This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best
understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).
CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which
preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that
(having) as regards the moving (creation). released from everything. never comes to an evil end. verily. and which is known in the world as the highest. and who has no desire. and (what is) agreeable and odious. And that I shall now proceed to state. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. and ruin to be connected with action. released in every way. who contemns no one. life as a Brahmachârin. And he. moving and fixed. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and thinking of naught. and about the return. This is what is called the destructible. A man who is a friend of all. and gain and loss. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). abandoning each previous (element). too. and whose self is free from affections. created the whole of the three worlds. becomes happy. From that he created the Pradhâna. and also tranquility. and absence of cruelty. indeed. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. he is. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. for among them it constantly abides. the material cause of all embodied (selves). adherence to prescribed regulations. and causing good to be done. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. who has subdued his senses. which I am now about to declare. Gifts. And as regards that. is released. who is free from the pairs of opposites. He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . but the other is immortal and indestructible. From this is produced piety. who is self-controlled. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). wealth. honoring deities and guests. he is. and who is self-possessed. he becomes indifferent to everything. serving mother and father. pity. and likewise pleasure and pain. self-restraint. created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. which protects people to eternity. who has abandoned piety. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. who is devoted to tranquility. constant restraint of the organs. takes place after a long time. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). He who understands the Pradhâna. The practice to which the good adhere. who has no child. He who is not attached to any one. which is very difficult to cross. as he should act. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. Then seeking after the supreme seat. who had been first created. And Prajâpati. free from vanity and egoism. is released. Brahman. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. the grandfather of all people. having made a body for himself. points out (what) piety (is). the body to be an unholy aggregate. and lust altogether.action by which. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. purity. He who has no enemy. is released who is equable towards both life and death. one going the round of various births. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. who has no kinsmen. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. honoring preceptors. He who acquires that. Learn from me exhaustively. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. who endures all. What I say is all correct and proper. restraint of the senses. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. compassion to (all) beings. a pair separately for each (species). by which all this is pervaded. He who is not pious and not impious. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. pure. indeed. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. penance.
He who is free from all impressions. than which there is nothing higher. void of belongings. When. void of sound. he gradually obtains tranquility. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. then he. and casting aside old age and death. Then freed from all impressions. he is not afflicted by anything. he perceives the perfect one. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. Properly concentrating his self. the soft fibers stand for the self. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. Thinking of a quarter seen before. constant. which consist in pain and grief. void of taste. and of a tranquil mind.. and having first performed rigorous penance. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. he sleeps at ease. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. and who has no desire. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. is released. saying. after extracting them from the Muñga. devoid of form. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. ‘This is he. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. there is no death for him. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. void of color. He whose self is concentrated. indestructible. he grieves not and exults not. is released. he has no fear. then there is no ruler over him. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. unmoving. Restraining the senses. when (all) beings are afflicted. and having his senses subjugated. and freed from old age and grief. Restraining the . One who does no action. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. he assumes bodies at pleasure. and unknowable. The body is called the Muñga. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. devoid of qualities. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. searching for his own faults. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. and abandoning the transient body. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. and old age. meditating in that habitation. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. and having no cause. recognizes him (afterwards). he is indeed released. And as one may show the soft fibers. death. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. and who is self-restrained. always full of birth. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. Weapons do not pierce him. As a person having seen one in a dream. looks on this universe as transient. free from the pairs of opposites. void of touch. like an Aswattha tree. being habituated to exclusive meditation. without belongings. since he is the lord of the triple world. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. Seeing the self void of smell. When (all) beings are destroyed. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. Then the talented Brâhmana. he remains steady to the self. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. who is free from attachment. Leaving this human frame.body. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. Remaining within (that) city. and always concentrating his mind. one should fix the mind on the self. perceives the self in the self. like fire devoid of fuel. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. tranquil. who has practiced penance. he is released.
he has eyes. and also the heart. It is my belief. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. nor by any of the senses. and Sûdras likewise. forsaking the body. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. He should meditate on his teeth. too. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. and likewise the seat of the heart. and throat likewise. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified.group of the senses. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. he stands pervading everything in the world. He has hands and feet on all sides. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. O Krishna! that pupil. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). This whole mystery I have declared to you. and (keeping) the passages confined. palate. too. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. tongue. and how also to blood? And how. The world of the gods. he has cars on all sides. What I have spoken. where one. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. – with. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. which is difficult to explain.’ Thus addressed by me. Vaisyas. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. do the flesh. and do you (too) go away. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. Adopting this doctrine. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. attain the supreme goal. as it were. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. and faces on all sides. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). and of the excretions. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. possessed of great penance. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self. ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. and also the means for its acquisition. who are constantly intent on their own duties. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. – went away as he pleased. and abandoning his body. That talented pupil. neck. The soul sees the self come out from the body. too. women. heads. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. and determination regarding . a mental smile. he attains final emancipation in me. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas. He is not to be grasped by the eye. and marrow. And then depending upon it thus. final emancipation. Have you listened to this. he perceives the self. and muscles. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. distinctly? How. too. reaches immortality and is ever happy. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. O son of Prithâ! For. For as to that eternal Brahman. I will go away. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. even those who are of sinful birth. O Mâdhava! I replied. so placing one’s mind in one’s body.
Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. Apâna. or seen. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. indeed. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. that which is to be smelt. that only do the men of action engage in as action. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. that which is to be drunk. and likewise that which is to . which occurred. and that which is to be understood. A Brâhmana’s wife. and the moon together with the fire. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. depending on you as (my) husband. and for which learned men have their senses restrained. but is to be apprehended by the mind. that which sees. and also that which is to be thought of. And mark this always. verily. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. and (observe) good vows. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. O son of Pându! who. these are the seven great officiating priests. From this the Prâna. The mortal. devoid of color and sound. that which thinks. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. and imperishable. and the eye. When that is asleep. that which is to be touched. that man of a tranquil self. the mind and the understanding. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. and into it they enter. possessed of talents. that which cats. Samâna.misery. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. or heard. What goal. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. It is not to be smelt by the nose. shall I go to. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. mind or speech. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. That which smells. That which is to be smelt. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. that which is to be drunk. While the paths (of action). And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. This is all that is to be said. and the skin. That is called the Udâna. and likewise that which is to be heard. and that which understands. there is nothing further than this. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. and their selves tranquil. and on which it rests. are destroyed by demons. (in the form of) a dialogue. seated in seclusion. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. action. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). full of faith. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. In the interior. CHAPTER V On this. and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). and energetic. you who live renouncing (all) action. and the tongue. devoid of taste and touch. (namely). that which is to be touched. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. that which is to be seen. Whatever action there is. too. and Udâna also proceed. good or bad. shall I reach. and the ear as the fifth. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. It is devoid of smell. The nose. Concentration of mind comes to him. in which the materials are visible. that can be caught (by the touch). Vyâna. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. by act. that which is to be seen. and that which hears as the fifth. produce them in their wombs. that which touches. and not to be tasted by the tongue. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. and who are harsh and undiscerning. does exist among (all) beings. From birth to the destruction of the body.
sun. That is called the movement of the mind. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. which is the generator of all entities. and the knower is the upholder of the body. But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. color. from that is produced color. that indeed is the movable mind. or letter. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). are ten sacrificial priests. mind and understanding. Indra. ‘I. and also that which is to be understood. words. The goddess speech.’ But speech thereupon said to him. and the mind runs after them. the genital organ. from that is produced taste. Whatever mantra.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. are words produced. and (though) developed. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. But inasmuch. verily. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). the two feet. the offerings are ten. these. O beautiful one! Sound. verily. speech. and light as the fifth. they were perfectly filled with light. the nose.be heard.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. and the anus. from that is produced determination. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. was the universe duly divided. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. and the discharge of semen. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. First. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. And the mind. there are two minds. The mind is the ladle. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. are the fuel. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. space. and hence the mind is in need (of it). or tone goes to your dominion. earth and fire. and taste. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. these are the ten oblations. air. these. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. yield (you) your desires. verity. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. The quarters. From that is produced smell. from that touch is produced. from that another is produced. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. the movable is in your dominion. The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. The ten organs are the makers of the offering. these seven. verily. indeed. are named wombs. The ear. from that is produced sound. action. (Thus) we have heard. Earth. Then the lord of speech was produced. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. ‘Say which of us is superior. the two hands. wind. and they are offered up into the ten fires. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. moon. they relate this ancient story. urine. To that you are superior. the tongue. Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. The immovable. and Vishnu also. smell. requires everything knowable (as its offering). which is the instrument of knowledge. verily. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. though . immovable and also movable. and into this the offering is thrown. But. too. touch. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. from that doubt is produced. therefore. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. that (in) my (view). ‘Mind (is superior). water. highest knowledge. and Mitra. Prajâpati. is with me. verily. and excrement. destroy our doubts. that which is to be thought of. and the wealth is the pure. motion. And in that very (principle).
