ANUGÎTA The second discourse to Arjuna by lord Krishna Edited by Jay Mazo.

International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best

understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).

CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which

preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that

abandoning each previous (element). purity. What I say is all correct and proper. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. And that I shall now proceed to state. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. indeed. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. as he should act. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . He who is not attached to any one. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. and thinking of naught. Gifts. and who has no desire. From that he created the Pradhâna. The practice to which the good adhere. is released who is equable towards both life and death. who is devoted to tranquility. He who has no enemy. And he. honoring preceptors. who has subdued his senses. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and ruin to be connected with action. and about the return. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and likewise pleasure and pain. (having) as regards the moving (creation). For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. created the whole of the three worlds. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. who is self-controlled. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). and from whom fear and wrath have departed. penance. pure. Learn from me exhaustively. Brahman. compassion to (all) beings. and who is self-possessed. for among them it constantly abides. and causing good to be done. which is very difficult to cross. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). constant restraint of the organs. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. indeed. he is. the grandfather of all people. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. becomes happy. released from everything. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. who has no kinsmen. He who understands the Pradhâna. who has no child. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. he becomes indifferent to everything. released in every way. He who acquires that. never comes to an evil end. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. he is. free from vanity and egoism. self-restraint. He who is not pious and not impious. and which is known in the world as the highest. is released. restraint of the senses. who is free from the pairs of opposites. too. honoring deities and guests. and gain and loss. and also tranquility. by which all this is pervaded. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. takes place after a long time. A man who is a friend of all. having made a body for himself. life as a Brahmachârin. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. and whose self is free from affections. and lust altogether. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. pity. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). which protects people to eternity. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. who has abandoned piety. adherence to prescribed regulations. wealth. the body to be an unholy aggregate. From this is produced piety. is released. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. And as regards that. a pair separately for each (species). who endures all. who contemns no one. Then seeking after the supreme seat. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. This is what is called the destructible. points out (what) piety (is). moving and fixed. which I am now about to declare. and absence of cruelty. but the other is immortal and indestructible. one going the round of various births. and (what is) agreeable and odious. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. who had been first created. the material cause of all embodied (selves). verily. And Prajâpati.action by which. serving mother and father.

meditating in that habitation. devoid of form. Seeing the self void of smell. The body is called the Muñga. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. and casting aside old age and death. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. he has no fear. then there is no ruler over him. he remains steady to the self. Remaining within (that) city. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). and having no cause. like an Aswattha tree. he assumes bodies at pleasure. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. when (all) beings are afflicted. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. looks on this universe as transient. he sleeps at ease. and always concentrating his mind. there is no death for him. One who does no action. Leaving this human frame. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. and who has no desire. void of color. and old age. then he. is released. He who is free from all impressions. the soft fibers stand for the self. and freed from old age and grief. since he is the lord of the triple world. he gradually obtains tranquility. like fire devoid of fuel. who has practiced penance. ‘This is he. searching for his own faults. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. recognizes him (afterwards). void of belongings. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. Properly concentrating his self. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. he is indeed released. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. and who is self-restrained. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. death. void of sound. Then the talented Brâhmana. As a person having seen one in a dream. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. free from the pairs of opposites. saying. perceives the self in the self. which consist in pain and grief. devoid of qualities. And as one may show the soft fibers. void of touch. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind.body. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. one should fix the mind on the self. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. He whose self is concentrated. after extracting them from the Muñga. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. Restraining the . When. Then freed from all impressions. he is not afflicted by anything. Thinking of a quarter seen before. and of a tranquil mind. who is free from attachment. When (all) beings are destroyed. and having first performed rigorous penance. void of taste. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind.. he perceives the perfect one. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. unmoving. than which there is nothing higher. and unknowable. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. Weapons do not pierce him. indestructible. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. constant. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. and abandoning the transient body. being habituated to exclusive meditation. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. Restraining the senses. is released. always full of birth. and having his senses subjugated. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. he is released. without belongings. he grieves not and exults not. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. tranquil.

dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. who are constantly intent on their own duties. nor by any of the senses. Have you listened to this. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. and how also to blood? And how. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused.group of the senses. he perceives the self. and muscles. distinctly? How. and of the excretions. Vaisyas. I will go away. What I have spoken. – went away as he pleased. For as to that eternal Brahman.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. neck. and marrow. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. – with. palate. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. heads. as it were. O Mâdhava! I replied. he attains final emancipation in me. and do you (too) go away. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. do the flesh. That talented pupil. too. This whole mystery I have declared to you. Adopting this doctrine. even those who are of sinful birth. and determination regarding . And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. which is difficult to explain. attain the supreme goal. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. and (keeping) the passages confined. and faces on all sides. too. women. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. He is not to be grasped by the eye. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. he stands pervading everything in the world. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. he has cars on all sides. and throat likewise. It is my belief. possessed of great penance. He has hands and feet on all sides. The world of the gods.’ Thus addressed by me. and also the heart. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. he has eyes. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. too. and abandoning his body. He should meditate on his teeth. and also the means for its acquisition. tongue. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. O Krishna! that pupil. and Sûdras likewise. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. too. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. reaches immortality and is ever happy. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. forsaking the body. where one. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. And then depending upon it thus. final emancipation. and likewise the seat of the heart. a mental smile. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. The soul sees the self come out from the body. O son of Prithâ! For. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How.

seated in seclusion. these are the seven great officiating priests. in which the materials are visible. and into it they enter. and the skin. The nose. A Brâhmana’s wife. and Udâna also proceed. CHAPTER V On this. and that which understands. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. that can be caught (by the touch). And mark this always. verily. and also that which is to be thought of. and likewise that which is to . Samâna. indeed. that only do the men of action engage in as action. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. mind or speech. and the ear as the fifth. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. (namely). that which cats. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. does exist among (all) beings. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. that which is to be seen. and the eye. What goal. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. Vyâna. O son of Pându! who. and that which hears as the fifth. In the interior. the mind and the understanding. that which is to be touched. and energetic. devoid of color and sound. That is called the Udâna. or seen. and who are harsh and undiscerning. that man of a tranquil self. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. and imperishable. From this the Prâna. action. That which is to be smelt. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways.misery. (in the form of) a dialogue. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. Whatever action there is. From birth to the destruction of the body. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. but is to be apprehended by the mind. shall I go to. which occurred. by act. and not to be tasted by the tongue. shall I reach. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. that which is to be seen. The mortal. good or bad. That which smells. that which is to be touched. and that which is to be understood. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. It is devoid of smell. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. that which is to be smelt. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). Apâna. produce them in their wombs. Concentration of mind comes to him. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. and likewise that which is to be heard. and (observe) good vows. that which thinks. It is not to be smelt by the nose. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. This is all that is to be said. that which sees. full of faith. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. and on which it rests. When that is asleep. are destroyed by demons. devoid of taste and touch. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. you who live renouncing (all) action. While the paths (of action). there is nothing further than this. depending on you as (my) husband. possessed of talents. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. too. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). and the tongue. that which is to be drunk. or heard. that which is to be drunk. that which touches. and their selves tranquil. and the moon together with the fire. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed.

