ANUGÎTA The second discourse to Arjuna by lord Krishna Edited by Jay Mazo.

International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best

understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).

CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which

preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that

For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. free from vanity and egoism. What I say is all correct and proper. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. he becomes indifferent to everything. who is devoted to tranquility. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). And as regards that. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. serving mother and father. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. This is what is called the destructible. a pair separately for each (species). who contemns no one. adherence to prescribed regulations. takes place after a long time. From that he created the Pradhâna. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. And he. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. Gifts. He who is not pious and not impious. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. who is free from the pairs of opposites. becomes happy. compassion to (all) beings. and also tranquility. He who acquires that. which I am now about to declare. And Prajâpati. having made a body for himself. and absence of cruelty. never comes to an evil end. indeed. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. is released who is equable towards both life and death. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. life as a Brahmachârin. who has no child. constant restraint of the organs. who has subdued his senses. who has no kinsmen. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. is released. the grandfather of all people. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. He who is not attached to any one. and gain and loss. indeed. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . self-restraint. and whose self is free from affections. Brahman. and which is known in the world as the highest. and lust altogether. A man who is a friend of all. which is very difficult to cross. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. points out (what) piety (is). this is said to be the conduct of the good. He who has no enemy. pure. released from everything. the material cause of all embodied (selves). (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and about the return. pity. verily. who has abandoned piety. The practice to which the good adhere. which protects people to eternity. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). and (what is) agreeable and odious. Then seeking after the supreme seat.action by which. moving and fixed. honoring preceptors. who is self-controlled. and who has no desire. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. is released. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. and ruin to be connected with action. (having) as regards the moving (creation). penance. wealth. restraint of the senses. for among them it constantly abides. the body to be an unholy aggregate. Learn from me exhaustively. and thinking of naught. purity. but the other is immortal and indestructible. He who understands the Pradhâna. he is. released in every way. and likewise pleasure and pain. he is. created the whole of the three worlds. honoring deities and guests. and causing good to be done. as he should act. who had been first created. And that I shall now proceed to state. too. by which all this is pervaded. From this is produced piety. and who is self-possessed. abandoning each previous (element). one going the round of various births. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. who endures all. Thus one should look (for it) among the good.

he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. and always concentrating his mind. and abandoning the transient body. and having his senses subjugated. Properly concentrating his self. Thinking of a quarter seen before. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. who has practiced penance. he is indeed released. without belongings. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. Then the talented Brâhmana. When. Weapons do not pierce him. and freed from old age and grief. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. perceives the self in the self. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. recognizes him (afterwards). looks on this universe as transient. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. Seeing the self void of smell. death. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. Remaining within (that) city. He who is free from all impressions. is released. meditating in that habitation. and unknowable. than which there is nothing higher. void of sound. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). Restraining the . One who does no action. tranquil. devoid of form. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. then he. Leaving this human frame. and casting aside old age and death. searching for his own faults. he is released. which consist in pain and grief. free from the pairs of opposites. void of color. and who is self-restrained. void of touch. after extracting them from the Muñga. ‘This is he. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. void of taste. he perceives the perfect one. void of belongings. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. As a person having seen one in a dream. since he is the lord of the triple world. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. and of a tranquil mind. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. When (all) beings are destroyed. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. Then freed from all impressions. one should fix the mind on the self. he assumes bodies at pleasure. Restraining the senses. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. he is not afflicted by anything. saying. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. like an Aswattha tree. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he.. constant. always full of birth. he grieves not and exults not. he sleeps at ease. he gradually obtains tranquility. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. and who has no desire. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. The body is called the Muñga. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. being habituated to exclusive meditation. when (all) beings are afflicted. indestructible. then there is no ruler over him. And as one may show the soft fibers. he remains steady to the self. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. unmoving. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. and having first performed rigorous penance. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. there is no death for him. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. and having no cause.body. who is free from attachment. He whose self is concentrated. he has no fear. is released. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. and old age. the soft fibers stand for the self. devoid of qualities. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. like fire devoid of fuel.

does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. attain the supreme goal. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. and muscles. who are constantly intent on their own duties. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. forsaking the body. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice.’ Thus addressed by me. and (keeping) the passages confined. women. and marrow. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. palate. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. and faces on all sides.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. He should meditate on his teeth. He has hands and feet on all sides. a mental smile. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. as it were. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. he stands pervading everything in the world. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. even those who are of sinful birth. The soul sees the self come out from the body. and how also to blood? And how. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. too. – with. distinctly? How. O Mâdhava! I replied. neck. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. nor by any of the senses. Vaisyas. O Krishna! that pupil. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. he perceives the self. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. What I have spoken. and do you (too) go away. he attains final emancipation in me. and likewise the seat of the heart. tongue. and abandoning his body. Adopting this of the senses. This whole mystery I have declared to you. reaches immortality and is ever happy. and determination regarding . O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. too. That talented pupil. – went away as he pleased. For as to that eternal Brahman. Have you listened to this. and also the means for its acquisition. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. He is not to be grasped by the eye. and of the excretions. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. heads. I will go away. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. too. It is my belief. do the flesh. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. and throat likewise. he has eyes. O son of Prithâ! For. possessed of great penance. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. and also the heart. The world of the gods. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. And then depending upon it thus. too. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. which is difficult to explain. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. final emancipation. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. where one. and Sûdras likewise. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. he has cars on all sides. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there.

that which is to be touched. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. and that which is to be understood. Vyâna. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). and (observe) good vows. What goal. action. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. and also that which is to be thought of. and that which understands. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. and into it they enter. possessed of talents. devoid of taste and touch. A Brâhmana’s wife. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. good or bad. And mark this always. that man of a tranquil self. or heard. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. too. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. indeed. that which thinks. that which is to be smelt. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. and the tongue. that which cats. and Udâna also proceed. you who live renouncing (all) action. there is nothing further than this. The mortal. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. and on which it rests. that which is to be drunk. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. which occurred. Samâna. full of faith. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. but is to be apprehended by the mind. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. From birth to the destruction of the body. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. CHAPTER V On this. From this the Prâna. or seen. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. that which touches. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. and who are harsh and undiscerning. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). When that is asleep. and energetic. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. seated in seclusion. the mind and the understanding. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. by act. and not to be tasted by the tongue. and their selves tranquil. Apâna. produce them in their wombs. that which is to be touched. in which the materials are visible. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. In the interior. that only do the men of action engage in as action. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. While the paths (of action). and the moon together with the fire.misery. O son of Pându! who. does exist among (all) beings. and imperishable. that which is to be seen. verily. Whatever action there is. The nose. shall I reach. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. these are the seven great officiating priests. This is all that is to be said. Concentration of mind comes to him. and likewise that which is to . devoid of color and sound. are destroyed by demons. That which smells. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. that which is to be seen. depending on you as (my) husband. mind or speech. that can be caught (by the touch). the Prâna and the Apâna moved. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. and that which hears as the fifth. That is called the Udâna. and the skin. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. and likewise that which is to be heard. That which is to be smelt. and the eye. shall I go to. (in the form of) a dialogue. (namely). and the ear as the fifth. that which is to be drunk. that which sees. It is devoid of smell. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. It is not to be smelt by the nose.