(in consequence of) being without the Prâna. and the ear as the fifth. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. and which then goes into the Apâna. And these never know the qualities of each other. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). This excellent (speech). the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). the tongue. do not apprehend doubt. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. O you of a bright smile! is divine. do not apprehend final determination. like a cow. the mind. and next the eye. the skin. and the understanding also. Do you. The nose. mind and understanding. they do not perceive each other. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. and the understanding also. do not apprehend smells. The nose. The tongue. the ear apprehends them. the understanding apprehends it. On this. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. The mind said: . Of those two. O venerable sir? Tell me this. do not apprehend tastes. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. and the eye. and the understanding also. and the eye. flowing (forms). the understanding. the ear. and the mind also. and the eye. the skin. and the understanding also. the skin apprehends them. the ear. saying. the mind. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge. the ear. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. the ear likewise. and the eye. The nose. the tongue. the mind. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. the eye. she ran up to Prajâpati. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. This cow-like speech. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. the mind apprehends it. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. the mind. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. the tongue. do not apprehend sounds. the ear likewise. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. the tongue apprehends them. verily. the skin. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other.impelled. the ear likewise. with divine power. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). the eye apprehends them. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. the nose apprehends them. the mind likewise. and the tongue. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. and the skin. too. So speech formerly spoke. The nose. the tongue. too. the skin. The nose. The nose. The nose. ‘Be pleased. It is always noisy or noiseless. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. Dwelling in a minute space. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. the tongue. they relate this ancient story. – a dialogue. yields milk. the eye. the skin. when. do not apprehend colors. the skin. and the understanding also.
take in smells by the ear. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. Without me. are the five sacrificial priests. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. all beings. the senses never shine. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. and if you enjoy enjoyments. I am the eternal chief among all elements. who was born first.’ Brahman said: . take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). the eye does not take in color. both past and future. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. If when we are extinct. rules are for the weak. like an empty dwelling. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. without us. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. when our objects perform their functions. that the Prâna and the Apâna. O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. Granted. like fuel half dried and half moist. too. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). If again you think your power over our objects is constant. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. does run to objects of sense only. (which is) like entering a house without a door.The nose smells not without me. a creature. or if when we are absorbed. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. the ear does not in any way hear sound. They formerly went to the grandsire. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. when troubled by desire to enjoy. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. (there is) pleasure and support of life. and said to him. they relate an ancient story. even with the senses exerting themselves. life is seen to be supported. if you. He shall be the greatest among us. and the Udâna. always meets death. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. still. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. then what you believe is true. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. and indulged in dreams. without us. Without me. fail to apprehend qualities or objects. then take in colors by the nose. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. resulting from mental operations (alone). and objects are standing. the tongue does not perceive taste. take in tastes by the eye. The learned know this to be a great principle. and not connected with objects of sense. Without me. you have no perception. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. and take in sounds by the skin. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. One entering upon enjoyments. Besides.
and pleasing one another. they again move about. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. I am the greatest. spoke to him.He. and not greatest. they again move about. The Vyâna only is subject to you. (Now) go where (you) like. My own self is one only.’ Then the Apâna moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. they again move about. And the Prâna and Apâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. they again move about. Hear the reason why. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. And the Prâna and Apâna. and the Udâna. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. and again moved about. There is one unmoving (life-wind). I am the greatest. Welfare be to you! Support one another. When I am extinct. and again moved about.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. and on my moving about. and the Apâna said to him. and the Vyâna also. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and on my moving about. There are others moving about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. and again moved about. ‘You are not the greatest among us. and on my moving about. Hear the reason why. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. the lord of (all) creatures. When I am extinct. and the Samâna. O beautiful one! spoke these words. verily. they again move about. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. because the Apâna is subject to you. is the greatest.’ The Vyâna moved about again. I am the greatest. I am the greatest. and on my moving about. Hear the reason why. and all support one another. And on my moving about. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. O Prâna. and the Samâna. go away happily. Being friendly with one another. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. and the Samâna spoke again. I am the greatest. When I am extinct. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest.’ The Prâna again moved about. You are not the greatest among us. All are greatest in their own spheres. (which are) five. and on whose moving about. who being extinct. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . they again move about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct.
the Prâna comes first into operation. they relate this ancient story. indeed. between them is the fire. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or Apâna. between them is the fire. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. (the quality of) passion. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. or transversely. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. these. too. This is the effect of the Udâna. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. From the combination of the semen and the blood. and the eye.On this. The two – good and evil – are a pair. The smoke of that (fire). (it) is also produced from taste. (its) ashes. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. The instrument. or transversely. or downwards. From desire the semen is produced. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. which is of excellent glory. their function is performed: then. between them is the fire. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. which (move) upwards. and the tongue. and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. which (move) upwards. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. and (it) is also produced from touch. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. or downwards. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. the Samâna comes into operation again. the Samâna and Vyâna. CHAPTER X On this. that which is other than this first comes to him. the Apâna then comes into operation. Day and night are a pair. the pleasure is produced from union. First. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. It is the teaching of the Veda. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. secondly. what comes into existence first. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. the action. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter. or Vyâna. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and (it) is also produced from smell. and the . a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. and between them is the fire. and (it) is also produced from a sound. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. The nose. in which the offering is thrown. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. and emancipation. too. or Samâna. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. being accompanied by intelligence. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. hear me speak about that. his Prâna. that the fire verily is all the deities. the agent. and (it) is also produced from color. Hear me. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering).
the Brahman priest in which. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. There is one instructor. of which an illustration is stated. the director. the Sastra. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. To him who is not learned. And among the learned who understand (everything). On that Sâman hymns. CHAPTER XI There is one director. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). being (himself) a ruler. Smell. This being. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. is the counselor in all action. The gods had been engaged in gifts. they relate an ancient story. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. whatever is spoken by speech. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. He who smells. the downward lifewind.’ Hearing that. enjoy their own qualities. he. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. this. approaching Prajâpati. On. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. There is one hearer. the self the Adhvaryu priest. and the gods. shines dwelling within the body. my fire of (high) qualifications. agreeable and disagreeable. there is no second (different) from him. Taught by that instructor. mind and understanding. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. and whatever is smelt by the nose. (and) the seven Rishis. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. there is no second (different) from him. The eating of that which should not be eaten. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. I move as I am ordered. and he who hears as the fifth. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. these seven are causes of action. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. and he who understands. The learned man. (about the) instruction of the snakes. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. Living under that instructor. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. destroying this food again produces it. He destroys the food. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. each in its own place. and the great sages . And cooking food for himself. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). and sages. the Brahman. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. ‘Om. by Prajâpati. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. he who thinks. he who eats. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. he who speaks. Impelled by that same (being). and sages. who is the self of everything. and the snakes. There is one enemy. Whatever is thought by the mind. there is no second (different) from him. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. they ran away in (various) directions. being possessed of qualities. eating various (kinds of) food. and the demons. final emancipation. and taste. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. is ruined. is the upward life-wind. too. and touch as the fifth. like water on a declivity. are sung. There is one kinsman. too. and color. the Hotri priest. there is no second (different) from him. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. truth. whatever is seen by the eye. there is no second director.skin. Taught by that instructor. he who sees. And I am here devoid of qualities. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. On this. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. the venerable one said. and the ear as the fifth. These. sound. The gods. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. and the Dakshinâ. whatever is heard by the ear. in a single syllable. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. the Stotra in which.
