This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
adherence to prescribed regulations. who has abandoned piety. he is. who is self-controlled. too. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. by which all this is pervaded. who is free from the pairs of opposites. which I am now about to declare. a pair separately for each (species). which is very difficult to cross. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. honoring preceptors. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. is released. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . he is. which protects people to eternity. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. he becomes indifferent to everything. and ruin to be connected with action. indeed. And he. free from vanity and egoism. moving and fixed. one going the round of various births. (having) as regards the moving (creation). and causing good to be done. life as a Brahmachârin. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and thinking of naught. becomes happy. the body to be an unholy aggregate. He who is not attached to any one. He who acquires that. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. created the whole of the three worlds. and who has no desire. is released who is equable towards both life and death. and likewise pleasure and pain. who has subdued his senses. And Prajâpati. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. He who is not pious and not impious. and whose self is free from affections. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. compassion to (all) beings. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. points out (what) piety (is). released from everything. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. indeed. and lust altogether. as he should act. He who understands the Pradhâna. Learn from me exhaustively. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. From this is produced piety. pity. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). constant restraint of the organs. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. serving mother and father. Then seeking after the supreme seat.action by which. verily. He who has no enemy. And as regards that. The practice to which the good adhere. and about the return. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). who has no child. and who is self-possessed. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. for among them it constantly abides. purity. and which is known in the world as the highest. who has no kinsmen. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. What I say is all correct and proper. the grandfather of all people. self-restraint. honoring deities and guests. wealth. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. the material cause of all embodied (selves). and gain and loss. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. having made a body for himself. A man who is a friend of all. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). never comes to an evil end. who had been first created. who is devoted to tranquility. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. released in every way. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. abandoning each previous (element). he will cross beyond (all) bonds. takes place after a long time. pure. This is what is called the destructible. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. Gifts. Brahman. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. and (what is) agreeable and odious. penance. but the other is immortal and indestructible. And that I shall now proceed to state. and also tranquility. and absence of cruelty. is released. who contemns no one. From that he created the Pradhâna. restraint of the senses. who endures all. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life.
When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. constant. When (all) beings are destroyed. who has practiced penance. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. Thinking of a quarter seen before. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. One who does no action. and unknowable. unmoving. death. Properly concentrating his self. and having his senses subjugated. searching for his own faults. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. void of color. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. he has no fear. Weapons do not pierce him. than which there is nothing higher. Remaining within (that) city. saying. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. and casting aside old age and death. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. ‘This is he. he is indeed released. there is no death for him. always full of birth. free from the pairs of opposites. and of a tranquil mind. and having first performed rigorous penance. he grieves not and exults not. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. tranquil. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. indestructible. then there is no ruler over him. void of belongings. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. he is not afflicted by anything. and abandoning the transient body. he remains steady to the self. and freed from old age and grief. void of sound. he perceives the perfect one. since he is the lord of the triple world. being habituated to exclusive meditation. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. As a person having seen one in a dream. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. he is released. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. Then freed from all impressions. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. looks on this universe as transient. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. devoid of qualities.body. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. he gradually obtains tranquility. and always concentrating his mind. Then the talented Brâhmana. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. after extracting them from the Muñga. is released. without belongings. Restraining the senses. the soft fibers stand for the self. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. void of touch. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. is released. perceives the self in the self. and old age. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. which consist in pain and grief. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. Seeing the self void of smell. who is free from attachment. When. he assumes bodies at pleasure.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. And as one may show the soft fibers. Leaving this human frame. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. like an Aswattha tree. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. when (all) beings are afflicted. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. he sleeps at ease. and having no cause. He whose self is concentrated. one should fix the mind on the self. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. then he. void of taste. The body is called the Muñga. and who is self-restrained. devoid of form.. Restraining the . recognizes him (afterwards). Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. meditating in that habitation. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. and who has no desire. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. like fire devoid of fuel. He who is free from all impressions.
The world of the gods. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). reaches immortality and is ever happy. possessed of great penance. and muscles. he has eyes. too. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. – went away as he pleased. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. This whole mystery I have declared to you. What I have spoken. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. which is difficult to explain. heads. and marrow. Adopting this doctrine. The soul sees the self come out from the body. neck. women. and how also to blood? And how. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. attain the supreme goal. even those who are of sinful birth. and faces on all sides. and (keeping) the passages confined. and throat likewise. and also the means for its acquisition. That talented pupil. and determination regarding . distinctly? How. as it were. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. forsaking the body. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. final emancipation. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. O Mâdhava! I replied. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. palate. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods.group of the senses.’ Thus addressed by me. too. It is my belief. And then depending upon it thus. too. tongue. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. he stands pervading everything in the world. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. I will go away. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. Have you listened to this. For as to that eternal Brahman. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. he has cars on all sides. He is not to be grasped by the eye. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. who are constantly intent on their own duties. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. and likewise the seat of the heart. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. – with. Vaisyas.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. O Krishna! that pupil. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. where one. and abandoning his body. and do you (too) go away. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. O son of Prithâ! For. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. and Sûdras likewise. do the flesh. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. he perceives the self. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. and also the heart. and of the excretions. nor by any of the senses. too. He should meditate on his teeth. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). a mental smile. He has hands and feet on all sides. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. he attains final emancipation in me.
and into it they enter. does exist among (all) beings. and likewise that which is to . shall I go to. A Brâhmana’s wife. From birth to the destruction of the body. Concentration of mind comes to him. Whatever action there is. It is devoid of smell. The nose. That is called the Udâna. Vyâna. verily. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. and who are harsh and undiscerning. From this the Prâna. mind or speech.misery. and also that which is to be thought of. (in the form of) a dialogue. and that which understands. depending on you as (my) husband. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. In the interior. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. While the paths (of action). and that which is to be understood. that only do the men of action engage in as action. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. that which thinks. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. good or bad. you who live renouncing (all) action. and the tongue. The mortal. or seen. that which sees. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. there is nothing further than this. and the moon together with the fire. that which is to be seen. and likewise that which is to be heard. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. that which is to be drunk. O son of Pându! who. action. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. Samâna. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. seated in seclusion. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. these are the seven great officiating priests. and imperishable. are destroyed by demons. or heard. and energetic. CHAPTER V On this. When that is asleep. that which is to be smelt. shall I reach. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). And mark this always. and the skin. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. that which is to be drunk. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and on which it rests. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. It is not to be smelt by the nose. but is to be apprehended by the mind. Apâna. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. and that which hears as the fifth. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). That which smells. which occurred. that man of a tranquil self. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. that can be caught (by the touch). full of faith. and the eye. that which is to be seen. possessed of talents. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. indeed. the mind and the understanding. too. produce them in their wombs. and not to be tasted by the tongue. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. This is all that is to be said. that which is to be touched. that which cats. in which the materials are visible. that which is to be touched. by act. that which touches. devoid of color and sound. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. What goal. That which is to be smelt. (namely). and (observe) good vows. devoid of taste and touch. and their selves tranquil. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. and the ear as the fifth. and Udâna also proceed. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle.
destroy our doubts. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. And the mind. and also that which is to be understood. or tone goes to your dominion. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. that indeed is the movable mind. The quarters. But inasmuch. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. sun.be heard. and the wealth is the pure. ‘Mind (is superior). and hence the mind is in need (of it). from that is produced determination. are ten sacrificial priests. Earth.’ But speech thereupon said to him. the tongue. earth and fire. speech. O beautiful one! Sound. motion. That is called the movement of the mind. from that doubt is produced. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. verily. from that is produced sound. was the universe duly divided. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. smell. and excrement. they were perfectly filled with light. which is the instrument of knowledge. and they are offered up into the ten fires. and the discharge of semen. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. too. from that is produced taste. these seven. the movable is in your dominion. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. and taste. water. these. action. words. Indra. But. these. immovable and also movable. are named wombs. from that touch is produced. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. the offerings are ten. and Mitra. yield (you) your desires. mind and understanding. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. and the knower is the upholder of the body. these are the ten oblations. they relate this ancient story. are words produced. the nose. verily. requires everything knowable (as its offering). O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. The immovable. that (in) my (view). ‘I. The ear. verily. Prajâpati. and (though) developed. indeed. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. urine. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. which is the generator of all entities. To that you are superior. The mind is the ladle. wind. highest knowledge. From that is produced smell. First. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. the two hands. there are two minds. and Vishnu also. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. is with me. or letter. therefore. the genital organ. Then the lord of speech was produced. from that is produced color. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. that which is to be thought of. are the fuel. moon.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. though . and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. air. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. verity. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). and the mind runs after them. (Thus) we have heard. ‘Say which of us is superior. space. color. from that another is produced.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. verily. and light as the fifth. and the anus. the two feet. And in that very (principle). O beautiful one! are the ten fires. The goddess speech. verily. touch. Whatever mantra. and into this the offering is thrown.
