This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. who is devoted to tranquility. From this is produced piety. who is free from the pairs of opposites. He who is not attached to any one. And that I shall now proceed to state. who has subdued his senses. the material cause of all embodied (selves). becomes happy. and which is known in the world as the highest. who has abandoned piety. and absence of cruelty. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and who has no desire. indeed. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. self-restraint. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. This is what is called the destructible. (having) as regards the moving (creation). and lust altogether. pity. restraint of the senses. created the whole of the three worlds. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. by which all this is pervaded. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. who has no child. and also tranquility. is released who is equable towards both life and death. and about the return. points out (what) piety (is). He who has no enemy. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. life as a Brahmachârin. which protects people to eternity. Then seeking after the supreme seat. but the other is immortal and indestructible. a pair separately for each (species). Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). constant restraint of the organs. From that he created the Pradhâna. honoring deities and guests. abandoning each previous (element). who has no kinsmen. which I am now about to declare. too. honoring preceptors. Brahman. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. who contemns no one. as he should act. He who understands the Pradhâna. and causing good to be done. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. takes place after a long time. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. having made a body for himself. he is. one going the round of various births. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. And he.action by which. And as regards that. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. who endures all. serving mother and father. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . never comes to an evil end. released in every way. He who acquires that. for among them it constantly abides. and gain and loss. Gifts. who is self-controlled. compassion to (all) beings. moving and fixed. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. who had been first created. and thinking of naught. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. indeed. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. the body to be an unholy aggregate. He who is not pious and not impious. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. the grandfather of all people. which is very difficult to cross. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). A man who is a friend of all. And Prajâpati. Learn from me exhaustively. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). he is. and whose self is free from affections. and (what is) agreeable and odious. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. free from vanity and egoism. and who is self-possessed. wealth. and ruin to be connected with action. is released. verily. penance. What I say is all correct and proper. released from everything. pure. he becomes indifferent to everything. and likewise pleasure and pain. The practice to which the good adhere. adherence to prescribed regulations. purity. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. is released.
he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation.body. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. and having no cause. and having his senses subjugated. perceives the self in the self. and unknowable. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. and casting aside old age and death. he grieves not and exults not. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. free from the pairs of opposites. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. searching for his own faults. When (all) beings are destroyed. He who is free from all impressions. And as one may show the soft fibers. and abandoning the transient body.. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. void of belongings. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. Remaining within (that) city. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects. who is free from attachment. and old age. void of color. One who does no action. like an Aswattha tree. When. he assumes bodies at pleasure. is released. like fire devoid of fuel. always full of birth. Properly concentrating his self. recognizes him (afterwards). there is no death for him. and having first performed rigorous penance. The body is called the Muñga. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. Thinking of a quarter seen before. indestructible. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. void of touch. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. constant. void of taste. Leaving this human frame. he is released. Restraining the senses. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. after extracting them from the Muñga. then he. then there is no ruler over him. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. he remains steady to the self. Then the talented Brâhmana. than which there is nothing higher. and who has no desire. death. He whose self is concentrated. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. unmoving. one should fix the mind on the self. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. and always concentrating his mind. he sleeps at ease. being habituated to exclusive meditation. without belongings. void of sound. which consist in pain and grief. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). he perceives the perfect one. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. and of a tranquil mind. he gradually obtains tranquility. looks on this universe as transient. who has practiced penance. ‘This is he. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. he is indeed released. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. when (all) beings are afflicted. and freed from old age and grief. devoid of qualities. As a person having seen one in a dream. since he is the lord of the triple world. Restraining the . and who is self-restrained. Then freed from all impressions. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. devoid of form. Seeing the self void of smell. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. he is not afflicted by anything. is released. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. he has no fear. saying. meditating in that habitation. tranquil. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. the soft fibers stand for the self. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. Weapons do not pierce him. Being self-restrained and self-possessed.
O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. and do you (too) go away. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. forsaking the body. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. and likewise the seat of the heart. he stands pervading everything in the world. and determination regarding . a mental smile. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. and also the heart. O son of Prithâ! For. And then depending upon it thus. attain the supreme goal. O Krishna! that pupil. he attains final emancipation in me. neck. That talented pupil. even those who are of sinful birth. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. I will go away. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. He is not to be grasped by the eye. For as to that eternal Brahman. What I have spoken. which is difficult to explain. possessed of great penance. – went away as he pleased. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. and (keeping) the passages confined. too. and faces on all sides. tongue. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. too. and also the means for its acquisition. O Mâdhava! I replied. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. he has eyes. Have you listened to this. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. reaches immortality and is ever happy. women. he perceives the self. and how also to blood? And how. and throat likewise. final emancipation. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. Vaisyas. heads. He should meditate on his teeth.group of the senses. He has hands and feet on all sides. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard.’ Thus addressed by me. too. who are constantly intent on their own duties. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. distinctly? How. as it were. Adopting this doctrine. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. where one. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. nor by any of the senses. and muscles. too. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. palate. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. This whole mystery I have declared to you. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. do the flesh. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. The world of the gods. It is my belief. – with. The soul sees the self come out from the body. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. and Sûdras likewise. and of the excretions. he has cars on all sides. and marrow. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. and abandoning his body.
It is not to be smelt by the nose. full of faith. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. and the eye. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. It is devoid of smell. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. these are the seven great officiating priests. or seen. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. verily. good or bad. The nose. That which is to be smelt. and into it they enter. What goal. that man of a tranquil self. does exist among (all) beings. that which is to be touched. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. too. mind or speech. that which cats. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. and that which is to be understood. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. that which touches. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. that which is to be touched. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. that which is to be seen. produce them in their wombs. O son of Pându! who. CHAPTER V On this. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. action. and (observe) good vows. That which smells. that which is to be drunk. in which the materials are visible. that which is to be smelt. and that which understands. When that is asleep. and the tongue. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. Samâna. you who live renouncing (all) action. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. depending on you as (my) husband. seated in seclusion. that which is to be seen. and on which it rests. devoid of taste and touch. by act. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. there is nothing further than this. shall I go to. indeed. that only do the men of action engage in as action. which occurred. the mind and the understanding. A Brâhmana’s wife. Apâna. From this the Prâna. Whatever action there is. and the ear as the fifth. and imperishable. and Udâna also proceed. and the skin. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). and that which hears as the fifth. From birth to the destruction of the body. That is called the Udâna. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this.misery. Vyâna. that can be caught (by the touch). that which is to be drunk. The mortal. and also that which is to be thought of. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. and likewise that which is to be heard. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. that which sees. devoid of color and sound. (in the form of) a dialogue. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. and not to be tasted by the tongue. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. that which thinks. Concentration of mind comes to him. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). and who are harsh and undiscerning. and energetic. While the paths (of action). are destroyed by demons. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. shall I reach. And mark this always. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. and the moon together with the fire. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. and their selves tranquil. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. In the interior. but is to be apprehended by the mind. possessed of talents. and likewise that which is to . O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. (namely). spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. or heard. This is all that is to be said.
verily. these are the ten oblations. And the mind. or tone goes to your dominion. and light as the fifth. action. from that is produced sound. therefore. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. From that is produced smell. from that another is produced. the movable is in your dominion. and the wealth is the pure. and Mitra. First. or letter. the genital organ. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. and the discharge of semen. air. smell. But. from that is produced determination. and also that which is to be understood. these seven. and Vishnu also. The ear. urine. that (in) my (view). Prajâpati. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. these. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). indeed. To that you are superior. are ten sacrificial priests. yield (you) your desires.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. and the knower is the upholder of the body. space. The mind is the ladle. earth and fire. requires everything knowable (as its offering). and taste. are words produced. which is the instrument of knowledge. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. touch. mind and understanding. which is the generator of all entities. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. The quarters. and they are offered up into the ten fires. and the mind runs after them. that indeed is the movable mind. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). from that touch is produced. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. verity. and (though) developed. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. words. was the universe duly divided. are named wombs. O beautiful one! Sound. and hence the mind is in need (of it). wind. Earth. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. ‘I. (Thus) we have heard. and into this the offering is thrown. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. immovable and also movable. though . and excrement. highest knowledge. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. And in that very (principle). and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. destroy our doubts. from that is produced color. the two hands. That is called the movement of the mind. moon. is with me. sun. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. these. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. Indra. there are two minds. But inasmuch. the tongue. Whatever mantra. verily. and the anus. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. ‘Mind (is superior).be heard. are the fuel. The goddess speech. speech. that which is to be thought of. verily. The immovable. water. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. Then the lord of speech was produced. verily. the offerings are ten. from that doubt is produced. ‘Say which of us is superior. color.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. verily. they relate this ancient story. the two feet.’ But speech thereupon said to him. they were perfectly filled with light. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. motion. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. the nose. too. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. from that is produced taste.
Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. the tongue. they do not perceive each other. the nose apprehends them. the mind apprehends it. On this. the skin. the ear. the eye. the understanding. do not apprehend tastes. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). and next the eye. with divine power. the skin. The mind said: . and which then goes into the Apâna. and the eye. The nose. the tongue. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. the eye. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. she ran up to Prajâpati. and the understanding also. too. they relate this ancient story. O venerable sir? Tell me this. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. The nose. The nose. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the ear apprehends them. and the understanding also. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. the skin. do not apprehend final determination. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. the ear. the mind. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. the tongue. and the skin. Dwelling in a minute space. and the mind also. verily. do not apprehend smells. do not apprehend colors. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. Of those two. This cow-like speech. the ear likewise. like a cow. the mind. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. The nose. The tongue. do not apprehend sounds. O you of a bright smile! is divine. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. and the eye. the mind. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. – a dialogue. do not apprehend doubt. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. the ear. This excellent (speech). The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. and the eye. The nose. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. the tongue. the understanding apprehends it. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the tongue apprehends them. So speech formerly spoke. too. the skin. the ear likewise.impelled. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. It is always noisy or noiseless. and the tongue. the mind likewise. the ear likewise. saying. and the understanding also. yields milk. the mind. and the ear as the fifth. and the understanding also. Do you. The nose. the skin. mind and understanding. And these never know the qualities of each other. The nose. the skin apprehends them. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. the tongue. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. and the understanding also. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. the eye apprehends them. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. the skin. and the eye. when. ‘Be pleased. flowing (forms).
without us. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. even with the senses exerting themselves. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. life is seen to be supported. (there is) pleasure and support of life. Without me. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. and the Udâna. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). when our objects perform their functions. then what you believe is true. The learned know this to be a great principle. still. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. Granted. who was born first. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. and not connected with objects of sense. I am the eternal chief among all elements. One entering upon enjoyments. Besides. and take in sounds by the skin. like an empty dwelling. then take in colors by the nose.’ Brahman said: . that the Prâna and the Apâna. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. without us. take in smells by the ear. Without me. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. the ear does not in any way hear sound. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. Without me. both past and future. they relate an ancient story. or if when we are absorbed. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. a creature. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. you have no perception. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. and said to him. They formerly went to the grandsire. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. He shall be the greatest among us. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. take in tastes by the eye. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. If when we are extinct. the tongue does not perceive taste. and objects are standing. and if you enjoy enjoyments. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others).The nose smells not without me. all beings. the senses never shine. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. like fuel half dried and half moist. resulting from mental operations (alone). and indulged in dreams. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. rules are for the weak. are the five sacrificial priests. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. always meets death. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. does run to objects of sense only. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. the eye does not take in color. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. (which is) like entering a house without a door. if you. when troubled by desire to enjoy. too.
(but) accumulated in numerous (forms). and on my moving about. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. who being extinct. All are greatest in their own spheres. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. the lord of (all) creatures. Hear the reason why. (Now) go where (you) like. I am the greatest. because the Apâna is subject to you. When I am extinct. Welfare be to you! Support one another. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. And the Prâna and Apâna. owing to (their) specific qualities. and on my moving about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. go away happily.He. and again moved about. When I am extinct. and all support one another. ‘You are not the greatest among us. and the Apâna said to him. There are others moving about.’ Then the Apâna moved about.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. and not greatest. is the greatest. I am the greatest. O beautiful one! spoke these words. they again move about. Being friendly with one another. they again move about. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. and again moved about. and on whose moving about. Hear the reason why. and on my moving about. they again move about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. There is one unmoving (life-wind). and the Udâna. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. The Vyâna only is subject to you. And the Prâna and Apâna. You are not the greatest among us. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and the Samâna spoke again. I am the greatest. and the Vyâna also. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. O Prâna. Hear the reason why.’ The Prâna again moved about. they again move about. and the Samâna. and the Samâna. (which are) five. I am the greatest. they again move about. and on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and again moved about. I am the greatest. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. spoke to him. And on my moving about. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. verily. My own self is one only. When I am extinct. and pleasing one another. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you.
From desire the semen is produced. (the quality of) passion. or Vyâna.On this. The two – good and evil – are a pair. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. Hear me. (its) ashes. and between them is the fire. in which the offering is thrown. Day and night are a pair. and (it) is also produced from color. secondly. the Samâna comes into operation again. and emancipation. being accompanied by intelligence. From the combination of the semen and the blood. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. or Samâna. that which is other than this first comes to him. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. or transversely. It is the teaching of the Veda. indeed. The instrument. CHAPTER X On this. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. these. their function is performed: then. between them is the fire. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. hear me speak about that. the Prâna comes first into operation. the agent. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). which is of excellent glory. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. which (move) upwards. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. the pleasure is produced from union. between them is the fire. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. that the fire verily is all the deities. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. the action. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. they relate this ancient story. This is the effect of the Udâna. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. The nose. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and the eye. or downwards. which (move) upwards. or downwards. too. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. (it) is also produced from taste. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. and (it) is also produced from a sound. the Samâna and Vyâna. and (it) is also produced from touch. too. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. what comes into existence first. between them is the fire. The smoke of that (fire). The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. and the tongue. and (it) is also produced from smell. or Apâna. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and the . and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. the Apâna then comes into operation. his Prâna. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. First. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or transversely.
This being. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. agreeable and disagreeable. and sages. is the counselor in all action. And cooking food for himself. CHAPTER XI There is one director. mind and understanding. and the snakes. and the Dakshinâ. These. whatever is heard by the ear. Taught by that instructor. the Hotri priest. too. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and touch as the fifth. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. enjoy their own qualities. (and) the seven Rishis. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. and the great sages . truth. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. the director. I move as I am ordered. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. the self the Adhvaryu priest. and the gods. The gods. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). the Brahman. The eating of that which should not be eaten. On. Whatever is thought by the mind. There is one hearer. shines dwelling within the body. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. they relate an ancient story. of which an illustration is stated. whatever is seen by the eye. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. and whatever is smelt by the nose. ‘Om. he who eats. and taste. There is one enemy. who is the self of everything. and the demons. this. he who speaks. there is no second (different) from him. too. final emancipation. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. in a single syllable. and he who hears as the fifth. there is no second (different) from him. these seven are causes of action. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. And among the learned who understand (everything). the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. On this. the Stotra in which. and color. approaching Prajâpati. he who sees. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. On that Sâman hymns. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. he who thinks. The learned man. The gods had been engaged in gifts. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. they ran away in (various) directions. there is no second director. the venerable one said. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. and he who understands. whatever is spoken by speech. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. And I am here devoid of qualities.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. are sung. Living under that instructor. being (himself) a ruler.skin. To him who is not learned. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. by Prajâpati. and the ear as the fifth. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. Impelled by that same (being). the Sastra. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. Taught by that instructor. the downward lifewind. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. He who smells. There is one kinsman. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. like water on a declivity. the Brahman priest in which. destroying this food again produces it. Smell. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. and sages. being possessed of qualities. (about the) instruction of the snakes. there is no second (different) from him. sound. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). is the upward life-wind. he. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. He destroys the food. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. my fire of (high) qualifications. eating various (kinds of) food. each in its own place.’ Hearing that. is ruined. there is no second (different) from him. There is one instructor.