and light as the fifth. mind and understanding.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. And the mind. O beautiful one! Sound. and also that which is to be understood. from that doubt is produced. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. speech. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. though . yield (you) your desires. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. are the fuel. ‘Say which of us is superior. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. wind. these are the ten oblations. from that is produced determination. is with me. Indra. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. and hence the mind is in need (of it). words. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. and Vishnu also. and (though) developed. from that touch is produced. and the wealth is the pure. or letter. which is the instrument of knowledge. these. verity. That is called the movement of the mind. The quarters. (Thus) we have heard. these seven. the tongue. color. from that is produced taste. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice.’ But speech thereupon said to him. that which is to be thought of. The mind is the ladle. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. Then the lord of speech was produced. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. the nose. was the universe duly divided. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. and they are offered up into the ten fires. sun. From that is produced smell. and taste. which is the generator of all entities. Prajâpati. the two hands. verily. and into this the offering is thrown. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. and the knower is the upholder of the body. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. or tone goes to your dominion. the movable is in your dominion. And in that very (principle). they relate this ancient story. the two feet.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. verily. these. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. heard. from that another is produced. therefore. and the mind runs after them. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. from that is produced color. First. verily. immovable and also movable. moon. Earth. The immovable. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. verily. To that you are superior. and the anus. and the discharge of semen. highest knowledge. from that is produced sound. touch. earth and fire. But. Whatever mantra. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. there are two minds. But inasmuch. ‘Mind (is superior). the genital organ. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. air. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. the offerings are ten. and excrement. motion. The goddess speech. are ten sacrificial priests. requires everything knowable (as its offering). Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). that indeed is the movable mind. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. smell. water. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). indeed. destroy our doubts. and Mitra. they were perfectly filled with light. space. The ear. action. ‘I. urine. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. too. are named wombs. are words produced. that (in) my (view).

and the tongue. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. when. and the eye. the tongue. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. too. and the understanding also. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. the tongue. the tongue. and the skin. do not apprehend sounds. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the skin apprehends them. the ear apprehends them. Do you. the eye. the mind. O you of a bright smile! is divine. The nose. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the ear. the understanding. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). On this. The nose. verily. the eye. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. and the understanding also. do not apprehend smells. and the eye. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. yields milk. And these never know the qualities of each other. This excellent (speech).impelled. and the eye. the tongue. and next the eye. and which then goes into the Apâna. and the ear as the fifth. the mind. the mind likewise. – a dialogue. the tongue. do not apprehend doubt. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. and the understanding also. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. The nose. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. The nose. This cow-like speech. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. O venerable sir? Tell me this. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. The nose. the skin. and the understanding also. do not apprehend final determination. ‘Be pleased. the tongue apprehends them. the ear likewise. The nose. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. the ear likewise. the nose apprehends them. they relate this ancient story. the skin. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. the ear likewise. she ran up to Prajâpati. the understanding apprehends it. The mind said: . the mind. like a cow. mind and understanding. the mind. the ear. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. they do not perceive each other. and the eye. and the understanding also. So speech formerly spoke. the mind apprehends it. saying. and the mind also. the skin. the skin. flowing (forms). too. Dwelling in a minute space. The tongue. the ear. with divine power. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. do not apprehend colors. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. The nose. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. the skin. the eye apprehends them. the skin. Of those two. It is always noisy or noiseless. do not apprehend tastes.

the tongue does not perceive taste. They formerly went to the grandsire. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. that the Prâna and the Apâna. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. Without me. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. like fuel half dried and half moist. even with the senses exerting themselves. rules are for the weak. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. and the Udâna. If when we are extinct. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. a creature. all beings. still. (which is) like entering a house without a door. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. and said to him. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. if you.The nose smells not without me. or if when we are absorbed. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. Besides. you have no perception. and objects are standing. does run to objects of sense only. when troubled by desire to enjoy. and if you enjoy enjoyments. who was born first. then take in colors by the nose. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. and take in sounds by the skin. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). and so long no happiness can accrue to you. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. both past and future. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. when our objects perform their functions. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. like an empty dwelling. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). performs the directions of the Vedic texts. and not connected with objects of sense. then what you believe is true. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. the ear does not in any way hear sound. too. Granted. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. (there is) pleasure and support of life. are the five sacrificial priests. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. Without me. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. Without me. I am the eternal chief among all elements. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. resulting from mental operations (alone). take in smells by the ear. without us. they relate an ancient story. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. One entering upon enjoyments. and indulged in dreams. fail to apprehend qualities or objects.’ Brahman said: . the eye does not take in color. The learned know this to be a great principle. always meets death. take in tastes by the eye. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. life is seen to be supported. without us. the senses never shine. He shall be the greatest among us.

and on my moving about. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. and again moved about. because the Apâna is subject to you. There are others moving about. You are not the greatest among us. I am the greatest. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms).’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . ‘You are not the greatest among us. they again move about. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. and all support one another. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. and again moved about. they again move about. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. and the Udâna.’ The Prâna again moved about.’ Then the Apâna moved about. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you.’ The Vyâna moved about again. and pleasing one another. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. spoke to him. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. and on my moving about.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. (Now) go where (you) like. and the Samâna. I am the greatest. I am the greatest. The Vyâna only is subject to you. O Prâna. who being extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.He. and the Samâna. O beautiful one! spoke these words. Hear the reason why. and the Vyâna also. Being friendly with one another. I am the greatest. and not greatest. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. Welfare be to you! Support one another. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. go away happily. they again move about. Hear the reason why. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. they again move about. When I am extinct. and the Apâna said to him. Hear the reason why. My own self is one only. the lord of (all) creatures. When I am extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. is the greatest. they again move about. and the Samâna spoke again. they again move about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and on my moving about. and again moved about. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and on whose moving about. I am the greatest. All are greatest in their own spheres. and on my moving about. And on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. When I am extinct. (which are) five. verily.

(appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. the Prâna comes first into operation. the agent. or Vyâna. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. they relate this ancient story. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. and (it) is also produced from color. It is the teaching of the Veda. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. that which is other than this first comes to him. between them is the fire. or Apâna. too. between them is the fire. between them is the fire. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. the Samâna and Vyâna. The smoke of that (fire). which (move) upwards. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. Day and night are a pair. The nose. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. and the eye. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. and between them is the fire. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. in which the offering is thrown. which is of excellent glory. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. (its) ashes. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. too. or transversely. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. (the quality of) passion. From the combination of the semen and the blood. and (it) is also produced from a sound. or transversely. and the tongue. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. the pleasure is produced from union. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. and emancipation. his Prâna. Hear me. or downwards. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and the . and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. CHAPTER X On this. the Samâna comes into operation again. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. indeed. The two – good and evil – are a pair. hear me speak about that. being accompanied by intelligence. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. or downwards. or Samâna. This is the effect of the Udâna. that the fire verily is all the deities. the action. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. which (move) upwards. secondly. First. what comes into existence first. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. (it) is also produced from taste. the Apâna then comes into operation. and (it) is also produced from touch. these. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. their function is performed: then. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it.On this. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from smell. The instrument. From desire the semen is produced.

and the great sages . the Brahman. To him who is not learned. and sages. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. Living under that instructor. sound. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. CHAPTER XI There is one director. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. Taught by that instructor. The gods. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. On this. and taste. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. the Stotra in which.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. he. is the upward life-wind. and he who hears as the fifth. are sung. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. they relate an ancient story. whatever is seen by the eye. whatever is spoken by speech. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. On that Sâman hymns. approaching Prajâpati. Smell. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. being possessed of qualities. these seven are causes of action. this. The learned man. too. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. there is no second (different) from him. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. in a single syllable. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. These. who is the self of everything. the Brahman priest in which. enjoy their own qualities. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. by Prajâpati. destroying this food again produces it. being (himself) a ruler. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. the self the Adhvaryu priest. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. the Sastra. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and the ear as the fifth. like water on a declivity. he who eats. truth. eating various (kinds of) food. The eating of that which should not be eaten. there is no second (different) from him. he who thinks. There is one kinsman. shines dwelling within the body. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). And cooking food for himself. whatever is touched by the sense of touch.’ Hearing that. they ran away in (various) directions. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. and the snakes. and the Dakshinâ. (and) the seven Rishis. and the gods. is ruined. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. the downward lifewind. is the counselor in all action. my fire of (high) qualifications. each in its own place. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. Whatever is thought by the mind. agreeable and disagreeable. whatever is heard by the ear. and he who understands. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. There is one hearer. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. There is one instructor. the venerable one said. mind and understanding. and the demons. (about the) instruction of the snakes. The gods had been engaged in gifts. On. the Hotri He destroys the food. I move as I am ordered. there is no second director. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. Taught by that instructor. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). too. the director. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. And I am here devoid of qualities. and color. and touch as the fifth. he who sees. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. there is no second (different) from him. There is one enemy. ‘Om. This being. he who speaks. there is no second (different) from him. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. Impelled by that same (being). and whatever is smelt by the nose. and sages. of which an illustration is stated. He who smells. final emancipation. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. And among the learned who understand (everything).

