ANUGÎTA The second discourse to Arjuna by lord Krishna Edited by Jay Mazo.

International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best

understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).

CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which

preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that

too. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. This is what is called the destructible. a pair separately for each (species). and absence of cruelty. this is said to be the conduct of the good. wealth. as he should act. and about the return. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. free from vanity and egoism. abandoning each previous (element). But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. Learn from me exhaustively. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. never comes to an evil end. indeed. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. having made a body for himself. (having) as regards the moving (creation). moving and fixed. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). and thinking of naught. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. verily. which is very difficult to cross. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. is released. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . and who is self-possessed. indeed. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. who contemns no one. Gifts. takes place after a long time. What I say is all correct and proper. He who is not pious and not impious. and who has no desire. who has no child. and causing good to be done. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. penance. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). and (what is) agreeable and odious. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. but the other is immortal and indestructible. who is free from the pairs of opposites. He who acquires that. self-restraint. restraint of the senses. who has subdued his senses. by which all this is pervaded. the body to be an unholy aggregate. He who is not attached to any one. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. who is self-controlled. and gain and loss. which I am now about to declare. points out (what) piety (is). for among them it constantly abides. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. He who understands the Pradhâna. honoring deities and guests. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. Then seeking after the supreme seat. pure. which protects people to eternity. created the whole of the three worlds. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. constant restraint of the organs. released from everything. the grandfather of all people. who had been first created. pity. and lust altogether. he is. adherence to prescribed regulations. and which is known in the world as the highest. compassion to (all) beings. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. serving mother and father. From that he created the Pradhâna. honoring preceptors. And he. he is. And that I shall now proceed to state. who has abandoned piety. is released who is equable towards both life and death. who endures all. From this is produced piety. who has no kinsmen.action by which. And Prajâpati. who is devoted to tranquility. and also tranquility. A man who is a friend of all. he becomes indifferent to everything. becomes happy. and whose self is free from affections. is released. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. life as a Brahmachârin. one going the round of various births. and ruin to be connected with action. released in every way. He who has no enemy. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). the material cause of all embodied (selves). By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and likewise pleasure and pain. And as regards that. purity. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. The practice to which the good adhere. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. Brahman.

tranquil. being habituated to exclusive meditation. ‘This is he. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. One who does no action. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. and always concentrating his mind. void of taste. he perceives the perfect one. then he. looks on this universe as transient. without belongings. The body is called the Muñga. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. and freed from old age and grief. he is indeed released. Seeing the self void of smell. free from the pairs of opposites. he grieves not and exults not. unmoving. than which there is nothing higher. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. searching for his own faults. who is free from attachment. He who is free from all impressions. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. Properly concentrating his self. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. there is no death for him. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). devoid of the qualities of the five elements. devoid of qualities. which consist in pain and grief. he assumes bodies at pleasure. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. after extracting them from the Muñga. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. he sleeps at ease. and casting aside old age and death. and abandoning the transient body. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. and old age. and unknowable. he has no fear.body. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. perceives the self in the self. void of belongings. always full of birth. And as one may show the soft fibers. he is not afflicted by anything.. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. void of touch. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. constant. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. When. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. he is released. Leaving this human frame. then there is no ruler over him. and who is self-restrained. When (all) beings are destroyed. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. when (all) beings are afflicted. Restraining the . Thinking of a quarter seen before. and having first performed rigorous penance. is released. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. and having no cause. is released. Weapons do not pierce him. void of color. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. recognizes him (afterwards). devoid of form. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. like fire devoid of fuel. Restraining the senses. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. the soft fibers stand for the self. since he is the lord of the triple world. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. Remaining within (that) city. void of sound. saying. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. meditating in that habitation. As a person having seen one in a dream. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. He whose self is concentrated. death. indestructible. like an Aswattha tree. and who has no desire. Then the talented Brâhmana. and of a tranquil mind. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. who has practiced penance. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. and having his senses subjugated. he gradually obtains tranquility. Then freed from all impressions. he remains steady to the self. one should fix the mind on the self.

O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. I will go away. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. This whole mystery I have declared to you. O Krishna! that pupil. a mental smile. and how also to blood? And how. – went away as he pleased. reaches immortality and is ever happy. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. too. and throat likewise. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. and do you (too) go away. and also the heart. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. and determination regarding . distinctly? How. final emancipation. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! For. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. The soul sees the self come out from the body. and of the excretions. he stands pervading everything in the world. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana.group of the senses. What I have spoken. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. as it were. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. and marrow. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. He is not to be grasped by the eye. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. women. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. he attains final emancipation in me. nor by any of the senses. and muscles. too. neck. palate. O Mâdhava! I replied.’ Thus addressed by me. He has hands and feet on all sides. forsaking the body. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. attain the supreme goal. He should meditate on his teeth. he has cars on all sides. That talented pupil. which is difficult to explain. where one. And then depending upon it thus. who are constantly intent on their own duties. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. Adopting this doctrine. possessed of great penance. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. and abandoning his body. Vaisyas. The world of the gods. and also the means for its acquisition. It is my belief. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. and likewise the seat of the heart. he has eyes. – with. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. even those who are of sinful birth. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. tongue. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. he perceives the self. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. do the flesh. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. For as to that eternal Brahman. and Sûdras likewise. Have you listened to this. and faces on all sides. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. too. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. heads. and (keeping) the passages confined. too. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman.

there is nothing further than this. that only do the men of action engage in as action. seated in seclusion. and imperishable. that which is to be seen. that can be caught (by the touch). and for which learned men have their senses restrained. that which thinks. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. that which is to be touched. A Brâhmana’s wife. The nose. and the eye. that which cats. depending on you as (my) husband. It is devoid of smell. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. are destroyed by demons. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. Samâna. And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. and the tongue. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. you who live renouncing (all) action. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. but is to be apprehended by the mind. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. devoid of color and sound. these are the seven great officiating priests. That is called the Udâna. When that is asleep. that which is to be smelt. Apâna. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. From this the Prâna. does exist among (all) beings. or heard. And mark this always. and that which is to be understood. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. That which is to be smelt. and not to be tasted by the tongue. This is all that is to be said. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. and (observe) good vows.misery. in which the materials are visible. good or bad. and Udâna also proceed. and who are harsh and undiscerning. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. and on which it rests. that which touches. and the ear as the fifth. too. and the moon together with the fire. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. or seen. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). CHAPTER V On this. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. that which is to be drunk. and into it they enter. shall I reach. (in the form of) a dialogue. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. O son of Pându! who. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. What goal. In the interior. which occurred. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. shall I go to. that which is to be touched. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. and likewise that which is to . and likewise that which is to be heard. full of faith. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. The mortal. (namely). and also that which is to be thought of. and their selves tranquil. That which smells. Concentration of mind comes to him. devoid of taste and touch. Whatever action there is. indeed. While the paths (of action). that which is to be seen. and that which hears as the fifth. produce them in their wombs. verily. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. and energetic. by act. mind or speech. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. possessed of talents. Vyâna. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). and the skin. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. that which is to be drunk. action. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. From birth to the destruction of the body. and that which understands. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. the mind and the understanding. that man of a tranquil self. that which sees. It is not to be smelt by the nose.