The instructor. and emancipation the fruit. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. are always within the heart. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. and the hills and mountains. the Brahman the instructor. There. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. seven hermitages. and mixed. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. which has contentment for its water. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. The good who attain to that. seven fruits. and having a good mind. the hearer. (namely) the five senses. and having been instructed with one word. and seven (forms of) initiation. There is one fire here. merely adheres to the Brahman. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. when there is a distinction from it. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. in various places. have no fear afterwards. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. who. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. Having had one teacher. They are not afraid of anybody. in which intelligence is the tree. and seven guests. There is nothing more afflicting than that. there is no other happiness equal to. Acting sinfully in the world. the twice-born do not grieve. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. and causes of generation. In that forest are seven large trees. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. and the guests eat the fruits. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. the sages. the way to which consists in worldly objects. that. which depends on knowledge. the learner. Entering it. casting aside vows and actions. The qualities are the fruits. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. the Brahman the fire. when there is no distinction from it. Understanding it they practiced it. and of beautiful colors. There is nothing smaller than that. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. . and the demons. there is nothing larger than that. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. the Brahman his origin. And I have entered the great forest. all engaged in different (pursuits). And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. full of brilliance. But he who. To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. and is to be crossed by one singly.in restraint of the senses. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. There is nothing more subtle than that. becomes a Brahmachârin. seven (forms of) concentration. owing to his desires. connected with the Brahman. There always dwell seven females there. the gods. the great sages receive hospitality. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). and fragrant. and what the rivers. and nobody is afraid of them. the Brahman water. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. there is no other instructor. and the enemy. He is rapt in the Brahman. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. This is the description of the forest. another forest shines forth. with faces (turned) downwards. and do not exult. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. the snakes. And there is fuel here. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct.
whatever in him is produced from water. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. is this holy forest. praise tranquility. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun. or old age. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. too. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. as understood by Brâhmanas. since the Vedic text is such. they relate an ancient story. victory. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). whose sins are burnt up by penance. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. they are born so as not to lose courage. they act (accordingly). O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. And understanding it. and as the constant entity underlying them. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. Dwelling in that (self). the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. On this. Such. I see the individual self in the body. we do not rely on what is not visible. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. take him (to them) and consult (them). Those whose wishes are reduced. mother. that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. especially as he is dependent. Hills and mountains also are there collected together. . After hearing their consent. (his) ear the quarters. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. the richest. then the sacrifice is for the goat. Although actions are performed. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). too. abide. Nature desires objects which are liked. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. and I do not touch. The teaching of the elders is. merging the self in the self. The life-winds. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. Glory. and greatness. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. devote themselves to Brahman. There is no offence on my part. nor yet do I hear various sounds. I see no color. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. that will enter water. father. indeed. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful.They absorb all the higher delights of people. there is no taint on my natures. and again emerge from the same. of this goat have gone to their sources. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. this goat will not be destroyed. nor even do I entertain any fancies. Understand that. (This) creature will obtain welfare. or death. His eye (will enter) the sun. And aspiring to that forest. and his life-winds likewise the sky. If I spoke further. together with their chiefs. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. enlightenment. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. perfection. I perceive no tastes. not hating any evil. Apart from them. brilliance. and I think only his unmoving body remains. after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. Not desiring any object of desire. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). being directed by the Kshetrajña.
as we have heard. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. and understanding it. possessed of a thousand arms. The life-winds. there is no fear anywhere. and with joined hands. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. (in the shape of) a dialogue. name him to me. such is the double manifestation of the self. proud of his strength. together with (the quality of) passion. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. and I say (to you). O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean. you believe. my mind is enlightened. . Say. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. Or what do you think. who is devoid of expectations. you see the colors of shining bodies. who take shelter with me. The ocean said: If. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. who has subdued his self. are being destroyed. And to one who is free from these manifestations. The ocean. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. you drink watery juices. what shall I do for you? The creatures. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. Give them security. and (the quality of) goodness. you touch the qualities of the air. For having heard your opinion. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. freed from delusion. and who is released on all hands. they relate an old story. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. And all these entities. a descendant of Kritavîrya. the mind. have life. who is alike to all beings. they act (accordingly). being directed by the Kshetrajña. he was walking about near the sea. too. you hear the sound produced in space. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. who is free from the pairs of opposites. Of these the indestructible is the existent. the tongue. said. O venerable sir! I approach you. Once on a time. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. who might stand against me in the field. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. saluting him.
taking up his axe.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. the Kshatriyas. it wishes. There was (once) a royal sage. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. whose penance was very great. became Vrishalas. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. which was heard by all people. together with the Sâbaras. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. Then some of the Kshatriyas. Hearing that. blazed forth. do you perceive. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. being a Brâhmana. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. The mind said: These arrows. who understood duty. What good. you will die. like a tree of many branches. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. became Vrishalas. Râma also taking up a bow. and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. with Rikîka as their head. shot away volleys of arrows. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . who were produced by the Brâhmanas. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. not forgiving his father’s murder. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. Seeing him killed and fallen. too. his grandfathers. turned to subtle (questions). named Alarka. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. to make all mortals perform action. entered mountains and inaccessible places. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. and very firm in his vows. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. a bodiless voice from heaven. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter). to slaughter these kings. Âbhîras. full of great wrath. O noble one!’ But Râma. It is not proper for you. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). hearing that (story). they relate an ancient story. burning the hosts of the enemy. and blew away the army of the king. spoke sweetly to Râma. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. dear friend. abandoning (those) great deeds. whose power was unbounded. In company with his kinsmen. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. too. and taking swords and lances. – having performed very difficult deeds.Then the king. ‘Desist. who was veracious. (Though) surrounded by enemies. went away. As by its unsteadiness. Then the power of Râma. Thus the Dravidas. high-souled. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. Paundras. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. like antelopes troubled by a lion. said to those sages. and your vital part being pierced. only pierce your own vital part. They will. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all.
he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. the (ear) hankers after them only. you will die. They will only pierce your own vital part. you will die. Hearing that. The nose said. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. The eye said: These arrows. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. They will only pierce your own vital part. They will only pierce your own vital part. the skin hankers after them only. this (tongue) hankers after them only. The ear said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. The skin said: These arrows.Smelling very many perfumes. Hearing that. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. the eye hankers after them only. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. he then said after consideration: – . and your vital part being pierced. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and then you will lose (your) life. Hearing that. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. They will only pierce your own vital part. and your vital part being pierced. The tongue said: These arrows. you will die. and your vital part being pierced. one hankers after them only. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. These arrows. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all.
Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. of great glory. and after deliberating for a long time. That avarice – cut (it) off. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. Exultation. sloth. and good (men) were oppressed. who had become tranquil (in mind). he meets death. wrath. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). and engages in action. joy. owing to these qualities. he became steady. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). free from sloth. verily. being impelled by which. Then directing his mind to one point. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. three foes in (this) world. persistent hatred. and honoring good men. he reached the highest perfection. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. and senses controlled. being impelled by which. having a tranquil self. a man even does what ought not to be done. Obtaining those. and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. is born again and again. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. They will only pierce your own vital part. (that vice). Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and being troubled by desire. you will die. Perform a fearful penance. but there is one. Sleep. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. and delusion. Therefore. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. cut (it) off with sharp swords. he. then anxiety comes into existence. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. the greatest. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). And at the expiration of life. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. according to qualities. On this. and applied himself to concentration of mind. And the royal sage. attained high perfection. He (then) restraining his own vices. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. then uttered this verse. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. properly . we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. and he who desires. thence you will obtain the highest good. is energetic about subjugating others. Ambarîsha. and your vital part being pierced. Grief. amazed. When the bodily frame is destroyed. The understanding said: These arrows. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. and again birth. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. pleasure. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. a courageous man. the best of talented (men). When vices were in the ascendant. For from avarice is born desire. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. destroyed all foes.’ Do you understand this too.
