This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
(having) as regards the moving (creation). moving and fixed. and about the return. indeed. and ruin to be connected with action. life as a Brahmachârin. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. who has no kinsmen. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. a pair separately for each (species). He who is not attached to any one. compassion to (all) beings. who contemns no one. becomes happy. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. points out (what) piety (is). pity. is released. And as regards that. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. From that he created the Pradhâna. takes place after a long time. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. From this is produced piety. is released who is equable towards both life and death. for among them it constantly abides. and who is self-possessed. and likewise pleasure and pain. Learn from me exhaustively. and whose self is free from affections. released from everything. Then seeking after the supreme seat. The practice to which the good adhere. too. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. one going the round of various births. self-restraint. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. by which all this is pervaded. who has subdued his senses. serving mother and father. who endures all. wealth. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. which is very difficult to cross. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. is released. restraint of the senses. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. free from vanity and egoism. and thinking of naught. Brahman. the body to be an unholy aggregate. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. never comes to an evil end. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). adherence to prescribed regulations. and lust altogether. honoring preceptors. constant restraint of the organs. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. He who is not pious and not impious. the grandfather of all people. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. This is what is called the destructible. and gain and loss. indeed. who has no child. which I am now about to declare. but the other is immortal and indestructible. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. having made a body for himself. penance. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. And Prajâpati. And that I shall now proceed to state. this is said to be the conduct of the good. released in every way. and who has no desire. who had been first created. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. and absence of cruelty. honoring deities and guests. which protects people to eternity. who has abandoned piety. he is. created the whole of the three worlds. verily. he is.action by which. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. who is free from the pairs of opposites. And he. and which is known in the world as the highest. What I say is all correct and proper. He who has no enemy. he becomes indifferent to everything. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. purity. He who understands the Pradhâna. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). who is self-controlled. and (what is) agreeable and odious. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. and causing good to be done. and also tranquility. pure. the material cause of all embodied (selves). as he should act. He who acquires that. A man who is a friend of all. abandoning each previous (element). he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . Gifts. who is devoted to tranquility. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self.
One who does no action. devoid of the qualities of the five elements.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. When (all) beings are destroyed. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. he grieves not and exults not. and of a tranquil mind. void of color. Weapons do not pierce him. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. when (all) beings are afflicted. void of sound. since he is the lord of the triple world. free from the pairs of opposites. Then freed from all impressions. he is indeed released. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. after extracting them from the Muñga. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. devoid of qualities. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. As a person having seen one in a dream. recognizes him (afterwards). Properly concentrating his self. death. Restraining the senses. he gradually obtains tranquility. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. meditating in that habitation. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. one should fix the mind on the self. indestructible. and old age. and abandoning the transient body. then he. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. who has practiced penance. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). and who is free from the pairs of opposites. tranquil. perceives the self in the self. he is released. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. looks on this universe as transient. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. he sleeps at ease. he assumes bodies at pleasure. then there is no ruler over him. which consist in pain and grief. than which there is nothing higher. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. searching for his own faults. always full of birth. and freed from old age and grief. is released. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman.body. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. and having his senses subjugated. and unknowable. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. The body is called the Muñga. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. and always concentrating his mind. he remains steady to the self. he is not afflicted by anything. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. Restraining the . constant. being habituated to exclusive meditation. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. who is free from attachment. He whose self is concentrated. and who has no desire. unmoving. and who is self-restrained. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. is released. Leaving this human frame. there is no death for him. ‘This is he. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. Then the talented Brâhmana. devoid of form. like an Aswattha tree. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. He who is free from all impressions. like fire devoid of fuel. Remaining within (that) city. and having first performed rigorous penance. without belongings. and casting aside old age and death. and having no cause. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. Thinking of a quarter seen before. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. When. he perceives the perfect one. void of touch. void of belongings. Seeing the self void of smell. And as one may show the soft fibers. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. he has no fear. void of taste. saying. the soft fibers stand for the self..
and (keeping) the passages confined. and throat likewise. he perceives the self. He has hands and feet on all sides. O Krishna! that pupil. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. too. Have you listened to this. O son of Prithâ! For. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. Adopting this doctrine. It is my belief. attain the supreme goal. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. and also the heart. That talented pupil. The world of the gods.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. What I have spoken. forsaking the body. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. For as to that eternal Brahman. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. I will go away. and of the excretions. Vaisyas. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. who are constantly intent on their own duties. and abandoning his body. final emancipation. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. and determination regarding . O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. This whole mystery I have declared to you. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. and faces on all sides. even those who are of sinful birth. and how also to blood? And how. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. too. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. And then depending upon it thus. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. and do you (too) go away. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. women. he stands pervading everything in the world. and muscles. palate. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. too. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. – went away as he pleased. and also the means for its acquisition. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. and the fruit of its full accomplishment.group of the senses. as it were.’ Thus addressed by me. He is not to be grasped by the eye. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. too. reaches immortality and is ever happy. and likewise the seat of the heart. and Sûdras likewise. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. heads. nor by any of the senses. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. He should meditate on his teeth. and marrow. possessed of great penance. where one. O Mâdhava! I replied. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. The soul sees the self come out from the body. he has cars on all sides. tongue. do the flesh. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. a mental smile. distinctly? How. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. he attains final emancipation in me. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. – with. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. he has eyes. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). which is difficult to explain. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. neck.
and imperishable. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. and the ear as the fifth. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. And mark this always. (in the form of) a dialogue. that which is to be touched. that which touches. possessed of talents. these are the seven great officiating priests. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. In the interior. which occurred. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. that can be caught (by the touch). and the skin. Samâna. does exist among (all) beings. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. or seen. shall I reach. and their selves tranquil. the mind and the understanding. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. in which the materials are visible. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. While the paths (of action). produce them in their wombs. that which sees. and also that which is to be thought of. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. that which is to be seen. but is to be apprehended by the mind. devoid of color and sound. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and that which hears as the fifth. and energetic. too. and not to be tasted by the tongue. seated in seclusion. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. and who are harsh and undiscerning. or heard. and that which is to be understood. depending on you as (my) husband. The nose. by act. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. that man of a tranquil self. and the eye. O son of Pându! who. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. devoid of taste and touch. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. It is devoid of smell. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. That which is to be smelt. that which is to be drunk. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. are destroyed by demons. and the moon together with the fire. and Udâna also proceed. CHAPTER V On this. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. mind or speech. shall I go to. that only do the men of action engage in as action. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. that which is to be seen. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. and (observe) good vows. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. Apâna. that which thinks. What goal. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. good or bad. Vyâna.misery. and likewise that which is to be heard. A Brâhmana’s wife. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. that which cats. From this the Prâna. indeed. that which is to be touched. That which smells. action. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. and the tongue. and that which understands. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. and on which it rests. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. and likewise that which is to . that which is to be drunk. there is nothing further than this. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. (namely). Whatever action there is. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. The mortal. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). verily. full of faith. you who live renouncing (all) action. It is not to be smelt by the nose. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. That is called the Udâna. When that is asleep. From birth to the destruction of the body. that which is to be smelt. Concentration of mind comes to him. and into it they enter. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). This is all that is to be said.
moon. is with me. Whatever mantra. Indra. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. verily. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. sun. But inasmuch. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. they were perfectly filled with light. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. But. and the anus. Earth. and light as the fifth.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. or tone goes to your dominion. too.’ But speech thereupon said to him. from that is produced taste. yield (you) your desires. and they are offered up into the ten fires. the movable is in your dominion. action. these. there are two minds. destroy our doubts. space. verity. that (in) my (view).’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. verily. The goddess speech. verily. The immovable. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). from that another is produced. air. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. and Vishnu also. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. and Mitra. are ten sacrificial priests. motion. ‘Mind (is superior). the offerings are ten. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. verily. mind and understanding. touch. and (though) developed. from that touch is produced. and the wealth is the pure. color. and also that which is to be understood. from that doubt is produced. highest knowledge. they relate this ancient story. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. First. the tongue. the two feet. Prajâpati. the two hands. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. And in that very (principle). immovable and also movable. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. indeed. The mind is the ladle. from that is produced sound. the genital organ. To that you are superior. verily. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. wind. are words produced. from that is produced color. and into this the offering is thrown. which is the instrument of knowledge. ‘Say which of us is superior. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. water. these. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. that which is to be thought of. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. was the universe duly divided. That is called the movement of the mind. which is the generator of all entities. these seven.be heard. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. urine. or letter. therefore. the nose. (Thus) we have heard. and excrement. and the discharge of semen. And the mind. earth and fire. and taste. requires everything knowable (as its offering). O beautiful one! Sound. ‘I. are the fuel. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. are named wombs. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. Then the lord of speech was produced. From that is produced smell. The ear. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. and hence the mind is in need (of it). and the mind runs after them. these are the ten oblations. though . words. from that is produced determination. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. The quarters. speech. that indeed is the movable mind. and the knower is the upholder of the body. smell.