owing to his desires. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. There. all engaged in different (pursuits). are always within the heart. The instructor. full of brilliance. the Brahman the fire. and do not exult. Entering it. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. seven (forms of) concentration. And I have entered the great forest. when there is a distinction from it. and causes of generation. the Brahman water. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. and is to be crossed by one singly. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. and the guests eat the fruits. and emancipation the fruit. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. (namely) the five senses. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. the learner. with faces (turned) downwards. becomes a Brahmachârin. casting aside vows and actions. seven fruits. This is the description of the forest. He is rapt in the Brahman. There is nothing more subtle than that. there is no other happiness equal to. which depends on knowledge. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. the sages. and seven (forms of) initiation. There is one fire here. There is nothing smaller than that. who. and having a good mind.in restraint of the senses. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. the gods. and nobody is afraid of them. and seven guests. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. They are not afraid of anybody. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. Understanding it they practiced it. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. There always dwell seven females there. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. the Brahman the instructor. the snakes. and fragrant. Acting sinfully in the world. And there is fuel here. there is nothing larger than that. and of beautiful colors. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. The good who attain to that. But he who. and what the rivers. there is no other instructor. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. and having been instructed with one word. when there is no distinction from it. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. the hearer. in which intelligence is the tree. the twice-born do not grieve. that. the Brahman his origin. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. connected with the Brahman. and the demons. in various places. the way to which consists in worldly objects. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. the great sages receive hospitality. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. In that forest are seven large trees. have no fear afterwards. and the hills and mountains. merely adheres to the Brahman. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. and mixed. Having had one teacher. and the enemy. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. There is nothing more afflicting than that. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). The qualities are the fruits. which has contentment for its water. seven hermitages. . another forest shines forth.
as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. of this goat have gone to their sources. is this holy forest. since the Vedic text is such. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. Not desiring any object of desire. indeed. (This) creature will obtain welfare. take him (to them) and consult (them). Understand that. they act (accordingly). We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. . (the matter) will be fit for consideration. His eye (will enter) the sun. I see the individual self in the body. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. victory. After hearing their consent. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. And understanding it. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. or old age. and as the constant entity underlying them. Glory. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. as understood by Brâhmanas. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. we do not rely on what is not visible. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. they are born so as not to lose courage. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. nor yet do I hear various sounds. they relate an ancient story.They absorb all the higher delights of people. that will enter water. mother. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. praise tranquility. and greatness. The life-winds. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. There is no offence on my part. I perceive no tastes. or death. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. and I think only his unmoving body remains. Nature desires objects which are liked. Such. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. On this. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). I see no color. If I spoke further. merging the self in the self. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. especially as he is dependent. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. then the sacrifice is for the goat. and again emerge from the same. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). too. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. Those whose wishes are reduced. (his) ear the quarters. too. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. this goat will not be destroyed. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. brilliance. The teaching of the elders is. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. the richest. abide. And aspiring to that forest. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. nor even do I entertain any fancies. and his life-winds likewise the sky. Apart from them. Dwelling in that (self). what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. whose sins are burnt up by penance. enlightenment. whatever in him is produced from water. and I do not touch. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. being directed by the Kshetrajña. devote themselves to Brahman. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. there is no taint on my natures. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. not hating any evil. together with their chiefs. father. Although actions are performed. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. perfection.
The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. he was walking about near the sea. and I say (to you). O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. as we have heard. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. proud of his strength. who is alike to all beings. name him to me. have life. Say. the tongue. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. my mind is enlightened. they relate an old story. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. The life-winds. And all these entities. you hear the sound produced in space. . too. what shall I do for you? The creatures. (in the shape of) a dialogue. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. And to one who is free from these manifestations. a descendant of Kritavîrya. The ocean said: If. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. you believe. and (the quality of) goodness. said. you touch the qualities of the air. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. who take shelter with me. and with joined hands. Or what do you think. and understanding it. O venerable sir! I approach you. together with (the quality of) passion. The ocean. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. the mind. possessed of a thousand arms. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. you drink watery juices. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. who might stand against me in the field. and who is released on all hands. Give them security. there is no fear anywhere. Of these the indestructible is the existent. who is devoid of expectations. Once on a time. they act (accordingly). such is the double manifestation of the self. who is free from the pairs of opposites. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). are being destroyed. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. who has subdued his self. being directed by the Kshetrajña. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. freed from delusion. saluting him. you see the colors of shining bodies. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. For having heard your opinion.
and taking swords and lances. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. became Vrishalas. full of great wrath. What good. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. a bodiless voice from heaven. whose penance was very great. said to those sages.Then the king. which was heard by all people. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. Hearing that. – having performed very difficult deeds. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. and very firm in his vows. There was (once) a royal sage.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. who was veracious. it wishes. taking up his axe. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. hearing that (story). to slaughter these kings. blazed forth. they relate an ancient story. dear friend. They will. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. Thus the Dravidas. turned to subtle (questions). in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. Âbhîras. abandoning (those) great deeds. you will die. and blew away the army of the king. the Kshatriyas. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. became Vrishalas. like antelopes troubled by a lion. being a Brâhmana. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. In company with his kinsmen. named Alarka. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. Then some of the Kshatriyas. Paundras. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. (Though) surrounded by enemies. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). not forgiving his father’s murder. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. high-souled. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). The mind said: These arrows. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. whose power was unbounded. Then the power of Râma. As by its unsteadiness. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. his grandfathers. shot away volleys of arrows. went away. It is not proper for you. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. with Rikîka as their head. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. O noble one!’ But Râma. only pierce your own vital part. Seeing him killed and fallen. and your vital part being pierced. like a tree of many branches. spoke sweetly to Râma. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. ‘Desist. to make all mortals perform action. do you perceive. Râma also taking up a bow. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. who understood duty. too. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. together with the Sâbaras. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. burning the hosts of the enemy. entered mountains and inaccessible places. too.
Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. the (ear) hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. The tongue said: These arrows. The ear said: These arrows. one hankers after them only. you will die. These arrows. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. and your vital part being pierced. They will only pierce your own vital part. The nose said. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. and your vital part being pierced. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. you will die. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The skin said: These arrows. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. the skin hankers after them only. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The eye said: These arrows. he then said after consideration: – . Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. Hearing that.Smelling very many perfumes. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and then you will lose (your) life. Hearing that. this (tongue) hankers after them only. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all.
When vices were in the ascendant. pleasure. being impelled by which. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. of great glory. you will die. When the bodily frame is destroyed. Ambarîsha. wrath. On this. and again birth. and good (men) were oppressed. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. Sleep. Then directing his mind to one point. They will only pierce your own vital part. and he who desires. He (then) restraining his own vices. then uttered this verse. and after deliberating for a long time. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. the best of talented (men). three foes in (this) world. amazed. is energetic about subjugating others. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. and being troubled by desire. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. Obtaining those. he meets death. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. That avarice – cut (it) off. the greatest. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. Exultation. he became steady. attained high perfection. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. he. Perform a fearful penance. and applied himself to concentration of mind. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. but there is one. is born again and again. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. cut (it) off with sharp swords. and your vital part being pierced. thence you will obtain the highest good. and engages in action. a courageous man. then anxiety comes into existence. a man even does what ought not to be done. and honoring good men. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. Therefore. who had become tranquil (in mind). The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. owing to these qualities. and delusion. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). and senses controlled. free from sloth. persistent hatred. having a tranquil self. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. properly . and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. he reached the highest perfection. according to qualities. destroyed all foes. Grief. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. (that vice).Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. joy. The understanding said: These arrows. For from avarice is born desire. being impelled by which. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. sloth. And the royal sage.’ Do you understand this too. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. verily. And at the expiration of life. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters).
or that everything is my domain. I looked for my own offspring. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. When I did not find it on the earth. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. there is no other sovereignty here. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. I cannot find my domain. I wish. (Considering) whose this was. holding which. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. searching through the (whole) earth. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. When I did not find it among them. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. While that king of unbounded power was seated. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. I believe. Resorting to this conviction. by way of punishment. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. and restraining avarice by courage.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. and enjoy while you live. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. engaged in meditation. Even this self is not mine.perceiving this. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. Then on the expiration of the delusion. in all affairs. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. the king recovered himself. or the whole earth is mine. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. too. intelligence again came to me. and. Then when the delusion had gone off. and said nothing in reply. to be terminable. is subject (to me). I looked for Mithilâ. as the planet upon the sun. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine.’ Thus spoken to. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. Janaka said: Though this country. This is sovereignty. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). King Janaka. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. then came the delusion on me. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. And as mine. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. therefore) while you desire. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. Now hear the conviction. though this country. is subject to you. who destroyed the one (chief vice). by which. by the glorious Ambarîsha. What conviction have you adopted. a delusion suddenly came upon him. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. what belief you have resorted to. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. avarice. so (is it) that of others too.
