This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
honoring deities and guests. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. and about the return. This is what is called the destructible. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. Learn from me exhaustively. who contemns no one. purity. And he. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. penance. this is said to be the conduct of the good. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. becomes happy. which protects people to eternity. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. never comes to an evil end. who had been first created. and whose self is free from affections. who has abandoned piety. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. having made a body for himself. and absence of cruelty. serving mother and father. is released. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). he will cross beyond (all) bonds. From this is produced piety. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. the grandfather of all people. And Prajâpati. for among them it constantly abides. and (what is) agreeable and odious. created the whole of the three worlds. and thinking of naught. the body to be an unholy aggregate. which I am now about to declare. pure. constant restraint of the organs. the material cause of all embodied (selves). and gain and loss. and also tranquility. honoring preceptors. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. takes place after a long time. He who has no enemy. he is. who has subdued his senses. Brahman. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. who is devoted to tranquility. He who is not pious and not impious. and lust altogether. adherence to prescribed regulations. who has no child. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. is released who is equable towards both life and death. and causing good to be done. as he should act. And as regards that. He who understands the Pradhâna. moving and fixed. indeed. who has no kinsmen. and who is self-possessed. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. released from everything. (having) as regards the moving (creation). he becomes indifferent to everything. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. life as a Brahmachârin. compassion to (all) beings. From that he created the Pradhâna. but the other is immortal and indestructible. he is. is released. indeed. Then seeking after the supreme seat. free from vanity and egoism. What I say is all correct and proper.action by which. and ruin to be connected with action. pity. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. He who acquires that. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. A man who is a friend of all. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). Gifts. restraint of the senses. which is very difficult to cross. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. and which is known in the world as the highest. verily. and likewise pleasure and pain. and who has no desire. The practice to which the good adhere. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. self-restraint. who is self-controlled. abandoning each previous (element). points out (what) piety (is). one going the round of various births. And that I shall now proceed to state. He who is not attached to any one. by which all this is pervaded. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . released in every way. too. wealth. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. who endures all. a pair separately for each (species).
The man who has acquired concentration of mind. Restraining the senses. who is free from attachment. who has practiced penance. he assumes bodies at pleasure. perceives the self in the self. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. searching for his own faults. like an Aswattha tree. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. which consist in pain and grief. he perceives the perfect one. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. Remaining within (that) city. he sleeps at ease. void of taste. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. then he. being habituated to exclusive meditation. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. Weapons do not pierce him. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. tranquil. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. and always concentrating his mind. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. after extracting them from the Muñga. and having first performed rigorous penance. and of a tranquil mind. And as one may show the soft fibers. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. devoid of qualities.body. Restraining the . indestructible.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. then there is no ruler over him. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. since he is the lord of the triple world. and having his senses subjugated. As a person having seen one in a dream. void of touch. and freed from old age and grief. Leaving this human frame. he grieves not and exults not. One who does no action. without belongings. When (all) beings are destroyed. and abandoning the transient body. He whose self is concentrated. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. he remains steady to the self. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. is released. and old age. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. ‘This is he. like fire devoid of fuel. he is released. meditating in that habitation. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. When. Seeing the self void of smell. Then freed from all impressions. looks on this universe as transient. he has no fear. is released. constant.. saying. unmoving. there is no death for him. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. he gradually obtains tranquility. he is not afflicted by anything. and who has no desire. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. and having no cause. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. He who is free from all impressions. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. and casting aside old age and death. The body is called the Muñga. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. Properly concentrating his self. free from the pairs of opposites. Then the talented Brâhmana. Thinking of a quarter seen before. void of belongings. he is indeed released. void of sound. and unknowable. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. recognizes him (afterwards). If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. when (all) beings are afflicted. the soft fibers stand for the self. and who is self-restrained. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. devoid of form. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. than which there is nothing higher. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. death. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. one should fix the mind on the self. void of color. always full of birth.
O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. That talented pupil. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. and Sûdras likewise. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. and of the excretions. possessed of great penance. do the flesh.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana.group of the senses. where one. What I have spoken. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. and determination regarding . after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. He has hands and feet on all sides. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. Vaisyas. and also the means for its acquisition. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. I will go away. Adopting this doctrine. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. attain the supreme goal. He should meditate on his teeth. He is not to be grasped by the eye. even those who are of sinful birth. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. a mental smile. The soul sees the self come out from the body. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. and likewise the seat of the heart. he attains final emancipation in me. and muscles. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. and also the heart. he has cars on all sides. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows.’ Thus addressed by me. tongue. he has eyes. and (keeping) the passages confined. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. – with. This whole mystery I have declared to you. and faces on all sides. and do you (too) go away. too. which is difficult to explain. he perceives the self. he stands pervading everything in the world. O Mâdhava! I replied. too. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. who are constantly intent on their own duties. and marrow. O son of Prithâ! For. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). – went away as he pleased. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. reaches immortality and is ever happy. and throat likewise. distinctly? How. Have you listened to this. and how also to blood? And how. too. For as to that eternal Brahman. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. It is my belief. palate. as it were. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. And then depending upon it thus. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. and abandoning his body. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. neck. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. The world of the gods. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. final emancipation. nor by any of the senses. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. heads. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. O Krishna! that pupil. too. women. forsaking the body.
We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. Whatever action there is. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. It is not to be smelt by the nose. too. It is devoid of smell. In the interior. that which thinks. and also that which is to be thought of. there is nothing further than this. does exist among (all) beings. produce them in their wombs. CHAPTER V On this. that which is to be smelt. and (observe) good vows. by act. shall I go to. or heard. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. that only do the men of action engage in as action. that can be caught (by the touch). that which is to be drunk. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and who are harsh and undiscerning. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). and for which learned men have their senses restrained. A Brâhmana’s wife. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. The nose. This is all that is to be said. (in the form of) a dialogue. that which is to be drunk. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. O son of Pându! who. these are the seven great officiating priests. mind or speech. From birth to the destruction of the body. and Udâna also proceed. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. that which sees. Apâna. From this the Prâna. are destroyed by demons. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. shall I reach. Concentration of mind comes to him. or seen. While the paths (of action). and the moon together with the fire. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. and imperishable. and the tongue. and the ear as the fifth. verily. which occurred. That which smells. and not to be tasted by the tongue. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). that which is to be touched. and likewise that which is to . and that which is to be understood. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. you who live renouncing (all) action. What goal. seated in seclusion. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. but is to be apprehended by the mind. Samâna. depending on you as (my) husband. that which is to be seen. Vyâna. That is called the Udâna. When that is asleep. (namely). in which the materials are visible. and that which hears as the fifth. and likewise that which is to be heard. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). That which is to be smelt. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. good or bad. that man of a tranquil self. And mark this always. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. The mortal. and energetic. possessed of talents. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. that which is to be seen. and into it they enter. that which touches. and the eye. the mind and the understanding. devoid of color and sound. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. that which cats. devoid of taste and touch. and the skin. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. action. and their selves tranquil. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. full of faith. that which is to be touched. and that which understands. indeed.misery. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. and on which it rests.
from that is produced sound. smell. verily. and into this the offering is thrown. Prajâpati. and excrement. The mind is the ladle. First. words. too. that which is to be thought of. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. ‘I. space. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. these. Earth. the nose. from that touch is produced. From that is produced smell. (Thus) we have heard.’ But speech thereupon said to him. earth and fire. action. urine.be heard. that (in) my (view). And in that very (principle). and taste. The quarters. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). sun. are named wombs. ‘Say which of us is superior. Indra. and hence the mind is in need (of it). that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. and (though) developed. or letter.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. yield (you) your desires. water. from that is produced determination. though . The goddess speech. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. was the universe duly divided. are words produced. The ear. and the anus. But. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. the movable is in your dominion. and the mind runs after them. immovable and also movable. O beautiful one! Sound. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. therefore. color. from that another is produced. and also that which is to be understood. these are the ten oblations. speech. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. ‘Mind (is superior). from that doubt is produced. they relate this ancient story. and the discharge of semen. they were perfectly filled with light. verily. mind and understanding. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. is with me. destroy our doubts. and Vishnu also. verily. And the mind. wind. That is called the movement of the mind. and Mitra. touch. there are two minds. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. and light as the fifth. the tongue.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. the offerings are ten. these seven. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. and the knower is the upholder of the body. requires everything knowable (as its offering). moon. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. which is the generator of all entities. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. the genital organ. verity. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. the two hands. air. are the fuel. and they are offered up into the ten fires. the two feet. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. Then the lord of speech was produced. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. verily. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. indeed. that indeed is the movable mind. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. The immovable. these. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. To that you are superior. highest knowledge. which is the instrument of knowledge. from that is produced taste. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. and the wealth is the pure. motion. But inasmuch. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. or tone goes to your dominion. from that is produced color. are ten sacrificial priests. verily. Whatever mantra. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya.
