This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. is released. wealth. From that he created the Pradhâna. This is what is called the destructible. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. He who is not pious and not impious. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. too. and also tranquility. indeed. self-restraint. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. And Prajâpati. who has no child. (having) as regards the moving (creation). created the whole of the three worlds. is released. is released who is equable towards both life and death. Gifts. and which is known in the world as the highest. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). Brahman. and whose self is free from affections. Then seeking after the supreme seat. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). but the other is immortal and indestructible. and who is self-possessed. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. and gain and loss. he becomes indifferent to everything. which is very difficult to cross. pure. becomes happy. who is self-controlled. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. who is devoted to tranquility. and thinking of naught. as he should act. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. He who has no enemy. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. and causing good to be done. this is said to be the conduct of the good. The practice to which the good adhere. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. What I say is all correct and proper. for among them it constantly abides. and about the return. who had been first created. Learn from me exhaustively. moving and fixed. which I am now about to declare. who has abandoned piety. one going the round of various births. He who acquires that. a pair separately for each (species). purity. and absence of cruelty. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. serving mother and father. And that I shall now proceed to state.action by which. And he. who contemns no one. who has subdued his senses. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. and (what is) agreeable and odious. A man who is a friend of all. honoring deities and guests. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). who is free from the pairs of opposites. He who is not attached to any one. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . he is. points out (what) piety (is). constant restraint of the organs. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. released in every way. penance. and ruin to be connected with action. From this is produced piety. and lust altogether. He who understands the Pradhâna. adherence to prescribed regulations. pity. who endures all. the grandfather of all people. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. and likewise pleasure and pain. the body to be an unholy aggregate. the material cause of all embodied (selves). having made a body for himself. who has no kinsmen. life as a Brahmachârin. he is. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. abandoning each previous (element). never comes to an evil end. free from vanity and egoism. And as regards that. and who has no desire. which protects people to eternity. released from everything. by which all this is pervaded. honoring preceptors. verily. restraint of the senses. indeed. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. compassion to (all) beings. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. takes place after a long time. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease.
and of a tranquil mind. since he is the lord of the triple world. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. like fire devoid of fuel. and casting aside old age and death. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. and freed from old age and grief. he has no fear. when (all) beings are afflicted. always full of birth. free from the pairs of opposites. he is indeed released. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. saying. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. constant. without belongings. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. tranquil. he remains steady to the self. One who does no action. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. which consist in pain and grief. indestructible. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. and unknowable. perceives the self in the self.body. searching for his own faults. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. than which there is nothing higher. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. Restraining the . should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. Weapons do not pierce him. devoid of qualities. there is no death for him. he is not afflicted by anything. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. then there is no ruler over him. void of touch. the soft fibers stand for the self. He whose self is concentrated. and having no cause. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. he gradually obtains tranquility. Restraining the senses. he sleeps at ease. Leaving this human frame. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. is released. As a person having seen one in a dream. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. who has practiced penance. And as one may show the soft fibers. He who is free from all impressions. ‘This is he. and having his senses subjugated. and abandoning the transient body. he is released. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. and always concentrating his mind. The body is called the Muñga. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. void of color. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. and having first performed rigorous penance. death. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. Properly concentrating his self. who is free from attachment. being habituated to exclusive meditation. devoid of form. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. and who is self-restrained. void of sound. he perceives the perfect one. one should fix the mind on the self. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. looks on this universe as transient. Then the talented Brâhmana. void of taste. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. like an Aswattha tree. Thinking of a quarter seen before. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman.. Seeing the self void of smell. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). he assumes bodies at pleasure. When. meditating in that habitation. is released. and who has no desire. void of belongings. he grieves not and exults not. unmoving.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. recognizes him (afterwards). is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. then he. When (all) beings are destroyed. Remaining within (that) city. Then freed from all impressions. and old age. after extracting them from the Muñga.
which is difficult to explain. and how also to blood? And how. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. heads. distinctly? How. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. – with. O son of Prithâ! For. tongue. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. too. He should meditate on his teeth. palate. O Mâdhava! I replied. For as to that eternal Brahman. and do you (too) go away. forsaking the body. He has hands and feet on all sides. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. I will go away. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. as it were. Adopting this doctrine. Have you listened to this. and (keeping) the passages confined. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. – went away as he pleased. nor by any of the senses. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. too. a mental smile. and likewise the seat of the heart. possessed of great penance. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. and muscles. and throat likewise. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. and of the excretions. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). And then depending upon it thus. What I have spoken. and Sûdras likewise. reaches immortality and is ever happy. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. This whole mystery I have declared to you.group of the senses. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. where one. he stands pervading everything in the world. O Krishna! that pupil. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). even those who are of sinful birth. who are constantly intent on their own duties. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. That talented pupil. too. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. attain the supreme goal. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. and also the heart. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. women. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. he has eyes.’ Thus addressed by me. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. and marrow. do the flesh. It is my belief. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. final emancipation. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. he has cars on all sides. neck. and determination regarding . he perceives the self. The world of the gods. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. and abandoning his body. he attains final emancipation in me. He is not to be grasped by the eye. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. The soul sees the self come out from the body. too. and also the means for its acquisition. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. and faces on all sides. Vaisyas.
spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. in which the materials are visible. Concentration of mind comes to him. that which is to be drunk. and that which understands. This is all that is to be said. and the eye. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. and that which is to be understood. Whatever action there is. but is to be apprehended by the mind. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. that which sees. verily. and (observe) good vows. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. When that is asleep. seated in seclusion. From birth to the destruction of the body. The nose. does exist among (all) beings. and likewise that which is to be heard. good or bad. that which is to be seen. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. It is not to be smelt by the nose. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. shall I go to. as the life-winds are controlled (by it).misery. or heard. that man of a tranquil self. devoid of taste and touch. O son of Pându! who. and also that which is to be thought of. or seen. and the tongue. (in the form of) a dialogue. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. that which touches. the mind and the understanding. In the interior. shall I reach. you who live renouncing (all) action. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. and likewise that which is to . While the paths (of action). and the skin. that can be caught (by the touch). CHAPTER V On this. and not to be tasted by the tongue. and Udâna also proceed. by act. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. that which cats. and the moon together with the fire. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. that which is to be smelt. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. that which is to be drunk. (namely). and into it they enter. From this the Prâna. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. these are the seven great officiating priests. action. possessed of talents. A Brâhmana’s wife. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. The mortal. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. that only do the men of action engage in as action. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. that which is to be touched. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. mind or speech. and the ear as the fifth. Apâna. are destroyed by demons. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. Vyâna. and that which hears as the fifth. produce them in their wombs. and their selves tranquil. that which is to be seen. And mark this always. there is nothing further than this. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). that which thinks. indeed. full of faith. depending on you as (my) husband. which occurred. and imperishable. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. That which is to be smelt. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. and on which it rests. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. It is devoid of smell. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. too. and energetic. that which is to be touched. What goal. That is called the Udâna. and who are harsh and undiscerning. That which smells. devoid of color and sound. Samâna. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed.
immovable and also movable. But inasmuch.’ But speech thereupon said to him. from that doubt is produced. touch. that (in) my (view). verily. indeed. First. The ear. though . The goddess speech. The quarters. words. destroy our doubts. and the discharge of semen. But. they relate this ancient story. the nose. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. urine. and light as the fifth. Prajâpati. verily. the genital organ. The mind is the ladle. the movable is in your dominion. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. the tongue. yield (you) your desires. are the fuel. or letter. and (though) developed. from that is produced taste. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. these. verily. motion. was the universe duly divided. or tone goes to your dominion. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. these are the ten oblations. color. Then the lord of speech was produced. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. And in that very (principle). I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. From that is produced smell. and excrement. wind. And the mind. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. from that another is produced. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. requires everything knowable (as its offering). these. which is the generator of all entities. air. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. there are two minds. are ten sacrificial priests. space. Earth. these seven. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. That is called the movement of the mind. O beautiful one! Sound. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. and they are offered up into the ten fires. speech. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. the offerings are ten. sun. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. and Mitra. ‘Say which of us is superior. (Thus) we have heard. water. and hence the mind is in need (of it). does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. is with me. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. verily. and Vishnu also. they were perfectly filled with light. verity. from that touch is produced. Indra. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. which is the instrument of knowledge. and the knower is the upholder of the body. are words produced. and the anus. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. ‘I. from that is produced color. and taste. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. highest knowledge. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. verily. from that is produced sound. that which is to be thought of. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). that indeed is the movable mind. are named wombs. too. and the wealth is the pure. ‘Mind (is superior). the two feet. The immovable.be heard. action. therefore. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. moon.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. mind and understanding. smell. and into this the offering is thrown. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). Whatever mantra. the two hands. and also that which is to be understood. from that is produced determination. and the mind runs after them. To that you are superior. earth and fire.