To that you are superior. from that is produced determination. which is the instrument of knowledge. from that doubt is produced. are named wombs. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. verily. that indeed is the movable mind. verily. they were perfectly filled with light. though . The mind is the ladle. yield (you) your desires. verily. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. indeed. and the discharge of semen. Prajâpati. that which is to be thought of. (Thus) we have heard. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. action. and the mind runs after them. The ear. verily. or letter. The goddess speech. these are the ten oblations. these seven. urine. from that is produced taste. from that is produced sound. sun. or tone goes to your dominion. which is the generator of all entities. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. and the knower is the upholder of the body. and Mitra. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. That is called the movement of the mind. is with me.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. ‘Say which of us is superior. First. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus).’ But speech thereupon said to him. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. was the universe duly divided. the two feet. these. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. Earth. the nose. and excrement. moon. the movable is in your dominion. words. space. the genital organ. Then the lord of speech was produced.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. immovable and also movable. touch. ‘I. wind. smell. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. and taste. earth and fire. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. and (though) developed. mind and understanding. verily. and the anus. speech. But. the two hands. too. But inasmuch. Indra. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. O beautiful one! Sound.be heard. and hence the mind is in need (of it). and light as the fifth. and into this the offering is thrown. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. air. they relate this ancient story. Whatever mantra. from that touch is produced. and they are offered up into the ten fires. the tongue. highest knowledge. from that is produced color. that (in) my (view). there are two minds. and Vishnu also. are the fuel. verity. And the mind. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. from that another is produced. From that is produced smell. these. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. ‘Mind (is superior). O beautiful one! are the ten fires. requires everything knowable (as its offering). therefore. The immovable. color. And in that very (principle). The quarters. motion. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. and the wealth is the pure. the offerings are ten. water. and also that which is to be understood. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. are ten sacrificial priests. destroy our doubts. are words produced. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech.

The nose. the skin. – a dialogue. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. they relate this ancient story. she ran up to Prajâpati. The nose. do not apprehend smells. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the ear likewise. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. mind and understanding. and the understanding also. and next the eye. O venerable sir? Tell me this. This excellent (speech). when. The tongue. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. the skin. and the understanding also. the mind apprehends it. the ear likewise. the ear.impelled. the tongue apprehends them. the tongue. the tongue. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. the skin. The nose. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. ‘Be pleased. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. yields milk. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. the nose apprehends them. and the ear as the fifth. the skin. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). the skin. like a cow. the understanding. This cow-like speech. and the mind also. flowing (forms). the mind. Of those two. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. and the eye. and the tongue. do not apprehend tastes. verily. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and which then goes into the Apâna. And these never know the qualities of each other. the tongue. too. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. The nose. The nose. and the eye. the eye. the ear likewise. So speech formerly spoke. and the eye. It is always noisy or noiseless. the skin. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. the eye. do not apprehend sounds. and the understanding also. The nose. the tongue. the ear. saying. the ear apprehends them. the mind likewise. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. The nose. the mind. Dwelling in a minute space. the understanding apprehends it. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. and the understanding also. the mind. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. with divine power. the tongue. do not apprehend colors. the ear. and the skin. too. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the mind. and the eye. the eye apprehends them. O you of a bright smile! is divine. the skin apprehends them. Do you. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. and the understanding also. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. The mind said: . and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. they do not perceive each other. do not apprehend doubt. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. On this. do not apprehend final determination.

the tongue does not perceive taste. does run to objects of sense only. and if you enjoy enjoyments. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. and the Udâna. when our objects perform their functions. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. They formerly went to the grandsire. and objects are standing. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. that the Prâna and the Apâna. and not connected with objects of sense. (which is) like entering a house without a door. who was born first. both past and future. He shall be the greatest among us. you have no perception. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). so you treat as yours objects shown by us. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. the ear does not in any way hear sound. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. take in smells by the ear. still. Granted. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. resulting from mental operations (alone). even with the senses exerting themselves. If when we are extinct. and said to him. then take in colors by the nose. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. always meets death. Without me. life is seen to be supported. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. The learned know this to be a great principle. rules are for the weak. or if when we are absorbed. then what you believe is true. if you. take in tastes by the eye. Without me. and take in sounds by the skin. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. a creature. and indulged in dreams. are the five sacrificial priests. without us. the eye does not take in color. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. Without me. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. One entering upon enjoyments. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. like fuel half dried and half moist. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. without us. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. Besides. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. they relate an ancient story. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. like an empty dwelling. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. too. (there is) pleasure and support of life. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna.The nose smells not without me. the senses never shine.’ Brahman said: . I am the eternal chief among all elements. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. all beings. when troubled by desire to enjoy. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind.

When I am extinct. and the Samâna. O Prâna. Hear the reason why. Hear the reason why. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. I am the greatest. and again moved about.’ The Vyâna moved about again. and on whose moving about. and again moved about. and on my moving about. (Now) go where (you) like. And the Prâna and Apâna. they again move about.He. Welfare be to you! Support one another. (which are) five.’ Then the Apâna moved about. and the Apâna said to him. because the Apâna is subject to you.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. and pleasing one another. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and on my moving about. I am the greatest.’ The Prâna again moved about. I am the greatest. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. I am the greatest. they again move about.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and all support one another. and the Vyâna also. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. verily. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. Hear the reason why. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. and the Samâna spoke again. and again moved about. The Vyâna only is subject to you. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. And on my moving about. and not greatest. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. the lord of (all) creatures. All are greatest in their own spheres. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. is the greatest. You are not the greatest among us. who being extinct. they again move about. I am the greatest. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. When I am extinct. When I am extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. they again move about. spoke to him. There is one unmoving (life-wind). See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. My own self is one only. and the Udâna. they again move about. and on my moving about. and the Samâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. Being friendly with one another. There are others moving about. ‘You are not the greatest among us. O beautiful one! spoke these words. they again move about. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. go away happily. and on my moving about. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). owing to (their) specific qualities. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities.

and the . (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. which is of excellent glory. the Samâna comes into operation again. or transversely. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. secondly. these. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. and the tongue. being accompanied by intelligence. the action. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. or Apâna. between them is the fire. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. what comes into existence first. First. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. (it) is also produced from taste. that the fire verily is all the deities.On this. their function is performed: then. the Prâna comes first into operation. (the quality of) passion. (its) ashes. and between them is the fire. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. or transversely. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. the Apâna then comes into operation. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. and emancipation. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). the Samâna and Vyâna. and (it) is also produced from a sound. his Prâna. that which is other than this first comes to him. which (move) upwards. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. Day and night are a pair. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. between them is the fire. and (it) is also produced from smell. and (it) is also produced from color. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The instrument. or downwards. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The nose. The two – good and evil – are a pair. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. too. in which the offering is thrown. From desire the semen is produced. the pleasure is produced from union. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. Hear me. which (move) upwards. they relate this ancient story. From the combination of the semen and the blood. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. the agent. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. and (it) is also produced from touch. and the eye. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. The smoke of that (fire). too. CHAPTER X On this. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. This is the effect of the Udâna. It is the teaching of the Veda. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. hear me speak about that. or downwards. or Vyâna. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. or Samâna. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. between them is the fire. indeed.

and color. and he who hears as the fifth. there is no second (different) from him. the Sastra. who is the self of everything. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. And I am here devoid of qualities. He who smells. in a single syllable.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and the great sages . the Brahman. he who speaks. The learned man. and whatever is smelt by the nose.’ Hearing that. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. enjoy their own qualities. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. and he who understands. whatever is spoken by speech. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and the demons. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. There is one enemy. he who thinks. There is one kinsman. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. truth. too. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. they relate an ancient story. there is no second (different) from him. To him who is not learned. On that Sâman hymns. mind and understanding. he who eats. and the Dakshinâ. of which an illustration is stated. ‘Om. and touch as the fifth. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation.skin. there is no second (different) from him. the venerable one said. there is no second director. sound. being (himself) a ruler. are sung. each in its own place. The eating of that which should not be eaten. my fire of (high) qualifications. The gods. On. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. Taught by that instructor. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. And among the learned who understand (everything). The gods had been engaged in gifts. the Hotri priest. whatever is seen by the eye. by Prajâpati. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. destroying this food again produces it. is the upward life-wind. he who sees. the director. and sages. these seven are causes of action. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. Whatever is thought by the mind. approaching Prajâpati. (and) the seven Rishis. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. and taste. final emancipation. Impelled by that same (being). whatever is touched by the sense of touch. is ruined. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the downward lifewind. the self the Adhvaryu priest. the Stotra in which. He destroys the food. agreeable and disagreeable. like water on a declivity. is the counselor in all action. whatever is heard by the ear. he. And cooking food for himself. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. they ran away in (various) directions. and the gods. this. I move as I am ordered. the Brahman priest in which. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. too. Smell. (about the) instruction of the snakes. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. and the ear as the fifth. shines dwelling within the body. Living under that instructor. Taught by that instructor. This being. and the snakes. being possessed of qualities. On this. There is one instructor. there is no second (different) from him. eating various (kinds of) food. CHAPTER XI There is one director. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. There is one hearer. and sages. These.