And these never know the qualities of each other. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. the mind. the skin. the ear apprehends them. The nose. It is always noisy or noiseless. Of those two. The nose. the tongue. and the eye. they do not perceive each other. and the ear as the fifth. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). verily. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. the ear likewise. the mind. and which then goes into the Apâna. flowing (forms). The mind said: . they relate this ancient story.impelled. the tongue. and the eye. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. do not apprehend sounds. the nose apprehends them. and the mind also. So speech formerly spoke. the ear. the skin. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. and the understanding also. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and the skin. too. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. the understanding apprehends it. Do you. the skin. do not apprehend final determination. the understanding. and next the eye. The nose. The nose. and the understanding also. mind and understanding. and the eye. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the skin. – a dialogue. the mind likewise. the tongue apprehends them. the ear. she ran up to Prajâpati. the mind. the tongue. the skin. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. with divine power. the skin. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. the ear likewise. The nose. saying. when. too. and the understanding also. This cow-like speech. O venerable sir? Tell me this. the tongue. the mind. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. like a cow. the eye apprehends them. the eye. On this. yields milk. and the understanding also. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. the mind apprehends it. The tongue. The nose. and the eye. do not apprehend smells. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. do not apprehend doubt. do not apprehend colors. Dwelling in a minute space. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. ‘Be pleased. and the tongue. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. This excellent (speech). the skin apprehends them. The nose. the eye. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. do not apprehend tastes. and the understanding also. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. O you of a bright smile! is divine. the ear likewise. the tongue. the ear. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge.
a creature. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. then take in colors by the nose. then what you believe is true. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. when our objects perform their functions. One entering upon enjoyments.’ Brahman said: . the eye does not take in color. Without me. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). (which is) like entering a house without a door. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. rules are for the weak. without us. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. and the Udâna. resulting from mental operations (alone). you have no perception. and if you enjoy enjoyments. if you. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this.The nose smells not without me. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. when troubled by desire to enjoy. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. and not connected with objects of sense. the senses never shine. always meets death. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. and said to him. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. or if when we are absorbed. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. they relate an ancient story. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. Without me. without us. like an empty dwelling. and objects are standing. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. too. If when we are extinct. (there is) pleasure and support of life. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. the tongue does not perceive taste. still. and indulged in dreams. are the five sacrificial priests. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. like fuel half dried and half moist. that the Prâna and the Apâna. all beings. Granted. the ear does not in any way hear sound. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. I am the eternal chief among all elements. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. who was born first. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. life is seen to be supported. and take in sounds by the skin. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. He shall be the greatest among us. They formerly went to the grandsire. take in tastes by the eye. The learned know this to be a great principle. even with the senses exerting themselves. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. take in smells by the ear. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. Without me. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. Besides. both past and future. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. does run to objects of sense only.
And the Prâna and Apâna. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. ‘You are not the greatest among us. Welfare be to you! Support one another. and the Vyâna also. and all support one another. is the greatest. I am the greatest. (Now) go where (you) like. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. I am the greatest. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. and on my moving about. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. I am the greatest. and on whose moving about. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. and again moved about. they again move about. (which are) five. And on my moving about. and on my moving about. When I am extinct. who being extinct. All are greatest in their own spheres. The Vyâna only is subject to you. You are not the greatest among us. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. When I am extinct. they again move about. spoke to him. When I am extinct. and pleasing one another. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. and on my moving about. O Prâna. they again move about. I am the greatest.’ The Prâna again moved about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. they again move about. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and the Samâna spoke again. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and the Apâna said to him. owing to (their) specific qualities. Hear the reason why. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. I am the greatest. go away happily. Being friendly with one another. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. the lord of (all) creatures. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and the Udâna.He. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. and the Samâna. and again moved about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest.’ Then the Apâna moved about. and again moved about. verily. There is one unmoving (life-wind). Then the Samâna and Udâna also. My own self is one only. because the Apâna is subject to you. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. they again move about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). Hear the reason why. There are others moving about. O beautiful one! spoke these words. Hear the reason why. and the Samâna. and not greatest. and on my moving about.
Hear me. between them is the fire. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. hear me speak about that. (it) is also produced from taste. It is the teaching of the Veda. in which the offering is thrown. and between them is the fire. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. that the fire verily is all the deities. (the quality of) passion. the Apâna then comes into operation. (its) ashes. or transversely. between them is the fire. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. The instrument. and the eye. First. secondly. The smoke of that (fire). they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. and the tongue. and (it) is also produced from a sound. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. what comes into existence first. too. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. the agent. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. which is of excellent glory. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. the Samâna comes into operation again. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. and (it) is also produced from smell. being accompanied by intelligence. the Samâna and Vyâna. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. the action. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. This is the effect of the Udâna. which (move) upwards. CHAPTER X On this. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. their function is performed: then. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or transversely. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. and (it) is also produced from touch. and (it) is also produced from color. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. his Prâna. indeed. or Vyâna. From desire the semen is produced. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. or downwards. and the . This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). that which is other than this first comes to him. From the combination of the semen and the blood. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. The nose. As to that which is distinct from these pairs.On this. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The two – good and evil – are a pair. or Apâna. or Samâna. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. too. which (move) upwards. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. between them is the fire. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. the pleasure is produced from union. and emancipation. Day and night are a pair. or downwards. the Prâna comes first into operation. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. they relate this ancient story. these.
Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. I move as I am ordered. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. my fire of (high) qualifications. the venerable one said. And cooking food for himself.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. truth. There is one instructor. (about the) instruction of the snakes. and he who hears as the fifth. he who speaks. too. and touch as the fifth. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world.’ Hearing that. and the demons. He destroys the food. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. The gods. There is one hearer. Taught by that instructor. is ruined. CHAPTER XI There is one director. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. This being. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. The learned man. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. approaching Prajâpati. who is the self of everything. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. whatever is seen by the eye. The gods had been engaged in gifts. they relate an ancient story. and taste. he. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. is the counselor in all action. being possessed of qualities. they ran away in (various) directions. (and) the seven Rishis. Taught by that instructor. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. by Prajâpati. And I am here devoid of qualities. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. enjoy their own qualities. final emancipation. whatever is spoken by speech. and the great sages . like water on a declivity. mind and understanding. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. and the ear as the fifth. and the snakes. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. of which an illustration is stated. Living under that instructor. Whatever is thought by the mind. and sages. and the gods. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. is the upward life-wind. there is no second director. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. sound. he who sees. The eating of that which should not be eaten. There is one enemy. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. There is one kinsman. He who smells. On that Sâman hymns. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. On. These. too. To him who is not learned. the Brahman priest in which. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. the Brahman. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. Impelled by that same (being). absorbing all these offerings from all sides. eating various (kinds of) food. destroying this food again produces it. each in its own place. agreeable and disagreeable. and color. are sung. this. the self the Adhvaryu priest. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. there is no second (different) from him. shines dwelling within the body. and the Dakshinâ. there is no second (different) from him. there is no second (different) from him. ‘Om. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). and sages. he who eats. Smell. the Sastra. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. the Stotra in which. there is no second (different) from him. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. being (himself) a ruler. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart.skin. and he who understands. he who thinks. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). in a single syllable. whatever is heard by the ear. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. And among the learned who understand (everything). (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. these seven are causes of action. the downward lifewind. the director. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. On this. the Hotri priest. and whatever is smelt by the nose. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding.