Prajâpati. from that is produced determination. that indeed is the movable mind. touch. and excrement. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. wind. was the universe duly divided. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. words.be heard. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. motion. that which is to be thought of. But. O beautiful one! Sound. air. there are two minds. water. from that is produced sound. verily. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. From that is produced smell. earth and fire. yield (you) your desires. or tone goes to your dominion. Then the lord of speech was produced. sun. requires everything knowable (as its offering). immovable and also movable. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. mind and understanding. Indra. is with me. that (in) my (view). the genital organ. and hence the mind is in need (of it). verily. from that doubt is produced. from that is produced taste. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. these seven. moon. Earth. the two hands. and taste. and Mitra. therefore. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. Whatever mantra. and the discharge of semen. And the mind. the offerings are ten. smell. the nose. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). from that touch is produced. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. indeed. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. highest knowledge. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. color. and the mind runs after them. and they are offered up into the ten fires. The goddess speech. That is called the movement of the mind.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. the tongue. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. ‘I. verily. too. verity. they relate this ancient story. verily. from that is produced color. space. which is the generator of all entities. these are the ten oblations. The mind is the ladle. urine. they were perfectly filled with light. the two feet. are named wombs. from that another is produced. To that you are superior. which is the instrument of knowledge. the movable is in your dominion. destroy our doubts. are the fuel. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. And in that very (principle). are ten sacrificial priests. First. and light as the fifth. (Thus) we have heard. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. verily. and the wealth is the pure. and also that which is to be understood. ‘Say which of us is superior. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. ‘Mind (is superior). Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests.’ But speech thereupon said to him. The immovable. The quarters. and the anus. and into this the offering is thrown. are words produced. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. and the knower is the upholder of the body. these. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. The ear. speech. and Vishnu also. though . But inasmuch. action. these. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. or letter. and (though) developed.

the skin. the skin. too. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. the nose apprehends them. and which then goes into the Apâna. and the eye. the ear likewise. mind and understanding. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). and the mind also. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. when. flowing (forms). the mind. and the eye. Do you. Of those two. This cow-like speech. The nose. the eye. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. – a dialogue. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. ‘Be pleased. The nose. the mind. do not apprehend sounds. and the understanding also. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and the understanding also. and the ear as the fifth. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. The nose. and the understanding also. So speech formerly spoke. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. do not apprehend smells. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). The nose. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. This excellent (speech). the ear. like a cow.impelled. the ear. the understanding. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. The nose. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. too. Dwelling in a minute space. And these never know the qualities of each other. the tongue. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. The mind said: . the skin. The tongue. and the understanding also. the tongue. do not apprehend final determination. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. On this. do not apprehend doubt. the eye. and the eye. O venerable sir? Tell me this. the mind likewise. and next the eye. do not apprehend tastes. the ear likewise. they do not perceive each other. they relate this ancient story. and the tongue. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. the eye apprehends them. the tongue. with divine power. the ear apprehends them. the mind. the mind apprehends it. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. and the eye. the ear. the mind. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. It is always noisy or noiseless. the skin apprehends them. and the skin. the ear likewise. the tongue apprehends them. and the understanding also. yields milk. The nose. she ran up to Prajâpati. verily. do not apprehend colors. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. saying. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the skin. O you of a bright smile! is divine. The nose. the tongue. the skin. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. the understanding apprehends it. the skin. the tongue.

The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. The learned know this to be a great principle. resulting from mental operations (alone). take in tastes by the eye. you have no perception. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. the senses never shine. like an empty dwelling. then what you believe is true. both past and future. Granted. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. Without me. a creature. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. and objects are standing. without us. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. when troubled by desire to enjoy. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. (there is) pleasure and support of life. then take in colors by the nose. and the Udâna. always meets death. I am the eternal chief among all elements. Besides. the ear does not in any way hear sound. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. that the Prâna and the Apâna. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. If when we are extinct. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. fail to apprehend qualities or objects.’ Brahman said: . The senses said: This would be true as you believe. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. or if when we are absorbed. and said to him. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). life is seen to be supported. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. they relate an ancient story. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. too. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. does run to objects of sense only. even with the senses exerting themselves. Without me. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. and not connected with objects of sense. rules are for the weak. Without me. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. One entering upon enjoyments. all beings. (which is) like entering a house without a door. are the five sacrificial priests. still. take in smells by the ear. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. They formerly went to the grandsire. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. without us. who was born first. the tongue does not perceive taste. like fuel half dried and half moist. when our objects perform their functions.The nose smells not without me. He shall be the greatest among us. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. and indulged in dreams. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. and if you enjoy enjoyments. and take in sounds by the skin. the eye does not take in color. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. if you. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this.

they again move about. O beautiful one! spoke these words. who being extinct. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. Welfare be to you! Support one another. There is one unmoving (life-wind). all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. go away happily. Hear the reason why. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. Hear the reason why. And the Prâna and Apâna. and on my moving about. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). owing to (their) specific qualities. and on my moving about. Being friendly with one another. (Now) go where (you) like. they again move about. All are greatest in their own spheres. I am the greatest. and again moved about. When I am extinct. the lord of (all) creatures. and again moved about. and the Samâna. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. and the Samâna.’ Then the Apâna moved about. and not greatest. and the Udâna. and the Samâna spoke again. There are others moving about. O Prâna. and again moved about. and on my moving about. and pleasing one another. because the Apâna is subject to you.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and on my moving about. You are not the greatest among us. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. I am the greatest. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. they again move about. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. is the greatest. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. Hear the reason why. and all support one another. The Vyâna only is subject to you. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. ‘You are not the greatest among us. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. verily. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. My own self is one only. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and the Apâna said to him.’ The Vyâna moved about again. they again move about. When I am extinct.’ The Prâna again moved about. I am the greatest. And on my moving about. When I am extinct. and the Vyâna also. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. I am the greatest.He. (which are) five. they again move about. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. and on whose moving about. they again move about. spoke to him.

and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. The nose. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. and between them is the fire. or downwards. (the quality of) passion. their function is performed: then. The smoke of that (fire). and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. these. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. and the tongue. and (it) is also produced from smell. and (it) is also produced from touch. or Apâna. This is the effect of the Udâna. and the eye.On this. his Prâna. which is of excellent glory. The instrument. between them is the fire. which (move) upwards. between them is the fire. being accompanied by intelligence. and the . what comes into existence first. or transversely. in which the offering is thrown. From desire the semen is produced. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. and (it) is also produced from a sound. and (it) is also produced from color. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. the Samâna and Vyâna. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. the Prâna comes first into operation. From the combination of the semen and the blood. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). or Samâna. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. the Samâna comes into operation again. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. or downwards. indeed. The two – good and evil – are a pair. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. the action. the pleasure is produced from union. Day and night are a pair. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. Hear me. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. the Apâna then comes into operation. the agent. that the fire verily is all the deities. secondly. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. hear me speak about that. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. and emancipation. or transversely. (it) is also produced from taste. First. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. or Vyâna. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. they relate this ancient story. too. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. (its) ashes. It is the teaching of the Veda. too. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. between them is the fire. that which is other than this first comes to him. which (move) upwards. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. CHAPTER X On this.

together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. and the gods. I move as I am ordered. (and) the seven Rishis. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. The learned man. destroying this food again produces it. Impelled by that same (being). (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. Taught by that instructor. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. whatever is spoken by speech. Whatever is thought by the mind. too. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. approaching Prajâpati. the Sastra. There is one instructor. (about the) instruction of the snakes. eating various (kinds of) food. too. truth. sound. final emancipation. and he who hears as the fifth. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). and color. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. mind and understanding. he who sees. of which an illustration is stated. and the Dakshinâ. He destroys the food. the Brahman. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and the great sages . the self the Adhvaryu priest. And among the learned who understand (everything). he who eats. being (himself) a ruler. Living under that instructor. On that Sâman hymns. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. by Prajâpati. each in its own place. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. whatever is seen by the eye. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. ‘Om. who is the self of everything. there is no second director. shines dwelling within the body. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. there is no second (different) from him. the Stotra in which. And I am here devoid of qualities. in a single syllable. is the counselor in all action. and touch as the fifth. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. there is no second (different) from him. whatever is heard by the ear. There is one hearer. he who speaks. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. they relate an ancient story. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. And cooking food for himself. Taught by that instructor.skin. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. there is no second (different) from him. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. is the upward life-wind. There is one enemy. This being. agreeable and disagreeable. like water on a declivity.’ Hearing that. this. they ran away in (various) directions. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). is ruined. my fire of (high) qualifications. He who smells. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the director. he who thinks. the Brahman priest in which. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. the venerable one said. On this. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. the Hotri priest. and taste. The gods. and the snakes. and sages. CHAPTER XI There is one director. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. being possessed of qualities. there is no second (different) from him. The gods had been engaged in gifts. he. Smell. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. these seven are causes of action. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. On. To him who is not learned. and the ear as the fifth. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. enjoy their own qualities. and sages. and he who understands. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. and the demons. The eating of that which should not be eaten. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. There is one kinsman. are sung. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. the downward lifewind. and whatever is smelt by the nose. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. These.

Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. in various places. and having a good mind. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. when there is a distinction from it. There is nothing smaller than that. And there is fuel here. seven fruits. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. the learner. who. the great sages receive hospitality. owing to his desires. and emancipation the fruit. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. the Brahman water. that. They are not afraid of anybody. becomes a Brahmachârin. . in which desire and anger are the obstructors. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. all engaged in different (pursuits). and seven (forms of) initiation. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). There is nothing more subtle than that. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. the way to which consists in worldly objects. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. Entering it. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. the sages. There always dwell seven females there. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. The instructor. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. the gods. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. the twice-born do not grieve. and seven guests. are always within the heart. and mixed. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. In that forest are seven large trees. The qualities are the fruits.in restraint of the senses. and what the rivers. the hearer. the Brahman the fire. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. the Brahman the instructor. there is no other instructor. seven (forms of) concentration. the snakes. there is no other happiness equal to. Having had one teacher. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. and is to be crossed by one singly. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. merely adheres to the Brahman. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. there is nothing larger than that. when there is no distinction from it. There is one fire here. and having been instructed with one word. seven hermitages. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. and the demons. Understanding it they practiced it. and nobody is afraid of them. and the guests eat the fruits. and the enemy. have no fear afterwards. and the hills and mountains. which depends on knowledge. and do not exult. The good who attain to that. which has contentment for its water. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. casting aside vows and actions. and causes of generation. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. full of brilliance. connected with the Brahman. There. Acting sinfully in the world. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. another forest shines forth. and of beautiful colors. This is the description of the forest. and fragrant. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. (namely) the five senses. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. the Brahman his origin. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. There is nothing more afflicting than that. He is rapt in the Brahman. in which intelligence is the tree. And I have entered the great forest. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. with faces (turned) downwards. But he who. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that.

(This) creature will obtain welfare. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). or old age. there is no taint on my natures. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. devote themselves to Brahman. I perceive no tastes. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures.They absorb all the higher delights of people. of this goat have gone to their sources. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. take him (to them) and consult (them). the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. abide. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. His eye (will enter) the sun. (his) ear the quarters. they are born so as not to lose courage. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. I see no color. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. Those whose wishes are reduced. And aspiring to that forest. And understanding it. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. The life-winds. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. Such. being directed by the Kshetrajña. or death. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). The teaching of the elders is. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. Not desiring any object of desire. perfection. Nature desires objects which are liked. Apart from them. this goat will not be destroyed. brilliance. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. merging the self in the self. indeed. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. they act (accordingly). censuring (the act) as destruction of life. . an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. Glory. mother. whatever in him is produced from water. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. especially as he is dependent. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. that will enter water. as understood by Brâhmanas. and again emerge from the same. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. then the sacrifice is for the goat. enlightenment. we do not rely on what is not visible. too. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. together with their chiefs. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. nor yet do I hear various sounds. nor even do I entertain any fancies. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). On this. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. and I think only his unmoving body remains. praise tranquility. and I do not touch. father. too. and his life-winds likewise the sky. If I spoke further. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. Understand that. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. whose sins are burnt up by penance. victory. and as the constant entity underlying them. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. since the Vedic text is such. Although actions are performed. is this holy forest. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. the richest. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. Dwelling in that (self). they relate an ancient story. After hearing their consent. not hating any evil. I see the individual self in the body. There is no offence on my part. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. and greatness.

O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. you touch the qualities of the air. who is alike to all beings. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. name him to me. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. being directed by the Kshetrajña. who might stand against me in the field. freed from delusion. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. you hear the sound produced in space. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. (in the shape of) a dialogue. and (the quality of) goodness. what shall I do for you? The creatures. The ocean said: If. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. Of these the indestructible is the existent. who take shelter with me. they relate an old story. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. saluting him. and I say (to you). and understanding it. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. For having heard your opinion. you see the colors of shining bodies. you believe. who is devoid of expectations. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). . they act (accordingly). the tongue. my mind is enlightened. who is free from the pairs of opposites. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. the mind. proud of his strength. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. you drink watery juices. And to one who is free from these manifestations. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. have life. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. O venerable sir! I approach you. The ocean. Say. possessed of a thousand arms. are being destroyed. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. a descendant of Kritavîrya. and with joined hands. as we have heard. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. Give them security.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. The life-winds. such is the double manifestation of the self. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. said. together with (the quality of) passion. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). there is no fear anywhere. And all these entities. who has subdued his self. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. and who is released on all hands. Or what do you think. he was walking about near the sea. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. Once on a time. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). too. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature.

‘You ought not to keep me back from this. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. (Though) surrounded by enemies. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. not forgiving his father’s murder. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. it wishes. they relate an ancient story. hearing that (story). Thus the Dravidas. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. spoke sweetly to Râma. What good. burning the hosts of the enemy. being a Brâhmana. too. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. Then some of the Kshatriyas. The mind said: These arrows. turned to subtle (questions). named Alarka. Seeing him killed and fallen. do you perceive. Paundras. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. with Rikîka as their head. a bodiless voice from heaven. Hearing that. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. dear friend. like a tree of many branches. whose power was unbounded. said to those sages. became Vrishalas. They will. became Vrishalas. to slaughter these kings. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. you will die. to make all mortals perform action. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. and taking swords and lances. who understood duty. blazed forth. O noble one!’ But Râma. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). his grandfathers. As by its unsteadiness. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. Then the power of Râma.Then the king. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. full of great wrath. entered mountains and inaccessible places. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . whose penance was very great. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. high-souled. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. In company with his kinsmen. abandoning (those) great deeds. together with the Sâbaras. went away. like antelopes troubled by a lion. It is not proper for you. who was veracious. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. which was heard by all people. and blew away the army of the king. the Kshatriyas. taking up his axe. only pierce your own vital part. Râma also taking up a bow. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. – having performed very difficult deeds. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. shot away volleys of arrows. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. and your vital part being pierced. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). too. and very firm in his vows. ‘Desist. Âbhîras. There was (once) a royal sage.

and your vital part being pierced. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The skin said: These arrows. the skin hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. The nose said. the eye hankers after them only.Smelling very many perfumes. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. The tongue said: These arrows. one hankers after them only. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. this (tongue) hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. and your vital part being pierced. The eye said: These arrows. The ear said: These arrows. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. the (ear) hankers after them only. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Hearing that. These arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and then you will lose (your) life. you will die. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. you will die. he then said after consideration: – . he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part.

thence you will obtain the highest good. and your vital part being pierced. and engages in action. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. and honoring good men. And the royal sage. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. the best of talented (men). people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. he. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. For from avarice is born desire. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. wrath. verily. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. of great glory. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. They will only pierce your own vital part. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. Therefore. Perform a fearful penance. properly . O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). sloth. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. Exultation. and after deliberating for a long time. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). free from sloth. attained high perfection.’ Do you understand this too. according to qualities. cut (it) off with sharp swords. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. and again birth. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. then uttered this verse. When the bodily frame is destroyed. Obtaining those. He (then) restraining his own vices. Ambarîsha. and applied himself to concentration of mind. pleasure. And at the expiration of life. That avarice – cut (it) off. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. owing to these qualities. being impelled by which. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. and being troubled by desire. On this. destroyed all foes. is energetic about subjugating others. and he who desires. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. being impelled by which. the greatest. amazed. three foes in (this) world. a courageous man. a man even does what ought not to be done. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. persistent hatred. he became steady. When vices were in the ascendant. and delusion. he meets death. and good (men) were oppressed. he reached the highest perfection. is born again and again. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. who had become tranquil (in mind). Sleep. then anxiety comes into existence. (that vice). joy. Then directing his mind to one point. and senses controlled. but there is one. Grief.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. The understanding said: These arrows. having a tranquil self.

then came the delusion on me. or the whole earth is mine. too. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. so (is it) that of others too. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. I cannot find my domain. what belief you have resorted to. I looked for my own offspring. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. I looked for Mithilâ. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. When I did not find it among them. Even this self is not mine. engaged in meditation. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. and enjoy while you live. is subject (to me). and. (Considering) whose this was. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . by which. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. by the glorious Ambarîsha. holding which. avarice. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. I wish. When I did not find it on the earth. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. What conviction have you adopted. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. Resorting to this conviction. a delusion suddenly came upon him. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. Janaka said: Though this country.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. as the planet upon the sun. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. or that everything is my domain. searching through the (whole) earth. and restraining avarice by courage.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. to be terminable. While that king of unbounded power was seated. And as mine. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). O best of the twice-born! Live (here. the king recovered himself.perceiving this. in all affairs. Then on the expiration of the delusion. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. King Janaka. I believe. intelligence again came to me. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. there is no other sovereignty here. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. by way of punishment. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine.’ Thus spoken to. who destroyed the one (chief vice). and said nothing in reply. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. though this country. This is sovereignty. is subject to you. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. Then when the delusion had gone off. therefore) while you desire. Now hear the conviction.

A good means is found. I am a forester. (namely) for the gods. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. Hence. is (to be found) a description of it. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. action and knowledge. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. that a certain thing should be done. is perceived as by bees. I am emancipated. by which that (entity). I pervade every single thing that is in this world. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. by which those who understand that proceed. or. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . nothing exists that is a cause of him. and even over heaven. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. Then the Brâhmana. and a certain thing should not. and which does not turn back. where. or by one whose self is not refined. You are the one person to turn this wheel. you have guessed. or among mendicants. In the (rules for) final emancipation. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. and my intelligence is very frivolous. for this purpose.subject to me. and confused. All these actions of mine are. or else this knowledge. With your heart intent upon the real entity. not by the body. namely. I am not such. and also without qualities. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. that. the Pitris.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. and the body is tied down by action. and narrow. the instructor is the upper Arani. dwelling with preceptors. together with guests. it is not laid down. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. to households. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. the nave of which is the Brahman. smiling. I am a Brâhmana. according to your own understanding. indeed. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. the spoke the understanding. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. observing vows. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. Sovereignty over the whole world. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. or residence in forests. you will certainly come into my self. Actions have a beginning and an end. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. movable or not moving. This path is traversed by the understanding. come here today to learn (something) about you. have their understanding full of tranquility. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. And those who. the Bhûtas. Whatever creatures there are in the world. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. verily.

and hears. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. who had approached him (for instruction). And we. One should adopt as many of these things. Vâsudeva said: On this. who preserved (all) vows. and what sin? These questions of mine. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. truly. in hundreds and in thousands. Arjuna said: Where. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. what penance. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. who was possessed of (the . O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. between a preceptor and a pupil. and accurately. as may here be practicable – unperceived. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. something about the highest good. (when he was) seated. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). likewise. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. and also desirous of final emancipation. ‘I’ (he said). Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. are afraid of worldly life. put (his) questions with joined bands. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. I pray of you with (bowed) head. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. indeed. (which are) means of direct perception. connected with final emancipation. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. who put (his) questions properly. Speak. And he. Listen to that. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. and those whose form is perceived.’ The preceptor. There is none else here who can explain these questions. ‘whose goal is the highest good. am come to you (who are) venerable. A talented pupil. all of various descriptions. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. is I myself. too. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live.

which consists of the understanding as its trunk. I will state to you. and likewise unity and variety. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. was declared by Brahman. penance is the truth. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. full of humility. and the seed of which is the Brahman. after having traveled over all paths. He who does not desire anything. desiring knowledge. the branches of which are the great egoism. always possessed of flowers. when thus spoken to by the sages. from whom (all) sin has departed. Understand that. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. and who are the constant creators of the people. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. even while dwelling in this world. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. which ought to be apprehended. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. and the severance also. They live by penance. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. in Brahman’s mansion. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and is eternal. in the holes of which are the sprouts. which is eternal. and renunciation as the best penance. and who is devoid of egoism. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. . the great sages. the present. Prajâpati also is truth. the future. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. and Atri also. there is no doubt of that. which belongs to olden times. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. are full of the truth. and of the four orders. and likewise of the castes. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. and piety. and wealth. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. who are possessed of knowledge. met each other. And those twice-born (sages). is emancipated. Brihaspati.necessary) qualifications. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. desire. who was like (his) shadow. and has no egoism about anything. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. on which all entities subsist. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. Vasishtha. and Visvâmitra. the sages. is esteemed highest. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. the gross elements the smaller boughs. The Brahman is the truth. The preceptor said: All this. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. Bharadvâja. the senses. namely. and becoming wearied of their own actions. and casts off birth and death. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. saw Brahman. is released from misery. and so forth. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. Gautama. the entities are born from the truth. which is always possessed of leaves. who understands the creation of all entities. I will state to you today. and likewise Bhârgava. Formerly. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. and also Kâsyapa. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. who was tranquil.

encircled by the. grief. and of the highest seat. which you should understand. sleep. the unperceived likewise. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. The order of foresters. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. violation of (the rules of) conduct. and next after that too. The true nature of their characteristics. attains to all the spotless worlds. its characteristic. Darkness. Passion is said to consist in activity. the second is that of householders. faith. and goodness. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. and getting rid of all bonds. and it is constant in sinful actions. Learn. The great self. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. learn those accurately. which is in a state of equilibrium. He who accurately understands the elements. the whole of the qualities. He who. now speaking exhaustively. avarice. When it prevails. and are joined to one another. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. the ten senses and the one (sense). Its characteristic is also impiety. This is the nature of darkness. casting aside sin. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. and five constituent principles. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. and also all the deities. passion. The wise always speak of piety as one. want of discrimination. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. everlasting. blindness. want of memory. which are all coupled with one another. O noble ones! from me. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. I will speak to you. such is the eternal creation. and the five great elements. never comes by delusion. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). will now be stated together with the reasons. Prajâpati. fear. (but) having four quarters. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. Indra. and is called delusion.distinctly. which is productive of pleasure. one sees not these. and of the understanding as ruler. eleven. which depend on one another. nihilism. and darkness the match of goodness. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. and likewise also egoism. it also appears combined (with others). Light. passion there prevails. Where darkness is restrained. next after that is that of foresters. and likewise serve one another. Delusion. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. Where passion is restrained. lightness. and those three channels run on. sun. appears to be production. goodness there prevails. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. and passion is the match of goodness. air. of all beings. among all beings. want of liberality. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. in aggregation and separation. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. I will subsequently state the means to that. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. consisting of three qualities. and immutable. immaturity (of intellect). rigid in his vows. he. and goodness is also the match of passion. . and attend on one another. and is the cause of successive (acts). and which are bridges of piety. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. It has three qualities. these are called the three qualities. all-pervading. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. being constituted by the three qualities. space. haughtiness. indecision about actions. as accepted by good men. Goodness is the match of darkness. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. ignorance. finding fault with good acts. Light. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities.

and growing old in (good) actions. who. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. preservation. demons. and serpents. connected with delusion. they exert themselves. (namely) the brute (species). pointing out others’ weaknesses. (or become) the immovable entities. and vain eating. backbiting. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. stolidity. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. strength. cold and heat. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. exercise and quarrel too. and also animosity towards people. anger. want of self-restraint. and worms. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. the thought (that this or that is) mine. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. to be born in the lower hell. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. understands this properly. that is considered to be dark conduct. are found in various places in this world. all these qualities. affliction. frenzy. deluded convictions. this is considered to be dark conduct. peace. the great delusion. evil disposition. want of straightforwardness. sink into darkness. piercing. breaking. by cutting. toil. Who. want of forgiveness likewise. Such is the Vedic text. argument. animals. insects. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. doers of sinful acts. indeed. deaf and dumb men. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). evilconducted men. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. desire. There. and whatever vain gifts. want of faith also. slaughter. vanity. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. and also creatures born from eggs. or deaf. abuse . and idiots. power. pleasure and pain. this is considered to be dark conduct. how. repining. thinking of (this) world. Darkness. wrath. bonds. Learn. animosity. want of knowledge. harboring evil thoughts. sages and saints and gods become deluded. who bear the marks of their own actions. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). And whatever such people there are in this world. delusion. as Chândâlas. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. battle. and also its qualities. lassitude. fierceness and cruelty. birds. And whatever other states of mind. vindictiveness. all these are dark qualities. valor. pride of performance without (actual) performance. I have now duly described to you. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. Injuring (others). they are all held to be dark. touching other people’s weak points. want of liberality. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. delusion. who break through (all) regulations. Whatever vain actions (there are). animosity. becoming men of meritorious actions. Reviling. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. and growing old in their own duties. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. These dark. vanity. war. that one sees the real in what is unreal. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). endurance. beasts of burden. unfriendliness. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. and death the blinding obscurity. beauty. and also its source. sinful action. and want of forgiveness. buying and selling. anger is called the great obscurity. and all quadrupeds. want of faith. Coming to a sinful womb. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. indeed. or lisping men. going beyond the Sûdra womb. wishing for pleasure. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. the great obscurity called anger. going into inferior ways. They go to the hell. vilifying.behavior of the lowest quality. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. who are sunk in darkness.

Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. expiations. forgiveness. treachery and likewise deception. vexing (oneself). those talented men reach heaven. good behavior. equable everywhere. slaughter. receipt of gifts vain. truth. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. disgust. purity. he attains the highest in the next world. and attachment also. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. bad gifts. perceive (everything) aright. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. and make Tarpana. and of the quality of goodness. service. emancipation. Getting rid of all sins. these men. and create (various) bodies. gifts and acceptance of gifts. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately.uttering falsehoods. who are enveloped by passion. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. The . He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. by means of nature. and unblamable. absence of wrath. enlightenment and happiness also.’ affection generated by the qualities. the ceremony of Svadhâ. and also sacrifice. contentment. learning vain. dexterity. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. devoid of expectations. freedom from delusion. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. gambling. (good) conduct vain. for articles. vows vain. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. the ceremony of Vashat. the duty of the good. and actions with expectations. unbroken piety. Confidence. disrespect and respect. righteous feelings. penance vain. The man who always understands these qualities. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. piety vain. not full of desires. minuteness. Born again and again in this world. they rejoice. attendance. absence of fear. and instrumental or vocal music. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. whose conduct is of this description. present. ostentation. Thus. have (their) currents downwards. common scandal. faith. auspicious rites. courage. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. joviality. joy. joy. haughtiness. The men who meditate on past. policy. service vain. all these qualities. wealth. devoid of egoism. wakefulness. obedience. absence of calumniation. indifference. equability. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. valor. absence of stinginess. They are said to have their currents upwards. contentment. and to be gods. absence of cruelty. freedom from laziness. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. defiance. Understanding this according to rule. vows and regulation. boasting. heedlessness. praise. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. contumely. and also sacrificing and study. The power of governing. humility. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. harboring desire. doubt. and also want of faith. for living creatures. forgiveness. self-restraint. censure. belongings. salutation. liberality. (holding) knowledge to be vain. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. (on another). nobility. management. modesty. straightforwardness. freedom from expectations. They give and receive. absence of backbiting. theft. for women. devotion to dancing. and for houses. pleasure and delight. for men. and future entities in this world. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. and labor vain. and free from grief. compassion to (all) creatures. laudation. who adhere to the quality of goodness. prowess. abandonment on all hands. pleasure. life as a Brahmachârin. one obtains whatever one desires. devotion. association with women. purity. sacrifices vain. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. vexation. gets rid of all passionate qualities. harmlessness. beneficial to all creatures. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also.

They are attached to one another. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. Seeing the sun rising. but is not attached to the qualities. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. evil-doers likewise are darkness. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. And whatever there is in this world. and its pure operations. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. the Apâna. the men of the quality of darkness. immovable. and being free from all misery. holy. is said to be. existent and also non-existent – all these. and the Udâna. Where passion is developed. The sun is goodness developed. and threefold the path. goodness. freed from the body. threefold the sacrifices performed. The creation of the qualities is eternal. there darkness should be understood to be little. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). half-months. Threefold are the gifts given. The past. these are the three qualities. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. years. immutable. passion in the Kshatriya. but differing in development. They perform their journey together. abiding in those of the middle current. abiding in those of the upward current. seasons. eternal. not developed. and moving about collectively. Darkness. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. threefold are the worlds. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. and goodness likewise to be less. in union. Even from afar. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. there darkness should be understood to be little. and passion also. the Prâna. Passion. there: exist three qualities. production and absorption. in the Brâhmana. Pradhâna. the qualities of passion are variable. not small. So in all shining bodies. The day should be understood to be threefold. unborn. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. The light in the sun is goodness. They all depend on one another. abiding. For they act with cause or without cause. piety. being connected with the lowest quality. change. is released from all qualities. suffering trouble from the heat. go down. the unperceived. so long is passion said (to exist) here. Of all these acting with one another. and goodness likewise to be less. threefold the gods. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. he. passion. they feed on one another. And as long as goodness and darkness. and passion likewise to be less. wealth. unperceived. Among immovable entities. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. the increase and diminution will now be stated.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. goodness. darkness. the present. There is no doubt of this. evildoers are alarmed. nature. goodness. The three qualities – goodness. and lust. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). womb. feel the warmth. the heat is the quality of passion. unshaking. Where darkness is increased. constant. . and the conjunctions. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. in the lower entities. there passion should be understood to be little. the night is stated to be threefold. all that is (made of) these three qualities. and likewise months. and the enlightener. And where goodness is developed. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. enjoys the qualities. and the future. and likewise follow one another. The man who always understands these qualities. and the highest. the passionate remain in the middle. (consisting) of the three qualities. and the qualities. and travelers. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. moving in a body. destruction. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions.

O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. memory. who are true to their promises. Then when every entity. the operations (connected with these) have causes. the transcendent. who practice meditation. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. that from which the changes take place. verily.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. and thus that source of all entities. It has hands and feet on all sides. Knowing that (great self). he is the governor. who are devoid of egoism. the valiant. They are born one from the other. movable or immovable. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. and their name is delusion. he among all people comes not by delusion. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. touch. and by its own light. who are constant at concentration of mind. water. the source of all qualities. and who are always possessed of a good heart. who have subdued wrath. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. it is full of light. who are talented. the supporter of consciousness. Minuteness. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. that talented man. and smell as the fifth. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. and as that from which the changes take place. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. and light as the fifth. taste. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. ancient being. it has eyes. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and are inconstant. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. whose minds are clear. Sound. and are dissolved in the reverse order. it causes all this to move. it likewise charms the world. creatures are deluded. who are possessed of knowledge. attain greatness. It is a deity. courage. the great self. and likewise cognition. and golden. the light. it is that from which the people are produced. connected with . That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. means of perception. and smell. has been dissolved. Now people who comprehend the understanding. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. is (afterwards) called egoism. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. who have pondered on the self. means of knowledge. and insignificant. Brahma. and whose senses are subdued. were the five great elements born – earth. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. lightness. air. In these five great elements. the final dissolution approaches. Vishnu. of universal form. and likewise color. When. heads. taste. and of the mind. touch. space. the Prajâpati. it stands pervading everything in the world. abides transcending the understanding. it is the creator of the three worlds. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. that is said to be the second creation. and faces on all sides. color. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). these being emancipated. Sambhu. intelligence. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. the producer of the entities. it is said to be the first creation. who are not avaricious. not different from one another. the producer of the deities. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. Caused by the production of avarice. inexhaustible. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the understanding. creates (them).

those born from germs. the producer of all beings. and space. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. the organ of excretion. and speech are restrained. The fifth entity is earth. who perceive the truth. As connected with the self. and together with speech. and the presiding deity there is the wind. the presiding deity there is the Moon. As connected with the self they mention the mind. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. Space is the first entity. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. eye. The second entity is air. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. these are helpless and powerless. and five the organs of action. the motion of which is downward. as connected with objects it is motion. The mind should be understood to be among both. as connected with the self it is the nose. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. Understanding these. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. ear. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. as connected with objects it is actions. And the eleven organs. as connected with the self it is called the eye. The Apâna wind. next as connected with objects (it is) color. the presiding deity there is Rudra. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. The ear. nose. the two eyes. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. as connected with objects. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. as connected with objects it is excretion. the nose also as the fifth. and the presiding deity there is the sun. and the organ of generation. water. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. the mind is the eleventh. excluded from the self. as connected with the self it is called the ear. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. and whose mind is pure. as connected with the self. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. then the Brahman shines (before him). Likewise (there is) egoism. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. The Prâna and the Apâna. Then first. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. the Udâna. the skin. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. The third (entity) is said to be light. and understanding unswerving. such is the group of organs. as connected with objects it is taste. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. and the presiding deity there is fire. mind. As connected with the self. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch.flesh and blood. is speech which relates to all the gods. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. and the presiding deity there is lightning. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. He whose skin. self-consciousness. and worms of the like description. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. as connected with objects it is the semen. as connected with the self. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. Those born from eggs. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). and the understanding is the twelfth. and speech as the tenth. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. tongue. those born from perspiration. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. This group one should subdue first. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. the tongue. as connected with the self. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. the two hands. as also all reptiles. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. which follows after the five entities. the two feet. and the presiding deity there is Soma. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. and the Vyâna also. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. This is said to be the . and the presiding deity there is Indra. is called the organ of excretion. the Samâna. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. and depending upon one another.

too. When everything is absorbed into the mind. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). It is a great ocean. for (every one) who is born. (viz. next as connected with objects it is color. curtail it. He who duly understands this. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. Those beings. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. and is sanctifying. Understand about them also. which is uninterrupted. and being concentrated in mind. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. is ever happy. O chief of the twice-born! and know. together with the immortals. having his cravings destroyed.) the senses. It is settled. then being self-illumined. and than which there is nothing higher. The fifth element is earth. Such is the teaching of the ancients.second (mode of) birth. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). which is made up of the five elements. (namely) sacrifice. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. in which one lives alone. however. the objects of the senses. Space is the first entity. and restrain it. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. and the feeling of touch is air. and inferior. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. The world. unfit to be seen. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. A knowledge of this. the presiding deity there is the sun. which is full of passion. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. which has nine passages and two deities. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. and is named delusion. pleased with contacts. fearful and unfathomable. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. and hold them by the mind. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. which are born after the lapse of some time. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. which is free from attachment. and likewise the sound is space. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. this same (body). The second entity is air. and full of delusion. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. are said to be born from germs. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. and the five great elements. gift at a sacrifice. . One should place all these together. and released from everything. that he is released from all sins. and sacred study. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. and those which move crookedly. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. The fourth should be understood to be water. and which is full of the Brahman. Restraining objects of desire within the self. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. the flowing (element) water. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. that the body in which the color is fire. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. are the beings born from wombs. bursting through the earth. and which rests on the real (entity). The third is called light. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. Such is the doctrine of the learned. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. and who is devoid of passion. the presiding deity there is Soma. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. should cast it aside. which is surrounded by the five currents.

and demons. treachery. and delusion the reservoir. and also all the great sages. He is the supporter. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. of gods. the Nîla. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. the Bhâsa. and . the Sveta. the north among the quarters. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. the sun is the prince among the planets. and falsehood also. the Sahya. Such is the highest creation among all entities. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. Non-destruction is the highest piety. Understanding everything. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. and Pitris. and Nâgas. ever extol. likewise. changing from time to time. and likewise the Sâlmali. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. of Gandharvas. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and the Meshasringa. He verily is Vishnu. and go into wrong paths after death. She is called Pârvatî. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. there is no doubt of that. and the creator. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and the moon among the Nakshatras. all companies of Brâhmanas. the uncreated Hari. demons. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. the Pâriyâtra. and Prajâpati. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. and Yakshas. The Himavat. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and Mitra. Freed from all sins. Understand him to be the ruler. the Jambu. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. Agni. Kings desire piety. wrath. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. and the ocean among rivers. and seeing the self within the self. fear. Purandara of (all) deities. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. and Yakshas. Varuna is the king of the waters. and Rakshasas. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). who has beautiful eyes. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. the Sinsapâ. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. and also gods. and Pisâkas. (all these). and Varuna. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. lose all their qualifications. Him. among vehicles the elephant. and among females a male. who am full of the Brahman. he then perceives that highest (principle). Understand this. the Pippala. and the bands of Bhûtas. the Trikûtavat. snakes. among cattle also the bull. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. and the Koshthavat mountain. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. and among denizens of the forest the lion. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. Kinnaras. rejoice in this world. and also as various. concentrating the mind within the mind. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. and great. and the bands of Rakshasas.Desire. (am lord). Soma is the lord of herbs. these are the princes among trees in this world. the creator. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. the Mahendra. the Vindhya. avarice. which are difficult to get rid of. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and of all entities whatever I. the Guruskandha. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. these are the princes among mountains. likewise. and birds. For he is the ruler of men. The Nyagrodha. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas.

The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. and that is comprehended by the ear. know. The qualities created again and again. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. color is the characteristic of light. the characteristic of renunciation. is smell. is always comprehended by the tongue. and knowledge. The Purusha knows it. The characteristic of mind is meditation. To (this) positive comprehension.destruction is of the nature of impiety. middle. transcendent. he repairs to that which has no second. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). and homeless. which is great. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). As to the smell of the earth. the supporter of all beings. And the moon likewise. giving prominence to knowledge. and from the svâhâ ceremony. and the Mahat of knowledge. do not know themselves. The quality of light is color. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. free from the ceremony of salutations. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. and transcending the qualities. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. abandoning qualities. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. and transcending death and old age. together with names and characteristics. who resides in the tongue. that is comprehended by the nose. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. The earth is the source of . And crossing beyond darkness. there is no doubt of that. taste is the characteristic of water. Taste. the essence of water. to the truth. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. the unperceived (is appointed). Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. that months have the bright first. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. then enters into the Kshetrajña. and the creation. belonging to the air. the characteristic of mind is thought. verily. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. Thought is the quality of mind. sound is the characteristic of space. And I always see. is perceived by the skin. to be created and tied down to a beginning. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. and hear it. The (sensation of) touch. The characteristic of devotion is action. and that is comprehended by the eye. in this world. being nonintelligent. which is void of symbols. is the Kshetrajña. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. The Kshetrajña. and about the means for its comprehension. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. The quality of space is sound. (though) concealed. Hence a man who understands piety. no one. and having his sins destroyed. is purely knowledge. middle. the characteristic of earth. action the characteristic of men. Only the Kshetrajña attains. and end. (else) attains. he is the Supreme Lord. It is stated that day was first and then night. who is unmoving. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. and end. and that is comprehended by the understanding. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound.

and life ends in death. These are the qualities of the elements. Prajâpati of deities. The sun is the first among shining bodies. the noise of which is trouble and toil. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. the ever holy field of Brahman. the end of pleasure is ever grief. death is certain for whatever is born. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. Of all mountains. among sacrifices. who is devoid of egoism. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. Kinnaras. snakes. likewise. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. observances. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. I. Among all precious things. among (sacrificial) animals. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. the end of grief ever pleasure.smells. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. And of all gods. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. the eastern quarter is the first. the mud for which is penance and regulations. which is measured by months and half months. And among all immovable entities. likewise space is the source of sound. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. Of all ages the Krita is the first. Sacrifice. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. water of tastes. without distinction. and the twice-born among men. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. Îsvara is the lord. Dânavas. water is the best. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. All accumulations end in exhaustion. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. and among all reptiles. . there is no doubt of that. there is no doubt of that. The Syena is first among birds. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. Bhûtas. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. which is sustained by the qualities. is the source of the entire universe. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. all associations end in dissociations. study. gold (is the first). Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. the ocean is the first-born. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. of all words. all ascents end in falls. that of householders (is the first). which abounds in old age and grief. the Plaksha. and the Prâna lifewind. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. fire is said to be the first of the elements. All action ends in destruction. and Rakshasas. there is no doubt of that. the fastenings in which are vexations. penance. which is lit up by the great egoism. whose senses are subjugated. the goat is mentioned (as the first). too. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. and the same is also the end of everything. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. which is full of actions and instruments of action. whatever is prescribed in this world. gift. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. and Yakshas. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. There is no end for knowledge. And the unthinkable. who is full of the Brahman. Pisâkas. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. of which the pole is the mind. which rotates in space and time. all that is called Sâvitrî. Of all orders. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. and of men. The great Vishnu. which moves through (all) the worlds. and regulations. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. of which the environment is home. is everchanging. is stated to be the first. all this ends in destruction. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. the offering (into the fire) is the best.