as the planet upon the sun. a delusion suddenly came upon him. though this country. This is sovereignty. I cannot find my domain. or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. While that king of unbounded power was seated. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. the king recovered himself. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. Now hear the conviction.’ Thus spoken to. what belief you have resorted to.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty. to be terminable.perceiving this. by the glorious Ambarîsha. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. is subject to you. in all affairs. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. Then when the delusion had gone off. and said nothing in reply. engaged in meditation. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. therefore) while you desire. I looked for Mithilâ. who destroyed the one (chief vice). What conviction have you adopted. there is no other sovereignty here. And as mine. and enjoy while you live. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). too. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. so (is it) that of others too. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. Even this self is not mine.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. I looked for my own offspring. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. holding which. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. I believe. by way of punishment. (Considering) whose this was. avarice. and restraining avarice by courage. Janaka said: Though this country. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. Then on the expiration of the delusion. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . is subject (to me). by which. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. then came the delusion on me. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. or that everything is my domain. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. or the whole earth is mine. King Janaka. intelligence again came to me. Resorting to this conviction. When I did not find it among them. searching through the (whole) earth. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. The Brâhmana said: Tell me. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. I wish. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. and. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. When I did not find it on the earth. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose.
and also without qualities. or among mendicants. smiling. that. indeed. dwelling with preceptors. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. or residence in forests. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. Sovereignty over the whole world. and which does not turn back.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. This path is traversed by the understanding. I am emancipated. is (to be found) a description of it. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. the instructor is the upper Arani. I am not such. know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. (namely) for the gods. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. that a certain thing should be done. to households. you have guessed. You are the one person to turn this wheel. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth. observing vows.subject to me. and the body is tied down by action. verily. where. according to your own understanding. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. nothing exists that is a cause of him. and even over heaven. Whatever creatures there are in the world. and confused. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. With your heart intent upon the real entity. by which those who understand that proceed. I am a Brâhmana. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. the Bhûtas. or. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. not by the body. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. and my intelligence is very frivolous. have their understanding full of tranquility. action and knowledge. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. is perceived as by bees. I am a forester. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . the spoke the understanding. come here today to learn (something) about you. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña. or by one whose self is not refined. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. movable or not moving. In the (rules for) final emancipation. you will certainly come into my self. namely. And those who. All these actions of mine are. together with guests. Actions have a beginning and an end. A good means is found. by which that (entity). it is not laid down. Hence. and narrow. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. or else this knowledge. the nave of which is the Brahman. the Pitris. Then the Brâhmana. for this purpose. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. and a certain thing should not. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached.
‘whose goal is the highest good. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. (when he was) seated. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). and accurately. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. truly. and what sin? These questions of mine. Speak. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. ‘I’ (he said). by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. who put (his) questions properly. who had approached him (for instruction). and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. One should adopt as many of these things. are afraid of worldly life. and also desirous of final emancipation. There is none else here who can explain these questions. A talented pupil. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. all of various descriptions. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. connected with final emancipation. and those whose form is perceived. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. indeed. likewise. too. am come to you (who are) venerable. between a preceptor and a pupil. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. who was possessed of (the . something about the highest good.and hears. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. in hundreds and in thousands. (which are) means of direct perception. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. who preserved (all) vows. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. as may here be practicable – unperceived. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife.’ The preceptor. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. Arjuna said: Where. what penance. And he. Listen to that. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. is I myself. I pray of you with (bowed) head. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. Vâsudeva said: On this. And we. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. put (his) questions with joined bands.
which consists of the understanding as its trunk. saw Brahman. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. And those twice-born (sages). I will state to you today. and likewise Bhârgava. He who does not desire anything. the branches of which are the great egoism. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. desiring knowledge. Vasishtha. the present. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. The preceptor said: All this. and casts off birth and death. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. who understands the creation of all entities. the sages. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. even while dwelling in this world. namely. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. who are possessed of knowledge. . and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. which is always possessed of leaves. and is eternal. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and likewise unity and variety. the great sages. the gross elements the smaller boughs. Formerly. and who is devoid of egoism. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. from whom (all) sin has departed. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. are full of the truth. and renunciation as the best penance. who was like (his) shadow. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. from whom anger and vexation have departed. penance is the truth. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. is esteemed highest. desire. and likewise of the castes. was declared by Brahman. and becoming wearied of their own actions. Gautama. They live by penance. on which all entities subsist. full of humility. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. and has no egoism about anything. is released from misery. and the severance also. I will state to you. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. and Visvâmitra. after having traveled over all paths. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. there is no doubt of that. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and piety. and the seed of which is the Brahman. Brihaspati. is emancipated. who was tranquil. and so forth. met each other. always possessed of flowers. and who are the constant creators of the people. Bharadvâja. the future. Understand that. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation.necessary) qualifications. the senses. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. and Atri also. Prajâpati also is truth. when thus spoken to by the sages. which is eternal. The Brahman is the truth. and also Kâsyapa. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. and of the four orders. which belongs to olden times. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. the entities are born from the truth. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. which ought to be apprehended. and wealth. in Brahman’s mansion.
will now be stated together with the reasons. never comes by delusion. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. goodness there prevails. Delusion. which is productive of pleasure. It has three qualities. and passion is the match of goodness. space. and darkness the match of goodness. such is the eternal creation. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. these are called the three qualities. passion there prevails. and goodness. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. haughtiness. Where passion is restrained. This is the nature of darkness. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. and getting rid of all bonds. appears to be production. sun. and those three channels run on. avarice. and attend on one another. which you should understand. rigid in his vows. and immutable. Where darkness is restrained. He who. passion. . and the five great elements. and five constituent principles. and next after that too. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. which is in a state of equilibrium. now speaking exhaustively. its characteristic. The true nature of their characteristics. attains to all the spotless worlds. next after that is that of foresters. nihilism. want of liberality. ignorance. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. When it prevails. which depend on one another. all-pervading. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). and of the highest seat. casting aside sin. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. The wise always speak of piety as one. finding fault with good acts. faith. I will speak to you. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. and it is constant in sinful actions. grief. and is the cause of successive (acts). the unperceived likewise. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. The great self. being constituted by the three qualities. and likewise serve one another. Indra. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. everlasting. and goodness is also the match of passion. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. among all beings. Light. and are joined to one another. fear. He who accurately understands the elements. Its characteristic is also impiety. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). the second is that of householders. Light. Prajâpati. of all beings. he. learn those accurately. consisting of three qualities. and likewise also egoism. want of memory. Goodness is the match of darkness. blindness. violation of (the rules of) conduct. the whole of the qualities. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. and which are bridges of piety. lightness. and of the understanding as ruler. the ten senses and the one (sense). sleep. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. Passion is said to consist in activity. eleven. indecision about actions. Darkness. encircled by the. takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. it also appears combined (with others). (but) having four quarters. Learn. I will subsequently state the means to that. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. want of discrimination.distinctly. immaturity (of intellect). in aggregation and separation. O noble ones! from me. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. one sees not these. as accepted by good men. air. and also all the deities. which are all coupled with one another. and is called delusion. The order of foresters.
or deaf. affliction. toil. deaf and dumb men. and vain eating. want of knowledge. anger. pleasure and pain. stolidity. valor. to be born in the lower hell. There. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. birds. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. this is considered to be dark conduct. all these are dark qualities. frenzy. vanity. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. and serpents. are found in various places in this world. want of liberality. animosity. backbiting. desire. how. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. the thought (that this or that is) mine. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. Injuring (others). O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. delusion. Coming to a sinful womb. They go to the hell. doers of sinful acts. the great obscurity called anger. unfriendliness. who are sunk in darkness. understands this properly. and also creatures born from eggs. sages and saints and gods become deluded. want of self-restraint. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. Darkness. war. want of straightforwardness. deluded convictions. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. becoming men of meritorious actions. and growing old in their own duties. breaking. this is considered to be dark conduct. and also its source. harboring evil thoughts. wishing for pleasure. that one sees the real in what is unreal. pride of performance without (actual) performance. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). and worms. anger is called the great obscurity. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. lassitude. vanity. Who. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. wrath. animosity. and death the blinding obscurity. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. And whatever such people there are in this world. want of faith also. beasts of burden. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. insects. slaughter. in full and accurately with reference to its nature. battle. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. pointing out others’ weaknesses. connected with delusion. want of faith. and all quadrupeds. who break through (all) regulations. going into inferior ways. they attain to higher and higher castes in order. they are all held to be dark. I have now duly described to you. vilifying. These dark. and idiots. animals. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). bonds. delusion. going beyond the Sûdra womb. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). Such is the Vedic text. indeed. demons. repining. buying and selling.behavior of the lowest quality. or lisping men. evil disposition. and whatever vain gifts. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. vindictiveness. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. abuse . indeed. exercise and quarrel too. Reviling. fierceness and cruelty. touching other people’s weak points. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. and also its qualities. endurance. preservation. cold and heat. sinful action. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. power. by cutting. want of forgiveness likewise. thinking of (this) world. (or become) the immovable entities. and growing old in (good) actions. as Chândâlas. (namely) the brute (species). they exert themselves. Learn. peace. beauty. who bear the marks of their own actions. And whatever other states of mind. and want of forgiveness. the great delusion. and also animosity towards people. evilconducted men. piercing. who. all these qualities. that is considered to be dark conduct. argument. sink into darkness. Whatever vain actions (there are). strength.