the tongue. and the mind also. do not apprehend colors. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. O you of a bright smile! is divine. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. like a cow. they do not perceive each other. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. the mind apprehends it. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. and the understanding also. do not apprehend final determination. do not apprehend sounds. and the tongue. with divine power. the ear likewise. and the skin. the understanding apprehends it. the eye. do not apprehend doubt. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. the understanding. and the understanding also. This excellent (speech). – a dialogue. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. the tongue. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. the skin. The nose. the tongue. and the understanding also. the mind. The nose. the ear. the skin. the ear. On this. and the eye. the mind. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. the ear apprehends them. and the ear as the fifth. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. the skin apprehends them. The nose. The nose. too. flowing (forms). these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. the ear. and which then goes into the Apâna. the mind. O venerable sir? Tell me this. the ear likewise. they relate this ancient story. The tongue. the mind likewise.impelled. ‘Be pleased. Of those two. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. when. the ear likewise. do not apprehend tastes. And these never know the qualities of each other. mind and understanding. Dwelling in a minute space. It is always noisy or noiseless. she ran up to Prajâpati. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. and next the eye. and the eye. and the eye. The nose. too. saying. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the eye. do not apprehend smells. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the tongue. the tongue. the skin. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. the tongue apprehends them. yields milk. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. verily. the skin. and the eye. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. and the understanding also. and the understanding also. This cow-like speech. Do you. The nose. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). The mind said: . the skin. the mind. The nose. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. the skin. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. So speech formerly spoke. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. the eye apprehends them. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. the nose apprehends them.
He shall be the greatest among us.’ Brahman said: . and indulged in dreams. or if when we are absorbed. and said to him. the tongue does not perceive taste. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. then take in colors by the nose. life is seen to be supported. and objects are standing. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. still. you have no perception. take in smells by the ear. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. rules are for the weak. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. If when we are extinct. without us. One entering upon enjoyments. are the five sacrificial priests. and not connected with objects of sense. always meets death. a creature. too. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. like an empty dwelling. (which is) like entering a house without a door. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. Without me. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. who was born first. even with the senses exerting themselves. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. all beings. Granted. and the Udâna. then what you believe is true. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). like fuel half dried and half moist. I am the eternal chief among all elements. They formerly went to the grandsire. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. Without me. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. the ear does not in any way hear sound. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. the senses never shine. The learned know this to be a great principle. that the Prâna and the Apâna. and if you enjoy enjoyments. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. resulting from mental operations (alone). (there is) pleasure and support of life. if you. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. take in tastes by the eye. Without me. without us. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. when our objects perform their functions. both past and future. they relate an ancient story. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. when troubled by desire to enjoy. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. the eye does not take in color. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna.The nose smells not without me. and take in sounds by the skin. Besides. does run to objects of sense only.
all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. You are not the greatest among us. and again moved about. and on my moving about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. I am the greatest. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. And the Prâna and Apâna.He. All are greatest in their own spheres.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. owing to (their) specific qualities. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. I am the greatest. And on my moving about. Being friendly with one another. and the Samâna. and the Udâna. When I am extinct. verily. they again move about. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. There is one unmoving (life-wind). they again move about. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. Hear the reason why. they again move about. And the Prâna and Apâna. and the Vyâna also. they again move about. and on whose moving about. and pleasing one another. The Vyâna only is subject to you. Hear the reason why. ‘You are not the greatest among us. and again moved about. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. and on my moving about. There are others moving about. I am the greatest. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and on my moving about. and the Samâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.’ The Prâna again moved about. O beautiful one! spoke these words. I am the greatest. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. (which are) five. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. is the greatest. and all support one another. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.’ Then the Apâna moved about. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. they again move about. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. because the Apâna is subject to you. When I am extinct. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. and on my moving about. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. and not greatest. go away happily. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and the Samâna spoke again. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. and again moved about. who being extinct. spoke to him. Hear the reason why. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. My own self is one only. When I am extinct. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and the Apâna said to him. the lord of (all) creatures. they again move about. O Prâna. (Now) go where (you) like. Welfare be to you! Support one another. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.
The smoke of that (fire). or downwards. First. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. their function is performed: then. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. which (move) upwards. between them is the fire. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. his Prâna. and (it) is also produced from smell. the Samâna comes into operation again. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. too. (its) ashes. and (it) is also produced from a sound. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. Hear me. between them is the fire. that the fire verily is all the deities. the Prâna comes first into operation. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. in which the offering is thrown. and the semen being developed by the Prâna.On this. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. that which is other than this first comes to him. The nose. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from touch. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. and the eye. between them is the fire. From the combination of the semen and the blood. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. which is of excellent glory. This is the effect of the Udâna. the Samâna and Vyâna. these. too. secondly. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. which (move) upwards. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. the pleasure is produced from union. From desire the semen is produced. (it) is also produced from taste. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). being accompanied by intelligence. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or transversely. or Samâna. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. or Vyâna. The instrument. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. and emancipation. and the tongue. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. what comes into existence first. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. and the . or transversely. and between them is the fire. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. It is the teaching of the Veda. indeed. hear me speak about that. the Apâna then comes into operation. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. CHAPTER X On this. the action. and (it) is also produced from color. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. or Apâna. or downwards. (the quality of) passion. the agent. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. they relate this ancient story. The two – good and evil – are a pair. Day and night are a pair.
Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. Whatever is thought by the mind. The learned man. and the ear as the fifth. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. There is one instructor. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. (and) the seven Rishis. Taught by that instructor. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. like water on a declivity. There is one enemy. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. he who thinks. too. and he who hears as the fifth. The gods had been engaged in gifts. and taste. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. (about the) instruction of the snakes. who is the self of everything. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. there is no second (different) from him. and sages.skin. And among the learned who understand (everything). this.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. eating various (kinds of) food. final emancipation. On this. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. and the gods. Taught by that instructor. there is no second director. mind and understanding. shines dwelling within the body. these seven are causes of action. the downward lifewind. To him who is not learned. agreeable and disagreeable. I move as I am ordered. sound. and the great sages . The eating of that which should not be eaten. each in its own place. The gods. and color. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. they ran away in (various) directions. are sung. the Sastra. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. whatever is spoken by speech. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. and whatever is smelt by the nose. and touch as the fifth. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. There is one hearer. and the demons. and sages. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). too. by Prajâpati. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. he who eats. the venerable one said. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. there is no second (different) from him. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. the Brahman priest in which. Living under that instructor. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. my fire of (high) qualifications. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. the Stotra in which. Smell. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. is the counselor in all action. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. is the upward life-wind. there is no second (different) from him. the self the Adhvaryu priest. being (himself) a ruler. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. And I am here devoid of qualities. there is no second (different) from him. truth. the Brahman. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. And cooking food for himself.’ Hearing that. These. and he who understands. destroying this food again produces it. He who smells. and the snakes. the director. On. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. This being. of which an illustration is stated. the Hotri priest. Impelled by that same (being). he who speaks. whatever is seen by the eye. being possessed of qualities. He destroys the food. whatever is heard by the ear. in a single syllable. he who sees. enjoy their own qualities. and the Dakshinâ. On that Sâman hymns. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. approaching Prajâpati. ‘Om. There is one kinsman. they relate an ancient story. CHAPTER XI There is one director. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. he. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. is ruined. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings).
