This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
and lust altogether. And that I shall now proceed to state. who endures all. who has subdued his senses. He who is not attached to any one. penance. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . one going the round of various births. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. serving mother and father. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. self-restraint. who is devoted to tranquility. Brahman. indeed. Gifts. restraint of the senses. and who is self-possessed. purity. who had been first created. having made a body for himself. This is what is called the destructible. and ruin to be connected with action. Then seeking after the supreme seat. From that he created the Pradhâna. he becomes indifferent to everything. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. and (what is) agreeable and odious. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. (having) as regards the moving (creation). the grandfather of all people. and about the return. and thinking of naught. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. for among them it constantly abides. What I say is all correct and proper. who has abandoned piety. who contemns no one. life as a Brahmachârin. abandoning each previous (element). by which all this is pervaded. he is. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. who is self-controlled. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. and whose self is free from affections. this is said to be the conduct of the good. And Prajâpati. and which is known in the world as the highest. From this is produced piety. created the whole of the three worlds. and likewise pleasure and pain. is released. A man who is a friend of all. honoring deities and guests. pure. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). free from vanity and egoism. and who has no desire. and causing good to be done. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. points out (what) piety (is). released in every way. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. the body to be an unholy aggregate. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. he is. moving and fixed. a pair separately for each (species). constant restraint of the organs. He who acquires that. and also tranquility. who has no kinsmen. is released who is equable towards both life and death. adherence to prescribed regulations. honoring preceptors. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. which I am now about to declare.action by which. never comes to an evil end. indeed. the material cause of all embodied (selves). is released. and gain and loss. which protects people to eternity. takes place after a long time. becomes happy. And he. who is free from the pairs of opposites. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. compassion to (all) beings. He who has no enemy. who has no child. wealth. pity. but the other is immortal and indestructible. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. released from everything. Learn from me exhaustively. He who understands the Pradhâna. which is very difficult to cross. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. verily. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. too. He who is not pious and not impious. And as regards that. The practice to which the good adhere. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). and absence of cruelty. as he should act.
The man who has acquired concentration of mind. is released. When. void of color. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. he perceives the perfect one. perceives the self in the self. and of a tranquil mind. like an Aswattha tree. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. devoid of qualities. than which there is nothing higher. he grieves not and exults not. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. looks on this universe as transient. tranquil. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. and who is self-restrained. Then freed from all impressions. Seeing the self void of smell. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. he gradually obtains tranquility. ‘This is he. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. void of sound. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. without belongings. he is released. The body is called the Muñga. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. constant. and who has no desire. One who does no action. Leaving this human frame. like fire devoid of fuel. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. Restraining the . he remains steady to the self. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. he is indeed released. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. who has practiced penance. indestructible. unmoving. which consist in pain and grief. who is free from attachment. he sleeps at ease. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. one should fix the mind on the self. And as one may show the soft fibers. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. free from the pairs of opposites. and having first performed rigorous penance. and having no cause. void of taste. Thinking of a quarter seen before. saying. then he. the soft fibers stand for the self. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. being habituated to exclusive meditation. meditating in that habitation. he has no fear. void of belongings. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. since he is the lord of the triple world. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. recognizes him (afterwards). I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance.. he is not afflicted by anything. and freed from old age and grief. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self.body. he assumes bodies at pleasure. death. He whose self is concentrated. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. When (all) beings are destroyed. and old age. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle).’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. and unknowable. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. and casting aside old age and death. searching for his own faults. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. always full of birth. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. Weapons do not pierce him. Restraining the senses. when (all) beings are afflicted. He who is free from all impressions. Then the talented Brâhmana. As a person having seen one in a dream. devoid of form. and abandoning the transient body. after extracting them from the Muñga. Remaining within (that) city. and always concentrating his mind. is released. Properly concentrating his self. then there is no ruler over him. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. and having his senses subjugated. void of touch. there is no death for him. He obtains various bodies as he pleases.
– went away as he pleased. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). distinctly? How.group of the senses. And then depending upon it thus. and (keeping) the passages confined. and abandoning his body. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. neck. The soul sees the self come out from the body. too. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. and likewise the seat of the heart. even those who are of sinful birth. He has hands and feet on all sides. who are constantly intent on their own duties. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. He should meditate on his teeth. and do you (too) go away. He is not to be grasped by the eye. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. and muscles. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. and also the heart. and also the means for its acquisition. Vaisyas. where one. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. women. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. he stands pervading everything in the world. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. heads. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. – with. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. O Krishna! that pupil. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. O son of Prithâ! For.’ Thus addressed by me. It is my belief. and how also to blood? And how. final emancipation. I will go away. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. tongue. too. and faces on all sides. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. he attains final emancipation in me. forsaking the body. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. possessed of great penance. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. Have you listened to this. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. and of the excretions. and Sûdras likewise. too. palate. reaches immortality and is ever happy. as it were. nor by any of the senses. too. and throat likewise. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. which is difficult to explain. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. he perceives the self. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. he has cars on all sides. and determination regarding . This whole mystery I have declared to you. That talented pupil. O Mâdhava! I replied. Adopting this doctrine. a mental smile.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. attain the supreme goal. and marrow. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. What I have spoken. do the flesh. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. The world of the gods. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. he has eyes. For as to that eternal Brahman. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form.
and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. good or bad. Concentration of mind comes to him. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. that which touches. and likewise that which is to . are destroyed by demons. action. and also that which is to be thought of. When that is asleep. CHAPTER V On this. possessed of talents. It is devoid of smell. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara.misery. full of faith. that which is to be drunk. From birth to the destruction of the body. O son of Pându! who. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). and imperishable. but is to be apprehended by the mind. This is all that is to be said. devoid of taste and touch. or seen. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. The nose. And mark this always. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. and the ear as the fifth. that which is to be drunk. It is not to be smelt by the nose. A Brâhmana’s wife. and Udâna also proceed. Samâna. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. From this the Prâna. and energetic. indeed. shall I reach. and on which it rests. verily. and the eye. and into it they enter. devoid of color and sound. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. there is nothing further than this. that which is to be touched. that which is to be seen. or heard. That is called the Udâna. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. and not to be tasted by the tongue. While the paths (of action). and the tongue. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. that which cats. does exist among (all) beings. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. That which smells. and that which is to be understood. that which is to be smelt. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. and that which hears as the fifth. these are the seven great officiating priests. that can be caught (by the touch). that which is to be touched. Whatever action there is. (in the form of) a dialogue. that only do the men of action engage in as action. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. you who live renouncing (all) action. and the skin. Apâna. too. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. That which is to be smelt. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. In the interior. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. that which is to be seen. and that which understands. the mind and the understanding. seated in seclusion. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. What goal. that which sees. (namely). that man of a tranquil self. mind or speech. and who are harsh and undiscerning. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. and the moon together with the fire. and their selves tranquil. depending on you as (my) husband. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. Vyâna. shall I go to. that which thinks. which occurred. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. produce them in their wombs. and likewise that which is to be heard. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. by act. in which the materials are visible. The mortal. and (observe) good vows. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world.
the two hands. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. and also that which is to be understood. and the discharge of semen. and they are offered up into the ten fires. are ten sacrificial priests. too. that indeed is the movable mind. there are two minds. destroy our doubts. from that doubt is produced. speech. these are the ten oblations. words. moon. and Vishnu also. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). action. or tone goes to your dominion. and the wealth is the pure. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. and the mind runs after them. highest knowledge. ‘Mind (is superior). these seven. the genital organ. from that is produced color. The mind is the ladle. they relate this ancient story. and excrement. though . The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. The goddess speech. Then the lord of speech was produced. and the knower is the upholder of the body. Whatever mantra. But. from that is produced determination. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. which is the generator of all entities. water. earth and fire. verity. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. the two feet. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. they were perfectly filled with light. indeed. from that is produced sound. And in that very (principle). color. and taste. and (though) developed. The immovable. and hence the mind is in need (of it). and into this the offering is thrown. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. To that you are superior. verily. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. was the universe duly divided. And the mind. The quarters. these. that which is to be thought of. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. Prajâpati. that (in) my (view). air. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations.’ But speech thereupon said to him. the tongue. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. and Mitra. O beautiful one! Sound. immovable and also movable. urine. are words produced. verily. First. are the fuel. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. from that is produced taste. requires everything knowable (as its offering). ‘Say which of us is superior.be heard. from that touch is produced. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. wind. therefore. That is called the movement of the mind. Earth. these. verily. the nose. ‘I. sun. motion. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. which is the instrument of knowledge. From that is produced smell. touch. smell.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. the offerings are ten. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. The ear. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. (Thus) we have heard. mind and understanding. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). Indra. are named wombs. yield (you) your desires. space. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. verily. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. But inasmuch. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. and light as the fifth. verily. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. the movable is in your dominion. is with me. or letter. from that another is produced. and the anus.