and having a good mind. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. The instructor. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. and mixed. the gods. the Brahman the fire. the snakes. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. connected with the Brahman. In that forest are seven large trees. there is no other instructor. and fragrant. and do not exult. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. all engaged in different (pursuits). the learner. There is nothing smaller than that. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. the sages. owing to his desires. There always dwell seven females there. and nobody is afraid of them. in which intelligence is the tree. another forest shines forth. Entering it. Having had one teacher. seven fruits. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. This is the description of the forest. But he who. seven hermitages. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. and is to be crossed by one singly. and what the rivers. casting aside vows and actions. The good who attain to that. and the hills and mountains. the great sages receive hospitality. which has contentment for its water. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. have no fear afterwards. He is rapt in the Brahman. and seven guests. seven (forms of) concentration. the Brahman the instructor. There is one fire here. . when there is no distinction from it. And I have entered the great forest.in restraint of the senses. who. the way to which consists in worldly objects. the hearer. merely adheres to the Brahman. They are not afraid of anybody. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. and the guests eat the fruits. and having been instructed with one word. There is nothing more afflicting than that. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. in various places. There is nothing more subtle than that. full of brilliance. and the demons. And there is fuel here. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. the Brahman his origin. and the enemy. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. Understanding it they practiced it. and of beautiful colors. when there is a distinction from it. There. there is no other happiness equal to. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. and causes of generation. and emancipation the fruit. are always within the heart. (namely) the five senses. becomes a Brahmachârin. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. Acting sinfully in the world. the Brahman water. that. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. there is nothing larger than that. The qualities are the fruits. the twice-born do not grieve. and seven (forms of) initiation. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. with faces (turned) downwards. which depends on knowledge. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors.

The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. victory. There is no offence on my part. merging the self in the self. abide. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. I see no color. enlightenment. they relate an ancient story. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. Glory. father. they are born so as not to lose courage. as understood by Brâhmanas. this goat will not be destroyed. and I think only his unmoving body remains. not hating any evil. perfection. (This) creature will obtain welfare. too. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. And understanding it. Not desiring any object of desire. or death. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. we do not rely on what is not visible. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. the richest. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. The teaching of the elders is. I see the individual self in the body. too. . We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. After hearing their consent. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). indeed. and his life-winds likewise the sky. If I spoke further. then the sacrifice is for the goat. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). Although actions are performed. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. Nature desires objects which are liked. nor even do I entertain any fancies. and greatness. I perceive no tastes. there is no taint on my natures. Apart from them. especially as he is dependent. whatever in him is produced from water. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. (his) ear the quarters. and as the constant entity underlying them. Dwelling in that (self). Hills and mountains also are there collected together. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. The life-winds. Understand that. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. mother. and I do not touch. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. together with their chiefs. being directed by the Kshetrajña. His eye (will enter) the sun. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. of this goat have gone to their sources. whose sins are burnt up by penance. And aspiring to that forest. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. Those whose wishes are reduced. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. is this holy forest. brilliance. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures).They absorb all the higher delights of people. or old age. since the Vedic text is such. praise tranquility. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. that will enter water. nor yet do I hear various sounds. Such. devote themselves to Brahman. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. and again emerge from the same. they act (accordingly). and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. On this. take him (to them) and consult (them).

performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. proud of his strength. together with (the quality of) passion. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. For having heard your opinion. have life. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. they relate an old story. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. name him to me. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. The ocean said: If. they act (accordingly). who might stand against me in the field. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. as we have heard. Say. a descendant of Kritavîrya. who has subdued his self. what shall I do for you? The creatures. Once on a time. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. who take shelter with me. you believe. such is the double manifestation of the self. being directed by the Kshetrajña. (in the shape of) a dialogue. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). said. The life-winds. Give them security. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. are being destroyed. And to one who is free from these manifestations. who is free from the pairs of opposites. The ocean. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. possessed of a thousand arms. O venerable sir! I approach you. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. and who is released on all hands. who is devoid of expectations. too. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). and I say (to you). there is no fear anywhere. and (the quality of) goodness. . and with joined hands. Or what do you think. you hear the sound produced in space. Of these the indestructible is the existent. you see the colors of shining bodies. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. he was walking about near the sea. saluting him. you drink watery juices. the tongue. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. you touch the qualities of the air. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. And all these entities.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. and understanding it. freed from delusion. the mind. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). who is alike to all beings. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. my mind is enlightened.

– having performed very difficult deeds. who was veracious. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). a bodiless voice from heaven. together with the Sâbaras. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. Hearing that. entered mountains and inaccessible places. who understood duty. became Vrishalas. too. to slaughter these kings. O noble one!’ But Râma. the Kshatriyas. not forgiving his father’s murder. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and taking swords and lances. Âbhîras. named Alarka. high-souled. like antelopes troubled by a lion. only pierce your own vital part. which was heard by all people. being a Brâhmana. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). turned to subtle (questions). ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. ‘Desist. Then the power of Râma. taking up his axe. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. It is not proper for you. and very firm in his vows. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. Seeing him killed and fallen. to make all mortals perform action. Thus the Dravidas. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. full of great wrath. like a tree of many branches. (Though) surrounded by enemies. hearing that (story). O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. dear friend. whose penance was very great. said to those sages. you will die. it wishes. As by its unsteadiness. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. What good. and hurriedly mounting a chariot.Then the king. Râma also taking up a bow. There was (once) a royal sage. and blew away the army of the king. do you perceive. and your vital part being pierced. with Rikîka as their head. blazed forth. In company with his kinsmen. they relate an ancient story. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. whose power was unbounded. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. shot away volleys of arrows. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. The mind said: These arrows. Then some of the Kshatriyas. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. They will. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. too. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . spoke sweetly to Râma. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. abandoning (those) great deeds. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. his grandfathers. burning the hosts of the enemy. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). became Vrishalas. Paundras. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. went away. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma.

Hearing that. you will die. and then you will lose (your) life. and your vital part being pierced. the (ear) hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. you will die. Hearing that. you will die. The nose said. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. The ear said: These arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. one hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. he then said after consideration: – . you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The skin said: These arrows. and your vital part being pierced. The eye said: These arrows. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes.Smelling very many perfumes. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. These arrows. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. the skin hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. the eye hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. The tongue said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. this (tongue) hankers after them only.

Grief. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. three foes in (this) world. persistent hatred. Therefore. a courageous man. That avarice – cut (it) off. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. They will only pierce your own vital part. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. (that vice). When the bodily frame is destroyed. Sleep. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. a man even does what ought not to be done. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. wrath. and your vital part being pierced. he reached the highest perfection. and being troubled by desire. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Exultation. then uttered this verse. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. On this. being impelled by which. being impelled by which. is born again and again. and after deliberating for a long time. pleasure. and again birth. joy. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. Obtaining those. the best of talented (men). and applied himself to concentration of mind. verily. When vices were in the ascendant. sloth. And the royal sage. attained high perfection. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. Perform a fearful penance. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. thence you will obtain the highest good. is energetic about subjugating others. according to qualities. and he who desires. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. and delusion. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. The understanding said: These arrows. And at the expiration of life. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. he meets death. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. the greatest. amazed. Ambarîsha. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. cut (it) off with sharp swords. properly . O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. free from sloth. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. he became steady. then anxiety comes into existence. of great glory. For from avarice is born desire. Then directing his mind to one point. and honoring good men. you will die. owing to these qualities. He (then) restraining his own vices.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation.’ Do you understand this too. and engages in action. he. and good (men) were oppressed. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. destroyed all foes. having a tranquil self. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). but there is one. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. and senses controlled. who had become tranquil (in mind). understands (nothing) while running into ditches. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold.

so (is it) that of others too. there is no other sovereignty here. Then on the expiration of the delusion. I wish. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. and said nothing in reply. avarice. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear.’ Thus spoken to. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. is subject (to me). searching through the (whole) earth. Even this self is not mine. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. engaged in meditation. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. is subject to you. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. I believe. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. then came the delusion on me. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. intelligence again came to me. And as mine. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. by way of punishment. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. and restraining avarice by courage. King Janaka. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. This is sovereignty. When I did not find it among them. by the glorious Ambarîsha. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. or that everything is my domain. as the planet upon the sun. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. (Considering) whose this was. in all affairs. and enjoy while you live. who destroyed the one (chief vice). the king recovered himself. or the whole earth is mine. I looked for Mithilâ. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. by which. I cannot find my domain. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. Then when the delusion had gone off. what belief you have resorted to. When I did not find it on the earth. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. While that king of unbounded power was seated. Resorting to this conviction. I looked for my own offspring. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. though this country. to be terminable. holding which. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. too.perceiving this. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. What conviction have you adopted. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. and. Janaka said: Though this country. Now hear the conviction. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. therefore) while you desire. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. a delusion suddenly came upon him. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine.