And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. and causes of generation. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. in various places. and the guests eat the fruits. and mixed. in which intelligence is the tree. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. the Brahman his origin. There. and emancipation the fruit. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. Acting sinfully in the world. and nobody is afraid of them. there is no other instructor. and the hills and mountains. and is to be crossed by one singly. (namely) the five senses. There is nothing more subtle than that. connected with the Brahman. full of brilliance. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. have no fear afterwards. are always within the heart. and seven guests. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. when there is a distinction from it. and what the rivers. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. owing to his desires. And I have entered the great forest. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. who. and of beautiful colors. There always dwell seven females there. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). in which desire and anger are the obstructors. Understanding it they practiced it. there is nothing larger than that. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. And there is fuel here. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. He is rapt in the Brahman. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. The qualities are the fruits. another forest shines forth. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. There is nothing smaller than that. which depends on knowledge. Entering it. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. There is one fire here. . all engaged in different (pursuits). which has contentment for its water. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. The instructor. there is no other happiness equal to. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. and fragrant. the way to which consists in worldly objects. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. The good who attain to that. the hearer. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. Having had one teacher. the Brahman the fire. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. In that forest are seven large trees. But he who. the great sages receive hospitality. the snakes. They are not afraid of anybody. and seven (forms of) initiation. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. and having a good mind. merely adheres to the Brahman.in restraint of the senses. casting aside vows and actions. seven (forms of) concentration. seven hermitages. the Brahman water. the sages. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. and having been instructed with one word. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. and do not exult. that. with faces (turned) downwards. when there is no distinction from it. This is the description of the forest. the learner. the twice-born do not grieve. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. There is nothing more afflicting than that. and the demons. becomes a Brahmachârin. the gods. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. and the enemy. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. the Brahman the instructor. seven fruits.
censuring (the act) as destruction of life. too. perfection. they are born so as not to lose courage. The teaching of the elders is. There is no offence on my part. whatever in him is produced from water. and I do not touch. I see the individual self in the body. His eye (will enter) the sun. If I spoke further. (This) creature will obtain welfare. there is no taint on my natures. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. devote themselves to Brahman. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. and I think only his unmoving body remains. father. together with their chiefs. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. that will enter water. of this goat have gone to their sources. indeed. Understand that. nor even do I entertain any fancies. as understood by Brâhmanas. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. the richest. and again emerge from the same. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. After hearing their consent. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. this goat will not be destroyed. I see no color. is this holy forest. I perceive no tastes. (his) ear the quarters. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. not hating any evil. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. Dwelling in that (self). abide. Although actions are performed. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. nor yet do I hear various sounds. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. or old age. and his life-winds likewise the sky. . whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. Glory. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. they relate an ancient story. merging the self in the self. Nature desires objects which are liked. Such. victory. whose sins are burnt up by penance. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. and as the constant entity underlying them. too. And understanding it. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. mother. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature).They absorb all the higher delights of people. and greatness. Apart from them. they act (accordingly). being directed by the Kshetrajña. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). Not desiring any object of desire. Those whose wishes are reduced. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. The life-winds. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. praise tranquility. take him (to them) and consult (them). (the matter) will be fit for consideration. On this. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. then the sacrifice is for the goat. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. enlightenment. And aspiring to that forest. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). especially as he is dependent. since the Vedic text is such. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). or death. brilliance. we do not rely on what is not visible.
and with joined hands. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). who might stand against me in the field. The life-winds. who has subdued his self. the tongue. such is the double manifestation of the self. Of these the indestructible is the existent. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. The ocean said: If. who take shelter with me. possessed of a thousand arms. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. (in the shape of) a dialogue. too. a descendant of Kritavîrya. are being destroyed. there is no fear anywhere. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. The ocean. Or what do you think. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. you believe. proud of his strength. they relate an old story. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. my mind is enlightened. O venerable sir! I approach you. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. he was walking about near the sea. who is devoid of expectations. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. you drink watery juices. For having heard your opinion. what shall I do for you? The creatures. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. . who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. Say. and I say (to you). Give them security. name him to me. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. and (the quality of) goodness. the mind. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. saluting him. Once on a time. you see the colors of shining bodies. who is free from the pairs of opposites. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. as we have heard. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. you hear the sound produced in space. they act (accordingly). said. And to one who is free from these manifestations. being directed by the Kshetrajña. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). who is alike to all beings. have life. And all these entities. you touch the qualities of the air. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. and who is released on all hands. together with (the quality of) passion. freed from delusion. and understanding it.
owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter).’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. Seeing him killed and fallen. full of great wrath. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. named Alarka. There was (once) a royal sage. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. together with the Sâbaras. the Kshatriyas. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). – having performed very difficult deeds. hearing that (story). While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. shot away volleys of arrows.Then the king. became Vrishalas. taking up his axe. and blew away the army of the king. too. Râma also taking up a bow. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. went away. dear friend. do you perceive. ‘Desist. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. being a Brâhmana. to make all mortals perform action. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. As by its unsteadiness. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. which was heard by all people. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. spoke sweetly to Râma. and very firm in his vows. too. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. like a tree of many branches. not forgiving his father’s murder. whose penance was very great. It is not proper for you. his grandfathers. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. abandoning (those) great deeds. with Rikîka as their head. (Though) surrounded by enemies. entered mountains and inaccessible places. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. said to those sages. who understood duty. What good. and your vital part being pierced. high-souled. They will. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. Âbhîras. In company with his kinsmen. whose power was unbounded. who was veracious. Then some of the Kshatriyas. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. became Vrishalas. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. you will die. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. and taking swords and lances. Paundras. they relate an ancient story. O noble one!’ But Râma. Then the power of Râma. a bodiless voice from heaven. like antelopes troubled by a lion. blazed forth. only pierce your own vital part. Thus the Dravidas. The mind said: These arrows. it wishes. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. turned to subtle (questions). to slaughter these kings. burning the hosts of the enemy.
and your vital part being pierced. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. the eye hankers after them only. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The tongue said: These arrows. you will die.Smelling very many perfumes. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. the (ear) hankers after them only. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. one hankers after them only. Hearing that. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. you will die. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. the skin hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. Hearing that. he then said after consideration: – . Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. and your vital part being pierced. The nose said. Hearing that. this (tongue) hankers after them only. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. The ear said: These arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The skin said: These arrows. you will die. and then you will lose (your) life. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. The eye said: These arrows.
The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. Ambarîsha. For from avarice is born desire. and again birth. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. according to qualities. and applied himself to concentration of mind. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. is born again and again. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. you will die. the greatest. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. a man even does what ought not to be done. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. then uttered this verse. he reached the highest perfection. persistent hatred. he. Therefore. sloth. thence you will obtain the highest good. Perform a fearful penance. and he who desires. he became steady. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. three foes in (this) world. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). wrath. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. Then directing his mind to one point. destroyed all foes. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. verily. and engages in action. being impelled by which. (that vice). and honoring good men. having a tranquil self. and senses controlled. cut (it) off with sharp swords. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. Sleep. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. attained high perfection. When the bodily frame is destroyed.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. a courageous man. Grief. and being troubled by desire. is energetic about subjugating others. he meets death. and your vital part being pierced. And the royal sage. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. free from sloth. pleasure. but there is one. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. joy. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. of great glory. Obtaining those. He (then) restraining his own vices. When vices were in the ascendant. who had become tranquil (in mind). owing to these qualities. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. then anxiety comes into existence. On this. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. being impelled by which. That avarice – cut (it) off. amazed. They will only pierce your own vital part. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. and after deliberating for a long time.’ Do you understand this too. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). And at the expiration of life. and good (men) were oppressed. The understanding said: These arrows. the best of talented (men). O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and delusion. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. Exultation. properly . ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters).
