This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
From this is produced piety. pure. which I am now about to declare. verily. who has subdued his senses. the body to be an unholy aggregate. Learn from me exhaustively. compassion to (all) beings. From that he created the Pradhâna. too. he is. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. which is very difficult to cross. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. which protects people to eternity. honoring preceptors. released in every way. as he should act. Gifts. He who is not attached to any one. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. never comes to an evil end. the material cause of all embodied (selves). for among them it constantly abides. and lust altogether. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. restraint of the senses. indeed. who contemns no one. And that I shall now proceed to state. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. life as a Brahmachârin. This is what is called the destructible. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities.action by which. He who is not pious and not impious. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. and (what is) agreeable and odious. The practice to which the good adhere. and who is self-possessed. pity. created the whole of the three worlds. he is. Brahman. who is self-controlled. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. He who acquires that. but the other is immortal and indestructible. purity. and whose self is free from affections. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. constant restraint of the organs. What I say is all correct and proper. and thinking of naught. and who has no desire. and ruin to be connected with action. he becomes indifferent to everything. And he. honoring deities and guests. and about the return. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. who has no kinsmen. who had been first created. and gain and loss. (having) as regards the moving (creation). is released. takes place after a long time. abandoning each previous (element). the grandfather of all people. becomes happy. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. self-restraint. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. He who has no enemy. free from vanity and egoism. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . serving mother and father. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. moving and fixed. who is free from the pairs of opposites. one going the round of various births. having made a body for himself. released from everything. this is said to be the conduct of the good. He who understands the Pradhâna. and also tranquility. who has no child. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. indeed. who has abandoned piety. Then seeking after the supreme seat. who is devoted to tranquility. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. adherence to prescribed regulations. by which all this is pervaded. And as regards that. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. is released who is equable towards both life and death. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. a pair separately for each (species). and absence of cruelty. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. And Prajâpati. and causing good to be done. and likewise pleasure and pain. A man who is a friend of all. points out (what) piety (is). not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. is released. penance. who endures all. wealth. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. and which is known in the world as the highest. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness.
Then freed from all impressions. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. Properly concentrating his self. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. One who does no action. When (all) beings are destroyed. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. constant. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. being habituated to exclusive meditation. void of taste. Thinking of a quarter seen before. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. he grieves not and exults not. and freed from old age and grief. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. and of a tranquil mind. then he. without belongings. and who has no desire. Restraining the senses. like an Aswattha tree. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells.. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. when (all) beings are afflicted. which consist in pain and grief. and old age. he is indeed released. void of sound.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. and who is self-restrained. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. Remaining within (that) city. saying. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. like fire devoid of fuel. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. and abandoning the transient body. He who is free from all impressions. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. unmoving. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. The body is called the Muñga. he remains steady to the self. then there is no ruler over him. free from the pairs of opposites. and having first performed rigorous penance. he gradually obtains tranquility. Seeing the self void of smell. Weapons do not pierce him. and having no cause. devoid of form. tranquil. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. who is free from attachment. looks on this universe as transient. the soft fibers stand for the self. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. As a person having seen one in a dream. searching for his own faults. and always concentrating his mind. indestructible. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. and casting aside old age and death. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. Restraining the . When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. When. he has no fear. He whose self is concentrated. since he is the lord of the triple world. Leaving this human frame. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. Then the talented Brâhmana. who has practiced penance. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. and having his senses subjugated. devoid of qualities. death. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. there is no death for him. he is not afflicted by anything. he sleeps at ease. void of belongings. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. is released.body. and unknowable. than which there is nothing higher. void of touch. one should fix the mind on the self. meditating in that habitation. void of color. after extracting them from the Muñga. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). ‘This is he. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. is released. recognizes him (afterwards). Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. he perceives the perfect one. he is released. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. always full of birth. he assumes bodies at pleasure. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. perceives the self in the self. And as one may show the soft fibers.
O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. as it were. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. which is difficult to explain. too. and faces on all sides. and determination regarding . and the fruit of its full accomplishment. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. This whole mystery I have declared to you. women. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. reaches immortality and is ever happy. heads. even those who are of sinful birth. and likewise the seat of the heart. What I have spoken. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. palate. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. too. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. he stands pervading everything in the world. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. he has cars on all sides. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. – went away as he pleased. and Sûdras likewise. too. Have you listened to this. do the flesh. attain the supreme goal. and muscles. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. O son of Prithâ! For.group of the senses. a mental smile. O Krishna! that pupil. forsaking the body. and of the excretions. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. and marrow. tongue. and also the means for its acquisition. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. and throat likewise. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self.’ Thus addressed by me. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. too. For as to that eternal Brahman. he attains final emancipation in me. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). And then depending upon it thus. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. and also the heart. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. distinctly? How. final emancipation. He has hands and feet on all sides. he has eyes. and abandoning his body. The soul sees the self come out from the body. neck. O Mâdhava! I replied. I will go away. Adopting this doctrine. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. where one. and do you (too) go away. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. The world of the gods. That talented pupil. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. possessed of great penance. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. It is my belief. and how also to blood? And how. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. He is not to be grasped by the eye. and (keeping) the passages confined. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. he perceives the self. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. Vaisyas. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. – with. who are constantly intent on their own duties.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. nor by any of the senses. He should meditate on his teeth.
that which touches. Whatever action there is. It is devoid of smell. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. shall I go to. Vyâna. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and the tongue. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. When that is asleep. that which is to be seen. devoid of taste and touch. does exist among (all) beings. and into it they enter. and likewise that which is to . and Udâna also proceed. by act. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. From birth to the destruction of the body. and imperishable. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. that which sees. While the paths (of action). indeed. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. A Brâhmana’s wife. there is nothing further than this. The nose. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). From this the Prâna. possessed of talents. but is to be apprehended by the mind. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. and that which understands. and the skin. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. In the interior. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. and likewise that which is to be heard. and also that which is to be thought of. you who live renouncing (all) action. depending on you as (my) husband. Apâna. shall I reach. the mind and the understanding. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. Concentration of mind comes to him. The mortal. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. these are the seven great officiating priests. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. that which is to be touched. This is all that is to be said. mind or speech. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. and the eye. and energetic. That which smells. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. and not to be tasted by the tongue. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. that only do the men of action engage in as action. It is not to be smelt by the nose. and their selves tranquil. that can be caught (by the touch). (in the form of) a dialogue. What goal. that which is to be smelt. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. O son of Pându! who. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. too. That is called the Udâna. that which is to be seen. which occurred. Samâna. good or bad. seated in seclusion. in which the materials are visible. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. are destroyed by demons. that which thinks. produce them in their wombs. That which is to be smelt. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. that man of a tranquil self. that which is to be drunk. that which is to be drunk. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. full of faith. that which is to be touched. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. verily. and on which it rests. (namely). devoid of color and sound. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). or heard. And mark this always. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. that which cats. action. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. and that which is to be understood. and the moon together with the fire. and that which hears as the fifth. and who are harsh and undiscerning. and the ear as the fifth. or seen. and (observe) good vows. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal.misery. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. CHAPTER V On this.