modesty. these men. Born again and again in this world. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. vexing (oneself). (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. penance vain. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. devoid of expectations. courage. disrespect and respect. pleasure and delight. perceive (everything) aright. who adhere to the quality of goodness. absence of calumniation. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. Understanding this according to rule. haughtiness. wakefulness. praise. The . O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. absence of fear. absence of backbiting. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. gambling. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. piety vain. have (their) currents downwards. and labor vain. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. learning vain. heedlessness. gets rid of all passionate qualities. harboring desire. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. harmlessness. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility.’ affection generated by the qualities. valor. bad gifts. life as a Brahmachârin. liberality. and free from grief. absence of wrath. faith. absence of stinginess. for living creatures. ostentation. minuteness. censure. prowess. (holding) knowledge to be vain. freedom from laziness. Thus. and also want of faith. attendance. sacrifices vain. (on another). purity. contentment. absence of cruelty. righteous feelings. equability. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. disgust. service vain. receipt of gifts vain.uttering falsehoods. emancipation. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. treachery and likewise deception. equable everywhere. joy. and also sacrificing and study. management. The men who meditate on past. unbroken piety. one obtains whatever one desires. belongings. (good) conduct vain. truth. joy. compassion to (all) creatures. vexation. joviality. all these qualities. vows and regulation. gifts and acceptance of gifts. obedience. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. and attachment also. abandonment on all hands. self-restraint. Confidence. forgiveness. and create (various) bodies. and instrumental or vocal music. enlightenment and happiness also. wealth. nobility. Getting rid of all sins. salutation. the duty of the good. contumely. doubt. devoid of egoism. beneficial to all creatures. devotion. purity. laudation. and unblamable. vows vain. contentment. for articles. straightforwardness. good behavior. and actions with expectations. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. for women. and also sacrifice. devotion to dancing. by means of nature. for men. They are said to have their currents upwards. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. service. The man who always understands these qualities. and of the quality of goodness. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. slaughter. boasting. indifference. and future entities in this world. freedom from delusion. not full of desires. they rejoice. policy. common scandal. the ceremony of Svadhâ. whose conduct is of this description. freedom from expectations. auspicious rites. forgiveness. pleasure. the ceremony of Vashat. and to be gods. he attains the highest in the next world. those talented men reach heaven. and make Tarpana. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. dexterity. The power of governing. association with women. defiance. theft. expiations. and for houses. present. They give and receive. humility. who are enveloped by passion.
they feed on one another. these are the three qualities. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. They perform their journey together. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). goodness. Of all these acting with one another. immovable. suffering trouble from the heat. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. half-months. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Even from afar. And where goodness is developed. the present. not small. the passionate remain in the middle. go down. Threefold are the gifts given. immutable. moving in a body. The man who always understands these qualities. goodness. the Apâna. Where darkness is increased. goodness. there: exist three qualities. in the Brâhmana. years. the Prâna. And as long as goodness and darkness. destruction. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. constant. Pradhâna. threefold are the worlds. They all depend on one another. and goodness likewise to be less. threefold the gods. existent and also non-existent – all these. And whatever there is in this world. and lust. womb. The sun is goodness developed. unperceived. and likewise months. in union. and goodness likewise to be less. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra. the increase and diminution will now be stated. and moving about collectively. (consisting) of the three qualities. unshaking. freed from the body. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. For they act with cause or without cause. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. abiding in those of the upward current. The creation of the qualities is eternal. and the Udâna. and its pure operations. so long is passion said (to exist) here. there darkness should be understood to be little. is released from all qualities. production and absorption. wealth. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. The day should be understood to be threefold. The three qualities – goodness. and passion also. abiding. and the qualities. being connected with the lowest quality. and threefold the path. enjoys the qualities. there darkness should be understood to be little. passion in the Kshatriya. and the future. The past. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. holy. evil-doers likewise are darkness. . We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. change. there passion should be understood to be little. passion. They are attached to one another. The light in the sun is goodness. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). Seeing the sun rising. in the lower entities. There is no doubt of this. is said to be. feel the warmth. the night is stated to be threefold. the men of the quality of darkness. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. Where passion is developed. eternal. Passion. and the conjunctions. seasons. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. the unperceived. and being free from all misery. and the enlightener. darkness. threefold the sacrifices performed. and the highest. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. the heat is the quality of passion. abiding in those of the middle current. the qualities of passion are variable. and likewise follow one another.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. not developed. he. unborn. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. evildoers are alarmed. So in all shining bodies. but differing in development. piety. all that is (made of) these three qualities. but is not attached to the qualities. nature. and passion likewise to be less. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. and travelers. Among immovable entities. Darkness.
and their name is delusion. it has eyes. and insignificant. who are talented. who have subdued wrath. Sambhu. inexhaustible. it is that from which the people are produced. lightness. the producer of the deities. and who are always possessed of a good heart. and of the mind. intelligence. who have pondered on the self. Caused by the production of avarice. he is the governor. it is full of light. and smell as the fifth. the producer of the entities. means of perception. Then when every entity. who are possessed of knowledge. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. color. It is a deity. it is the creator of the three worlds. space. who are not avaricious. verily. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. the final dissolution approaches. who practice meditation. who are true to their promises. air. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. the operations (connected with these) have causes. Sound. and whose senses are subdued. memory. it likewise charms the world. creates (them). and light as the fifth. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. who are constant at concentration of mind. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. water. Vishnu. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. and faces on all sides. And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. taste. and are dissolved in the reverse order. the valiant. the great self. Brahma. and as that from which the changes take place. attain greatness. that from which the changes take place. that is said to be the second creation. connected with . whose minds are clear. the supporter of consciousness. the transcendent. the light. Now people who comprehend the understanding. courage. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism. the understanding. and by its own light. When. In these five great elements. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. means of knowledge. It has hands and feet on all sides. the Prajâpati. and are inconstant. and likewise color. and golden. and likewise cognition. abides transcending the understanding. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. touch. were the five great elements born – earth. that talented man. the source of all qualities. ancient being. is (afterwards) called egoism. it causes all this to move. of universal form. and smell. it stands pervading everything in the world. creatures are deluded. he among all people comes not by delusion. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). not different from one another. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. heads. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Minuteness. and thus that source of all entities. who are devoid of egoism. it is said to be the first creation. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. movable or immovable. these being emancipated. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. taste. Knowing that (great self). has been dissolved. touch. They are born one from the other.