I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. to be terminable. by the glorious Ambarîsha. and enjoy while you live. by way of punishment. intelligence again came to me. avarice. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. therefore) while you desire. Even this self is not mine. the king recovered himself. And as mine. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. I cannot find my domain. I believe. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. or the whole earth is mine. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain.perceiving this. and restraining avarice by courage. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. then came the delusion on me. I wish. While that king of unbounded power was seated. in all affairs. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. engaged in meditation. by which. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me.’ Thus spoken to. or that everything is my domain.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. What conviction have you adopted. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. and. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. and said nothing in reply. (Considering) whose this was. Janaka said: Though this country. When I did not find it among them. there is no other sovereignty here. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. Now hear the conviction. I looked for my own offspring. what belief you have resorted to. When I did not find it on the earth. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. Then when the delusion had gone off. so (is it) that of others too. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. searching through the (whole) earth. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. Resorting to this conviction. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. King Janaka. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. is subject to you. This is sovereignty. I looked for Mithilâ. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. holding which. who destroyed the one (chief vice). as the planet upon the sun. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. a delusion suddenly came upon him. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. though this country. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. Then on the expiration of the delusion. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. too. is subject (to me). I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin.
the nave of which is the Brahman. together with guests. and the body is tied down by action. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. And those who. I am a forester. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. by which that (entity). again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. Whatever creatures there are in the world. namely. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. This path is traversed by the understanding. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. Sovereignty over the whole world. it is not laid down. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. not by the body. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. or among mendicants. you will certainly come into my self. and even over heaven. and narrow. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. Then the Brâhmana. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. A good means is found. have their understanding full of tranquility. (namely) for the gods. and confused. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. With your heart intent upon the real entity. the spoke the understanding. or. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. nothing exists that is a cause of him. that a certain thing should be done.subject to me. come here today to learn (something) about you.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. for this purpose. and a certain thing should not. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. I am a Brâhmana. is (to be found) a description of it. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. the Bhûtas. smiling. that. and which does not turn back. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. to households. or by one whose self is not refined. and my intelligence is very frivolous. movable or not moving. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. Actions have a beginning and an end. verily. or residence in forests. you have guessed. I am not such. observing vows. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. indeed. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . the Pitris. In the (rules for) final emancipation. dwelling with preceptors. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. I am emancipated. Hence. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. and also without qualities. is perceived as by bees. according to your own understanding. action and knowledge. You are the one person to turn this wheel. the instructor is the upper Arani. All these actions of mine are. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. or else this knowledge. where. by which those who understand that proceed.
’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. connected with final emancipation. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. what penance. all of various descriptions. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. who put (his) questions properly. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. ‘I’ (he said). in hundreds and in thousands. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). And he. who was possessed of (the . and what sin? These questions of mine. Listen to that. who had approached him (for instruction). truly. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. Arjuna said: Where. I pray of you with (bowed) head. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. and also desirous of final emancipation. are afraid of worldly life. put (his) questions with joined bands. (which are) means of direct perception. something about the highest good. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. as may here be practicable – unperceived.and hears. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. Speak. and those whose form is perceived. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. And we. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. between a preceptor and a pupil. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. and accurately. indeed. One should adopt as many of these things. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. likewise. (when he was) seated. who preserved (all) vows.’ The preceptor. There is none else here who can explain these questions. ‘whose goal is the highest good. Vâsudeva said: On this. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. A talented pupil. am come to you (who are) venerable. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. is I myself. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. too. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows.
I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. and the severance also.necessary) qualifications. who understands the creation of all entities. are full of the truth. and has no egoism about anything. Vasishtha. Understand that. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. who was tranquil. Formerly. and renunciation as the best penance. Prajâpati also is truth. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. the entities are born from the truth. namely. and of the four orders. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. penance is the truth. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. which belongs to olden times. He who does not desire anything. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. I will state to you. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and becoming wearied of their own actions. They live by penance. The Brahman is the truth. on which all entities subsist. Bharadvâja. Gautama. saw Brahman. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. The preceptor said: All this. the senses. was declared by Brahman. and likewise unity and variety. when thus spoken to by the sages. the future. And those twice-born (sages). We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. from whom (all) sin has departed. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. Brihaspati. which ought to be apprehended. and so forth. is esteemed highest. and also Kâsyapa. desire. and likewise of the castes. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. . the present. there is no doubt of that. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. desiring knowledge. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and Atri also. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. and is eternal. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. and the seed of which is the Brahman. and casts off birth and death. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. and Visvâmitra. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. met each other. I will state to you today. the branches of which are the great egoism. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. full of humility. which is always possessed of leaves. and who is devoid of egoism. which is eternal. and piety. the great sages. the sages. and wealth. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and who are the constant creators of the people. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. even while dwelling in this world. is released from misery. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. is emancipated. who was like (his) shadow. who are possessed of knowledge. in Brahman’s mansion. the gross elements the smaller boughs. always possessed of flowers. and likewise Bhârgava. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. after having traveled over all paths.
haughtiness. casting aside sin. finding fault with good acts. which depend on one another. consisting of three qualities. which is in a state of equilibrium. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. and five constituent principles. violation of (the rules of) conduct. and passion is the match of goodness. blindness. rigid in his vows. sun. which are all coupled with one another. avarice. grief. which is productive of pleasure. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. Where passion is restrained. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. Light. The true nature of their characteristics. among all beings. everlasting. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. never comes by delusion. and next after that too. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). and which are bridges of piety. Prajâpati. and it is constant in sinful actions. in aggregation and separation. indecision about actions. and those three channels run on. ignorance. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. Passion is said to consist in activity. nihilism. all-pervading. and immutable. air. it also appears combined (with others). want of liberality. and likewise also egoism. and likewise serve one another. I will speak to you. and is the cause of successive (acts). next after that is that of foresters. This is the nature of darkness. . The order of foresters. I will subsequently state the means to that. The wise always speak of piety as one. Its characteristic is also impiety. and the five great elements. and also all the deities. the whole of the qualities. Where darkness is restrained. want of discrimination. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. will now be stated together with the reasons. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. of all beings. Light. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. fear. such is the eternal creation. faith. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). Learn. lightness. and darkness the match of goodness. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. The great self. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. and goodness is also the match of passion. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. It has three qualities. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. which you should understand. encircled by the. learn those accurately. immaturity (of intellect). and are joined to one another. Indra. the ten senses and the one (sense). being constituted by the three qualities. its characteristic. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. sleep. Delusion. and of the highest seat. as accepted by good men.distinctly. Goodness is the match of darkness. Darkness. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. he. the unperceived likewise. O noble ones! from me. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. and of the understanding as ruler. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. these are called the three qualities. and goodness. one sees not these. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. eleven. the second is that of householders. He who accurately understands the elements. (but) having four quarters. goodness there prevails. He who. and attend on one another. and is called delusion. passion there prevails. attains to all the spotless worlds. and getting rid of all bonds. want of memory. now speaking exhaustively. When it prevails. appears to be production. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. space. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. passion.
vanity. indeed. There. And whatever other states of mind. I have now duly described to you. And whatever such people there are in this world. insects. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). and whatever vain gifts. as Chândâlas. becoming men of meritorious actions. unfriendliness. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). piercing. who are sunk in darkness. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. they exert themselves. vilifying. touching other people’s weak points. sinful action. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. the thought (that this or that is) mine. vanity. (namely) the brute (species). want of self-restraint. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. Resorting to a contrary (course of life).behavior of the lowest quality. harboring evil thoughts. and vain eating. want of faith also. exercise and quarrel too. want of forgiveness likewise. Darkness. repining. Such is the Vedic text. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. want of faith. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. by cutting. pleasure and pain. Who. all these qualities. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. These dark. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). sages and saints and gods become deluded. want of straightforwardness. connected with delusion. strength. stolidity. animosity. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. who. all these are dark qualities. beasts of burden. valor. are found in various places in this world. backbiting. sink into darkness. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. Reviling. Injuring (others). and serpents. They go to the hell. pointing out others’ weaknesses. pride of performance without (actual) performance. deluded convictions. anger. evilconducted men. and growing old in (good) actions. and idiots. beauty. and also animosity towards people. wrath. lassitude. understands this properly. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. that is considered to be dark conduct. this is considered to be dark conduct. vindictiveness. how. war. Coming to a sinful womb. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. wishing for pleasure. this is considered to be dark conduct. the great delusion. and worms. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. birds. or lisping men. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. who break through (all) regulations. doers of sinful acts. and want of forgiveness. evil disposition. Learn. the great obscurity called anger. and also its source. affliction. power. slaughter. they are all held to be dark. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. breaking. to be born in the lower hell. deaf and dumb men. anger is called the great obscurity. cold and heat. and also creatures born from eggs. who bear the marks of their own actions. peace. and growing old in their own duties. animals. buying and selling. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. delusion. going beyond the Sûdra womb. indeed. and all quadrupeds. preservation. that one sees the real in what is unreal. delusion. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. and also its qualities. (or become) the immovable entities. fierceness and cruelty. going into inferior ways. want of knowledge. toil. frenzy. or deaf. Whatever vain actions (there are). and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. animosity. argument. want of liberality. endurance. thinking of (this) world. and death the blinding obscurity. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. demons. bonds. desire. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. abuse . battle. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness.