They are not afraid of anybody. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. There always dwell seven females there. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. There. There is nothing smaller than that. the gods. and mixed. owing to his desires. are always within the heart. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. and the demons. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. seven (forms of) concentration. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. the Brahman water. the way to which consists in worldly objects. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. who. and what the rivers. (namely) the five senses. and having a good mind. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. This is the description of the forest. and seven (forms of) initiation. Entering it. There is one fire here. There is nothing more subtle than that. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. which has contentment for its water. The good who attain to that. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. and seven guests. have no fear afterwards. when there is a distinction from it. the Brahman the instructor. the learner. the sages. . there is no other happiness equal to. all engaged in different (pursuits). Acting sinfully in the world. and causes of generation. The instructor. Understanding it they practiced it. and fragrant. and do not exult. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. and emancipation the fruit. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. that. with faces (turned) downwards. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. connected with the Brahman. another forest shines forth. in various places. The qualities are the fruits. and having been instructed with one word. the hearer. becomes a Brahmachârin. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. and the guests eat the fruits. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. the great sages receive hospitality. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. seven fruits. and nobody is afraid of them. and the enemy. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. He is rapt in the Brahman. and the hills and mountains. And there is fuel here. the snakes. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. and is to be crossed by one singly. seven hermitages. full of brilliance. in which intelligence is the tree. which depends on knowledge. And I have entered the great forest. is given up to the pleasures of the senses.in restraint of the senses. and of beautiful colors. the Brahman his origin. But he who. there is no other instructor. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. there is nothing larger than that. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. There is nothing more afflicting than that. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. when there is no distinction from it. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. merely adheres to the Brahman. Having had one teacher. the twice-born do not grieve. casting aside vows and actions. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. In that forest are seven large trees. the Brahman the fire.
Understand that. devote themselves to Brahman. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. perfection. too. the richest. being directed by the Kshetrajña. indeed. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. or death. they act (accordingly). On this. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. And understanding it. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. Nature desires objects which are liked. Apart from them. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. especially as he is dependent. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. His eye (will enter) the sun. . and again emerge from the same. Those whose wishes are reduced. merging the self in the self. then the sacrifice is for the goat. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. nor even do I entertain any fancies. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. Such. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. Not desiring any object of desire. I perceive no tastes. or old age. victory. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. too. Glory. that will enter water. mother. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. The life-winds. we do not rely on what is not visible. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. whose sins are burnt up by penance. together with their chiefs. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. they relate an ancient story. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. and his life-winds likewise the sky. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. praise tranquility. And aspiring to that forest. Although actions are performed. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. father. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. The teaching of the elders is. I see the individual self in the body. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). (the matter) will be fit for consideration. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). (his) ear the quarters. take him (to them) and consult (them). If I spoke further. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. Dwelling in that (self). this goat will not be destroyed. whatever in him is produced from water. There is no offence on my part. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. and I think only his unmoving body remains. and as the constant entity underlying them. there is no taint on my natures. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. nor yet do I hear various sounds. (This) creature will obtain welfare. and greatness. enlightenment. is this holy forest. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. since the Vedic text is such. they are born so as not to lose courage. and I do not touch. After hearing their consent. I see no color. as understood by Brâhmanas. of this goat have gone to their sources. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible.They absorb all the higher delights of people. not hating any evil. abide. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. brilliance.
what shall I do for you? The creatures. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. The life-winds. you hear the sound produced in space. they act (accordingly). have life. there is no fear anywhere. Of these the indestructible is the existent. who is alike to all beings. you touch the qualities of the air. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. who might stand against me in the field. such is the double manifestation of the self. For having heard your opinion. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. and understanding it. together with (the quality of) passion. Say. you drink watery juices. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. who is devoid of expectations. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. who is free from the pairs of opposites. as we have heard. are being destroyed. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. Once on a time. Or what do you think. you see the colors of shining bodies. the tongue. O venerable sir! I approach you. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. (in the shape of) a dialogue. saluting him. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. who take shelter with me. he was walking about near the sea. the mind. who has subdued his self. And all these entities. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. possessed of a thousand arms. you believe. . And to one who is free from these manifestations. Give them security. and (the quality of) goodness. name him to me. being directed by the Kshetrajña. and with joined hands. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. said.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. and I say (to you). and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. freed from delusion. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. The ocean. a descendant of Kritavîrya. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). my mind is enlightened. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. proud of his strength. too. and who is released on all hands. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. The ocean said: If. they relate an old story.
As by its unsteadiness. and taking swords and lances. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. In company with his kinsmen. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. and very firm in his vows. full of great wrath. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. It is not proper for you. O noble one!’ But Râma. shot away volleys of arrows. which was heard by all people. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. like antelopes troubled by a lion. not forgiving his father’s murder. too. became Vrishalas. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. There was (once) a royal sage. The mind said: These arrows. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . do you perceive. who was veracious. they relate an ancient story. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. ‘Desist. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. taking up his axe. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. named Alarka. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. spoke sweetly to Râma. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. together with the Sâbaras. high-souled. Paundras. too. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. whose penance was very great. Hearing that. only pierce your own vital part. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). entered mountains and inaccessible places. his grandfathers. being a Brâhmana. dear friend. a bodiless voice from heaven. Then the power of Râma. it wishes. They will. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. like a tree of many branches. – having performed very difficult deeds. and your vital part being pierced. whose power was unbounded. blazed forth. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. (Though) surrounded by enemies. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. to slaughter these kings.Then the king. Râma also taking up a bow. turned to subtle (questions). What good. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. and blew away the army of the king. hearing that (story). he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). Âbhîras. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. you will die. to make all mortals perform action. abandoning (those) great deeds. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. who understood duty. the Kshatriyas. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. burning the hosts of the enemy. Then some of the Kshatriyas. went away. Seeing him killed and fallen. with Rikîka as their head. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. became Vrishalas. Thus the Dravidas. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. said to those sages.
you will die.Smelling very many perfumes. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. These arrows. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. They will only pierce your own vital part. one hankers after them only. you will die. this (tongue) hankers after them only. and then you will lose (your) life. The ear said: These arrows. The skin said: These arrows. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. and your vital part being pierced. Hearing that. The eye said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. the (ear) hankers after them only. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Hearing that. The nose said. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. he then said after consideration: – . Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. The tongue said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Hearing that. and your vital part being pierced. the skin hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me.
persistent hatred. Obtaining those. and being troubled by desire. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. When vices were in the ascendant. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. He (then) restraining his own vices. And at the expiration of life. a man even does what ought not to be done. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. When the bodily frame is destroyed. and he who desires. Exultation. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. joy. being impelled by which. being impelled by which. the best of talented (men). who had become tranquil (in mind). three foes in (this) world. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. and your vital part being pierced. Perform a fearful penance. and good (men) were oppressed. you will die. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). is energetic about subjugating others. The understanding said: These arrows. attained high perfection. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. sloth. properly . and after deliberating for a long time. On this. (that vice). ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. And the royal sage. Then directing his mind to one point. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). wrath. Therefore. having a tranquil self. he meets death. free from sloth. and honoring good men. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. and applied himself to concentration of mind. That avarice – cut (it) off. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. of great glory. and senses controlled. and delusion. They will only pierce your own vital part. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. cut (it) off with sharp swords. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. destroyed all foes. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. Sleep. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. Ambarîsha. is born again and again. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. the greatest. he became steady. verily. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. he reached the highest perfection.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation.’ Do you understand this too. owing to these qualities. he. amazed. then anxiety comes into existence. For from avarice is born desire. a courageous man. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. but there is one. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. then uttered this verse. Grief. and engages in action. and again birth. according to qualities. pleasure. thence you will obtain the highest good. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold.