yields milk. they relate this ancient story. and the ear as the fifth. they do not perceive each other. and the tongue. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. the mind. and the understanding also. the skin. the understanding apprehends it. the ear. And these never know the qualities of each other. the tongue. the ear likewise. and which then goes into the Apâna. The mind said: . The nose. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. do not apprehend sounds. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. The nose. The nose. do not apprehend tastes. This excellent (speech). and the mind also. Of those two. mind and understanding. the mind. with divine power. and the skin. do not apprehend colors. the nose apprehends them. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. and the understanding also. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. the tongue apprehends them. the skin. the eye apprehends them. and the eye. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. and the eye. the ear likewise. and next the eye. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. It is always noisy or noiseless. the mind apprehends it. the skin apprehends them. The nose. and the understanding also. The nose. the mind. Do you. she ran up to Prajâpati. the ear likewise. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. flowing (forms). CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. This cow-like speech. the tongue. and the eye. the understanding. and the eye. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. do not apprehend final determination. ‘Be pleased. the tongue. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the skin. the mind. Dwelling in a minute space.impelled. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. the mind likewise. too. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. do not apprehend doubt. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. O you of a bright smile! is divine. do not apprehend smells. the eye. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. when. the ear apprehends them. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the tongue. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). O venerable sir? Tell me this. – a dialogue. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. So speech formerly spoke. the skin. too. the ear. the ear. like a cow. the tongue. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the skin. The tongue. On this. The nose. the eye. and the understanding also. verily. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. saying. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and the understanding also. the skin. The nose. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old.
the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. I am the eternal chief among all elements. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. both past and future. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. They formerly went to the grandsire. and objects are standing. rules are for the weak. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. and indulged in dreams. they relate an ancient story. still. does run to objects of sense only. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). the senses never shine. who was born first. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. if you. a creature. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. when our objects perform their functions. Besides. all beings. the tongue does not perceive taste. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. Granted. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna.The nose smells not without me.’ Brahman said: . Without me. take in tastes by the eye. always meets death. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. then take in colors by the nose. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. then what you believe is true. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. and the Udâna. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. If when we are extinct. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. take in smells by the ear. He shall be the greatest among us. are the five sacrificial priests. when troubled by desire to enjoy. and take in sounds by the skin. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. and said to him. One entering upon enjoyments. too. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. like fuel half dried and half moist. The learned know this to be a great principle. (which is) like entering a house without a door. the eye does not take in color. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). the ear does not in any way hear sound. (there is) pleasure and support of life. resulting from mental operations (alone). like an empty dwelling. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. life is seen to be supported. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. and not connected with objects of sense. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. Without me. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. and if you enjoy enjoyments. that the Prâna and the Apâna. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. you have no perception. even with the senses exerting themselves. Without me. without us. or if when we are absorbed. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. without us.
verily. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. You are not the greatest among us. and pleasing one another. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. O Prâna. Being friendly with one another. Hear the reason why. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. and the Udâna. O beautiful one! spoke these words. and the Samâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct.’ The Prâna again moved about.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. and on whose moving about. the lord of (all) creatures.He. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. ‘You are not the greatest among us. they again move about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. and on my moving about.’ Then the Apâna moved about. and the Samâna. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. go away happily. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. and again moved about. (Now) go where (you) like. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. is the greatest. The Vyâna only is subject to you. they again move about. Welfare be to you! Support one another. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. they again move about. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. (which are) five. and all support one another. Hear the reason why. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and again moved about. I am the greatest. spoke to him. And the Prâna and Apâna. because the Apâna is subject to you. My own self is one only. When I am extinct. and not greatest. they again move about. and the Vyâna also. When I am extinct. who being extinct. and the Samâna spoke again. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and on my moving about. All are greatest in their own spheres. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. I am the greatest.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . When I am extinct. There are others moving about. Hear the reason why. they again move about. And on my moving about. and on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. I am the greatest. And the Prâna and Apâna. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. and the Apâna said to him. and again moved about. and on my moving about.
between them is the fire. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. First. and (it) is also produced from a sound. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. or Vyâna. Hear me. too. their function is performed: then. the action. being accompanied by intelligence. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. the agent. between them is the fire. indeed. and the tongue. the pleasure is produced from union. and emancipation. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. hear me speak about that. The nose. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. which (move) upwards.On this. and (it) is also produced from color. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. which is of excellent glory. From the combination of the semen and the blood. the Apâna then comes into operation. The two – good and evil – are a pair. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or Apâna. From desire the semen is produced. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. and the . That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. they relate this ancient story. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. these. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). This is the effect of the Udâna. Day and night are a pair. the Samâna comes into operation again. and the eye. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. (it) is also produced from taste. what comes into existence first. in which the offering is thrown. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. or downwards. the Prâna comes first into operation. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. too. secondly. or transversely. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from touch. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. (its) ashes. or downwards. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. the Samâna and Vyâna. and (it) is also produced from smell. (the quality of) passion. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. or transversely. The smoke of that (fire). It is the teaching of the Veda. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. between them is the fire. and between them is the fire. CHAPTER X On this. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. that the fire verily is all the deities. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. his Prâna. that which is other than this first comes to him. or Samâna. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. which (move) upwards. The instrument.
I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the downward lifewind. The learned man. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. too. and color. and sages. there is no second (different) from him. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. And I am here devoid of qualities.’ Hearing that. final emancipation. Living under that instructor. He destroys the food. whatever is spoken by speech. and the ear as the fifth. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. the Stotra in which. The gods. the venerable one said. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. like water on a declivity. Whatever is thought by the mind. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. He who smells. each in its own place. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. and the gods. my fire of (high) qualifications. and he who hears as the fifth. Smell. and the great sages . I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. are sung. CHAPTER XI There is one director. Taught by that instructor. whatever is heard by the ear. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. they ran away in (various) directions. This being. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. sound. and the snakes. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. Taught by that instructor. and taste. the self the Adhvaryu priest. and the demons. and whatever is smelt by the nose. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. the Brahman priest in which. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. they relate an ancient story. And among the learned who understand (everything). (about the) instruction of the snakes. Impelled by that same (being). all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. is the upward life-wind. On this. There is one enemy. truth. approaching Prajâpati. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. agreeable and disagreeable. enjoy their own qualities. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. he who sees. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. On that Sâman hymns. mind and understanding. is the counselor in all action. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). whatever is touched by the sense of touch. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. There is one instructor. These. destroying this food again produces it. being (himself) a ruler. There is one hearer. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. he who eats.skin. and he who understands. there is no second director. And cooking food for himself. There is one kinsman. in a single syllable. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. by Prajâpati. there is no second (different) from him. shines dwelling within the body. the Brahman. The gods had been engaged in gifts. (and) the seven Rishis. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and the Dakshinâ. The eating of that which should not be eaten. On. the Sastra. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. there is no second (different) from him. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. he who thinks. he. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. is ruined. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. To him who is not learned. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. being possessed of qualities. there is no second (different) from him. of which an illustration is stated. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. he who speaks. ‘Om. who is the self of everything. this. and touch as the fifth. the Hotri priest. the director. these seven are causes of action. whatever is seen by the eye. I move as I am ordered. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. too. and sages. eating various (kinds of) food. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart.