From that is produced smell. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. the genital organ. Then the lord of speech was produced. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. the offerings are ten. and the knower is the upholder of the body. or letter. verily. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. and into this the offering is thrown. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. And the mind. these are the ten oblations. Prajâpati. these. verily. from that doubt is produced. urine. moon. touch. from that is produced taste. these. air. though . therefore. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. indeed. and the mind runs after them. and the wealth is the pure. color. are ten sacrificial priests. yield (you) your desires. these seven. the two hands. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. Whatever mantra. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). from that touch is produced. space. from that is produced determination. and the anus. wind. requires everything knowable (as its offering). The goddess speech. But.be heard. To that you are superior. sun. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. the movable is in your dominion. That is called the movement of the mind. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. that indeed is the movable mind. that which is to be thought of. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. ‘Mind (is superior). highest knowledge. are the fuel. motion. they were perfectly filled with light. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. was the universe duly divided. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. verily. ‘Say which of us is superior. from that is produced color. And in that very (principle). verily. The mind is the ladle. from that another is produced. The immovable. and also that which is to be understood. destroy our doubts. water. mind and understanding. from that is produced sound. Earth. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. earth and fire. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. speech. are words produced. that (in) my (view). O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). and they are offered up into the ten fires.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this.’ But speech thereupon said to him. they relate this ancient story. The ear. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. which is the instrument of knowledge. and light as the fifth. (Thus) we have heard. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. First. the tongue. verity. and Vishnu also. and the discharge of semen. or tone goes to your dominion. words. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. verily. Indra. the nose.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. and taste. and excrement. too. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. is with me. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. ‘I. smell. immovable and also movable. The quarters. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. there are two minds. the two feet. which is the generator of all entities. and hence the mind is in need (of it). In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. action. and (though) developed. and Mitra. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. But inasmuch. O beautiful one! Sound. are named wombs.
the ear apprehends them. On this. and which then goes into the Apâna. The mind said: . the tongue. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. And these never know the qualities of each other. and the skin. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the nose apprehends them. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. and the eye. and the eye. the skin. do not apprehend doubt. do not apprehend tastes. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. flowing (forms). – a dialogue. O venerable sir? Tell me this. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. and next the eye. and the understanding also. the skin. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. do not apprehend sounds. the skin. The nose. This excellent (speech). the mind. Do you. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. the mind. The nose. the skin. the eye apprehends them. she ran up to Prajâpati. The nose. Of those two. the mind likewise. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the skin. The nose. like a cow. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. and the ear as the fifth. the understanding. ‘Be pleased. and the understanding also. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). with divine power. saying. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. and the eye. the skin. yields milk. and the tongue. It is always noisy or noiseless. the ear likewise. the skin apprehends them. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. the mind. and the understanding also. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. and the understanding also. The nose. they do not perceive each other. the mind apprehends it. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. too. and the eye.impelled. This cow-like speech. the ear. they relate this ancient story. and the understanding also. the mind. when. the ear likewise. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. verily. do not apprehend final determination. the tongue apprehends them. O you of a bright smile! is divine. do not apprehend smells. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the understanding apprehends it. The nose. and the mind also. the ear. The nose. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. the tongue. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the ear. So speech formerly spoke. the eye. the ear likewise. Dwelling in a minute space. too. mind and understanding. the tongue. the tongue. the tongue. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. the eye. do not apprehend colors. The tongue.
If when we are extinct. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). (which is) like entering a house without a door. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. so you treat as yours objects shown by us.’ Brahman said: . The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. The learned know this to be a great principle. they relate an ancient story. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. the ear does not in any way hear sound. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. who was born first. and said to him. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. a creature. resulting from mental operations (alone). when our objects perform their functions. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. even with the senses exerting themselves. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. you have no perception. (there is) pleasure and support of life. Without me. then what you believe is true. always meets death. I am the eternal chief among all elements. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. without us. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. life is seen to be supported. Without me. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. when troubled by desire to enjoy. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. One entering upon enjoyments.The nose smells not without me. too. and take in sounds by the skin. rules are for the weak. without us. the eye does not take in color. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. and indulged in dreams. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. the tongue does not perceive taste. still. if you. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. take in tastes by the eye. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. Granted. and not connected with objects of sense. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. Besides. are the five sacrificial priests. that the Prâna and the Apâna. take in smells by the ear. both past and future. does run to objects of sense only. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. and objects are standing. then take in colors by the nose. the senses never shine. He shall be the greatest among us. and if you enjoy enjoyments. like an empty dwelling. They formerly went to the grandsire. and the Udâna. Without me. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. like fuel half dried and half moist. all beings. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. or if when we are absorbed.
and the Samâna. and again moved about. My own self is one only. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. I am the greatest. and on my moving about. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. they again move about. Welfare be to you! Support one another. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. Hear the reason why. verily. The Vyâna only is subject to you.’ Then the Apâna moved about. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. who being extinct. they again move about. the lord of (all) creatures. and the Samâna. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. is the greatest. O Prâna. O beautiful one! spoke these words. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and all support one another. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. When I am extinct.’ The Vyâna moved about again. There are others moving about. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. and pleasing one another. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. And the Prâna and Apâna. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and not greatest. When I am extinct. they again move about.’ The Prâna again moved about. I am the greatest. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. they again move about. Hear the reason why. and again moved about. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. and the Udâna. and on my moving about. I am the greatest. (Now) go where (you) like. ‘You are not the greatest among us.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. they again move about. (which are) five. spoke to him. All are greatest in their own spheres.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . When I am extinct. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. I am the greatest. and the Apâna said to him. Hear the reason why.He. go away happily. And on my moving about. You are not the greatest among us. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. because the Apâna is subject to you. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. and on my moving about. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. and on whose moving about. and again moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. Being friendly with one another. And the Prâna and Apâna. and on my moving about. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. I am the greatest. and the Samâna spoke again. and the Vyâna also.
Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. (it) is also produced from taste. what comes into existence first. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. which is of excellent glory. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. hear me speak about that. in which the offering is thrown. and the eye. (its) ashes. between them is the fire. the pleasure is produced from union. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. these. (the quality of) passion. the agent. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. and (it) is also produced from a sound. Hear me. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. It is the teaching of the Veda. the Prâna comes first into operation. their function is performed: then. and between them is the fire. that the fire verily is all the deities. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. being accompanied by intelligence. This is the effect of the Udâna. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. First. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). or Samâna. or Apâna. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. From the combination of the semen and the blood. or Vyâna. or transversely. or downwards. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. which (move) upwards. they relate this ancient story. The two – good and evil – are a pair. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. or transversely. the Samâna comes into operation again. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. too. secondly. or downwards. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. too. between them is the fire. and the . the Apâna then comes into operation. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. CHAPTER X On this. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from smell. and (it) is also produced from color. the Samâna and Vyâna. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. the action. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. that which is other than this first comes to him. The instrument. between them is the fire. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. The smoke of that (fire). and (it) is also produced from touch. his Prâna. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The nose. From desire the semen is produced. and the tongue. indeed.On this. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. Day and night are a pair. which (move) upwards. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. and emancipation.
and the ear as the fifth. like water on a declivity. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. approaching Prajâpati. CHAPTER XI There is one director. I move as I am ordered. are sung. by Prajâpati. he. too.’ Hearing that. being possessed of qualities. and the gods. is the counselor in all action. of which an illustration is stated. mind and understanding. too. whatever is heard by the ear. the venerable one said. Taught by that instructor. The gods had been engaged in gifts. the Brahman priest in which. he who sees. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. he who thinks. And cooking food for himself. the self the Adhvaryu priest. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. enjoy their own qualities. The gods. There is one kinsman. they ran away in (various) directions. these seven are causes of action. and the demons. Taught by that instructor. the downward lifewind. in a single syllable. there is no second director. and color. Whatever is thought by the mind. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. he who speaks. there is no second (different) from him. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. The eating of that which should not be eaten. To him who is not learned. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. they relate an ancient story. there is no second (different) from him. whatever is spoken by speech. agreeable and disagreeable. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. There is one hearer. On. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. he who eats. and he who understands. There is one instructor. is the upward life-wind. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. and taste. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. He who smells. whatever is seen by the eye. shines dwelling within the body. This being. The learned man. each in its own place. there is no second (different) from him. who is the self of everything. truth. On this. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. the Hotri priest. He destroys the food. and whatever is smelt by the nose. final emancipation. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. ‘Om. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. Impelled by that same (being). When they were running for instruction regarding the self. Living under that instructor. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. and he who hears as the fifth. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. And among the learned who understand (everything). sound. and the Dakshinâ. the director. is ruined. There is one enemy. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). there is no second (different) from him. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. and the great sages . destroying this food again produces it. the Stotra in which. Smell. the Sastra. and touch as the fifth. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. and sages. These. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents.skin. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. eating various (kinds of) food. On that Sâman hymns. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. (about the) instruction of the snakes. this. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). my fire of (high) qualifications. And I am here devoid of qualities. and the snakes. being (himself) a ruler. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. (and) the seven Rishis. the Brahman. and sages.