and actions with expectations. and future entities in this world. Thus. the ceremony of Vashat. bad gifts. compassion to (all) creatures. liberality. absence of backbiting. The . present.uttering falsehoods. freedom from laziness. and also want of faith. these men. auspicious rites. for articles. harmlessness. salutation. haughtiness. all these qualities. equable everywhere. (holding) knowledge to be vain. and make Tarpana. not full of desires. and also sacrificing and study. The man who always understands these qualities. one obtains whatever one desires. ostentation. sacrifices vain. minuteness. obedience. equability. courage. defiance. absence of fear. common scandal. disgust. and free from grief. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. They are said to have their currents upwards. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. devotion to dancing. gifts and acceptance of gifts. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. contentment. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. (good) conduct vain. joy. slaughter. devotion. and create (various) bodies. doubt. Understanding this according to rule. modesty. and for houses. who are enveloped by passion. righteous feelings. they rejoice. and labor vain. contumely. prowess. vexing (oneself). good behavior. harboring desire. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. vexation. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. management. expiations. penance vain. enlightenment and happiness also. disrespect and respect. whose conduct is of this description. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. (on another). truth. the ceremony of Svadhâ. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. association with women. forgiveness. indifference. valor. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. contentment. dexterity. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. perceive (everything) aright. Confidence. They give and receive. joy. devoid of expectations. and instrumental or vocal music. The power of governing. service vain. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. absence of wrath. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. wealth. laudation. attendance. self-restraint. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. and attachment also. learning vain. for women. devoid of egoism. and also sacrifice. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good.’ affection generated by the qualities. life as a Brahmachârin. and of the quality of goodness. those talented men reach heaven. pleasure and delight. gets rid of all passionate qualities. unbroken piety. joviality. abandonment on all hands. who adhere to the quality of goodness. nobility. theft. Born again and again in this world. service. receipt of gifts vain. beneficial to all creatures. The men who meditate on past. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. freedom from delusion. straightforwardness. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. praise. pleasure. the duty of the good. absence of calumniation. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. he attains the highest in the next world. by means of nature. policy. for living creatures. vows and regulation. treachery and likewise deception. wakefulness. absence of cruelty. forgiveness. humility. and unblamable. have (their) currents downwards. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. and to be gods. for men. absence of stinginess. belongings. gambling. faith. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. purity. vows vain. censure. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. freedom from expectations. heedlessness. purity. Getting rid of all sins. emancipation. boasting. piety vain.
The creation of the qualities is eternal. nature. these are the three qualities. the passionate remain in the middle. They are attached to one another. moving in a body. and being free from all misery. he. not developed. holy. (consisting) of the three qualities. production and absorption. there passion should be understood to be little. the unperceived. and passion also. Threefold are the gifts given. but is not attached to the qualities. Pradhâna. abiding in those of the middle current. And as long as goodness and darkness. They perform their journey together. in the Brâhmana. The day should be understood to be threefold. Seeing the sun rising. enjoys the qualities. threefold are the worlds. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. they feed on one another. years. and the enlightener. evil-doers likewise are darkness. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. The three qualities – goodness. eternal. threefold the sacrifices performed. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. and the highest. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. evildoers are alarmed. so long is passion said (to exist) here. existent and also non-existent – all these. For they act with cause or without cause.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. unshaking. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. is released from all qualities. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. Among immovable entities. and the future. and passion likewise to be less. there darkness should be understood to be little. threefold the gods. immutable. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. suffering trouble from the heat. in the lower entities. Even from afar. So in all shining bodies. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. the Prâna. and the qualities. Where darkness is increased. half-months. . And whatever there is in this world. abiding. change. constant. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. and the conjunctions. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Where passion is developed. the night is stated to be threefold. being connected with the lowest quality. The light in the sun is goodness. and travelers. The man who always understands these qualities. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. womb. darkness. in union. and goodness likewise to be less. wealth. goodness. and threefold the path. all that is (made of) these three qualities. not small. Of all these acting with one another. passion in the Kshatriya. and lust. and goodness likewise to be less. go down. and its pure operations. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. piety. The sun is goodness developed. passion. seasons. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. There is no doubt of this. the increase and diminution will now be stated. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. is said to be. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. abiding in those of the upward current. unperceived. the Apâna. and moving about collectively. Darkness. the men of the quality of darkness. freed from the body. the present. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). immovable. feel the warmth. the heat is the quality of passion. unborn. The past. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. there darkness should be understood to be little. and likewise follow one another. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). the qualities of passion are variable. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. there: exist three qualities. Passion. They all depend on one another. but differing in development. and likewise months. destruction. and the Udâna. goodness. And where goodness is developed. goodness.
touch. who have subdued wrath. heads. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. and smell as the fifth. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. the great self. that from which the changes take place. ancient being. They are born one from the other. and of the mind. space. and are inconstant. the final dissolution approaches. connected with . and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. who practice meditation. and are dissolved in the reverse order. courage. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. and likewise color. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. the transcendent. it stands pervading everything in the world. and golden. touch. It has hands and feet on all sides. Now people who comprehend the understanding. that is said to be the second creation. Knowing that (great self). the light. who are constant at concentration of mind. creatures are deluded. and faces on all sides. and thus that source of all entities. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. is (afterwards) called egoism. color. of universal form. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. the Prajâpati. inexhaustible. Minuteness. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. creates (them). he among all people comes not by delusion. who have pondered on the self. When. air. Brahma. has been dissolved. the valiant. verily.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. it is said to be the first creation. the operations (connected with these) have causes. and their name is delusion. water. it is the creator of the three worlds. taste. and whose senses are subdued. that talented man. lightness. it is full of light. movable or immovable. these being emancipated. Sound. the understanding. means of perception. means of knowledge. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). who are devoid of egoism. it has eyes. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the producer of the entities. Vishnu. it causes all this to move. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. and likewise cognition. who are not avaricious. it is that from which the people are produced. were the five great elements born – earth. taste. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. who are true to their promises. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. the supporter of consciousness. and as that from which the changes take place. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. whose minds are clear. he is the governor. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. attain greatness. Then when every entity. and insignificant. memory. not different from one another. intelligence. the producer of the deities. and light as the fifth. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. who are talented. and by its own light. it likewise charms the world. In these five great elements. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. Sambhu. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. and smell. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). Caused by the production of avarice. and who are always possessed of a good heart. who are possessed of knowledge. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. It is a deity. the source of all qualities. abides transcending the understanding.
Those should be understood to be born from eggs. The Apâna wind. those born from germs. As connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is the wind. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. the two hands. the nose also as the fifth. and together with speech. the presiding deity there is Rudra. these are helpless and powerless. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. self-consciousness. eye. as connected with the self. and understanding unswerving. the motion of which is downward. and the presiding deity there is the sun. The third (entity) is said to be light. the Samâna. the skin. as connected with the self. is speech which relates to all the gods.flesh and blood. next as connected with objects (it is) color. and the presiding deity there is lightning. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. as connected with objects it is the semen. Those born from eggs. as connected with the self it is the nose. as connected with the self it is called the eye. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. as connected with the self. as connected with objects. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. and worms of the like description. This group one should subdue first. As connected with the self. Space is the first entity. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. and space. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. The fifth entity is earth. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. and the understanding is the twelfth. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. excluded from the self. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. the tongue. which follows after the five entities. This is said to be the . then the Brahman shines (before him). as also all reptiles. and five the organs of action. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. ear. tongue. Then first. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. mind. and the presiding deity there is fire. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). The mind should be understood to be among both. and the organ of generation. and the Vyâna also. The second entity is air. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. the presiding deity there is the Moon. water. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. is called the organ of excretion. the two eyes. As connected with the self they mention the mind. who perceive the truth. as connected with objects it is taste. such is the group of organs. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. Likewise (there is) egoism. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. and depending upon one another. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. Understanding these. The ear. And the eleven organs. as connected with the self it is called the ear. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. the producer of all beings. and speech as the tenth. the Udâna. as connected with objects it is motion. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. The Prâna and the Apâna. the mind is the eleventh. as connected with objects it is excretion. and the presiding deity there is Soma. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. and speech are restrained. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. the two feet. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. and the presiding deity there is Indra. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. the organ of excretion. those born from perspiration. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is actions. and whose mind is pure. nose. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. He whose skin. as connected with objects it is what is spoken.
that he is released from all sins. that the body in which the color is fire. and likewise the sound is space. It is a great ocean. The fourth should be understood to be water. One should place all these together. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. should cast it aside. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. which is full of passion. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and which is full of the Brahman. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. this same (body). unfit to be seen. fearful and unfathomable. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. which has nine passages and two deities. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. . for (every one) who is born. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. are said to be born from germs. gift at a sacrifice. and is sanctifying. and the five great elements. The fifth element is earth. in which one lives alone. and sacred study. Such is the teaching of the ancients. When everything is absorbed into the mind. which are born after the lapse of some time. is ever happy. and who is devoid of passion. and full of delusion. The third is called light. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. The world. and released from everything. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. too. which is made up of the five elements. however. then being self-illumined. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. and which rests on the real (entity). Those beings. Understand about them also. the flowing (element) water. the presiding deity there is Soma. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. and those which move crookedly. He who duly understands this. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). pleased with contacts. which is free from attachment. which is uninterrupted. Space is the first entity. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. (namely) sacrifice. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. (viz. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. next as connected with objects it is color. O chief of the twice-born! and know. It is settled. together with the immortals. A knowledge of this. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. and than which there is nothing higher. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. and being concentrated in mind. having his cravings destroyed. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. which is surrounded by the five currents. bursting through the earth. and restrain it.) the senses.second (mode of) birth. The second entity is air. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. Restraining objects of desire within the self. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. are the beings born from wombs. and hold them by the mind. and the feeling of touch is air. curtail it. and is named delusion. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. the presiding deity there is the sun. the objects of the senses. and inferior. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell.
the sun is the prince among the planets. who has beautiful eyes. the Pâriyâtra. the Sahya. and Prajâpati. demons. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. who am full of the Brahman. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. the uncreated Hari. the Mahendra. Kinnaras. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and also as various. and Yakshas. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. and Yakshas. Soma is the lord of herbs. and Pitris. and demons. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and the bands of Bhûtas. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. the north among the quarters. and . treachery. avarice. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. the Sinsapâ. likewise. He verily is Vishnu. For he is the ruler of men. of Gandharvas. and falsehood also. The Nyagrodha. Kings desire piety. and Rakshasas. and seeing the self within the self. of gods. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. (all these). the creator. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and among denizens of the forest the lion.Desire. Such is the highest creation among all entities. and Varuna. the Vindhya. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. Freed from all sins. and among females a male. Understand this. Varuna is the king of the waters. Agni. the Bhâsa. the Trikûtavat. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. the Nîla. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and Mitra. and Nâgas. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. among vehicles the elephant. there is no doubt of that. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. which are difficult to get rid of. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and likewise the Sâlmali. concentrating the mind within the mind. all companies of Brâhmanas. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. among cattle also the bull. the Pippala. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. and also all the great sages. these are the princes among mountains. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and birds. rejoice in this world. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. She is called Pârvatî. the Sveta. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. and the creator. lose all their qualifications. and the moon among the Nakshatras. likewise. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. Understanding everything. these are the princes among trees in this world. wrath. ever extol. Purandara of (all) deities. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. Understand him to be the ruler. and the Koshthavat mountain. and go into wrong paths after death. and of all entities whatever I. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). and great. (am lord). and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. snakes. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. Him. changing from time to time. the Guruskandha. Non-destruction is the highest piety. the Jambu. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. he then perceives that highest (principle). He is the supporter. and delusion the reservoir. and the bands of Rakshasas. and the ocean among rivers. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. and Pisâkas. The Himavat. and the Meshasringa. fear. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. and also gods.
and that is comprehended by the understanding. The characteristic of devotion is action. no one. And crossing beyond darkness. free from the ceremony of salutations. And the moon likewise. taste is the characteristic of water. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. the characteristic of renunciation. he is the Supreme Lord. together with names and characteristics. know. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. is perceived by the skin. (though) concealed. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. and that is comprehended by the eye. the essence of water. And I always see. the unperceived (is appointed). that is comprehended by the nose. the characteristic of mind is thought. and transcending death and old age.destruction is of the nature of impiety. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. belonging to the air. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. that months have the bright first. and the creation. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. Taste. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. he repairs to that which has no second. and about the means for its comprehension. which is void of symbols. is always comprehended by the tongue. The qualities created again and again. The characteristic of mind is meditation. is smell. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. middle. action the characteristic of men. being nonintelligent. The quality of space is sound. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. to be created and tied down to a beginning. giving prominence to knowledge. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. in this world. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. is purely knowledge. To (this) positive comprehension. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. The quality of light is color. is the Kshetrajña. and end. Only the Kshetrajña attains. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. and the Mahat of knowledge. and knowledge. and transcending the qualities. the characteristic of earth. who is unmoving. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. transcendent. and from the svâhâ ceremony. then enters into the Kshetrajña. and homeless. abandoning qualities. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. and end. and having his sins destroyed. The (sensation of) touch. do not know themselves. and that is comprehended by the ear. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. As to the smell of the earth. The earth is the source of . verily. It is stated that day was first and then night. The Purusha knows it. color is the characteristic of light. which is great. sound is the characteristic of space. The Kshetrajña. there is no doubt of that. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. and hear it. Thought is the quality of mind. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. the supporter of all beings. middle. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. Hence a man who understands piety. to the truth. who resides in the tongue. (else) attains.
which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. which rotates in space and time. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. . Days end with (the sun’s) setting. whose senses are subjugated. Among all precious things. the Plaksha. the noise of which is trouble and toil. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. and the Prâna lifewind. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. and life ends in death. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. The Syena is first among birds. Of all mountains. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. And the unthinkable. Of all ages the Krita is the first. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. All accumulations end in exhaustion. the goat is mentioned (as the first). Îsvara is the lord. which moves through (all) the worlds. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. too. which is full of actions and instruments of action. the ocean is the first-born. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. and among all reptiles. of all words. there is no doubt of that. the end of pleasure is ever grief. there is no doubt of that. water of tastes. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. all that is called Sâvitrî. that of householders (is the first). is everchanging. and regulations. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. observances. of which the pole is the mind. The great Vishnu. death is certain for whatever is born. all associations end in dissociations. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. And among all immovable entities. Kinnaras. There is no end for knowledge. who is devoid of egoism. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. Of all orders. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. among (sacrificial) animals. These are the qualities of the elements. of which the environment is home. there is no doubt of that. Sacrifice. which is lit up by the great egoism. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. Prajâpati of deities. fire is said to be the first of the elements. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. the ever holy field of Brahman. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. and Yakshas. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. whatever is prescribed in this world. Bhûtas. which is sustained by the qualities. Pisâkas. likewise. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. is stated to be the first. which is measured by months and half months. study. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. all this ends in destruction. and the same is also the end of everything. All action ends in destruction. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. the mud for which is penance and regulations. snakes. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. among sacrifices. who is full of the Brahman. I. all ascents end in falls. and the twice-born among men. likewise space is the source of sound. and of men. and Rakshasas. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid.smells. Dânavas. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. without distinction. penance. the offering (into the fire) is the best. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. the end of grief ever pleasure. The sun is the first among shining bodies. gift. water is the best. the fastenings in which are vexations. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. gold (is the first). which abounds in old age and grief. And of all gods. the eastern quarter is the first. is the source of the entire universe.