in which delusion is the blinding darkness. the great sages receive hospitality. casting aside vows and actions. with faces (turned) downwards. the gods. and do not exult. and the enemy. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. connected with the Brahman. Acting sinfully in the world. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. seven hermitages. There always dwell seven females there. full of brilliance. and seven (forms of) initiation. the way to which consists in worldly objects. and having a good mind. The good who attain to that. The qualities are the fruits. The instructor. the learner. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. when there is no distinction from it. There is nothing more subtle than that. and seven guests. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. the snakes. the Brahman water. which has contentment for its water. and what the rivers. and nobody is afraid of them. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. seven (forms of) concentration. and emancipation the fruit. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. that. which depends on knowledge. the hearer. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. there is no other happiness equal to. and is to be crossed by one singly. the sages. the twice-born do not grieve. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. Understanding it they practiced it. and the demons. the Brahman his origin. Having had one teacher. In that forest are seven large trees. another forest shines forth. and fragrant. seven fruits. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. and the hills and mountains. when there is a distinction from it. There is nothing smaller than that. all engaged in different (pursuits). Entering it. the Brahman the fire. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. becomes a Brahmachârin. . and causes of generation. This is the description of the forest. They are not afraid of anybody. And there is fuel here. and the guests eat the fruits. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. in various places. There is one fire here. There. and having been instructed with one word. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally.in restraint of the senses. and of beautiful colors. owing to his desires. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. (namely) the five senses. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. in which intelligence is the tree. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. But he who. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. And I have entered the great forest. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. He is rapt in the Brahman. the Brahman the instructor. have no fear afterwards. there is nothing larger than that. merely adheres to the Brahman. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. and mixed. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. There is nothing more afflicting than that. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. who. there is no other instructor. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). are always within the heart.
the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. they act (accordingly). merging the self in the self. The teaching of the elders is. abide. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. or death. devote themselves to Brahman. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. Such. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. nor even do I entertain any fancies. not hating any evil. whose sins are burnt up by penance. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. Not desiring any object of desire. Understand that. that will enter water. and I do not touch. After hearing their consent. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). And aspiring to that forest. And understanding it. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. Although actions are performed. together with their chiefs. I see the individual self in the body. whatever in him is produced from water. there is no taint on my natures. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. they relate an ancient story. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. as understood by Brâhmanas. praise tranquility. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. victory. Nature desires objects which are liked. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. Those whose wishes are reduced. and as the constant entity underlying them. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. If I spoke further. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. . being directed by the Kshetrajña. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. and I think only his unmoving body remains. Apart from them. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. and greatness. Glory. I perceive no tastes. too. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. we do not rely on what is not visible. nor yet do I hear various sounds. I see no color. is this holy forest. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. then the sacrifice is for the goat. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. this goat will not be destroyed. and his life-winds likewise the sky. (This) creature will obtain welfare. especially as he is dependent. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. and again emerge from the same. they are born so as not to lose courage. The life-winds. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. too. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. His eye (will enter) the sun. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. take him (to them) and consult (them). enlightenment. the richest. (his) ear the quarters. Dwelling in that (self). The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. perfection. There is no offence on my part. or old age. of this goat have gone to their sources. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures.They absorb all the higher delights of people. brilliance. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. On this. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. since the Vedic text is such. indeed. mother. father. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother.
Say. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). too. you drink watery juices. name him to me. The ocean said: If. a descendant of Kritavîrya. you hear the sound produced in space. are being destroyed. the tongue. you believe. who is alike to all beings. . who is free from the pairs of opposites. and who is released on all hands. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. my mind is enlightened. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. proud of his strength. he was walking about near the sea. who take shelter with me. saluting him. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. freed from delusion. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. and (the quality of) goodness. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. who is devoid of expectations. For having heard your opinion. who might stand against me in the field. and with joined hands. you see the colors of shining bodies. together with (the quality of) passion. they relate an old story. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. have life. The life-winds. And all these entities. The ocean. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. such is the double manifestation of the self. Once on a time. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. and understanding it. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. And to one who is free from these manifestations. said. Or what do you think. what shall I do for you? The creatures. Give them security. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. and I say (to you). There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). Of these the indestructible is the existent. being directed by the Kshetrajña. O venerable sir! I approach you. there is no fear anywhere. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. who has subdued his self. they act (accordingly). O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. you touch the qualities of the air. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. (in the shape of) a dialogue. the mind. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. possessed of a thousand arms. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. as we have heard. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others.
he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. said to those sages. and very firm in his vows. with Rikîka as their head. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. The mind said: These arrows. you will die. burning the hosts of the enemy. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . they relate an ancient story. shot away volleys of arrows.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. In company with his kinsmen. ‘Desist. It is not proper for you. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. it wishes. dear friend. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. abandoning (those) great deeds. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. like antelopes troubled by a lion. Râma also taking up a bow. Âbhîras. and your vital part being pierced. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. like a tree of many branches. taking up his axe. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. hearing that (story). As by its unsteadiness. Then some of the Kshatriyas. Paundras. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. being a Brâhmana. too. became Vrishalas. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. – having performed very difficult deeds. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. his grandfathers. together with the Sâbaras. who was veracious. O noble one!’ But Râma. only pierce your own vital part. not forgiving his father’s murder. Hearing that. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. the Kshatriyas. full of great wrath. and taking swords and lances. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. Thus the Dravidas. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. whose power was unbounded. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). Seeing him killed and fallen. spoke sweetly to Râma. entered mountains and inaccessible places. high-souled. to make all mortals perform action. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. do you perceive. became Vrishalas. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. a bodiless voice from heaven. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. who understood duty. named Alarka. turned to subtle (questions). and hurriedly mounting a chariot.Then the king. whose penance was very great. (Though) surrounded by enemies. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. Then the power of Râma. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. and blew away the army of the king. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. too. They will. What good. There was (once) a royal sage. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). all (his) kinsmen assembled together. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. which was heard by all people. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. went away. to slaughter these kings. blazed forth. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong.
Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. Hearing that. Hearing that. this (tongue) hankers after them only. These arrows. The skin said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. one hankers after them only. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. the skin hankers after them only. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. he then said after consideration: – .Smelling very many perfumes. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The ear said: These arrows. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. and your vital part being pierced. Hearing that. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. Hearing that. and your vital part being pierced. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. the eye hankers after them only. The tongue said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. The nose said. you will die. They will only pierce your own vital part. and then you will lose (your) life. They will only pierce your own vital part. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The eye said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. the (ear) hankers after them only.
is energetic about subjugating others. and applied himself to concentration of mind.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. Exultation. who had become tranquil (in mind).’ Do you understand this too. Sleep. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). destroyed all foes. When the bodily frame is destroyed. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. Therefore. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). For from avarice is born desire. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. and he who desires. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. owing to these qualities. and honoring good men. (that vice). attained high perfection. you will die. he reached the highest perfection. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. a courageous man. having a tranquil self. of great glory. And the royal sage. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. according to qualities. persistent hatred. Then directing his mind to one point. then uttered this verse. he meets death. The understanding said: These arrows. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. being impelled by which. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. but there is one. the greatest. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. And at the expiration of life. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. and senses controlled. joy. That avarice – cut (it) off. and being troubled by desire. thence you will obtain the highest good. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. and good (men) were oppressed. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. Obtaining those. and engages in action. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. amazed. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. They will only pierce your own vital part. is born again and again. a man even does what ought not to be done. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. he. Grief. properly . pleasure. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. three foes in (this) world. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. sloth. He (then) restraining his own vices. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. and your vital part being pierced. and again birth. being impelled by which. and delusion. verily. On this. then anxiety comes into existence. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. cut (it) off with sharp swords. Ambarîsha. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. free from sloth. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. the best of talented (men). he became steady. Perform a fearful penance. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and after deliberating for a long time. wrath. When vices were in the ascendant. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness.
Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. Even this self is not mine. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. by the glorious Ambarîsha.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. When I did not find it on the earth. I cannot find my domain. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose.’ Thus spoken to. or the whole earth is mine. and enjoy while you live. Resorting to this conviction. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. to be terminable. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. is subject (to me). by which. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). though this country. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. in all affairs. I believe.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. This is sovereignty. (Considering) whose this was. Janaka said: Though this country. who destroyed the one (chief vice). is subject to you. Now hear the conviction. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. intelligence again came to me. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. Then when the delusion had gone off. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. and said nothing in reply. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. too. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. engaged in meditation. I looked for my own offspring. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. King Janaka. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. what belief you have resorted to. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. When I did not find it among them. And as mine. searching through the (whole) earth. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. therefore) while you desire. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. the king recovered himself. so (is it) that of others too. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. then came the delusion on me. and. holding which. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. or that everything is my domain. I wish.perceiving this. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. What conviction have you adopted. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. Then on the expiration of the delusion. as the planet upon the sun. I looked for Mithilâ. by way of punishment. avarice. there is no other sovereignty here. a delusion suddenly came upon him. While that king of unbounded power was seated. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. and restraining avarice by courage. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you.
and a certain thing should not. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. you will certainly come into my self. This path is traversed by the understanding. namely. and narrow. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. is (to be found) a description of it. or by one whose self is not refined. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. it is not laid down. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. come here today to learn (something) about you. by which those who understand that proceed. All these actions of mine are. I am a Brâhmana. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. and my intelligence is very frivolous. and confused. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. you have guessed.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. or residence in forests. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. by which that (entity).subject to me. nothing exists that is a cause of him. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. that a certain thing should be done. observing vows. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. You are the one person to turn this wheel. Actions have a beginning and an end. indeed. dwelling with preceptors. the nave of which is the Brahman. and even over heaven. Whatever creatures there are in the world. or. I am not such. In the (rules for) final emancipation. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . that. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. the Pitris. is perceived as by bees. I am emancipated. A good means is found. and also without qualities. have their understanding full of tranquility. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. the Bhûtas. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. or among mendicants. and the body is tied down by action. verily. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. the instructor is the upper Arani. together with guests. smiling. or else this knowledge. And those who. for this purpose. according to your own understanding. action and knowledge. the spoke the understanding. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. movable or not moving. With your heart intent upon the real entity. Hence. not by the body. Sovereignty over the whole world. where. and which does not turn back. (namely) for the gods. I am a forester. Then the Brâhmana. to households.
And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. Speak. am come to you (who are) venerable. ‘I’ (he said). between a preceptor and a pupil. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. all of various descriptions. ‘whose goal is the highest good. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. who put (his) questions properly. Vâsudeva said: On this. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). And he. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. and those whose form is perceived. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. likewise. what penance. (when he was) seated. who was possessed of (the . indeed. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. too. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. Arjuna said: Where. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. I pray of you with (bowed) head. and also desirous of final emancipation. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. and what sin? These questions of mine. truly. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. put (his) questions with joined bands. who had approached him (for instruction). (which are) means of direct perception. connected with final emancipation. something about the highest good. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. Listen to that. There is none else here who can explain these questions. is I myself. are afraid of worldly life. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. And we. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly.and hears. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. in hundreds and in thousands. who preserved (all) vows. A talented pupil. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña.’ The preceptor. One should adopt as many of these things. as may here be practicable – unperceived. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. and accurately. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth.
from whom (all) sin has departed. Gautama. on which all entities subsist. Formerly. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. and renunciation as the best penance. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. who are possessed of knowledge. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and who is devoid of egoism. and so forth. which is always possessed of leaves. I will state to you today. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. after having traveled over all paths. full of humility. are full of the truth. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. in Brahman’s mansion. who was tranquil. and likewise unity and variety. is esteemed highest. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. desiring knowledge. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. . which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. who understands the creation of all entities. and who are the constant creators of the people. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. penance is the truth. the entities are born from the truth. and Visvâmitra. and is eternal. Brihaspati. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. saw Brahman. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches.necessary) qualifications. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. The Brahman is the truth. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and the severance also. desire. and likewise Bhârgava. the branches of which are the great egoism. The preceptor said: All this. They live by penance. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. the senses. the sages. even while dwelling in this world. Bharadvâja. from whom anger and vexation have departed. is emancipated. and has no egoism about anything. the present. when thus spoken to by the sages. was declared by Brahman. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. and of the four orders. He who does not desire anything. Prajâpati also is truth. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and casts off birth and death. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. and also Kâsyapa. Understand that. and likewise of the castes. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. the great sages. who was like (his) shadow. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. the gross elements the smaller boughs. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. And those twice-born (sages). and Atri also. Vasishtha. which ought to be apprehended. is released from misery. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. always possessed of flowers. and piety. and the seed of which is the Brahman. there is no doubt of that. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. met each other. and wealth. the future. which belongs to olden times. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. I will state to you. namely. and becoming wearied of their own actions. which is eternal. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced.
Light. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. Indra. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. encircled by the. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. Darkness. Light. and also all the deities. sun. learn those accurately. next after that is that of foresters. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. and goodness is also the match of passion. and the five great elements. he. and of the understanding as ruler. and is called delusion. The wise always speak of piety as one. Learn. everlasting. and darkness the match of goodness. immaturity (of intellect). finding fault with good acts. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. O noble ones! from me. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. want of discrimination. and likewise also egoism. eleven. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. among all beings. which depend on one another. and immutable. passion there prevails. such is the eternal creation. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. lightness. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. which is in a state of equilibrium. ignorance. The true nature of their characteristics. air. the second is that of householders. its characteristic. passion. He who accurately understands the elements. haughtiness. I will speak to you. and likewise serve one another. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. indecision about actions. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. . sleep. of all beings. which are all coupled with one another. I will subsequently state the means to that. Goodness is the match of darkness. Where darkness is restrained. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. When it prevails. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). which is productive of pleasure. Where passion is restrained. will now be stated together with the reasons. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. It has three qualities. Prajâpati. casting aside sin. fear. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. space. the ten senses and the one (sense). and goodness. and passion is the match of goodness. and of the highest seat. grief. and five constituent principles. appears to be production. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. Its characteristic is also impiety. avarice. and those three channels run on. never comes by delusion. and getting rid of all bonds. as accepted by good men. and are joined to one another. and which are bridges of piety. This is the nature of darkness. these are called the three qualities. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. now speaking exhaustively. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). Delusion. the whole of the qualities. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. violation of (the rules of) conduct. He who. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. and is the cause of successive (acts). consisting of three qualities. being constituted by the three qualities. all-pervading. want of liberality. nihilism. blindness. Passion is said to consist in activity. in aggregation and separation. and it is constant in sinful actions. (but) having four quarters. it also appears combined (with others). goodness there prevails.distinctly. rigid in his vows. and attend on one another. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. which you should understand. attains to all the spotless worlds. and next after that too. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. The great self. faith. one sees not these. the unperceived likewise. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. The order of foresters. want of memory.
cold and heat. all these are dark qualities. beauty. There. and growing old in their own duties. peace. abuse . buying and selling. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. Such is the Vedic text. harboring evil thoughts. Coming to a sinful womb. all these qualities. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. and worms. fierceness and cruelty. evil disposition. battle. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. are found in various places in this world. sink into darkness. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. Darkness. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). lassitude. insects. want of faith. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. birds. deluded convictions. preservation. Whatever vain actions (there are). want of knowledge. (or become) the immovable entities. endurance. vanity. unfriendliness. who. indeed. and growing old in (good) actions. and whatever vain gifts. want of forgiveness likewise. animosity. Learn. touching other people’s weak points. and also creatures born from eggs. strength. And whatever such people there are in this world. vilifying. And whatever other states of mind. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. desire. anger. repining. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. who are sunk in darkness. how. delusion. frenzy. and all quadrupeds. sinful action. who break through (all) regulations. becoming men of meritorious actions. want of liberality. that is considered to be dark conduct. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. or lisping men. These dark. war. pride of performance without (actual) performance. this is considered to be dark conduct. indeed. pleasure and pain. breaking. sages and saints and gods become deluded. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. deaf and dumb men. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. toil. and death the blinding obscurity. connected with delusion. want of straightforwardness. want of self-restraint. Reviling. this is considered to be dark conduct. beasts of burden. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). demons. and also animosity towards people. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. the thought (that this or that is) mine. that one sees the real in what is unreal. affliction. thinking of (this) world. Who. animosity. They go to the hell. delusion. and also its source. or deaf. (namely) the brute (species). understands this properly. and also its qualities. wishing for pleasure. going beyond the Sûdra womb. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. and idiots. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. vindictiveness. animals. and want of forgiveness. pointing out others’ weaknesses. vanity. the great delusion. I have now duly described to you. piercing. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. stolidity. exercise and quarrel too. to be born in the lower hell. they are all held to be dark. by cutting. as Chândâlas. who bear the marks of their own actions. wrath. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. backbiting. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. want of faith also. bonds. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). argument. the great obscurity called anger. going into inferior ways. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. slaughter.behavior of the lowest quality. they exert themselves. Injuring (others). evilconducted men. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). and serpents. valor. power. doers of sinful acts. anger is called the great obscurity. and vain eating. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities.