In that forest are seven large trees. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). They are not afraid of anybody. which depends on knowledge. casting aside vows and actions. the sages. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. all engaged in different (pursuits). That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. the learner. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. and the hills and mountains. and seven (forms of) initiation. Acting sinfully in the world. connected with the Brahman. and mixed. who. there is no other happiness equal to. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. merely adheres to the Brahman. The instructor. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. the Brahman the instructor. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. And I have entered the great forest. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. There is one fire here. The qualities are the fruits. There is nothing more subtle than that. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. the hearer. and emancipation the fruit. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. when there is no distinction from it. and having a good mind. the great sages receive hospitality. This is the description of the forest. Having had one teacher. and having been instructed with one word. the Brahman the fire. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. the gods. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. There. seven hermitages. which has contentment for its water. Entering it. the Brahman water. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. the Brahman his origin. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. and do not exult. full of brilliance. and seven guests. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. and what the rivers. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. when there is a distinction from it. with faces (turned) downwards. the way to which consists in worldly objects. (namely) the five senses. and causes of generation. the snakes. the twice-born do not grieve. Understanding it they practiced it. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. and of beautiful colors. There always dwell seven females there. becomes a Brahmachârin. There is nothing smaller than that. there is no other instructor. And there is fuel here. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. owing to his desires. and nobody is afraid of them. .in restraint of the senses. in various places. seven (forms of) concentration. and the demons. The good who attain to that. and fragrant. seven fruits. in which intelligence is the tree. He is rapt in the Brahman. and the enemy. and is to be crossed by one singly. But he who. are always within the heart. and the guests eat the fruits. that. There is nothing more afflicting than that. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. have no fear afterwards. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. there is nothing larger than that. another forest shines forth.
O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. Not desiring any object of desire. If I spoke further. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. that will enter water. There is no offence on my part. as understood by Brâhmanas. brilliance. praise tranquility. And understanding it. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. Glory. then the sacrifice is for the goat. and I think only his unmoving body remains. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. enlightenment. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. devote themselves to Brahman. especially as he is dependent. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. Although actions are performed. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. too. mother. After hearing their consent. merging the self in the self. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. Understand that. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. nor even do I entertain any fancies. we do not rely on what is not visible. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. and greatness. they act (accordingly). (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. victory. indeed. Those whose wishes are reduced. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. since the Vedic text is such. I perceive no tastes. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. not hating any evil. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). this goat will not be destroyed. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. they relate an ancient story. Dwelling in that (self). or old age. or death. being directed by the Kshetrajña. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. Such. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. take him (to them) and consult (them). nor yet do I hear various sounds. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. they are born so as not to lose courage. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. the richest. and as the constant entity underlying them. there is no taint on my natures. too. and again emerge from the same.They absorb all the higher delights of people. I see the individual self in the body. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. together with their chiefs. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). (his) ear the quarters. I see no color. abide. and his life-winds likewise the sky. The life-winds. Apart from them. whose sins are burnt up by penance. is this holy forest. On this. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. father. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. Nature desires objects which are liked. and I do not touch. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. (This) creature will obtain welfare. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. His eye (will enter) the sun. perfection. . whatever in him is produced from water. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). And aspiring to that forest. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. The teaching of the elders is. of this goat have gone to their sources.
said. you hear the sound produced in space. such is the double manifestation of the self. freed from delusion. as we have heard. you believe. Of these the indestructible is the existent. are being destroyed. who is free from the pairs of opposites. he was walking about near the sea. The life-winds. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. and I say (to you). his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. the tongue. who take shelter with me. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. and who is released on all hands. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. too. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. Give them security. And to one who is free from these manifestations. O venerable sir! I approach you. And all these entities. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. possessed of a thousand arms. Or what do you think. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. they act (accordingly). the mind. and (the quality of) goodness. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. and understanding it. saluting him. and with joined hands. there is no fear anywhere. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). The ocean. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. The ocean said: If. Say. Once on a time. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. they relate an old story. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. you see the colors of shining bodies. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. being directed by the Kshetrajña. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. what shall I do for you? The creatures. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. have life. you touch the qualities of the air. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. together with (the quality of) passion. who has subdued his self. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). you drink watery juices. who is devoid of expectations. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). . my mind is enlightened. who might stand against me in the field.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. For having heard your opinion. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. a descendant of Kritavîrya. name him to me. proud of his strength. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. (in the shape of) a dialogue. who is alike to all beings.
like a tree of many branches.Then the king. Then some of the Kshatriyas. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. Âbhîras. taking up his axe. high-souled. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. who was veracious. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. became Vrishalas. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. and your vital part being pierced. went away. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. and taking swords and lances. blazed forth. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. his grandfathers. too. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. whose penance was very great. burning the hosts of the enemy. only pierce your own vital part. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. to slaughter these kings. they relate an ancient story. Seeing him killed and fallen. said to those sages. Then the power of Râma. with Rikîka as their head. Hearing that. It is not proper for you. (Though) surrounded by enemies. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. you will die. too. O noble one!’ But Râma. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). As by its unsteadiness. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. shot away volleys of arrows. ‘Desist. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The mind said: These arrows. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. They will. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. a bodiless voice from heaven. full of great wrath. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. hearing that (story). not forgiving his father’s murder. like antelopes troubled by a lion. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. it wishes. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. – having performed very difficult deeds. and very firm in his vows. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. abandoning (those) great deeds. do you perceive. entered mountains and inaccessible places.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. being a Brâhmana. together with the Sâbaras. the Kshatriyas. What good. became Vrishalas. to make all mortals perform action. named Alarka. Paundras. whose power was unbounded. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. spoke sweetly to Râma. Thus the Dravidas. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . In company with his kinsmen. and blew away the army of the king. Râma also taking up a bow. dear friend. There was (once) a royal sage. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. turned to subtle (questions). who understood duty. which was heard by all people. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu.
Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then said after consideration: – . Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. the (ear) hankers after them only. this (tongue) hankers after them only. one hankers after them only. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. They will only pierce your own vital part. The tongue said: These arrows. and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. and your vital part being pierced. you will die. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all.Smelling very many perfumes. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. The skin said: These arrows. and your vital part being pierced. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. They will only pierce your own vital part. These arrows. The nose said. and then you will lose (your) life. Hearing that. the skin hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The eye said: These arrows. The ear said: These arrows. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. you will die. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows.
and good (men) were oppressed. according to qualities. verily. then anxiety comes into existence. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. Grief. and delusion. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. is born again and again. Then directing his mind to one point. a courageous man.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. When vices were in the ascendant. When the bodily frame is destroyed. (that vice). he became steady. he. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. properly . these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. thence you will obtain the highest good. That avarice – cut (it) off. Therefore. persistent hatred. On this. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. pleasure. and honoring good men. of great glory. and your vital part being pierced. and being troubled by desire.’ Do you understand this too. and engages in action. They will only pierce your own vital part. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. being impelled by which. For from avarice is born desire. who had become tranquil (in mind). And the royal sage. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). cut (it) off with sharp swords. Ambarîsha. The understanding said: These arrows. he reached the highest perfection. Perform a fearful penance. then uttered this verse. free from sloth. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. owing to these qualities. he meets death. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. Exultation. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. three foes in (this) world. and applied himself to concentration of mind. you will die. He (then) restraining his own vices. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. amazed. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. having a tranquil self. And at the expiration of life. and senses controlled. but there is one. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. destroyed all foes. the greatest. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. being impelled by which. attained high perfection. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. and he who desires. Sleep. and again birth. sloth. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. a man even does what ought not to be done. the best of talented (men). and after deliberating for a long time. Obtaining those. wrath. joy. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. is energetic about subjugating others.