these five winds are also joined to the inner self. This is said to be the . self-consciousness. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. the presiding deity there is Rudra. The third (entity) is said to be light. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. such is the group of organs. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with objects it is motion. the organ of excretion. and the presiding deity there is lightning. as connected with objects it is taste. He whose skin. these are helpless and powerless. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. next as connected with objects (it is) color. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. the Samâna. the nose also as the fifth. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. The second entity is air. and worms of the like description. as connected with objects. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. as connected with the self. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. the motion of which is downward. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. those born from germs. and whose mind is pure. and speech as the tenth. As connected with the self. The fifth entity is earth. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. tongue. the two eyes. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. then the Brahman shines (before him). I will now proceed to state all the various organs. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. and the organ of generation. As connected with the self they mention the mind. As connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is the sun. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. Likewise (there is) egoism. Then first. as connected with objects it is actions. and understanding unswerving. and speech are restrained. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. ear. as connected with objects it is excretion. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. nose.flesh and blood. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. and the presiding deity there is fire. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. and together with speech. who perceive the truth. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. Those born from eggs. the mind is the eleventh. those born from perspiration. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. and depending upon one another. and the presiding deity there is Soma. The Apâna wind. as also all reptiles. the Udâna. the tongue. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. and space. as connected with objects it is the semen. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. the skin. Space is the first entity. and the Vyâna also. The ear. and the understanding is the twelfth. The mind should be understood to be among both. is speech which relates to all the gods. water. and the presiding deity there is Indra. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. as connected with the self it is the nose. The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. the two feet. Understanding these. excluded from the self. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. and the presiding deity there is the wind. the presiding deity there is the Moon. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. the producer of all beings. as connected with the self it is called the ear. as connected with the self it is called the eye. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. the two hands. eye. and five the organs of action. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. mind. as connected with the self. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. The Prâna and the Apâna. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. And the eleven organs. which follows after the five entities. is called the organ of excretion. This group one should subdue first. as connected with the self.
second (mode of) birth. . The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. The third is called light. and is named delusion. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. however. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. and which is full of the Brahman. this same (body). and full of delusion. The second entity is air. are said to be born from germs. bursting through the earth. One should place all these together. Restraining objects of desire within the self. and likewise the sound is space. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. which has nine passages and two deities. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. fearful and unfathomable. O chief of the twice-born! and know. A knowledge of this. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. that he is released from all sins. that the body in which the color is fire. and those which move crookedly. too. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. unfit to be seen. and is sanctifying. and than which there is nothing higher. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. Those beings. the flowing (element) water. and who is devoid of passion. for (every one) who is born. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. Space is the first entity. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). and the feeling of touch is air. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. (viz. which is surrounded by the five currents. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. and restrain it. is ever happy. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. the presiding deity there is the sun. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. When everything is absorbed into the mind. (namely) sacrifice. Such is the doctrine of the learned. and sacred study. The world. and being concentrated in mind. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. which is made up of the five elements. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. and hold them by the mind. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. in which one lives alone. and which rests on the real (entity). O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. Understand about them also. next as connected with objects it is color. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. which is uninterrupted. which are born after the lapse of some time. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. He who duly understands this. the objects of the senses. and the five great elements. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. Such is the teaching of the ancients. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. together with the immortals. and inferior. The fifth element is earth. which is full of passion. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. pleased with contacts. and released from everything. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. the presiding deity there is Soma. It is a great ocean. It is settled. then being self-illumined. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. having his cravings destroyed. curtail it. gift at a sacrifice. should cast it aside. which is free from attachment. The fourth should be understood to be water. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses.) the senses. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. are the beings born from wombs. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that.
But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. demons. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and Prajâpati. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. avarice. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. likewise. The Nyagrodha. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. and Yakshas. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. these are the princes among mountains. the uncreated Hari. the Guruskandha. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. and Mitra. Him. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. (am lord). and the Meshasringa. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. Agni. and likewise the Sâlmali. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. the Trikûtavat. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. all companies of Brâhmanas. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. the sun is the prince among the planets. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. snakes. and the Koshthavat mountain. the Pâriyâtra. rejoice in this world. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. ever extol. Kinnaras. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. concentrating the mind within the mind. the Vindhya. He is the supporter. and Pitris. treachery. and go into wrong paths after death. and birds.Desire. Understand him to be the ruler. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. and Varuna. Kings desire piety. Soma is the lord of herbs. Purandara of (all) deities. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. of gods. the Jambu. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. and Nâgas. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). the Mahendra. the creator. She is called Pârvatî. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. Freed from all sins. there is no doubt of that. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. and Rakshasas. and also gods. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. and seeing the self within the self. He verily is Vishnu. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. changing from time to time. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. the Nîla. and the bands of Bhûtas. the Sveta. and demons. and great. which are difficult to get rid of. and also all the great sages. and falsehood also. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. The Himavat. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). among cattle also the bull. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. and the ocean among rivers. and of all entities whatever I. and among denizens of the forest the lion. The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. the Bhâsa. wrath. Varuna is the king of the waters. and among females a male. Non-destruction is the highest piety. of Gandharvas. For he is the ruler of men. who has beautiful eyes. the Sahya. and the creator. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. likewise. Understanding everything. and . fear. he then perceives that highest (principle). and the bands of Rakshasas. among vehicles the elephant. (all these). the Sinsapâ. and the moon among the Nakshatras. and delusion the reservoir. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. and Yakshas. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. these are the princes among trees in this world. Understand this. lose all their qualifications. and Pisâkas. Such is the highest creation among all entities. and also as various. the north among the quarters. the Pippala. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. who am full of the Brahman. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas.
free from the ceremony of salutations. the characteristic of renunciation. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. do not know themselves. sound is the characteristic of space. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. he is the Supreme Lord. who is unmoving. Thought is the quality of mind. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. being nonintelligent. The (sensation of) touch. is perceived by the skin. the supporter of all beings. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. that is comprehended by the nose. taste is the characteristic of water. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. The Kshetrajña. The characteristic of devotion is action. in this world. and end. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. and the Mahat of knowledge. is the Kshetrajña. and the creation. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. the unperceived (is appointed). and from the svâhâ ceremony. Taste. and knowledge. and having his sins destroyed. And crossing beyond darkness. verily. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). (though) concealed. is always comprehended by the tongue. I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. then enters into the Kshetrajña. is purely knowledge. and about the means for its comprehension. and end. and transcending the qualities. the characteristic of mind is thought. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The Purusha knows it. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. abandoning qualities. and that is comprehended by the understanding. belonging to the air. (else) attains. And the moon likewise. The earth is the source of . and transcending death and old age. middle. As to the smell of the earth. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. It is stated that day was first and then night. words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. that months have the bright first. The characteristic of mind is meditation. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. the essence of water. Hence a man who understands piety. color is the characteristic of light.destruction is of the nature of impiety. Only the Kshetrajña attains. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. The quality of light is color. who resides in the tongue. to be created and tied down to a beginning. giving prominence to knowledge. and hear it. middle. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. The quality of space is sound. to the truth. he repairs to that which has no second. action the characteristic of men. together with names and characteristics. which is great. To (this) positive comprehension. which is void of symbols. transcendent. and homeless. and that is comprehended by the ear. The qualities created again and again. And I always see. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. know. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. and that is comprehended by the eye. no one. the characteristic of earth. there is no doubt of that. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. is smell. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal.
The unperceived is the source of the worlds. and life ends in death. there is no doubt of that. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. is the source of the entire universe. Prajâpati of deities. all associations end in dissociations. the eastern quarter is the first. death is certain for whatever is born. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. which is lit up by the great egoism. Of all ages the Krita is the first. water is the best. Dânavas. and Yakshas. and the twice-born among men. the ever holy field of Brahman. and of men. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. all this ends in destruction. is everchanging. there is no doubt of that. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. whose senses are subjugated. water of tastes. gold (is the first). and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. which is measured by months and half months. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. all that is called Sâvitrî. who is full of the Brahman. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. All accumulations end in exhaustion. study. there is no doubt of that. which abounds in old age and grief. likewise. which moves through (all) the worlds. the fastenings in which are vexations. which is full of actions and instruments of action. of which the environment is home. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. the mud for which is penance and regulations. among sacrifices. the ocean is the first-born. whatever is prescribed in this world. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. Kinnaras. Bhûtas. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. The Syena is first among birds. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. And among all immovable entities. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. observances. And of all gods. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. Îsvara is the lord. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. I. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. and Rakshasas. the end of grief ever pleasure. and the Prâna lifewind. and the same is also the end of everything. Among all precious things. who is devoid of egoism. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. the end of pleasure is ever grief. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. snakes. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. Of all mountains. without distinction. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. likewise space is the source of sound. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. and regulations. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. gift. all ascents end in falls. and among all reptiles. is stated to be the first. fire is said to be the first of the elements. Pisâkas. the offering (into the fire) is the best. the goat is mentioned (as the first). The sun is the first among shining bodies. too. . which is sustained by the qualities. penance. There is no end for knowledge. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. which rotates in space and time. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. among (sacrificial) animals. All action ends in destruction. Of all orders. that of householders (is the first). (am the first) among all the patriarchs. These are the qualities of the elements. The great Vishnu. the noise of which is trouble and toil. And the unthinkable. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. the Plaksha. of all words. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. of which the pole is the mind. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self.smells. Sacrifice.