’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. dwelling with preceptors. and the body is tied down by action. by which that (entity). and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. And those who. or. Whatever creatures there are in the world. or by one whose self is not refined. you have guessed. to households. smiling. action and knowledge. and also without qualities. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. not by the body. Actions have a beginning and an end. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees .subject to me. come here today to learn (something) about you. and which does not turn back. the Bhûtas. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. and my intelligence is very frivolous. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. I am a Brâhmana. and confused. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. or residence in forests. verily. the spoke the understanding. (namely) for the gods. by which those who understand that proceed. that. or among mendicants. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. according to your own understanding. nothing exists that is a cause of him. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. Then the Brâhmana. have their understanding full of tranquility. In the (rules for) final emancipation. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. movable or not moving. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. namely. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. A good means is found. This path is traversed by the understanding. I am emancipated. the nave of which is the Brahman. observing vows. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. for this purpose. where. I am a forester. it is not laid down. that a certain thing should be done. indeed. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. together with guests. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. With your heart intent upon the real entity. you will certainly come into my self. and narrow. and even over heaven. or else this knowledge. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. Sovereignty over the whole world. the instructor is the upper Arani. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. the Pitris. and a certain thing should not. Hence. All these actions of mine are. is (to be found) a description of it. I am not such. is perceived as by bees. You are the one person to turn this wheel.
for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). (when he was) seated. connected with final emancipation. ‘I’ (he said). A talented pupil. and also desirous of final emancipation. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. Speak. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. Listen to that. And we. (which are) means of direct perception. One should adopt as many of these things. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. Arjuna said: Where. likewise. and accurately. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. who put (his) questions properly. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. who preserved (all) vows. what penance. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. am come to you (who are) venerable. put (his) questions with joined bands. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. indeed.and hears. and what sin? These questions of mine. truly. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. There is none else here who can explain these questions. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. is I myself. in hundreds and in thousands. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. too. who had approached him (for instruction). and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. as may here be practicable – unperceived. all of various descriptions. between a preceptor and a pupil. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. ‘whose goal is the highest good. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. And he. are afraid of worldly life. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. something about the highest good. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. Vâsudeva said: On this. and those whose form is perceived. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. who was possessed of (the .’ The preceptor. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. I pray of you with (bowed) head. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I.
the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. and the severance also. Understand that. on which all entities subsist. and of the four orders. in Brahman’s mansion. met each other. . I will state to you today. The preceptor said: All this. who was tranquil. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and Atri also. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. Prajâpati also is truth. even while dwelling in this world. and likewise unity and variety. when thus spoken to by the sages. Formerly. desiring knowledge. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. namely. from whom anger and vexation have departed. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. the future. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. and casts off birth and death. was declared by Brahman.necessary) qualifications. The Brahman is the truth. is esteemed highest. and wealth. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. and renunciation as the best penance. And those twice-born (sages). which is always possessed of leaves. which ought to be apprehended. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. He who does not desire anything. Bharadvâja. the branches of which are the great egoism. which is eternal. They live by penance. the gross elements the smaller boughs. and also Kâsyapa. and is eternal. which belongs to olden times. and becoming wearied of their own actions. who are possessed of knowledge. is released from misery. and so forth. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. Gautama. and likewise Bhârgava. and the seed of which is the Brahman. are full of the truth. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. the present. the senses. and has no egoism about anything. saw Brahman. and likewise of the castes. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. Vasishtha. there is no doubt of that. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. penance is the truth. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. desire. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and who is devoid of egoism. I will state to you. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. and who are the constant creators of the people. after having traveled over all paths. always possessed of flowers. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. the sages. and Visvâmitra. the entities are born from the truth. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. the great sages. is emancipated. who was like (his) shadow. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. who understands the creation of all entities. from whom (all) sin has departed. Brihaspati. and piety. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. full of humility. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection.
I will speak to you. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. It has three qualities. The great self. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. rigid in his vows. violation of (the rules of) conduct. passion. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. Where darkness is restrained. as accepted by good men. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. and are joined to one another. passion there prevails. learn those accurately. Learn. grief. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. Light. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. The wise always speak of piety as one. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. now speaking exhaustively. it also appears combined (with others). Goodness is the match of darkness. these are called the three qualities. lightness. blindness. which you should understand. Its characteristic is also impiety. finding fault with good acts. one sees not these. want of memory. appears to be production. When it prevails. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). such is the eternal creation. and likewise also egoism. of all beings. goodness there prevails. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. avarice. all-pervading. which is productive of pleasure. he. among all beings. the second is that of householders. want of discrimination. and attend on one another. indecision about actions. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. The order of foresters. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. everlasting. will now be stated together with the reasons. and goodness. its characteristic. space. and it is constant in sinful actions. . immaturity (of intellect). and is called delusion. nihilism. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. encircled by the. Delusion. and the five great elements. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. want of liberality. and five constituent principles. and passion is the match of goodness. and also all the deities. Light. which are all coupled with one another. being constituted by the three qualities. Darkness. which is in a state of equilibrium. ignorance. Prajâpati. air. and likewise serve one another. and those three channels run on. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. and next after that too. Where passion is restrained. sun.distinctly. Indra. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. and of the highest seat. consisting of three qualities. haughtiness. sleep. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. and is the cause of successive (acts). and immutable. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. and of the understanding as ruler. never comes by delusion. and darkness the match of goodness. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. faith. O noble ones! from me. He who accurately understands the elements. casting aside sin. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. attains to all the spotless worlds. next after that is that of foresters. the whole of the qualities. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. and getting rid of all bonds. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). He who. the ten senses and the one (sense). This is the nature of darkness. the unperceived likewise. I will subsequently state the means to that. fear. (but) having four quarters. eleven. The true nature of their characteristics. which depend on one another. and which are bridges of piety. and goodness is also the match of passion. in aggregation and separation. Passion is said to consist in activity.
toil. And whatever such people there are in this world. anger is called the great obscurity. sink into darkness. pride of performance without (actual) performance. the great delusion. bonds. insects. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. want of liberality. want of straightforwardness. desire. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. They go to the hell. delusion. as Chândâlas. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. stolidity. birds. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). and vain eating. that is considered to be dark conduct. and want of forgiveness. frenzy. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. unfriendliness. wrath. peace. who are sunk in darkness. want of forgiveness likewise. Coming to a sinful womb. vilifying. vanity. evil disposition. want of knowledge. by cutting. There. thinking of (this) world. animosity. and also creatures born from eggs. are found in various places in this world. who break through (all) regulations. and idiots. and growing old in (good) actions. buying and selling. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). Reviling. lassitude. war. and death the blinding obscurity. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. demons. who bear the marks of their own actions. affliction. Darkness. breaking. preservation. becoming men of meritorious actions. These dark. and also its qualities. strength. and serpents. the great obscurity called anger. Learn. that one sees the real in what is unreal. And whatever other states of mind. animals. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. sinful action. they are all held to be dark. deluded convictions. slaughter. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. pointing out others’ weaknesses. piercing. touching other people’s weak points. vindictiveness. I have now duly described to you. the thought (that this or that is) mine. animosity. sages and saints and gods become deluded. this is considered to be dark conduct. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. and all quadrupeds. this is considered to be dark conduct. Such is the Vedic text. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. backbiting. connected with delusion. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). fierceness and cruelty. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). want of self-restraint. evilconducted men. want of faith also. and worms. power. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. or lisping men. argument. understands this properly. endurance. how. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. Who. all these are dark qualities. and whatever vain gifts. exercise and quarrel too. who. and also its source. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. and also animosity towards people. going into inferior ways. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. deaf and dumb men. they exert themselves. harboring evil thoughts. delusion. beauty. vanity. beasts of burden. valor. indeed. abuse . want of faith. and growing old in their own duties. all these qualities. Whatever vain actions (there are). wishing for pleasure. (or become) the immovable entities. pleasure and pain. indeed. or deaf. battle. doers of sinful acts. repining. anger. Injuring (others). to be born in the lower hell.behavior of the lowest quality. going beyond the Sûdra womb. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. cold and heat. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. (namely) the brute (species).
Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. for articles. and of the quality of goodness. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. and create (various) bodies.’ affection generated by the qualities. absence of wrath. joy. devoid of egoism. pleasure and delight. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. contumely. service vain. he attains the highest in the next world. enlightenment and happiness also. equable everywhere. service. absence of fear. minuteness. purity. one obtains whatever one desires. the ceremony of Svadhâ. doubt. obedience. censure. harboring desire. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. slaughter. (on another). They obtain and divide whatever they desire. pleasure. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. for men. prowess. who are enveloped by passion. and also sacrificing and study. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. purity. life as a Brahmachârin. disgust. abandonment on all hands. these men. forgiveness. they rejoice. beneficial to all creatures. devotion. and free from grief. truth. piety vain. and for houses. equability. the ceremony of Vashat. righteous feelings. heedlessness. harmlessness. nobility. The men who meditate on past. absence of calumniation. and actions with expectations. and future entities in this world. boasting. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. Confidence. valor. faith. emancipation. They give and receive. and to be gods. praise. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. gifts and acceptance of gifts. learning vain. common scandal. absence of backbiting. liberality. and attachment also. association with women. gets rid of all passionate qualities. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. policy. those talented men reach heaven. indifference. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. vexation. and make Tarpana. courage. ostentation. forgiveness. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. for women. contentment. dexterity. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. straightforwardness. and labor vain. unbroken piety. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. freedom from delusion. wakefulness. good behavior. self-restraint. theft. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. modesty. humility. all these qualities. sacrifices vain. have (their) currents downwards. by means of nature. perceive (everything) aright. attendance. Understanding this according to rule. (holding) knowledge to be vain. (good) conduct vain. belongings. and also want of faith. vows vain. absence of cruelty. joviality. They are said to have their currents upwards. haughtiness. devoid of expectations. Thus. Getting rid of all sins. compassion to (all) creatures. whose conduct is of this description. disrespect and respect. contentment. expiations. defiance. auspicious rites. The power of governing. not full of desires. absence of stinginess. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. gambling. and also sacrifice. penance vain. Born again and again in this world. for living creatures. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. vexing (oneself). present. treachery and likewise deception. freedom from expectations. management. joy. The . freedom from laziness. who adhere to the quality of goodness. salutation. and instrumental or vocal music. The man who always understands these qualities.uttering falsehoods. laudation. receipt of gifts vain. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. bad gifts. devotion to dancing. and unblamable. vows and regulation. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. wealth. the duty of the good. abiding in the seat of the Brahman.
they feed on one another. in union. and being free from all misery. The light in the sun is goodness. Pradhâna. goodness. Threefold are the gifts given. The day should be understood to be threefold. Seeing the sun rising. and goodness likewise to be less. goodness. but differing in development.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. and likewise months. production and absorption. and the conjunctions. And whatever there is in this world. seasons. he. is released from all qualities. the night is stated to be threefold. the increase and diminution will now be stated. The sun is goodness developed. and the future. is said to be. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Passion. the unperceived. and the enlightener. immovable. suffering trouble from the heat. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. piety. moving in a body. evil-doers likewise are darkness. nature. feel the warmth. there: exist three qualities. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. darkness. and goodness likewise to be less. not developed. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. years. And where goodness is developed. They perform their journey together. being connected with the lowest quality. there darkness should be understood to be little. unshaking. the Prâna. and travelers. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). holy. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). and the qualities. change. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. existent and also non-existent – all these. Even from afar. The man who always understands these qualities. the men of the quality of darkness. threefold are the worlds. The past. So in all shining bodies. in the Brâhmana. abiding in those of the upward current. and likewise follow one another. goodness. (consisting) of the three qualities. constant. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. there passion should be understood to be little. the present. and threefold the path. Among immovable entities. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. . threefold the sacrifices performed. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. the Apâna. Where passion is developed. there darkness should be understood to be little. but is not attached to the qualities. Where darkness is increased. passion. destruction. and the highest. in the lower entities. all that is (made of) these three qualities. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. womb. The creation of the qualities is eternal. not small. There is no doubt of this. and its pure operations. and lust. Of all these acting with one another. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. and moving about collectively. freed from the body. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. the qualities of passion are variable. immutable. wealth. these are the three qualities. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. the passionate remain in the middle. The three qualities – goodness. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. go down. And as long as goodness and darkness. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. enjoys the qualities. For they act with cause or without cause. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. eternal. and passion also. They all depend on one another. evildoers are alarmed. abiding in those of the middle current. the heat is the quality of passion. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. abiding. passion in the Kshatriya. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. and the Udâna. so long is passion said (to exist) here. threefold the gods. Darkness. and passion likewise to be less. half-months. unperceived. unborn. They are attached to one another.
and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. and by its own light. Sound. memory. and who are always possessed of a good heart. that is said to be the second creation. Brahma. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). the source of all qualities. the supporter of consciousness. and are inconstant. Minuteness. these being emancipated. the producer of the deities. it is said to be the first creation. space. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. who have subdued wrath. the producer of the entities. heads. touch. creates (them). and light as the fifth. and smell as the fifth. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. who are talented. and are dissolved in the reverse order. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the Prajâpati. the great self. Sambhu. the operations (connected with these) have causes. it likewise charms the world. courage. and faces on all sides. It has hands and feet on all sides. It is a deity. is (afterwards) called egoism. creatures are deluded. the transcendent. whose minds are clear. who are possessed of knowledge. air. it is the creator of the three worlds. lightness. and whose senses are subdued. and thus that source of all entities. it stands pervading everything in the world. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. In these five great elements. not different from one another. and smell. the light. the valiant. touch. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. who are not avaricious. who are true to their promises. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. verily. and likewise cognition. who practice meditation. that talented man. attain greatness. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. he is the governor. it causes all this to move. and likewise color. it is full of light. who have pondered on the self. Then when every entity. the final dissolution approaches. he among all people comes not by delusion. When. ancient being. means of perception. and insignificant. Vishnu. who are devoid of egoism. it is that from which the people are produced. intelligence. Now people who comprehend the understanding. and as that from which the changes take place. that from which the changes take place. They are born one from the other. and golden. Caused by the production of avarice. and their name is delusion. and of the mind. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. of universal form. who are constant at concentration of mind. water. inexhaustible. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. movable or immovable. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. the understanding. Knowing that (great self). were the five great elements born – earth. taste. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. means of knowledge. has been dissolved. taste. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). abides transcending the understanding. connected with . color. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. it has eyes.