While that king of unbounded power was seated. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. the king recovered himself. what belief you have resorted to. is subject to you. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. Even this self is not mine. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. Then on the expiration of the delusion. holding which. When I did not find it among them. or that everything is my domain. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. too. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. I wish. I looked for my own offspring. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. who destroyed the one (chief vice). O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. by which. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. (Considering) whose this was. to be terminable. What conviction have you adopted. and. Now hear the conviction. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. or the whole earth is mine. as the planet upon the sun. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). King Janaka. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. Resorting to this conviction. And as mine. I looked for Mithilâ. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. so (is it) that of others too. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. and said nothing in reply. and enjoy while you live. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. Then when the delusion had gone off. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. I believe. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. avarice. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. by the glorious Ambarîsha. engaged in meditation. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. When I did not find it on the earth. in all affairs. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. and restraining avarice by courage. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. is subject (to me). O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. This is sovereignty. searching through the (whole) earth.perceiving this. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. then came the delusion on me. a delusion suddenly came upon him. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. I cannot find my domain. though this country. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . Janaka said: Though this country. by way of punishment. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. there is no other sovereignty here. intelligence again came to me.’ Thus spoken to. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. therefore) while you desire.
In the (rules for) final emancipation. and narrow. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. dwelling with preceptors. by which those who understand that proceed. the spoke the understanding. or among mendicants. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. that. Whatever creatures there are in the world. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. together with guests. nothing exists that is a cause of him. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. by which that (entity). verily. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. namely. I am not such. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees .’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. movable or not moving. the Bhûtas. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. A good means is found. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. or. (namely) for the gods. and my intelligence is very frivolous. I am a forester. is (to be found) a description of it. Then the Brâhmana. You are the one person to turn this wheel. and the body is tied down by action. and which does not turn back. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. for this purpose. you have guessed. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. And those who. action and knowledge. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. according to your own understanding. Hence. it is not laid down. or else this knowledge. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. and confused. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. All these actions of mine are. the instructor is the upper Arani. Sovereignty over the whole world. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. not by the body. where. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. This path is traversed by the understanding. or residence in forests. smiling. I am emancipated.subject to me. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. the Pitris. and a certain thing should not. and also without qualities. With your heart intent upon the real entity. is perceived as by bees. to households. and even over heaven. come here today to learn (something) about you. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. Actions have a beginning and an end. observing vows. have their understanding full of tranquility. the nave of which is the Brahman. I am a Brâhmana. that a certain thing should be done. you will certainly come into my self. indeed. or by one whose self is not refined. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye.
all of various descriptions. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. and also desirous of final emancipation. is I myself. A talented pupil. (which are) means of direct perception. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. truly. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). am come to you (who are) venerable. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. who preserved (all) vows. and what sin? These questions of mine. put (his) questions with joined bands. There is none else here who can explain these questions. as may here be practicable – unperceived. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue.and hears. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. likewise. connected with final emancipation. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. in hundreds and in thousands. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. what penance. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. I pray of you with (bowed) head. indeed. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. Speak. (when he was) seated. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. something about the highest good. between a preceptor and a pupil. and those whose form is perceived. ‘whose goal is the highest good. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. And he. One should adopt as many of these things. are afraid of worldly life. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. Arjuna said: Where. Listen to that. Vâsudeva said: On this. who had approached him (for instruction). and accurately. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects).’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. ‘I’ (he said). who put (his) questions properly. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists.’ The preceptor. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. too. And we. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. who was possessed of (the . You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation.
and casts off birth and death. I will state to you. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. on which all entities subsist. and Atri also. is emancipated. The preceptor said: All this. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. the sages. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. the branches of which are the great egoism. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. Vasishtha.necessary) qualifications. saw Brahman. namely. is released from misery. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. and has no egoism about anything. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. Brihaspati. And those twice-born (sages). and likewise unity and variety. the present. penance is the truth. the gross elements the smaller boughs. the great sages. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. and so forth. and becoming wearied of their own actions. I will state to you today. which is eternal. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. and the severance also. met each other. The Brahman is the truth. and is eternal. was declared by Brahman. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. and of the four orders. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. who was like (his) shadow. He who does not desire anything. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. and likewise of the castes. the future. the senses. and wealth. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and piety. desire. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. which ought to be apprehended. from whom (all) sin has departed. which belongs to olden times. and renunciation as the best penance. and who are the constant creators of the people. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. . who are possessed of knowledge. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. and also Kâsyapa. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. desiring knowledge. who was tranquil. in Brahman’s mansion. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. Formerly. and who is devoid of egoism. the entities are born from the truth. and Visvâmitra. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. which is always possessed of leaves. after having traveled over all paths. even while dwelling in this world. They live by penance. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. Bharadvâja. in the holes of which are the sprouts. full of humility. are full of the truth. always possessed of flowers. there is no doubt of that. who understands the creation of all entities. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. Understand that. and likewise Bhârgava. Prajâpati also is truth. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. Gautama. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. is esteemed highest. and the seed of which is the Brahman. when thus spoken to by the sages.
of that highest path which is difficult to understand. want of discrimination. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). and it is constant in sinful actions. He who accurately understands the elements. grief. and goodness. Where passion is restrained. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. and darkness the match of goodness. next after that is that of foresters. lightness. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. and likewise serve one another. everlasting. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. of all beings. When it prevails. The great self. all-pervading. air. and also all the deities. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. and is called delusion. among all beings. immaturity (of intellect). will now be stated together with the reasons. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. Goodness is the match of darkness. and which are bridges of piety. haughtiness. rigid in his vows. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. and are joined to one another. which you should understand. eleven. Indra. encircled by the. passion there prevails. never comes by delusion. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. in aggregation and separation. now speaking exhaustively. fear. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. consisting of three qualities. the ten senses and the one (sense). Light. being constituted by the three qualities. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. which is productive of pleasure. avarice. the unperceived likewise. faith. which is in a state of equilibrium. it also appears combined (with others). and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. he. passion. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. goodness there prevails. and of the highest seat. and attend on one another. its characteristic. I will subsequently state the means to that. the second is that of householders. He who.distinctly. casting aside sin. sun. and five constituent principles. and is the cause of successive (acts). The wise always speak of piety as one. and goodness is also the match of passion. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. and next after that too. Where darkness is restrained. and those three channels run on. such is the eternal creation. O noble ones! from me. I will speak to you. appears to be production. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. Its characteristic is also impiety. nihilism. Prajâpati. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. want of memory. space. and the five great elements. as accepted by good men. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. ignorance. sleep. which depend on one another. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. . Delusion. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. and immutable. and getting rid of all bonds. one sees not these. Darkness. Light. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. attains to all the spotless worlds. blindness. It has three qualities. and of the understanding as ruler. and passion is the match of goodness. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). (but) having four quarters. indecision about actions. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. these are called the three qualities. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. The order of foresters. The true nature of their characteristics. This is the nature of darkness. want of liberality. finding fault with good acts. and likewise also egoism. violation of (the rules of) conduct. which are all coupled with one another. Passion is said to consist in activity. Learn. learn those accurately. the whole of the qualities.
the thought (that this or that is) mine. breaking. they exert themselves. buying and selling. Injuring (others). going into inferior ways. who are sunk in darkness. want of straightforwardness. insects. They go to the hell. by cutting. and growing old in (good) actions. want of knowledge. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. vilifying. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. sages and saints and gods become deluded. and whatever vain gifts. and growing old in their own duties. I have now duly described to you. fierceness and cruelty. slaughter. animosity. want of forgiveness likewise. (namely) the brute (species). O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. desire. and also its qualities. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. pride of performance without (actual) performance. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. anger. and want of forgiveness. all these are dark qualities. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. unfriendliness. evil disposition. peace. want of self-restraint. the great delusion. valor. affliction. how. Such is the Vedic text. (or become) the immovable entities. war. delusion. exercise and quarrel too. sinful action. anger is called the great obscurity. indeed. as Chândâlas. And whatever such people there are in this world. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. and all quadrupeds. sink into darkness. pointing out others’ weaknesses. and also its source. battle. vindictiveness. and idiots. and serpents. that is considered to be dark conduct. and vain eating. wrath. beauty. want of faith. this is considered to be dark conduct. animosity. cold and heat. deaf and dumb men. delusion. bonds. or lisping men. And whatever other states of mind.behavior of the lowest quality. all these qualities. power. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. abuse . piercing. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. doers of sinful acts. the great obscurity called anger. frenzy. There. want of liberality. pleasure and pain. and also animosity towards people. endurance. Whatever vain actions (there are). and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). to be born in the lower hell. wishing for pleasure. evilconducted men. deluded convictions. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. and death the blinding obscurity. and worms. Reviling. Learn. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. becoming men of meritorious actions. backbiting. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. or deaf. who break through (all) regulations. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). preservation. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). indeed. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. beasts of burden. argument. toil. who. they are all held to be dark. Coming to a sinful womb. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. vanity. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). Who. are found in various places in this world. connected with delusion. touching other people’s weak points. harboring evil thoughts. lassitude. and also creatures born from eggs. repining. who bear the marks of their own actions. going beyond the Sûdra womb. demons. vanity. stolidity. animals. These dark. thinking of (this) world. strength. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. understands this properly. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. this is considered to be dark conduct. want of faith also. that one sees the real in what is unreal. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. birds. Darkness.
CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. good behavior. all these qualities. straightforwardness. Thus.’ affection generated by the qualities. righteous feelings. haughtiness. indifference. dexterity. forgiveness. for living creatures. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. absence of calumniation. absence of fear. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. and actions with expectations. faith. truth. boasting. service vain. salutation. these men. and free from grief. unbroken piety. harboring desire. life as a Brahmachârin. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. the duty of the good. one obtains whatever one desires. and to be gods. the ceremony of Vashat. piety vain. joy. attendance. and future entities in this world. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. censure. freedom from delusion. wakefulness. and instrumental or vocal music. expiations. valor. and labor vain. perceive (everything) aright. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. pleasure. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. devoid of egoism. management. joviality. treachery and likewise deception. receipt of gifts vain. auspicious rites. vows and regulation. modesty. who adhere to the quality of goodness. contentment. heedlessness. and attachment also. pleasure and delight. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. liberality. contumely. The . disgust. nobility. ostentation. he attains the highest in the next world. (on another). equable everywhere. service. present. doubt. contentment. praise. disrespect and respect. The men who meditate on past. for men.uttering falsehoods. absence of backbiting. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. gets rid of all passionate qualities. (good) conduct vain. humility. gambling. whose conduct is of this description. learning vain. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. have (their) currents downwards. vows vain. vexing (oneself). abandonment on all hands. purity. vexation. absence of stinginess. freedom from expectations. bad gifts. devotion to dancing. by means of nature. emancipation. and unblamable. they rejoice. and make Tarpana. penance vain. purity. the ceremony of Svadhâ. devotion. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. laudation. and also want of faith. minuteness. Understanding this according to rule. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. equability. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. and of the quality of goodness. policy. Confidence. (holding) knowledge to be vain. not full of desires. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. absence of cruelty. They give and receive. and for houses. and also sacrificing and study. joy. beneficial to all creatures. defiance. Getting rid of all sins. They are said to have their currents upwards. Born again and again in this world. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. compassion to (all) creatures. wealth. theft. belongings. absence of wrath. common scandal. for articles. who are enveloped by passion. prowess. slaughter. and create (various) bodies. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. courage. The power of governing. The man who always understands these qualities. harmlessness. for women. enlightenment and happiness also. devoid of expectations. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. and also sacrifice. association with women. gifts and acceptance of gifts. those talented men reach heaven. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. sacrifices vain. self-restraint. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. freedom from laziness. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. obedience. forgiveness.
The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. and being free from all misery. unperceived. all that is (made of) these three qualities. and goodness likewise to be less. abiding in those of the middle current. and threefold the path. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). So in all shining bodies. goodness. For they act with cause or without cause. the Prâna. The three qualities – goodness. Seeing the sun rising. The day should be understood to be threefold. these are the three qualities. destruction. existent and also non-existent – all these. the qualities of passion are variable. Where darkness is increased. so long is passion said (to exist) here. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. and likewise months. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. abiding. They perform their journey together. seasons. production and absorption. They all depend on one another. the increase and diminution will now be stated. Of all these acting with one another. years. womb. and the highest. and goodness likewise to be less. they feed on one another. is released from all qualities. evil-doers likewise are darkness. threefold are the worlds. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. threefold the sacrifices performed. is said to be. unshaking. suffering trouble from the heat. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. unborn. change. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. eternal. threefold the gods. the passionate remain in the middle. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. in union. there passion should be understood to be little. there darkness should be understood to be little. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. go down. darkness. Even from afar. passion in the Kshatriya. feel the warmth. the men of the quality of darkness. immutable. Where passion is developed. evildoers are alarmed. Pradhâna. but differing in development. The past. he. And whatever there is in this world. Darkness. and lust. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. the Apâna. . abiding in those of the upward current. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. They are attached to one another. passion. Passion. holy. there darkness should be understood to be little. nature. And as long as goodness and darkness. in the lower entities. and its pure operations. wealth. and the future. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. The sun is goodness developed. (consisting) of the three qualities. moving in a body. half-months.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. There is no doubt of this. and moving about collectively. freed from the body. and travelers. Among immovable entities. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. and the qualities. piety. immovable. The light in the sun is goodness. and the conjunctions. and likewise follow one another. in the Brâhmana. goodness. the unperceived. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). the heat is the quality of passion. not developed. And where goodness is developed. constant. enjoys the qualities. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. there: exist three qualities. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. The man who always understands these qualities. but is not attached to the qualities. being connected with the lowest quality. and passion likewise to be less. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. and passion also. the night is stated to be threefold. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. the present. and the Udâna. and the enlightener. not small. goodness. Threefold are the gifts given. The creation of the qualities is eternal.
it is full of light. it likewise charms the world. water. Now people who comprehend the understanding. whose minds are clear. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). it is that from which the people are produced. and thus that source of all entities. that from which the changes take place. heads.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. it is said to be the first creation. and likewise cognition. and likewise color. It is a deity. who practice meditation. and who are always possessed of a good heart. who are not avaricious. the operations (connected with these) have causes. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. he among all people comes not by delusion. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. In these five great elements. means of perception. these being emancipated. Knowing that (great self). who have pondered on the self. it has eyes. ancient being. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. connected with . Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. courage. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. intelligence. the producer of the entities. it causes all this to move. that is said to be the second creation. not different from one another. Sambhu. touch. the valiant. and as that from which the changes take place. is (afterwards) called egoism. and their name is delusion. and of the mind. abides transcending the understanding. and whose senses are subdued. who are constant at concentration of mind. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. movable or immovable. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. were the five great elements born – earth. who are possessed of knowledge. and golden. memory. inexhaustible. the light. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and smell. who are talented. Vishnu. and by its own light. space. has been dissolved. They are born one from the other. When. and are dissolved in the reverse order. and insignificant. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. the Prajâpati. color. touch. It has hands and feet on all sides. Caused by the production of avarice. the understanding. Sound. verily. of universal form. the source of all qualities. means of knowledge. he is the governor. air. the transcendent. it stands pervading everything in the world. lightness. who are true to their promises. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. and are inconstant. who are devoid of egoism. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. Minuteness. attain greatness. creatures are deluded. taste. creates (them). who have subdued wrath. the final dissolution approaches. and faces on all sides. the great self. taste. Then when every entity. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. the producer of the deities. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. Brahma. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. and light as the fifth. that talented man. and smell as the fifth. the supporter of consciousness. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. it is the creator of the three worlds.
