfection. changeless. incomprehensible. O Lord! then tell it me. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. too. and then attained to the worlds. O noble person. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. And now. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. three syllables the eternal Brahman. And. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. was that Brâhmana. attained to that seat. Two syllables are death. O Krishna! and who the pupil. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. who is without expectations. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. which is uncreated. and who looks alike on everything. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. Vâsudeva. and not mine is the eternal. indeed. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. This is the eternal piety. Arjuna said: Who. Do you. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. unmoving. Expelling all impressions. always duly act (according to it). he dies not. I wish to see him. did everything (accordingly). having done all he should have done. than which nothing greater exists. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. who is without attachment. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. Some men of dull understandings extol action. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). sages! Act thus forthwith. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. is fit to be heard by me. he attains tranquility.
‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. Be pleased. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.When Krishna spoke these words. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.’ Om Tat Sat . who is of a devout heart.