and of the quality of goodness. auspicious rites. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. truth. liberality. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. and free from grief. and also sacrifice. The men who meditate on past. and make Tarpana. gambling. sacrifices vain. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. one obtains whatever one desires. they rejoice. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. They are said to have their currents upwards. heedlessness. The power of governing. perceive (everything) aright. enlightenment and happiness also. devotion to dancing. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. disgust. the duty of the good. The . contumely. righteous feelings. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. and also sacrificing and study. self-restraint. gets rid of all passionate qualities. not full of desires. theft. haughtiness. and attachment also. expiations. faith. unbroken piety.uttering falsehoods. vows and regulation. Confidence. those talented men reach heaven. freedom from expectations. good behavior. absence of fear. pleasure. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. receipt of gifts vain. joy. and labor vain. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. (on another). slaughter. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. joviality. contentment. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. whose conduct is of this description. for living creatures. ostentation. absence of cruelty. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. devoid of egoism. vexation. defiance. boasting. devotion. praise. devoid of expectations. forgiveness. belongings. all these qualities. purity. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. learning vain. for men. dexterity. and unblamable. absence of calumniation. compassion to (all) creatures. indifference. and for houses. absence of wrath. courage. (good) conduct vain. (holding) knowledge to be vain. pleasure and delight. forgiveness. absence of backbiting. bad gifts. association with women. and instrumental or vocal music. and to be gods. vexing (oneself). O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. vows vain. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. management. Getting rid of all sins. Understanding this according to rule. obedience. common scandal. piety vain. wakefulness. for women. service vain. minuteness. beneficial to all creatures. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. penance vain. present. attendance. treachery and likewise deception. wealth. and future entities in this world. these men. joy. life as a Brahmachârin. nobility. by means of nature. harmlessness. absence of stinginess. gifts and acceptance of gifts. and also want of faith. salutation. who adhere to the quality of goodness. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. and create (various) bodies. valor. for articles. equable everywhere. policy. the ceremony of Vashat. They give and receive. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. humility. disrespect and respect. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. Born again and again in this world. freedom from laziness. he attains the highest in the next world. who are enveloped by passion.’ affection generated by the qualities. laudation. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. abandonment on all hands. Thus. harboring desire. straightforwardness. emancipation. prowess. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. doubt. freedom from delusion. and actions with expectations. have (their) currents downwards. modesty. service. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. censure. equability. purity. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. the ceremony of Svadhâ. contentment. The man who always understands these qualities.
is said to be. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. piety. The three qualities – goodness. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). Of all these acting with one another. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. Even from afar. And where goodness is developed. and threefold the path. freed from the body. Threefold are the gifts given. They are attached to one another. and lust. and the qualities. goodness. abiding in those of the upward current. half-months. darkness. immovable. And as long as goodness and darkness. They all depend on one another. abiding. the qualities of passion are variable. holy.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. goodness. all that is (made of) these three qualities. unshaking. the Prâna. existent and also non-existent – all these. production and absorption. goodness. and the highest. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. The day should be understood to be threefold. suffering trouble from the heat. and the conjunctions. the present. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. the passionate remain in the middle. The creation of the qualities is eternal. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. the increase and diminution will now be stated. go down. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. The sun is goodness developed. being connected with the lowest quality. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. threefold the sacrifices performed. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. he. but differing in development. unborn. The past. The light in the sun is goodness. Darkness. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). eternal. feel the warmth. the unperceived. in union. Among immovable entities. and likewise follow one another. in the lower entities. years. and its pure operations. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. is released from all qualities. not developed. womb. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. So in all shining bodies. and goodness likewise to be less. the Apâna. and the Udâna. threefold are the worlds. wealth. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. they feed on one another. Passion. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. and moving about collectively. immutable. the night is stated to be threefold. Where darkness is increased. and goodness likewise to be less. the men of the quality of darkness. nature. the heat is the quality of passion. so long is passion said (to exist) here. evildoers are alarmed. The man who always understands these qualities. but is not attached to the qualities. seasons. and likewise months. not small. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. and travelers. . threefold the gods. and passion likewise to be less. there: exist three qualities. There is no doubt of this. destruction. these are the three qualities. and being free from all misery. passion in the Kshatriya. and the enlightener. They perform their journey together. and passion also. Pradhâna. abiding in those of the middle current. moving in a body. there darkness should be understood to be little. And whatever there is in this world. evil-doers likewise are darkness. Seeing the sun rising. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. Where passion is developed. constant. in the Brâhmana. For they act with cause or without cause. and the future. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. passion. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. there darkness should be understood to be little. enjoys the qualities. change. there passion should be understood to be little. (consisting) of the three qualities. unperceived.
Caused by the production of avarice. When. lightness. and are dissolved in the reverse order. space. the producer of the deities. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. and by its own light. it is that from which the people are produced. Sambhu. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. it has eyes. the valiant. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. air. is (afterwards) called egoism. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. touch. taste. and are inconstant. inexhaustible. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. movable or immovable. and faces on all sides. it is said to be the first creation. and smell. Now people who comprehend the understanding. Minuteness. color. heads. creatures are deluded. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. it likewise charms the world. who are not avaricious. the Prajâpati. touch. the producer of the entities. ancient being. of universal form. means of knowledge. it causes all this to move. who practice meditation. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the light. means of perception. connected with . courage. who have subdued wrath. and as that from which the changes take place. it is the creator of the three worlds. the transcendent. the operations (connected with these) have causes. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. he is the governor. that from which the changes take place. who are true to their promises. and light as the fifth. memory. Then when every entity. It is a deity. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the final dissolution approaches. that talented man. Sound. water. whose minds are clear. were the five great elements born – earth. In these five great elements. It has hands and feet on all sides. Vishnu. and of the mind. and whose senses are subdued. the understanding. verily. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. and who are always possessed of a good heart. it is full of light. the source of all qualities. that is said to be the second creation. he among all people comes not by delusion. and likewise cognition. the great self. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. who are talented. and golden. has been dissolved. it stands pervading everything in the world. attain greatness. and insignificant. Brahma. and smell as the fifth. taste. these being emancipated. and likewise color. creates (them). Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. and their name is delusion. who are constant at concentration of mind. who are possessed of knowledge. the supporter of consciousness. They are born one from the other. and thus that source of all entities. who are devoid of egoism.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. intelligence. abides transcending the understanding. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. not different from one another. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). who have pondered on the self. Knowing that (great self). a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all.