The ear. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. as connected with the self it is called the ear. the tongue. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. The mind should be understood to be among both. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. is called the organ of excretion. As connected with the self. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. This group one should subdue first. the motion of which is downward. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. and depending upon one another. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. This is said to be the . eye. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. the two hands. and the presiding deity there is fire. is speech which relates to all the gods. The fifth entity is earth. water. He whose skin. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. and the presiding deity there is Soma. as connected with the self it is the nose. the two eyes. nose. Those born from eggs. and the understanding is the twelfth. as also all reptiles. the Samâna. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. as connected with the self. Understanding these. and space. as connected with objects. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. the mind is the eleventh. And the eleven organs. the producer of all beings. and five the organs of action. the presiding deity there is the Moon. the skin. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). ear. and the Vyâna also. as connected with objects it is taste. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. The third (entity) is said to be light. The second entity is air. next as connected with objects (it is) color. as connected with objects it is actions. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. and worms of the like description. as connected with the self. self-consciousness. which follows after the five entities. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. tongue. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. As connected with the self they mention the mind. these are helpless and powerless. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. who perceive the truth. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. as connected with objects it is motion. The Prâna and the Apâna. The Apâna wind. and speech are restrained. and speech as the tenth. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. Likewise (there is) egoism. the Udâna. excluded from the self. and the presiding deity there is the sun. mind. and whose mind is pure. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. As connected with the self. and understanding unswerving. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. those born from perspiration. and the presiding deity there is lightning. as connected with objects it is the semen. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. and the organ of generation. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. and the presiding deity there is Indra. the organ of excretion. the two feet. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch.flesh and blood. as connected with the self it is called the eye. the nose also as the fifth. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. Then first. and together with speech. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. those born from germs. and the presiding deity there is the wind. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. such is the group of organs. as connected with objects it is excretion. the presiding deity there is Rudra. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. then the Brahman shines (before him). As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. Space is the first entity. the cause of the whole course of worldly life.
fearful and unfathomable. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. and the feeling of touch is air. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. for (every one) who is born. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. and who is devoid of passion. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions.) the senses. (viz. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. Those beings. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. It is settled. which is full of passion. When everything is absorbed into the mind. Restraining objects of desire within the self. He who duly understands this. are the beings born from wombs. unfit to be seen. should cast it aside. The fourth should be understood to be water. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. which is surrounded by the five currents. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. next as connected with objects it is color. Understand about them also. having his cravings destroyed. Such is the doctrine of the learned. in which one lives alone. One should place all these together. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. which is uninterrupted. and than which there is nothing higher. is ever happy. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. curtail it. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. gift at a sacrifice. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. and released from everything. the flowing (element) water. which is free from attachment. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. and which rests on the real (entity). and being concentrated in mind. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. however. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). and sacred study. and which is full of the Brahman. and likewise the sound is space. and hold them by the mind. together with the immortals. and restrain it. and is sanctifying. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. the presiding deity there is the sun. and full of delusion. Such is the teaching of the ancients. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. A knowledge of this. Space is the first entity. and the five great elements. which are born after the lapse of some time. The world. (namely) sacrifice. and is named delusion. The fifth element is earth. that he is released from all sins. the objects of the senses. which is made up of the five elements. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. the presiding deity there is Soma. too. O chief of the twice-born! and know. and those which move crookedly. bursting through the earth. then being self-illumined. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow.second (mode of) birth. which has nine passages and two deities. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. . The second entity is air. pleased with contacts. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. this same (body). and inferior. are said to be born from germs. The third is called light. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. that the body in which the color is fire. It is a great ocean.
and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. these are the princes among trees in this world. and Prajâpati. He verily is Vishnu. and Yakshas. the Guruskandha. and likewise the Sâlmali. Purandara of (all) deities. ever extol. demons. Non-destruction is the highest piety. and the creator. and demons. snakes. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. fear. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. and the Koshthavat mountain. the uncreated Hari. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. (all these). Varuna is the king of the waters. lose all their qualifications. the Nîla. the sun is the prince among the planets. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. there is no doubt of that. Kings desire piety. and Pisâkas. the Mahendra. and birds. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and delusion the reservoir. the Vindhya. the Pâriyâtra. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. Understanding everything. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and the bands of Rakshasas. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. and Yakshas. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. of gods. the Jambu. She is called Pârvatî. changing from time to time. who am full of the Brahman. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. avarice. the Sinsapâ. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels.Desire. and seeing the self within the self. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. and also as various. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. Understand him to be the ruler. concentrating the mind within the mind. Understand this. and among females a male. and the bands of Bhûtas. Kinnaras. Him. and the moon among the Nakshatras. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. which are difficult to get rid of. and among denizens of the forest the lion. and also all the great sages. and Mitra. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and Nâgas. who has beautiful eyes. the Bhâsa. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. Such is the highest creation among all entities. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. and Varuna. and of all entities whatever I. and . (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. rejoice in this world. the creator. among vehicles the elephant. treachery. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and go into wrong paths after death. the Pippala. and falsehood also. The Himavat. of Gandharvas. and also gods. and Rakshasas. likewise. likewise. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. Soma is the lord of herbs. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. (am lord). Agni. and Pitris. the Trikûtavat. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. the north among the quarters. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. For he is the ruler of men. He is the supporter. The Nyagrodha. Freed from all sins. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. the Sahya. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. these are the princes among mountains. the Sveta. and the ocean among rivers. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. and great. wrath. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. he then perceives that highest (principle). the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and the Meshasringa. all companies of Brâhmanas. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. among cattle also the bull.
and that is comprehended by the understanding. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. the characteristic of earth. belonging to the air. do not know themselves. middle. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. action the characteristic of men. giving prominence to knowledge. being nonintelligent. As to the smell of the earth. and end. Hence a man who understands piety. and knowledge. To (this) positive comprehension. then enters into the Kshetrajña. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. transcendent. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. abandoning qualities. and homeless. and hear it. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. The Kshetrajña. and the creation. and about the means for its comprehension. color is the characteristic of light. The (sensation of) touch. The characteristic of devotion is action. sound is the characteristic of space. the characteristic of mind is thought. who is unmoving. and end. is perceived by the skin. that is comprehended by the nose. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. and from the svâhâ ceremony. middle. The Purusha knows it. It is stated that day was first and then night. is always comprehended by the tongue. Only the Kshetrajña attains. The earth is the source of . there is no doubt of that. is the Kshetrajña. which is void of symbols. is purely knowledge. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. that months have the bright first. the unperceived (is appointed). a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. the supporter of all beings. And I always see. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. And crossing beyond darkness. together with names and characteristics. and that is comprehended by the ear. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. The qualities created again and again. The quality of space is sound. to the truth. The characteristic of mind is meditation. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. know. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. (though) concealed. verily. The quality of light is color. to be created and tied down to a beginning.destruction is of the nature of impiety. no one. he is the Supreme Lord. and transcending death and old age. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. and transcending the qualities. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. which is great. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. the essence of water. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. and the Mahat of knowledge. in this world. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. Taste. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. who resides in the tongue. taste is the characteristic of water. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. (else) attains. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. free from the ceremony of salutations. the characteristic of renunciation. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). Thought is the quality of mind. and that is comprehended by the eye. And the moon likewise. he repairs to that which has no second. and having his sins destroyed. is smell.
Therefore one whose self is tranquil. Kinnaras. is everchanging. there is no doubt of that. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. Bhûtas. The sun is the first among shining bodies. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed.smells. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. which is full of actions and instruments of action. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. Prajâpati of deities. All accumulations end in exhaustion. The great Vishnu. the ever holy field of Brahman. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. And the unthinkable. the offering (into the fire) is the best. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. and Yakshas. And of all gods. who is devoid of egoism. and the same is also the end of everything. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. The Syena is first among birds. the end of grief ever pleasure. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. and of men. Of all mountains. snakes. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. . the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. of which the environment is home. All action ends in destruction. all associations end in dissociations. Sacrifice. who is full of the Brahman. and life ends in death. Dânavas. Of all orders. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. of which the pole is the mind. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. all that is called Sâvitrî. which is sustained by the qualities. gold (is the first). a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. There is no end for knowledge. which moves through (all) the worlds. Among all precious things. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. the noise of which is trouble and toil. and Rakshasas. likewise. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. the end of pleasure is ever grief. the goat is mentioned (as the first). is the source of the entire universe. and regulations. water of tastes. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. study. I. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. whatever is prescribed in this world. the Plaksha. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. fire is said to be the first of the elements. which is lit up by the great egoism. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. death is certain for whatever is born. likewise space is the source of sound. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. that of householders (is the first). whose senses are subjugated. And among all immovable entities. of all words. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. there is no doubt of that. and the Prâna lifewind. too. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. water is the best. the eastern quarter is the first. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. and among all reptiles. among (sacrificial) animals. which rotates in space and time. among sacrifices. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. Pisâkas. without distinction. all ascents end in falls. is stated to be the first. the fastenings in which are vexations. which abounds in old age and grief. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. the mud for which is penance and regulations. Of all ages the Krita is the first. These are the qualities of the elements. which is measured by months and half months. all this ends in destruction. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. and the twice-born among men. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. there is no doubt of that. gift. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. Îsvara is the lord. the ocean is the first-born. observances. penance.