as connected with the self. The fifth entity is earth. ear. the two hands. and the presiding deity there is the wind. as connected with objects it is taste. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. as connected with the self. as connected with objects it is motion. self-consciousness. Likewise (there is) egoism. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. And the eleven organs. mind. The ear. the mind is the eleventh. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. and worms of the like description. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. and depending upon one another. as connected with objects. as connected with the self it is called the eye. As connected with the self they mention the mind. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. Those born from eggs. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. as connected with the self it is the nose. The second entity is air. and speech are restrained. and the presiding deity there is Indra. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). then the Brahman shines (before him). and the understanding is the twelfth. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. and space. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. those born from perspiration. the tongue. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. the presiding deity there is Rudra. the organ of excretion. which follows after the five entities. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. and the Vyâna also. Space is the first entity. such is the group of organs. the presiding deity there is the Moon. these are helpless and powerless. excluded from the self. This group one should subdue first. The Apâna wind. the two feet. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned.flesh and blood. is called the organ of excretion. next as connected with objects (it is) color. as connected with the self. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. Understanding these. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. This is said to be the . and five the organs of action. the skin. As connected with the self. tongue. as connected with objects it is excretion. Then first. The mind should be understood to be among both. The Prâna and the Apâna. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. and the organ of generation. and the presiding deity there is Soma. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. as connected with objects it is the semen. nose. and together with speech. and the presiding deity there is lightning. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. and speech as the tenth. and understanding unswerving. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. the two eyes. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. those born from germs. water. eye. the producer of all beings. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. the Samâna. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. and the presiding deity there is the sun. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. as also all reptiles. is speech which relates to all the gods. and whose mind is pure. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. As connected with the self. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. as connected with the self it is called the ear. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. who perceive the truth. as connected with objects it is actions. the nose also as the fifth. The third (entity) is said to be light. the motion of which is downward. and the presiding deity there is fire. the Udâna. He whose skin.
Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. A knowledge of this. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. and being concentrated in mind. Restraining objects of desire within the self. O chief of the twice-born! and know. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. and restrain it.) the senses. Such is the teaching of the ancients. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. bursting through the earth. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. which are born after the lapse of some time. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. It is settled. the presiding deity there is the sun. He who duly understands this. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. (namely) sacrifice. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. Those beings. which is uninterrupted. having his cravings destroyed. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and than which there is nothing higher. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. in which one lives alone. next as connected with objects it is color. The second entity is air. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. It is a great ocean. however. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. and who is devoid of passion. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. the objects of the senses. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and the feeling of touch is air. which is made up of the five elements. which is surrounded by the five currents. Space is the first entity. are the beings born from wombs. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). for (every one) who is born. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. One should place all these together. are said to be born from germs. and which is full of the Brahman. then being self-illumined. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. this same (body). and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. the flowing (element) water. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. should cast it aside. pleased with contacts. unfit to be seen. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. which has nine passages and two deities. fearful and unfathomable. and likewise the sound is space. too. The fourth should be understood to be water. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. and released from everything. and those which move crookedly. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. which is free from attachment. that he is released from all sins. and which rests on the real (entity).second (mode of) birth. Understand about them also. and the five great elements. gift at a sacrifice. and is sanctifying. and sacred study. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). that the body in which the color is fire. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. The fifth element is earth. . the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. and full of delusion. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. is ever happy. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. curtail it. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. The third is called light. together with the immortals. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. When everything is absorbed into the mind. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. and is named delusion. and inferior. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. (viz. and hold them by the mind. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. which is full of passion. the presiding deity there is Soma. The world. which is difficult to move in this mortal world.
Varuna is the king of the waters. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. and go into wrong paths after death. Purandara of (all) deities. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and Pitris. and also gods. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. all companies of Brâhmanas. The Nyagrodha. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). The Himavat. (am lord). Understanding everything. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. (all these). and the bands of Rakshasas. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. wrath. and of all entities whatever I. treachery. the Guruskandha. and also all the great sages. the Sveta. the Trikûtavat. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. Agni. the Sinsapâ. these are the princes among trees in this world. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. Non-destruction is the highest piety. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and the Meshasringa. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. the Vindhya. Understand him to be the ruler. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. and . and likewise the Sâlmali. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. and Pisâkas. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. He verily is Vishnu. fear. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. and Nâgas. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. Kings desire piety. he then perceives that highest (principle). CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. the Pâriyâtra. and also as various. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and falsehood also. among cattle also the bull. among vehicles the elephant. Such is the highest creation among all entities. and Yakshas. and Rakshasas. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. ever extol. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. who am full of the Brahman. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. and Prajâpati. and the bands of Bhûtas. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. rejoice in this world. Freed from all sins. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and the Koshthavat mountain. and the ocean among rivers. and Varuna. the Nîla. and the creator. and demons. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. likewise. She is called Pârvatî. of Gandharvas. there is no doubt of that. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and great.Desire. and Yakshas. Kinnaras. the Sahya. and Mitra. and birds. Him. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. the Mahendra. who has beautiful eyes. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. the creator. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. changing from time to time. these are the princes among mountains. and the moon among the Nakshatras. the Pippala. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. the sun is the prince among the planets. lose all their qualifications. He is the supporter. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. and seeing the self within the self. the north among the quarters. concentrating the mind within the mind. avarice. For he is the ruler of men. and delusion the reservoir. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). Understand this. demons. and among denizens of the forest the lion. which are difficult to get rid of. Soma is the lord of herbs. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. likewise. the uncreated Hari. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. the Bhâsa. the Jambu. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. and among females a male. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. snakes. of gods. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent.
Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. And the moon likewise. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. color is the characteristic of light. giving prominence to knowledge. taste is the characteristic of water. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. verily. is purely knowledge. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. which is void of symbols. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. do not know themselves. together with names and characteristics. The (sensation of) touch. (though) concealed. then enters into the Kshetrajña. to be created and tied down to a beginning. the essence of water. As to the smell of the earth. transcendent. and hear it. the supporter of all beings. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. and homeless. The quality of space is sound. The quality of light is color. and that is comprehended by the eye. The characteristic of devotion is action. and that is comprehended by the understanding. It is stated that day was first and then night. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. and knowledge. To (this) positive comprehension.destruction is of the nature of impiety. middle. and end. and that is comprehended by the ear. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. Thought is the quality of mind. belonging to the air. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. The earth is the source of . the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). to the truth. The Kshetrajña. is perceived by the skin. he repairs to that which has no second. and from the svâhâ ceremony. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. free from the ceremony of salutations. the unperceived (is appointed). is the Kshetrajña. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. in this world. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. and the creation. know. middle. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. And I always see. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. action the characteristic of men. no one. And crossing beyond darkness. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. Only the Kshetrajña attains. and the Mahat of knowledge. and end. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. The qualities created again and again. that is comprehended by the nose. who resides in the tongue. the characteristic of renunciation. sound is the characteristic of space. and transcending the qualities. the characteristic of earth. The Purusha knows it. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. abandoning qualities. the characteristic of mind is thought. there is no doubt of that. who is unmoving. Taste. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. (else) attains. and transcending death and old age. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. being nonintelligent. that months have the bright first. Hence a man who understands piety. which is great. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. is always comprehended by the tongue. is smell. and having his sins destroyed. The characteristic of mind is meditation. he is the Supreme Lord. and about the means for its comprehension.
the eastern quarter is the first. which is measured by months and half months. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. among (sacrificial) animals. I. the goat is mentioned (as the first). Of all mountains. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. All accumulations end in exhaustion. and the twice-born among men. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. all that is called Sâvitrî. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. likewise space is the source of sound. who is devoid of egoism. among sacrifices. likewise. and Yakshas. and regulations. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. of which the environment is home. And the unthinkable. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. the offering (into the fire) is the best. and Rakshasas. the Plaksha. Prajâpati of deities. fire is said to be the first of the elements. and life ends in death. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. all ascents end in falls. without distinction. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. and the Prâna lifewind. These are the qualities of the elements. Bhûtas. which rotates in space and time. Pisâkas. there is no doubt of that. penance. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. is everchanging. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. there is no doubt of that. the fastenings in which are vexations. The Syena is first among birds. All action ends in destruction. who is full of the Brahman. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. is stated to be the first. Sacrifice. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. all associations end in dissociations. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. is the source of the entire universe. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. which is lit up by the great egoism. the ever holy field of Brahman. of which the pole is the mind. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. the end of grief ever pleasure. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. and the same is also the end of everything. water is the best. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. Dânavas. which abounds in old age and grief. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. observances. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. and among all reptiles. There is no end for knowledge. Of all ages the Krita is the first. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. all this ends in destruction. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. the noise of which is trouble and toil. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. which moves through (all) the worlds. water of tastes. Of all orders. whatever is prescribed in this world. the ocean is the first-born. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. gold (is the first). The sun is the first among shining bodies. study. the end of pleasure is ever grief. which is sustained by the qualities. there is no doubt of that. The great Vishnu. which is full of actions and instruments of action. death is certain for whatever is born. Kinnaras. snakes. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. And among all immovable entities. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. Among all precious things. the mud for which is penance and regulations. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. whose senses are subjugated. and of men. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. that of householders (is the first). Îsvara is the lord. gift. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. And of all gods. .smells. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. too. of all words. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on.