these five winds are also joined to the inner self. water.flesh and blood. And the eleven organs. and the presiding deity there is fire. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. the producer of all beings. The mind should be understood to be among both. the two hands. as connected with the self. as connected with the self it is called the eye. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. Likewise (there is) egoism. and whose mind is pure. next as connected with objects (it is) color. the mind is the eleventh. the tongue. As connected with the self they mention the mind. the two eyes. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. as connected with the self it is called the ear. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. and understanding unswerving. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. is speech which relates to all the gods. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. those born from germs. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. mind. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. and speech are restrained. As connected with the self. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. who perceive the truth. and together with speech. and the Vyâna also. as connected with the self. these are helpless and powerless. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. nose. as also all reptiles. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. Understanding these. and worms of the like description. such is the group of organs. Then first. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. The fifth entity is earth. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. then the Brahman shines (before him). and the presiding deity there is the sun. and the understanding is the twelfth. Those born from eggs. the motion of which is downward. the organ of excretion. and depending upon one another. the nose also as the fifth. and space. excluded from the self. The third (entity) is said to be light. which follows after the five entities. and the presiding deity there is Soma. as connected with objects it is taste. The ear. as connected with the self it is the nose. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). as connected with objects it is what is spoken. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. The second entity is air. as connected with objects. This group one should subdue first. eye. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. as connected with objects it is excretion. This is said to be the . He whose skin. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. as connected with objects it is actions. is called the organ of excretion. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. the presiding deity there is the Moon. the Samâna. and five the organs of action. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. and the presiding deity there is Indra. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. tongue. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. and the presiding deity there is the wind. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. and speech as the tenth. the presiding deity there is Rudra. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. and the organ of generation. As connected with the self. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. the Udâna. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. the skin. The Prâna and the Apâna. self-consciousness. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. the two feet. The Apâna wind. Space is the first entity. as connected with objects it is the semen. as connected with objects it is motion. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. as connected with the self. ear. and the presiding deity there is lightning. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. those born from perspiration.
and restrain it. Those beings. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. and who is devoid of passion. which has nine passages and two deities. gift at a sacrifice. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. in which one lives alone. One should place all these together. and full of delusion. the flowing (element) water. having his cravings destroyed. Such is the doctrine of the learned. It is settled. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. and than which there is nothing higher. then being self-illumined. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. this same (body). too. The fifth element is earth. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. and which rests on the real (entity). he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. however. which produces attachment to subtle (topics).) the senses. is ever happy. are said to be born from germs. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. fearful and unfathomable. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. bursting through the earth. The fourth should be understood to be water. The second entity is air. and being concentrated in mind. should cast it aside. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. and the feeling of touch is air. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. Understand about them also. the presiding deity there is the sun. unfit to be seen. Such is the teaching of the ancients. pleased with contacts. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. that he is released from all sins. and hold them by the mind. (viz. Space is the first entity. When everything is absorbed into the mind. O chief of the twice-born! and know. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. (namely) sacrifice. which are born after the lapse of some time. It is a great ocean. for (every one) who is born. He who duly understands this. together with the immortals. and which is full of the Brahman. and released from everything. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. which is full of passion. curtail it. and the five great elements. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. and inferior. and likewise the sound is space. next as connected with objects it is color. which is made up of the five elements. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). A knowledge of this. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. which is surrounded by the five currents. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. that the body in which the color is fire. which is uninterrupted. are the beings born from wombs. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. Restraining objects of desire within the self. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and is named delusion.second (mode of) birth. and is sanctifying. the objects of the senses. and sacred study. the presiding deity there is Soma. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. The world. which is free from attachment. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and those which move crookedly. The third is called light. .
the Mahendra. and among denizens of the forest the lion. the Sveta. and the moon among the Nakshatras. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. the sun is the prince among the planets. lose all their qualifications. the Pâriyâtra. and the Meshasringa. these are the princes among mountains. concentrating the mind within the mind. wrath. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. The Himavat. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. and among females a male. the north among the quarters. and Yakshas. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. among vehicles the elephant.Desire. treachery. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). Him. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. the Bhâsa. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. changing from time to time. and Prajâpati. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. Non-destruction is the highest piety. and likewise the Sâlmali. the Vindhya. he then perceives that highest (principle). and Rakshasas. and also as various. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. the Guruskandha. Kinnaras. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. and also gods. She is called Pârvatî. and the bands of Bhûtas. and the bands of Rakshasas. the creator. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and birds. He is the supporter. there is no doubt of that. which are difficult to get rid of. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. demons. the Pippala. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. and seeing the self within the self. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and the creator. likewise. He verily is Vishnu. and likewise the bamboo and willow. Soma is the lord of herbs. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. and go into wrong paths after death. among cattle also the bull. For he is the ruler of men. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. all companies of Brâhmanas. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. the Jambu. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. and demons. who has beautiful eyes. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. Such is the highest creation among all entities. Understand this. and Yakshas. and the Koshthavat mountain. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. (am lord). and of all entities whatever I. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. The Nyagrodha. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and . and attain the infinite (seat) after death. rejoice in this world. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and Nâgas. ever extol. and Pitris. fear. Agni. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Kings desire piety. Freed from all sins. of gods. and great. and also all the great sages. and the ocean among rivers. avarice. and Mitra. the Sinsapâ. snakes. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. (all these). Purandara of (all) deities. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and Varuna. and falsehood also. and delusion the reservoir. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. the Sahya. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. likewise. Varuna is the king of the waters. and Pisâkas. the Nîla. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. the uncreated Hari. these are the princes among trees in this world. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. Understanding everything. of Gandharvas. who am full of the Brahman. Understand him to be the ruler. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. the Trikûtavat.
therefore is he called Kshetrajña. which is void of symbols. transcendent. The quality of space is sound. together with names and characteristics. and knowledge. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. to be created and tied down to a beginning. and end. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. is always comprehended by the tongue. who resides in the tongue. that months have the bright first. And the moon likewise. And I always see. in this world. there is no doubt of that. to the truth. To (this) positive comprehension. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. (else) attains. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. abandoning qualities. is the Kshetrajña. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. The characteristic of mind is meditation. belonging to the air. is smell.destruction is of the nature of impiety. and hear it. verily. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. The qualities created again and again. Only the Kshetrajña attains. Thought is the quality of mind. the unperceived (is appointed). which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. The (sensation of) touch. do not know themselves. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. It is stated that day was first and then night. and that is comprehended by the ear. and end. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. taste is the characteristic of water. know. who is unmoving. And crossing beyond darkness. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. then enters into the Kshetrajña. the supporter of all beings. and about the means for its comprehension. The quality of light is color. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. and that is comprehended by the eye. and that is comprehended by the understanding. no one. and transcending death and old age. the essence of water. sound is the characteristic of space. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. free from the ceremony of salutations. As to the smell of the earth. which is great. Taste. being nonintelligent. and having his sins destroyed. and from the svâhâ ceremony. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). the characteristic of mind is thought. and transcending the qualities. action the characteristic of men. middle. the characteristic of renunciation. giving prominence to knowledge. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. The Kshetrajña. the characteristic of earth. he repairs to that which has no second. middle. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. is perceived by the skin. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). (though) concealed. and homeless. and the creation. Hence a man who understands piety. The Purusha knows it. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. color is the characteristic of light. he is the Supreme Lord. that is comprehended by the nose. and the Mahat of knowledge. is purely knowledge. The characteristic of devotion is action. The earth is the source of . One who is free from the pairs of opposites.
The sun is the first among shining bodies. whose senses are subjugated. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. and among all reptiles. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. study. which is sustained by the qualities. and of men. there is no doubt of that. observances. the goat is mentioned (as the first). the offering (into the fire) is the best. the end of pleasure is ever grief. is stated to be the first. of which the environment is home. which is lit up by the great egoism. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. The Syena is first among birds. gift. death is certain for whatever is born. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. the Plaksha. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. And the unthinkable. the ever holy field of Brahman. which is measured by months and half months. all this ends in destruction. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. Pisâkas. who is full of the Brahman. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. the eastern quarter is the first. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. Of all orders. gold (is the first). There is no end for knowledge. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. and Yakshas. the noise of which is trouble and toil. and the Prâna lifewind. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. all ascents end in falls. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. Îsvara is the lord. which abounds in old age and grief. and Rakshasas. among sacrifices. of all words. Dânavas. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. snakes. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. the mud for which is penance and regulations. Sacrifice. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. is the source of the entire universe. And among all immovable entities. likewise. the ocean is the first-born. without distinction. too.smells. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. Bhûtas. the end of grief ever pleasure. and regulations. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. All action ends in destruction. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. I. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. likewise space is the source of sound. Of all mountains. that of householders (is the first). which is full of actions and instruments of action. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. which rotates in space and time. The great Vishnu. Of all ages the Krita is the first. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. Prajâpati of deities. who is devoid of egoism. there is no doubt of that. Kinnaras. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. there is no doubt of that. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. penance. and the same is also the end of everything. water is the best. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. is everchanging. Among all precious things. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. and life ends in death. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. These are the qualities of the elements. And of all gods. fire is said to be the first of the elements. among (sacrificial) animals. and the twice-born among men. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. the fastenings in which are vexations. all associations end in dissociations. which moves through (all) the worlds. . who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. all that is called Sâvitrî. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. water of tastes. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. whatever is prescribed in this world. All accumulations end in exhaustion. of which the pole is the mind. of which the bonds are the group of the senses.