(of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. indeed. This path is traversed by the understanding. smiling. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. I am emancipated. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. and the body is tied down by action. for this purpose. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. and narrow. or else this knowledge. dwelling with preceptors. and my intelligence is very frivolous. All these actions of mine are. nothing exists that is a cause of him. or among mendicants. to households. it is not laid down. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. is perceived as by bees. that. not by the body.subject to me. and a certain thing should not. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. by which that (entity). In the (rules for) final emancipation. With your heart intent upon the real entity. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. You are the one person to turn this wheel. or. I am not such. Actions have a beginning and an end. and also without qualities. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. where. observing vows. the Bhûtas. Then the Brâhmana. you will certainly come into my self. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. the spoke the understanding. or residence in forests. have their understanding full of tranquility. and confused. And those who. movable or not moving. come here today to learn (something) about you. you have guessed. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. and which does not turn back. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. and even over heaven. Whatever creatures there are in the world. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. the Pitris. according to your own understanding. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. is (to be found) a description of it. Sovereignty over the whole world. or by one whose self is not refined. I am a forester. namely. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. that a certain thing should be done. together with guests. verily. by which those who understand that proceed. action and knowledge. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. the nave of which is the Brahman. (namely) for the gods.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. Hence. I am a Brâhmana. A good means is found. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. the instructor is the upper Arani. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached.

what penance. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. One should adopt as many of these things. (which are) means of direct perception. There is none else here who can explain these questions. is I myself. (when he was) seated. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. are afraid of worldly life. who preserved (all) vows. A talented pupil. Vâsudeva said: On this. Arjuna said: Where. likewise. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. who was possessed of (the . and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. And we. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. in hundreds and in thousands. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. Speak. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. am come to you (who are) venerable. too. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. connected with final emancipation. and also desirous of final emancipation. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. Listen to that. between a preceptor and a pupil. truly. who had approached him (for instruction). And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. and those whose form is perceived. something about the highest good. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. indeed. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. and what sin? These questions of mine.and hears. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. all of various descriptions. who put (his) questions properly. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. I pray of you with (bowed) head. as may here be practicable – unperceived.’ The preceptor. ‘I’ (he said). O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. put (his) questions with joined bands. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. And he. and accurately. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. ‘whose goal is the highest good.

and likewise Bhârgava. when thus spoken to by the sages. The Brahman is the truth. the present. and the seed of which is the Brahman. Brihaspati. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and has no egoism about anything. Bharadvâja. and Atri also. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. which is always possessed of leaves. and of the four orders. They live by penance. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. and casts off birth and death. are full of the truth. met each other. even while dwelling in this world. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and so forth. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. and who is devoid of egoism. Gautama. the future. who was tranquil. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. in Brahman’s mansion. and piety. and likewise of the castes. full of humility. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. which belongs to olden times. the senses. which ought to be apprehended. and Visvâmitra. who understands the creation of all entities. is emancipated. Understand that. which is eternal. and wealth. and renunciation as the best penance. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. on which all entities subsist. And those twice-born (sages). was declared by Brahman. and also Kâsyapa. saw Brahman. and who are the constant creators of the people. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. the sages. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. and the severance also. the great sages. Formerly. I will state to you. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. He who does not desire anything. The preceptor said: All this. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. desiring knowledge. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. is released from misery. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. I will state to you today. from whom anger and vexation have departed. and becoming wearied of their own actions. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. from whom (all) sin has departed. penance is the truth. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. is esteemed highest. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. after having traveled over all paths. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. always possessed of flowers. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. who are possessed of knowledge. namely.necessary) qualifications. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. desire. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. and likewise unity and variety. . and is eternal. there is no doubt of that. the gross elements the smaller boughs. who was like (his) shadow. the entities are born from the truth. Vasishtha. Prajâpati also is truth. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. the branches of which are the great egoism.

these are called the three qualities. the whole of the qualities. avarice. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. he. one sees not these. He who. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. Goodness is the match of darkness. Light. casting aside sin. want of discrimination. and attend on one another. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. among all beings. want of liberality. and passion is the match of goodness. and is the cause of successive (acts). I will speak to you. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. next after that is that of foresters. (but) having four quarters. the second is that of householders. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. Darkness. ignorance. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. and five constituent principles. it also appears combined (with others). and also all the deities. and likewise serve one another. Delusion. When it prevails. I will subsequently state the means to that. Indra. which depend on one another. and goodness. sleep. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. and of the understanding as ruler. Prajâpati. consisting of three qualities. fear. space. eleven. and likewise also egoism. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). indecision about actions. now speaking exhaustively. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. and of the highest seat. all-pervading. never comes by delusion. Its characteristic is also impiety. The wise always speak of piety as one. and goodness is also the match of passion. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. This is the nature of darkness. He who accurately understands the elements. everlasting. and is called delusion. as accepted by good men. immaturity (of intellect). The true nature of their characteristics. such is the eternal creation. and next after that too. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. learn those accurately. its characteristic. Passion is said to consist in activity. which are all coupled with one another. haughtiness. and those three channels run on. the ten senses and the one (sense). and darkness the match of goodness. Learn. . Light. and which are bridges of piety. air. faith. nihilism. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. It has three qualities. and the five great elements. O noble ones! from me. Where darkness is restrained. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. and it is constant in sinful actions. appears to be production. passion there prevails. rigid in his vows. and are joined to one another. lightness. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. blindness. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. Where passion is restrained. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. being constituted by the three qualities. will now be stated together with the reasons. The great self. violation of (the rules of) conduct. finding fault with good acts. in aggregation and separation.distinctly. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. goodness there prevails. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. and immutable. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). of all beings. sun. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. want of memory. attains to all the spotless worlds. the unperceived likewise. passion. grief. and getting rid of all bonds. which is in a state of equilibrium. encircled by the. which you should understand. The order of foresters. which is productive of pleasure.

and all quadrupeds. want of forgiveness likewise. who are sunk in darkness. beasts of burden. evil disposition. repining. Darkness. going beyond the Sûdra womb. vanity. anger is called the great obscurity. And whatever such people there are in this world. delusion. they are all held to be dark. cold and heat. strength. delusion. lassitude. Coming to a sinful womb. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. and growing old in (good) actions. indeed. as Chândâlas. to be born in the lower hell. Whatever vain actions (there are). want of faith also. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. stolidity. harboring evil thoughts. connected with delusion. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. (namely) the brute (species). who bear the marks of their own actions. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. becoming men of meritorious actions. the thought (that this or that is) mine. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. buying and selling. deluded convictions. deaf and dumb men. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. argument. and serpents. endurance. and vain eating. thinking of (this) world. exercise and quarrel too. slaughter. and also creatures born from eggs. Such is the Vedic text. animosity. pointing out others’ weaknesses. fierceness and cruelty. want of faith. going into inferior ways. Who. beauty. want of straightforwardness. and death the blinding obscurity. and also its source. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. the great delusion. And whatever other states of mind. the great obscurity called anger. animosity. frenzy. abuse . and idiots. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. want of liberality. power. indeed. preservation. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). evilconducted men. or lisping men. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. pleasure and pain. who. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. they attain to higher and higher castes in order.behavior of the lowest quality. war. animals. vanity. toil. These dark. by cutting. (or become) the immovable entities. anger. this is considered to be dark conduct. understands this properly. sages and saints and gods become deluded. There. touching other people’s weak points. all these qualities. they exert themselves. I have now duly described to you. wrath. and also animosity towards people. and also its qualities. who break through (all) regulations. wishing for pleasure. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. that one sees the real in what is unreal. that is considered to be dark conduct. affliction. sinful action. how. this is considered to be dark conduct. battle. valor. bonds. doers of sinful acts. birds. want of knowledge. insects. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. vindictiveness. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). pride of performance without (actual) performance. unfriendliness. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. are found in various places in this world. or deaf. peace. sink into darkness. and growing old in their own duties. and whatever vain gifts. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). Reviling. piercing. demons. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). in full and accurately with reference to its nature. They go to the hell. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. backbiting. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. Learn. all these are dark qualities. vilifying. Injuring (others). and want of forgiveness. desire. and worms. breaking. want of self-restraint. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated.