and should give and receive gifts. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. with his senses restrained. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. (That) sage. who is pure. That man among all creatures. should be kind. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. which is unchecked. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. and self-restrained. One should learn and teach. gift. and should always associate with good men. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). the forester. sit. who is thus devoted. and the Brahmachârin. attains the highest goal. who is self-restrained. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. and also receiving untainted gifts. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. should avoid heedlessness. who is of rigid vows. the sage who understands piety. and who has duly observed vows. this has been celebrated from ancient times. abridge. transcending all pairs of opposites. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. and alms. together with the immortals should cast away. The Brâhmana householder. The householder. There should also be a girdle of muñga. and which is devoid of consciousness. should. and constant in veracity and piety. study. all the world. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). And as to the other remaining three duties. which moves towards joy and pleasure. behaving like good men. they are pious duties. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. and also the beggar. and should stand. to such a one the (word) good applies.which is large. should behave like the good. conquers heaven. possessed of forgiveness. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. and with one’s external organs restrained. who is devoted to Vedic rites. and take exercise (duly). take food without decrying it. and have his sacred . making gifts. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. and equable to all creatures. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. the imperishable source (of all). and be of pure vows. and sacrifice. to follow it is good. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and which is (never) fatigued. With regard to those three duties. and full of faith. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. kind. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and which is extended by means of attachments. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. and who understands the Vedas. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. This wheel of life. with the permission of the preceptor. or also a deerskin. or of cotton. Always devoted to his own wife. he should have matted hair. and released from all sins. in the way above stated. and check. should return (from his preceptor’s house). the speed of which is like that of the mind. is never deluded. released from all impressions. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood).
And with his senses restrained.thread. He should not parade (his) piety. veracity. his path being pointed out by the sun. he should move about in a secluded place. full of forgiveness. and roots and Syâmâka grain. be engaged in sacred study. A man should always bathe in clean water. living on fruits and leaves. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. and in the rains. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. is esteemed. and be agreeable to all beings. and always living within the forest. and should not rejoice if he obtains. and when he goes about for alms. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. eating little. or the foot of a tree. One who is thus devoted. He should not make any accumulations. preserving his hair and moustache. (Such) a Brahmachârin. free from passion. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. should not enter a town again. the sage should become free from all action. he should not go following after another. freedom from (the habit of) carping. conquers heaven. or bitter. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. does not return to birth. Refined by means of all ceremonies. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. He should move about the world like a worm. or the cavern of a mountain. life as a Brahmachârin. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. addicted to sacred study. and concentrated in mind. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. and continent. and should eschew dwelling with friends. and devoted to veracity and piety. and also straightforwardness. not deceptive and not crooked. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. freedom from anger. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. He should honor a guest who comes. A householder. having a mind free from envy. Eating only a little. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. pure in body. Restraining the external senses. being restrained in mind. astringent. and should not . nor should he eat when honored. and depending on the deities. Offering safety to all beings. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. Nor should he beg for too much alms. and free from avarice. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. kind. looking out for the (proper) time. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. He should without sloth feed on water. performing sacrifices. When eating. or again a forester. seeking merely to sustain life. or a river likewise. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. who is concentrated in mind. or a forest. kind. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. In summer. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. and of rigid observances. always in forests. and likewise no sweet juices. or which are pungent. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). and restrained in all his senses. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. restraint of the external organs. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). always with clean water. he may dwell in one place. or a Brahmachârin. fruits. and which have come spontaneously. He should honor guests. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. air. always dexterous. and leaves. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. in order. and reaching the highest seat. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures.
One should not hate. or the mind. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). Nor. Though undeluded. and self-controlled. and though dwelling in a house. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. and then. and who is dependent on none. and should be void of (all) belongings. who is free from expectations. he should act in the manner of the deluded. . nor should he ever give to others. imperishable. There the understanding reaches not. which is to be understood. any action involving expectation of fruit. and also devoid of sound. and mind. mind. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). He should not defile anything by the eye. foot. which is free from the operations of the qualities. nor valor. he attains to the highest seat. untainted. nor should one wish for gold. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. or by speech. is emancipated. One should not perform. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. One should not think of what is not come. Those who perceive the self. nor the deities. nor the senses. and without fixed appointments with people. should be free from attachment. or back. nor reflect on that which is past. with his accumulations exhausted. who is free from desires. absolute. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. flowers. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. always dwelling in all entities. One should not perturb any other (person). moving and unmoving. understanding. who understands all truth. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. should meditate. nor penance. who is free from the pairs of opposites. Rejecting all things. who is attached to the self. exclusively pondering on one point. which is free from anxiety. and who is free from salutations. Freed from all attachments. which is unattached. But owing to the helplessness of people. one should disregard the present. One who knows the truth. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. devoid of smell. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. which is without hands. egoism. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. He should not appropriate another’s riches. who is free from attachments to any entity. The senses. being devoted to pious conduct. not finding fault with piety. after understanding all these. One who has anything to do should take earth. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. verily. without a stomach. nor worlds. pebbles likewise. and the Purusha likewise. water. divine. sacrifices. there is no doubt of that. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. being released from all bonds. as they come. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. the unperceived. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). and who understands the truth. and the objects of the senses. and leaves. and understanding are absorbed. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. one attains heaven. should not teach.follow his own (mere) desire. without a head. and stable. and which is also devoid of flesh. and the five great elements. or involving any destruction of life. and being equable to all beings. who is free from egoism. or the assemblage of people. and free from distress. devoid of color. and should not take (anything) unasked. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and in whom the senses. a wise man should always share (with others). by an accurate determination about the truth. nor Vedas. and should avoid (all) controversies. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. He should perform piety. they never die. he gets emancipation. devoid of taste or touch. depending on none. or cause to be performed. He should not receive from others. should act without a purpose.
and whose minds are refined. understands that which is beyond nature. even dwelling in this world. is emancipated. developed from the qualities. and devoid of qualities. then understanding the Kshetra. transcending passion. devoid of qualities. there is no doubt of that. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. of unthinkable qualities. death. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. which cause birth. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. association and dissociation. Restraining the self in the self. through the tranquility of the self. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. Penance is said to be a light. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. attaining to the self. and which is fed upon by all creatures. (which are) unchanging. and free from egoism. He who desires nothing. and supreme. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. he is called intelligent. and which is the essential element in knowledge. (When) the inner self. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. and being untainted. which is always possessed of leaves. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. is emancipated. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and old age. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. is released from misery. there is no doubt of that. But as to that other who is above them. and some as transcendent and without misery. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. the great branches of which are the great elements. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. go to the happy path by penance. everlasting. which abides in all entities. devoid of knowledge of nature. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. and the side branches the objects of sense. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. the sprouts within which are the senses. and renunciation the best penance. and with an understanding comprehending all. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and despises nothing. The learned man who perceives. it is free from the pairs of opposites. even for (the space of) a wink. and (as it were) non-intelligent. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. The men of talent. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. for assimilation with the Brahman. there is no doubt of that. and likewise unity and diversity. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. The highest Brahman is very far off. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. There are these two birds. and who is devoid of egoism. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. becomes fit for immortality. by tranquility only. Abandoning all action. always possessed of flowers. becomes eligible. whether agreeable or disagreeable. who are pure. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. a creature is emancipated.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites.