the forester. to such a one the (word) good applies. and the Brahmachârin. is never deluded. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. should be kind. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). the sage who understands piety. which is unchecked. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). should. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. and also receiving untainted gifts. transcending all pairs of opposites. who is pure. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. With regard to those three duties. behaving like good men. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and equable to all creatures. who is thus devoted. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. they are pious duties. kind. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. he should have matted hair. and have his sacred . should avoid heedlessness. and which is (never) fatigued. and should give and receive gifts. and full of faith. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. One should learn and teach. in the way above stated. this has been celebrated from ancient times. abridge. This wheel of life. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. And as to the other remaining three duties. and alms. with his senses restrained. to follow it is good. study. should behave like the good. The householder. and which is extended by means of attachments. or also a deerskin. and should stand. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. sit. the speed of which is like that of the mind. gift.which is large. and with one’s external organs restrained. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. and also the beggar. and released from all sins. attains the highest goal. released from all impressions. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. together with the immortals should cast away. with the permission of the preceptor. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. and take exercise (duly). who is devoted to Vedic rites. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. which moves towards joy and pleasure. and check. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. That man among all creatures. making gifts. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. and who understands the Vedas. Always devoted to his own wife. take food without decrying it. who is self-restrained. and constant in veracity and piety. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. There should also be a girdle of muñga. and sacrifice. The Brâhmana householder. and should always associate with good men. possessed of forgiveness. and self-restrained. who is of rigid vows. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. (That) sage. all the world. the imperishable source (of all). and who has duly observed vows. or of cotton. and which is devoid of consciousness. conquers heaven. should return (from his preceptor’s house). and be of pure vows. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen.
and also straightforwardness. Eating only a little. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. or a forest. and of rigid observances. living on fruits and leaves. He should without sloth feed on water. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. and leaves. life as a Brahmachârin. Refined by means of all ceremonies. and free from avarice. and should not . seeking merely to sustain life. and restrained in all his senses. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. performing sacrifices. nor should he eat when honored. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. pure in body. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. the sage should become free from all action. When eating. is esteemed. He should not make any accumulations. or the cavern of a mountain. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. and be agreeable to all beings. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. He should move about the world like a worm. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. does not return to birth. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. conquers heaven. and always living within the forest. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and roots and Syâmâka grain. restraint of the external organs. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. or a river likewise. and should eschew dwelling with friends. He should honor guests. always with clean water. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). he should move about in a secluded place. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. and continent.thread. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. A householder. Offering safety to all beings. freedom from anger. and reaching the highest seat. Nor should he beg for too much alms. looking out for the (proper) time. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. his path being pointed out by the sun. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). fruits. and should not rejoice if he obtains. One who is thus devoted. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. and likewise no sweet juices. veracity. preserving his hair and moustache. In summer. and devoted to veracity and piety. full of forgiveness. And with his senses restrained. be engaged in sacred study. should not enter a town again. or again a forester. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. A man should always bathe in clean water. and in the rains. always dexterous. he should not go following after another. who is concentrated in mind. eating little. and concentrated in mind. Restraining the external senses. having a mind free from envy. He should not parade (his) piety. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. He should honor a guest who comes. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. astringent. kind. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. always in forests. and when he goes about for alms. he may dwell in one place. (Such) a Brahmachârin. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. addicted to sacred study. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. not deceptive and not crooked. in order. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. being restrained in mind. freedom from (the habit of) carping. or the foot of a tree. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. or bitter. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. or a Brahmachârin. or which are pungent. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. and which have come spontaneously. kind. air. free from passion. and depending on the deities. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten.
and stable. The senses. not finding fault with piety. without a head. nor should one wish for gold. He should not appropriate another’s riches. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. nor the deities. which is unattached. One should not think of what is not come. untainted. should act without a purpose. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. divine. and free from distress. there is no doubt of that. imperishable.follow his own (mere) desire. One who knows the truth. and which is also devoid of flesh. should meditate. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. nor should he ever give to others. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. who understands all truth. sacrifices. nor penance. One should not perform. Rejecting all things. and the objects of the senses. devoid of smell. foot. mind. who is attached to the self. which is free from the operations of the qualities. being devoted to pious conduct. and though dwelling in a house. which is to be understood. He should not defile anything by the eye. nor Vedas. devoid of taste or touch. egoism. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. nor the senses. and who is free from salutations. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and should be void of (all) belongings. Those who perceive the self. One should not perturb any other (person). and leaves. He should not receive from others. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. one should disregard the present. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. understanding. There the understanding reaches not. nor reflect on that which is past. after understanding all these. and the five great elements. who is free from expectations. with his accumulations exhausted. flowers. he should act in the manner of the deluded. he attains to the highest seat. or cause to be performed. by an accurate determination about the truth. or the assemblage of people. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). the unperceived. or involving any destruction of life. and without fixed appointments with people. or back. any action involving expectation of fruit. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. and understanding are absorbed. which is without hands. absolute. Freed from all attachments. pebbles likewise. nor valor. He should perform piety. and being equable to all beings. should not teach. he gets emancipation. and who is dependent on none. and also devoid of sound. . and who understands the truth. Though undeluded. and should not take (anything) unasked. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. who is free from egoism. One who has anything to do should take earth. is emancipated. and should avoid (all) controversies. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. nor worlds. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and in whom the senses. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. But owing to the helplessness of people. verily. water. moving and unmoving. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. should be free from attachment. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and then. as they come. and mind. always dwelling in all entities. without a stomach. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. and self-controlled. exclusively pondering on one point. Nor. they never die. one attains heaven. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. being released from all bonds. devoid of color. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). a wise man should always share (with others). One should not hate. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. who is free from attachments to any entity. or the mind. which is free from anxiety. depending on none. and the Purusha likewise. who is free from desires. or by speech.
he is called intelligent. transcending passion. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. He who desires nothing. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. (which are) unchanging. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. and the side branches the objects of sense. there is no doubt of that. of unthinkable qualities. Penance is said to be a light. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. whether agreeable or disagreeable. Abandoning all action. and which is the essential element in knowledge. The learned man who perceives. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. (When) the inner self. go to the happy path by penance. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and who is devoid of egoism. and (as it were) non-intelligent. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. attaining to the self. devoid of knowledge of nature. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. for assimilation with the Brahman. developed from the qualities. everlasting. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. there is no doubt of that. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. is emancipated. and old age. a creature is emancipated. the great branches of which are the great elements. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. The men of talent. Restraining the self in the self. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. by tranquility only. is released from misery. and likewise unity and diversity. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and with an understanding comprehending all. death. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. then understanding the Kshetra. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. understands that which is beyond nature. and supreme. is emancipated. The highest Brahman is very far off. becomes eligible. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. and despises nothing. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. and whose minds are refined. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. through the tranquility of the self. There are these two birds. always possessed of flowers.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. which abides in all entities. it is free from the pairs of opposites. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. and which is fed upon by all creatures. and devoid of qualities. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. which is always possessed of leaves. devoid of qualities. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. and being untainted. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. But as to that other who is above them. and renunciation the best penance. there is no doubt of that. even for (the space of) a wink. which cause birth. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. becomes fit for immortality. and some as transcendent and without misery. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. even dwelling in this world. association and dissociation. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. who are pure. and free from egoism. the sprouts within which are the senses.