He is rapt in the Brahman. and seven guests. the Brahman the fire. This is the description of the forest. and what the rivers. there is no other happiness equal to. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. They are not afraid of anybody. There always dwell seven females there. seven (forms of) concentration. the twice-born do not grieve. and do not exult. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. In that forest are seven large trees. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. and having been instructed with one word. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. There. full of brilliance. and nobody is afraid of them. Acting sinfully in the world. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. have no fear afterwards. There is nothing smaller than that. and the demons. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. connected with the Brahman. the Brahman water. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. Having had one teacher. (namely) the five senses. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). the gods. The instructor. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. And there is fuel here. there is nothing larger than that. and emancipation the fruit. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. and causes of generation. The qualities are the fruits. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. Understanding it they practiced it. There is one fire here. and having a good mind. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. The good who attain to that. in various places. the great sages receive hospitality. and the guests eat the fruits. There is nothing more subtle than that. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. There is nothing more afflicting than that. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. there is no other instructor. Entering it. owing to his desires. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. and is to be crossed by one singly. and mixed. . seven fruits. the snakes. and the enemy. when there is no distinction from it. that. which has contentment for its water. the hearer. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. which depends on knowledge. the way to which consists in worldly objects. casting aside vows and actions. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. the Brahman his origin. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. But he who. the sages. becomes a Brahmachârin. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five restraint of the senses. when there is a distinction from it. in which intelligence is the tree. merely adheres to the Brahman. with faces (turned) downwards. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. and fragrant. the Brahman the instructor. another forest shines forth. and seven (forms of) initiation. and of beautiful colors. the learner. who. are always within the heart. and the hills and mountains. seven hermitages. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. all engaged in different (pursuits). And I have entered the great forest.

The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). (This) creature will obtain welfare. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). Not desiring any object of desire. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. or death. whose sins are burnt up by penance. they are born so as not to lose courage. The life-winds. or old age. . of this goat have gone to their sources. Such. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. The teaching of the elders is. mother. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. too. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. abide. Understand that. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. together with their chiefs. then the sacrifice is for the goat. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). since the Vedic text is such. and greatness. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. and his life-winds likewise the sky.They absorb all the higher delights of people. Apart from them. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). devote themselves to Brahman. Those whose wishes are reduced. and again emerge from the same. father. there is no taint on my natures. not hating any evil. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. If I spoke further. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. and I do not touch. and I think only his unmoving body remains. as understood by Brâhmanas. There is no offence on my part. And understanding it. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. the richest. nor even do I entertain any fancies. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. Dwelling in that (self). perfection. this goat will not be destroyed. I see no color. nor yet do I hear various sounds. and as the constant entity underlying them. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. (his) ear the quarters. Nature desires objects which are liked. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. praise tranquility. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. they relate an ancient story. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. victory. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. Glory. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. that will enter water. His eye (will enter) the sun. Although actions are performed. take him (to them) and consult (them). After hearing their consent. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. indeed. too. On this. brilliance. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. I see the individual self in the body. I perceive no tastes. And aspiring to that forest. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. enlightenment. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. especially as he is dependent. we do not rely on what is not visible. they act (accordingly). censuring (the act) as destruction of life. merging the self in the self. whatever in him is produced from water. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. being directed by the Kshetrajña. is this holy forest.

said. together with (the quality of) passion. are being destroyed. the tongue. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. (in the shape of) a dialogue. Once on a time. Of these the indestructible is the existent. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. who is devoid of expectations. O venerable sir! I approach you. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. you see the colors of shining bodies. you hear the sound produced in space. Give them security. too. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). you drink watery juices. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. Say. you touch the qualities of the air. The life-winds. such is the double manifestation of the self. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. freed from delusion. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. he was walking about near the sea. have life. there is no fear anywhere. And to one who is free from these manifestations. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. what shall I do for you? The creatures. The ocean said: If. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). . you believe. they relate an old story. saluting him. as we have heard. who has subdued his self. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. And all these entities. and who is released on all hands. who take shelter with me. Or what do you think. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. who is alike to all beings. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. The ocean. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. For having heard your opinion. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. being directed by the Kshetrajña. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. and I say (to you). the mind. and (the quality of) goodness. name him to me. possessed of a thousand arms. they act (accordingly). There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). who is free from the pairs of opposites. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. my mind is enlightened. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. proud of his strength. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. and with joined hands. who might stand against me in the field.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. a descendant of Kritavîrya. and understanding it.

Hearing that. shot away volleys of arrows. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. only pierce your own vital part. his grandfathers. whose penance was very great. entered mountains and inaccessible places. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. who was veracious. Seeing him killed and fallen. became Vrishalas. it wishes. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. burning the hosts of the enemy. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. whose power was unbounded.Then the king. too. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. It is not proper for you. being a Brâhmana. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. together with the Sâbaras. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. do you perceive. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. Paundras. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. you will die. abandoning (those) great deeds. to make all mortals perform action. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. – having performed very difficult deeds. In company with his kinsmen. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. and taking swords and lances. not forgiving his father’s murder. who understood duty. said to those sages. like antelopes troubled by a lion. There was (once) a royal sage. which was heard by all people. they relate an ancient story. too. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . Then the power of Râma. (Though) surrounded by enemies. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. taking up his axe. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. turned to subtle (questions). Râma also taking up a bow. dear friend. blazed forth. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. hearing that (story). that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. like a tree of many branches. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. They will. went away. a bodiless voice from heaven. named Alarka. the Kshatriyas. The mind said: These arrows. ‘Desist. with Rikîka as their head. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). spoke sweetly to Râma. Then some of the Kshatriyas. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. As by its unsteadiness. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. Thus the Dravidas. and very firm in his vows. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. became Vrishalas. to slaughter these kings. and blew away the army of the king. What good. and your vital part being pierced. Âbhîras. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. full of great wrath. O noble one!’ But Râma. high-souled. and hurriedly mounting a chariot.

Hearing that. one hankers after them only. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. the eye hankers after them only. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The ear said: These arrows. The skin said: These arrows. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. he then said after consideration: – . Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. They will only pierce your own vital part. The eye said: These arrows.Smelling very many perfumes. These arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and your vital part being pierced. this (tongue) hankers after them only. you will die. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced. The nose said. They will only pierce your own vital part. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and then you will lose (your) life. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. The tongue said: These arrows. the (ear) hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. Hearing that. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. the skin hankers after them only. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Hearing that.

vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). and applied himself to concentration of mind. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. joy. That avarice – cut (it) off. then anxiety comes into existence. When the bodily frame is destroyed. then uttered this verse. and engages in action. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. (that vice). attained high perfection. of great glory. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. Therefore. is energetic about subjugating others. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. you will die. having a tranquil self. he. wrath. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. Exultation. a courageous man. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. properly . and delusion. destroyed all foes. and senses controlled. he reached the highest perfection. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. amazed. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Ambarîsha. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha.’ Do you understand this too. And the royal sage. thence you will obtain the highest good. is born again and again. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. and being troubled by desire. the best of talented (men). ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). he became steady. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. The understanding said: These arrows. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. And at the expiration of life. and again birth. but there is one. verily. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. Perform a fearful penance. and after deliberating for a long time. He (then) restraining his own vices. Sleep. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. the greatest. persistent hatred. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. free from sloth. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. he meets death. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. Then directing his mind to one point. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). three foes in (this) world. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. Obtaining those. owing to these qualities. They will only pierce your own vital part. Grief. pleasure. When vices were in the ascendant. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. who had become tranquil (in mind). a man even does what ought not to be done. cut (it) off with sharp swords. and he who desires. being impelled by which. and good (men) were oppressed. For from avarice is born desire.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. and honoring good men. and your vital part being pierced. On this. according to qualities. being impelled by which. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. sloth.

Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. avarice. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. When I did not find it on the earth. Now hear the conviction. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. Even this self is not mine. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. and said nothing in reply. a delusion suddenly came upon him. though this country.’ Thus spoken to. This is sovereignty. I looked for my own offspring. Janaka said: Though this country. intelligence again came to me.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. and. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. (Considering) whose this was. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. or that everything is my domain. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. I cannot find my domain. engaged in meditation. holding which. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. Then on the expiration of the delusion. and enjoy while you live. is subject to you. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. is subject (to me). which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. searching through the (whole) earth. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. therefore) while you desire. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. as the planet upon the sun. While that king of unbounded power was seated. And as mine. When I did not find it among them. too. there is no other sovereignty here. What conviction have you adopted. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. Then when the delusion had gone off. or the whole earth is mine. the king recovered himself. and restraining avarice by courage. in all affairs. I believe. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. what belief you have resorted to. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . then came the delusion on me. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. King Janaka.perceiving this. to be terminable. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). by which. Resorting to this conviction. by the glorious Ambarîsha. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. so (is it) that of others too. I looked for Mithilâ. I wish. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. by way of punishment. who destroyed the one (chief vice). my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property.

the instructor is the upper Arani. the spoke the understanding. Then the Brâhmana. it is not laid down. or residence in forests. or by one whose self is not refined. come here today to learn (something) about you. and also without qualities. and confused. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. Sovereignty over the whole world. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. the Pitris. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . together with guests. I am emancipated. A good means is found. nothing exists that is a cause of him. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. is perceived as by bees. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. All these actions of mine are. Actions have a beginning and an end. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. and which does not turn back. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. that a certain thing should be done. according to your own understanding. observing vows. Whatever creatures there are in the world. indeed. verily. and narrow. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. smiling.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. is (to be found) a description of it. (namely) for the gods. or among mendicants. With your heart intent upon the real entity. by which those who understand that proceed. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. for this purpose. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. that. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. and my intelligence is very frivolous. have their understanding full of tranquility. movable or not moving. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. dwelling with preceptors. or else this knowledge. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. You are the one person to turn this wheel. to households. I am not such. And those who. namely. the Bhûtas. I am a Brâhmana. by which that (entity). you will certainly come into my self. and a certain thing should not. I am a forester. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. action and knowledge. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. you have guessed.subject to me. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. not by the body. Hence. or. and even over heaven. and the body is tied down by action. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. where. This path is traversed by the understanding. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. the nave of which is the Brahman. In the (rules for) final emancipation.

Speak.’ The preceptor. who put (his) questions properly. And he. ‘I’ (he said). by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. am come to you (who are) venerable. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. (which are) means of direct perception. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. too. connected with final emancipation. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. Arjuna said: Where. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. There is none else here who can explain these questions. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. who was possessed of (the .’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. And we. I pray of you with (bowed) head. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). who preserved (all) vows. indeed. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. put (his) questions with joined bands. A talented pupil. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. (when he was) seated. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. are afraid of worldly life. between a preceptor and a pupil. and also desirous of final emancipation. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. and those whose form is perceived. truly. ‘whose goal is the highest good. something about the highest good. who had approached him (for instruction). O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. in hundreds and in thousands. all of various descriptions. what penance. and accurately. likewise. as may here be practicable – unperceived. is I myself. Vâsudeva said: On this.and hears. Listen to that. One should adopt as many of these things. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. and what sin? These questions of mine.

who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. which is always possessed of leaves. penance is the truth. full of humility. are full of the truth. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. the gross elements the smaller boughs. the present. Understand that. and is eternal. saw Brahman. They live by penance. which ought to be apprehended. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing.necessary) qualifications. and likewise of the castes. the future. who was like (his) shadow. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. and likewise Bhârgava. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. who understands the creation of all entities. I will state to you today. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. Prajâpati also is truth. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. And those twice-born (sages). Gautama. and who is devoid of egoism. is emancipated. . from whom (all) sin has departed. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. is esteemed highest. I will state to you. even while dwelling in this world. and Visvâmitra. the entities are born from the truth. on which all entities subsist. the senses. The Brahman is the truth. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. desire. The preceptor said: All this. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. and the severance also. He who does not desire anything. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. who are possessed of knowledge. and has no egoism about anything. and also Kâsyapa. and piety. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and likewise unity and variety. Vasishtha. always possessed of flowers. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. and casts off birth and death. the branches of which are the great egoism. when thus spoken to by the sages. Formerly. and who are the constant creators of the people. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. and renunciation as the best penance. which is eternal. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. the sages. in Brahman’s mansion. is released from misery. Brihaspati. the great sages. which belongs to olden times. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. and the seed of which is the Brahman. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. desiring knowledge. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. and becoming wearied of their own actions. there is no doubt of that. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. met each other. after having traveled over all paths. and Atri also. and so forth. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. Bharadvâja. and wealth. who was tranquil. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. and of the four orders. namely. was declared by Brahman. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. from whom anger and vexation have departed.

and passion is the match of goodness. air. ignorance. and the five great elements. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. want of liberality. sun. passion there prevails. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. Goodness is the match of darkness. and getting rid of all bonds. and of the highest seat. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. lightness. Learn. attains to all the spotless worlds. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. the ten senses and the one (sense). it also appears combined (with others). the second is that of householders. want of memory. of all beings. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. never comes by delusion. O noble ones! from me. finding fault with good acts. It has three qualities. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. these are called the three qualities. (but) having four quarters. Passion is said to consist in activity. He who. I will speak to you. eleven. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. nihilism. learn those accurately. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). Darkness. Its characteristic is also impiety. Light. Light. its characteristic. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. The true nature of their characteristics. grief. as accepted by good men. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. being constituted by the three qualities. appears to be production. and are joined to one another. which are all coupled with one another. and which are bridges of piety. which depend on one another. the unperceived likewise. and also all the deities. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. one sees not these. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. space. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). This is the nature of darkness. everlasting. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. and is the cause of successive (acts). . indecision about actions. the whole of the qualities. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. The wise always speak of piety as one. When it prevails. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. and is called delusion. blindness. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. and immutable. and those three channels run on. immaturity (of intellect). want of discrimination. encircled by the. and darkness the match of goodness. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. and it is constant in sinful actions. all-pervading. passion. sleep. now speaking exhaustively. and attend on one another. and likewise serve one another. faith. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. Where darkness is restrained. Indra. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. rigid in his vows. which is in a state of equilibrium. goodness there prevails. avarice. Delusion. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. He who accurately understands the elements. next after that is that of foresters. and five constituent principles. Where passion is restrained. and goodness. Prajâpati. violation of (the rules of) conduct. which is productive of pleasure. and next after that too. casting aside sin. haughtiness. will now be stated together with the reasons. I will subsequently state the means to that.distinctly. and of the understanding as ruler. The order of foresters. among all beings. and goodness is also the match of passion. and likewise also egoism. The great self. in aggregation and separation. he. consisting of three qualities. fear. which you should understand. such is the eternal creation.

the thought (that this or that is) mine. Whatever vain actions (there are). touching other people’s weak points. to be born in the lower hell. want of self-restraint. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. who break through (all) regulations. beauty. indeed. bonds. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. (or become) the immovable entities. Who. the great obscurity called anger. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. want of faith also. evilconducted men. birds. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. piercing. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). sinful action. sink into darkness. and want of forgiveness. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. thinking of (this) world. by cutting. affliction. Coming to a sinful womb. strength. sages and saints and gods become deluded. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. want of liberality. Such is the Vedic text. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. connected with delusion. pointing out others’ weaknesses. want of forgiveness likewise. and idiots. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. and serpents. vanity. Darkness. delusion. as Chândâlas. are found in various places in this world. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. all these are dark qualities. all these qualities. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. demons. animosity. stolidity. And whatever such people there are in this world. And whatever other states of mind. anger. (namely) the brute (species). They go to the hell. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. endurance. vanity. and growing old in (good) actions. and also its qualities. and vain eating. animosity. and death the blinding obscurity. or deaf. breaking. backbiting. the great delusion. These dark. Reviling. fierceness and cruelty. There. slaughter. they are all held to be dark. this is considered to be dark conduct. anger is called the great obscurity. wishing for pleasure. going beyond the Sûdra womb. deluded convictions. animals. understands this properly. wrath. and also animosity towards people. I have now duly described to you. preservation. frenzy. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). toil. beasts of burden. going into inferior ways. insects. exercise and quarrel too. war. and whatever vain gifts. pride of performance without (actual) performance. buying and selling. peace. who are sunk in darkness. delusion. Learn. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. power. battle. doers of sinful acts. harboring evil thoughts. cold and heat.behavior of the lowest quality. vindictiveness. want of straightforwardness. how. Injuring (others). and all quadrupeds. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). that one sees the real in what is unreal. and also its source. who bear the marks of their own actions. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. want of knowledge. pleasure and pain. vilifying. abuse . lassitude. or lisping men. repining. indeed. they exert themselves. that is considered to be dark conduct. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). and worms. this is considered to be dark conduct. unfriendliness. and also creatures born from eggs. who. becoming men of meritorious actions. desire. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. and growing old in their own duties. valor. argument. evil disposition. deaf and dumb men. want of faith. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge.