the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). too. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. and the understanding also. when. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. with divine power. and the eye. the skin. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the eye. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. the skin apprehends them. The nose. do not apprehend sounds. and the understanding also. O venerable sir? Tell me this. and which then goes into the Apâna. the ear likewise. the eye apprehends them. the ear. the mind apprehends it. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. and the eye. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. So speech formerly spoke. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). verily. and the understanding also. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. and the eye. And these never know the qualities of each other. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. Dwelling in a minute space. do not apprehend final determination. like a cow.impelled. the eye. The mind said: . the ear apprehends them. the mind likewise. do not apprehend doubt. and the understanding also. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. and the ear as the fifth. saying. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the nose apprehends them. the understanding. the tongue. the understanding apprehends it. the mind. yields milk. do not apprehend tastes. and the skin. This cow-like speech. too. the skin. flowing (forms). the skin. the tongue. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the skin. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. The nose. the ear likewise. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the ear. It is always noisy or noiseless. and the mind also. the tongue. the ear likewise. the mind. the mind. the tongue apprehends them. The nose. and the tongue. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. they do not perceive each other. This excellent (speech). and the eye. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. the tongue. the mind. Do you. and next the eye. The nose. mind and understanding. The nose. she ran up to Prajâpati. the skin. and the understanding also. – a dialogue. The nose. the skin. they relate this ancient story. the tongue. ‘Be pleased. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. do not apprehend colors. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. Of those two. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. The tongue. The nose. O you of a bright smile! is divine. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. do not apprehend smells. On this. the ear.
and if you enjoy enjoyments. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. One entering upon enjoyments. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. and said to him. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). then take in colors by the nose. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. when our objects perform their functions. Without me. does run to objects of sense only. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. and not connected with objects of sense. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. If when we are extinct. the ear does not in any way hear sound. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. life is seen to be supported. then what you believe is true. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. are the five sacrificial priests. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. and the Udâna. Without me. and indulged in dreams. still. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. (which is) like entering a house without a door. The learned know this to be a great principle. like fuel half dried and half moist. that the Prâna and the Apâna. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. without us. without us. the senses never shine. both past and future. Without me. I am the eternal chief among all elements. Granted. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. who was born first. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. too. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. always meets death. and take in sounds by the skin. the tongue does not perceive taste. take in smells by the ear. (there is) pleasure and support of life. they relate an ancient story. if you. even with the senses exerting themselves. when troubled by desire to enjoy. or if when we are absorbed. take in tastes by the eye. fail to apprehend qualities or objects.The nose smells not without me. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. Besides. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. all beings. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. He shall be the greatest among us. the eye does not take in color. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. They formerly went to the grandsire. a creature. and objects are standing. you have no perception. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities.’ Brahman said: . rules are for the weak. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. resulting from mental operations (alone). like an empty dwelling. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna.
O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. they again move about. I am the greatest. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. (Now) go where (you) like. and on my moving about. Being friendly with one another. I am the greatest. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. who being extinct. the lord of (all) creatures. The Vyâna only is subject to you. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna.’ Then the Apâna moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. You are not the greatest among us. and the Apâna said to him. and again moved about. spoke to him. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.He. Welfare be to you! Support one another. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and again moved about. and on whose moving about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. Hear the reason why. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and the Samâna. My own self is one only. I am the greatest. And on my moving about. is the greatest. they again move about. Hear the reason why. and pleasing one another. When I am extinct. There is one unmoving (life-wind). O beautiful one! spoke these words. and the Udâna. and the Samâna. and again moved about. When I am extinct.’ The Prâna again moved about. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. Hear the reason why. because the Apâna is subject to you.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . I am the greatest. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). and on my moving about. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. and on my moving about. and all support one another. and the Vyâna also. And the Prâna and Apâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. When I am extinct. they again move about. they again move about. go away happily. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. (which are) five. they again move about. I am the greatest. verily. and on my moving about. ‘You are not the greatest among us. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. There are others moving about. they again move about. The Apâna said: When I am extinct.’ The Vyâna moved about again. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. All are greatest in their own spheres. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. O Prâna. and the Samâna spoke again. and not greatest. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct.
or Vyâna. secondly. hear me speak about that. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. CHAPTER X On this. too. the Samâna comes into operation again. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. The nose. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. The two – good and evil – are a pair. or Apâna. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. (it) is also produced from taste. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. and emancipation. and the tongue. indeed. This is the effect of the Udâna. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. Hear me. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. these. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. the agent. that the fire verily is all the deities. and the . Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. and the eye. and (it) is also produced from smell. The smoke of that (fire). and (it) is also produced from color. and between them is the fire. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. being accompanied by intelligence. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. between them is the fire. The instrument. the Apâna then comes into operation. that which is other than this first comes to him. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. the action. From the combination of the semen and the blood. their function is performed: then. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught.On this. the pleasure is produced from union. between them is the fire. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. which is of excellent glory. or transversely. his Prâna. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. (the quality of) passion. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. which (move) upwards. which (move) upwards. or Samâna. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. the Samâna and Vyâna. Day and night are a pair. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. in which the offering is thrown. what comes into existence first. It is the teaching of the Veda. (its) ashes. between them is the fire. or downwards. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. too. or downwards. and (it) is also produced from a sound. the Prâna comes first into operation. or transversely. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. From desire the semen is produced. they relate this ancient story. First. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from touch.
The gods. there is no second (different) from him. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. too. there is no second director. Whatever is thought by the mind. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). the Stotra in which. the Hotri priest. ‘Om. Living under that instructor. he who speaks. he. And cooking food for himself. the downward lifewind. There is one hearer. Taught by that instructor. and the snakes. The gods had been engaged in gifts. the director. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. there is no second (different) from him. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. enjoy their own qualities. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. mind and understanding. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine.’ Hearing that. He who smells. my fire of (high) qualifications. whatever is spoken by speech. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. are sung. The eating of that which should not be eaten. and touch as the fifth. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. truth. These. being possessed of qualities. and the Dakshinâ. being (himself) a ruler. This being. shines dwelling within the body. and whatever is smelt by the nose. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. destroying this food again produces it. On. There is one enemy. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. CHAPTER XI There is one director. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and sages. Smell. and the gods. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. There is one instructor. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. final emancipation. agreeable and disagreeable. there is no second (different) from him. whatever is heard by the ear. On this. they ran away in (various) directions. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. each in its own place. and the ear as the fifth. the self the Adhvaryu priest. is the upward life-wind. and he who hears as the fifth. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. (about the) instruction of the snakes. sound. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. He destroys the food.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. And among the learned who understand (everything). these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. the Brahman priest in which. And I am here devoid of qualities. and the great sages . and sages. by Prajâpati. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. and he who understands. too. On that Sâman hymns. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. is the counselor in all action. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. he who sees. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). he who thinks. (and) the seven Rishis. they relate an ancient story. and taste. he who eats. in a single syllable. the Sastra. Impelled by that same (being). The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. there is no second (different) from him. these seven are causes of action. and color. I move as I am ordered. To him who is not learned. whatever is seen by the eye.skin. is ruined. Taught by that instructor. approaching Prajâpati. this. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. the venerable one said. who is the self of everything. The learned man. eating various (kinds of) food. and the demons. There is one kinsman. of which an illustration is stated. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. like water on a declivity. the Brahman.