Such is the doctrine of the learned. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. some say that is not so. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Some people are for bathing. believe it to be one. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. that it exists. and our mind is distracted. having again felt doubts. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). of ten or twelve (modes). too. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. holy. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. Some extol final emancipation. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. (saying) this is good. some various kinds of enjoyments. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. some are for pleasure. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. People are acting. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. who were the best of sages. some are in the midst of doubts. Some are devoted to harmlessness. and others that that is not so. some for the omission of bathing. and some for pain. Some extol everything. Some say both time and space (exist). courage. and others indigence. abandonment. and some given up to destruction. and (others) that it exists not. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. and others nothing. but others extol penance. Some (say) everything is doubtful. But that is not correct. some knowledge. and others. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. and renunciation. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. Some are devoted to goodness. nature. others are intent on fasting. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. others that that is not so. and others tranquility. gifts. We wish. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. and others that there is no doubt. always esteems that. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. Thus having first a tranquil self. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Some people extol action. equability. and come to no determination. and other persons sacred study. Some Brâhmanas. the venerable. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). too. some wish for riches. this is good.by control of the life-winds. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. who are devoted to knowledge. and others again (that it is) manifold. Some have matted hair and skins. and others say that is not so. be obtains whatever he desires. and those who ponder on the element. and others. straightforwardness. such is their relation. Some are for taking food. and others (that it is) mixed. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). . harmlessness. Some people (say) meditation. Some learned men. there is no doubt of that. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. others distinct. knowledge. truth. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. that fits one for immortality. some are for merit and glory. And. we are deluded. Some (say) means should be resorted to. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus.
a learned man remains untainted. through delusion. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. So travels the talented man. free from any connection with expectations. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. and is connected with (all) knowledge. perceive correctly. This is the highest seat. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. But those wise and talented men. who perform actions with faith. comprehending the gradations one above the other. and in essence free from the qualities. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). goes in the water without fatigue. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. I will declare to you what you ask of me. Understand this. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. and who entertain avarice and delusion. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). deliberate on it properly. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. throwing aside the boat. and going swiftly. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. undoubtedly wishes for destruction.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. rejoice in this world. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. where the carriage-path stops. he goes in the carriage. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. As far as there is a carriage-path. It has been explained in the above mode. and void of intelligence. devoid of parts. and who are infidels in their conduct. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. the light shines. I will tell you something more. and to be constituted of the qualities. such is the progress of the men of understanding. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. O Brâhmanas! Well now. While there is oil and wick. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Now I will proceed to. go verily to hell. and soon crosses the reservoir. He abides in everything alike. free from vexation and holy in character. attains supreme happiness. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. so should one understand. Non-destruction of all creatures. For the talented man who knows (these) means. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. Hearing it all. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. though it is the object of enjoyment. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. Even brought into contact with all qualities. Learn that. being born again and again. and who knows about the qualities. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. afflicted by reason of the chariot. Thus nature is perceived. The subject is always the being. It is established that nature is the property of the being. and nature is stated to be the object. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. travels with great discomfort. and may even be destroyed on the way.
should be understood to be of ten descriptions. and likewise Pañkama. namely. and are conversant with piety. or sound. and taste. broad. is of four qualities. glutinous. above egoism is understanding.carriage and pedestrian. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. soft. too. smooth. narrow. One who has come by delusion through affection. said to be of six descriptions. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. touch. hurtful. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. sweet. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. Now space has one quality. void of taste. and who identifies himself with every being. sharp. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. and above that understanding is the self. Now space has one quality. the great elements. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. abounding with movables and immovables. green. which is a development of water. are stated to be the qualities of water. who speak the truth. White. which is void of any smell whatever. tender and clear also. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. which is produced in space. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. hard. Learn about their properties. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. that is called the Pradhâna. to be of twelve descriptions. Sweet. and color likewise. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. And as action is performed in this world. and grey likewise. egoism is above that. Rishabha. and that is stated to be sound only. and smell as the fifth – these. which belongs to the earth. touch. Madhyama. be understood to be of ten descriptions. and also productive in its essence. touch. square. repairs to the imperishable self. and of the elements respectively. – thus should smell. black. and bitter likewise. but they do not yield products. Smell always belongs to the earth. cold and hot likewise. and water. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. red likewise. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and rough. Sound. and of (many) ingredients. Sound and touch also should be understood. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. Rough. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. and void of color. Shadga. slippery. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and above the unperceived is the being. it is said that light has three qualities. bitter. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. I will now give (some) information about taste. air is said to have two qualities. Space is the highest element. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. and clear also. Thus sound. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. touch. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. astringent. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. From egoism is produced the development. air is said to have (these) two qualities. color likewise. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. so does it result to them. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. compact. short long. diffusive and compact also. taste. sour. Sound. together with Gândhâra. and likewise color. Sound. thus is light said to have three qualities. sour. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. yellow. and earth. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. should be understood to be of five qualities. And touch is the quality of air. The quality of light is color. the divine source of all entities. above that is the unperceived.
all that can be accomplished by penance. one who destroys an embryo. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. not by actions. and devoid of egoism. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. they go near Prajâpati. again acquiring knowledge. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. and herbs. and includes movables and immovables. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. The understanding proclaims its power. difficult to vanquish. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. the mind itself is the individual self. That individual self. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. one who steals. obtain the great and highest world. they are the very first to be dissolved. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. and it is called the Kshetrajña. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. those who have achieved perfection. And he who is released. That which begins with the unperceived . and it is the goal of all living creatures. He who understands him understands the Vedas. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and being full of egoism. That learned and talented person verily. and the understanding for a drag. One who drinks spirituous liquors. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. and next the developments produced from the elements. is released from. These Brâhmanas. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. and (after) these developments. that sin only by penance well performed. all the elements. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. The mind always presides over the great elements. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. and difficult to pass through. (sacrificial) animals. has the mind for a charioteer. Pisâkas. And in like manner. even from those five elements. goes to the highest goal. and all other creatures movable or immovable. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. beasts and birds. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. For all acquisition has penance for its root. one who kills a Brâhmana. Gods. for penance is difficult to overcome. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. Those who best understand the self. nor by a cause. which is the unperceived. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. enter the highest world of the great. a man gets rid of all sins. Whatever is difficult to obtain. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. Such is the upward gradation among entities. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. like billows in the ocean. gods. and ends with the gross objects. and having their minds always tranquil. the mind. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. Gandharvas. men. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. all have been created by nature. perceive the triple world here by penance. difficult to learn. The senses. Pitris. Râkshasas. Medicines. are born here again and again. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. and who are free from egoism. This is the eternal mystery. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. movable or immovable. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). Asuras. and in which the understanding is the drag. the creators of the world. Born from that same unperceived (principle). and abandons everything as fruitless. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. a sage should sit down self-restrained. always reach perfection by penance. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. (Those) men.
O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. changeless. three syllables the eternal Brahman. And now. O Lord! then tell it me.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. And when the understanding is clear. incomprehensible. then you will acquire perfection. he understands that holy Brahman. with your consent. O noble person. who is without attachment. Expelling all impressions. and who looks alike on everything. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. and restraining the self in the Self. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. having done all he should have done. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Vâsudeva. Arjuna said: Who. did everything (accordingly). indeed. too. always duly act (according to it). than which nothing greater exists. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Some men of dull understandings extol action. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. which is uncreated. getting rid of all sins. was that Brâhmana. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. And. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. Then will you attain perfection. I have now declared everything to you. and not mine is the eternal. If you have love for me. And the pupil. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. he dies not. not full of action. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. I wish to see him. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. attained to that seat. sages! Act thus forthwith. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. O Janârdana! If this verily. changeless. Two syllables are death. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. This is the eternal piety. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. Then when this piety is duly practiced. O Krishna! and who the pupil. Mine is death. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. he attains tranquility. and then attained to the worlds. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). is fit to be heard by me. Do you. unmoving. O best of Brâhmana. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. Knowledge brings forth the being. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. who is without expectations. in consequence of these means.
and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. Dhanañjaya replied (saying).’ Om Tat Sat . O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. Be pleased. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. who is of a devout heart.When Krishna spoke these words.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.