and for houses. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. and future entities in this world. indifference. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. for men. disgust. vexation. contentment. good behavior. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. laudation. and of the quality of goodness. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. disrespect and respect. auspicious rites. management. life as a Brahmachârin. perceive (everything) aright. joy. the ceremony of Vashat. pleasure. expiations. those talented men reach heaven. service vain. absence of calumniation. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. attendance. obedience. and to be gods. and create (various) bodies. boasting. devotion. emancipation. humility. present. and also sacrificing and study. (holding) knowledge to be vain. minuteness. and attachment also. and also want of faith. Confidence. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. (good) conduct vain.uttering falsehoods. piety vain. equability. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. The power of governing. equable everywhere. devoid of expectations. absence of fear. treachery and likewise deception. receipt of gifts vain. forgiveness. joviality. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. They are said to have their currents upwards. belongings. They give and receive. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. vexing (oneself). association with women. truth. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. Understanding this according to rule. enlightenment and happiness also. purity. harboring desire. and unblamable. and instrumental or vocal music. who adhere to the quality of goodness. modesty. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. one obtains whatever one desires. not full of desires. gambling. service. freedom from laziness. liberality. whose conduct is of this description. gifts and acceptance of gifts. nobility. common scandal. joy. for women. courage. and labor vain. contumely. The men who meditate on past. absence of wrath. The man who always understands these qualities. slaughter. vows and regulation. the ceremony of Svadhâ. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. by means of nature. have (their) currents downwards. learning vain. who are enveloped by passion. devoid of egoism. praise. beneficial to all creatures. straightforwardness. policy. righteous feelings. and also sacrifice. sacrifices vain. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. purity. penance vain. all these qualities. unbroken piety. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. wakefulness. self-restraint. pleasure and delight. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. they rejoice. vows vain. and make Tarpana. prowess. gets rid of all passionate qualities. absence of cruelty. bad gifts. salutation. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. he attains the highest in the next world. devotion to dancing. Born again and again in this world. (on another). and the various decorations which prevail in this world. forgiveness. freedom from expectations. absence of stinginess. freedom from delusion. these men. ostentation. doubt. for articles. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. censure. abandonment on all hands.’ affection generated by the qualities. heedlessness. dexterity. and free from grief. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. The . wealth. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. defiance. faith. haughtiness. the duty of the good. and actions with expectations. for living creatures. harmlessness. compassion to (all) creatures. Getting rid of all sins. contentment. Thus. theft. valor. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. absence of backbiting.

the present. And whatever there is in this world. and passion also. he. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. and threefold the path. threefold the gods. threefold the sacrifices performed. unborn. And as long as goodness and darkness. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. passion in the Kshatriya. and its pure operations. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. Of all these acting with one another. these are the three qualities. is said to be. immovable. For they act with cause or without cause. They are attached to one another. existent and also non-existent – all these. unshaking. The day should be understood to be threefold. and the qualities. and being free from all misery. change. the increase and diminution will now be stated. and travelers. The three qualities – goodness. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. production and absorption. enjoys the qualities. Threefold are the gifts given. the men of the quality of darkness. the night is stated to be threefold. Even from afar. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. and goodness likewise to be less. constant. The light in the sun is goodness. Darkness. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. but differing in development. and lust. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. freed from the body. The past. goodness. there passion should be understood to be little. . there darkness should be understood to be little. go down. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. half-months. not small. the passionate remain in the middle. goodness. holy. seasons. and likewise months. destruction. there: exist three qualities. and the conjunctions. threefold are the worlds. in the Brâhmana. and passion likewise to be less. (consisting) of the three qualities. moving in a body. passion. and goodness likewise to be less. and the highest. and the enlightener. Where passion is developed. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. The man who always understands these qualities. but is not attached to the qualities. feel the warmth. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). Where darkness is increased. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. darkness. in the lower entities. womb. and moving about collectively. So in all shining bodies. And where goodness is developed. and the Udâna. abiding in those of the middle current. wealth. in union. The sun is goodness developed. the Apâna. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. and likewise follow one another. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. and the future. evildoers are alarmed. The creation of the qualities is eternal. abiding in those of the upward current. eternal. Pradhâna. not developed. suffering trouble from the heat. they feed on one another. evil-doers likewise are darkness. is released from all qualities. the unperceived. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. They all depend on one another. Seeing the sun rising. Passion. the Prâna. being connected with the lowest quality. immutable. the qualities of passion are variable. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). nature. all that is (made of) these three qualities. there darkness should be understood to be little. piety. goodness. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. Among immovable entities. so long is passion said (to exist) here. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. unperceived. years. abiding. They perform their journey together. There is no doubt of this. the heat is the quality of passion.

space. color. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. the Prajâpati. and who are always possessed of a good heart. the operations (connected with these) have causes. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. the final dissolution approaches. Sambhu. were the five great elements born – earth. It has hands and feet on all sides. who are not avaricious. It is a deity. these being emancipated. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the source of all qualities. and likewise cognition. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. verily. the great self. he is the governor. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. who are true to their promises. it is the creator of the three worlds. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the supporter of consciousness. abides transcending the understanding. who have subdued wrath. and by its own light. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. the transcendent. of universal form. Now people who comprehend the understanding. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. and as that from which the changes take place. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. means of knowledge. that from which the changes take place. courage. Vishnu. who are constant at concentration of mind. Knowing that (great self). Brahma. it is that from which the people are produced. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. and faces on all sides. and golden. whose minds are clear. touch. the valiant. means of perception. it likewise charms the world. that is said to be the second creation. it is full of light. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). water. and smell. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. touch. who practice meditation. not different from one another. who are talented. and of the mind. the producer of the entities. it is said to be the first creation. who have pondered on the self. heads. has been dissolved. and whose senses are subdued. air. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. lightness. who are devoid of egoism. and are inconstant. the understanding. and thus that source of all entities. Minuteness. taste. is (afterwards) called egoism. who are possessed of knowledge. Sound. it causes all this to move. creates (them). And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. movable or immovable. memory. connected with . creatures are deluded. that talented man. it stands pervading everything in the world. intelligence. and likewise color. and light as the fifth. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. taste. and are dissolved in the reverse order. the producer of the deities. Caused by the production of avarice. it has eyes. They are born one from the other. In these five great elements. and smell as the fifth. When. he among all people comes not by delusion. inexhaustible. and their name is delusion. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. and insignificant. attain greatness. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Then when every entity. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). the light. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. ancient being. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced.

Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. And the eleven organs. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. as connected with objects it is actions. those born from perspiration. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. Likewise (there is) egoism. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. as connected with objects it is motion. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. Understanding these. As connected with the self they mention the mind. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. the presiding deity there is Vishnu.flesh and blood. excluded from the self. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). The second entity is air. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. The Apâna wind. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Indra. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. and speech as the tenth. self-consciousness. the motion of which is downward. those born from germs. which follows after the five entities. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. such is the group of organs. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. As connected with the self. as connected with objects. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. and the understanding is the twelfth. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. and the presiding deity there is the wind. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. the mind is the eleventh. and worms of the like description. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. and depending upon one another. This group one should subdue first. as connected with the self it is called the eye. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. the Udâna. Those born from eggs. and speech are restrained. He whose skin. next as connected with objects (it is) color. and the organ of generation. the two eyes. the skin. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. the two feet. and the Vyâna also. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. and the presiding deity there is Soma. as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is the semen. ear. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. The Prâna and the Apâna. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. as also all reptiles. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. This is said to be the . is called the organ of excretion. and the presiding deity there is the sun. these are helpless and powerless. as connected with objects it is taste. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. As connected with the self. as connected with the self it is called the ear. and together with speech. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. mind. as connected with the self. eye. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. nose. the presiding deity there is Rudra. and space. The mind should be understood to be among both. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. who perceive the truth. as connected with objects it is excretion. and the presiding deity there is lightning. the tongue. The third (entity) is said to be light. The ear. as connected with the self it is the nose. and whose mind is pure. the presiding deity there is the Moon. The fifth entity is earth. tongue. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. and understanding unswerving. then the Brahman shines (before him). water. and the presiding deity there is fire. and five the organs of action. Space is the first entity. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. the producer of all beings. the nose also as the fifth. the organ of excretion. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. Then first. is speech which relates to all the gods. the Samâna. the two hands. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. Those should be understood to be born from eggs.

having his cravings destroyed. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. which is surrounded by the five currents. which is full of passion. and who is devoid of passion. the presiding deity there is Soma. bursting through the earth. It is settled. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. The fifth element is earth. which is uninterrupted. and the feeling of touch is air. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. which are born after the lapse of some time. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. and hold them by the mind. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. and is named delusion. the flowing (element) water. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed.) the senses. Space is the first entity. are said to be born from germs. gift at a sacrifice. and being concentrated in mind. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). (viz. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. are the beings born from wombs. He who duly understands this. A knowledge of this. and inferior. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. too. (namely) sacrifice. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. O chief of the twice-born! and know. . and those which move crookedly. this same (body). The third is called light. the objects of the senses. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. and likewise the sound is space. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. and which rests on the real (entity). should cast it aside. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). that he is released from all sins. and restrain it.second (mode of) birth. Restraining objects of desire within the self. The world. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. and the five great elements. in which one lives alone. and is sanctifying. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. the presiding deity there is the sun. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. for (every one) who is born. next as connected with objects it is color. however. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and sacred study. Understand about them also. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. together with the immortals. which is free from attachment. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. then being self-illumined. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. Such is the teaching of the ancients. that the body in which the color is fire. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. unfit to be seen. and which is full of the Brahman. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. Those beings. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and full of delusion. which is made up of the five elements. is ever happy. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. which has nine passages and two deities. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. pleased with contacts. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. and than which there is nothing higher. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. fearful and unfathomable. It is a great ocean. and released from everything. curtail it. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. One should place all these together. The second entity is air. When everything is absorbed into the mind. The fourth should be understood to be water. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze.

and delusion the reservoir. the Nîla. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. among cattle also the bull. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. Understand him to be the ruler. lose all their qualifications. who am full of the Brahman. there is no doubt of that. the sun is the prince among the planets.Desire. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. all companies of Brâhmanas. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. changing from time to time. snakes. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. She is called Pârvatî. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. Kinnaras. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and seeing the self within the self. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. and Yakshas. and go into wrong paths after death. and . Such is the highest creation among all entities. and Mitra. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). which are difficult to get rid of. (am lord). the Mahendra. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. and the ocean among rivers. who has beautiful eyes. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. wrath. of gods. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. the Sveta. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and great. he then perceives that highest (principle). concentrating the mind within the mind. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. The Himavat. and among denizens of the forest the lion. Non-destruction is the highest piety. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. and Pisâkas. the Sinsapâ. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. Him. fear. He is the supporter. and demons. Understand this. and Rakshasas. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. the Pippala. Freed from all sins. and the Koshthavat mountain. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and Maghavat likewise of the gods. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. and of all entities whatever I. the Jambu. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. rejoice in this world. and also as various. avarice. likewise. the uncreated Hari. among vehicles the elephant. the Bhâsa. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. and Nâgas. these are the princes among trees in this world. the Sahya. (all these). and attain the infinite (seat) after death. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and the bands of Rakshasas. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. Purandara of (all) deities. the north among the quarters. Soma is the lord of herbs. Varuna is the king of the waters. likewise. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. ever extol. the Trikûtavat. and also gods. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. these are the princes among mountains. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. and among females a male. Agni. and Pitris. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. and likewise the Sâlmali. the Pâriyâtra. He verily is Vishnu. the creator. and the creator. and Prajâpati. and Yakshas. and the bands of Bhûtas. of Gandharvas. and the Meshasringa. treachery. and falsehood also. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. For he is the ruler of men. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. Understanding everything. the Vindhya. Kings desire piety. and birds. demons. and Varuna. and the moon among the Nakshatras. The Nyagrodha. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. and also all the great sages. the Guruskandha.

Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. is purely knowledge. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. the characteristic of renunciation. is always comprehended by the tongue. the characteristic of mind is thought. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. Thought is the quality of mind. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. no one. to be created and tied down to a beginning. belonging to the air. And crossing beyond darkness. and from the svâhâ ceremony. which is great.destruction is of the nature of impiety. who is unmoving. And the moon likewise. that months have the bright first. To (this) positive comprehension. The quality of space is sound. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. Hence a man who understands piety. there is no doubt of that. Taste. giving prominence to knowledge. is perceived by the skin. The quality of light is color. and end. (else) attains. taste is the characteristic of water. The (sensation of) touch. abandoning qualities. the characteristic of earth. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. and the Mahat of knowledge. and hear it. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. and homeless. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. verily. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. the supporter of all beings. which is void of symbols. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. who resides in the tongue. that is comprehended by the nose. together with names and characteristics. he is the Supreme Lord. know. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. (though) concealed. and that is comprehended by the eye. As to the smell of the earth. and transcending death and old age. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. and knowledge. and that is comprehended by the ear. the unperceived (is appointed). It is stated that day was first and then night. and about the means for its comprehension. sound is the characteristic of space. The Kshetrajña. The earth is the source of . CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. action the characteristic of men. to the truth. The characteristic of mind is meditation. color is the characteristic of light. middle. the essence of water. The Purusha knows it. The qualities created again and again. in this world. and the creation. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. And I always see. The characteristic of devotion is action. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. and end. he repairs to that which has no second. free from the ceremony of salutations. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. middle. then enters into the Kshetrajña. being nonintelligent. and that is comprehended by the understanding. Only the Kshetrajña attains. and transcending the qualities. and having his sins destroyed. is smell. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. do not know themselves. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. transcendent. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. is the Kshetrajña.

the ocean is the first-born. fire is said to be the first of the elements. without distinction. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. the end of grief ever pleasure. gold (is the first). Prajâpati of deities. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. which abounds in old age and grief. that of householders (is the first). Days end with (the sun’s) setting. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. and Yakshas. I. Dânavas. All action ends in destruction. gift. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. observances. And among all immovable entities. all that is called Sâvitrî. is everchanging. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. The great Vishnu. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. The Syena is first among birds. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. and life ends in death. the fastenings in which are vexations. who is full of the Brahman. too. there is no doubt of that. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. and the Prâna lifewind. Sacrifice. which is lit up by the great egoism. the mud for which is penance and regulations. the eastern quarter is the first. and the twice-born among men. and among all reptiles. penance. which rotates in space and time. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. which is measured by months and half months. and of men. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. Kinnaras. likewise. Pisâkas. the goat is mentioned (as the first). which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. snakes. . Among all precious things. Bhûtas. whose senses are subjugated. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. all this ends in destruction. the ever holy field of Brahman. is stated to be the first. all ascents end in falls. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. among (sacrificial) animals. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. whatever is prescribed in this world. And the unthinkable. which moves through (all) the worlds. there is no doubt of that. death is certain for whatever is born. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. Of all mountains. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. likewise space is the source of sound. the noise of which is trouble and toil. study. Îsvara is the lord. all associations end in dissociations. the offering (into the fire) is the best. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. of which the environment is home. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. Of all ages the Krita is the first. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. of which the pole is the mind. among sacrifices. of all words. which is full of actions and instruments of action. and regulations. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. and the same is also the end of everything. The sun is the first among shining bodies. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. And of all gods. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. water of tastes. These are the qualities of the elements. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. there is no doubt of that. All accumulations end in exhaustion. water is the best. There is no end for knowledge. Of all orders. the end of pleasure is ever grief. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. who is devoid of egoism. the Plaksha. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. is the source of the entire universe. which is sustained by the qualities. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. and Rakshasas. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. of which the outer rim is the five great elements.smells.