whose conduct is of this description. joy. gifts and acceptance of gifts. and also sacrificing and study. beneficial to all creatures. boasting. contentment. absence of stinginess. and also want of faith. absence of backbiting. and free from grief. absence of calumniation. learning vain. Born again and again in this world. pleasure and delight. harmlessness. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. the duty of the good. devoid of expectations. they rejoice. abandonment on all hands. for men. receipt of gifts vain. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. perceive (everything) aright. wealth. harboring desire. who adhere to the quality of goodness. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. obedience. have (their) currents downwards. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. who are enveloped by passion. and also sacrifice. piety vain. prowess. disgust. freedom from laziness. purity. attendance. heedlessness. and of the quality of goodness. vows and regulation. sacrifices vain. forgiveness. absence of cruelty. present. belongings. truth. for articles. The . vows vain. disrespect and respect. emancipation. service.uttering falsehoods. equable everywhere. wakefulness. self-restraint. righteous feelings. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. enlightenment and happiness also. Understanding this according to rule. for women. these men. salutation. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. theft. Thus. straightforwardness. faith. and make Tarpana. bad gifts. pleasure. and to be gods. freedom from delusion. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. and unblamable. censure. haughtiness. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. doubt. the ceremony of Svadhâ. the ceremony of Vashat. equability. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. joviality. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. not full of desires. absence of wrath. valor. association with women. The man who always understands these qualities. and for houses. nobility. one obtains whatever one desires. common scandal. purity. The men who meditate on past. They are said to have their currents upwards. ostentation. and attachment also. vexing (oneself). life as a Brahmachârin. devotion. those talented men reach heaven. and labor vain.’ affection generated by the qualities. for living creatures. joy. expiations. dexterity. and future entities in this world. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. (good) conduct vain. contentment. policy. auspicious rites. devotion to dancing. unbroken piety. They give and receive. indifference. contumely. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. courage. and create (various) bodies. compassion to (all) creatures. slaughter. all these qualities. freedom from expectations. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. humility. devoid of egoism. The power of governing. defiance. liberality. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. vexation. minuteness. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. management. Getting rid of all sins. service vain. treachery and likewise deception. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. forgiveness. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. by means of nature. good behavior. gets rid of all passionate qualities. and instrumental or vocal music. praise. (on another). absence of fear. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. Confidence. gambling. he attains the highest in the next world. (holding) knowledge to be vain. laudation. and actions with expectations. penance vain. modesty.

the unperceived. Darkness. they feed on one another. all that is (made of) these three qualities. he. . And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. evildoers are alarmed. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. passion. The man who always understands these qualities. womb. Among immovable entities. darkness. immutable. The creation of the qualities is eternal.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. suffering trouble from the heat. these are the three qualities. half-months. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. the present. is said to be. and lust. being connected with the lowest quality. nature. They perform their journey together. production and absorption. abiding in those of the middle current. And where goodness is developed. And whatever there is in this world. and passion likewise to be less. eternal. holy. in the lower entities. unperceived. wealth. and the future. threefold the gods. and travelers. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. and passion also. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. there darkness should be understood to be little. unshaking. there: exist three qualities. The day should be understood to be threefold. abiding. And as long as goodness and darkness. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. freed from the body. Even from afar. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. threefold the sacrifices performed. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. They all depend on one another. and the Udâna. Where darkness is increased. goodness. and threefold the path. and goodness likewise to be less. change. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. feel the warmth. the Prâna. there darkness should be understood to be little. passion in the Kshatriya. The three qualities – goodness. go down. immovable. threefold are the worlds. and goodness likewise to be less. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. They are attached to one another. (consisting) of the three qualities. destruction. and its pure operations. the Apâna. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. the heat is the quality of passion. and being free from all misery. So in all shining bodies. seasons. there passion should be understood to be little. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. but differing in development. in union. the increase and diminution will now be stated. and likewise months. For they act with cause or without cause. Of all these acting with one another. and the qualities. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. Pradhâna. Seeing the sun rising. and moving about collectively. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). moving in a body. in the Brâhmana. constant. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. and likewise follow one another. goodness. but is not attached to the qualities. the men of the quality of darkness. Passion. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. unborn. not small. evil-doers likewise are darkness. is released from all qualities. The light in the sun is goodness. enjoys the qualities. abiding in those of the upward current. Threefold are the gifts given. the night is stated to be threefold. The past. the qualities of passion are variable. existent and also non-existent – all these. years. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. and the enlightener. so long is passion said (to exist) here. not developed. the passionate remain in the middle. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. and the highest. The sun is goodness developed. piety. goodness. Where passion is developed. and the conjunctions. There is no doubt of this.

the transcendent. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. it stands pervading everything in the world. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). and are inconstant. he is the governor. Then when every entity. of universal form. heads. taste. lightness. Vishnu. touch. that from which the changes take place. who are talented. It is a deity. the light. is (afterwards) called egoism.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. and their name is delusion. When. that is said to be the second creation. that talented man. it is that from which the people are produced. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. and likewise color. space. They are born one from the other. and of the mind. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. has been dissolved. the Prajâpati. were the five great elements born – earth. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. the producer of the entities. it has eyes. Knowing that (great self). who have subdued wrath. and thus that source of all entities. it is full of light. The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. and faces on all sides. the final dissolution approaches. touch. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. who practice meditation. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. Sound. connected with . verily. it likewise charms the world. whose minds are clear. the source of all qualities. he among all people comes not by delusion. In these five great elements. the supporter of consciousness. Minuteness. attain greatness. not different from one another. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the understanding. Sambhu. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. these being emancipated. who are constant at concentration of mind. and golden. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. it is the creator of the three worlds. air. courage. it is said to be the first creation. taste. who are true to their promises. movable or immovable. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. inexhaustible. and who are always possessed of a good heart. It has hands and feet on all sides. Brahma. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). color. the valiant. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. who have pondered on the self. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. and as that from which the changes take place. and are dissolved in the reverse order. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. the producer of the deities. means of knowledge. the operations (connected with these) have causes. intelligence. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. who are possessed of knowledge. Now people who comprehend the understanding. water. Caused by the production of avarice. and light as the fifth. and whose senses are subdued. and by its own light. and likewise cognition. and insignificant. abides transcending the understanding. creates (them). it causes all this to move. and smell. and smell as the fifth. who are not avaricious. ancient being. who are devoid of egoism. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. creatures are deluded. the great self. means of perception. memory.