or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. I cannot find my domain. though this country. I looked for Mithilâ. avarice. searching through the (whole) earth. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. is subject (to me). I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. And as mine. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. or that everything is my domain. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. as the planet upon the sun. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. O best of the twice-born! Live (here.’ Thus spoken to. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. I believe. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. a delusion suddenly came upon him. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. (Considering) whose this was. While that king of unbounded power was seated. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. Then on the expiration of the delusion. or the whole earth is mine. what belief you have resorted to. then came the delusion on me. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. and. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. intelligence again came to me. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. This is sovereignty. engaged in meditation. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. When I did not find it among them. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I wish. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. Even this self is not mine. who destroyed the one (chief vice). Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. by the glorious Ambarîsha. holding which. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain.perceiving this. Janaka said: Though this country. Then when the delusion had gone off. to be terminable. and restraining avarice by courage. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). so (is it) that of others too. by which. and said nothing in reply. is subject to you. What conviction have you adopted. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. there is no other sovereignty here. too. King Janaka. in all affairs. the king recovered himself. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. by way of punishment. When I did not find it on the earth. and enjoy while you live. Resorting to this conviction. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. I looked for my own offspring. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. Now hear the conviction. therefore) while you desire.
or. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. and also without qualities. and a certain thing should not. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. With your heart intent upon the real entity. Whatever creatures there are in the world. it is not laid down. nothing exists that is a cause of him. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. Hence. and narrow. or residence in forests. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. I am a forester. dwelling with preceptors. In the (rules for) final emancipation. you have guessed. observing vows. and my intelligence is very frivolous. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. the Pitris. And those who. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. You are the one person to turn this wheel. together with guests. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. smiling. for this purpose. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. is (to be found) a description of it. come here today to learn (something) about you. and confused. Then the Brâhmana. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous.subject to me. This path is traversed by the understanding. All these actions of mine are. the nave of which is the Brahman. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. (namely) for the gods. or among mendicants. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. and even over heaven. or else this knowledge. A good means is found. movable or not moving. the spoke the understanding. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. that a certain thing should be done. I am a Brâhmana. where. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. have their understanding full of tranquility. namely. I am emancipated. you will certainly come into my self. Actions have a beginning and an end. and which does not turn back. or by one whose self is not refined. verily. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. to households. by which those who understand that proceed. is perceived as by bees. not by the body. according to your own understanding. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. action and knowledge. the instructor is the upper Arani.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. and the body is tied down by action. the Bhûtas. Sovereignty over the whole world. that. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. by which that (entity). indeed. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . I am not such.
O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. likewise. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. something about the highest good. Speak. what penance. (which are) means of direct perception. ‘I’ (he said). in hundreds and in thousands. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. who put (his) questions properly. ‘whose goal is the highest good. between a preceptor and a pupil. and also desirous of final emancipation. and what sin? These questions of mine. all of various descriptions. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. connected with final emancipation. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. A talented pupil. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. Listen to that. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. am come to you (who are) venerable. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. and accurately. And he. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. are afraid of worldly life. I pray of you with (bowed) head.and hears. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. indeed. Arjuna said: Where. And we. (when he was) seated. who had approached him (for instruction).’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. is I myself. too. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. There is none else here who can explain these questions. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. who was possessed of (the . as may here be practicable – unperceived. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. One should adopt as many of these things.’ The preceptor. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. Vâsudeva said: On this. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. put (his) questions with joined bands. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. and those whose form is perceived. truly. who preserved (all) vows.
and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. The Brahman is the truth. the entities are born from the truth. and who are the constant creators of the people. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. saw Brahman. desire. the present. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. Formerly. who was like (his) shadow. who understands the creation of all entities. and is eternal. namely. the gross elements the smaller boughs. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. in Brahman’s mansion. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. the great sages. and the seed of which is the Brahman. Understand that. from whom (all) sin has departed. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. full of humility. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. They live by penance. and becoming wearied of their own actions. desiring knowledge. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. Brihaspati. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. who was tranquil. and likewise Bhârgava. and of the four orders. was declared by Brahman. and the severance also. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. Vasishtha. the senses. and likewise of the castes. and piety. which is eternal. the sages. the branches of which are the great egoism. and also Kâsyapa. is released from misery. and wealth. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. are full of the truth. and who is devoid of egoism. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. Gautama. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. He who does not desire anything. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. in the holes of which are the sprouts. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. met each other. and casts off birth and death. the future. and has no egoism about anything. I will state to you today. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. on which all entities subsist. after having traveled over all paths. Prajâpati also is truth. I will state to you. who are possessed of knowledge. is emancipated. when thus spoken to by the sages. and so forth. from whom anger and vexation have departed. Bharadvâja. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. which ought to be apprehended. and Visvâmitra. . Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. even while dwelling in this world. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. penance is the truth. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and Atri also. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. and likewise unity and variety. always possessed of flowers. is esteemed highest. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. which is always possessed of leaves. which belongs to olden times. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. And those twice-born (sages). The preceptor said: All this. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. and renunciation as the best penance. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. there is no doubt of that. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas.necessary) qualifications.
Prajâpati. Where passion is restrained. eleven. Delusion. finding fault with good acts. The order of foresters. and is the cause of successive (acts). and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. and which are bridges of piety. want of liberality. sun. rigid in his vows. and of the understanding as ruler. passion. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. violation of (the rules of) conduct. (but) having four quarters. never comes by delusion. air. Darkness. and the five great elements. and getting rid of all bonds. indecision about actions. . is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). as accepted by good men.distinctly. and likewise serve one another. The great self. consisting of three qualities. Goodness is the match of darkness. the ten senses and the one (sense). appears to be production. immaturity (of intellect). which is productive of pleasure. Where darkness is restrained. next after that is that of foresters. and attend on one another. and goodness is also the match of passion. haughtiness. and goodness. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. O noble ones! from me. learn those accurately. he. and likewise also egoism. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). It has three qualities. space. Light. which are all coupled with one another. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. ignorance. Learn. sleep. and of the highest seat. Indra. all-pervading. and those three channels run on. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. passion there prevails. want of discrimination. nihilism. such is the eternal creation. the second is that of householders. encircled by the. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. which you should understand. He who accurately understands the elements. attains to all the spotless worlds. which is in a state of equilibrium. these are called the three qualities. the whole of the qualities. and darkness the match of goodness. Its characteristic is also impiety. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. The true nature of their characteristics. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. of all beings. want of memory. among all beings. casting aside sin. I will speak to you. in aggregation and separation. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. which depend on one another. This is the nature of darkness. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. blindness. and also all the deities. and are joined to one another. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. and next after that too. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. Light. and it is constant in sinful actions. everlasting. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. The wise always speak of piety as one. and is called delusion. it also appears combined (with others). and immutable. avarice. and passion is the match of goodness. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. Passion is said to consist in activity. and five constituent principles. fear. lightness. He who. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. grief. the unperceived likewise. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. goodness there prevails. will now be stated together with the reasons. When it prevails. one sees not these. now speaking exhaustively. faith. its characteristic. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. being constituted by the three qualities. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. I will subsequently state the means to that. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately.
Darkness. and all quadrupeds. bonds. they are all held to be dark. breaking. becoming men of meritorious actions. war. animosity. that one sees the real in what is unreal. strength. peace. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. pleasure and pain. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). buying and selling. to be born in the lower hell. argument. (namely) the brute (species). the great obscurity called anger. want of liberality. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge.behavior of the lowest quality. this is considered to be dark conduct. And whatever such people there are in this world. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. (or become) the immovable entities. all these are dark qualities. who bear the marks of their own actions. I have now duly described to you. Who. demons. animals. and serpents. preservation. and also creatures born from eggs. insects. evil disposition. backbiting. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. they exert themselves. piercing. valor. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. vindictiveness. sinful action. frenzy. vanity. going beyond the Sûdra womb. repining. and also its qualities. unfriendliness. delusion. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. the great delusion. Reviling. animosity. doers of sinful acts. vilifying. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). battle. These dark. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. There. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. or deaf. who break through (all) regulations. They go to the hell. beauty. want of forgiveness likewise. connected with delusion. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. deaf and dumb men. or lisping men. vanity. Such is the Vedic text. touching other people’s weak points. by cutting. want of faith. Coming to a sinful womb. slaughter. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. exercise and quarrel too. thinking of (this) world. Injuring (others). the thought (that this or that is) mine. want of faith also. and death the blinding obscurity. and idiots. fierceness and cruelty. and growing old in their own duties. anger. And whatever other states of mind. all these qualities. abuse . toil. delusion. sink into darkness. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. and vain eating. anger is called the great obscurity. as Chândâlas. who are sunk in darkness. this is considered to be dark conduct. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. pride of performance without (actual) performance. understands this properly. are found in various places in this world. wishing for pleasure. stolidity. evilconducted men. want of self-restraint. and worms. and want of forgiveness. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. and growing old in (good) actions. cold and heat. Whatever vain actions (there are). and also its source. and whatever vain gifts. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. indeed. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). indeed. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. power. who. deluded convictions. that is considered to be dark conduct. and also animosity towards people. want of knowledge. sages and saints and gods become deluded. lassitude. Learn. pointing out others’ weaknesses. desire. how. harboring evil thoughts. affliction. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. beasts of burden. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. want of straightforwardness. endurance. going into inferior ways. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. birds. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). wrath.
Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. liberality. attendance. and create (various) bodies. pleasure. freedom from delusion. gets rid of all passionate qualities. sacrifices vain. They are said to have their currents upwards. vexation. Confidence. learning vain. valor. Understanding this according to rule. self-restraint. piety vain. heedlessness.’ affection generated by the qualities. service vain. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. for living creatures. salutation. courage. (good) conduct vain. forgiveness. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. (holding) knowledge to be vain. who are enveloped by passion. and to be gods. and for houses. those talented men reach heaven. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. beneficial to all creatures. he attains the highest in the next world. nobility. freedom from expectations. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. The men who meditate on past. devoid of expectations. and unblamable. theft. joy. doubt. purity. disrespect and respect. joy. harboring desire. and make Tarpana. all these qualities. auspicious rites. prowess. contentment. wakefulness. They give and receive. and also sacrifice. compassion to (all) creatures. for women. indifference. Born again and again in this world. The . for articles. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. wealth. purity. forgiveness. and also want of faith. and instrumental or vocal music. gifts and acceptance of gifts. these men. praise. unbroken piety. modesty. slaughter. belongings. contumely. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. humility. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. devotion. gambling. joviality. boasting. contentment. the ceremony of Svadhâ. abandonment on all hands. Getting rid of all sins. absence of cruelty. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. who adhere to the quality of goodness. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. not full of desires. defiance. faith. minuteness. absence of backbiting. vexing (oneself). absence of fear. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. equable everywhere. vows and regulation. bad gifts. devoid of egoism. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. haughtiness. association with women. and attachment also. absence of wrath. and also sacrificing and study. vows vain. for men. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. devotion to dancing. disgust. common scandal. righteous feelings. harmlessness. freedom from laziness. have (their) currents downwards. enlightenment and happiness also.uttering falsehoods. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. The power of governing. they rejoice. expiations. penance vain. policy. and future entities in this world. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. pleasure and delight. dexterity. absence of calumniation. Thus. ostentation. emancipation. whose conduct is of this description. treachery and likewise deception. present. equability. the duty of the good. management. The man who always understands these qualities. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. obedience. receipt of gifts vain. life as a Brahmachârin. service. straightforwardness. absence of stinginess. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. one obtains whatever one desires. and actions with expectations. (on another). perceive (everything) aright. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. good behavior. and free from grief. the ceremony of Vashat. truth. censure. by means of nature. and of the quality of goodness. and labor vain. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. laudation. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways.
change. evildoers are alarmed. is released from all qualities. the unperceived. in the Brâhmana. there darkness should be understood to be little. The sun is goodness developed. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. and passion likewise to be less. these are the three qualities. they feed on one another. Where passion is developed. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. They are attached to one another. the passionate remain in the middle. And whatever there is in this world. but is not attached to the qualities. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. production and absorption. threefold the sacrifices performed. threefold are the worlds. go down. . womb. And where goodness is developed. but differing in development. constant. goodness. The day should be understood to be threefold. The light in the sun is goodness. The man who always understands these qualities. Pradhâna. and passion also. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Seeing the sun rising. goodness. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. the Prâna. freed from the body. threefold the gods. unborn. The creation of the qualities is eternal. in union. and the Udâna. and moving about collectively. he. Threefold are the gifts given. the increase and diminution will now be stated. (consisting) of the three qualities. piety. and the conjunctions. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. and its pure operations. immutable. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. not small. and lust. and the qualities. half-months. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. So in all shining bodies. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. There is no doubt of this. the heat is the quality of passion. The past. They all depend on one another. feel the warmth. immovable. the night is stated to be threefold. Among immovable entities. and threefold the path. unshaking. in the lower entities. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. the qualities of passion are variable. goodness. the Apâna. abiding in those of the upward current. so long is passion said (to exist) here. and goodness likewise to be less. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. there darkness should be understood to be little. there: exist three qualities. evil-doers likewise are darkness. For they act with cause or without cause. holy. Passion. They perform their journey together. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. The three qualities – goodness. and likewise follow one another. years. and the enlightener. Even from afar. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. suffering trouble from the heat. abiding. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. Where darkness is increased. and likewise months. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. and goodness likewise to be less. there passion should be understood to be little. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. abiding in those of the middle current. enjoys the qualities. darkness. is said to be. eternal. nature. passion in the Kshatriya. existent and also non-existent – all these. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. passion. being connected with the lowest quality. all that is (made of) these three qualities. the men of the quality of darkness. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. Of all these acting with one another. and the highest. seasons. unperceived. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). and being free from all misery. not developed. Darkness. and the future. And as long as goodness and darkness. and travelers. moving in a body.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. wealth. the present. destruction.
It has hands and feet on all sides. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. who practice meditation. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. Sound. of universal form. inexhaustible. In these five great elements. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. Brahma. the final dissolution approaches. the transcendent. and thus that source of all entities. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. air. that is said to be the second creation. the producer of the deities. connected with . By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. that talented man. is (afterwards) called egoism. heads. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. and are inconstant. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. They are born one from the other. ancient being. abides transcending the understanding. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. and smell. who are not avaricious. whose minds are clear. and who are always possessed of a good heart. It is a deity. Then when every entity. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. and insignificant. taste. taste.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. not different from one another. these being emancipated. it stands pervading everything in the world. and golden. who have pondered on the self. the source of all qualities. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. memory. it has eyes. creatures are deluded. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Minuteness. and likewise cognition. who are constant at concentration of mind. it is full of light. it likewise charms the world. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). he among all people comes not by delusion. touch. creates (them). Vishnu. Knowing that (great self). who are talented. has been dissolved. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the light. Sambhu. it causes all this to move. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. means of knowledge. it is said to be the first creation. intelligence. the great self. the understanding. who are devoid of egoism. When. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. and are dissolved in the reverse order. it is that from which the people are produced. he is the governor. and light as the fifth. were the five great elements born – earth. and by its own light. movable or immovable. and as that from which the changes take place. the operations (connected with these) have causes. and whose senses are subdued. the valiant. courage. and smell as the fifth. who have subdued wrath. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). and their name is delusion. and of the mind. Now people who comprehend the understanding. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. means of perception. it is the creator of the three worlds. color. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. attain greatness. touch. the supporter of consciousness. who are possessed of knowledge. that from which the changes take place. and faces on all sides. lightness. verily. the producer of the entities. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. the Prajâpati. and likewise color. space. who are true to their promises. water. Caused by the production of avarice.
Those born from eggs. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. those born from germs. as connected with objects it is motion. And the eleven organs. the tongue. This group one should subdue first. excluded from the self. Then first. as connected with objects it is actions. as connected with the self it is called the eye. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. As connected with the self they mention the mind. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. the mind is the eleventh. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. As connected with the self. the two eyes. which follows after the five entities. and the presiding deity there is fire. as connected with the self. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. is speech which relates to all the gods. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. as also all reptiles. the nose also as the fifth. and speech are restrained. and speech as the tenth. The Apâna wind. as connected with objects it is taste. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. The third (entity) is said to be light. and the organ of generation. self-consciousness. as connected with the self it is called the ear. and whose mind is pure. and the presiding deity there is the wind. and together with speech. as connected with objects. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self.flesh and blood. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. mind. nose. the presiding deity there is Rudra. as connected with objects it is excretion. the two feet. The mind should be understood to be among both. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. the two hands. The fifth entity is earth. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. as connected with the self. and the understanding is the twelfth. and depending upon one another. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. and the Vyâna also. The ear. As connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. water. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. and worms of the like description. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. ear. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. Space is the first entity. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. Understanding these. The second entity is air. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. This is said to be the . then the Brahman shines (before him). Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. is called the organ of excretion. these are helpless and powerless. He whose skin. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. such is the group of organs. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). eye. the skin. as connected with the self it is the nose. tongue. the Udâna. the producer of all beings. as connected with objects it is the semen. and the presiding deity there is lightning. and the presiding deity there is Soma. and five the organs of action. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. the organ of excretion. The Prâna and the Apâna. who perceive the truth. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. those born from perspiration. the motion of which is downward. Likewise (there is) egoism. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Indra. the Samâna. next as connected with objects (it is) color. the presiding deity there is the Moon. and understanding unswerving. and space. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. and the presiding deity there is the sun.
and sacred study. and is sanctifying. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. is ever happy. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. the flowing (element) water. which is full of passion. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. which is made up of the five elements. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. however. are said to be born from germs. The third is called light. having his cravings destroyed. which is uninterrupted. bursting through the earth. Understand about them also. and hold them by the mind. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. Such is the doctrine of the learned. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. and inferior. Restraining objects of desire within the self. and being concentrated in mind. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). the objects of the senses. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. It is settled. should cast it aside. curtail it. and likewise the sound is space. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and the feeling of touch is air. pleased with contacts. together with the immortals. and which rests on the real (entity). and those which move crookedly. The world. One should place all these together. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. A knowledge of this. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. The fifth element is earth. the presiding deity there is the sun. and which is full of the Brahman. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. and who is devoid of passion. in which one lives alone. too. this same (body). as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. Space is the first entity. (namely) sacrifice. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. The second entity is air. for (every one) who is born. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. When everything is absorbed into the mind. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. next as connected with objects it is color. are the beings born from wombs. the hideous holder of the mud is earth.second (mode of) birth. gift at a sacrifice. and restrain it. which has nine passages and two deities. unfit to be seen. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. which are born after the lapse of some time. fearful and unfathomable. and than which there is nothing higher. He who duly understands this. (viz. It is a great ocean. and the five great elements. that he is released from all sins. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. The fourth should be understood to be water. which is surrounded by the five currents. and released from everything. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. that the body in which the color is fire. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. O chief of the twice-born! and know.) the senses. . and full of delusion. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. the presiding deity there is Soma. Those beings. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. then being self-illumined. and is named delusion. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. Such is the teaching of the ancients. which is free from attachment.
He verily is Vishnu. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. the uncreated Hari. these are the princes among trees in this world. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). and among females a male. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. and likewise the bamboo and willow. Understand him to be the ruler. Kinnaras. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and . And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. the north among the quarters. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). the agitation of mind the mighty waters. Agni. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and the Meshasringa. the Jambu. the Sveta. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. Him. and the bands of Rakshasas. She is called Pârvatî. the Bhâsa. and great. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. (am lord). The Nyagrodha. who has beautiful eyes. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. the Sahya. and delusion the reservoir. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. and Pisâkas. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. fear. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. these are the princes among mountains. and the Koshthavat mountain. Purandara of (all) deities. Such is the highest creation among all entities. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. Kings desire piety. treachery. Understanding everything. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. He is the supporter. among vehicles the elephant. there is no doubt of that. the Nîla. and Mitra. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. and also all the great sages. changing from time to time. Non-destruction is the highest piety. the Vindhya. and the bands of Bhûtas. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. of Gandharvas. the Sinsapâ. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and birds. the Pâriyâtra. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. the Mahendra. and Prajâpati. and go into wrong paths after death. Soma is the lord of herbs.Desire. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and Varuna. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. rejoice in this world. Understand this. the creator. For he is the ruler of men. and also gods. snakes. and likewise the Sâlmali. he then perceives that highest (principle). Vishnu is the chief among the strong. ever extol. and of all entities whatever I. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. among cattle also the bull. and falsehood also. The Himavat. (all these). O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. and among denizens of the forest the lion. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and also as various. the Pippala. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. and the moon among the Nakshatras. concentrating the mind within the mind. who am full of the Brahman. likewise. Freed from all sins. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. and seeing the self within the self. and the ocean among rivers. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. and Yakshas. wrath. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. and Nâgas. lose all their qualifications. avarice. and demons. likewise. Varuna is the king of the waters. and Pitris. which are difficult to get rid of. all companies of Brâhmanas. the Guruskandha. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. the sun is the prince among the planets. and Rakshasas. and Yakshas. of gods. and the creator. demons. the Trikûtavat.
(else) attains. then enters into the Kshetrajña. and end. It is stated that day was first and then night. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. And I always see. abandoning qualities. taste is the characteristic of water. together with names and characteristics. know. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. who is unmoving. Hence a man who understands piety. transcendent. color is the characteristic of light. the unperceived (is appointed). that is comprehended by the nose. is purely knowledge. The characteristic of devotion is action. and the Mahat of knowledge. The quality of light is color. the characteristic of earth. Only the Kshetrajña attains. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). and homeless. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. is always comprehended by the tongue. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. the essence of water. middle. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. The qualities created again and again. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). and hear it. giving prominence to knowledge. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. Thought is the quality of mind. and transcending death and old age. is perceived by the skin. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. do not know themselves. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. and the creation. and transcending the qualities. middle. The Purusha knows it. and about the means for its comprehension. the characteristic of renunciation. the characteristic of mind is thought. the supporter of all beings. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. The earth is the source of . (though) concealed. and from the svâhâ ceremony. And crossing beyond darkness. is not to be comprehended by any symbols.destruction is of the nature of impiety. and that is comprehended by the understanding. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. being nonintelligent. is smell. to be created and tied down to a beginning. and having his sins destroyed. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. and that is comprehended by the eye. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. no one. he repairs to that which has no second. Taste. And the moon likewise. The Kshetrajña. who resides in the tongue. to the truth. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. sound is the characteristic of space. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. and end. and knowledge. verily. in this world. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. action the characteristic of men. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. there is no doubt of that. which is void of symbols. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. which is great. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. belonging to the air. To (this) positive comprehension. free from the ceremony of salutations. The characteristic of mind is meditation. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. and that is comprehended by the ear. he is the Supreme Lord. The quality of space is sound. As to the smell of the earth. that months have the bright first. The (sensation of) touch. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. is the Kshetrajña.
all this ends in destruction. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. Kinnaras. and the same is also the end of everything. Îsvara is the lord. Of all ages the Krita is the first. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. I. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. There is no end for knowledge. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. too. the end of pleasure is ever grief. the fastenings in which are vexations. the end of grief ever pleasure. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. and of men. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. and regulations. All action ends in destruction. which abounds in old age and grief. whatever is prescribed in this world. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. and the twice-born among men. penance. all ascents end in falls. and Rakshasas. of all words. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. which is full of actions and instruments of action. that of householders (is the first). which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. there is no doubt of that. . all that is called Sâvitrî. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. Among all precious things. who is full of the Brahman. of which the pole is the mind. is stated to be the first. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. which rotates in space and time. is the source of the entire universe. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. without distinction. Bhûtas. water of tastes. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. gift. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. Sacrifice. Dânavas. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. observances. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. whose senses are subjugated. And the unthinkable. Pisâkas. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. which is sustained by the qualities. death is certain for whatever is born. the eastern quarter is the first. which moves through (all) the worlds. which is measured by months and half months. snakes. the ocean is the first-born. likewise. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. The Syena is first among birds. and life ends in death. the mud for which is penance and regulations. is everchanging. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. Of all orders.smells. Of all mountains. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. and among all reptiles. Prajâpati of deities. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. and the Prâna lifewind. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. The great Vishnu. all associations end in dissociations. water is the best. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. which is lit up by the great egoism. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. the Plaksha. and Yakshas. who is devoid of egoism. the goat is mentioned (as the first). among sacrifices. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. And of all gods. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. All accumulations end in exhaustion. fire is said to be the first of the elements. study. the ever holy field of Brahman. These are the qualities of the elements. likewise space is the source of sound. gold (is the first). there is no doubt of that. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. among (sacrificial) animals. the offering (into the fire) is the best. And among all immovable entities. there is no doubt of that. The sun is the first among shining bodies. the noise of which is trouble and toil. of which the environment is home.