and also receiving untainted gifts. and who has duly observed vows. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. and sacrifice. making gifts. There should also be a girdle of muñga. they are pious duties. study. and check. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. and who understands the Vedas. Always devoted to his own wife. who is self-restrained. possessed of forgiveness. who is pure. and should always associate with good men. to follow it is good. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). and should stand. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. and self-restrained. and have his sacred . should return (from his preceptor’s house). and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). and which is devoid of consciousness. and full of faith. abridge. released from all impressions. kind. who is of rigid vows. take food without decrying it. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. and also the beggar. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. should avoid heedlessness. should. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. and equable to all creatures. gift. who is devoted to Vedic rites. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. the speed of which is like that of the mind. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. together with the immortals should cast away. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. behaving like good men. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. this has been celebrated from ancient times. in the way above stated. and be of pure vows. conquers heaven. the forester. he should have matted hair. The householder. with his senses restrained. That man among all creatures. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion.which is large. is never deluded. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. with the permission of the preceptor. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. And as to the other remaining three duties. attains the highest goal. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. which moves towards joy and pleasure. (That) sage. transcending all pairs of opposites. who is thus devoted. which is unchecked. the sage who understands piety. and take exercise (duly). to such a one the (word) good applies. and released from all sins. and the Brahmachârin. sit. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. With regard to those three duties. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and which is extended by means of attachments. and constant in veracity and piety. or of cotton. and alms. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. and which is (never) fatigued. all the world. One should learn and teach. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. This wheel of life. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. the imperishable source (of all). should behave like the good. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. should be kind. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. and with one’s external organs restrained. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. or also a deerskin. The Brâhmana householder. and should give and receive gifts. He who has been first refined by ceremonies.

thread. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. or a forest. eating little. being restrained in mind. Refined by means of all ceremonies. He should not make any accumulations. and devoted to veracity and piety. or bitter. and which have come spontaneously. In summer. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. in order. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. not deceptive and not crooked. always in forests. full of forgiveness. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. and be agreeable to all beings. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. or the cavern of a mountain. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). When eating. and also straightforwardness. and depending on the deities. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). and continent. He should not parade (his) piety. and when he goes about for alms. always with clean water. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. seeking merely to sustain life. nor should he eat when honored. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. freedom from (the habit of) carping. he may dwell in one place. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. freedom from anger. And with his senses restrained. Eating only a little. kind. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. or a river likewise. having a mind free from envy. (Such) a Brahmachârin. free from passion. He should honor a guest who comes. He should honor guests. restraint of the external organs. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. he should move about in a secluded place. One who is thus devoted. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. addicted to sacred study. pure in body. is esteemed. or the foot of a tree. Offering safety to all beings. he should not go following after another. or again a forester. A householder. and should not . Nor should he beg for too much alms. and leaves. and restrained in all his senses. fruits. and always living within the forest. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and should eschew dwelling with friends. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. preserving his hair and moustache. air. living on fruits and leaves. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. He should without sloth feed on water. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. be engaged in sacred study. the sage should become free from all action. or a Brahmachârin. and likewise no sweet juices. or which are pungent. A man should always bathe in clean water. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. and of rigid observances. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and free from avarice. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. and in the rains. life as a Brahmachârin. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. conquers heaven. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. astringent. He should move about the world like a worm. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. and roots and Syâmâka grain. and concentrated in mind. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. does not return to birth. who is concentrated in mind. kind. always dexterous. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. Restraining the external senses. and reaching the highest seat. looking out for the (proper) time. performing sacrifices. should not enter a town again. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. his path being pointed out by the sun. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. and should not rejoice if he obtains. veracity. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures.

as they come. who is free from expectations. and understanding are absorbed. One should not perform. He should not appropriate another’s riches. who is free from egoism. nor valor. and without fixed appointments with people. and also devoid of sound. nor should he ever give to others. always dwelling in all entities. he attains to the highest seat. who is free from attachments to any entity. should meditate. he gets emancipation. One should not think of what is not come. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. any action involving expectation of fruit. a wise man should always share (with others). and mind. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. devoid of smell. and should avoid (all) controversies. nor the senses. divine. and free from distress. He should not receive from others. flowers. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). who is free from desires. He should not defile anything by the eye. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. one should disregard the present. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. one attains heaven. who understands all truth. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). nor penance. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. pebbles likewise. and then. egoism. the unperceived. nor the deities. or the assemblage of people.follow his own (mere) desire. which is unattached. which is to be understood. being released from all bonds. and which is also devoid of flesh. nor worlds. which is free from anxiety. and who is dependent on none. absolute. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. But owing to the helplessness of people. foot. should act without a purpose. who is attached to the self. verily. Rejecting all things. should not teach. and self-controlled. understanding. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. or back. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). depending on none. moving and unmoving. and should not take (anything) unasked. after understanding all these. devoid of color. One should not perturb any other (person). nor reflect on that which is past. water. One who has anything to do should take earth. which is without hands. and should be void of (all) belongings. . being devoted to pious conduct. and the Purusha likewise. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. nor should one wish for gold. and being equable to all beings. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. there is no doubt of that. or by speech. by an accurate determination about the truth. One who knows the truth. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. nor Vedas. There the understanding reaches not. is emancipated. Freed from all attachments. sacrifices. mind. untainted. and the five great elements. or the mind. and leaves. exclusively pondering on one point. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. or involving any destruction of life. which is free from the operations of the qualities. or cause to be performed. without a stomach. he should act in the manner of the deluded. they never die. and who understands the truth. and stable. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. One should not hate. He should perform piety. Those who perceive the self. without a head. with his accumulations exhausted. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and the objects of the senses. The senses. not finding fault with piety. should be free from attachment. imperishable. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and in whom the senses. Though undeluded. and who is free from salutations. devoid of taste or touch. Nor. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and though dwelling in a house. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols.

a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. for assimilation with the Brahman. the great branches of which are the great elements. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. developed from the qualities. devoid of qualities. death. and which is fed upon by all creatures. the sprouts within which are the senses. there is no doubt of that. through the tranquility of the self. Penance is said to be a light.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. There are these two birds. it is free from the pairs of opposites. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. and renunciation the best penance. by tranquility only. there is no doubt of that. and devoid of qualities. is emancipated. and likewise unity and diversity. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. and who is devoid of egoism. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. The men of talent. Abandoning all action. even dwelling in this world. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. everlasting. attaining to the self. is released from misery. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. transcending passion. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. association and dissociation. is emancipated. and which is the essential element in knowledge. which cause birth. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. then understanding the Kshetra. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. and supreme. and the side branches the objects of sense. and with an understanding comprehending all. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. (which are) unchanging. and (as it were) non-intelligent. who are pure. becomes fit for immortality. But as to that other who is above them. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. He who desires nothing. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. which is always possessed of leaves. The learned man who perceives. and despises nothing. of unthinkable qualities. and some as transcendent and without misery. (When) the inner self. whether agreeable or disagreeable. even for (the space of) a wink. Restraining the self in the self. there is no doubt of that. and being untainted. The highest Brahman is very far off. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and free from egoism. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. always possessed of flowers. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. understands that which is beyond nature. becomes eligible. And restraining the life-winds again and again . which abides in all entities. go to the happy path by penance. and whose minds are refined. he is called intelligent. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. a creature is emancipated. devoid of knowledge of nature. and old age.