Do you. and the skin. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. O you of a bright smile! is divine. the understanding. The nose. saying. the ear likewise. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. the mind. like a cow. the ear. and the understanding also. So speech formerly spoke. Of those two. the understanding apprehends it. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. the ear. they relate this ancient story. the skin. with divine power. the ear. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). mind and understanding. do not apprehend doubt. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the skin. The nose. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. and the eye. the nose apprehends them. verily. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. and the tongue. O venerable sir? Tell me this. the tongue. And these never know the qualities of each other. It is always noisy or noiseless. the mind. and the understanding also. and the understanding also. and the understanding also. and the eye. and the eye. – a dialogue. the tongue. do not apprehend smells. the mind likewise. the skin. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. do not apprehend tastes. yields milk. the tongue. This excellent (speech). The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. the skin. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. The mind said: . and the ear as the fifth. and the understanding also. The nose. do not apprehend colors. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed.impelled. and which then goes into the Apâna. the mind apprehends it. they do not perceive each other. The nose. and the mind also. too. The nose. On this. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the mind. ‘Be pleased. the tongue. and the eye. the skin apprehends them. the skin. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. too. The tongue. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. she ran up to Prajâpati. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. The nose. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). This cow-like speech. the tongue. the eye apprehends them. the eye. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. the skin. The nose. and next the eye. do not apprehend sounds. flowing (forms). the tongue apprehends them. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. Dwelling in a minute space. when. the mind. the eye. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. the ear apprehends them. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. the ear likewise. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the ear likewise. do not apprehend final determination.
Granted. like fuel half dried and half moist. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. then what you believe is true. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. without us. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). are the five sacrificial priests. who was born first. (which is) like entering a house without a door. and objects are standing. He shall be the greatest among us. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. the senses never shine. and the Udâna. The learned know this to be a great principle. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. (there is) pleasure and support of life. and said to him. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. all beings. rules are for the weak. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. without us. always meets death. and if you enjoy enjoyments. or if when we are absorbed. a creature. Without me. Without me. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). The senses said: This would be true as you believe. both past and future. resulting from mental operations (alone). or like fires the flames of which are extinct. even with the senses exerting themselves. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. and take in sounds by the skin. if you. and indulged in dreams. does run to objects of sense only. you have no perception. when our objects perform their functions. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. If when we are extinct. life is seen to be supported. too. take in tastes by the eye. the ear does not in any way hear sound. and not connected with objects of sense. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. One entering upon enjoyments. Without me. Besides. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. that the Prâna and the Apâna. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. I am the eternal chief among all elements.The nose smells not without me. when troubled by desire to enjoy. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. then take in colors by the nose. take in smells by the ear. They formerly went to the grandsire. they relate an ancient story. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. like an empty dwelling. still. the eye does not take in color. the tongue does not perceive taste. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind.’ Brahman said: . so you treat as yours objects shown by us.
all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. (Now) go where (you) like. spoke to him. the lord of (all) creatures. O beautiful one! spoke these words. (which are) five. they again move about. There are others moving about. is the greatest. and the Vyâna also. And on my moving about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. I am the greatest. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and again moved about. Being friendly with one another. The Vyâna only is subject to you. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.’ The Prâna again moved about.’ Then the Apâna moved about. ‘You are not the greatest among us. and the Apâna said to him. I am the greatest. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. And the Prâna and Apâna. You are not the greatest among us. Hear the reason why. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. they again move about. and the Samâna. and on my moving about. Welfare be to you! Support one another. All are greatest in their own spheres. And the Prâna and Apâna. they again move about. and on whose moving about. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. O Prâna. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. Hear the reason why. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and on my moving about. and again moved about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and on my moving about. go away happily. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and not greatest. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. When I am extinct. because the Apâna is subject to you. they again move about. they again move about.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. and pleasing one another. and on my moving about. I am the greatest. When I am extinct. I am the greatest. and all support one another. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). and the Samâna spoke again. owing to (their) specific qualities.He. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. they again move about. When I am extinct. and again moved about. and the Udâna. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and the Samâna. verily. My own self is one only. who being extinct. Hear the reason why.
and (it) is also produced from smell. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. It is the teaching of the Veda. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. their function is performed: then. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. (the quality of) passion. First. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. the Samâna comes into operation again. between them is the fire. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. between them is the fire. and (it) is also produced from color. and the eye. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). From desire the semen is produced. hear me speak about that. and the semen being developed by the Prâna.On this. or downwards. the Prâna comes first into operation. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. (it) is also produced from taste. This is the effect of the Udâna. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. the agent. which is of excellent glory. The smoke of that (fire). in which the offering is thrown. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or downwards. Hear me. that the fire verily is all the deities. the pleasure is produced from union. The two – good and evil – are a pair. which (move) upwards. and the tongue. too. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. or transversely. or Samâna. The nose. the action. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. they relate this ancient story. his Prâna. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. the Apâna then comes into operation. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. CHAPTER X On this. and (it) is also produced from a sound. Day and night are a pair. that which is other than this first comes to him. and emancipation. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. and between them is the fire. too. From the combination of the semen and the blood. secondly. and the . or transversely. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. these. or Apâna. The instrument. and (it) is also produced from touch. being accompanied by intelligence. (its) ashes. which (move) upwards. the Samâna and Vyâna. or Vyâna. what comes into existence first. indeed. between them is the fire.
being possessed of qualities. too. Whatever is thought by the mind. On this. approaching Prajâpati. and whatever is smelt by the nose. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. by Prajâpati. destroying this food again produces it. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). whatever is seen by the eye. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. the self the Adhvaryu priest. being (himself) a ruler. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. the venerable one said. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. ‘Om. he who thinks. shines dwelling within the body. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. he who speaks. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. the director. he. Taught by that instructor. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. The gods had been engaged in gifts. Taught by that instructor. they relate an ancient story. agreeable and disagreeable. And I am here devoid of qualities. like water on a declivity. and the snakes. And cooking food for himself.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. He destroys the food. The learned man. final emancipation. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart.skin. On that Sâman hymns. There is one instructor. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. and the ear as the fifth. There is one enemy. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good.’ Hearing that. Impelled by that same (being). the Brahman priest in which. and the gods. Smell. and he who understands. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. There is one kinsman. On. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). (and) the seven Rishis. sound. (about the) instruction of the snakes. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. These. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. each in its own place. The gods. He who smells. there is no second (different) from him. is the upward life-wind. and color. whatever is spoken by speech. are sung. and taste. and sages. of which an illustration is stated. the Sastra. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. truth. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. mind and understanding. there is no second (different) from him. and sages. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. he who eats. This being. is the counselor in all action. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. in a single syllable. CHAPTER XI There is one director. these seven are causes of action. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. is ruined. To him who is not learned. too. eating various (kinds of) food. and he who hears as the fifth. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. the Brahman. there is no second (different) from him. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. my fire of (high) qualifications. Living under that instructor. and the Dakshinâ. The eating of that which should not be eaten. and the great sages . the Hotri priest. there is no second director. and the demons. the Stotra in which. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. I move as I am ordered. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. he who sees. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. and touch as the fifth. whatever is heard by the ear. the downward lifewind. they ran away in (various) directions. And among the learned who understand (everything). enjoy their own qualities. who is the self of everything. there is no second (different) from him. this. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. There is one hearer.