in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. He is rapt in the Brahman. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. and is to be crossed by one singly. Entering it. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. merely adheres to the Brahman. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. with faces (turned) downwards. the Brahman water. have no fear afterwards. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. And I have entered the great forest. seven fruits. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. The instructor. casting aside vows and actions. another forest shines forth. and causes of generation. They are not afraid of anybody. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. There always dwell seven females there. and mixed. and having been instructed with one word. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. there is no other instructor. are always within the heart. And there is fuel here. This is the description of the forest. which depends on knowledge. and do not exult. which has contentment for its water. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. when there is no distinction from it. seven (forms of) concentration. (namely) the five senses. there is nothing larger than that. the Brahman his origin. and seven guests. connected with the Brahman. There is one fire here. owing to his desires. and the enemy. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. seven hermitages. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. and having a good mind. the learner. the sages. that. There is nothing smaller than that. and the guests eat the fruits. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. the snakes. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. But he who. The qualities are the fruits. There. in which intelligence is the tree. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). and fragrant. the Brahman the instructor. the Brahman the fire. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. the great sages receive hospitality. who. and the demons. There is nothing more subtle than that. . full of brilliance. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. when there is a distinction from it. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. In that forest are seven large trees. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. and of beautiful colors. Having had one teacher. all engaged in different (pursuits). and the hills and mountains. the gods. Acting sinfully in the world. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. There is nothing more afflicting than that. the way to which consists in worldly objects. The good who attain to that. the hearer. there is no other happiness equal to. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. and seven (forms of) initiation. Understanding it they practiced it. in various places. the twice-born do not grieve. and emancipation the fruit. and nobody is afraid of them.in restraint of the senses. becomes a Brahmachârin. and what the rivers.
The life-winds. that will enter water. indeed. and his life-winds likewise the sky. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. If I spoke further. since the Vedic text is such. being directed by the Kshetrajña. I see no color. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. And aspiring to that forest. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. On this. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. then the sacrifice is for the goat. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. victory. they are born so as not to lose courage. the richest. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). Apart from them. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). and I think only his unmoving body remains. Nature desires objects which are liked. nor even do I entertain any fancies. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. I perceive no tastes. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. Dwelling in that (self). Those whose wishes are reduced. and as the constant entity underlying them. The teaching of the elders is. and again emerge from the same. whatever in him is produced from water. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. especially as he is dependent. too. there is no taint on my natures. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. After hearing their consent. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. together with their chiefs. devote themselves to Brahman. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. Not desiring any object of desire. we do not rely on what is not visible. and greatness. I see the individual self in the body. too. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. Glory. (This) creature will obtain welfare. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. perfection. they act (accordingly). To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). nor yet do I hear various sounds. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. enlightenment. or death. not hating any evil. . an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. or old age. they relate an ancient story. His eye (will enter) the sun. (his) ear the quarters. brilliance. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. And understanding it. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). mother. this goat will not be destroyed. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. Although actions are performed. Understand that. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. and I do not touch. There is no offence on my part. take him (to them) and consult (them). abide. merging the self in the self. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. Such. as understood by Brâhmanas. of this goat have gone to their sources. is this holy forest. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. praise tranquility. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it.They absorb all the higher delights of people. father. whose sins are burnt up by penance. Hills and mountains also are there collected together.
(these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. who take shelter with me. too. the tongue. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. Once on a time. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. a descendant of Kritavîrya. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. what shall I do for you? The creatures. who is devoid of expectations. The ocean said: If. who might stand against me in the field. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. you drink watery juices. said. such is the double manifestation of the self. you believe. freed from delusion. For having heard your opinion. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. are being destroyed. you see the colors of shining bodies. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). the ascetic thereafter remained silent. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. have life. Say. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. you touch the qualities of the air. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. O venerable sir! I approach you. Or what do you think. my mind is enlightened. saluting him. . (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. being directed by the Kshetrajña. and with joined hands. and I say (to you). (in the shape of) a dialogue. together with (the quality of) passion. who is free from the pairs of opposites. And to one who is free from these manifestations. the mind. The ocean. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. who is alike to all beings. as we have heard. Of these the indestructible is the existent.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. he was walking about near the sea. there is no fear anywhere. proud of his strength. name him to me. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. they relate an old story. possessed of a thousand arms. you hear the sound produced in space. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. who has subdued his self. and understanding it. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. and who is released on all hands. they act (accordingly). you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). And all these entities. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. The life-winds. Give them security. and (the quality of) goodness. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea.
Paundras. too. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. only pierce your own vital part. like a tree of many branches. – having performed very difficult deeds. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. Âbhîras. with Rikîka as their head. became Vrishalas. not forgiving his father’s murder. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. they relate an ancient story. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. said to those sages. They will. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). whose penance was very great. became Vrishalas. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. O noble one!’ But Râma. It is not proper for you. There was (once) a royal sage. and your vital part being pierced. Thus the Dravidas. who was veracious. full of great wrath. spoke sweetly to Râma. a bodiless voice from heaven. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. the Kshatriyas. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. burning the hosts of the enemy. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. too. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. and blew away the army of the king. (Though) surrounded by enemies. The mind said: These arrows. who understood duty. went away. Then some of the Kshatriyas. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. shot away volleys of arrows. named Alarka. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. to slaughter these kings. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. What good. to make all mortals perform action. Râma also taking up a bow. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. abandoning (those) great deeds. his grandfathers. turned to subtle (questions). and hurriedly mounting a chariot. ‘Desist. taking up his axe. high-souled. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). being a Brâhmana. do you perceive. hearing that (story).’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. and taking swords and lances. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. Then the power of Râma. As by its unsteadiness. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. blazed forth. and very firm in his vows. entered mountains and inaccessible places.Then the king. like antelopes troubled by a lion. it wishes. you will die. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. dear friend. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . Seeing him killed and fallen. whose power was unbounded. In company with his kinsmen. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. which was heard by all people. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. together with the Sâbaras. Hearing that.
this (tongue) hankers after them only. Hearing that. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. The nose said. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and your vital part being pierced. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. the eye hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The eye said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Hearing that. The ear said: These arrows. the skin hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. and your vital part being pierced. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and then you will lose (your) life. They will only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. you will die. he then said after consideration: – . Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. These arrows. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. Hearing that. The tongue said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. one hankers after them only. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all.Smelling very many perfumes. They will only pierce your own vital part. the (ear) hankers after them only. The skin said: These arrows. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows.
amazed. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. free from sloth. The understanding said: These arrows. he meets death. is energetic about subjugating others. and engages in action. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. thence you will obtain the highest good. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. joy. being impelled by which. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Then directing his mind to one point. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. having a tranquil self. he reached the highest perfection. a courageous man. but there is one. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. being impelled by which. When the bodily frame is destroyed. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). is born again and again. the greatest. That avarice – cut (it) off. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. (that vice). and after deliberating for a long time. owing to these qualities. a man even does what ought not to be done. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. he. of great glory. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. and delusion. properly . persistent hatred. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. he became steady. and your vital part being pierced.’ Do you understand this too. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. Sleep. Grief. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. For from avarice is born desire. then anxiety comes into existence. then uttered this verse. wrath. who had become tranquil (in mind). the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. according to qualities. They will only pierce your own vital part. the best of talented (men). And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. three foes in (this) world. attained high perfection. And at the expiration of life. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. destroyed all foes. He (then) restraining his own vices. sloth. cut (it) off with sharp swords. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. Obtaining those. Perform a fearful penance. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters).Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. and honoring good men. And the royal sage. pleasure. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. and good (men) were oppressed. and again birth. Therefore. and applied himself to concentration of mind. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. When vices were in the ascendant. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. On this. you will die. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. and senses controlled. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. Exultation. verily. and he who desires. Ambarîsha. and being troubled by desire.