People are acting. Some say both time and space (exist). By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. Some Brâhmanas. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. knowledge. and others that there is no doubt. and others. and others tranquility. Some learned men. abandonment. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. but others extol penance. But that is not correct. and others. Some people are for bathing. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. Some are devoted to goodness. Some are for taking food. Some extol final emancipation. others distinct. Some people (say) meditation. nature. and others that that is not so. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. harmlessness. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. some knowledge. gifts. Some (say) everything is doubtful. and our mind is distracted. and others say that is not so. too. there is no doubt of that. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). and others indigence. some various kinds of enjoyments. And. equability. believe it to be one. some are in the midst of doubts. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. and some given up to destruction. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. this is good. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. others that that is not so. the venerable. Some people extol action. (saying) this is good. who are devoted to knowledge. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. too. Some have matted hair and skins. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. such is their relation. Thus having first a tranquil self. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. and renunciation. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. we are deluded. always esteems that. and those who ponder on the element. and other persons sacred study. holy. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and others nothing. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. having again felt doubts. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and some for pain. and come to no determination. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. be obtains whatever he desires. some for the omission of bathing. some are for merit and glory. . Here (therefore) our understanding breaks control of the life-winds. Some extol everything. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. that fits one for immortality. some wish for riches. others are intent on fasting. We wish. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. who were the best of sages. and (others) that it exists not. some say that is not so. and others again (that it is) manifold. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. courage. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. truth. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). that it exists. of ten or twelve (modes). Some (say) means should be resorted to. straightforwardness. Some are devoted to harmlessness. and others (that it is) mixed. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. some are for pleasure.

And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. Understand this. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. The subject is always the being. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. Now I will proceed to. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. being born again and again. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. goes in the water without fatigue. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. and who are infidels in their conduct. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. a learned man remains untainted. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. devoid of parts. Non-destruction of all creatures. where the carriage-path stops. I will tell you something more. through delusion. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. So travels the talented man. perceive correctly. and who knows about the qualities. such is the progress of the men of understanding. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. This is the highest seat. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. and who entertain avarice and delusion. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). It is established that nature is the property of the being. though it is the object of enjoyment. But those wise and talented men. Even brought into contact with all qualities. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. and void of intelligence. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. I will declare to you what you ask of me. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. As far as there is a carriage-path. and is connected with (all) knowledge. While there is oil and wick. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). Thus nature is perceived. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. and soon crosses the reservoir. and going swiftly. and to be constituted of the qualities. comprehending the gradations one above the other. attains supreme happiness. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. It has been explained in the above mode. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. and nature is stated to be the object. afflicted by reason of the chariot. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. so should one understand. rejoice in this world. deliberate on it properly. He abides in everything alike. travels with great discomfort. the light shines. and in essence free from the qualities. free from any connection with expectations. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. who perform actions with faith. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. go verily to hell. free from vexation and holy in character. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Hearing it all. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. throwing aside the boat. Learn that. O Brâhmanas! Well now. and may even be destroyed on the way. For the talented man who knows (these) means. he goes in the carriage.

is of four qualities. short long. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. void of taste. From egoism is produced the development. and rough. red likewise.carriage and pedestrian. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. so does it result to them. sharp. Sweet. Now space has one quality. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. broad. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. sour. Now space has one quality. but they do not yield products. be understood to be of ten descriptions. Rishabha. Smell always belongs to the earth. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. The quality of light is color. smooth. astringent. and likewise Pañkama. namely. narrow. touch. glutinous. and taste. green. above egoism is understanding. touch. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). compact. the great elements. yellow. too. And as action is performed in this world. hurtful. abounding with movables and immovables. and likewise color. Space is the highest element. and of (many) ingredients. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . agreeable and disagreeable sound also. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. tender and clear also. and void of color. and earth. are stated to be the qualities of water. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. color likewise. White. Sound. black. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. Madhyama. – thus should smell. and color likewise. And touch is the quality of air. air is said to have two qualities. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. and of the elements respectively. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. taste. which is void of any smell whatever. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. it is said that light has three qualities. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. touch. Thus sound. Shadga. that is called the Pradhâna. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. which belongs to the earth. diffusive and compact also. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. square. Learn about their properties. should be understood to be of five qualities. and who identifies himself with every being. to be of twelve descriptions. and smell as the fifth – these. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and water. and grey likewise. who speak the truth. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. above that is the unperceived. sweet. Sound and touch also should be understood. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. egoism is above that. slippery. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. and also productive in its essence. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. and above the unperceived is the being. I will now give (some) information about taste. Sound. and that is stated to be sound only. and clear also. hard. One who has come by delusion through affection. Rough. sour. which is produced in space. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. or sound. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. cold and hot likewise. bitter. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. which is a development of water. thus is light said to have three qualities. and bitter likewise. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. the divine source of all entities. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. said to be of six descriptions. together with Gândhâra. soft. and are conversant with piety. repairs to the imperishable self. air is said to have (these) two qualities. touch. and above that understanding is the self. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. Sound.

Asuras. even from those five elements. Such is the upward gradation among entities. they go near Prajâpati. And in like manner. And he who is released. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. has the mind for a charioteer. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. the mind. and difficult to pass through. and (after) these developments. goes to the highest goal. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. a sage should sit down self-restrained. He who understands him understands the Vedas. the mind itself is the individual self. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. Born from that same unperceived (principle). enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. all have been created by nature.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. This is the eternal mystery. Pitris. and herbs. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). again acquiring knowledge. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. one who destroys an embryo. that sin only by penance well performed. Gods. and devoid of egoism. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. for penance is difficult to overcome. and next the developments produced from the elements. men. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. one who steals. These Brâhmanas. all the elements. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. Those who best understand the self. perceive the triple world here by penance. are born here again and again. those who have achieved perfection. which is the unperceived. One who drinks spirituous liquors. all that can be accomplished by penance. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and ends with the gross objects. and who are free from egoism. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. is released from. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. the creators of the world. That individual self. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. That learned and talented person verily. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. a man gets rid of all sins. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. obtain the great and highest world. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. (Those) men. difficult to vanquish. (sacrificial) animals. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. movable or immovable. Medicines. always reach perfection by penance. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. The senses. and it is called the Kshetrajña. and having their minds always tranquil. Pisâkas. gods. and abandons everything as fruitless. difficult to learn. The understanding proclaims its power. and being full of egoism. like billows in the ocean. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. and in which the understanding is the drag. Râkshasas. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. The mind always presides over the great elements. not by actions. Whatever is difficult to obtain. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. enter the highest world of the great. For all acquisition has penance for its root. beasts and birds. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. That which begins with the unperceived . and includes movables and immovables. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. and it is the goal of all living creatures. nor by a cause. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. and the understanding for a drag. they are the very first to be dissolved. and all other creatures movable or immovable. Gandharvas. one who kills a Brâhmana.

This being is stated to be full of knowledge.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. Some men of dull understandings extol action. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. O Krishna! and who the pupil. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. and not mine is the eternal. than which nothing greater exists. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Expelling all impressions. Knowledge brings forth the being. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. and then attained to the worlds. always duly act (according to it). Two syllables are death. he understands that holy Brahman. I wish to see him. with your consent. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). unmoving. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. Arjuna said: Who. in consequence of these means. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. incomprehensible. O Janârdana! If this verily. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. Vâsudeva. getting rid of all sins. too. changeless. And. and who looks alike on everything. indeed. Then when this piety is duly practiced. sages! Act thus forthwith. And now. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. Mine is death. changeless. three syllables the eternal Brahman. O Lord! then tell it me. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. he attains tranquility. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. And the pupil. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. If you have love for me. which is uncreated. having done all he should have done. And when the understanding is clear. I have now declared everything to you. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. was that Brâhmana. then you will acquire perfection. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. Do you. This is the eternal piety. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. attained to that seat. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. and restraining the self in the Self. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. Then will you attain perfection. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. O best of Brâhmana. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. O noble person. did everything (accordingly). and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . you will attain the absolute final emancipation. is fit to be heard by me. who is without attachment. who is without expectations. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. not full of action. he dies not.

‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. who is of a devout heart. Dhanañjaya replied (saying).’ Om Tat Sat . O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. Be pleased. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.When Krishna spoke these words.

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