is speech which relates to all the gods. and the organ of generation. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. Then first. is called the organ of excretion. and whose mind is pure. who perceive the truth. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. and the presiding deity there is the wind. as connected with the self it is called the ear. the two eyes. As connected with the self. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. and the presiding deity there is the sun. those born from germs. as connected with the self. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. as connected with the self. This group one should subdue first. As connected with the self. the two hands. these are helpless and powerless. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. The Apâna wind. and the presiding deity there is fire. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. as connected with the self it is the nose. and the presiding deity there is lightning. those born from perspiration. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. and depending upon one another. these five winds are also joined to the inner self. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. the tongue. as connected with objects it is motion. as connected with objects it is the semen. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. as connected with objects it is excretion. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. ear. as also all reptiles. as connected with the self it is called the eye. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. and five the organs of action. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. the mind is the eleventh. then the Brahman shines (before him). Those born from eggs. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. Space is the first entity. and the presiding deity there is Soma. Understanding these. as connected with objects. as connected with objects it is taste. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. and space. the Udâna. the motion of which is downward. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. next as connected with objects (it is) color. And the eleven organs. tongue. nose. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. the skin. which follows after the five entities. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. and the presiding deity there is Indra. As connected with the self they mention the mind. excluded from the self. The third (entity) is said to be light. the presiding deity there is the Moon. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. as connected with objects it is actions. and speech as the tenth. The fifth entity is earth. and understanding unswerving. mind. the nose also as the fifth. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. the Samâna. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. and together with speech. and worms of the like description. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. the producer of all beings.flesh and blood. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. The second entity is air. The Prâna and the Apâna. and speech are restrained. Likewise (there is) egoism. self-consciousness. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. and the understanding is the twelfth. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. such is the group of organs. The mind should be understood to be among both. the two feet. The ear. the presiding deity there is Rudra. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. the organ of excretion. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. as connected with the self. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. water. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. and the Vyâna also. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. He whose skin. eye. This is said to be the . And all the rest are without distinction connected with action.

) the senses. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. Space is the first entity. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. and the five great elements. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. is ever happy. and which is full of the Brahman. are the beings born from wombs. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. should cast it aside. the objects of the senses. and than which there is nothing higher. and who is devoid of passion. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. gift at a sacrifice. and those which move crookedly. When everything is absorbed into the mind. and is named delusion. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. and sacred study. O chief of the twice-born! and know. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. (viz. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. then being self-illumined. . that the body in which the color is fire. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin.second (mode of) birth. bursting through the earth. Such is the teaching of the ancients. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. unfit to be seen. fearful and unfathomable. which are born after the lapse of some time. Understand about them also. and is sanctifying. The second entity is air. the presiding deity there is the sun. which is uninterrupted. which is full of passion. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. and full of delusion. which is surrounded by the five currents. Such is the doctrine of the learned. that he is released from all sins. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. which is free from attachment. and which rests on the real (entity). which has nine passages and two deities. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. and inferior. next as connected with objects it is color. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. and released from everything. this same (body). and restrain it. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. It is settled. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. however. and being concentrated in mind. One should place all these together. and the feeling of touch is air. The fourth should be understood to be water. which is made up of the five elements. for (every one) who is born. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. having his cravings destroyed. curtail it. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. The world. are said to be born from germs. too. the presiding deity there is Soma. together with the immortals. The fifth element is earth. and hold them by the mind. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). and likewise the sound is space. Restraining objects of desire within the self. the flowing (element) water. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. The third is called light. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. He who duly understands this. (namely) sacrifice. It is a great ocean. pleased with contacts. A knowledge of this. in which one lives alone. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. Those beings.

and the ocean among rivers. and demons. among vehicles the elephant. the Vindhya. Understand this. among cattle also the bull. He verily is Vishnu. likewise. the sun is the prince among the planets. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and delusion the reservoir. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. likewise. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. the Sahya. ever extol. the Sveta. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. and of all entities whatever I. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. Kinnaras. avarice. The Nyagrodha. the creator. and among females a male. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). these are the princes among mountains. For he is the ruler of men. and the bands of Bhûtas. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. the Trikûtavat. of Gandharvas. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. (am lord). who am full of the Brahman. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. rejoice in this world. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. wrath. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and falsehood also. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and Nâgas. the Nîla. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. concentrating the mind within the mind. fear. the Pippala. and Pisâkas. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. and Mitra. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas. Understand him to be the ruler. and go into wrong paths after death. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. all companies of Brâhmanas. Him. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. and Rakshasas. these are the princes among trees in this world. He is the supporter. and Yakshas. he then perceives that highest (principle). and the moon among the Nakshatras. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. the uncreated Hari. and among denizens of the forest the lion. and the Koshthavat mountain. and the creator. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and great. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. and Yakshas. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. (all these). demons. The Himavat. lose all their qualifications.Desire. Soma is the lord of herbs. snakes. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. Non-destruction is the highest piety. the Guruskandha. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. Such is the highest creation among all entities. and Pitris. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. and birds. and likewise the bamboo and willow. the north among the quarters. and likewise the Sâlmali. the Jambu. changing from time to time. Agni. and also all the great sages. She is called Pârvatî. the Bhâsa. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. and Varuna. Freed from all sins. and the Meshasringa. Understanding everything. treachery. Kings desire piety. and Prajâpati. and . which are difficult to get rid of. the Sinsapâ. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). Purandara of (all) deities. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. and also gods. of gods. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. there is no doubt of that. and also as various. the Pâriyâtra. and the bands of Rakshasas. and seeing the self within the self. Varuna is the king of the waters. who has beautiful eyes. the Mahendra.

and transcending the qualities. and from the svâhâ ceremony. middle. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. The quality of light is color. the characteristic of earth. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. he repairs to that which has no second. which is great. the characteristic of renunciation. and hear it. and end. And I always see. and end. which is void of symbols. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. The qualities created again and again. is smell. no one. the supporter of all beings. that is comprehended by the nose. The characteristic of devotion is action. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. who resides in the tongue. and the Mahat of knowledge. and transcending death and old age. the essence of water. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. is perceived by the skin. (though) concealed. And the moon likewise. belonging to the air. and the creation. The Purusha knows it. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. do not know themselves. verily. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. The Kshetrajña. transcendent. The (sensation of) touch. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. and having his sins destroyed. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. know. that months have the bright first. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). sound is the characteristic of space. is always comprehended by the tongue. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. middle. is the Kshetrajña. to the truth. the unperceived (is appointed). and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. action the characteristic of men. Only the Kshetrajña attains. It is stated that day was first and then night. To (this) positive comprehension. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. free from the ceremony of salutations. then enters into the Kshetrajña. the characteristic of mind is thought. And crossing beyond darkness. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. together with names and characteristics. in this world. and knowledge. and about the means for its comprehension. Hence a man who understands piety. The earth is the source of . to be created and tied down to a beginning. As to the smell of the earth. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. (else) attains. there is no doubt of that.destruction is of the nature of impiety. color is the characteristic of light. The quality of space is sound. Thought is the quality of mind. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. and that is comprehended by the eye. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. The characteristic of mind is meditation. he is the Supreme Lord. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. Taste. and that is comprehended by the understanding. abandoning qualities. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. being nonintelligent. giving prominence to knowledge. who is unmoving. is purely knowledge. and that is comprehended by the ear. taste is the characteristic of water. and homeless. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding.

of which the outer rim is the five great elements.smells. Of all ages the Krita is the first. the end of pleasure is ever grief. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. the eastern quarter is the first. which is measured by months and half months. I. among sacrifices. Among all precious things. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. of which the pole is the mind. and among all reptiles. and the Prâna lifewind. fire is said to be the first of the elements. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. too. and of men. without distinction. penance. These are the qualities of the elements. the end of grief ever pleasure. Prajâpati of deities. study. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. is the source of the entire universe. observances. all that is called Sâvitrî. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. the ever holy field of Brahman. and Yakshas. there is no doubt of that. is everchanging. The Syena is first among birds. All accumulations end in exhaustion. gift. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. . And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. Pisâkas. And of all gods. gold (is the first). that of householders (is the first). which moves through (all) the worlds. snakes. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. likewise. and regulations. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. Sacrifice. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. Bhûtas. The great Vishnu. and the twice-born among men. among (sacrificial) animals. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. The sun is the first among shining bodies. the ocean is the first-born. death is certain for whatever is born. of which the environment is home. Of all orders. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. all ascents end in falls. there is no doubt of that. the fastenings in which are vexations. which rotates in space and time. Of all mountains. who is full of the Brahman. the goat is mentioned (as the first). water is the best. is stated to be the first. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. And among all immovable entities. and life ends in death. which is lit up by the great egoism. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. the offering (into the fire) is the best. Dânavas. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. All action ends in destruction. the mud for which is penance and regulations. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. whatever is prescribed in this world. which abounds in old age and grief. all associations end in dissociations. There is no end for knowledge. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. and the same is also the end of everything. of all words. whose senses are subjugated. who is devoid of egoism. the Plaksha. the noise of which is trouble and toil. which is sustained by the qualities. water of tastes. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. which is full of actions and instruments of action. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. and Rakshasas. Kinnaras. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. all this ends in destruction. there is no doubt of that. likewise space is the source of sound. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. Îsvara is the lord. And the unthinkable. the syllable Om of all the Vedas.

He who has been first refined by ceremonies. kind. (That) sage. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. and have his sacred . the speed of which is like that of the mind. should return (from his preceptor’s house). – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. and which is extended by means of attachments. and which is devoid of consciousness. to follow it is good. sit. and be of pure vows. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and also the beggar. and take exercise (duly). One should learn and teach. making gifts. The householder. and should stand. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. and with one’s external organs restrained. together with the immortals should cast away. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. to such a one the (word) good applies. attains the highest goal. should be kind.which is large. this has been celebrated from ancient times. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. and equable to all creatures. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. take food without decrying it. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. gift. should avoid heedlessness. That man among all creatures. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. behaving like good men. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. should behave like the good. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. and constant in veracity and piety. With regard to those three duties. and should give and receive gifts. in the way above stated. study. and alms. Always devoted to his own wife. and sacrifice. with his senses restrained. who is self-restrained. transcending all pairs of opposites. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. he should have matted hair. who is pure. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. or of cotton. the forester. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). the imperishable source (of all). who is of rigid vows. and also receiving untainted gifts. and which is (never) fatigued. should. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. This wheel of life. which moves towards joy and pleasure. or also a deerskin. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. conquers heaven. which is unchecked. and check. and who has duly observed vows. the sage who understands piety. And as to the other remaining three duties. There should also be a girdle of muñga. released from all impressions. being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. with the permission of the preceptor. who is devoted to Vedic rites. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and self-restrained. and full of faith. The Brâhmana householder. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. and should always associate with good men. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. and released from all sins. is never deluded. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. they are pious duties. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. all the world. possessed of forgiveness. and who understands the Vedas. and the Brahmachârin. who is thus devoted. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. abridge.

freedom from anger. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. He should not make any accumulations. or a forest.thread. And with his senses restrained. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. and when he goes about for alms. fruits. not deceptive and not crooked. and depending on the deities. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. and should not . nor should he eat when honored. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. and should eschew dwelling with friends. and concentrated in mind. air. always in forests. or the foot of a tree. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. He should move about the world like a worm. addicted to sacred study. A householder. his path being pointed out by the sun. and which have come spontaneously. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. and devoted to veracity and piety. free from passion. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. and leaves. Offering safety to all beings. and likewise no sweet juices. Nor should he beg for too much alms. and should not rejoice if he obtains. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. astringent. full of forgiveness. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. being restrained in mind. he should move about in a secluded place. conquers heaven. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. freedom from (the habit of) carping. performing sacrifices. He should honor guests. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and be agreeable to all beings. He should without sloth feed on water. is esteemed. eating little. kind. and reaching the highest seat. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. and also straightforwardness. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. restraint of the external organs. and always living within the forest. seeking merely to sustain life. and of rigid observances. When eating. pure in body. Refined by means of all ceremonies. or again a forester. life as a Brahmachârin. having a mind free from envy. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. the sage should become free from all action. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. Restraining the external senses. or bitter. or a Brahmachârin. be engaged in sacred study. or which are pungent. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. (Such) a Brahmachârin. and roots and Syâmâka grain. should not enter a town again. looking out for the (proper) time. and continent. A man should always bathe in clean water. in order. always with clean water. In summer. who is concentrated in mind. veracity. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. he may dwell in one place. He should honor a guest who comes. always dexterous. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. preserving his hair and moustache. and in the rains. One who is thus devoted. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. or a river likewise. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. He should not parade (his) piety. kind. and free from avarice. Eating only a little. and restrained in all his senses. living on fruits and leaves. does not return to birth. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. he should not go following after another. or the cavern of a mountain. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree.

Nor. pebbles likewise. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. and leaves. moving and unmoving. always dwelling in all entities. nor should one wish for gold. exclusively pondering on one point. and in whom the senses. water. he attains to the highest seat. being released from all bonds. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. should act without a purpose. One should not think of what is not come. and free from distress. not finding fault with piety. after understanding all these. Those who perceive the self. divine. He should not receive from others. they never die. who is free from desires.follow his own (mere) desire. mind. he gets emancipation. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. One should not hate. should not teach. The senses. by an accurate determination about the truth. One should not perturb any other (person). and should avoid (all) controversies. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and then. who understands all truth. should be free from attachment. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. devoid of smell. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. without a stomach. devoid of color. devoid of taste or touch. and who understands the truth. who is free from egoism. and understanding are absorbed. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. . and being equable to all beings. Freed from all attachments. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. and mind. who is attached to the self. and without fixed appointments with people. is emancipated. any action involving expectation of fruit. which is free from the operations of the qualities. nor reflect on that which is past. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. and though dwelling in a house. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. which is to be understood. or cause to be performed. and self-controlled. who is free from attachments to any entity. and should be void of (all) belongings. But owing to the helplessness of people. or the assemblage of people. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. nor penance. sacrifices. and the five great elements. nor worlds. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. One should not perform. one should disregard the present. and stable. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. and the objects of the senses. nor Vedas. one attains heaven. without a head. Though undeluded. with his accumulations exhausted. should meditate. imperishable. absolute. depending on none. nor valor. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. he should act in the manner of the deluded. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. and who is free from salutations. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. understanding. a wise man should always share (with others). or involving any destruction of life. and who is dependent on none. the unperceived. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). there is no doubt of that. who is free from expectations. verily. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. or back. Rejecting all things. being devoted to pious conduct. and also devoid of sound. and which is also devoid of flesh. One who has anything to do should take earth. which is without hands. There the understanding reaches not. foot. He should not appropriate another’s riches. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). He should perform piety. or the mind. nor should he ever give to others. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). or by speech. which is unattached. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. egoism. and the Purusha likewise. He should not defile anything by the eye. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. as they come. nor the senses. and should not take (anything) unasked. untainted. which is free from anxiety. flowers. nor the deities. One who knows the truth.

the sprouts within which are the senses. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. everlasting. He who desires nothing. even for (the space of) a wink. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and some as transcendent and without misery. even dwelling in this world. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. and old age. and renunciation the best penance. developed from the qualities. and being untainted. is released from misery. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. is emancipated. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. whether agreeable or disagreeable. and whose minds are refined. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. transcending passion. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. is emancipated. devoid of qualities. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. of unthinkable qualities. and with an understanding comprehending all. there is no doubt of that. and supreme. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. (which are) unchanging. Restraining the self in the self. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. attaining to the self. becomes fit for immortality. and which is the essential element in knowledge. The highest Brahman is very far off. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. which cause birth. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. devoid of knowledge of nature. Penance is said to be a light. But as to that other who is above them. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. and despises nothing. There are these two birds. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. which abides in all entities. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. it is free from the pairs of opposites. go to the happy path by penance. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. through the tranquility of the self. and who is devoid of egoism. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. there is no doubt of that. (When) the inner self. the great branches of which are the great elements. for assimilation with the Brahman. there is no doubt of that. and (as it were) non-intelligent. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. and free from egoism. association and dissociation. who are pure. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. and likewise unity and diversity. by tranquility only. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. which is always possessed of leaves. The learned man who perceives. always possessed of flowers. Abandoning all action. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. then understanding the Kshetra. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. a creature is emancipated. and devoid of qualities. and which is fed upon by all creatures. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. understands that which is beyond nature. death. and the side branches the objects of sense. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. becomes eligible. The men of talent. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. he is called intelligent.

People are acting. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. gifts. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. some are for merit and glory. who were the best of sages. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). and (others) that it exists not. Some Brâhmanas. that fits one for immortality. some say that is not so. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. Some are for taking food. and others. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. some various kinds of enjoyments. others are intent on fasting. and others indigence. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. (saying) this is good. Some say both time and space (exist). . and others say that is not so. Some extol final emancipation. and others tranquility. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. others that that is not so. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. this is good. courage. Some people are for bathing. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). and others that there is no doubt. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. too. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and others that that is not so. Some people (say) meditation. and some given up to destruction. Some learned men. believe it to be one. Thus having first a tranquil self.by control of the life-winds. and other persons sacred study. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Some (say) everything is doubtful. and come to no determination. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. and others. knowledge. and those who ponder on the element. the venerable. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. some are for pleasure. Some are devoted to harmlessness. abandonment. that it exists. And. some knowledge. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. some wish for riches. having again felt doubts. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. and our mind is distracted. But that is not correct. we are deluded. some for the omission of bathing. too. straightforwardness. and others again (that it is) manifold. holy. We wish. equability. there is no doubt of that. others distinct. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. who are devoted to knowledge. Some are devoted to goodness. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. harmlessness. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. and renunciation. truth. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). some are in the midst of doubts. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Some have matted hair and skins. be obtains whatever he desires. but others extol penance. such is their relation. always esteems that. and some for pain. nature. Some extol everything. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. Some people extol action. and others nothing. Some (say) means should be resorted to. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. of ten or twelve (modes). and others (that it is) mixed.

For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. As far as there is a carriage-path. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . through delusion. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. deliberate on it properly. the light shines. comprehending the gradations one above the other. and to be constituted of the qualities. so should one understand. Non-destruction of all creatures. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. So travels the talented man. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. For the talented man who knows (these) means. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. He abides in everything alike. Learn that. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. where the carriage-path stops. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. go verily to hell. throwing aside the boat. and who knows about the qualities. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. and going swiftly. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. and who entertain avarice and delusion. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. such is the progress of the men of understanding. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. and in essence free from the qualities. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. While there is oil and wick. afflicted by reason of the chariot. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). the being is laid down (as being) unperceived.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. free from vexation and holy in character. Hearing it all. being born again and again. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. devoid of parts. and nature is stated to be the object. It has been explained in the above mode. who perform actions with faith. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). travels with great discomfort. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. though it is the object of enjoyment. rejoice in this world. free from any connection with expectations. I will tell you something more. Even brought into contact with all qualities. O Brâhmanas! Well now. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. attains supreme happiness. and soon crosses the reservoir. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. Now I will proceed to. and is connected with (all) knowledge. and void of intelligence. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. But those wise and talented men. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. Understand this. It is established that nature is the property of the being. The subject is always the being. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. and who are infidels in their conduct. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. and may even be destroyed on the way. I will declare to you what you ask of me. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). a learned man remains untainted. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. This is the highest seat. Thus nature is perceived. goes in the water without fatigue. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. he goes in the carriage. perceive correctly.

which is void of any smell whatever. soft. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. narrow. sour. smooth. Sweet. and color likewise. diffusive and compact also. Space is the highest element. and grey likewise. that is called the Pradhâna. sharp. White. which is a development of water. and above the unperceived is the being. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. be understood to be of ten descriptions. And touch is the quality of air. sour. together with Gândhâra. compact. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. and smell as the fifth – these. taste. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. void of taste. Now space has one quality. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. namely. so does it result to them. and of the elements respectively. but they do not yield products. black. egoism is above that. Rough. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. should be understood to be of five qualities. square. astringent. Rishabha. touch. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. Shadga. and above that understanding is the self. Learn about their properties. above egoism is understanding. it is said that light has three qualities. From egoism is produced the development. touch. and that is stated to be sound only. which belongs to the earth. glutinous.carriage and pedestrian. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. The quality of light is color. hard. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. and rough. and likewise Pañkama. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. green. and taste. and bitter likewise. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. short long. and also productive in its essence. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. above that is the unperceived. and of (many) ingredients. touch. and void of color. And as action is performed in this world. – thus should smell. Thus sound. Sound. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. yellow. Sound. One who has come by delusion through affection. and likewise color. red likewise. touch. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. air is said to have (these) two qualities. the great elements. I will now give (some) information about taste. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. cold and hot likewise. and are conversant with piety. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. abounding with movables and immovables. Madhyama. color likewise. and earth. which is produced in space. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. and who identifies himself with every being. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. air is said to have two qualities. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and water. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). are stated to be the qualities of water. Now space has one quality. who speak the truth. the divine source of all entities. said to be of six descriptions. sweet. Sound. to be of twelve descriptions. repairs to the imperishable self. hurtful. broad. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. Smell always belongs to the earth. slippery. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. is of four qualities. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. Sound and touch also should be understood. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. tender and clear also. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. too. thus is light said to have three qualities. bitter. or sound. and clear also. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again.

enter the highest world of the great. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. Those who best understand the self. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Pisâkas. which is the unperceived. Born from that same unperceived (principle). and herbs. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. and the understanding for a drag. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. are born here again and again. perceive the triple world here by penance. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. movable or immovable. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. obtain the great and highest world.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. The senses. These Brâhmanas. the mind itself is the individual self. (Those) men. difficult to learn. is released from. and devoid of egoism. difficult to vanquish. they go near Prajâpati. And he who is released. (sacrificial) animals. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. That individual self. they are the very first to be dissolved. and in which the understanding is the drag. And in like manner. gods. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. even from those five elements. all that can be accomplished by penance. all have been created by nature. He who understands him understands the Vedas. and being full of egoism. goes to the highest goal. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. That learned and talented person verily. and all other creatures movable or immovable. and abandons everything as fruitless. all the elements. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. Râkshasas. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. again acquiring knowledge. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). Gandharvas. Gods. and includes movables and immovables. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. and who are free from egoism. and it is called the Kshetrajña. and it is the goal of all living creatures. men. one who steals. one who destroys an embryo. like billows in the ocean. For all acquisition has penance for its root. and ends with the gross objects. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. nor by a cause. One who drinks spirituous liquors. Pitris. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. This is the eternal mystery. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. Medicines. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. a man gets rid of all sins. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. and next the developments produced from the elements. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. not by actions. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. Whatever is difficult to obtain. a sage should sit down self-restrained. has the mind for a charioteer. that sin only by penance well performed. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. That which begins with the unperceived . one who kills a Brâhmana. The understanding proclaims its power. those who have achieved perfection. and difficult to pass through. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. Asuras. always reach perfection by penance. for penance is difficult to overcome. beasts and birds. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. the mind. the creators of the world. and (after) these developments. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. The mind always presides over the great elements. Such is the upward gradation among entities. and having their minds always tranquil. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation.

you will attain the absolute final emancipation. Then will you attain perfection. incomprehensible. Some men of dull understandings extol action. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). having done all he should have done. Mine is death. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. was that Brâhmana. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. not full of action. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. three syllables the eternal Brahman. he dies not. unmoving. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. and not mine is the eternal. who is without attachment. Expelling all impressions. I have now declared everything to you. and then attained to the worlds. is fit to be heard by me. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . sages! Act thus forthwith. which is uncreated. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. Vâsudeva. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. O noble person. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. O Lord! then tell it me. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. changeless. who is without expectations. and restraining the self in the Self. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. This is the eternal piety. O best of Brâhmana. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. too. And the pupil. indeed. Then when this piety is duly practiced. And. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. he understands that holy Brahman. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. than which nothing greater exists. And now. he attains tranquility. getting rid of all sins.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. always duly act (according to it). with your consent. O Krishna! and who the pupil. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Arjuna said: Who. If you have love for me. attained to that seat. Do you. And when the understanding is clear. then you will acquire perfection. changeless. I wish to see him. in consequence of these means. Knowledge brings forth the being. and who looks alike on everything. did everything (accordingly). It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. Two syllables are death. O Janârdana! If this verily. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil.

When Krishna spoke these words. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. who is of a devout heart. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa.’ Om Tat Sat . Be pleased. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.

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