and nobody is afraid of them. which has contentment for its water. and the guests eat the fruits. There is one fire here. (namely) the five senses. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. seven hermitages. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. Having had one teacher. are always within the heart. there is no other happiness equal to. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. The qualities are the fruits. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. becomes a Brahmachârin. There always dwell seven females there. the sages. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. And I have entered the great forest. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. the Brahman the instructor. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. with faces (turned) downwards. There is nothing smaller than that. They are not afraid of anybody. the great sages receive hospitality. There. and what the rivers. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. the hearer. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. This is the description of the forest. and fragrant. all engaged in different (pursuits). But he who. there is no other instructor. And there is fuel here. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. Understanding it they practiced it. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. the Brahman the fire. and the hills and mountains. and do not exult. and mixed. Acting sinfully in the world. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. He is rapt in the Brahman. and having been instructed with one word. seven (forms of) concentration. who. merely adheres to the Brahman. the learner. the snakes. full of brilliance. in which intelligence is the tree. and is to be crossed by one singly. The good who attain to that. have no fear afterwards. the way to which consists in worldly objects. owing to his desires.in restraint of the senses. the Brahman water. there is nothing larger than that. connected with the Brahman. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. and seven guests. and the demons. There is nothing more subtle than that. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. which depends on knowledge. and having a good mind. the Brahman his origin. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. seven fruits. when there is a distinction from it. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. casting aside vows and actions. and emancipation the fruit. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. The instructor. and seven (forms of) initiation. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. in various places. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. that. when there is no distinction from it. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. and the enemy. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. and of beautiful colors. another forest shines forth. In that forest are seven large trees. There is nothing more afflicting than that. the gods. . and causes of generation. the twice-born do not grieve. Entering it.
adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. as understood by Brâhmanas. nor yet do I hear various sounds. is this holy forest. or death. Although actions are performed. they are born so as not to lose courage. perfection. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. and his life-winds likewise the sky. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). too. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. praise tranquility. the richest. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. take him (to them) and consult (them). and I do not touch. And understanding it. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. and greatness. Such. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. they act (accordingly). Dwelling in that (self). then the sacrifice is for the goat. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. devote themselves to Brahman. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. father. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. The life-winds. this goat will not be destroyed. Apart from them. too. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. being directed by the Kshetrajña. After hearing their consent. and as the constant entity underlying them. or old age. mother. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. whatever in him is produced from water. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. they relate an ancient story. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. indeed. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. Glory. I see no color. especially as he is dependent. and again emerge from the same. nor even do I entertain any fancies. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. (his) ear the quarters. There is no offence on my part. (This) creature will obtain welfare. and I think only his unmoving body remains. Understand that. not hating any evil. together with their chiefs. . Not desiring any object of desire. And aspiring to that forest. I perceive no tastes. since the Vedic text is such. enlightenment. we do not rely on what is not visible. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. On this.They absorb all the higher delights of people. Those whose wishes are reduced. I see the individual self in the body. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. there is no taint on my natures. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. Nature desires objects which are liked. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). merging the self in the self. brilliance. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. that will enter water. The teaching of the elders is. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). censuring (the act) as destruction of life. If I spoke further. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. of this goat have gone to their sources. abide. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. His eye (will enter) the sun. whose sins are burnt up by penance. victory. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu.
O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. such is the double manifestation of the self. O venerable sir! I approach you. who is free from the pairs of opposites. you believe. saluting him. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. too. The ocean said: If. who has subdued his self. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. have life. freed from delusion. And to one who is free from these manifestations. you see the colors of shining bodies. who might stand against me in the field. the mind. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. they act (accordingly). you touch the qualities of the air. there is no fear anywhere. And all these entities. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. the tongue. (in the shape of) a dialogue. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. who take shelter with me. Once on a time.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. he was walking about near the sea. together with (the quality of) passion. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. who is alike to all beings. . name him to me. Or what do you think. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). and I say (to you). and with joined hands. Say. they relate an old story. For having heard your opinion. my mind is enlightened. you hear the sound produced in space. a descendant of Kritavîrya. The ocean. and (the quality of) goodness. what shall I do for you? The creatures. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. are being destroyed. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. said. proud of his strength. Of these the indestructible is the existent. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. Give them security. and who is released on all hands. The life-winds. possessed of a thousand arms. who is devoid of expectations. you drink watery juices. and understanding it. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. being directed by the Kshetrajña. as we have heard. the ascetic thereafter remained silent.
hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. became Vrishalas. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Seeing him killed and fallen. (Though) surrounded by enemies. Thus the Dravidas. taking up his axe. In company with his kinsmen. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. Then some of the Kshatriyas. Âbhîras. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. high-souled. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. named Alarka. who understood duty.Then the king. you will die. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). O noble one!’ But Râma. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. The mind said: These arrows. it wishes. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. which was heard by all people. became Vrishalas. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. whose penance was very great. Then the power of Râma. and blew away the army of the king. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. whose power was unbounded. too. to slaughter these kings. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. entered mountains and inaccessible places. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. like a tree of many branches. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . too. to make all mortals perform action. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. blazed forth. There was (once) a royal sage. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. dear friend. only pierce your own vital part. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. like antelopes troubled by a lion. They will. full of great wrath. abandoning (those) great deeds. hearing that (story). Râma also taking up a bow. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. do you perceive. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. burning the hosts of the enemy. shot away volleys of arrows. not forgiving his father’s murder.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. and very firm in his vows. and taking swords and lances. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. What good. the Kshatriyas. ‘Desist. spoke sweetly to Râma. – having performed very difficult deeds. and your vital part being pierced. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. said to those sages. went away. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. with Rikîka as their head. together with the Sâbaras. It is not proper for you. As by its unsteadiness. his grandfathers. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. a bodiless voice from heaven. turned to subtle (questions). they relate an ancient story. who was veracious. Paundras. Hearing that. being a Brâhmana. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni.
he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. and your vital part being pierced. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. The eye said: These arrows. Hearing that. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. he then said after consideration: – . Hearing that. the skin hankers after them only. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The skin said: These arrows. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. one hankers after them only. Hearing that. Hearing that. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. The nose said. and then you will lose (your) life. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. this (tongue) hankers after them only. you will die. They will only pierce your own vital part. you will die. the (ear) hankers after them only. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and your vital part being pierced. The ear said: These arrows. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. The tongue said: These arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part.Smelling very many perfumes. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me.
’ Do you understand this too. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. When vices were in the ascendant. On this. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. of great glory. the best of talented (men). O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. and delusion. Perform a fearful penance. The understanding said: These arrows. Ambarîsha. a man even does what ought not to be done. he meets death. They will only pierce your own vital part. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. pleasure. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. then anxiety comes into existence. but there is one. persistent hatred. free from sloth. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). understands (nothing) while running into ditches.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. and being troubled by desire. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. and applied himself to concentration of mind. wrath. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he reached the highest perfection. joy. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. being impelled by which. Exultation. destroyed all foes. and after deliberating for a long time. Therefore. amazed. attained high perfection. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. properly . could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. And at the expiration of life. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. he. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. and honoring good men. being impelled by which. For from avarice is born desire. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). and your vital part being pierced. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. verily. Sleep. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. a courageous man. and engages in action. thence you will obtain the highest good. and senses controlled. you will die. sloth. according to qualities. and good (men) were oppressed. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. and again birth. cut (it) off with sharp swords. And the royal sage. who had become tranquil (in mind). then uttered this verse. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. He (then) restraining his own vices. Obtaining those. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. and he who desires. owing to these qualities. having a tranquil self. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. When the bodily frame is destroyed. is energetic about subjugating others. (that vice). That avarice – cut (it) off. is born again and again. three foes in (this) world. Then directing his mind to one point. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. the greatest. Grief. he became steady. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold.