which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. take food without decrying it. and have his sacred . discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. and constant in veracity and piety. or also a deerskin. and alms. behaving like good men. and equable to all creatures. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and should give and receive gifts. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. kind. gift. The Brâhmana householder. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. and who has duly observed vows. and full of faith. possessed of forgiveness. should return (from his preceptor’s house). Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. all the world. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. with the permission of the preceptor. and sacrifice. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. which is unchecked. and which is devoid of consciousness. and who understands the Vedas. attains the highest goal. That man among all creatures. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. the sage who understands piety. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). with his senses restrained. should be kind. who is pure. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). to such a one the (word) good applies. transcending all pairs of opposites. study. and which is extended by means of attachments. released from all impressions. And as to the other remaining three duties. the forester. This wheel of life. should behave like the good. who is self-restrained. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. and take exercise (duly). who is devoted to Vedic rites. and be of pure vows. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. in the way above stated. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. the speed of which is like that of the mind. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. The householder. and with one’s external organs restrained. to follow it is good. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. or of cotton. which moves towards joy and pleasure. who is thus devoted. abridge. making gifts. and which is (never) fatigued. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. who is of rigid vows. together with the immortals should cast away. is never deluded. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). sit. and also receiving untainted gifts. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. One should learn and teach. and should stand.which is large. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. he should have matted hair. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. conquers heaven. There should also be a girdle of muñga. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. should avoid heedlessness. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. and should always associate with good men. (That) sage. the imperishable source (of all). they are pious duties. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. and also the beggar. and released from all sins. and check. and self-restrained. this has been celebrated from ancient times. Always devoted to his own wife. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. should. With regard to those three duties. and the Brahmachârin.

He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. or a Brahmachârin. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. always dexterous. Restraining the external senses. kind. and roots and Syâmâka grain. performing sacrifices. or again a forester. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. living on fruits and leaves. free from passion. or the cavern of a mountain. or a forest. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. the sage should become free from all action. He should not parade (his) piety. fruits. astringent. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. and likewise no sweet juices. or which are pungent. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. pure in body. freedom from (the habit of) carping. (Such) a Brahmachârin. He should honor a guest who comes. and depending on the deities. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. should not enter a town again. nor should he eat when honored. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. and continent. Nor should he beg for too much alms. And with his senses restrained. kind. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. or bitter. being restrained in mind. always with clean water. and restrained in all his senses. and should not . he should move about in a secluded place. and should not rejoice if he obtains. He should without sloth feed on water. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. and concentrated in mind. eating little. is esteemed. and of rigid observances. Offering safety to all beings. he may dwell in one place. be engaged in sacred study. A man should always bathe in clean water. When eating. and leaves. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. He should honor guests. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. and should eschew dwelling with friends. One who is thus devoted. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. addicted to sacred study. In summer. Refined by means of all ceremonies. conquers heaven. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and in the rains. and devoted to veracity and piety. or the foot of a tree. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. veracity. in order. air. and also straightforwardness. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. and free from avarice. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. and which have come spontaneously. freedom from anger. preserving his hair and moustache. always in forests. looking out for the (proper) time. and when he goes about for alms. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. or a river likewise. he should not go following after another. He should move about the world like a worm. restraint of the external organs. does not return to birth. life as a Brahmachârin. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and reaching the highest seat. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. A householder.thread. his path being pointed out by the sun. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. He should not make any accumulations. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. seeking merely to sustain life. not deceptive and not crooked. and always living within the forest. full of forgiveness. having a mind free from envy. Eating only a little. who is concentrated in mind. and be agreeable to all beings. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety.

nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. One should not think of what is not come. nor worlds. absolute. moving and unmoving. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. which is unattached. as they come. exclusively pondering on one point. without a head. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. devoid of color. Freed from all attachments. and which is also devoid of flesh. the unperceived. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and who understands the truth. and without fixed appointments with people. and leaves. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. He should perform piety. Those who perceive the self. with his accumulations exhausted. who understands all truth. he gets emancipation. nor the senses. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. or the mind. One should not hate. being devoted to pious conduct. nor the deities. and who is dependent on none. and the five great elements. . And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. nor reflect on that which is past. by an accurate determination about the truth. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. He should not receive from others. imperishable. Though undeluded. untainted. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. or cause to be performed. and free from distress. flowers. One should not perform.follow his own (mere) desire. and in whom the senses. is emancipated. understanding. One who has anything to do should take earth. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). should meditate. or back. which is without hands. which is to be understood. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. one attains heaven. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. and being equable to all beings. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. mind. foot. But owing to the helplessness of people. should act without a purpose. and the objects of the senses. pebbles likewise. He should not appropriate another’s riches. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. water. should be free from attachment. depending on none. he attains to the highest seat. Rejecting all things. and should avoid (all) controversies. and understanding are absorbed. after understanding all these. there is no doubt of that. and who is free from salutations. and though dwelling in a house. or the assemblage of people. One should not perturb any other (person). without a stomach. and also devoid of sound. who is free from desires. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. not finding fault with piety. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. they never die. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). he should act in the manner of the deluded. One who knows the truth. There the understanding reaches not. verily. any action involving expectation of fruit. Nor. and should be void of (all) belongings. being released from all bonds. and then. should not teach. or by speech. sacrifices. always dwelling in all entities. who is free from expectations. one should disregard the present. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. and the Purusha likewise. which is free from the operations of the qualities. The senses. egoism. and mind. who is attached to the self. devoid of taste or touch. nor should he ever give to others. who is free from the pairs of opposites. a wise man should always share (with others). understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). divine. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. He should not defile anything by the eye. devoid of smell. nor should one wish for gold. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. nor valor. and should not take (anything) unasked. who is free from attachments to any entity. and stable. and self-controlled. or involving any destruction of life. nor Vedas. who is free from egoism. nor penance. which is free from anxiety.

go to the happy path by penance. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. devoid of qualities. Restraining the self in the self. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. death. of unthinkable qualities. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. there is no doubt of that. and devoid of qualities. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. becomes eligible. he is called intelligent. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. which is always possessed of leaves. and which is the essential element in knowledge. and whose minds are refined. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. developed from the qualities. and some as transcendent and without misery. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. and being untainted. then understanding the Kshetra. the sprouts within which are the senses. The men of talent. Penance is said to be a light. He who desires nothing. (When) the inner self. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. understands that which is beyond nature. and with an understanding comprehending all. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. transcending passion. devoid of knowledge of nature. and who is devoid of egoism. The highest Brahman is very far off. it is free from the pairs of opposites. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. the great branches of which are the great elements. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. a creature is emancipated. is released from misery. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. there is no doubt of that. through the tranquility of the self. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. and free from egoism. and which is fed upon by all creatures. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. always possessed of flowers. for assimilation with the Brahman. (which are) unchanging. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. who are pure. And restraining the life-winds again and again . becomes fit for immortality. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. even dwelling in this world. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. There are these two birds. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. and the side branches the objects of sense. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. and supreme. and despises nothing. is emancipated. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. even for (the space of) a wink. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. there is no doubt of that. and old age. and likewise unity and diversity. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. association and dissociation. attaining to the self. everlasting. The learned man who perceives. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. by tranquility only. Abandoning all action. which cause birth. is emancipated. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. which abides in all entities. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. and (as it were) non-intelligent. and renunciation the best penance. But as to that other who is above them. whether agreeable or disagreeable.