kind. who is pure. the forester. and should stand. study. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. this has been celebrated from ancient times. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). who is a sage with all his senses restrained. transcending all pairs of opposites. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). with the permission of the preceptor. and take exercise (duly). the speed of which is like that of the mind. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. and sacrifice. making gifts. and self-restrained. and which is devoid of consciousness. The Brâhmana householder. should. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. and equable to all creatures. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. (That) sage. who is devoted to Vedic rites. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. and who understands the Vedas. and be of pure vows. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. should avoid heedlessness. which is unchecked. released from all impressions. they are pious duties. abridge. and have his sacred . who is self-restrained. to such a one the (word) good applies. and which is (never) fatigued. the sage who understands piety. There should also be a girdle of muñga. is never deluded. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. or also a deerskin. conquers heaven. and alms. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and also the beggar. This wheel of life. who is thus devoted. One should learn and teach. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. And as to the other remaining three duties.which is large. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. should be kind. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. With regard to those three duties. and should always associate with good men. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. and with one’s external organs restrained. and which is extended by means of attachments. possessed of forgiveness. Always devoted to his own wife. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and also receiving untainted gifts. and constant in veracity and piety. behaving like good men. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. the imperishable source (of all). and full of faith. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and should give and receive gifts. which moves towards joy and pleasure. who is of rigid vows. in the way above stated. with his senses restrained. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. or of cotton. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. and who has duly observed vows. gift. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. attains the highest goal. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. he should have matted hair. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. should behave like the good. should return (from his preceptor’s house). take food without decrying it. together with the immortals should cast away. That man among all creatures. and released from all sins. and the Brahmachârin. and check. sit. to follow it is good. The householder. all the world. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances.
When eating. and always living within the forest. and depending on the deities. and continent. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. and which have come spontaneously. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. preserving his hair and moustache. He should not make any accumulations. or a forest. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. and reaching the highest seat. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and restrained in all his senses. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. or which are pungent. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. and roots and Syâmâka grain. the sage should become free from all action. or the foot of a tree. he should move about in a secluded place. He should move about the world like a worm.thread. A man should always bathe in clean water. in order. seeking merely to sustain life. and should not . pure in body. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. performing sacrifices. life as a Brahmachârin. kind. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. freedom from (the habit of) carping. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. air. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). fruits. and also straightforwardness. always with clean water. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. kind. Nor should he beg for too much alms. In summer. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. A householder. and of rigid observances. astringent. veracity. always in forests. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. does not return to birth. Refined by means of all ceremonies. addicted to sacred study. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. nor should he eat when honored. who is concentrated in mind. freedom from anger. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and likewise no sweet juices. having a mind free from envy. (Such) a Brahmachârin. living on fruits and leaves. or again a forester. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. conquers heaven. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. be engaged in sacred study. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. and devoted to veracity and piety. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. being restrained in mind. and in the rains. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. or bitter. or the cavern of a mountain. He should honor guests. Restraining the external senses. and should eschew dwelling with friends. free from passion. his path being pointed out by the sun. always dexterous. eating little. and should not rejoice if he obtains. looking out for the (proper) time. not deceptive and not crooked. Offering safety to all beings. One who is thus devoted. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. he may dwell in one place. should not enter a town again. Eating only a little. He should honor a guest who comes. restraint of the external organs. and leaves. and be agreeable to all beings. He should not parade (his) piety. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. is esteemed. He should without sloth feed on water. and concentrated in mind. and when he goes about for alms. and free from avarice. full of forgiveness. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. And with his senses restrained. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. or a river likewise. or a Brahmachârin. he should not go following after another. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life.
or involving any destruction of life. Rejecting all things. and self-controlled. the unperceived. divine. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. without a head. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). nor Vedas. One should not perform. who is free from desires. sacrifices. He should not appropriate another’s riches. he gets emancipation. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and without fixed appointments with people. which is unattached. or back. depending on none. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. and who is dependent on none. being devoted to pious conduct. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. without a stomach. foot. Freed from all attachments. There the understanding reaches not. or the mind. nor should he ever give to others. and who is free from salutations. untainted. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. who is free from attachments to any entity. pebbles likewise. nor the deities. or by speech. He should not receive from others. one should disregard the present. One should not think of what is not come. should act without a purpose. understanding. and then. which is without hands. nor the senses. . after understanding all these. should be free from attachment. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. But owing to the helplessness of people. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. and should not take (anything) unasked. with his accumulations exhausted. Those who perceive the self. imperishable. should meditate.follow his own (mere) desire. and who understands the truth. there is no doubt of that. or cause to be performed. Nor. should not teach. which is to be understood. one attains heaven. devoid of smell. He should not defile anything by the eye. exclusively pondering on one point. and being equable to all beings. He should perform piety. One should not perturb any other (person). not finding fault with piety. moving and unmoving. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and stable. absolute. who understands all truth. and should be void of (all) belongings. or the assemblage of people. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. a wise man should always share (with others). nor valor. The senses. who is free from expectations. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. mind. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. devoid of taste or touch. One who has anything to do should take earth. and in whom the senses. egoism. One should not hate. nor worlds. water. and the objects of the senses. who is free from egoism. and which is also devoid of flesh. and the Purusha likewise. and mind. as they come. which is free from the operations of the qualities. and free from distress. and leaves. and though dwelling in a house. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. which is free from anxiety. and understanding are absorbed. nor reflect on that which is past. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. is emancipated. and should avoid (all) controversies. by an accurate determination about the truth. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. Though undeluded. and the five great elements. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. any action involving expectation of fruit. verily. who is attached to the self. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. and also devoid of sound. nor should one wish for gold. they never die. he should act in the manner of the deluded. he attains to the highest seat. flowers. who is free from the pairs of opposites. One who knows the truth. nor penance. always dwelling in all entities. devoid of color. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. being released from all bonds.
Penance is said to be a light. (which are) unchanging. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. even dwelling in this world. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. becomes fit for immortality. which is always possessed of leaves. and with an understanding comprehending all. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. there is no doubt of that. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. there is no doubt of that. everlasting. is emancipated. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. he is called intelligent. and which is the essential element in knowledge. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. There are these two birds. is released from misery. and which is fed upon by all creatures. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. go to the happy path by penance. the great branches of which are the great elements. through the tranquility of the self. Restraining the self in the self. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. Abandoning all action. a creature is emancipated. who are pure. developed from the qualities. and who is devoid of egoism. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. and devoid of qualities. transcending passion. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. whether agreeable or disagreeable. devoid of qualities. by tranquility only. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. for assimilation with the Brahman. and supreme. But as to that other who is above them. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. and (as it were) non-intelligent. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. And restraining the life-winds again and again . the sprouts within which are the senses. which abides in all entities. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and old age. and likewise unity and diversity. and the side branches the objects of sense. and free from egoism. attaining to the self. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. The great tree of Brahman is eternal.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. becomes eligible. understands that which is beyond nature. is emancipated. there is no doubt of that. and despises nothing. even for (the space of) a wink. devoid of knowledge of nature. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and whose minds are refined. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. death. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. He who desires nothing. and renunciation the best penance. which cause birth. The learned man who perceives. The men of talent. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. (When) the inner self. always possessed of flowers. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. then understanding the Kshetra. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. of unthinkable qualities. The highest Brahman is very far off. it is free from the pairs of opposites. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. association and dissociation. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. and some as transcendent and without misery. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. and being untainted. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism.