and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. as the planet upon the sun. who destroyed the one (chief vice). which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. and said nothing in reply. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. I cannot find my domain. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. engaged in meditation. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. by which. I looked for my own offspring. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. What conviction have you adopted.perceiving this. and. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. and restraining avarice by courage. Resorting to this conviction. a delusion suddenly came upon him. is subject to you. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. Even this self is not mine. (Considering) whose this was. searching through the (whole) earth. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. to be terminable. While that king of unbounded power was seated. the king recovered himself. there is no other sovereignty here. so (is it) that of others too. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. I looked for Mithilâ. intelligence again came to me. by way of punishment. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. I believe. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. King Janaka. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me.’ Thus spoken to. then came the delusion on me. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. what belief you have resorted to. This is sovereignty. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. is subject (to me).’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. by the glorious Ambarîsha. therefore) while you desire. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . And as mine. Then when the delusion had gone off. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. Then on the expiration of the delusion. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. When I did not find it on the earth. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. Janaka said: Though this country. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. in all affairs. and enjoy while you live. avarice. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. I wish. or the whole earth is mine. though this country. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. or that everything is my domain. When I did not find it among them. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. too. holding which. Now hear the conviction.
and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. the Bhûtas. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. according to your own understanding. (namely) for the gods. I am not such. the spoke the understanding. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. And those who. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. Hence. verily. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. where. nothing exists that is a cause of him. or by one whose self is not refined.subject to me. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. and narrow. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. dwelling with preceptors. and a certain thing should not. the nave of which is the Brahman. and which does not turn back. the Pitris. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. have their understanding full of tranquility. I am a Brâhmana. You are the one person to turn this wheel. In the (rules for) final emancipation. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. smiling. and the body is tied down by action. or among mendicants. All these actions of mine are. or residence in forests. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. and also without qualities. and my intelligence is very frivolous. and even over heaven. is (to be found) a description of it. the instructor is the upper Arani. movable or not moving. Then the Brâhmana. together with guests. by which that (entity). not by the body. With your heart intent upon the real entity. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. you have guessed. or else this knowledge. action and knowledge. or. Actions have a beginning and an end. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. by which those who understand that proceed. you will certainly come into my self. I am a forester. come here today to learn (something) about you. for this purpose.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. I am emancipated. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. it is not laid down. namely. that. that a certain thing should be done. indeed. A good means is found. Whatever creatures there are in the world. This path is traversed by the understanding. and confused. observing vows. to households. is perceived as by bees. Sovereignty over the whole world. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood.
is I myself. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. and also desirous of final emancipation. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. Vâsudeva said: On this. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. am come to you (who are) venerable. who was possessed of (the . O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. likewise. (which are) means of direct perception. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. in hundreds and in thousands. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. ‘whose goal is the highest good. There is none else here who can explain these questions. A talented pupil. what penance. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. Arjuna said: Where. And we. indeed.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. too. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. I pray of you with (bowed) head. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. truly. something about the highest good. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. as may here be practicable – unperceived. (when he was) seated. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. are afraid of worldly life. connected with final emancipation. and those whose form is perceived. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). who had approached him (for instruction). O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife.and hears. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). And he. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. ‘I’ (he said). and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. and accurately. and what sin? These questions of mine. Speak. all of various descriptions.’ The preceptor. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. One should adopt as many of these things. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. who put (his) questions properly. between a preceptor and a pupil. Listen to that. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. who preserved (all) vows. put (his) questions with joined bands. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists.
there is no doubt of that. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. which is always possessed of leaves. and has no egoism about anything. and casts off birth and death. Gautama. is released from misery. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. Formerly. who was tranquil. And those twice-born (sages). and wealth. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. after having traveled over all paths. Brihaspati. when thus spoken to by the sages. who was like (his) shadow. I will state to you. and becoming wearied of their own actions. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. desiring knowledge. which ought to be apprehended. penance is the truth. the great sages. full of humility. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. from whom (all) sin has departed. which is eternal. and renunciation as the best penance. always possessed of flowers. in the holes of which are the sprouts. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. the senses. and piety. the gross elements the smaller boughs. The Brahman is the truth. and so forth. the sages. They live by penance. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. and is eternal. Vasishtha. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. Prajâpati also is truth. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. The preceptor said: All this. and of the four orders. and likewise of the castes. Understand that. and who are the constant creators of the people. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. who understands the creation of all entities. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. in Brahman’s mansion. is emancipated. which belongs to olden times. the entities are born from the truth. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman.necessary) qualifications. Bharadvâja. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and likewise Bhârgava. and also Kâsyapa. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. from whom anger and vexation have departed. the future. and Atri also. was declared by Brahman. who are possessed of knowledge. on which all entities subsist. and the seed of which is the Brahman. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. . who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. is esteemed highest. I will state to you today. even while dwelling in this world. saw Brahman. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. namely. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. and who is devoid of egoism. the present. He who does not desire anything. the branches of which are the great egoism. are full of the truth. met each other. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. and the severance also. and Visvâmitra. and likewise unity and variety. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. desire. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection.
and those three channels run on.distinctly. the second is that of householders. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. want of memory. will now be stated together with the reasons. and attend on one another. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. and is the cause of successive (acts). avarice. Passion is said to consist in activity. Learn. He who accurately understands the elements. which is productive of pleasure. He who. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. Delusion. attains to all the spotless worlds. Its characteristic is also impiety. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). casting aside sin. as accepted by good men. and likewise serve one another. rigid in his vows. the ten senses and the one (sense). these are called the three qualities. It has three qualities. . which depend on one another. The wise always speak of piety as one. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. sun. now speaking exhaustively. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. Indra. faith. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. appears to be production. and the five great elements. haughtiness. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. Darkness. and passion is the match of goodness. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. and which are bridges of piety. goodness there prevails. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. lightness. and also all the deities. and darkness the match of goodness. and immutable. such is the eternal creation. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. and five constituent principles. of all beings. This is the nature of darkness. all-pervading. and goodness. Goodness is the match of darkness. Light. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. the whole of the qualities. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. Where passion is restrained. space. which are all coupled with one another. and next after that too. fear. and are joined to one another. want of liberality. The true nature of their characteristics. in aggregation and separation. nihilism. sleep. want of discrimination. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). Where darkness is restrained. The order of foresters. among all beings. passion. one sees not these. passion there prevails. which is in a state of equilibrium. ignorance. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. eleven. learn those accurately. immaturity (of intellect). he. consisting of three qualities. finding fault with good acts. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. which you should understand. indecision about actions. it also appears combined (with others). never comes by delusion. Light. and of the understanding as ruler. air. and is called delusion. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. When it prevails. being constituted by the three qualities. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. violation of (the rules of) conduct. The great self. the unperceived likewise. (but) having four quarters. and of the highest seat. and goodness is also the match of passion. and it is constant in sinful actions. everlasting. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. I will speak to you. and likewise also egoism. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. O noble ones! from me. encircled by the. blindness. I will subsequently state the means to that. its characteristic. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. grief. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. and getting rid of all bonds. next after that is that of foresters. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. Prajâpati.
peace. and also its qualities. endurance. the great delusion. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. animals. are found in various places in this world. and death the blinding obscurity. this is considered to be dark conduct. and vain eating. and want of forgiveness. These dark. want of straightforwardness. evilconducted men. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). delusion. (or become) the immovable entities. becoming men of meritorious actions. backbiting. want of faith. want of faith also. slaughter. all these qualities. wishing for pleasure. touching other people’s weak points. Reviling. sages and saints and gods become deluded. strength. war. Injuring (others). they exert themselves. sinful action. argument. going beyond the Sûdra womb. anger is called the great obscurity. this is considered to be dark conduct. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. Who. deaf and dumb men. Darkness. animosity. want of forgiveness likewise. that one sees the real in what is unreal. buying and selling. harboring evil thoughts. connected with delusion. and also animosity towards people. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. unfriendliness. fierceness and cruelty. beasts of burden. and growing old in (good) actions. and whatever vain gifts. going into inferior ways. and serpents. Such is the Vedic text. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. and also its source. pleasure and pain. they are all held to be dark. frenzy. who are sunk in darkness. and worms. stolidity. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. desire. or deaf. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). Whatever vain actions (there are). Coming to a sinful womb. And whatever other states of mind. valor. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. toil. birds. evil disposition. who. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. repining. or lisping men. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. pride of performance without (actual) performance. and idiots. breaking. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. vanity. as Chândâlas. battle. all these are dark qualities. want of self-restraint. sink into darkness. that is considered to be dark conduct. and also creatures born from eggs. by cutting. And whatever such people there are in this world. vanity. wrath. want of liberality. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. (namely) the brute (species). vindictiveness. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. They go to the hell. indeed. piercing. anger. affliction. vilifying. doers of sinful acts. animosity. beauty. thinking of (this) world.behavior of the lowest quality. pointing out others’ weaknesses. want of knowledge. abuse . The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. bonds. and all quadrupeds. insects. preservation. lassitude. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. the great obscurity called anger. power. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. exercise and quarrel too. to be born in the lower hell. I have now duly described to you. and growing old in their own duties. cold and heat. delusion. who bear the marks of their own actions. Learn. indeed. demons. There. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. who break through (all) regulations. the thought (that this or that is) mine. understands this properly. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. how. deluded convictions. Resorting to a contrary (course of life).