they are pious duties. the forester. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and take exercise (duly). And as to the other remaining three duties. conquers heaven. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. and be of pure vows. This wheel of life. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. and the Brahmachârin. attains the highest goal. and with one’s external organs restrained. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. to such a one the (word) good applies. Always devoted to his own wife. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. or of cotton. who is pure. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). he should have matted hair. There should also be a girdle of muñga. The Brâhmana householder. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. or also a deerskin. together with the immortals should cast away. should behave like the good. which is unchecked. and should stand. should be kind. and constant in veracity and piety. who is self-restrained. and equable to all creatures. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. and check. making gifts. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. with the permission of the preceptor. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. the speed of which is like that of the mind. gift. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. is never deluded. the imperishable source (of all). and full of faith. kind. and alms. transcending all pairs of opposites. With regard to those three duties. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. behaving like good men. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. in the way above stated. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. the sage who understands piety. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. and also the beggar. and also receiving untainted gifts. and should give and receive gifts. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and sacrifice. who is of rigid vows. and who has duly observed vows. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. That man among all creatures. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). sit. released from all impressions. with his senses restrained. all the world. take food without decrying it. (That) sage. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. possessed of forgiveness. and self-restrained. who is thus devoted. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. and have his sacred . who is devoted to Vedic rites. to follow it is good. and should always associate with good men. study. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and which is extended by means of attachments. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. this has been celebrated from ancient times.which is large. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. which moves towards joy and pleasure. should return (from his preceptor’s house). The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. and which is devoid of consciousness. and who understands the Vedas. The householder. and released from all sins. should. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. One should learn and teach. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. should avoid heedlessness. and which is (never) fatigued. abridge.
And with his senses restrained. addicted to sacred study. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. (Such) a Brahmachârin. and leaves. be engaged in sacred study. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). fruits. who is concentrated in mind. seeking merely to sustain life. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. and in the rains. restraint of the external organs. and should eschew dwelling with friends. In summer. or a Brahmachârin. He should move about the world like a worm. and which have come spontaneously. veracity. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. conquers heaven. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. kind. When eating. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. always dexterous. nor should he eat when honored. He should without sloth feed on water. or which are pungent. astringent. and restrained in all his senses. looking out for the (proper) time. and devoted to veracity and piety. freedom from (the habit of) carping. and should not . kind. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. always with clean water. he should not go following after another. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. Refined by means of all ceremonies. He should not make any accumulations. freedom from anger. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. or a forest. Offering safety to all beings. having a mind free from envy. A householder. he should move about in a secluded place. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. and be agreeable to all beings. Eating only a little. A man should always bathe in clean water. pure in body. and when he goes about for alms. not deceptive and not crooked. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. and of rigid observances. and should not rejoice if he obtains. and likewise no sweet juices. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and roots and Syâmâka grain. and continent. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. or again a forester. and depending on the deities. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). Restraining the external senses. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. is esteemed. eating little. and free from avarice.thread. being restrained in mind. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. or the foot of a tree. or the cavern of a mountain. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. preserving his hair and moustache. or a river likewise. he may dwell in one place. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. always in forests. and reaching the highest seat. free from passion. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. living on fruits and leaves. He should not parade (his) piety. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. or bitter. and also straightforwardness. his path being pointed out by the sun. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. full of forgiveness. He should honor guests. should not enter a town again. the sage should become free from all action. in order. and concentrated in mind. life as a Brahmachârin. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. Nor should he beg for too much alms. He should honor a guest who comes. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. and always living within the forest. performing sacrifices. air. does not return to birth. One who is thus devoted.
or back. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. One who knows the truth. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. he gets emancipation. and the Purusha likewise. devoid of taste or touch. mind. nor worlds. which is unattached. Though undeluded. He should not defile anything by the eye. Those who perceive the self. without a head. is emancipated. and should be void of (all) belongings. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. egoism. nor Vedas. there is no doubt of that. without a stomach. nor should one wish for gold. or the assemblage of people. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. which is to be understood. devoid of color. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. One who has anything to do should take earth. and in whom the senses. who is free from attachments to any entity. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. He should not receive from others. understanding. any action involving expectation of fruit. nor valor. a wise man should always share (with others). and without fixed appointments with people. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. nor should he ever give to others. and which is also devoid of flesh. pebbles likewise. which is without hands. the unperceived. or by speech. divine. nor penance. always dwelling in all entities. and who is dependent on none. But owing to the helplessness of people. which is free from the operations of the qualities. He should perform piety. absolute. who is free from the pairs of opposites. should meditate. or the mind. who is free from expectations. should not teach. depending on none. they never die. being devoted to pious conduct. One should not hate. sacrifices. Nor. foot. He should not appropriate another’s riches. who understands all truth. by an accurate determination about the truth. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). or involving any destruction of life. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. and being equable to all beings. and leaves. Rejecting all things. and should not take (anything) unasked. nor reflect on that which is past. untainted. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. he attains to the highest seat. One should not perform. and free from distress. one should disregard the present. water. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. not finding fault with piety. Freed from all attachments. with his accumulations exhausted. and the objects of the senses. and understanding are absorbed. The senses. flowers.follow his own (mere) desire. nor the deities. nor the senses. and self-controlled. and should avoid (all) controversies. There the understanding reaches not. and mind. who is attached to the self. One should not perturb any other (person). and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and then. and also devoid of sound. which is free from anxiety. who is free from desires. or cause to be performed. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. exclusively pondering on one point. devoid of smell. and stable. verily. and though dwelling in a house. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. and the five great elements. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. and who understands the truth. who is free from egoism. One should not think of what is not come. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. and who is free from salutations. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). . one attains heaven. being released from all bonds. as they come. should act without a purpose. should be free from attachment. after understanding all these. imperishable. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. moving and unmoving. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. he should act in the manner of the deluded. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time.
The highest Brahman is very far off. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. which is always possessed of leaves. and which is the essential element in knowledge. transcending passion. becomes fit for immortality. and despises nothing. and devoid of qualities. which cause birth. and likewise unity and diversity. devoid of qualities. is released from misery. and who is devoid of egoism. death. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. Abandoning all action. But as to that other who is above them. who are pure. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. Restraining the self in the self. attaining to the self. and being untainted. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. and which is fed upon by all creatures. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. by tranquility only. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. even dwelling in this world. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. there is no doubt of that. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. (which are) unchanging. and supreme. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. always possessed of flowers. even for (the space of) a wink. The learned man who perceives. it is free from the pairs of opposites. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. and the side branches the objects of sense. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. becomes eligible. for assimilation with the Brahman. is emancipated. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and (as it were) non-intelligent. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. he is called intelligent. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. and some as transcendent and without misery. The men of talent. which abides in all entities. (When) the inner self. and abandoning both truth and falsehood.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. There are these two birds. go to the happy path by penance. and free from egoism. the great branches of which are the great elements. of unthinkable qualities. through the tranquility of the self. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. He who desires nothing. then understanding the Kshetra. and whose minds are refined. developed from the qualities. and renunciation the best penance. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. association and dissociation. understands that which is beyond nature. whether agreeable or disagreeable. the sprouts within which are the senses. and old age. devoid of knowledge of nature. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. is emancipated. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. there is no doubt of that. there is no doubt of that. a creature is emancipated. everlasting. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. and with an understanding comprehending all. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. Penance is said to be a light.