that fits one for immortality. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. Some are devoted to harmlessness. some say that is not so. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). Some learned men. believe it to be one. Some extol everything. too. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. and others. truth. some various kinds of enjoyments. having again felt doubts. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). Some people are for bathing. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. abandonment. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. that it exists. and others that there is no doubt. Some (say) everything is doubtful. and others nothing. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. others are intent on fasting. Thus having first a tranquil self. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. some are in the midst of doubts. and some given up to destruction. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. People are acting. others that that is not so. there is no doubt of that. who were the best of sages. Some extol final emancipation. and (others) that it exists not. and others (that it is) mixed. but others extol penance. and other persons sacred study. knowledge. and others. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and others that that is not so. of ten or twelve (modes). and our mind is distracted. who are devoted to knowledge. Some people extol action. always esteems that. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. and others again (that it is) manifold. some are for pleasure. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and others indigence. others distinct. Some are for taking food. and others tranquility. Some have matted hair and skins. And. this is good. too. Some people (say) meditation. some for the omission of bathing. the venerable. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. we are deluded. (saying) this is good. and renunciation. and come to no determination. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and some for pain. some knowledge. gifts. some are for merit and glory. courage. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. some wish for riches.by control of the life-winds. equability. nature. Some (say) means should be resorted to. We wish. harmlessness. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. . holy. But that is not correct. straightforwardness. be obtains whatever he desires. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. such is their relation. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and those who ponder on the element. and others say that is not so. Some are devoted to goodness. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. Some say both time and space (exist). The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). Some Brâhmanas. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety.
I will tell you something more. go verily to hell. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). perceive correctly. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. But those wise and talented men. being born again and again. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. goes in the water without fatigue. who perform actions with faith. afflicted by reason of the chariot. and void of intelligence.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. travels with great discomfort. O Brâhmanas! Well now. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. and who entertain avarice and delusion. such is the progress of the men of understanding. and who are infidels in their conduct. Even brought into contact with all qualities. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. and nature is stated to be the object. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. and to be constituted of the qualities. Hearing it all. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. devoid of parts. where the carriage-path stops. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. attains supreme happiness. As far as there is a carriage-path. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. so should one understand. free from any connection with expectations. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. deliberate on it properly. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. It has been explained in the above mode. he goes in the carriage. through delusion. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. So travels the talented man. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. Now I will proceed to. though it is the object of enjoyment. rejoice in this world. and soon crosses the reservoir. Learn that. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. and may even be destroyed on the way. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and going swiftly. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). I will declare to you what you ask of me. While there is oil and wick. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. comprehending the gradations one above the other. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. Non-destruction of all creatures. and is connected with (all) knowledge. free from vexation and holy in character. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . He abides in everything alike. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). and who knows about the qualities. a learned man remains untainted. This is the highest seat. throwing aside the boat. Thus nature is perceived. and in essence free from the qualities. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Understand this. The subject is always the being. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. the light shines. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. It is established that nature is the property of the being. For the talented man who knows (these) means. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars.
and of the elements respectively. and grey likewise. together with Gândhâra. hard. the divine source of all entities. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. Sweet. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. and are conversant with piety. said to be of six descriptions. Rough. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. slippery. are stated to be the qualities of water. Shadga. Learn about their properties. and above the unperceived is the being. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. sharp. which is void of any smell whatever. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. hurtful. And as action is performed in this world. and water. Sound and touch also should be understood. Rishabha. and who identifies himself with every being. sour. square. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism.carriage and pedestrian. red likewise. and void of color. which is produced in space. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. air is said to have (these) two qualities. narrow. that is called the Pradhâna. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. be understood to be of ten descriptions. and earth. Smell always belongs to the earth. glutinous. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. void of taste. I will now give (some) information about taste. touch. astringent. compact. Thus sound. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. touch. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. and rough. and color likewise. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. green. black. and likewise Pañkama. to be of twelve descriptions. and bitter likewise. which is a development of water. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. touch. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. or sound. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. which belongs to the earth. it is said that light has three qualities. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. diffusive and compact also. the great elements. bitter. sour. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. Madhyama. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. and smell as the fifth – these. One who has come by delusion through affection. but they do not yield products. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. above that is the unperceived. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. is of four qualities. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. who speak the truth. and clear also. White. egoism is above that. namely. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . and taste. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. so does it result to them. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. and above that understanding is the self. – thus should smell. and also productive in its essence. Sound. cold and hot likewise. color likewise. tender and clear also. air is said to have two qualities. repairs to the imperishable self. short long. From egoism is produced the development. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. sweet. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. abounding with movables and immovables. yellow. touch. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. Now space has one quality. should be understood to be of five qualities. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. and of (many) ingredients. soft. and that is stated to be sound only. Sound. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. The quality of light is color. too. smooth. Space is the highest element. thus is light said to have three qualities. above egoism is understanding. taste. broad. and likewise color. And touch is the quality of air. Now space has one quality. Sound. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things).
He who understands him understands the Vedas. This is the eternal mystery. is released from. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. The senses. The mind always presides over the great elements. (sacrificial) animals. Râkshasas. goes to the highest goal. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. all that can be accomplished by penance. those who have achieved perfection. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. are born here again and again. gods. Born from that same unperceived (principle). attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. enter the highest world of the great. that sin only by penance well performed. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. they are the very first to be dissolved. Gandharvas. Such is the upward gradation among entities.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. Asuras. That which begins with the unperceived . and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. Gods. and in which the understanding is the drag. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). and who are free from egoism. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. (Those) men. obtain the great and highest world. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. men. The understanding proclaims its power. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. and being full of egoism. and (after) these developments. the creators of the world. and abandons everything as fruitless. and all other creatures movable or immovable. which is the unperceived. and herbs. and it is called the Kshetrajña. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). and ends with the gross objects. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Medicines. one who steals. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. and it is the goal of all living creatures. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. a man gets rid of all sins. for penance is difficult to overcome. again acquiring knowledge. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. These Brâhmanas. Those who best understand the self. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. perceive the triple world here by penance. and includes movables and immovables. the mind. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. one who destroys an embryo. Pitris. One who drinks spirituous liquors. and having their minds always tranquil. not by actions. they go near Prajâpati. the mind itself is the individual self. difficult to vanquish. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. Pisâkas. That individual self. For all acquisition has penance for its root. Whatever is difficult to obtain. always reach perfection by penance. And in like manner. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. all have been created by nature. beasts and birds. all the elements. a sage should sit down self-restrained. and devoid of egoism. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. That learned and talented person verily. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. one who kills a Brâhmana. and difficult to pass through. has the mind for a charioteer. like billows in the ocean. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. nor by a cause. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. And he who is released. and next the developments produced from the elements. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. even from those five elements. movable or immovable. and the understanding for a drag. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. difficult to learn.
And when the understanding is clear. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . too. then you will acquire perfection. Then will you attain perfection. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. he dies not.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. This is the eternal piety. O noble person. Vâsudeva. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. unmoving. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. Knowledge brings forth the being. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. and restraining the self in the Self. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. changeless. with your consent. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. getting rid of all sins. Do you. Then when this piety is duly practiced. was that Brâhmana. indeed. and who looks alike on everything. and not mine is the eternal. O Krishna! and who the pupil. not full of action. than which nothing greater exists. If you have love for me. who is without attachment. Expelling all impressions. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. O best of Brâhmana. is fit to be heard by me. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. he understands that holy Brahman. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O Lord! then tell it me. did everything (accordingly). which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. changeless. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. And the pupil. in consequence of these means. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. And. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. and then attained to the worlds. which is uncreated. he attains tranquility. Arjuna said: Who. I wish to see him. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. always duly act (according to it). incomprehensible. having done all he should have done. attained to that seat. Two syllables are death. Some men of dull understandings extol action. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. Mine is death. I have now declared everything to you. who is without expectations. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. sages! Act thus forthwith. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. O Janârdana! If this verily. three syllables the eternal Brahman. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). And now.
’ Om Tat Sat .When Krishna spoke these words. Be pleased. who is of a devout heart. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. Dhanañjaya replied (saying).
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