policy. Getting rid of all sins. valor. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. indifference. modesty. The power of governing. righteous feelings. gets rid of all passionate qualities. liberality. Understanding this according to rule. theft. The man who always understands these qualities. contumely. wakefulness. laudation. purity. praise. piety vain. faith. learning vain. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. pleasure. joviality. straightforwardness. and labor vain. devotion to dancing. and attachment also. vows and regulation. service. and also sacrificing and study. freedom from expectations. and create (various) bodies. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. treachery and likewise deception. and also sacrifice. and for houses. harmlessness. freedom from laziness. emancipation. salutation. They are said to have their currents upwards. freedom from delusion. and free from grief. minuteness. contentment. perceive (everything) aright. absence of wrath. these men. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. heedlessness. attendance. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. sacrifices vain. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. and actions with expectations. and unblamable. auspicious rites. defiance. common scandal. forgiveness. censure. the ceremony of Svadhâ. contentment. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. the ceremony of Vashat. doubt. slaughter. he attains the highest in the next world. devotion. They give and receive. abandonment on all hands. prowess. and future entities in this world. management. forgiveness. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. beneficial to all creatures. obedience. disrespect and respect. devoid of expectations. dexterity. vexation. absence of cruelty. vexing (oneself). humility. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. vows vain. all these qualities. absence of calumniation. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. the duty of the good. (on another). and to be gods. The men who meditate on past. gambling. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. Thus. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. harboring desire. absence of backbiting. pleasure and delight. devoid of egoism. they rejoice. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. joy. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. present. compassion to (all) creatures. Born again and again in this world. for living creatures. who are enveloped by passion. for men. penance vain. (holding) knowledge to be vain. those talented men reach heaven. truth. bad gifts. and also want of faith. The . for articles. good behavior. wealth. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility.uttering falsehoods. courage. have (their) currents downwards. disgust. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. gifts and acceptance of gifts. joy. and instrumental or vocal music. nobility. ostentation. association with women. equable everywhere. for women. belongings. unbroken piety. absence of fear. boasting. and of the quality of goodness. haughtiness. purity. Confidence. one obtains whatever one desires. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. expiations. receipt of gifts vain. life as a Brahmachârin. not full of desires. self-restraint. by means of nature. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. absence of stinginess. service vain.’ affection generated by the qualities. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. and make Tarpana. whose conduct is of this description. equability. (good) conduct vain. enlightenment and happiness also. who adhere to the quality of goodness. abiding in the seat of the Brahman.
seasons. the qualities of passion are variable. and passion likewise to be less. there darkness should be understood to be little. The three qualities – goodness. abiding in those of the upward current. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. half-months. piety. They perform their journey together. and travelers. And where goodness is developed. and the Udâna. and lust. passion in the Kshatriya. unshaking. existent and also non-existent – all these. he. and moving about collectively. go down. so long is passion said (to exist) here. goodness. threefold are the worlds. is released from all qualities. and the highest. The man who always understands these qualities. but differing in development. they feed on one another. being connected with the lowest quality. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). threefold the gods. So in all shining bodies. in the lower entities. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. And as long as goodness and darkness. goodness. There is no doubt of this. and the future. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. eternal. holy. Seeing the sun rising. Pradhâna. but is not attached to the qualities. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. Where darkness is increased. The day should be understood to be threefold. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. threefold the sacrifices performed. and the conjunctions. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. the Prâna. there passion should be understood to be little. all that is (made of) these three qualities. years. . enjoys the qualities. Where passion is developed. They all depend on one another. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. Of all these acting with one another. evildoers are alarmed. For they act with cause or without cause. Darkness. and being free from all misery. and the qualities. production and absorption. abiding. The sun is goodness developed. unborn. womb. in union. And whatever there is in this world. and goodness likewise to be less. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. the unperceived. and likewise months. and likewise follow one another. passion. wealth. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. not developed. Threefold are the gifts given. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. and its pure operations. Even from afar.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. the passionate remain in the middle. constant. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. suffering trouble from the heat. these are the three qualities. and goodness likewise to be less. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. immutable. the increase and diminution will now be stated. there: exist three qualities. and the enlightener. abiding in those of the middle current. Among immovable entities. is said to be. Passion. (consisting) of the three qualities. unperceived. and passion also. the night is stated to be threefold. not small. moving in a body. freed from the body. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. the present. immovable. change. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). The creation of the qualities is eternal. goodness. there darkness should be understood to be little. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. The light in the sun is goodness. the Apâna. destruction. in the Brâhmana. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. the men of the quality of darkness. darkness. evil-doers likewise are darkness. The past. the heat is the quality of passion. and threefold the path. They are attached to one another. nature. feel the warmth.
who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. and whose senses are subdued. and insignificant. the understanding. who are not avaricious. Minuteness. the transcendent. it causes all this to move. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). and golden. the operations (connected with these) have causes. and smell. attain greatness. has been dissolved. and are dissolved in the reverse order. Sound. touch. and their name is delusion. whose minds are clear. verily. When. Knowing that (great self). courage. who are talented. and of the mind. taste. the valiant. and likewise color. the producer of the deities. and as that from which the changes take place. the final dissolution approaches. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. abides transcending the understanding. the supporter of consciousness. it is the creator of the three worlds. who are true to their promises. ancient being. the producer of the entities. the Prajâpati.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. it stands pervading everything in the world. connected with . and thus that source of all entities. it is that from which the people are produced. it has eyes. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. space. air. and by its own light. were the five great elements born – earth. it likewise charms the world. it is full of light. who have subdued wrath. is (afterwards) called egoism. who practice meditation. memory. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. he among all people comes not by delusion. that is said to be the second creation. Then when every entity. that talented man. who are constant at concentration of mind. taste. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. not different from one another. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. and smell as the fifth. means of perception. and are inconstant. that from which the changes take place. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. touch. and light as the fifth. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. who have pondered on the self. who are possessed of knowledge. and likewise cognition. the source of all qualities. In these five great elements. heads. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. It has hands and feet on all sides. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. They are born one from the other. means of knowledge. and faces on all sides. the great self. movable or immovable. It is a deity. creates (them). the light. intelligence. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). lightness. Vishnu. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. these being emancipated. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. and who are always possessed of a good heart. who are devoid of egoism. Brahma. Caused by the production of avarice. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. Sambhu. inexhaustible. of universal form. he is the governor. color. it is said to be the first creation. water. Now people who comprehend the understanding. creatures are deluded.