truth. Some learned men. that it exists. and other persons sacred study. nature. Some are devoted to harmlessness. Some are devoted to goodness. We wish. Some people are for bathing. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature.by control of the life-winds. Some people extol action. too. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. and others that there is no doubt. too. some are for pleasure. and others say that is not so. some are in the midst of doubts. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. and others indigence. others are intent on fasting. People are acting. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Some have matted hair and skins. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. (saying) this is good. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. others that that is not so. some knowledge. but others extol penance. having again felt doubts. Some (say) everything is doubtful. and some given up to destruction. gifts. Some extol final emancipation. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. who are devoted to knowledge. and others nothing. Some extol everything. and others tranquility. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. such is their relation. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. who were the best of sages. knowledge. . abandonment. and (others) that it exists not. some various kinds of enjoyments. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and others. Some are for taking food. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. we are deluded. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and others. and some for pain. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. of ten or twelve (modes). Some Brâhmanas. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Such is the doctrine of the learned. this is good. harmlessness. and those who ponder on the element. some are for merit and glory. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and renunciation. But that is not correct. some wish for riches. some for the omission of bathing. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and our mind is distracted. the venerable. and others that that is not so. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. there is no doubt of that. always esteems that. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. Thus having first a tranquil self. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. others distinct. courage. straightforwardness. believe it to be one. some say that is not so. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. that fits one for immortality. holy. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). And. Some people (say) meditation. and others (that it is) mixed. and come to no determination. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. Some say both time and space (exist). and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and others again (that it is) manifold. Some (say) means should be resorted to. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. be obtains whatever he desires. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. equability.

It is established that nature is the property of the being. Non-destruction of all creatures. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. through delusion. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. So travels the talented man. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. a learned man remains untainted. and may even be destroyed on the way. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. As far as there is a carriage-path. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. deliberate on it properly.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. he goes in the carriage. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. throwing aside the boat. and going swiftly. though it is the object of enjoyment. attains supreme happiness. While there is oil and wick. go verily to hell. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . and void of intelligence. free from vexation and holy in character. comprehending the gradations one above the other. But those wise and talented men. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. Learn that. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. such is the progress of the men of understanding. and who entertain avarice and delusion. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. and who knows about the qualities. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. The subject is always the being. travels with great discomfort. Even brought into contact with all qualities. This is the highest seat. Hearing it all. and who are infidels in their conduct. I will tell you something more. and to be constituted of the qualities. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. rejoice in this world. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. He abides in everything alike. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. so should one understand. Understand this. For the talented man who knows (these) means. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. and nature is stated to be the object. being born again and again. afflicted by reason of the chariot. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. Thus nature is perceived. and in essence free from the qualities. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. It has been explained in the above mode. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). and soon crosses the reservoir. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. where the carriage-path stops. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. and is connected with (all) knowledge. the light shines. devoid of parts. free from any connection with expectations. O Brâhmanas! Well now. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. goes in the water without fatigue. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. perceive correctly. I will declare to you what you ask of me. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. Now I will proceed to. who perform actions with faith. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means.

And touch is the quality of air. compact. and color likewise. it is said that light has three qualities. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. which is void of any smell whatever. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. are stated to be the qualities of water. which is produced in space. and likewise Pañkama. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . touch. or sound. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and grey likewise. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. cold and hot likewise. and taste. The quality of light is color. abounding with movables and immovables. and who identifies himself with every being. which belongs to the earth. sharp. From egoism is produced the development.carriage and pedestrian. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. and likewise color. and above that understanding is the self. thus is light said to have three qualities. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. Madhyama. smooth. – thus should smell. sweet. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). the divine source of all entities. and earth. soft. sour. and of the elements respectively. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. short long. Smell always belongs to the earth. Sound. too. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. and rough. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. Sound. diffusive and compact also. One who has come by delusion through affection. who speak the truth. and also productive in its essence. and are conversant with piety. and of (many) ingredients. said to be of six descriptions. touch. red likewise. taste. above egoism is understanding. astringent. that is called the Pradhâna. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. so does it result to them. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. green. and bitter likewise. Rough. narrow. Sweet. color likewise. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. and smell as the fifth – these. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. be understood to be of ten descriptions. Now space has one quality. square. air is said to have two qualities. and void of color. and above the unperceived is the being. White. Space is the highest element. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. and that is stated to be sound only. and clear also. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. Shadga. is of four qualities. Now space has one quality. together with Gândhâra. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. Learn about their properties. Thus sound. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. yellow. egoism is above that. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. slippery. glutinous. namely. black. Sound. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. to be of twelve descriptions. I will now give (some) information about taste. bitter. the great elements. tender and clear also. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. touch. hurtful. hard. broad. above that is the unperceived. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. And as action is performed in this world. Sound and touch also should be understood. and water. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. air is said to have (these) two qualities. Rishabha. but they do not yield products. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. sour. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. touch. void of taste. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. should be understood to be of five qualities. repairs to the imperishable self. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. which is a development of water.

men. One who drinks spirituous liquors. These Brâhmanas. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. again acquiring knowledge. perceive the triple world here by penance. and all other creatures movable or immovable. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. Born from that same unperceived (principle). (who are) constantly devoted to penance. and ends with the gross objects. That learned and talented person verily. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. has the mind for a charioteer. Râkshasas. all the elements. goes to the highest goal. and having their minds always tranquil. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. all have been created by nature. and includes movables and immovables. and being full of egoism. is released from. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. gods. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. and who are free from egoism. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. and the understanding for a drag. those who have achieved perfection. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. Gods. and it is the goal of all living creatures. And he who is released. difficult to learn. Asuras. obtain the great and highest world. (Those) men. like billows in the ocean. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. That individual self. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). for penance is difficult to overcome. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. enter the highest world of the great. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. one who steals. And in like manner. they go near Prajâpati. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. Medicines. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. even from those five elements. the mind itself is the individual self. and (after) these developments. The senses. and next the developments produced from the elements. the mind. Gandharvas. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. He who understands him understands the Vedas. movable or immovable. Pitris. the creators of the world. Whatever is difficult to obtain. a sage should sit down self-restrained. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. and abandons everything as fruitless. The understanding proclaims its power. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. beasts and birds. and herbs. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. a man gets rid of all sins. This is the eternal mystery. they are the very first to be dissolved. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. (sacrificial) animals.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. which is the unperceived. and difficult to pass through. and devoid of egoism. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. difficult to vanquish. and it is called the Kshetrajña. For all acquisition has penance for its root. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). one who kills a Brâhmana. one who destroys an embryo. The mind always presides over the great elements. always reach perfection by penance. not by actions. all that can be accomplished by penance. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. Such is the upward gradation among entities. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. nor by a cause. are born here again and again. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. Those who best understand the self. That which begins with the unperceived . attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. and in which the understanding is the drag. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. Pisâkas. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. that sin only by penance well performed.

But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Knowledge brings forth the being. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. Mine is death. was that Brâhmana. and restraining the self in the Self. Some men of dull understandings extol action. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Then when this piety is duly practiced. indeed. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. Two syllables are death. than which nothing greater exists. too. is fit to be heard by me. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. not full of action. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. O noble person. I wish to see him. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. And the pupil. O Krishna! and who the pupil. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. Do you. O Lord! then tell it me. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . If you have love for me. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. Expelling all impressions. changeless. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. O best of Brâhmana. in consequence of these means. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. and not mine is the eternal. Then will you attain perfection. and then attained to the worlds. he understands that holy Brahman. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. which is uncreated. who is without attachment. I have now declared everything to you. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. he dies not. sages! Act thus forthwith. And. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. three syllables the eternal Brahman. incomprehensible. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. getting rid of all sins. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. Vâsudeva. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. who is without expectations. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). then you will acquire perfection. always duly act (according to it). he attains tranquility. changeless. This is the eternal piety. And when the understanding is clear. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). having done all he should have done. O Janârdana! If this verily. unmoving. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. Arjuna said: Who. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. And now. and who looks alike on everything. did everything (accordingly). And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. attained to that seat. with your consent. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior.

who is of a devout heart. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.When Krishna spoke these words. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.’ Om Tat Sat . Be pleased.