which is associated with the pairs of opposites. kind. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. and equable to all creatures. sit. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. should be kind. There should also be a girdle of muñga. released from all impressions. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). and likewise always (carry) water (with him). who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. which is unchecked. and should always associate with good men. Always devoted to his own wife. transcending all pairs of opposites. and also receiving untainted gifts. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. making gifts. and should give and receive gifts. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. and released from all sins. he should have matted hair. and which is extended by means of attachments. and should stand. the sage who understands piety. and with one’s external organs restrained. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. take food without decrying it.which is large. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. the forester. With regard to those three duties. they are pious duties. or also a deerskin. to follow it is good. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. should behave like the good. should avoid heedlessness. and check. the speed of which is like that of the mind. attains the highest goal. who is self-restrained. all the world. abridge. and alms. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and who understands the Vedas. who is of rigid vows. and who has duly observed vows. (That) sage. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. who is pure. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. and be of pure vows. should. in the way above stated. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. with the permission of the preceptor. and self-restrained. is never deluded. The Brâhmana householder. and full of faith. This wheel of life. together with the immortals should cast away. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. the imperishable source (of all). to such a one the (word) good applies. conquers heaven. And as to the other remaining three duties. and which is (never) fatigued. possessed of forgiveness. The householder. and which is devoid of consciousness. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. behaving like good men. who is devoted to Vedic rites. and sacrifice. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). which moves towards joy and pleasure. That man among all creatures. this has been celebrated from ancient times. study. with his senses restrained. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. gift. and have his sacred . being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. should return (from his preceptor’s house). and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. and constant in veracity and piety. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and take exercise (duly). who is thus devoted. and also the beggar. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. One should learn and teach. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. and the Brahmachârin. or of cotton.
and reaching the highest seat. kind. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. and likewise no sweet juices. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. life as a Brahmachârin. does not return to birth. or the cavern of a mountain. conquers heaven. and should not rejoice if he obtains. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. And with his senses restrained. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. pure in body. nor should he eat when honored. freedom from anger. he may dwell in one place. A man should always bathe in clean water. he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. He should without sloth feed on water. be engaged in sacred study. and free from avarice. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin.thread. addicted to sacred study. or a river likewise. veracity. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. and continent. and in the rains. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). looking out for the (proper) time. Eating only a little. preserving his hair and moustache. and depending on the deities. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. is esteemed. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. He should honor a guest who comes. in order. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. he should not go following after another. being restrained in mind. or a Brahmachârin. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. astringent. He should resort for shelter to an empty house. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. He should not make any accumulations. He should honor guests. and should eschew dwelling with friends. performing sacrifices. full of forgiveness. Refined by means of all ceremonies. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. always in forests. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. or again a forester. and also straightforwardness. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. and when he goes about for alms. and restrained in all his senses. and of rigid observances. should not enter a town again. And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. and which have come spontaneously. or bitter. (he should pass) but a single night in a town. restraint of the external organs. always dexterous. and roots and Syâmâka grain. One who is thus devoted. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. Restraining the external senses. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). A householder. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. fruits. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. always with clean water. the sage should become free from all action. not deceptive and not crooked. In summer. his path being pointed out by the sun. free from passion. and devoted to veracity and piety. Nor should he beg for too much alms. or the foot of a tree. When eating. freedom from (the habit of) carping. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. seeking merely to sustain life. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. and concentrated in mind. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. having a mind free from envy. who is concentrated in mind. and leaves. living on fruits and leaves. kind. or which are pungent. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. he should move about in a secluded place. (Such) a Brahmachârin. He should not parade (his) piety. and be agreeable to all beings. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. Offering safety to all beings. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. air. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. He should move about the world like a worm. eating little. and always living within the forest. or a forest. and should not .
and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. The senses. he attains to the highest seat. nor Vedas. being released from all bonds. as they come. should act without a purpose. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and should not take (anything) unasked. One who has anything to do should take earth. nor valor. verily. after understanding all these. being devoted to pious conduct. should not teach. exclusively pondering on one point. nor penance. who is free from desires. absolute. But owing to the helplessness of people. Though undeluded. and understanding are absorbed. he should act in the manner of the deluded. should be free from attachment. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. Rejecting all things. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). is emancipated. untainted. he gets emancipation. which is to be understood. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. devoid of color. or by speech. nor the deities. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. and though dwelling in a house. . with his accumulations exhausted. without a stomach. the unperceived. should meditate. who is free from the pairs of opposites. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. depending on none. or the assemblage of people. One should not perturb any other (person). He should perform piety. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. sacrifices. which is free from the operations of the qualities. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. and stable. One should not hate. mind. nor the senses. who is free from expectations. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. and who understands the truth. and free from distress. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). He should not defile anything by the eye. which is unattached. there is no doubt of that. and who is dependent on none. one should disregard the present. a wise man should always share (with others). which is without hands. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. without a head. and the objects of the senses. and mind. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. and in whom the senses. and which is also devoid of flesh. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. moving and unmoving. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and without fixed appointments with people. egoism. or cause to be performed. nor should he ever give to others. and the Purusha likewise. and should be void of (all) belongings. foot. Those who perceive the self. understanding. and should avoid (all) controversies. not finding fault with piety. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. Freed from all attachments. who is free from egoism. divine. who understands all truth. who is attached to the self. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. water. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. who is free from attachments to any entity. and then. any action involving expectation of fruit. There the understanding reaches not. flowers. and being equable to all beings. One should not think of what is not come. One should not perform. and who is free from salutations. one attains heaven. imperishable. He should not appropriate another’s riches. or back. which is free from anxiety. nor should one wish for gold. One who knows the truth. always dwelling in all entities. and also devoid of sound. or the mind. by an accurate determination about the truth. devoid of smell. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). nor worlds. they never die. Nor. devoid of taste or touch. He should not receive from others.follow his own (mere) desire. and leaves. and the five great elements. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. pebbles likewise. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. and self-controlled. nor reflect on that which is past. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. or involving any destruction of life.
and some as transcendent and without misery. devoid of qualities. which abides in all entities. is released from misery. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. he is called intelligent. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. and the side branches the objects of sense. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. (When) the inner self. and which is the essential element in knowledge. and whose minds are refined. whether agreeable or disagreeable. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. The men of talent. becomes eligible. for assimilation with the Brahman. there is no doubt of that. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. then understanding the Kshetra. who are pure. Restraining the self in the self. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. He who desires nothing. association and dissociation. But as to that other who is above them. developed from the qualities. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. Abandoning all action. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. and likewise unity and diversity. which is always possessed of leaves. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. and devoid of qualities. even dwelling in this world. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. there is no doubt of that. and supreme. there is no doubt of that. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and old age. a creature is emancipated. is emancipated. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. and renunciation the best penance. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. The learned man who perceives. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. (which are) unchanging. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. which cause birth. and with an understanding comprehending all. through the tranquility of the self. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. and despises nothing. transcending passion. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. by tranquility only. the great branches of which are the great elements. and who is devoid of egoism. it is free from the pairs of opposites. of unthinkable qualities. and (as it were) non-intelligent. becomes fit for immortality. and being untainted. understands that which is beyond nature. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. There are these two birds. death. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. and free from egoism. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. everlasting. and which is fed upon by all creatures. is emancipated. go to the happy path by penance. even for (the space of) a wink. Penance is said to be a light. always possessed of flowers. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. attaining to the self. devoid of knowledge of nature. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. the sprouts within which are the senses. The highest Brahman is very far off.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance.
and renunciation. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). and our mind is distracted. some say that is not so. We wish. and others indigence. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. As a fish is in water distinct (from it). straightforwardness. Some are devoted to goodness. Some are for taking food. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. there is no doubt of that. Thus having first a tranquil self. too. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. having again felt doubts. Some say both time and space (exist). courage. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. that it exists.by control of the life-winds. who were the best of sages. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. and others again (that it is) manifold. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. always esteems that. some are for pleasure. be obtains whatever he desires. nature. some wish for riches. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. . truth. Some extol everything. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. others that that is not so. Some (say) means should be resorted to. holy. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. some various kinds of enjoyments. harmlessness. Some people extol action. that fits one for immortality. and those who ponder on the element. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Some have matted hair and skins. But that is not correct. such is their relation. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. and other persons sacred study. some knowledge. and some given up to destruction. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. we are deluded. others distinct. And. and come to no determination. gifts. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. and others. Some are devoted to harmlessness. Some people (say) meditation. equability. some for the omission of bathing. some are for merit and glory. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. and others that there is no doubt. and others nothing. Some learned men. who are devoted to knowledge. and (others) that it exists not. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. but others extol penance. others are intent on fasting. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. and others that that is not so. some are in the midst of doubts. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. Some people are for bathing. believe it to be one. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. People are acting. Some (say) everything is doubtful. too. knowledge. Some Brâhmanas. and others tranquility. and others. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. this is good. and others say that is not so. Some extol final emancipation. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). of ten or twelve (modes). the venerable. abandonment. and some for pain. and others (that it is) mixed. (saying) this is good.
One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). goes in the water without fatigue. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. Even brought into contact with all qualities. I will declare to you what you ask of me. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . the light shines. a learned man remains untainted. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. Hearing it all. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites. and who knows about the qualities. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. O Brâhmanas! Well now. and to be constituted of the qualities. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. He abides in everything alike. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. This is the highest seat. and going swiftly. The subject is always the being. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. afflicted by reason of the chariot. travels with great discomfort. So travels the talented man. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. though it is the object of enjoyment. comprehending the gradations one above the other. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. so should one understand. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. devoid of parts. through delusion. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). he goes in the carriage. and who entertain avarice and delusion. rejoice in this world. Understand this. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. go verily to hell. and who are infidels in their conduct. such is the progress of the men of understanding. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. attains supreme happiness. I will tell you something more. throwing aside the boat. deliberate on it properly. As far as there is a carriage-path. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. perceive correctly. Non-destruction of all creatures. being born again and again. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. Thus nature is perceived. While there is oil and wick. free from any connection with expectations. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. and may even be destroyed on the way. and in essence free from the qualities. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). and void of intelligence. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. free from vexation and holy in character.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. It has been explained in the above mode. and soon crosses the reservoir. and nature is stated to be the object. but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. For the talented man who knows (these) means. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. It is established that nature is the property of the being. Learn that. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. who perform actions with faith. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. But those wise and talented men. and is connected with (all) knowledge. where the carriage-path stops. Now I will proceed to. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him.
and likewise Pañkama. are stated to be the qualities of water. above that is the unperceived. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. should be understood to be of five qualities. so does it result to them. void of taste. and earth. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. namely. sour. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. and taste. that is called the Pradhâna. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. said to be of six descriptions. and above the unperceived is the being. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. sharp. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. slippery. bitter. be understood to be of ten descriptions. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. broad. red likewise. Sound and touch also should be understood. air is said to have two qualities. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. it is said that light has three qualities. taste. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. and also productive in its essence. too. The quality of light is color. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. Thus sound. White. – thus should smell. cold and hot likewise. diffusive and compact also. but they do not yield products. to be of twelve descriptions. green. Now space has one quality. Sound. I will now give (some) information about taste. Sound. and color likewise. and of (many) ingredients. glutinous. who speak the truth. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. square. and above that understanding is the self. and likewise color. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. which belongs to the earth. black. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. Shadga. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. and are conversant with piety. yellow. And as action is performed in this world.carriage and pedestrian. the great elements. abounding with movables and immovables. smooth. and of the elements respectively. narrow. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. and grey likewise. Smell always belongs to the earth. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. touch. repairs to the imperishable self. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. and smell as the fifth – these. air is said to have (these) two qualities. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. thus is light said to have three qualities. Madhyama. egoism is above that. which is a development of water. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . touch. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. touch. and rough. sweet. hurtful. and void of color. agreeable and disagreeable sound also. Sweet. which is produced in space. Rough. and who identifies himself with every being. And touch is the quality of air. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. compact. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. One who has come by delusion through affection. is of four qualities. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. or sound. touch. the divine source of all entities. Learn about their properties. Now space has one quality. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. Rishabha. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. which is void of any smell whatever. From egoism is produced the development. Sound. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. tender and clear also. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. astringent. and bitter likewise. short long. together with Gândhâra. Space is the highest element. color likewise. above egoism is understanding. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. hard. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. and that is stated to be sound only. and water. sour. and clear also. soft.
has the mind for a charioteer. all have been created by nature. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. He who understands him understands the Vedas. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. The understanding proclaims its power. again acquiring knowledge. and herbs. beasts and birds. Gods. and it is called the Kshetrajña. and the understanding for a drag. (Those) men. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and having their minds always tranquil. obtain the great and highest world. The senses. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. And he who is released. Pitris. like billows in the ocean. the creators of the world. Such is the upward gradation among entities. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and devoid of egoism. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. Whatever is difficult to obtain. (sacrificial) animals. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. Gandharvas. and being full of egoism. one who kills a Brâhmana. Râkshasas. The mind always presides over the great elements. This is the eternal mystery. difficult to learn. always reach perfection by penance. the mind itself is the individual self. one who destroys an embryo. Medicines. that sin only by penance well performed. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. men. and difficult to pass through. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. even from those five elements. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. all the elements. and abandons everything as fruitless. Pisâkas. one who steals. movable or immovable. a sage should sit down self-restrained. Born from that same unperceived (principle). they are the very first to be dissolved. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. Those who best understand the self. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. and next the developments produced from the elements. and in which the understanding is the drag. difficult to vanquish. nor by a cause. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. and (after) these developments. all that can be accomplished by penance. The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. That individual self. they go near Prajâpati. and ends with the gross objects. goes to the highest goal. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. for penance is difficult to overcome. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). These Brâhmanas. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. and includes movables and immovables. a man gets rid of all sins. One who drinks spirituous liquors. enter the highest world of the great. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. and who are free from egoism. are born here again and again. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. Asuras. That which begins with the unperceived . Whatever entities (there are) in this world. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. That learned and talented person verily. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. which is the unperceived. and all other creatures movable or immovable. the mind. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. gods. not by actions. and it is the goal of all living creatures. And in like manner. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. For all acquisition has penance for its root. is released from. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. those who have achieved perfection. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. perceive the triple world here by penance.
O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. Two syllables are death. I wish to see him. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. changeless. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. in consequence of these means. Expelling all impressions. unmoving. I have now declared everything to you. was that Brâhmana. too. three syllables the eternal Brahman. And now. attained to that seat.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. And the pupil. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. indeed. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. who is without attachment. This is the eternal piety. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. he understands that holy Brahman. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. O Lord! then tell it me. And. with your consent. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. O best of Brâhmana. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. and then attained to the worlds. Mine is death. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. he attains tranquility. Do you. than which nothing greater exists. Then when this piety is duly practiced. Some men of dull understandings extol action. and not mine is the eternal. changeless. who is without expectations. which is uncreated. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). Knowledge brings forth the being. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). you will attain the absolute final emancipation. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. then you will acquire perfection. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. O Janârdana! If this verily. Then will you attain perfection. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. sages! Act thus forthwith. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . those high-souled sages acted accordingly. Vâsudeva. And when the understanding is clear. incomprehensible. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. not full of action. did everything (accordingly). and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. having done all he should have done. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come. If you have love for me. and restraining the self in the Self. Arjuna said: Who. is fit to be heard by me. O Krishna! and who the pupil. and who looks alike on everything. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. getting rid of all sins. O noble person. he dies not. always duly act (according to it).
who is of a devout heart. and after taking leave of him to go to your own city.’ Om Tat Sat . ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. Be pleased.When Krishna spoke these words. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.
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