then the Brahman shines (before him). Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. the skin. and the understanding is the twelfth. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. the Samâna. it is known as the skin as connected with the self.flesh and blood. and together with speech. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. next as connected with objects (it is) color. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. is speech which relates to all the gods. The ear. and the presiding deity there is the wind. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. and speech are restrained. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. and the presiding deity there is fire. tongue. and the organ of generation. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. the two feet. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. eye. the presiding deity there is Rudra. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. and five the organs of action. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. the nose also as the fifth. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. Then first. as connected with the self. the motion of which is downward. As connected with the self. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. Those born from eggs. such is the group of organs. as connected with objects it is actions. who perceive the truth. as connected with the self it is called the ear. The mind should be understood to be among both. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. those born from germs. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. as connected with objects it is excretion. as connected with the self. and the Vyâna also. and the presiding deity there is Soma. The Apâna wind. and the presiding deity there is Indra. As connected with the self. and depending upon one another. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. the two hands. ear. This group one should subdue first. the producer of all beings. and understanding unswerving. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. mind. the organ of excretion. as also all reptiles. and whose mind is pure. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. The second entity is air. Space is the first entity. the two eyes. And the eleven organs. excluded from the self. This is said to be the . the mind is the eleventh. as connected with the self it is called the eye. Understanding these. those born from perspiration. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. nose. as connected with the self it is the nose. He whose skin. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. the Udâna. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. Likewise (there is) egoism. and the presiding deity there is lightning. as connected with objects. as connected with objects it is taste. self-consciousness. as connected with objects it is the semen. As connected with the self they mention the mind. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. and worms of the like description. and speech as the tenth. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. the presiding deity there is the Moon. these are helpless and powerless. as connected with the self. The Prâna and the Apâna. is called the organ of excretion. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. The third (entity) is said to be light. and space. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. The fifth entity is earth. as connected with objects it is motion. and the presiding deity there is the sun. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. the tongue. water. which follows after the five entities. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. learned men think they have accomplished (everything).
and the presiding deity there is the quarters. The world. O chief of the twice-born! and know. however. this same (body). O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. for (every one) who is born. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. and the feeling of touch is air. and full of delusion. should cast it aside. having his cravings destroyed. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. and hold them by the mind. and than which there is nothing higher. The fourth should be understood to be water. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow.) the senses. which has nine passages and two deities. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing).second (mode of) birth. is ever happy. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. the presiding deity there is Soma. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and is sanctifying. (viz. and inferior. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. then being self-illumined. gift at a sacrifice. bursting through the earth. and restrain it. (namely) sacrifice. and sacred study. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. and released from everything. are the beings born from wombs. too. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. and who is devoid of passion. The fifth element is earth. It is a great ocean. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. which is surrounded by the five currents. and which is full of the Brahman. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. and which rests on the real (entity). and those which move crookedly. together with the immortals. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. Such is the teaching of the ancients. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. in which one lives alone. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. which is free from attachment. . Those beings. fearful and unfathomable. The second entity is air. pleased with contacts. which is full of passion. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. and is named delusion. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. Understand about them also. that the body in which the color is fire. Space is the first entity. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. It is settled. that he is released from all sins. He who duly understands this. One should place all these together. next as connected with objects it is color. the objects of the senses. A knowledge of this. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. are said to be born from germs. which is made up of the five elements. Restraining objects of desire within the self. curtail it. which are born after the lapse of some time. unfit to be seen. the presiding deity there is the sun. The third is called light. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. the flowing (element) water. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. and being concentrated in mind. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. which is uninterrupted. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. When everything is absorbed into the mind. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and the five great elements. and likewise the sound is space.
snakes. He verily is Vishnu. who am full of the Brahman. who has beautiful eyes. (all these). CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. Such is the highest creation among all entities. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. and the Koshthavat mountain. concentrating the mind within the mind. the sun is the prince among the planets. the creator. and demons. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and Yakshas. and Mitra. and Varuna. among cattle also the bull. likewise. the Sahya. and . Freed from all sins. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. The Nyagrodha. the Pippala. and Pitris. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. Varuna is the king of the waters. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. avarice. these are the princes among mountains. the Vindhya. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. the Guruskandha. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. and the moon among the Nakshatras. Kings desire piety. and birds. and among denizens of the forest the lion. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). he then perceives that highest (principle). the Sinsapâ. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. and the ocean among rivers. Agni. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. which are difficult to get rid of. and great. and go into wrong paths after death. and Yakshas. and Rakshasas. and of all entities whatever I. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and likewise the Sâlmali. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. and the creator. changing from time to time. and the bands of Rakshasas. and Prajâpati. and also all the great sages. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. the Bhâsa. Understand this. Understand him to be the ruler. treachery. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. and also gods. among vehicles the elephant. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. Soma is the lord of herbs. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. likewise. She is called Pârvatî. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. and falsehood also. the Jambu. and also as various. of Gandharvas. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and the Meshasringa. and seeing the self within the self. and the bands of Bhûtas. there is no doubt of that. the uncreated Hari. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. and Pisâkas. of gods. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. Understanding everything. rejoice in this world. the Trikûtavat. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. Purandara of (all) deities. The Himavat. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief).Desire. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. fear. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. ever extol. (am lord). demons. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. He is the supporter. the Mahendra. all companies of Brâhmanas. Him. and delusion the reservoir. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. the Sveta. the north among the quarters. and Nâgas. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. these are the princes among trees in this world. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. and among females a male. Kinnaras. the Pâriyâtra. the Nîla. wrath. lose all their qualifications. For he is the ruler of men. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. Non-destruction is the highest piety.
he is the Supreme Lord. is always comprehended by the tongue. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. is smell. and hear it. the essence of water. which is great. The Purusha knows it. middle. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. And crossing beyond darkness. the characteristic of mind is thought. being nonintelligent. know. the characteristic of renunciation. the characteristic of earth. The (sensation of) touch. verily. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. is purely knowledge. do not know themselves. who resides in the tongue. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. together with names and characteristics. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods.destruction is of the nature of impiety. And I always see. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. and the Mahat of knowledge. The quality of space is sound. to be created and tied down to a beginning. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). is appointed to the knowledge of taste. and transcending death and old age. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. And the moon likewise. the supporter of all beings. is the Kshetrajña. taste is the characteristic of water. no one. that months have the bright first. middle. is perceived by the skin. giving prominence to knowledge. belonging to the air. (else) attains. and about the means for its comprehension. The Kshetrajña. and from the svâhâ ceremony. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. sound is the characteristic of space. in this world. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. and end. that is comprehended by the nose. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. and transcending the qualities. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. and homeless. The quality of light is color. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. and that is comprehended by the understanding. to the truth. color is the characteristic of light. Thought is the quality of mind. Only the Kshetrajña attains. As to the smell of the earth. The earth is the source of . there is no doubt of that. then enters into the Kshetrajña. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. To (this) positive comprehension. Taste. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. which is void of symbols. The characteristic of devotion is action. The qualities created again and again. The characteristic of mind is meditation. and the creation. abandoning qualities. It is stated that day was first and then night. action the characteristic of men. and that is comprehended by the eye. (though) concealed. Hence a man who understands piety. and having his sins destroyed. and knowledge. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. transcendent. and end. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. free from the ceremony of salutations. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. he repairs to that which has no second. who is unmoving. and that is comprehended by the ear. the unperceived (is appointed). And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound.
and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. the goat is mentioned (as the first). likewise space is the source of sound. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. the fastenings in which are vexations. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. which rotates in space and time. without distinction. the ever holy field of Brahman. Prajâpati of deities. who is full of the Brahman. and Yakshas. there is no doubt of that. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. of which the pole is the mind. These are the qualities of the elements. and life ends in death. the noise of which is trouble and toil. Of all mountains. among sacrifices. All accumulations end in exhaustion. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. and the twice-born among men. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. water of tastes. and of men. Dânavas. Among all precious things. The sun is the first among shining bodies. which is full of actions and instruments of action. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. all that is called Sâvitrî. water is the best. is stated to be the first. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. the eastern quarter is the first. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. death is certain for whatever is born. all this ends in destruction. whose senses are subjugated. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. Of all orders. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. of all words. observances. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. the offering (into the fire) is the best. And of all gods. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. among (sacrificial) animals. gift. who is devoid of egoism. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. The great Vishnu. whatever is prescribed in this world. there is no doubt of that. The Syena is first among birds. which moves through (all) the worlds. Kinnaras. which is measured by months and half months. All action ends in destruction. There is no end for knowledge. gold (is the first). of which the environment is home. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. there is no doubt of that. which abounds in old age and grief. Of all ages the Krita is the first. I. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. and the Prâna lifewind. and regulations. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. Sacrifice. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. which is lit up by the great egoism. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. the end of grief ever pleasure. all ascents end in falls. the mud for which is penance and regulations. and among all reptiles. And among all immovable entities. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. that of householders (is the first). . And the unthinkable. snakes. the Plaksha. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts.smells. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. Îsvara is the lord. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. the end of pleasure is ever grief. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. fire is said to be the first of the elements. study. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. too. penance. and the same is also the end of everything. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. the ocean is the first-born. is the source of the entire universe. is everchanging. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. which is sustained by the qualities. Pisâkas. likewise. and Rakshasas. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. all associations end in dissociations. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. Bhûtas. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune.