Some have matted hair and skins. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. Some extol final emancipation. and others say that is not so. such is their relation. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Some people extol action. and our mind is distracted. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). some are in the midst of doubts. of ten or twelve (modes). (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. others are intent on fasting. Some are for taking food. be obtains whatever he desires. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. and others (that it is) mixed. and (others) that it exists not. Some (say) everything is doubtful. Some people are for bathing. gifts. Some extol everything. who were the best of sages. and others. always esteems that. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. Some are devoted to goodness. equability. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. and others. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. knowledge. courage. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and come to no determination. the venerable. some are for pleasure. Some are devoted to harmlessness. this is good. and others indigence. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory.by control of the life-winds. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. But that is not correct. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and others nothing. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. too. and others again (that it is) manifold. harmlessness. And. and those who ponder on the element. (saying) this is good. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. there is no doubt of that. and other persons sacred study. we are deluded. some wish for riches. and others that there is no doubt. having again felt doubts. Some say both time and space (exist). Some learned men. Some Brâhmanas. but others extol penance. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. others distinct. some say that is not so. straightforwardness. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. who are devoted to knowledge. Such is the doctrine of the learned. some for the omission of bathing. Some people (say) meditation. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. People are acting. some are for merit and glory. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. that it exists. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). believe it to be one. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. some various kinds of enjoyments. Some (say) means should be resorted to. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and others that that is not so. . Thus having first a tranquil self. and some given up to destruction. and renunciation. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. others that that is not so. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. truth. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. and some for pain. abandonment. We wish. too. nature. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. that fits one for immortality. some knowledge. and others tranquility. holy.
Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. The subject is always the being. perceive correctly. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. rejoice in this world. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. While there is oil and wick. throwing aside the boat. though it is the object of enjoyment. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. Understand this. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. As far as there is a carriage-path. comprehending the gradations one above the other. and may even be destroyed on the way. devoid of parts. and going swiftly. being born again and again. For the talented man who knows (these) means. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. where the carriage-path stops. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. Learn that. deliberate on it properly. Even brought into contact with all qualities. This is the highest seat. Thus nature is perceived. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. and soon crosses the reservoir. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). O Brâhmanas! Well now. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. and who are infidels in their conduct. I will tell you something more. This has been already explained by the parallel of the .CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. But those wise and talented men. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. It is established that nature is the property of the being. travels with great discomfort. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. a learned man remains untainted. and nature is stated to be the object. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. go verily to hell. free from vexation and holy in character. It has been explained in the above mode. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. He abides in everything alike. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. through delusion. Non-destruction of all creatures. I will declare to you what you ask of me. he goes in the carriage. such is the progress of the men of understanding. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. So travels the talented man. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. and in essence free from the qualities. and to be constituted of the qualities. goes in the water without fatigue. free from any connection with expectations. so should one understand. the light shines. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. Hearing it all. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. attains supreme happiness. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. who perform actions with faith. and who knows about the qualities. and void of intelligence. and who entertain avarice and delusion. afflicted by reason of the chariot. and is connected with (all) knowledge. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. Now I will proceed to.
so does it result to them. and are conversant with piety. air is said to have (these) two qualities. The quality of light is color. White. From egoism is produced the development. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. are stated to be the qualities of water. And touch is the quality of air. said to be of six descriptions. and also productive in its essence. diffusive and compact also. is of four qualities. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. touch. and likewise color. One who has come by delusion through affection. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Rough. and above the unperceived is the being. and likewise Pañkama. and smell as the fifth – these. too. or sound. red likewise. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. I will now give (some) information about taste. and that is stated to be sound only. abounding with movables and immovables. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. void of taste. Sound. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. glutinous. Smell always belongs to the earth. which is void of any smell whatever. bitter. which is produced in space. broad. and of (many) ingredients. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. and earth. together with Gândhâra. Learn about their properties. sour. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. Madhyama. but they do not yield products. and clear also. and who identifies himself with every being. above that is the unperceived. sharp. egoism is above that. and water. and grey likewise. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. sour. touch.carriage and pedestrian. narrow. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. and of the elements respectively. hurtful. and rough. thus is light said to have three qualities. touch. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. astringent. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. yellow. touch. that is called the Pradhâna. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. square. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. and above that understanding is the self. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. Shadga. Space is the highest element. hard. Thus sound. above egoism is understanding. Now space has one quality. smooth. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. repairs to the imperishable self. namely. soft. it is said that light has three qualities. the great elements. cold and hot likewise. green. and color likewise. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. Sweet. sweet. Rishabha. slippery. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. should be understood to be of five qualities. Sound. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. And as action is performed in this world. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. and bitter likewise. which is a development of water. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. which belongs to the earth. Sound and touch also should be understood. air is said to have two qualities. to be of twelve descriptions. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. compact. and void of color. and taste. who speak the truth. Sound. Now space has one quality. taste. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). – thus should smell. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. tender and clear also. color likewise. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. be understood to be of ten descriptions. black. the divine source of all entities. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. short long.
enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. For all acquisition has penance for its root. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. and herbs. and ends with the gross objects. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. (sacrificial) animals. one who destroys an embryo. and includes movables and immovables. all the elements. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. Pitris. difficult to learn. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. The senses. Gods. the mind itself is the individual self. the creators of the world. and having their minds always tranquil. Whatever is difficult to obtain. obtain the great and highest world. like billows in the ocean. men. they are the very first to be dissolved. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. Asuras. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. for penance is difficult to overcome. Medicines. One who drinks spirituous liquors. and the understanding for a drag. again acquiring knowledge. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. Gandharvas. one who steals. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. And he who is released. all have been created by nature. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. difficult to vanquish. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. These Brâhmanas. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. and in which the understanding is the drag. and devoid of egoism. gods. and abandons everything as fruitless. are born here again and again. beasts and birds. all that can be accomplished by penance. they go near Prajâpati. (Those) men. goes to the highest goal. which is the unperceived. Such is the upward gradation among entities. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. He who understands him understands the Vedas. has the mind for a charioteer. Those who best understand the self. those who have achieved perfection. a man gets rid of all sins. Born from that same unperceived (principle). perceive the triple world here by penance. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. And in like manner. always reach perfection by penance. and next the developments produced from the elements. and being full of egoism. and who are free from egoism. The mind always presides over the great elements. Pisâkas. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. and all other creatures movable or immovable. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. This is the eternal mystery. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. That individual self. nor by a cause. That which begins with the unperceived . comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. movable or immovable. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. not by actions. and (after) these developments. enter the highest world of the great. one who kills a Brâhmana. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. and it is called the Kshetrajña. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. the mind. a sage should sit down self-restrained. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. is released from. Râkshasas. that sin only by penance well performed. That learned and talented person verily. even from those five elements. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. and difficult to pass through. and it is the goal of all living creatures. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. The understanding proclaims its power.
O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. in consequence of these means. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. This is the eternal piety. indeed. was that Brâhmana. And now. I have now declared everything to you. O Krishna! and who the pupil. Do you. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. always duly act (according to it). Then when this piety is duly practiced. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. getting rid of all sins. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. he understands that holy Brahman. not full of action. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. he dies not. Then will you attain perfection. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. which is uncreated. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle).and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. who is without expectations. he attains tranquility. I wish to see him. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. Two syllables are death. Knowledge brings forth the being. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. changeless. and restraining the self in the Self. O Janârdana! If this verily. Expelling all impressions. O Lord! then tell it me. And. then you will acquire perfection. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. And when the understanding is clear. too. incomprehensible. did everything (accordingly). and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. O noble person. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. having done all he should have done. sages! Act thus forthwith. and then attained to the worlds. attained to that seat. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. changeless. who is without attachment. Arjuna said: Who. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . than which nothing greater exists. O best of Brâhmana. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. Vâsudeva. and not mine is the eternal. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. three syllables the eternal Brahman. is fit to be heard by me. with your consent. unmoving. and who looks alike on everything. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). Mine is death. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Some men of dull understandings extol action. And the pupil. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. If you have love for me.
Dhanañjaya replied (saying). who is of a devout heart.When Krishna spoke these words. Be pleased. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.’ Om Tat Sat . ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa.
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