we are deluded. some say that is not so. too. there is no doubt of that. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. that it exists. holy. Some Brâhmanas. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. of ten or twelve (modes). be obtains whatever he desires. and others. Some extol everything. and those who ponder on the element. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. and others. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down.by control of the life-winds. Some learned men. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and come to no determination. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). As a fish is in water distinct (from it). The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. this is good. . and others indigence. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. believe it to be one. and others again (that it is) manifold. and others that there is no doubt. Thus having first a tranquil self. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Some extol final emancipation. Some have matted hair and skins. and some for pain. harmlessness. Some people extol action. some wish for riches. but others extol penance. others distinct. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. (saying) this is good. We wish. and our mind is distracted. some for the omission of bathing. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. the venerable. equability. that fits one for immortality. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. some are for merit and glory. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. some are in the midst of doubts. Some people are for bathing. Some (say) means should be resorted to. Some are devoted to goodness. Some are devoted to harmlessness. and others (that it is) mixed. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and others say that is not so. always esteems that. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. knowledge. truth. and other persons sacred study. Some are for taking food. Some (say) everything is doubtful. gifts. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. others that that is not so. straightforwardness. others are intent on fasting. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. having again felt doubts. People are acting. and (others) that it exists not. But that is not correct. abandonment. and others tranquility. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. nature. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. some knowledge. such is their relation. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). who are devoted to knowledge. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. and others that that is not so. some are for pleasure. and others nothing. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. some various kinds of enjoyments. and some given up to destruction. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. who were the best of sages. Some say both time and space (exist). and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. And. and renunciation. too. courage. Some people (say) meditation.
devoid of parts. He abides in everything alike. the light shines. and who are infidels in their conduct. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. though it is the object of enjoyment. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. It is established that nature is the property of the being. free from any connection with expectations. Non-destruction of all creatures. Now I will proceed to. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. For the talented man who knows (these) means. and soon crosses the reservoir. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. afflicted by reason of the chariot. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. Understand this. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. where the carriage-path stops. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. comprehending the gradations one above the other. go verily to hell. such is the progress of the men of understanding. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). a learned man remains untainted. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. and nature is stated to be the object. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. I will declare to you what you ask of me. I will tell you something more. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. and to be constituted of the qualities. and going swiftly. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. being born again and again. and may even be destroyed on the way. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. travels with great discomfort. free from vexation and holy in character. and void of intelligence. who perform actions with faith. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. So travels the talented man. goes in the water without fatigue. and who entertain avarice and delusion. As far as there is a carriage-path. he goes in the carriage. Even brought into contact with all qualities. deliberate on it properly. so should one understand. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. attains supreme happiness. The subject is always the being. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. through delusion. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. While there is oil and wick. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. and is connected with (all) knowledge. Hearing it all. Thus nature is perceived. rejoice in this world. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. perceive correctly. and in essence free from the qualities. O Brâhmanas! Well now. throwing aside the boat. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. It has been explained in the above mode. This is the highest seat. But those wise and talented men. Learn that. and who knows about the qualities.
Sweet. Sound. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. – thus should smell. Shadga. Now space has one quality. slippery. tender and clear also. air is said to have two qualities. Rishabha. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and above the unperceived is the being. cold and hot likewise. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. Rough. Space is the highest element. above that is the unperceived. Learn about their properties. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. but they do not yield products. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. astringent. and of the elements respectively. touch. sour. that is called the Pradhâna. red likewise. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). broad. green. compact. glutinous. and who identifies himself with every being. air is said to have (these) two qualities. and above that understanding is the self. which is void of any smell whatever. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. and clear also. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. thus is light said to have three qualities. Sound and touch also should be understood. smooth. sweet. it is said that light has three qualities. black. namely. and earth. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. and that is stated to be sound only. White. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. repairs to the imperishable self. And as action is performed in this world. diffusive and compact also. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. I will now give (some) information about taste. From egoism is produced the development. which belongs to the earth. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. One who has come by delusion through affection. sharp. and are conversant with piety. and void of color. sour. Sound. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. egoism is above that. who speak the truth. be understood to be of ten descriptions. Now space has one quality. bitter. Madhyama. Smell always belongs to the earth. and water. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. the great elements. touch. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. and also productive in its essence. abounding with movables and immovables. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. touch. and bitter likewise. yellow. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. or sound. The quality of light is color. and color likewise. is of four qualities. void of taste. too. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. and smell as the fifth – these. Thus sound. and rough. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. together with Gândhâra. which is produced in space. and likewise Pañkama. color likewise. and grey likewise. which is a development of water. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. to be of twelve descriptions.carriage and pedestrian. hard. and of (many) ingredients. should be understood to be of five qualities. and taste. soft. above egoism is understanding. taste. touch. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. hurtful. Sound. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. are stated to be the qualities of water. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . said to be of six descriptions. so does it result to them. And touch is the quality of air. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. short long. square. the divine source of all entities. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and likewise color. narrow.
and it is called the Kshetrajña. one who destroys an embryo. The senses. gods. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. and ends with the gross objects. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. That individual self. not by actions. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). and (after) these developments. Whatever is difficult to obtain. a sage should sit down self-restrained. And he who is released. the mind. is released from. and difficult to pass through. which is the unperceived. and having their minds always tranquil. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. all the elements. difficult to learn. and herbs. enter the highest world of the great. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. men. are born here again and again. they go near Prajâpati. The understanding proclaims its power. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. all that can be accomplished by penance. always reach perfection by penance. obtain the great and highest world. For all acquisition has penance for its root. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. a man gets rid of all sins. The mind always presides over the great elements. and the understanding for a drag. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. and who are free from egoism. one who kills a Brâhmana. Medicines. Pisâkas. they are the very first to be dissolved. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. perceive the triple world here by penance. the mind itself is the individual self. goes to the highest goal. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. Those who best understand the self. These Brâhmanas. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. those who have achieved perfection. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. and all other creatures movable or immovable. nor by a cause. Such is the upward gradation among entities. Pitris. and being full of egoism. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. That which begins with the unperceived . beasts and birds. has the mind for a charioteer. And in like manner. difficult to vanquish.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. for penance is difficult to overcome. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Gandharvas. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. the creators of the world. and includes movables and immovables. (Those) men. all have been created by nature. and abandons everything as fruitless. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. and next the developments produced from the elements. and it is the goal of all living creatures. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. Gods. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. (sacrificial) animals. This is the eternal mystery. like billows in the ocean. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. movable or immovable. That learned and talented person verily. one who steals. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. and devoid of egoism. again acquiring knowledge. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. even from those five elements. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. He who understands him understands the Vedas. and in which the understanding is the drag. Râkshasas. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. that sin only by penance well performed. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). Asuras. One who drinks spirituous liquors. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. Born from that same unperceived (principle). And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements.
O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. Arjuna said: Who. who is without expectations. Two syllables are death. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. I have now declared everything to you. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. Expelling all impressions. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. not full of action. then you will acquire perfection. and then attained to the worlds. And now. incomprehensible. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. And the pupil. than which nothing greater exists. unmoving. And when the understanding is clear. and restraining the self in the Self. If you have love for me. changeless. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. This is the eternal piety. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. he dies not. O best of Brâhmana. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. I wish to see him. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. Then when this piety is duly practiced. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). O Janârdana! If this verily. was that Brâhmana. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . in consequence of these means. he understands that holy Brahman. O Krishna! and who the pupil. always duly act (according to it). Vâsudeva. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. did everything (accordingly). O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. having done all he should have done. three syllables the eternal Brahman.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O noble person. changeless. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. O Lord! then tell it me. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. Some men of dull understandings extol action. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. And. is fit to be heard by me. who is without attachment. sages! Act thus forthwith. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. Then will you attain perfection. indeed. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. Do you. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. which is uncreated. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). and who looks alike on everything. with your consent. getting rid of all sins. Mine is death. and not mine is the eternal. Knowledge brings forth the being. too. he attains tranquility. attained to that seat.
Dhanañjaya replied (saying). Be pleased.When Krishna spoke these words. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.’ Om Tat Sat . who is of a devout heart.
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