all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. With regard to those three duties. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. is never deluded. This wheel of life. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. and check. and equable to all creatures. the speed of which is like that of the mind. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). That man among all creatures. he should have matted hair. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. which is unchecked. in the way above stated. and with one’s external organs restrained. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. There should also be a girdle of muñga.which is large. gift. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. who is self-restrained. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. and who understands the Vedas. released from all impressions. who is of rigid vows. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. and alms. take food without decrying it. the sage who understands piety. the imperishable source (of all). should behave like the good. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. One should learn and teach. and self-restrained. and should stand. abridge. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. The Brâhmana householder. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. sit. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). and which is (never) fatigued. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. conquers heaven. (That) sage. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. and which is extended by means of attachments. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. and should always associate with good men. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. together with the immortals should cast away. and full of faith. attains the highest goal. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. should return (from his preceptor’s house). The householder. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. And as to the other remaining three duties. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. or of cotton. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. or also a deerskin. and also the beggar. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. with the permission of the preceptor. which moves towards joy and pleasure. making gifts. all the world. who is thus devoted. this has been celebrated from ancient times. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. study. and which is devoid of consciousness. and be of pure vows. kind. to follow it is good. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. with his senses restrained. and sacrifice. possessed of forgiveness. who is pure. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). transcending all pairs of opposites. and constant in veracity and piety. and who has duly observed vows. the forester. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. to such a one the (word) good applies. and also receiving untainted gifts. should. and released from all sins. behaving like good men. should avoid heedlessness. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. and have his sacred . and should give and receive gifts. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. should be kind. Always devoted to his own wife. who is devoted to Vedic rites. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. and the Brahmachârin. they are pious duties. and take exercise (duly).
veracity. Nor should he beg for too much alms. full of forgiveness. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. in order. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. nor should he eat when honored. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. or the foot of a tree. freedom from anger. A householder. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. and likewise no sweet juices. and roots and Syâmâka grain. and continent. addicted to sacred study. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. or bitter. and of rigid observances. and devoted to veracity and piety. astringent. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. always in forests. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. having a mind free from envy. and in the rains. In summer. be engaged in sacred study. life as a Brahmachârin. kind. should not enter a town again. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. the sage should become free from all action. eating little. He should without sloth feed on water. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. A man should always bathe in clean water. pure in body. and always living within the forest. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. or again a forester. and should not . performing sacrifices. preserving his hair and moustache. restraint of the external organs. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). Eating only a little. One who is thus devoted. and should eschew dwelling with friends. being restrained in mind. or a forest. his path being pointed out by the sun. fruits. does not return to birth. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. not deceptive and not crooked. freedom from (the habit of) carping. seeking merely to sustain life. who is concentrated in mind. he should move about in a secluded place. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. And with his senses restrained. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. always dexterous. and restrained in all his senses. and reaching the highest seat. looking out for the (proper) time. Refined by means of all ceremonies. or a Brahmachârin.thread. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. or the cavern of a mountain. and when he goes about for alms. Restraining the external senses. He should move about the world like a worm. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. air. and free from avarice. He should honor a guest who comes. He should honor guests. and depending on the deities. (Such) a Brahmachârin. and concentrated in mind. he may dwell in one place. living on fruits and leaves. and be agreeable to all beings. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. always with clean water. is esteemed. kind. or which are pungent. and leaves. he should not go following after another. He should not parade (his) piety. and also straightforwardness. free from passion. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. conquers heaven. and should not rejoice if he obtains. Offering safety to all beings. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. or a river likewise. When eating. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. He should not make any accumulations. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and which have come spontaneously.
Though undeluded. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). not finding fault with piety. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. he gets emancipation. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. verily. nor the senses. which is without hands. they never die. and should be void of (all) belongings. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. sacrifices. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. one should disregard the present. and who is free from salutations. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. nor the deities. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). egoism. nor Vedas. who is free from attachments to any entity. being released from all bonds. and leaves. should be free from attachment. and who understands the truth. who is free from expectations. Freed from all attachments. who is free from desires. which is free from the operations of the qualities. without a stomach. One who has anything to do should take earth. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. Nor. flowers. One should not think of what is not come. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. who is free from the pairs of opposites. one attains heaven. Those who perceive the self. a wise man should always share (with others). nor worlds. and the Purusha likewise. Rejecting all things. exclusively pondering on one point. One who knows the truth. as they come. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. and understanding are absorbed. being devoted to pious conduct. There the understanding reaches not. The senses. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. he should act in the manner of the deluded. without a head. devoid of taste or touch. and then. should not teach. should meditate. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. or cause to be performed. devoid of smell. with his accumulations exhausted. and free from distress. One should not hate. or the mind. moving and unmoving. he attains to the highest seat. and stable. imperishable. and also devoid of sound. or involving any destruction of life. water. and in whom the senses. He should not receive from others. there is no doubt of that. which is to be understood. mind. One should not perform. and mind. pebbles likewise. One should not perturb any other (person). nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). and the five great elements. or the assemblage of people. nor reflect on that which is past. who is attached to the self. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. which is unattached. He should perform piety. He should not appropriate another’s riches. and which is also devoid of flesh. and should avoid (all) controversies. foot. should act without a purpose. and should not take (anything) unasked. is emancipated. nor should one wish for gold. devoid of color. and though dwelling in a house. by an accurate determination about the truth. . He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and who is dependent on none. untainted. who understands all truth. one should become an ascetic with small belongings.follow his own (mere) desire. depending on none. and being equable to all beings. He should not defile anything by the eye. nor penance. which is free from anxiety. always dwelling in all entities. the unperceived. and without fixed appointments with people. or back. who is free from egoism. and self-controlled. absolute. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. nor valor. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. after understanding all these. or by speech. nor should he ever give to others. any action involving expectation of fruit. understanding. divine. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. and the objects of the senses. But owing to the helplessness of people. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols.
go to the happy path by penance. the great branches of which are the great elements. and the side branches the objects of sense. The learned man who perceives. and devoid of qualities. it is free from the pairs of opposites. and being untainted. But as to that other who is above them. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. devoid of qualities. there is no doubt of that. is emancipated. Restraining the self in the self. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. always possessed of flowers. And restraining the life-winds again and again . everlasting. and free from egoism. there is no doubt of that. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. a creature is emancipated. and which is the essential element in knowledge. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. becomes eligible. for assimilation with the Brahman. (which are) unchanging. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. whether agreeable or disagreeable. who are pure. which abides in all entities. through the tranquility of the self. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. The men of talent. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. by tranquility only.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. which is always possessed of leaves. and despises nothing. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. is released from misery. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. Abandoning all action. Penance is said to be a light. and who is devoid of egoism. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. and whose minds are refined. and renunciation the best penance. devoid of knowledge of nature. even dwelling in this world. is emancipated. there is no doubt of that. (When) the inner self. and (as it were) non-intelligent. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. and with an understanding comprehending all. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. then understanding the Kshetra. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and which is fed upon by all creatures. attaining to the self. association and dissociation. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and some as transcendent and without misery. The highest Brahman is very far off. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. death. and old age. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. He who desires nothing. which cause birth. There are these two birds. even for (the space of) a wink. he is called intelligent. the sprouts within which are the senses. and supreme. understands that which is beyond nature. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. transcending passion. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. of unthinkable qualities. developed from the qualities. and likewise unity and diversity. becomes fit for immortality.
Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. too. (saying) this is good. Some are devoted to goodness. harmlessness. some various kinds of enjoyments. who are devoted to knowledge. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. that fits one for immortality. Some learned men. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. and others.by control of the life-winds. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. some are in the midst of doubts. Some extol everything. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). some say that is not so. that it exists. And. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. Some extol final emancipation. some are for merit and glory. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and come to no determination. Some are for taking food. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. Some people extol action. and others nothing. and others tranquility. holy. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and some given up to destruction. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. having again felt doubts. But that is not correct. but others extol penance. some knowledge. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and those who ponder on the element. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Some (say) everything is doubtful. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. believe it to be one. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. Some people are for bathing. Such is the doctrine of the learned. . and renunciation. People are acting. Some (say) means should be resorted to. and others. and some for pain. there is no doubt of that. too. courage. some are for pleasure. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). Some Brâhmanas. and others that there is no doubt. Some people (say) meditation. straightforwardness. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. We wish. some wish for riches. some for the omission of bathing. Thus having first a tranquil self. and others that that is not so. such is their relation. and (others) that it exists not. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. we are deluded. this is good. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. and others indigence. others distinct. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. always esteems that. who were the best of sages. Some are devoted to harmlessness. of ten or twelve (modes). gifts. abandonment. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). equability. Some have matted hair and skins. and other persons sacred study. be obtains whatever he desires. the venerable. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. truth. and others say that is not so. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. nature. and others again (that it is) manifold. Some say both time and space (exist). and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. others are intent on fasting. and others (that it is) mixed. others that that is not so. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and our mind is distracted. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. knowledge.
I will tell you something more. the light shines. The subject is always the being. though it is the object of enjoyment. As far as there is a carriage-path. and who knows about the qualities. For the talented man who knows (these) means. go verily to hell. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and who entertain avarice and delusion. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. So travels the talented man. free from any connection with expectations. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. travels with great discomfort. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. who perform actions with faith. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . Even brought into contact with all qualities. where the carriage-path stops. deliberate on it properly. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. perceive correctly. and soon crosses the reservoir. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. While there is oil and wick. goes in the water without fatigue. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. comprehending the gradations one above the other. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. This is the highest seat. Understand this. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. and who are infidels in their conduct. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. he goes in the carriage. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. Learn that. being born again and again. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. and nature is stated to be the object. and to be constituted of the qualities. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). Hearing it all. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. Now I will proceed to. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). and void of intelligence. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. and may even be destroyed on the way. free from vexation and holy in character. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. and in essence free from the qualities. devoid of parts. It has been explained in the above mode. and is connected with (all) knowledge. afflicted by reason of the chariot. and going swiftly. I will declare to you what you ask of me. rejoice in this world. Non-destruction of all creatures. He abides in everything alike. through delusion. a learned man remains untainted. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. such is the progress of the men of understanding. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. O Brâhmanas! Well now. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). throwing aside the boat. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. so should one understand. It is established that nature is the property of the being. attains supreme happiness. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Thus nature is perceived. But those wise and talented men.
red likewise. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. and earth. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. broad. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . be understood to be of ten descriptions. color likewise. cold and hot likewise. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. so does it result to them. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). said to be of six descriptions. and water. and that is stated to be sound only. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. short long. abounding with movables and immovables. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. it is said that light has three qualities. Rough. sharp. touch. void of taste. Sound. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. and clear also. and taste. together with Gândhâra. hard. Now space has one quality. diffusive and compact also. should be understood to be of five qualities. Thus sound. who speak the truth. White. and of (many) ingredients. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. From egoism is produced the development. compact. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. and likewise Pañkama. and are conversant with piety. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. the divine source of all entities. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. soft. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. green. I will now give (some) information about taste. – thus should smell. astringent. air is said to have (these) two qualities. and above the unperceived is the being. which is a development of water. above egoism is understanding. repairs to the imperishable self. Sound. and smell as the fifth – these. slippery. to be of twelve descriptions. or sound. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. And as action is performed in this world. Sound and touch also should be understood. sour. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. and rough. which is void of any smell whatever. namely. narrow. and void of color. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. which is produced in space. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. thus is light said to have three qualities. bitter. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. Rishabha. square. touch. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. that is called the Pradhâna. air is said to have two qualities. and grey likewise. above that is the unperceived. smooth. Madhyama. but they do not yield products. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. Sweet. sweet. egoism is above that. One who has come by delusion through affection. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and color likewise. taste. and likewise color. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. tender and clear also. and bitter likewise. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. and also productive in its essence. are stated to be the qualities of water. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. hurtful. And touch is the quality of air. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. Sound. yellow. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. Now space has one quality. and above that understanding is the self. and of the elements respectively. touch. touch. the great elements. Space is the highest element.carriage and pedestrian. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. Smell always belongs to the earth. which belongs to the earth. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. black. too. is of four qualities. The quality of light is color. and who identifies himself with every being. glutinous. Shadga. sour. Learn about their properties. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism.
enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. Whatever is difficult to obtain. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. and ends with the gross objects. Gods. beasts and birds. and next the developments produced from the elements. That individual self. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. which is the unperceived. Pitris. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). Whatever entities (there are) in this world. And in like manner. That which begins with the unperceived . And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). is adorned with planets and nakshatras. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. goes to the highest goal. not by actions. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. The mind always presides over the great elements. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. and difficult to pass through. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. is released from. and all other creatures movable or immovable. Those who best understand the self. He who understands him understands the Vedas. one who destroys an embryo. difficult to learn. even from those five elements. the mind. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. difficult to vanquish. again acquiring knowledge. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. all the elements. gods. are born here again and again. for penance is difficult to overcome. one who kills a Brâhmana. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and includes movables and immovables. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. the creators of the world. and (after) these developments. nor by a cause. always reach perfection by penance. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. and who are free from egoism. and abandons everything as fruitless. And he who is released. The understanding proclaims its power. perceive the triple world here by penance. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. That learned and talented person verily. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. Such is the upward gradation among entities. the mind itself is the individual self. and herbs. all that can be accomplished by penance. For all acquisition has penance for its root. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Gandharvas. These Brâhmanas. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. and it is the goal of all living creatures. men. and in which the understanding is the drag. The senses. This is the eternal mystery. like billows in the ocean. obtain the great and highest world. a sage should sit down self-restrained. Born from that same unperceived (principle). enter the highest world of the great. and devoid of egoism. (Those) men. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. that sin only by penance well performed. Râkshasas. one who steals. has the mind for a charioteer. Asuras. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. Medicines. a man gets rid of all sins. those who have achieved perfection. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. movable or immovable. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. and being full of egoism. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. they go near Prajâpati. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. and having their minds always tranquil. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. and it is called the Kshetrajña. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. (sacrificial) animals. One who drinks spirituous liquors. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. all have been created by nature. and the understanding for a drag. they are the very first to be dissolved. Pisâkas.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. one who violates the bed of his preceptor.
I wish to see him. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. And now. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. I have now declared everything to you. This is the eternal piety. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. than which nothing greater exists. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. Two syllables are death. Vâsudeva. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. changeless. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . unmoving. who is without attachment. which is uncreated. was that Brâhmana. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. who is without expectations. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). O Janârdana! If this verily. he attains tranquility. attained to that seat. And the pupil.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. Knowledge brings forth the being. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. having done all he should have done. O noble person. And. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. not full of action. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. indeed. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. too. sages! Act thus forthwith. he dies not. Arjuna said: Who. getting rid of all sins. incomprehensible. always duly act (according to it). with your consent. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. and who looks alike on everything. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. did everything (accordingly). changeless. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. and then attained to the worlds. And when the understanding is clear. is fit to be heard by me. he understands that holy Brahman. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. Expelling all impressions. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. then you will acquire perfection. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. three syllables the eternal Brahman. O best of Brâhmana. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. in consequence of these means. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. O Krishna! and who the pupil. O Lord! then tell it me. Then will you attain perfection. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. If you have love for me. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. and restraining the self in the Self. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. Some men of dull understandings extol action. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. and not mine is the eternal. Do you. Then when this piety is duly practiced. Mine is death.
’ Om Tat Sat . O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. Be pleased. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. Dhanañjaya replied (saying).When Krishna spoke these words. who is of a devout heart.
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