which is large. the imperishable source (of all). The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). and constant in veracity and piety. (That) sage. and with one’s external organs restrained. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). should avoid heedlessness. transcending all pairs of opposites. he should have matted hair. There should also be a girdle of muñga. and be of pure vows. behaving like good men. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. the forester. should be kind. all the world. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. Always devoted to his own wife. who is devoted to Vedic rites. and check. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and should give and receive gifts. who is of rigid vows. take food without decrying it. sit. and which is (never) fatigued. And as to the other remaining three duties. the sage who understands piety. making gifts. study. The Brâhmana householder. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. should return (from his preceptor’s house). to follow it is good. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. to such a one the (word) good applies. gift. and who understands the Vedas. and released from all sins. conquers heaven. they are pious duties. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. attains the highest goal. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. and which is devoid of consciousness. and full of faith. released from all impressions. with the permission of the preceptor. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. which is unchecked. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. and also the beggar. and which is extended by means of attachments. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. and alms. or of cotton. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. or also a deerskin. One should learn and teach. this has been celebrated from ancient times. This wheel of life. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. and self-restrained. abridge. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. who is thus devoted. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. kind. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. and should always associate with good men. and equable to all creatures. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. is never deluded. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and should stand. and who has duly observed vows. and sacrifice. That man among all creatures. possessed of forgiveness. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. should behave like the good. the speed of which is like that of the mind. in the way above stated. together with the immortals should cast away. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. who is pure. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. and also receiving untainted gifts. with his senses restrained. The householder. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. which moves towards joy and pleasure. and have his sacred . should. With regard to those three duties. and take exercise (duly). and the Brahmachârin. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. who is self-restrained.
and when he goes about for alms. He should move about the world like a worm. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. the sage should become free from all action. or bitter. being restrained in mind. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. or again a forester. addicted to sacred study. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. be engaged in sacred study. and should eschew dwelling with friends. preserving his hair and moustache. life as a Brahmachârin. conquers heaven. kind. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. performing sacrifices. A man should always bathe in clean water. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. or a Brahmachârin. When eating. seeking merely to sustain life. and should not . And with his senses restrained. he may dwell in one place. fruits. air. He should honor a guest who comes. looking out for the (proper) time. and likewise no sweet juices. One who is thus devoted. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. should not enter a town again. freedom from anger. pure in body. nor should he eat when honored. is esteemed. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. and also straightforwardness. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). always with clean water.thread. or the cavern of a mountain. and leaves. his path being pointed out by the sun. and depending on the deities. or a forest. He should without sloth feed on water. and devoted to veracity and piety. and roots and Syâmâka grain. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. and restrained in all his senses. always dexterous. who is concentrated in mind. and always living within the forest. He should not parade (his) piety. veracity. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. not deceptive and not crooked. does not return to birth. or a river likewise. eating little. kind. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. A householder. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. and in the rains. and free from avarice. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. Restraining the external senses. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. and continent. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. full of forgiveness. He should not make any accumulations. In summer. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. restraint of the external organs. and should not rejoice if he obtains. and of rigid observances. in order. Offering safety to all beings. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. or which are pungent. he should not go following after another. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. astringent. freedom from (the habit of) carping. free from passion. or the foot of a tree. living on fruits and leaves. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and concentrated in mind. and reaching the highest seat. and be agreeable to all beings. (Such) a Brahmachârin. he should move about in a secluded place. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. and which have come spontaneously. always in forests. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. Eating only a little. having a mind free from envy. Refined by means of all ceremonies. Nor should he beg for too much alms. He should honor guests. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness.
untainted. and which is also devoid of flesh. who is free from desires. and the Purusha likewise. Those who perceive the self. foot. who is free from egoism. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. one attains heaven. One should not think of what is not come. nor penance. or involving any destruction of life. and leaves. should be free from attachment. and stable. which is free from the operations of the qualities. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and the objects of the senses. sacrifices. and should not take (anything) unasked. and free from distress. Freed from all attachments. He should perform piety. as they come. who understands all truth. One should not perform. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. they never die. exclusively pondering on one point. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. and should be void of (all) belongings. who is free from the pairs of opposites. or back. devoid of color. and also devoid of sound. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. and understanding are absorbed. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. being released from all bonds. and self-controlled. or the mind. and should avoid (all) controversies. . imperishable. One should not perturb any other (person). and the five great elements. which is free from anxiety. and in whom the senses. pebbles likewise. and mind. moving and unmoving. he attains to the highest seat. who is attached to the self. nor the senses. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. and then. or cause to be performed. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. He should not appropriate another’s riches. One should not hate. One who knows the truth.follow his own (mere) desire. and though dwelling in a house. with his accumulations exhausted. divine. any action involving expectation of fruit. being devoted to pious conduct. a wise man should always share (with others). is emancipated. should act without a purpose. who is free from expectations. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. and being equable to all beings. and who is dependent on none. should meditate. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. flowers. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. which is without hands. and who is free from salutations. without a head. nor should he ever give to others. He should not receive from others. nor should one wish for gold. and without fixed appointments with people. nor worlds. water. understanding. nor reflect on that which is past. devoid of smell. there is no doubt of that. not finding fault with piety. The senses. should not teach. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. There the understanding reaches not. nor the deities. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. Nor. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. he should act in the manner of the deluded. after understanding all these. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). He should not defile anything by the eye. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). which is to be understood. nor Vedas. who is free from attachments to any entity. But owing to the helplessness of people. and who understands the truth. he gets emancipation. the unperceived. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. or the assemblage of people. or by speech. nor valor. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). one should disregard the present. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. absolute. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. verily. mind. Though undeluded. Rejecting all things. which is unattached. by an accurate determination about the truth. always dwelling in all entities. One who has anything to do should take earth. without a stomach. devoid of taste or touch. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. egoism. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. depending on none. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine.
which cause birth. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. a creature is emancipated. There are these two birds. The highest Brahman is very far off. Penance is said to be a light. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. and which is the essential element in knowledge. which is always possessed of leaves. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. then understanding the Kshetra. But as to that other who is above them. association and dissociation. there is no doubt of that. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. and likewise unity and diversity. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. He who desires nothing. and some as transcendent and without misery. and despises nothing. he is called intelligent. devoid of knowledge of nature. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. even for (the space of) a wink. the great branches of which are the great elements. (When) the inner self. attaining to the self. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. death. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. understands that which is beyond nature. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. Restraining the self in the self. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. and renunciation the best penance. The learned man who perceives. (which are) unchanging. through the tranquility of the self. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. and supreme. even dwelling in this world. the sprouts within which are the senses. and old age. there is no doubt of that. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. is emancipated. and with an understanding comprehending all. of unthinkable qualities. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. Abandoning all action. it is free from the pairs of opposites. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and devoid of qualities. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. always possessed of flowers. transcending passion. for assimilation with the Brahman. and free from egoism. and whose minds are refined. who are pure. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. developed from the qualities. everlasting. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and (as it were) non-intelligent. and which is fed upon by all creatures. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. and being untainted. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. go to the happy path by penance. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. is emancipated. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. by tranquility only. which abides in all entities. and who is devoid of egoism. there is no doubt of that. is released from misery. becomes eligible. The men of talent. devoid of qualities. and the side branches the objects of sense. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. whether agreeable or disagreeable. becomes fit for immortality.