a delusion suddenly came upon him. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. engaged in meditation. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. searching through the (whole) earth.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. by way of punishment. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. Janaka said: Though this country. I looked for my own offspring. or the whole earth is mine. Then on the expiration of the delusion. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. I cannot find my domain. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. And as mine. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. I wish. Even this self is not mine. and said nothing in reply. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. I believe. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. holding which. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. While that king of unbounded power was seated. King Janaka. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. one should wish for sovereignty in the self.perceiving this.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. is subject to you. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. by which. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. (Considering) whose this was. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. as the planet upon the sun. and enjoy while you live. who destroyed the one (chief vice). by the glorious Ambarîsha. in all affairs. avarice. what belief you have resorted to. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. so (is it) that of others too. intelligence again came to me. I looked for Mithilâ. then came the delusion on me. Resorting to this conviction. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. Then when the delusion had gone off. What conviction have you adopted. to be terminable. and. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. When I did not find it among them. or that everything is my domain. there is no other sovereignty here. is subject (to me). Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. This is sovereignty.’ Thus spoken to. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. the king recovered himself. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). therefore) while you desire. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. though this country. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . too. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. and restraining avarice by courage. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. Now hear the conviction. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. When I did not find it on the earth.
that a certain thing should be done. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. Actions have a beginning and an end. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. indeed. verily. observing vows. and my intelligence is very frivolous. not by the body. I am not such. to households. that. In the (rules for) final emancipation. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. Then the Brâhmana.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. the nave of which is the Brahman. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. come here today to learn (something) about you. the instructor is the upper Arani. and even over heaven. and narrow. dwelling with preceptors. namely. Hence. I am a forester. or. for this purpose. together with guests. by which those who understand that proceed. All these actions of mine are. by which that (entity). nothing exists that is a cause of him.subject to me. And those who. Sovereignty over the whole world. or else this knowledge. or among mendicants. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. according to your own understanding. the Pitris. (namely) for the gods. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. action and knowledge. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. and a certain thing should not. or by one whose self is not refined. is perceived as by bees. is (to be found) a description of it. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. and confused. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. have their understanding full of tranquility. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. the Bhûtas. where. Whatever creatures there are in the world. You are the one person to turn this wheel. you have guessed. and which does not turn back. I am emancipated. I am a Brâhmana. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. and also without qualities. or residence in forests. smiling. the spoke the understanding. you will certainly come into my self. movable or not moving. and the body is tied down by action. With your heart intent upon the real entity. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. This path is traversed by the understanding. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. it is not laid down. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. A good means is found.
put (his) questions with joined bands. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. ‘whose goal is the highest good. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). I pray of you with (bowed) head. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. too. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask.’ The preceptor. Speak. all of various descriptions. and also desirous of final emancipation. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. truly. And we. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. (when he was) seated. something about the highest good. in hundreds and in thousands. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. am come to you (who are) venerable. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. who preserved (all) vows. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. who had approached him (for instruction). who put (his) questions properly. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. Vâsudeva said: On this. One should adopt as many of these things. is I myself. between a preceptor and a pupil. are afraid of worldly life. ‘I’ (he said). O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. who was possessed of (the . indeed. what penance. and accurately. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. There is none else here who can explain these questions. and those whose form is perceived. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. as may here be practicable – unperceived. (which are) means of direct perception. connected with final emancipation. likewise. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. Arjuna said: Where. And he. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. A talented pupil. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. and what sin? These questions of mine. Listen to that.and hears.
and of the four orders. penance is the truth. He who does not desire anything. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. The preceptor said: All this. and piety. in Brahman’s mansion. is emancipated. Formerly. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. even while dwelling in this world. desiring knowledge. the gross elements the smaller boughs. are full of the truth. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced.necessary) qualifications. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. Vasishtha. and becoming wearied of their own actions. always possessed of flowers. is released from misery. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. They live by penance. the senses. and Visvâmitra. who are possessed of knowledge. Brihaspati. the great sages. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. I will state to you today. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. in the holes of which are the sprouts. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. who was like (his) shadow. and who are the constant creators of the people. and likewise unity and variety. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. The Brahman is the truth. who was tranquil. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. Bharadvâja. Gautama. the future. and likewise Bhârgava. the entities are born from the truth. the sages. And those twice-born (sages). and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. saw Brahman. and casts off birth and death. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. from whom (all) sin has departed. which belongs to olden times. and wealth. and renunciation as the best penance. and also Kâsyapa. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. desire. on which all entities subsist. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. who understands the creation of all entities. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. the branches of which are the great egoism. which is eternal. namely. and has no egoism about anything. and so forth. and Atri also. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and is eternal. and likewise of the castes. and who is devoid of egoism. is esteemed highest. and the severance also. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. which ought to be apprehended. which is always possessed of leaves. . asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. was declared by Brahman. met each other. I will state to you. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. when thus spoken to by the sages. the present. Understand that. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. there is no doubt of that. full of humility. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. and the seed of which is the Brahman. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. after having traveled over all paths. Prajâpati also is truth.
and passion is the match of goodness. The order of foresters. violation of (the rules of) conduct.distinctly. air. attains to all the spotless worlds. blindness. one sees not these. never comes by delusion. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. and goodness is also the match of passion. Delusion. all-pervading. the whole of the qualities. he. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. I will subsequently state the means to that. sun. and of the highest seat. next after that is that of foresters. O noble ones! from me. Prajâpati. which is productive of pleasure. in aggregation and separation. and likewise also egoism. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). immaturity (of intellect). which depend on one another. ignorance. being constituted by the three qualities. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. consisting of three qualities. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. everlasting. learn those accurately. and it is constant in sinful actions. Learn. the second is that of householders. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. rigid in his vows. and are joined to one another. Passion is said to consist in activity. and immutable. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. Light. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. Where darkness is restrained. and is called delusion. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). want of discrimination. avarice. He who accurately understands the elements. and attend on one another. the ten senses and the one (sense). encircled by the. Its characteristic is also impiety. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. which you should understand. and of the understanding as ruler. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. now speaking exhaustively. which is in a state of equilibrium. The wise always speak of piety as one. . This is the nature of darkness. eleven. When it prevails. and next after that too. and darkness the match of goodness. and is the cause of successive (acts). faith. grief. and likewise serve one another. goodness there prevails. of all beings. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. Where passion is restrained. nihilism. Light. and those three channels run on. want of liberality. and five constituent principles. The true nature of their characteristics. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. passion there prevails. (but) having four quarters. and the five great elements. Darkness. I will speak to you. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. Indra. haughtiness. these are called the three qualities. it also appears combined (with others). its characteristic. space. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. Goodness is the match of darkness. fear. as accepted by good men. sleep. such is the eternal creation. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. among all beings. lightness. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. passion. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. finding fault with good acts. appears to be production. casting aside sin. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. will now be stated together with the reasons. and also all the deities. the unperceived likewise. indecision about actions. and getting rid of all bonds. He who. and which are bridges of piety. It has three qualities. which are all coupled with one another. The great self. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. want of memory. and goodness.
understands this properly. Such is the Vedic text. and growing old in (good) actions. buying and selling. this is considered to be dark conduct. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. animals. who are sunk in darkness. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. valor. There. toil. harboring evil thoughts. These dark. the great delusion. and death the blinding obscurity. and growing old in their own duties. unfriendliness. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. who break through (all) regulations. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. touching other people’s weak points. pleasure and pain. going into inferior ways. sink into darkness. doers of sinful acts. or lisping men. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. deluded convictions. how. and idiots. animosity. want of self-restraint. want of straightforwardness. stolidity. that is considered to be dark conduct. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). thinking of (this) world. They go to the hell. want of knowledge. they are all held to be dark. want of faith also. as Chândâlas. pointing out others’ weaknesses. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). this is considered to be dark conduct. by cutting. vanity. and all quadrupeds. battle. Learn. and want of forgiveness. connected with delusion. deaf and dumb men. And whatever such people there are in this world. anger. bonds. lassitude. strength. birds. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. anger is called the great obscurity. argument. And whatever other states of mind. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. all these qualities. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. peace. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. and worms. exercise and quarrel too. and whatever vain gifts. evil disposition. Reviling. delusion. Injuring (others). and also animosity towards people. are found in various places in this world. piercing. power. and also its source. and serpents. demons. Who. indeed. sinful action. sages and saints and gods become deluded. I have now duly described to you. war. want of forgiveness likewise. affliction. wishing for pleasure. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. to be born in the lower hell. backbiting. animosity. and also creatures born from eggs. endurance. or deaf. the thought (that this or that is) mine. who bear the marks of their own actions. all these are dark qualities. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. vindictiveness. abuse . (or become) the immovable entities. breaking. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. repining. Darkness. pride of performance without (actual) performance. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). vanity. insects. want of faith. want of liberality. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. becoming men of meritorious actions. going beyond the Sûdra womb. they exert themselves. vilifying. preservation. Whatever vain actions (there are). wrath. desire. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. that one sees the real in what is unreal. the great obscurity called anger.behavior of the lowest quality. Coming to a sinful womb. and vain eating. fierceness and cruelty. beauty. frenzy. beasts of burden. (namely) the brute (species). pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. delusion. who. evilconducted men. and also its qualities. indeed. slaughter. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). cold and heat.
forgiveness. bad gifts. management. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. emancipation. They give and receive. Understanding this according to rule. humility. valor. doubt. They are said to have their currents upwards. penance vain. disrespect and respect. Getting rid of all sins. and of the quality of goodness. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. gets rid of all passionate qualities. not full of desires. and instrumental or vocal music.’ affection generated by the qualities. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. policy. indifference. and also sacrificing and study. ostentation. gambling. devotion. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. association with women. The men who meditate on past. minuteness. heedlessness. vexation. have (their) currents downwards. modesty. (on another). and for houses. absence of calumniation. slaughter. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. devoid of expectations. for living creatures. contumely. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. equability. vows vain. dexterity. and to be gods. joviality. haughtiness. devoid of egoism. the ceremony of Vashat. compassion to (all) creatures. absence of wrath. who adhere to the quality of goodness. nobility. service. they rejoice. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. whose conduct is of this description. joy. truth. pleasure. and labor vain. and create (various) bodies. freedom from expectations. self-restraint.uttering falsehoods. absence of backbiting. and free from grief. those talented men reach heaven. one obtains whatever one desires. life as a Brahmachârin. and attachment also. attendance. vows and regulation. prowess. and future entities in this world. wakefulness. these men. piety vain. obedience. enlightenment and happiness also. perceive (everything) aright. defiance. by means of nature. and also want of faith. equable everywhere. present. receipt of gifts vain. laudation. expiations. purity. Born again and again in this world. freedom from delusion. learning vain. gifts and acceptance of gifts. common scandal. and make Tarpana. (good) conduct vain. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. boasting. treachery and likewise deception. joy. service vain. and unblamable. absence of fear. contentment. the duty of the good. absence of cruelty. for men. courage. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. disgust. straightforwardness. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. beneficial to all creatures. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. liberality. righteous feelings. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. good behavior. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. all these qualities. absence of stinginess. belongings. forgiveness. harmlessness. faith. freedom from laziness. Confidence. auspicious rites. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. the ceremony of Svadhâ. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. for articles. and also sacrifice. censure. theft. unbroken piety. salutation. pleasure and delight. Thus. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. he attains the highest in the next world. vexing (oneself). harboring desire. abandonment on all hands. The . The power of governing. praise. (holding) knowledge to be vain. devotion to dancing. and actions with expectations. purity. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. wealth. The man who always understands these qualities. contentment. for women. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. who are enveloped by passion. sacrifices vain.
threefold are the worlds. abiding. but differing in development. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. the qualities of passion are variable. Even from afar. feel the warmth. the unperceived. enjoys the qualities. evildoers are alarmed. the Prâna. And where goodness is developed. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). the Apâna. and travelers. suffering trouble from the heat. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. The day should be understood to be threefold. in the lower entities. The sun is goodness developed. so long is passion said (to exist) here. the men of the quality of darkness. They are attached to one another. is released from all qualities. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. immutable. For they act with cause or without cause. and goodness likewise to be less. constant. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. Where passion is developed. the increase and diminution will now be stated. not developed. They all depend on one another. and goodness likewise to be less. these are the three qualities. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. existent and also non-existent – all these. and lust. The three qualities – goodness. Pradhâna. go down. the heat is the quality of passion. unborn. goodness. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. moving in a body. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. The light in the sun is goodness. is said to be. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. and the future. freed from the body. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. and likewise follow one another. and its pure operations. Darkness. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. being connected with the lowest quality. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. not small. And as long as goodness and darkness. production and absorption. the passionate remain in the middle. threefold the gods. threefold the sacrifices performed. and the enlightener. years. Where darkness is increased. and the highest. all that is (made of) these three qualities. abiding in those of the upward current. and passion likewise to be less. Threefold are the gifts given. and likewise months. eternal. seasons.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. goodness. and moving about collectively. and threefold the path. abiding in those of the middle current. the present. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. there: exist three qualities. darkness. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. there darkness should be understood to be little. piety. Among immovable entities. in union. Seeing the sun rising. passion. and the conjunctions. passion in the Kshatriya. evil-doers likewise are darkness. The man who always understands these qualities. holy. There is no doubt of this. he. And whatever there is in this world. . immovable. womb. Passion. and being free from all misery. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. goodness. half-months. but is not attached to the qualities. change. the night is stated to be threefold. They perform their journey together. The creation of the qualities is eternal. unperceived. wealth. Of all these acting with one another. destruction. (consisting) of the three qualities. they feed on one another. and the Udâna. there darkness should be understood to be little. nature. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. and passion also. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. The past. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. unshaking. and the qualities. there passion should be understood to be little. So in all shining bodies. in the Brâhmana.
means of knowledge. touch. were the five great elements born – earth. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. air. movable or immovable. courage. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. that talented man. ancient being. and thus that source of all entities. and as that from which the changes take place. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. who are talented. Minuteness. water. When. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. color. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. Knowing that (great self). it stands pervading everything in the world. these being emancipated. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). Then when every entity. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. the light. is (afterwards) called egoism. connected with . In these five great elements. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. the source of all qualities. It is a deity. heads. the producer of the deities. who have pondered on the self. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the supporter of consciousness. memory. who are possessed of knowledge. inexhaustible. that is said to be the second creation. the transcendent. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. who are constant at concentration of mind. it is full of light. it causes all this to move. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. They are born one from the other. verily. and likewise cognition. and who are always possessed of a good heart. It has hands and feet on all sides. who are true to their promises. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. and their name is delusion. the operations (connected with these) have causes. he is the governor. and by its own light. and light as the fifth. means of perception. who are not avaricious. has been dissolved. the great self. intelligence. lightness. and whose senses are subdued. who are devoid of egoism. the understanding. Sambhu. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. Brahma. Caused by the production of avarice. he among all people comes not by delusion. and faces on all sides. touch. Vishnu. abides transcending the understanding. attain greatness. it likewise charms the world. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. Now people who comprehend the understanding. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. it has eyes. the valiant. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. and of the mind. taste. that from which the changes take place. the final dissolution approaches. it is said to be the first creation. and are dissolved in the reverse order. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. creatures are deluded. creates (them). and smell as the fifth. the Prajâpati. of universal form. not different from one another. who have subdued wrath. and are inconstant. and insignificant. and likewise color. it is the creator of the three worlds. it is that from which the people are produced. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. and smell. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). Sound. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. space. the producer of the entities. and golden. whose minds are clear. who practice meditation. taste.
as connected with objects it is motion. This is said to be the . they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. The third (entity) is said to be light. This group one should subdue first. Likewise (there is) egoism. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. And the eleven organs. is called the organ of excretion. nose. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. next as connected with objects (it is) color. those born from germs. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. and the presiding deity there is fire. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. The ear. then the Brahman shines (before him). which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. as connected with objects it is actions. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. excluded from the self. the producer of all beings. As connected with the self. and speech are restrained. and depending upon one another. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. and the Vyâna also. ear. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. and worms of the like description. Those born from eggs. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. who perceive the truth. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. Space is the first entity. and five the organs of action. the motion of which is downward. and the presiding deity there is Indra. As connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. those born from perspiration. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. the tongue. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. The Prâna and the Apâna. as connected with objects. which follows after the five entities. and the presiding deity there is the sun. He whose skin. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. the Samâna. as connected with objects it is excretion. and the presiding deity there is Soma. self-consciousness. and together with speech. and understanding unswerving. The mind should be understood to be among both. and the organ of generation. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. as connected with objects it is taste. as also all reptiles. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. the presiding deity there is Rudra. water. as connected with objects it is the semen. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. and the understanding is the twelfth. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. the Udâna. Understanding these. mind. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. As connected with the self they mention the mind. the nose also as the fifth. the mind is the eleventh. and speech as the tenth. as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. and the presiding deity there is lightning. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. as connected with the self it is called the ear. the two feet. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. and the presiding deity there is the wind. as connected with the self. The second entity is air.flesh and blood. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. The fifth entity is earth. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. the two eyes. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. such is the group of organs. tongue. the two hands. and space. these are helpless and powerless. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. as connected with the self it is the nose. the organ of excretion. The Apâna wind. eye. the presiding deity there is the Moon. and whose mind is pure. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. Then first. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. as connected with the self it is called the eye. is speech which relates to all the gods. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. the skin.
O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. The third is called light. the objects of the senses. pleased with contacts. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. and restrain it. should cast it aside. which is uninterrupted. and who is devoid of passion. too. The fifth element is earth. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. O chief of the twice-born! and know. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. are the beings born from wombs. bursting through the earth. The world. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). then being self-illumined. . and which rests on the real (entity). As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. (namely) sacrifice. A knowledge of this. and full of delusion. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. that the body in which the color is fire. and released from everything. and the feeling of touch is air. unfit to be seen. which is surrounded by the five currents. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. and inferior. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. It is a great ocean. this same (body). for (every one) who is born. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. The fourth should be understood to be water. and hold them by the mind. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. Understand about them also. fearful and unfathomable. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell.) the senses. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye.second (mode of) birth. that he is released from all sins. however. the presiding deity there is Soma. and is named delusion. and those which move crookedly. gift at a sacrifice. which is full of passion. and is sanctifying. which has nine passages and two deities. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. having his cravings destroyed. are said to be born from germs. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. and sacred study. Those beings. Such is the teaching of the ancients. It is settled. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. which is made up of the five elements. curtail it. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. and than which there is nothing higher. Such is the doctrine of the learned. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. (viz. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. Restraining objects of desire within the self. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. The second entity is air. is ever happy. the flowing (element) water. which are born after the lapse of some time. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. which is free from attachment. One should place all these together. in which one lives alone. together with the immortals. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. He who duly understands this. When everything is absorbed into the mind. and which is full of the Brahman. next as connected with objects it is color. and likewise the sound is space. Space is the first entity. and the five great elements. the presiding deity there is the sun. and being concentrated in mind.
Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. all companies of Brâhmanas. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. Understand this. He verily is Vishnu. and Prajâpati. Non-destruction is the highest piety. Understand him to be the ruler. For he is the ruler of men. and . and among females a male. there is no doubt of that. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. these are the princes among mountains. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. concentrating the mind within the mind. (am lord). Varuna is the king of the waters. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. He is the supporter. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. the Mahendra. and Yakshas. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. and go into wrong paths after death.Desire. and among denizens of the forest the lion. the Jambu. the Sahya. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. snakes. the Nîla. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and falsehood also. the Pippala. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and also gods. She is called Pârvatî. and also all the great sages. and likewise the bamboo and willow. among vehicles the elephant. Kings desire piety. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. and Pisâkas. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. the creator. and likewise the Sâlmali. and the bands of Bhûtas. these are the princes among trees in this world. likewise. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. of Gandharvas. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). which are difficult to get rid of. (all these). He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. the Vindhya. treachery. fear. the sun is the prince among the planets. and also as various. Such is the highest creation among all entities. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. Understanding everything. and the creator. wrath. The Nyagrodha. the north among the quarters. and great. likewise. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. Soma is the lord of herbs. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. and of all entities whatever I. who am full of the Brahman. and Mitra. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and the Koshthavat mountain. he then perceives that highest (principle). (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. avarice. and the moon among the Nakshatras. and delusion the reservoir. Freed from all sins. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. the Trikûtavat. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and Rakshasas. the Bhâsa. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. lose all their qualifications. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. the Sveta. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. and demons. the Sinsapâ. Purandara of (all) deities. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. who has beautiful eyes. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. and the Meshasringa. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. demons. and seeing the self within the self. and Varuna. and Yakshas. the Guruskandha. Agni. changing from time to time. and Pitris. of gods. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. and the bands of Rakshasas. and Nâgas. and birds. The Himavat. and the ocean among rivers. rejoice in this world. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Him. the Pâriyâtra. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. among cattle also the bull. ever extol. the uncreated Hari. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). Kinnaras. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born.
and the creation. Thought is the quality of mind. then enters into the Kshetrajña. together with names and characteristics. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. middle. taste is the characteristic of water. the characteristic of earth. and transcending death and old age. which is great. middle. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. to be created and tied down to a beginning. And I always see. (else) attains. (though) concealed. sound is the characteristic of space. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. there is no doubt of that. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. and transcending the qualities. in this world. The quality of light is color. the supporter of all beings. being nonintelligent. and that is comprehended by the understanding. is purely knowledge. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. and from the svâhâ ceremony. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. to the truth. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). the essence of water. is the Kshetrajña. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. To (this) positive comprehension. the unperceived (is appointed). Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. The characteristic of mind is meditation. Hence a man who understands piety. is perceived by the skin. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). Only the Kshetrajña attains. and end. The qualities created again and again. who is unmoving. The Kshetrajña. and about the means for its comprehension. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. Taste. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. action the characteristic of men. he repairs to that which has no second. is always comprehended by the tongue. transcendent. and having his sins destroyed. belonging to the air. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. And the moon likewise. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. the characteristic of mind is thought. the characteristic of renunciation. The characteristic of devotion is action. that is comprehended by the nose. and end. that months have the bright first. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. color is the characteristic of light. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. and hear it. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. The (sensation of) touch. abandoning qualities. who resides in the tongue. and knowledge. know. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. giving prominence to knowledge. do not know themselves. The quality of space is sound. free from the ceremony of salutations. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. he is the Supreme Lord. and the Mahat of knowledge. which is void of symbols. And crossing beyond darkness. The Purusha knows it. verily. and that is comprehended by the eye. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. and homeless. no one. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. It is stated that day was first and then night. As to the smell of the earth. The earth is the source of . is smell.destruction is of the nature of impiety. and that is comprehended by the ear. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal.
which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. likewise space is the source of sound. Bhûtas. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. likewise. study. all ascents end in falls. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. death is certain for whatever is born. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. and Yakshas. Among all precious things. The great Vishnu. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. all that is called Sâvitrî. And among all immovable entities. There is no end for knowledge. All action ends in destruction. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. and life ends in death. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. of which the environment is home. who is devoid of egoism. water of tastes. . the ocean is the first-born. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. of which the pole is the mind. The sun is the first among shining bodies. Dânavas. the noise of which is trouble and toil. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. and among all reptiles. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. gift. that of householders (is the first). which is sustained by the qualities. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. all this ends in destruction. Sacrifice. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. snakes. there is no doubt of that. Kinnaras. too. among (sacrificial) animals. and Rakshasas. and of men. all associations end in dissociations. the eastern quarter is the first. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. and the same is also the end of everything. without distinction. and regulations. which is full of actions and instruments of action. Pisâkas. is the source of the entire universe. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. among sacrifices. fire is said to be the first of the elements. who is full of the Brahman. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. the ever holy field of Brahman. the offering (into the fire) is the best. The Syena is first among birds. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. All accumulations end in exhaustion. of all words. the goat is mentioned (as the first). Prajâpati of deities. the end of pleasure is ever grief. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. the end of grief ever pleasure. is everchanging. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. These are the qualities of the elements. Of all orders. observances. And of all gods. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. I. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. Îsvara is the lord. penance. gold (is the first). whose senses are subjugated. and the Prâna lifewind. which moves through (all) the worlds. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. which is measured by months and half months. is stated to be the first. which is lit up by the great egoism. the Plaksha.smells. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. Of all mountains. the mud for which is penance and regulations. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. there is no doubt of that. which rotates in space and time. Of all ages the Krita is the first. and the twice-born among men. which abounds in old age and grief. whatever is prescribed in this world. And the unthinkable. the fastenings in which are vexations. water is the best. there is no doubt of that.
with the permission of the preceptor. released from all impressions. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). and should always associate with good men. and should give and receive gifts. and equable to all creatures. is never deluded. and constant in veracity and piety. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. behaving like good men. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. That man among all creatures. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. who is self-restrained. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. who is of rigid vows. in the way above stated. and be of pure vows. and who has duly observed vows. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. to follow it is good. And as to the other remaining three duties. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. study. should avoid heedlessness. they are pious duties. which is unchecked. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and should stand. (That) sage. who is pure. who is thus devoted. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. conquers heaven. Always devoted to his own wife. together with the immortals should cast away. and sacrifice. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. making gifts. and full of faith. kind. and also receiving untainted gifts. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. and released from all sins. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. he should have matted hair. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. transcending all pairs of opposites. and take exercise (duly). This wheel of life. should be kind. The householder. or also a deerskin. and self-restrained. the sage who understands piety. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. attains the highest goal. and which is (never) fatigued. all the world. should. which moves towards joy and pleasure. and the Brahmachârin. and which is devoid of consciousness. sit. should behave like the good. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. or of cotton. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. and who understands the Vedas. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. with his senses restrained. and also the beggar. and which is extended by means of attachments. to such a one the (word) good applies. and check. The Brâhmana householder. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. abridge. this has been celebrated from ancient times. take food without decrying it. possessed of forgiveness. and with one’s external organs restrained. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. and have his sacred . the imperishable source (of all). There should also be a girdle of muñga. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. With regard to those three duties. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. the forester. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. should return (from his preceptor’s house). the speed of which is like that of the mind. and alms. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings.which is large. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. who is devoted to Vedic rites. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. One should learn and teach. gift.
One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. One who is thus devoted. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. and of rigid observances. and be agreeable to all beings. and concentrated in mind. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). performing sacrifices. And with his senses restrained. who is concentrated in mind. addicted to sacred study. (Such) a Brahmachârin. restraint of the external organs. and always living within the forest. Eating only a little. always with clean water. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. He should move about the world like a worm. or a Brahmachârin. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. or the cavern of a mountain. and leaves. He should honor guests. He should honor a guest who comes. he should not go following after another. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. his path being pointed out by the sun. being restrained in mind. fruits. or a river likewise. and which have come spontaneously. full of forgiveness. and restrained in all his senses. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. seeking merely to sustain life. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. Nor should he beg for too much alms. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and when he goes about for alms. always in forests. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. He should not parade (his) piety. Restraining the external senses. freedom from anger. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). life as a Brahmachârin. is esteemed. and devoted to veracity and piety. not deceptive and not crooked. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. astringent. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and should eschew dwelling with friends. and free from avarice. or a forest. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. kind. or again a forester. he should move about in a secluded place. conquers heaven. When eating. He should without sloth feed on water. pure in body. in order. and likewise no sweet juices. preserving his hair and moustache. A man should always bathe in clean water. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. living on fruits and leaves. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. and depending on the deities. and should not rejoice if he obtains. having a mind free from envy. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. be engaged in sacred study. nor should he eat when honored. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. does not return to birth. and in the rains. and also straightforwardness. should not enter a town again. freedom from (the habit of) carping. He should not make any accumulations. veracity. always dexterous. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. or which are pungent. Refined by means of all ceremonies. looking out for the (proper) time. the sage should become free from all action. he may dwell in one place. A householder. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin.thread. and continent. and roots and Syâmâka grain. Offering safety to all beings. In summer. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. and should not . and reaching the highest seat. air. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. kind. eating little. free from passion. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. or the foot of a tree. or bitter. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor.
and also devoid of sound. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. and should avoid (all) controversies. One who knows the truth. being devoted to pious conduct. and free from distress. mind. and who is dependent on none. any action involving expectation of fruit. understanding. and who is free from salutations. One who has anything to do should take earth. and then. there is no doubt of that. one should disregard the present. nor valor. the unperceived. imperishable. nor should one wish for gold. a wise man should always share (with others). or back. devoid of color. or by speech. devoid of taste or touch. egoism. One should not think of what is not come. nor Vedas. as they come. and understanding are absorbed. and though dwelling in a house. water. is emancipated. He should not receive from others. He should not appropriate another’s riches. which is free from the operations of the qualities. and which is also devoid of flesh. they never die. foot. Freed from all attachments. he gets emancipation. verily. and stable. which is without hands. after understanding all these. pebbles likewise. and should not take (anything) unasked. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. he should act in the manner of the deluded. and the objects of the senses. Nor. nor should he ever give to others. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). and being equable to all beings. should act without a purpose. . being released from all bonds. There the understanding reaches not. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. He should perform piety. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. and who understands the truth. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and self-controlled. or involving any destruction of life. who is attached to the self.follow his own (mere) desire. should not teach. who is free from attachments to any entity. with his accumulations exhausted. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. who is free from desires. nor worlds. nor the senses. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. he attains to the highest seat. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. absolute. and should be void of (all) belongings. Rejecting all things. which is unattached. But owing to the helplessness of people. One should not perform. and in whom the senses. flowers. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. without a head. exclusively pondering on one point. who is free from the pairs of opposites. always dwelling in all entities. by an accurate determination about the truth. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. who understands all truth. and the five great elements. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. nor reflect on that which is past. nor penance. which is free from anxiety. Those who perceive the self. The senses. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. nor the deities. and leaves. One should not perturb any other (person). and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). Though undeluded. He should not defile anything by the eye. and without fixed appointments with people. sacrifices. without a stomach. should be free from attachment. depending on none. who is free from expectations. or the assemblage of people. not finding fault with piety. one attains heaven. and mind. moving and unmoving. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. One should not hate. untainted. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. which is to be understood. divine. or the mind. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. devoid of smell. who is free from egoism. or cause to be performed. and the Purusha likewise. should meditate.
the sprouts within which are the senses. go to the happy path by penance. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. There are these two birds. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. through the tranquility of the self. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. and likewise unity and diversity. there is no doubt of that. he is called intelligent. and renunciation the best penance. (When) the inner self. (which are) unchanging. The highest Brahman is very far off. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. The men of talent. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. and which is fed upon by all creatures. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. and free from egoism. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. there is no doubt of that. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. is released from misery. for assimilation with the Brahman. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. and old age. is emancipated. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. Penance is said to be a light. it is free from the pairs of opposites. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. But as to that other who is above them. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. attaining to the self. becomes fit for immortality. and with an understanding comprehending all. and supreme. developed from the qualities. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. everlasting. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. understands that which is beyond nature. He who desires nothing. there is no doubt of that. and being untainted. even for (the space of) a wink. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. becomes eligible. then understanding the Kshetra. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. which cause birth. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. is emancipated. whether agreeable or disagreeable. Abandoning all action. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. of unthinkable qualities. and the side branches the objects of sense. by tranquility only. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. death. always possessed of flowers. transcending passion. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and (as it were) non-intelligent. devoid of qualities. devoid of knowledge of nature. and which is the essential element in knowledge. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. association and dissociation. which is always possessed of leaves. and whose minds are refined. the great branches of which are the great elements. The learned man who perceives. who are pure. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. a creature is emancipated. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. and despises nothing. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. even dwelling in this world. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. and who is devoid of egoism. and devoid of qualities. and some as transcendent and without misery. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. which abides in all entities. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. Restraining the self in the self.
Some are devoted to harmlessness. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and others say that is not so. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. be obtains whatever he desires. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. and some given up to destruction. courage. and those who ponder on the element. the venerable. too. and others indigence. and (others) that it exists not. We wish. some are for merit and glory. Some learned men. Some are for taking food. some for the omission of bathing.by control of the life-winds. People are acting. Some (say) means should be resorted to. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. abandonment. believe it to be one. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. such is their relation. but others extol penance. and our mind is distracted. nature. who are devoted to knowledge. and some for pain. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Some people (say) meditation. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. others that that is not so. and other persons sacred study. holy. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. But that is not correct. and others that that is not so. and others. Some say both time and space (exist). and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. we are deluded. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. knowledge. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. and others tranquility. gifts. and renunciation. Some extol final emancipation. and others (that it is) mixed. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. Some extol everything. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. and come to no determination. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. (saying) this is good. Some have matted hair and skins. harmlessness. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. and others nothing. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. and others again (that it is) manifold. equability. having again felt doubts. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. some wish for riches. truth. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. there is no doubt of that. that fits one for immortality. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. Some are devoted to goodness. Some Brâhmanas. some are in the midst of doubts. others are intent on fasting. and others that there is no doubt. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. Some (say) everything is doubtful. who were the best of sages. others distinct. some knowledge. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). And. Some people extol action. Some people are for bathing. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. . some say that is not so. Thus having first a tranquil self. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. and others. always esteems that. too. that it exists. straightforwardness. some are for pleasure. of ten or twelve (modes). this is good. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. some various kinds of enjoyments. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus.
travels with great discomfort. such is the progress of the men of understanding. rejoice in this world. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). though it is the object of enjoyment. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. He abides in everything alike. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . So travels the talented man. and who knows about the qualities. Learn that. But those wise and talented men. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. Thus nature is perceived. I will declare to you what you ask of me. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. and is connected with (all) knowledge. Even brought into contact with all qualities. where the carriage-path stops. I will tell you something more. free from any connection with expectations. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Non-destruction of all creatures. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. deliberate on it properly. go verily to hell. As far as there is a carriage-path. he goes in the carriage. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. so should one understand. through delusion. throwing aside the boat. Now I will proceed to. goes in the water without fatigue. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and soon crosses the reservoir. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. attains supreme happiness. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. The subject is always the being. It has been explained in the above mode. It is established that nature is the property of the being. and to be constituted of the qualities. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. Hearing it all. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. and in essence free from the qualities. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. and nature is stated to be the object. and who are infidels in their conduct. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. Understand this. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). and void of intelligence. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. devoid of parts. While there is oil and wick. the light shines. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. O Brâhmanas! Well now. This is the highest seat. and who entertain avarice and delusion. who perform actions with faith. being born again and again.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. perceive correctly. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. afflicted by reason of the chariot. a learned man remains untainted. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. For the talented man who knows (these) means. free from vexation and holy in character. and going swiftly. comprehending the gradations one above the other. and may even be destroyed on the way. that is deemed to be the greatest duty.
carriage and pedestrian. bitter. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. red likewise. Space is the highest element. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. and are conversant with piety. and who identifies himself with every being. and of (many) ingredients. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. be understood to be of ten descriptions. yellow. it is said that light has three qualities. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. and grey likewise. compact. soft. and also productive in its essence. diffusive and compact also. the divine source of all entities. Learn about their properties. and likewise Pañkama. Sweet. thus is light said to have three qualities. black. or sound. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. short long. so does it result to them. but they do not yield products. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. I will now give (some) information about taste. Sound. and void of color. Sound and touch also should be understood. and bitter likewise. too. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. broad. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and earth. to be of twelve descriptions. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. touch. And as action is performed in this world. glutinous. White. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. namely. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. And touch is the quality of air. repairs to the imperishable self. and clear also. are stated to be the qualities of water. said to be of six descriptions. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. sweet. Rishabha. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. void of taste. and rough. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. Smell always belongs to the earth. Now space has one quality. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. that is called the Pradhâna. and water. together with Gândhâra. tender and clear also. abounding with movables and immovables. sour. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. who speak the truth. the great elements. and smell as the fifth – these. Rough. Thus sound. green. air is said to have (these) two qualities. sharp. and of the elements respectively. taste. Sound. should be understood to be of five qualities. – thus should smell. and that is stated to be sound only. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. cold and hot likewise. which is a development of water. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). The unperceived is of the nature of seed. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. narrow. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. Madhyama. sour. and above that understanding is the self. and likewise color. which is produced in space. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. and color likewise. square. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. egoism is above that. is of four qualities. air is said to have two qualities. From egoism is produced the development. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. The quality of light is color. slippery. touch. hurtful. and taste. which is void of any smell whatever. touch. Now space has one quality. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. touch. and above the unperceived is the being. which belongs to the earth. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. One who has come by delusion through affection. Shadga. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. hard. astringent. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. above that is the unperceived. Sound. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. above egoism is understanding. smooth. color likewise.
mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. The understanding proclaims its power. and difficult to pass through. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. One who drinks spirituous liquors. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. Gods. He who understands him understands the Vedas. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. all that can be accomplished by penance. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. and herbs. and being full of egoism. gods. one who steals. enter the highest world of the great. Such is the upward gradation among entities. all have been created by nature. and next the developments produced from the elements. and it is the goal of all living creatures. the mind itself is the individual self. like billows in the ocean. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. has the mind for a charioteer. (Those) men. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. This is the eternal mystery. for penance is difficult to overcome. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. is released from. Medicines. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. always reach perfection by penance. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. they go near Prajâpati. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. (sacrificial) animals. and ends with the gross objects. they are the very first to be dissolved. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. those who have achieved perfection. That individual self. one who destroys an embryo. nor by a cause. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. not by actions. and in which the understanding is the drag. Asuras. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. the creators of the world. Pisâkas. the mind. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). movable or immovable. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. obtain the great and highest world. Whatever is difficult to obtain. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. difficult to learn. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. and (after) these developments. are born here again and again. one who kills a Brâhmana. and devoid of egoism. and having their minds always tranquil. and it is called the Kshetrajña. perceive the triple world here by penance. difficult to vanquish. Those who best understand the self. The mind always presides over the great elements. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. and abandons everything as fruitless. again acquiring knowledge. Râkshasas. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. that sin only by penance well performed. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and all other creatures movable or immovable. And in like manner. a sage should sit down self-restrained. Born from that same unperceived (principle). The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. even from those five elements. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. and the understanding for a drag. These Brâhmanas. which is the unperceived. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. goes to the highest goal. That which begins with the unperceived . Gandharvas. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. all the elements. For all acquisition has penance for its root. and who are free from egoism. and includes movables and immovables. Pitris. That learned and talented person verily. men. beasts and birds. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. And he who is released. The senses. (who are) constantly devoted to penance.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. a man gets rid of all sins.
Two syllables are death. not full of action. Arjuna said: Who. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. O Janârdana! If this verily. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. changeless. And now. And the pupil. always duly act (according to it). If you have love for me. unmoving. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. and then attained to the worlds. in consequence of these means. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. indeed. and restraining the self in the Self.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. he attains tranquility. Vâsudeva. he dies not. having done all he should have done. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. was that Brâhmana. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. This is the eternal piety. which is uncreated. is fit to be heard by me. and not mine is the eternal. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. O noble person. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). Do you. who is without expectations. he understands that holy Brahman. three syllables the eternal Brahman. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. getting rid of all sins. did everything (accordingly). incomprehensible. I have now declared everything to you. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. And when the understanding is clear. And. Knowledge brings forth the being. O best of Brâhmana. O Krishna! and who the pupil. Then when this piety is duly practiced. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . you will attain the absolute final emancipation. too. I wish to see him. changeless. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. with your consent. than which nothing greater exists. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. Some men of dull understandings extol action. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. Mine is death. then you will acquire perfection. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. Then will you attain perfection. Expelling all impressions. O Lord! then tell it me. attained to that seat. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. and who looks alike on everything. who is without attachment. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. sages! Act thus forthwith.
O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). Be pleased.’ Om Tat Sat .When Krishna spoke these words. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. who is of a devout heart.
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