Some have matted hair and skins. be obtains whatever he desires. some knowledge. and others tranquility. that it exists. Some are devoted to harmlessness. and others indigence. (saying) this is good. gifts. holy. this is good. . we are deluded. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. and other persons sacred study. some are for merit and glory. Such is the doctrine of the learned. who are devoted to knowledge. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. But that is not correct. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. others that that is not so. that fits one for immortality. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and others again (that it is) manifold. others distinct. and come to no determination. and others. Some (say) means should be resorted to. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. We wish. Some are for taking food. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. of ten or twelve (modes). and others (that it is) mixed. Some say both time and space (exist). and others say that is not so. others are intent on fasting. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. believe it to be one. there is no doubt of that. some are in the midst of doubts. too. some various kinds of enjoyments. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. Some (say) everything is doubtful. Some people extol action. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. knowledge. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. too. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. but others extol penance. some for the omission of bathing. harmlessness. Some extol everything. And. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. who were the best of sages. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. and others nothing. nature. Some learned men. and some given up to destruction. having again felt doubts. some wish for riches. some say that is not so. and renunciation. Some Brâhmanas. Some extol final emancipation. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. abandonment. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. the venerable. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness.by control of the life-winds. straightforwardness. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and some for pain. and our mind is distracted. truth. People are acting. and (others) that it exists not. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. and others that there is no doubt. and others that that is not so. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. Some people (say) meditation. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. some are for pleasure. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. such is their relation. Thus having first a tranquil self. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. and others. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. courage. always esteems that. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). Some are devoted to goodness. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. Some people are for bathing. equability. and those who ponder on the element.
One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). travels with great discomfort. attains supreme happiness. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. Now I will proceed to. deliberate on it properly. free from vexation and holy in character. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). and who knows about the qualities. Understand this. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. Hearing it all. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. comprehending the gradations one above the other. The subject is always the being. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. As far as there is a carriage-path. perceive correctly. the light shines. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. Learn that. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Thus nature is perceived. But those wise and talented men. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. and who are infidels in their conduct. O Brâhmanas! Well now. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. being born again and again. and to be constituted of the qualities.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. and going swiftly. where the carriage-path stops. devoid of parts. afflicted by reason of the chariot. I will tell you something more. and nature is stated to be the object. go verily to hell. goes in the water without fatigue. It has been explained in the above mode. This is the highest seat. He abides in everything alike. While there is oil and wick. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. a learned man remains untainted. and soon crosses the reservoir. such is the progress of the men of understanding. through delusion. and who entertain avarice and delusion. and is connected with (all) knowledge. free from any connection with expectations. Non-destruction of all creatures. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. and void of intelligence. though it is the object of enjoyment. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. and may even be destroyed on the way. and in essence free from the qualities. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. I will declare to you what you ask of me. rejoice in this world. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. For the talented man who knows (these) means. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Even brought into contact with all qualities. who perform actions with faith. It is established that nature is the property of the being. throwing aside the boat. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. he goes in the carriage. so should one understand. So travels the talented man. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means.
slippery. broad. together with Gândhâra. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. which is a development of water. too. touch. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. Space is the highest element. the great elements. and likewise Pañkama. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. bitter. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. which belongs to the earth. and taste. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. and are conversant with piety. compact. and above the unperceived is the being. hard. said to be of six descriptions. above that is the unperceived. who speak the truth. air is said to have (these) two qualities. Thus sound. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. soft. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. is of four qualities. taste. tender and clear also. Smell always belongs to the earth. and of the elements respectively. sweet. and void of color. should be understood to be of five qualities. color likewise. diffusive and compact also. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. hurtful. and who identifies himself with every being. green. black. abounding with movables and immovables. White. to be of twelve descriptions. I will now give (some) information about taste. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. Sweet. and color likewise. it is said that light has three qualities. Rishabha. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. cold and hot likewise. namely. And touch is the quality of air. glutinous. void of taste. sour. touch. and also productive in its essence. sour. are stated to be the qualities of water. sharp. Sound. and clear also. which is produced in space. – thus should smell. and that is stated to be sound only. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. Shadga. From egoism is produced the development. and grey likewise. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. smooth. narrow. Learn about their properties. above egoism is understanding. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. square. touch. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. and rough. red likewise. which is void of any smell whatever. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine.carriage and pedestrian. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. Now space has one quality. and earth. and water. The quality of light is color. that is called the Pradhâna. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . One who has come by delusion through affection. and likewise color. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. astringent. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. touch. and above that understanding is the self. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. Rough. Madhyama. Sound. egoism is above that. be understood to be of ten descriptions. short long. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. the divine source of all entities. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. so does it result to them. air is said to have two qualities. but they do not yield products. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. Sound. and bitter likewise. yellow. And as action is performed in this world. Sound and touch also should be understood. repairs to the imperishable self. and smell as the fifth – these. thus is light said to have three qualities. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. and of (many) ingredients. or sound. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. Now space has one quality.
And he who is released. one who kills a Brâhmana. (Those) men. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. Born from that same unperceived (principle). difficult to vanquish. Such is the upward gradation among entities. Râkshasas. has the mind for a charioteer. That individual self. and ends with the gross objects. a sage should sit down self-restrained. Those who best understand the self. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). which is the unperceived. all the elements. This is the eternal mystery. the mind itself is the individual self. Pisâkas. and it is the goal of all living creatures. again acquiring knowledge. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. those who have achieved perfection. all that can be accomplished by penance. Asuras. The senses. (sacrificial) animals. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. That which begins with the unperceived . and the understanding for a drag. For all acquisition has penance for its root. men. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. Pitris. for penance is difficult to overcome. That learned and talented person verily. even from those five elements. perceive the triple world here by penance. difficult to learn. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. the mind. One who drinks spirituous liquors. and (after) these developments. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and all other creatures movable or immovable. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. the creators of the world. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. and next the developments produced from the elements. nor by a cause. and devoid of egoism. goes to the highest goal. The mind always presides over the great elements. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. and in which the understanding is the drag. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. obtain the great and highest world. they are the very first to be dissolved. He who understands him understands the Vedas. that sin only by penance well performed. is released from. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. Gandharvas. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. Whatever is difficult to obtain. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. The understanding proclaims its power. and includes movables and immovables. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. one who destroys an embryo. These Brâhmanas. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. And in like manner. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. gods. Medicines. and having their minds always tranquil. and difficult to pass through. and it is called the Kshetrajña. and abandons everything as fruitless. are born here again and again. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. always reach perfection by penance. and who are free from egoism. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. and herbs.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. they go near Prajâpati. movable or immovable. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. and being full of egoism. one who steals. a man gets rid of all sins. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. Gods. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. enter the highest world of the great. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. not by actions. beasts and birds. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. like billows in the ocean. all have been created by nature.
those high-souled sages acted accordingly. Then will you attain perfection. he understands that holy Brahman. Then when this piety is duly practiced. and then attained to the worlds. O Lord! then tell it me. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. O best of Brâhmana. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. he attains tranquility. sages! Act thus forthwith. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). not full of action. attained to that seat. Knowledge brings forth the being. incomprehensible. having done all he should have done. And when the understanding is clear. This is the eternal piety. in consequence of these means. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. with your consent. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. And now. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. Do you. did everything (accordingly). It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. always duly act (according to it). who is without expectations. Arjuna said: Who. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. indeed. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). and not mine is the eternal. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. getting rid of all sins. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. And. is fit to be heard by me. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. Expelling all impressions. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. I have now declared everything to you. three syllables the eternal Brahman. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. I wish to see him. Some men of dull understandings extol action. than which nothing greater exists. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. O Janârdana! If this verily. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. O noble person. And the pupil. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Mine is death. Two syllables are death. O Krishna! and who the pupil. changeless. If you have love for me. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. and restraining the self in the Self. too. then you will acquire perfection. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. unmoving. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. which is uncreated. and who looks alike on everything. Vâsudeva. he dies not. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. who is without attachment. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. was that Brâhmana. changeless.
Be pleased.When Krishna spoke these words.’ Om Tat Sat . O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira. who is of a devout heart. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa.