ANUGÎTA The second discourse to Arjuna by lord Krishna Edited by Jay Mazo.

International Gita Society The lesser known Anu-Gita is a part of the Ashwamedha Parva in the magnum opus Mahabharata and is a refresher and an add on to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. CHAPTER I Janamejaya said: What conversation, O twice-born one! took place between the high-souled Kesava and Arjuna, while they dwelt in that palace after slaying their enemies? Vaisampâyana said: The son of Prithâ, after becoming possessed of his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight in that heavenly palace. And once, O king! they happened to go, surrounded by their people, and rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which resembled heaven. Then Arjuna, the son of Pându, having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in the company of Krishna, spoke these words: ‘O you of mighty arms! O you whose mother is Devakî! When the battle was about to commence, I became aware of your greatness, and that divine form of yours. But that, O Kesava! which through affection (for me) you explained before, has all disappeared, O tiger-like man! from my degenerate mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity about those topics. But (now), O Mâdhava! you will be going at no distant date to Dvârakâ. Vaisampâyana said Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krishna, possessed of great glory, replied in these words after embracing Arjuna. Vâsudeva said: From me, O son of Prithâ! you heard a mystery, and learnt about the eternal (principle), about piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting worlds. It is excessively disagreeable to me, that you should not have grasped it through want of intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Pându! you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, O Dhanañjaya! it is not possible for me to repeat in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was perfectly adequate for understanding the seat, of the Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again in full in that way. For then accompanied by my mystic power, I declared to you the Supreme Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you may attain the highest goal. O best of the supporters of piety! listen to all that I say. (Once), O restrainer of foes! there came from the heavenly world and the world of Brahman, a Brâhmana difficult to withstand, and he was (duly) honored by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any misgivings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata! O son of Prithâ! to what he said on being interrogated by us according to heavenly rules. The Brâhmana said: O Krishna! O destroyer of Madhu! I will explain to you accurately what you, out of compassion for (all) beings, have asked me touching the duties (to be Performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive of delusion, O Lord! Listen to me with attention, as I relate it, O Mâdhava! A certain Brâhmana named Kâsyapa, who had performed (much) penance, and who best

understood piety, approached a certain twice-born (person), who had learnt the Scriptures relating to (all) duties, having heard (of him, as one) who had over and over again gone through all knowledge and experience about coming and going, who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds, who knew about happiness and misery, who knew the truth about birth and death, who was conversant with merit and sin, who perceived the migrations of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about like an emancipated being, who had reached perfection, who was tranquil, whose senses were restrained, who was illumined with the Brahmic splendor, who moved about in every direction, who understood concealed movements, who was going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial singers, and conversing and sitting together (with them) in secluded (places), who went about as he pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on seeing that marvelous man, the best of the twice-born, Kâsyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great devotion. That was all appropriate, (being) joined to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O terror of your foes! he pleased that (being) by (his purity of) heart and behavior (suitable) towards a preceptor. Then being satisfied and pleased, he spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the highest perfection: Hear (them) from me, O Janârdana! The Siddha said: Mortals, O dear friend! by their actions which are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to residence in the world of the gods. Nowhere is there everlasting happiness; nowhere eternal residence. Over and over again is there a downfall from a high position attained with difficulty. Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of life), in-consequence of (my) committing sin. Again and again death, and again and again birth. I ate numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, association with those I did not love. Loss of wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that wealth with difficulty; ignominies full of affliction from princes and likewise from kinsmen; excessively poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities; (I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of Yama. I also suffered much from old age, continual ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the pairs of opposites. Then on one occasion, being much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly objects), al, taking refuge with the formless (principle). Having learnt about this path in this world, I exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favor of the self, have I acquired this perfection. I shall not come here again; I am surveying the worlds, and the happy migrations of (my) self from the creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. Thus, O best of the twice-born! have I obtained this highest perfection. From here I go to the next (world), and from there again to the still higher (world) – the imperceptible seat of the Brahman. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your foes! I shall not come back to this mortal world. I am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence! Say, what can I do for you? The time is now come for that which you desired in coming to me. I know for what you have come to me. But I shall be going away in a short time, hence have I given this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever one! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you desire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out; for, O Kâsyapa! you are (a) talented (man).

CHAPTER II Vâsudeva said: Then grasping his feet, Kâsyapa, asked questions very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. Kâsyapa, said: How does the body perish, and how, too, is it produced? How does one who moves in this harassing course of worldly life become freed? And (how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon the body (produced) from it? And how, being freed from the body, does he attain to the other? How does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done by himself? And where do the acts of one who is released from the body remain? The Brâhmana said: Thus addressed, O descendant of Vrishni! that Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear me relate what (he said). The Siddha said: When those actions, productive of long life and fame, which a man performs here, are entirely exhausted, after his assumption of another body, he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his self being overcome at the exhaustion of life. And his ruin being impending, his understanding goes astray. Not knowing his own constitution, and strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to numerous very harassing (actions); eats too much, or does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat, or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or without (previously taken food) being properly digested; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or constantly, through attachment to action, checks the regular course (of the excretions); or takes juicy food; or sleeps by day; or (takes food) not thoroughly prepared; (such a man) himself aggravates the disorders orders (in the body) when the time comes. By aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging (oneself). From these causes, the living body of that creature then perishes. Learn about that correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp wind, pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in the body, bursts open the vital parts-the seats of the Soul. Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O best of the twice-born! that (every) creature leaves the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self being overcome with torments. All beings are constantly distracted with birth and death; and, O chief of the twiceborn! are seen abandoning (their) bodies; or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their previous) actions. Again, a man suffers similar torments, having his joints broken and suffering from cold, in consequence of water. As the compact association of the five elements is broken up, the wind in the body, distributed within the five elements, between the upward and downward life-winds, being aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind, goes upwards, abandoning the embodied (self) in consequence of pain. Thus it leaves the body, which appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with consciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by the Brahman, is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases to perceive (anything) with those very currents with which the supporter of the body perceives objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal soul which

preserves in the body the life-winds which are produced from food. Whatever (part of the body) is employed in the collection of that, know that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, that (wind) directly comes out there from, and entering the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart. Then the possessor of consciousness knows nothing. Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness, while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul, being without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is surrounded on both sides by his own actions, his own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). Brâhmanas, possessed of knowledge, whose convictions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, know him by (his) marks as one who has performed meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming to the birth, or entering into a womb. Its three descriptions of seats are here learnt from the Scriptures. This world is the world of actions, where creatures dwell. All embodied (selves), having here performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoyments by their own actions. And it is those whose actions here are evil, who by their actions go to, hell. Harassing is that lower place where men are tormented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the self should be specially protected from it. Learn from me now the seats in which creatures going up dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and decision regarding action. All (the worlds in) the forms of stars, and this lunar sphere, and also this solar sphere which shines in the world by its own luster, know these to be the seats of men who perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall down again and again in consequence of the exhaustion of their actions. And there, too, in heaven, there are differences of low, high, and middling. Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, (even) after a sight of most magnificent splendor. Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. I will after this (proceed to) state to you the production of the fetus. And, O twice-born one! hear that attentively from me as I state it. CHAPTER III There is no destruction here of actions good or not good. Coming to one body after another they become ripened in their respective ways. As a fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, so does merit performed with a pure mind become expanded. Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, putting forward this mind. And now further, hear how a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped in desire and anger, enters a womb. Within the womb of a woman, (he) obtains-as the result of action a body good or else bad, made up of virile semen and blood. Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he is not attached anywhere; hence is he the eternal Brahman. That is the seed of all beings; by that all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs of the fetus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat of the life-wind, supports (them) with the mind. Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being poured out assumes the form of the image, such you must know is the entrance of the soul into the fetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such too, you must understand, is the manifestation of the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines in a house, even so does consciousness light up bodies. And whatever action he performs, whether good or bad, everything done in a former body must necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then that is exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, so long as the piety which dwells in the practice of concentration of mind for final emancipation has not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men)! I will tell you about that

Such is the ancient (tradition) heard (by us). but the other is immortal and indestructible. which protects people to eternity. by which all this is pervaded. wealth. and causing good to be done. who has abandoned piety. and absence of cruelty. and also tranquility.action by which. self-restraint. and likewise pleasure and pain. He who has no enemy. released from everything. who contemns no one. he is. becomes happy. is released who is equable towards both life and death. And that I shall now proceed to state. abandoning each previous (element). who has subdued his senses. But the devotee who is released is esteemed higher than these. not acting dishonestly even in thought towards (any) being in this world. Brahman. pity. sees one (principle of) consciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness. refraining from the appropriation of the wealth of others. one going the round of various births. verily. And as regards that. and which is known in the world as the highest. A man who is a friend of all. And Prajâpati. moving and fixed. adherence to prescribed regulations. who has no child. takes place after a long time. too. who is devoted to tranquility. For the deliverance from the course of worldly life of the man who acts piously and well. and from whom fear and wrath have departed. restraint of the senses. CHAPTER IV He who becoming placid. like (what may be said by) any talented person who has in a former birth perceived the self. may become absorbed in the one receptacle. he becomes indifferent to everything. From this is produced piety. Thus one should look (for it) among the good. a pair separately for each (species). and lust altogether. and (a rule) about migrations among (various) creatures. He who moves among all beings as if they were like himself. pure. What I say is all correct and proper. free from vanity and egoism. which I am now about to declare. (having) as regards the moving (creation). and about the return. is released. indeed. never comes to an evil end. who is free from the pairs of opposites. constant restraint of the organs. who has no kinsmen. who endures all. points out (what) piety (is). By this are people held in check from making a slip in the paths of piety. and whose self is free from affections. and (what is) agreeable and odious. He who acquires that. honoring preceptors. which is very difficult to cross. created the whole of the three worlds. the material cause of all embodied (selves). created all creatures and (all) the fixed entities. The practice to which the good adhere. O best (of men)! I will give you accurate instruction concerning it. And that is the sole cause by which he comes here (in a) degraded (form). the grandfather of all people. Learn from me exhaustively. He who understands the Pradhâna. From that he created the Pradhâna. he will cross beyond (all) bonds. (though) attacked by birth and death and disease. honoring deities and guests. released in every way. who is self-controlled. he is. life as a Brahmachârin. And among them dwells that (course of) action which constitutes eternal piety. who had been first created. This is what is called the destructible. Gifts. whose self is tranquillized by the exhaustion of the primary elements of the . indeed. and thinking of naught. Thus a creature always meets with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) previous (life). He who properly perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant. the body to be an unholy aggregate. having made a body for himself. penance. the grandsire fixed a limit of time. he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly life. compassion to (all) beings. O Brâhmana! the excellent knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat. and ruin to be connected with action. There is in the world a doubt as to what originally was the source from which he became invested with a body. who casts off (the merit or sin) previously accumulated. and who is self-possessed. purity. this is said to be the conduct of the good. and who remembers that whatever little there is of happiness is all misery. And he. and who has no desire. Then seeking after the supreme seat. is released. serving mother and father. and gain and loss. as he should act. for among them it constantly abides. He who is not pious and not impious. He who is not attached to any one.

than which there is nothing higher. Then freed from all impressions. Learn from me the paths by which one directing the self within the self perceives the eternal (principle). he sleeps at ease. indestructible. devoid of qualities. who is free from attachment. he is indeed released. then he forthwith ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself. which consist in pain and grief. As a person having seen one in a dream. when (all) beings are afflicted. and casting aside old age and death. he is not afflicted by anything. nothing can be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. Abandoning by the understanding all fancies bodily and mental. seeing the self in the self by means of the mind. saying. He obtains various bodies as he pleases. When. I will impart instruction regarding it accurately. looks on this universe as transient. and of a tranquil mind. and who is free from the pairs of opposites. then there is no ruler over him. When (all) beings are destroyed. Leaving this human frame. like fire devoid of fuel. (and which teaches) how devotees concentrating (their minds) perceive the perfect self. Properly concentrating his self. Being self-restrained and self-possessed. should act on (the precepts of) the science of concentration of mind. void of color. so does a devotee see the self extracted from the body. searching for his own faults. Weapons do not pierce him. always full of birth. who is constantly practicing concentration of mind. meditating in that habitation. who has practiced penance. one should fix the mind on the self. he assumes bodies at pleasure. tranquil. he attains to the eternal Supreme Brahman. The body is called the Muñga. after extracting them from the Muñga. constant. If such a good man is able to concentrate the self on the self. and old age. and having no cause.. and always concentrating his mind.’ so does one who has achieved proper concentration of mind perceive the self. He who is free from all impressions. When an embodied (self) properly perceives the self concentrated. void of touch. he perceives the perfect one. void of sound. he who has achieved proper concentration of mind sees the self in the self. and having his senses subjugated. and unknowable. ‘This is he. unmoving. he attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. Restraining the senses. Now listen how one habituated to exclusive meditation attains concentration. like an Aswattha tree. void of taste. creates for himself even the divinity of the gods. After this I shall explain the science of concentration of mind. Thinking of a quarter seen before. But one who is practicing concentration should never become despondent. void of belongings. One who does no action. and abandoning the transient body. being habituated to exclusive meditation. free from the pairs of opposites. he procures the release of his self from bonds in no long time. he should practice concentration of mind for final emancipation. death. then he. he grieves not and exults not. He who sees the enjoyer of the qualities. he gradually obtains tranquility. he has no fear. the soft fibers stand for the self. The man who has acquired concentration of mind. recognizes him (afterwards). Then the talented Brâhmana. and who moves among the collection of organs with penance. he remains steady to the self. He whose self is concentrated. devoid of the qualities of the five elements. his mind should not in anyway wander outside. he should steady his mind within and not out of the city in which he dwells. This is the excellent illustration propounded by those who understand concentration of mind. Restraining the . since he is the lord of the triple world. And as one may show the soft fibers. he should place his mind both in its external and internal (operations) in that habitation in which he dwells. and having first performed rigorous penance. without belongings. When one who has properly achieved concentration perceives the self in the self. and who is self-restrained. and freed from old age and grief. perceives the self in the self. is released.body. is released. Seeing the self void of smell. is not shaken by the fearful effects of attachment and affection. and who has no desire. devoid of form. there is no death for him. he is released. Remaining within (that) city. Having his understanding always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects.

This whole mystery I have declared to you. O son of Prithâ! that this is not easily understood by a man who is confused. and faces on all sides. and likewise the seat of the heart. too. and the fruit of its full accomplishment. Only by the mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived. – went away as he pleased. even those who are of sinful birth. or who has not acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified. He has hands and feet on all sides. so placing one’s mind in one’s body. And the gods are not pleased with a cessation of the mortal form. and abandoning his body. Vaisyas. and also the means for its acquisition. forsaking the body. O destroyer of Madhu! having been thug instructed by me. It is my belief. ‘O you of mighty arms! O restrainer of (your) foes! according to what (I had) heard. He should meditate on his teeth. Nor is it easily to be understood by (one whose) internal self (is) confused. dwelling in the self? And how does the soul moving about carry the body? And of what color and of what description (is it when) he leaves it? O sinless venerable sir! be pleased to state this accurately to me. O Brâhmana! according to your pleasure. neck. sitting in the chariot you heard this same (instruction). and muscles. I will go away. and (keeping) the passages confined. possessed of great penance. O Mâdhava! I replied. O son of Prithâ! these good words relating to the piety (required) for final emancipation. a mental smile. he should meditate on the perfect one within his body with a mind fixed on one point. That talented pupil. What I have spoken. As one placing any property in his store-room should fix his mind on the property. and how also to blood? And how. Being thus always assiduous and pleased in the self.’ Thus addressed by me. that best of Brâhmanas disappeared then and there. and throat likewise. he has eyes. does the strength develop? (And how is it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (substances). The world of the gods. do the flesh. final emancipation. nor by any of the senses. – with. distinctly? How. tongue. and determination regarding . ‘How does this food eaten from time to time become digested in the stomach? How does it turn to juice. The soul sees the self come out from the body. O son of Prithâ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? For on that occasion. Vâsudeva said: Having spoken to me. Adopting this doctrine. women. too. and also the heart. and Sûdras likewise. he perceives the self. heads. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. he attains in a short time to that Brahman. O sinless one! there is no other man than you worthy to hear it. and of the excretions. O Krishna! that pupil. too. For as to that eternal Brahman. O best of Brâhmanas! I will now take my leave. which is difficult to explain. He is not to be grasped by the eye. – that Brâhmana of rigid vows. What then (need be said of) Brâhmanas.group of the senses. in a forest free from noises and unpeopled. and bones – which all (form) the bodies for embodied (selves) – develop in a woman as that (self) develops? How. who are constantly intent on their own duties. Have you listened to this. O son of Prithâ! or well-read Kshatriyas. O son of Prithâ! that is the highest goal. attain the supreme goal. O son of Prithâ! For. And it has never yet been heard by any man in this world. where one. as it were. after perceiving which he understands the Pradhâna. he has cars on all sides. too. O son of Kuntî! is filled by those who perform actions. he attains final emancipation in me. he stands pervading everything in the world. proceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety (required) for final emancipation. and marrow. and whose highest goal is the world of the Brahman? This has been stated with reasons. And then depending upon it thus. one should there look for the self and avoid heedlessness. reaches immortality and is ever happy. palate.’ Thus questioned by that Brâhmana. – holding it to be the immaculate Brahman. does he breathe inwards or outwards? And what place does the self occupy. and do you (too) go away.

and between the Prâna and the Apâna dwells the Udâna pervading (all). And therefore those who study the Brahman engage in penance of which I am the goal. and also that which is to be thought of. casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) substance of this world. that which is to be seen. A Brâhmana’s wife. and is entirely beyond the senses of hearing. that which sees. depending on you as (my) husband. by act. that which is to be seen. but is to be apprehended by the mind. O son of Prithâ! who practices concentration of mind constantly throughout six months. there is nothing further than this. and likewise that which is to be heard. and on which it rests. that which touches. (It is that) from which (this whole) expanse (of the universe) proceeds. good or bad. (the seat) for which Brahman and others concentrating (their minds) worship that indestructible (principle). are destroyed by demons. Whatever action there is. The mortal. that which is to be touched. That is called the Udâna. and not to be tasted by the tongue. Concentration of mind comes to him. he forthwith attains the highest goal by these means. produce them in their wombs. and energetic. devoid of color and sound. seeing the Brâhmana her husband. blazes the Vaisvâna fire sevenfold. that can be caught (by the touch). spoke to him (thus): ‘What world. and the skin. seated in seclusion. and Udâna also proceed. (in the form of) a dialogue. CHAPTER V On this. the mind and the understanding. and into it they enter. Apâna. possessed of talents. and likewise that which is to . When that is asleep. that which is to be smelt. That which is to be smelt. It is not to be smelt by the nose. It is not to be touched by the sense of touch. O son of Prithâ! between a husband and wife. you who live renouncing (all) action. shall I reach. which occurred. that man of a tranquil self. That which smells. devoid of taste and touch. While the paths (of action). It is devoid of smell. or seen. In the interior. and who are harsh and undiscerning. does exist among (all) beings. From birth to the destruction of the body. who had gone through all knowledge and experience. that which is to be drunk. Samâna. that which cats. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! they relate this ancient story. and that which understands. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! there can be no other happiness beyond this. and that which is to be understood. The nose. We have heard that wives attain to the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. Vyâna. and the moon together with the fire. and their selves tranquil. From this the Prâna. having got you for my husband?’ Thus addressed. spoke to her with a slight smile: ‘O beautiful one! O sinless one! I am not offended at these words of yours. too. and the tongue. And mark this always.misery. and (observe) good vows. in which the materials are visible. the Prâna and the Apâna moved. that which thinks. or heard. that which is to be touched. in the midst of all these (life-winds) which move about in the body and swallow up one another. full of faith. these are the seven tongues of the blaze of Vaisvânara. And freedom from action is not to be attained in this world even for an instant. upholding (all) beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle. as the life-winds are controlled (by it). verily. Those who are devoid of knowledge only lodge delusion in themselves by means of action. that only do the men of action engage in as action. O beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing (in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven fires in seven ways. It cannot be conquered by the eyes. This is all that is to be said. (namely). and for which learned men have their senses restrained. these are the seven great officiating priests. and that which hears as the fifth. the Samâna and Vyâna also are absorbed. action. that which is to be drunk. and imperishable. indeed. those are the seven (kinds of) fuel for me. What goal. Between the Samâna and the Vyâna. shall I go to. and the ear as the fifth. I have perceived by means of the self the seat abiding in the self – (the seat) where dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites. mind or speech. Therefore the Prâna and the Apâna do not forsake a sleeping person. O son of Pându! who. and the eye.

Becoming perfected by the perfect sacrifice. and into this the offering is thrown. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How did speech come into existence first. O lord!’ Thereupon the lord positively said to speech. From that is produced smell. these. they remain absorbed during (the time of) deluge. touch. verily. and the mind which is the Âhavanîya. which is the generator of all entities. O beautiful one! as you came personally to speak to me (in the way you did). But since you ask me a question regarding speech and mind. sun.’ CHAPTER VI The Brâhmana said: On this. moon. the movable is in your dominion. the two hands.’ The Brâhmana said: Know. and also that which is to be understood. O beautiful one! Objects of sense. But. and Vishnu also. That is called the movement of the mind. The ear. and the knower is the upholder of the body. yield (you) your desires. does not comprehend? What verily obstructs it? The Brâhmana said: The Apâna becoming lord changes it into the state of the Apâna in consequence. All the qualities which stand as offerings are absorbed into the mouth of the fire. verily. space. action. urine. O noble one! going with the Apâna wind. verily. and the anus. or letter. That upholder of the body is the Gârhapatya fire. and excrement. But inasmuch. from that is produced determination. from that is produced taste. Indra. seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) thought over by the mind? By means of what experience does intelligence come to the mind. The goddess speech. Both speech and mind went to the self of all beings and spoke (to him thus). Prajâpati. that (lord of speech) looks up to the mind. And the mind. The quarters. or tone goes to your dominion. though . (Thus) we have heard. I will relate to you a dialogue between themselves. Earth. immovable and also movable. ‘Mind (is superior). The ten organs are the makers of the offering. from that is produced color. And in that very (principle). The mind is within the body the upholder of the frame. water. verily. The immovable. the genital organ. these are the ten oblations. and (though) developed. O Sarasvatî! you shall never speak after (hard) exhalations. from that touch is produced. requires everything knowable (as its offering). that indeed is the movable mind. mind and understanding. are the fuel. and the discharge of semen. too. they were perfectly filled with light. that which is to be thought of. and the wealth is the pure. Whatever mantra. highest knowledge. therefore. and the mind runs after them. ‘I. and how did the mind come into existence afterwards. To that you are superior. verily. and they are offered up into the ten fires. and taste. from that doubt is produced. that (in) my (view). indeed. they relate this ancient story. First. are words produced. This (is what) they know as the sevenfold production. the tongue. the nose. Then the lord of speech was produced. and light as the fifth. and having dwelt within that dwelling are born in their respective wombs. wind. are ten sacrificial priests. which is the instrument of knowledge. O beautiful one! are the ten fires. from that another is produced. dwelt always between the Prâna and Apâna. earth and fire. was the universe duly divided. O beautiful one! Sound. are named wombs. words. verity. The mind is the ladle.’ But speech thereupon said to him. motion.be heard. the offerings are ten. ‘Say which of us is superior. destroy our doubts. these. and Mitra. color. Learn now of what description is the institution of the ten sacrificial priests. there are two minds. In this very way was it comprehended by the ancients. smell. and hence the mind is in need (of it). is with me. the two feet. speech. air. from that is produced sound. these seven.

the mind. (which shows) of what description is the institution of the seven sacrificial priests. O beautiful one! between the senses and the mind. with divine power. words could not be uttered? The Brâhmana said: The (speech) which is produced in the body by means of the Prâna. Observe the difference of (its) two subtle. do not apprehend (objects of) touch. mind and understanding. O you of a bright smile! is divine. The Brâhmana’s wife said: What did the goddess of speech say on that occasion in days of old. and the mind also. the eye apprehends them. the ear. and the goddess distinguished by reason of her being movable. too. dwelling (as they do) in a minute space? What are their natures. the skin. the skin apprehends them. she ran up to Prajâpati. do not apprehend tastes. And these never know the qualities of each other. and the eye. O beautiful one! they relate this ancient story. the skin. flowing (forms). It is always noisy or noiseless. Dwelling in a minute space. and which then goes into the Apâna. O venerable sir!’ Then the Prâna appeared again nourishing speech. Do you. and the eye. the mind apprehends it. the understanding. Hence the mind is distinguished by reason of its being immovable. The nose. do not apprehend doubt. And therefore speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. Of those two. the ear apprehends them. and the understanding also. the ear likewise. the tongue. and then becoming assimilated with the Udâna leaves the body. saying. the mind likewise. do not apprehend smells. The nose. the ear likewise. O venerable sir? Tell me this. then (finally) dwells in the Samâna. the tongue.impelled. and the eye. the nose apprehends them. the eye. and the ear as the fifth. these are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. The Brâhmana’s wife said: How (is it) these do not perceive each other. and the understanding also. The tongue. and the skin. do not apprehend colors. and the understanding also. (in consequence of) being without the Prâna. CHAPTER VII The Brâhmana said: On this. The nose. (which are) seven according to (their several) natures. though (she was) impelled with a desire to speak. The nose. the skin. the skin. the ear. the noiseless is superior to the noisy (speech). do not apprehend sounds. verily. the tongue. they relate this ancient story. The nose. This cow-like speech. and with the Vyâna envelopes all the quarters. O lord! The Brâhmana said: Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is ignorance (of it). and the understanding also. ‘Be pleased. the mind. the skin. So speech formerly spoke. The nose. the tongue. the tongue apprehends them. the eye. and speaking of the Brahman it always produces the eternal (emancipation). the skin. when. yields milk. the mind. do not apprehend final determination. and the eye. The mind said: . On this. the tongue. – a dialogue. The nose. and next the eye. like a cow. and the tongue. This excellent (speech). the understanding apprehends it. and the understanding also. too. O beautiful one! learn about these sacrificial priests. the mind. they do not perceive each other. the ear likewise. the ear. Knowledge of the qualities is knowledge.

O beautiful one! (showing) of what description is the institution of the five sacrificial priests. you enjoy objects according to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. The wind prepared by the Vyâna works as the Udâna. Without me. when troubled by desire to enjoy. if you. then take in colors by the nose. And even after having carried on numerous mental operations. Without me. as a fire which is kindled (is extinguished) on the exhaustion of fuel. The senses said: This would be true as you believe. or like fires the flames of which are extinct. and the Udâna. You should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before. too. you have no perception. and granted that we have no perception of each other’s qualities. The Brâhmana’s wife said: My former belief was that the sacrificial priests were seven by (their) nature. and having acquired Vedic learning from him. that we have connections with our (respective) qualities. He shall be the greatest among us. For those who are powerful have no rules (to govern them). when our objects perform their functions. and said to him. The wind prepared in the Apâna then works as the Vyâna. or if when we are absorbed. both past and future. the senses never shine. the ear does not in any way hear sound. State how the great principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests. always meets death. and so long no happiness can accrue to you. CHAPTER VIII The Brâhmana said: On this. ‘Tell us which is greatest among us. If again you think your power over our objects is constant. in sleep and likewise wakefulness. One entering upon enjoyments. without us. even with the senses exerting themselves.The nose smells not without me. Granted. If when we are extinct.’ Brahman said: . does run to objects of sense only. take in smells by the ear. like fuel half dried and half moist. Without me. you ought not to enjoy what has been tasted (by others). fail to apprehend qualities or objects. (there is) pleasure and support of life. life is seen to be supported. I am the eternal chief among all elements. As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning. take in (objects of) touch by the tongue. The learned know this to be a great principle. the skin does not become aware of any (object of) touch. that the Prâna and the Apâna. so you treat as yours objects shown by us. and also (objects of) touch by the understanding. all beings. then what you believe is true. a creature. and objects are standing. They formerly went to the grandsire. Besides. and if you enjoy enjoyments. who was born first. enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects. on the exhaustion of the life-winds. and not connected with objects of sense. they relate an ancient story. And the wind prepared in the Udâna is produced as Samâna. the eye does not take in color. (which is) like entering a house without a door. and take in sounds by the skin. without us. rules are for the weak. and also the Samâna and the Vyâna. take in tastes by the eye. still. the tongue does not perceive taste. and indulged in dreams. like an empty dwelling. when creatures of little intelligence are distracted in mind. The Brâhmana said: The wind prepared by the Prâna afterwards becomes the Apâna. performs the directions of the Vedic texts. resulting from mental operations (alone). are the five sacrificial priests.

spoke to him. O Apâna! because the Prâna is subject to you. and the Samâna.’ The Prâna again moved about. owing to (their) specific qualities. O beautiful one! spoke these words. they again move about. and the Udâna. and all support one another. (which are) five. And the Prâna and Apâna. who being extinct. When I am extinct. because the Apâna is subject to you. verily.’ The Brâhmana said: Then Brahman. You are not the greatest among us. the lord of (all) creatures. and again moved about. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Prâna became extinct. O Vyâna! because the Samâna is subject to you. and on my moving about. Welfare be to you! Support one another. they again move about. said to them who were assembled together: You are all greatest. See I am extinct!’ Then the Samâna moved about. The Prâna said: When I am extinct. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. Being friendly with one another.’ The Vyâna moved about again. they again move about. There is one unmoving (life-wind). See I am extinct!’ Then the Udâna became extinct. When I am extinct. The Apâna said: When I am extinct. (Now) go where (you) like. and not greatest. and the Samâna. ‘You are not the greatest among us. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. spoke to him: ‘O Udâna! you are not the greatest. go away happily. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. Then the Samâna and Udâna also. (but) accumulated in numerous (forms). all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. My own self is one only.’ CHAPTER IX The Brâhmana said: . and the Vyâna also. And the Prâna and Apâna. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. I am the greatest. The Vyâna only is subject to you. When I am extinct. Hear the reason why. and again moved about. and on whose moving about. and the Samâna spoke again. You are all possessed of one another’s qualities.’ Then the Apâna moved about. And on my moving about. All are greatest in their own spheres. and pleasing one another. I am the greatest. There are others moving about. I am the greatest. See I am extinct! The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna and the Udâna addressed him who was speaking (thus): ‘You are not the greatest. ‘You do not pervade all this here as we do. all the life-winds in the body of living creatures become extinct.He. is the greatest. ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. and again moved about. Hear the reason why. they again move about. Hear the reason why. and the Apâna said to him. O Prâna. they again move about. I am the greatest. and the Udâna said to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. See I am extinct!’ The Brâhmana said: Then the Vyâna became extinct. I am the greatest. and the Vyâna spoke to him: ‘I am the greatest among (you) all. they again move about. and on my moving about. and on my moving about. and on my moving about.

Hear me. or Apâna. indeed. and the eye. And the pairs of the life-winds should be understood. Day and night are a pair. The nose. and from the semen is produced menstrual excretion. that which is other than this first comes to him. which (move) upwards. First. or Samâna. or transversely. these. or Vyâna. The pair Prâna and Apâna go upwards and downwards. From the combination of the semen and the blood. between them is the fire. a dialogue between Nârada and the sage Devamata. Devamata said: When a creature is about to be born. in which the offering is thrown. Then the Vâmadevya for tranquility. The smoke of that (fire). That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. the pleasure is produced from union. Those who understand the sacrifice understand the Samâna and the Vyâna as the principal (offering). The semen and the blood are produced by the Samâna and the Vyâna in common. This is the effect of the Udâna. the Samâna comes into operation again. they relate this ancient story. what comes into existence first. or downwards. the agent. hear me speak about that. their function is performed: then. and the . and tranquility is the eternal Brahman. the action. O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. O good woman! state this wonderful mystery. and (the quality of) goodness is that in connection with it. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. This is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. or transversely. secondly. (its) ashes. CHAPTER X On this. which (move) upwards. From desire the semen is produced. It is the teaching of the Veda.On this. (appears) in the shape of (the quality of) darkness. the Apâna then comes into operation. and knowledge (of it) arises among Brâhmanas. they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra. and emancipation. Devamata said: By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced? And which (of them) first comes to him? Explain to me also the pairs of the life-winds. between them is the fire. and between them is the fire. being accompanied by intelligence. or downwards. his Prâna. which is of excellent glory. That which exists and that which does not exist are a pair. and (it) is also produced from touch. and (it) is also produced from a sound. and (it) is also produced from smell. Nârada said: Pleasure is produced from a mental operation. (the quality of) passion. The two – good and evil – are a pair. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. and the Samâna and Vyâna are called the pair (moving) transversely. the Prâna comes first into operation. the Samâna and Vyâna. As to that which is distinct from these pairs. too. and (it) is also produced from color. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively. and the tongue. between them is the fire. (it) is also produced from taste. that the fire verily is all the deities. or else Udâna? Nârada said: By whichever the creature is produced. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. and the semen being developed by the Prâna. too. The instrument. That is the excellent seat of the Udâna as understood by Brâhmanas. The Prâna and Apâna are portions of the offering of clarified butter.

of which an illustration is stated. he who eats. and he who understands. There is one instructor. he who speaks.’ Hearing that. this. he who sees. being (himself) a ruler. And I am here devoid of qualities. the self the Adhvaryu priest. my fire of (high) qualifications. truth. in a single syllable. Impelled by that same (being). agreeable and disagreeable. O son of Prithâ! shine in heaven. I move as I am ordered. There is one enemy. and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything. and whatever is smelt by the nose. (and) the seven Rishis. together with those (senses) which with the mind are six. enjoy their own qualities. Taught by that instructor. these seven are causes of action. each in its own place. and sages. the Sastra. like water on a declivity. On that Sâman hymns.’ To them who were inquiring about the highest good. by Prajâpati. the Brahman. there is no second (different) from him. and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. And not even a trifling obstacle arises to him from that food. these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of) qualities. and the great sages . and the gods. there is no second (different) from him. He who smells. and he who hears as the fifth. He destroys the food. whatever is touched by the sense of touch. always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. whatever is spoken by speech. the director. said (to him): ‘Tell us the highest good. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. Living under that instructor. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. and sages. and the snakes. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. mind and understanding. (the self) whose hymn of praise is the offering. The gods had been engaged in gifts. dwells in the heart and directs (all creatures). The learned man. and touch as the fifth. he. there is no second (different) from him. are sung. they relate an ancient story. they ran away in (various) directions. too. There is one hearer. sound. On.skin. the qualities which are in the position of the deities. the Hotri priest. These. the Sastra of the Prasâstri. (about the) instruction of the snakes. and the Dakshinâ. On this. the inclination of the snakes to biting had been already formed. Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyana – the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal (offerings). being possessed of qualities. absorbing all these offerings from all sides. and color. final emancipation. Taught by him kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen. whatever is heard by the ear. the venerable one said. There is one kinsman. the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding. destroying this food again produces it. (according to the proper mode of) living with an instructor. and taste. And cooking food for himself. When they were running for instruction regarding the self. these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. is the upward life-wind. Whatever is thought by the mind. shines dwelling within the body. the Stotra in which. O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana. through the (feeling of this or that being) mine. whatever is seen by the eye. he who thinks. ‘Om. there is no second director. and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. And among the learned who understand (everything). The natural inclination of the demons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. the downward lifewind. Taught by that instructor. Sakra acquired immortality in all worlds. The eating of that which should not be eaten. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation. too. Smell. there is no second (different) from him. This being. all snakes whatever are ever hated in the world. I speak concerning him who abides in the heart. eating various (kinds of) food. who is the self of everything. is ruined. and the ear as the fifth. the performance of which yields the fire of knowledge. CHAPTER XI There is one director. is the counselor in all action. the Brahman priest in which. The gods. and the demons. approaching Prajâpati. To him who is not learned.

To him the Brahman itself is the fuel. merely adheres to the Brahman. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of two colors. in which desire and anger are the obstructors. have no fear afterwards. The instructor. in various places. Such is this subtle life as a Brahmachârin understood by the wise. There is nothing smaller than that. and the demons. that. O very intelligent person! what are the trees (there). the gods. the twice-born do not grieve. That forest is filled with two large trees producing numerous flowers and fruits of undistinguished colors. the Brahman his origin. connected with the Brahman. when there is no distinction from it. And by his counsel does action afterwards take place. and do not exult. (namely) the five senses. in which delusion is the blinding darkness. He is rapt in the Brahman. in which intelligence is the tree. the Brahman water. the snakes. The qualities are the fruits. They are not afraid of anybody. and which has the Kshetrajña within for the sun. in which avarice is the beasts of prey and reptiles. there is no other instructor. full of brilliance. and mixed. in which grief and joy are cold and heat. owing to his desires. the learner. and fragrant. The seven (forms of) emancipation from them are the seven (forms of) initiation. being instructed by the Kshetrajña. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of three colors. One hears what is said (to one) and apprehends it duly. Entering it. casting aside vows and actions. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of four colors. and the guests eat the fruits. And there is fuel here. and what the rivers. But he who. the way to which consists in worldly objects. seven hermitages. the Brahman the instructor. the hearer. all engaged in different (pursuits). and the enemy. there is nothing larger than that. Acting sinfully in the world. In that forest are seven large trees. CHAPTER XII The Brâhmana said: I have crossed beyond that very impassable place. the great sages receive hospitality. the Brahman the fire. which has contentment for its water. and seven guests. he becomes (a man of) sinful conduct. And I have entered the great forest. which depends on knowledge. and having been instructed with one word. And when they have been worshipped and have disappeared. who. when there is a distinction from it. And he becomes a man of conduct according to his own desire. Its end cannot be perceived upwards or downwards or horizontally. he moving about in the world identifying himself with the Brahman. There is nothing more afflicting than that. with faces (turned) downwards. becomes a Brahmachârin. This is the description of the forest. There is nothing more subtle than that. and is to be crossed by one singly. and the hills and mountains. Having had one teacher. There always dwell seven females there. and causes of generation. is given up to the pleasures of the senses. That forest is filled with trees producing splendid flowers and fruits of five colors. There. There is one fire here. and having a good mind. another forest shines forth. That forest is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of one color. Understanding it they practiced it. seven (forms of) concentration. the sages. in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes. (but even) to one who inquires and extols highly. seven fruits. and which possesses shade (in the form of) tranquility. The Brâhmana’s wife said: Where is that forest. and at what distance is that forest? The Brâhmana said: There is nothing else more delightful than that. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes (a man of) virtuous conduct. and nobody is afraid of them. and of beautiful colors. are always within the heart. and emancipation the fruit. The good who attain to that. and seven (forms of) initiation. .in restraint of the senses. there is no other happiness equal to.

that refraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the duty) among all duties. mother. and again emerge from the same. The Ascetic said: If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his life being severed (from him). nor even do I entertain any fancies. there is no taint on my natures. Apart from them. The Adhvaryu answered him (saying). (in the shape of) a dialogue between an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. being directed by the Kshetrajña. they relate an ancient story. Such. I perceive no tastes. and greatness. abide. Glory. praise tranquility. since the Vedic text is such.They absorb all the higher delights of people. CHAPTER XIII The Brâhmana said: I do not smell smells. too. On this. this goat will not be destroyed. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living creatures). Understand that. father. of this goat have gone to their sources. If I spoke further. Those whose wishes are reduced. I see no color. take him (to them) and consult (them). or old age. You ought to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. And aspiring to that forest. especially as he is dependent. too. We substantiate (this) from what is actually visible. In that same (principle) the seven perfect sages. brilliance. Desire and hatred are born from nature as the upward and downward life-winds. They are inconstant things appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks on various natures. then the sacrifice is for the goat. as there is no (taint) of a drop of water on lotuses. whatever in him is produced from water. and I do not touch. it would be possible to find fault with your proceedings in many ways. I am in no wise attached (to anything) through desire or anger. The teaching of the elders is. (the matter) will be fit for consideration. or death. indeed. they are born so as not to lose courage. Dwelling in that (self). after attaining to the bodies of living creatures. We maintain that that action should be performed which involves no slaughter. the net of enjoyments does not attach itself to it. There is no offence on my part. I see the individual self in the body. After hearing their consent. not hating any evil. censuring (the act) as destruction of life. (his) ear the quarters. victory. perfection. Not desiring any object of desire. that which is called an animal becomes the fuel. nature hates all (objects) which are hateful. and rivers and streams flowing with water produced from the Brahman. His eye (will enter) the sun. Although actions are performed. enlightenment. And understanding it. as understood by Brâhmanas. together with their chiefs. whence those who are contented in their own selves repair to the divine grandsire himself. For that part of him which is of the earth will go to the earth. and friend (of the goat) give you their consent. adhering (as I do) to the scriptures. The life-winds. we do not rely on what is not visible. and as the constant entity underlying them. . whose sins are burnt up by penance. Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is what we approve. merging the self in the self. as inconstancy (absorbs) everything. Nature desires objects which are liked. and his life-winds likewise the sky. To those who wish to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living creature). that will enter water. (This) creature will obtain welfare. Those people who understand the forest of knowledge. and I think only his unmoving body remains. is this holy forest. whose wishes are (fixed) on good vows. they act (accordingly). Hills and mountains also are there collected together. And there is the confluence of the rivers in the secluded place for the sacrifice. as the net of the sun’s rays does not attach itself to the sky. the unconscious body being comparable to fuel. an ascetic who was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu. what benefit (is it) to you? Let the brother. O glorious one! Seeing an animal being sprinkled at a sacrificial ceremony. devote themselves to Brahman. the richest. nor yet do I hear various sounds. and power – these seven rays follow after this same sun.

Of these the indestructible is the existent. my mind is enlightened. and I say (to you). said. Give them security. (these make up) the manifestations as individual entities. and who is released on all hands. freed from delusion. ‘O brave man! do not throw arrows (on me). The ocean. Say. you hear the sound produced in space. together with (the quality of) passion. who with his bow conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. the mind. they relate an old story. as we have heard. O tiger-like king! by the great arrows thrown by you. the ascetic thereafter remained silent. who is devoid of expectations. Thus Brâhmanas understand the very subtle emancipation to be of this nature. The Brâhmana said: With this explanation. the tongue. (There lived once) a king named Arjuna. And all these entities. O twice-born one? The Ascetic said The indestructible and the destructible. are being destroyed. the manifestation as an individual (entity) is called the destructible. who take shelter with me. . and understanding it. he was walking about near the sea. and showering hundreds of arrows on the sea. and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with the great sacrifice. Once on a time. being directed by the Kshetrajña. who has subdued his self. you think by the mind (on the objects of) mental operations. in the belief (that you are) the Lord. you see the colors of shining bodies. what shall I do for you? The creatures. (in the shape of) a dialogue. they act (accordingly). O venerable sir! I approach you. O king! you have heard of the great sage Jamadagni. who is alike to all beings. his son is (the) proper (person) to show you due hospitality. performing (as I have done) the rites performed by others. you drink watery juices. And to one who is free from these manifestations. a descendant of Kritavîrya. For having heard your opinion. such is the double manifestation of the self. The Adhvaryu said: O best of talented men! one should in this (world) dwell in company of good men only. O you of a pure heart! between Kârtavîrya and the ocean.The Adhvaryu said: You enjoy the earth’s quality of fragrance. you believe. The life-winds. and (the quality of) goodness. Or what do you think. you touch the qualities of the air. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. who might stand against me in the field. O Lord!’ Arjuna said: If there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal to me in battle. You have not (then) abstained from taking life. there is no fear anywhere. You are (engaged) in the slaughter (of living creatures). The ocean said: If. name him to me. who is free from the pairs of opposites. and with joined hands. have life. too. O twice-born one! there is no fault (attaching) to me. saluting him. CHAPTER XIV The Brâhmana said: On this. proud of his strength. There is no movement without slaughter (of living creatures). possessed of a thousand arms.

As by its unsteadiness. – having performed very difficult deeds. and taking swords and lances. dear friend. blazed forth. – he turned his mind to subtle (subjects). They will. all (his) kinsmen assembled together. with Rikîka as their head. Hearing that. burning the hosts of the enemy. hearing that (story). became Vrishalas. like antelopes troubled by a lion. Seeing him killed and fallen. his grandfathers. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. whose power was unbounded. surrounded the descendant of Bhrigu. CHAPTER XV The Pitris said: On this. (Though) surrounded by enemies. and blew away the army of the king. ‘Desist. the Kshatriyas. not forgiving his father’s murder.’ The Pitris said: O best of victors! you ought not to destroy these kinsmen of Kshatriyas. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: . whose penance was very great. I will cast very sharp-edged arrows at the mind. ‘O Râma! O Râma! desist (from this slaughter).Then the king. often troubled by fear of the son of Jamadagni. entered mountains and inaccessible places. you will die. I shall direct my arrows elsewhere. ‘You ought not to keep me back from this. Alarka said: My mind is become (too) strong. shot away volleys of arrows. spoke sweetly to Râma. turned to subtle (questions). and caused much trouble to the high-souled Râma. named Alarka. who understood duty. do you perceive. In company with his kinsmen. a bodiless voice from heaven. being a Brâhmana. Then some of the Kshatriyas. only pierce your own vital part. At the end of the twenty-first slaughter. said to those sages. Thus the Dravidas. likewise said to the high-souled (Râma). Paundras. went away. O best of the twice-born! you should act accordingly. too. in taking away the lives of these kinsmen of Kshatriyas over and over again?’ Then. that conquest is constant in which the mind is conquered. Râma also taking up a bow. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. too. to make all mortals perform action. O lotus-eyed one! And then Râma. together with the Sâbaras. Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women were destroyed again and again. to slaughter these kings. What good. There was (once) a royal sage. abandoning (those) great deeds. hacked away that man of the thousand arms in battle. Âbhîras. who were produced by the Brâhmanas. became Vrishalas. and very firm in his vows. and your vital part being pierced. and arriving at that hermitage approached Râma only. The mind said: These arrows. O noble one!’ But Râma. were also destroyed by the son of Jamadagni. taking up his axe. full of great wrath. they relate an ancient story. who was veracious. Then the power of Râma. While he was sitting at the foot of a tree. it wishes. owing to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. he did many (acts) disagreeable to Râma. Having with his bow conquered this world as far as the ocean. high-souled. and hurriedly mounting a chariot. And the subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not performing their prescribed duties through fear of him. which was heard by all people. owing to the disappearance of Brâhmanas. O you of great intelligence! his thoughts. It is not proper for you. like a tree of many branches.

and your vital part being pierced. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the tongue. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Hearing that. Hearing that. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows at the ear. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. and your vital part being pierced. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Touching various (objects of) touch. and then you will lose (your) life. The skin said: These arrows. The nose said. Hearing that. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. you will die. The tongue said: These arrows. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the nose. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Hearing various sounds.Smelling very many perfumes. These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Therefore I will tear off the skin by various feathered arrows. Therefore I will destroy the eye with sharp arrows. and your vital part being pierced. the eye hankers after them only. you will die. the (ear) hankers after them only. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then said after consideration: – . the skin hankers after them only. and your vital part being pierced. you will die. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Hearing that. The ear said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part. Hearing that. he then said after consideration: – Alarka said: Seeing numerous colors. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. this (tongue) hankers after them only. you will die. They will only pierce your own vital part. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. he then spoke these words after consideration: – Alarka said: Enjoying savory tastes. one hankers after them only. The eye said: These arrows. They will only pierce your own vital part.

’ Do you understand this too. and being troubled by desire. understands (nothing) while running into ditches. Perform a fearful penance. free from sloth. is energetic about subjugating others. For from avarice is born desire. and entering the self by means of concentration of mind. these three are qualities appertaining to the quality of goodness. he. The Brâhmana said: Then Alarka even there employed himself in a fearful penance difficult to perform. Exultation. of great glory. a courageous man. you will die. could not arrive at anything better than concentration of mind. again with his body dismembered and scattered about. owing to these qualities. and he who desires. that being possessed of a desire for enjoyments. And (then) the brave man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow. the noble son of Jamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance. but there is one. When vices were in the ascendant. Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers. he mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. is born again and again. attained high perfection. these are stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. and delusion. Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent on one (subject). these three qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality of darkness. the best of talented (men). persistent hatred. and again birth. he became steady. The understanding said: These arrows. thence you will obtain the highest good. and your vital part being pierced. O Alarka! will not penetrate through me at all. Look out for other arrows by which you may destroy me. And the royal sage. wrath. On this. and after deliberating for a long time. Cutting these off by multitudes of arrows. and applied himself to concentration of mind. They will only pierce your own vital part. a man even does what ought not to be done. Obtaining those. being impelled by which. and attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. having a tranquil self. That avarice – cut (it) off. O best of the twiceborn! Alarka. forcibly possessed himself of the kingdom. we should have devoted ourselves before now to sovereignty! I have now subsequently learnt that there is no higher happiness than concentration of mind. ‘O! Alas! that we should have engaged in all external (matters). Therefore. sloth. properly . joy. destroyed all foes. amazed. but he did not obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. CHAPTER XVI The Brâhmana said: There are. Grief. and engages in action. vice which should be destroyed and which I have not destroyed – that (vice). being impelled by which. a creature does not attain freedom from desire. And at the expiration of life. mostly acquires qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. three foes in (this) world. When the bodily frame is destroyed. and honoring good men. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at the understanding. O Râma! and do not kill Kshatriyas. he meets death. pleasure. and sang these verses: ‘I have conquered most vices. then anxiety comes into existence. verily.Alarka said: This (understanding) forms various determinations by its operation. and senses controlled. and good (men) were oppressed. he reached the highest perfection. He (then) restraining his own vices. cut (it) off with sharp swords. (that vice). and they are stated to be (divided) ninefold. Sleep. then uttered this verse. Then directing his mind to one point. the greatest. people who know about ancient times celebrate verses which were sung of old by the king Ambarîsha. according to qualities. Ambarîsha. who had become tranquil (in mind).

as the planet upon the sun. Now hear the conviction.’ Thus spoken to. said to a Brâhmana who had fallen into some offence: ‘You should not live within my dominions. I do not desire for myself even smells existing in the nose. I looked for Mithilâ. though this country. Therefore the earth being conquered is a ways subject to me. I have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. or the whole earth is mine. (Considering) whose this was. so (is it) that of others too. While that king of unbounded power was seated. the Brâhmana then replied to that best of kings: ‘Tell me. Then on the expiration of the delusion. which is the kingdom of your father and grandfather. they relate this ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody’s property. O best of the twice-born! Live (here. The self properly understood is itself the sovereign. a delusion suddenly came upon him. I do not desire for myself sounds even though existing in the ear. therefore) while you desire. which is the kingdom of my father and grandfather. too. Even this self is not mine. (hence) I could not find by my intelligence anything that should be (called) mine. the king recovered himself. Therefore light being conquered is always subject to me. Now I think that there is no domain (of mine). or all as your domain? Janaka said: I understand (all) conditions here. Resorting to this conviction. I looked for my own offspring. I do not desire for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. and after a short while spoke these words to the Brâhmana. searching through the (whole) earth. When I did not find it among them. is subject (to me). The Brâhmana said: Tell me. when I did not find it in Mithilâ. Therefore water being conquered is always subject to me. to be terminable. and. avarice. by which. there is no other sovereignty here. who destroyed the one (chief vice). is subject to you.perceiving this. the king then heaved frequent and warm sighs. intelligence again came to me. I do not desire for myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the skin. I believe. CHAPTER XVII The Brâhmana said: On this. Therefore air being conquered is always subject to me. what belief you have resorted to. engaged in meditation. I do not desire for myself the mind always within me. by way of punishment. holding which. and enjoy while you live. King Janaka. you have got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. O you of a pure heart! between a Brâhmana and Janaka. then came the delusion on me. Janaka said: Though this country. When I did not find it on the earth. I wish. by the glorious Ambarîsha.’ Thus spoken to by that glorious Brâhmana. my domain (appears to me to be) everywhere. Then when the delusion had gone off. and said nothing in reply. Therefore the mind being conquered is always . and restraining avarice by courage. hence I could not find anything that should be (called) mine. one should wish for sovereignty in the self. in all affairs. O Lord! to live in the dominions of another king. This is sovereignty. What conviction have you adopted. O king! how far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. I cannot find my domain. O master of the earth! I wish to do your bidding according to the Sâstras. And as mine. I do not desire for myself the color (or) light appertaining to the eye. or that everything is my domain. Therefore sounds being conquered are always subject to me. by which verily you consider your whole domain as not (your) domain.’ Such were the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty.

the instructor is the upper Arani. O beautiful one! as you see me with the eye. by which it is capable of being comprehended? The Brâhmana said: He is without symbols. you have guessed. I am emancipated. to households. and the body is tied down by action. This is the path of the Brâhmanas. is perceived as by bees. that a certain thing should be done. by which that (entity). where. and my intelligence is very frivolous. Whatever creatures there are in the world. by which those who understand that proceed. I am not such. and which does not turn back.subject to me. not by the body. Tell me the means by which this knowledge is acquired. it is not laid down. I pervade every single thing that is in this world. you will certainly come into my self. And those who. the spoke the understanding. the Bhûtas. (namely) for the gods. which has the symbols (useful) for knowledge attributed to it through ignorance. and a certain thing should not. or else this knowledge. and confused. movable or not moving. go to the single entity as rivers to the ocean. action and knowledge. This path is traversed by the understanding. and even over heaven. Hence. dwelling with preceptors. A good means is found. Then the Brâhmana. I (wish to) learn from you the source from which that knowledge proceeds. and which is checked by the quality of goodness as its circumference. and narrow. smiling. namely. or by one whose self is not refined. together with guests. (of these two) knowledge is my only wealth.’ CHAPTER XVIII The Brâhmana said: O modest one! I do not move about in this world in the way which. and I likewise perform the duties of a householder. is (to be found) a description of it. Sovereignty over the whole world. Penance and sacred learning cause the attrition. nothing exists that is a cause of him. the Pitris. for this purpose. adhering to various symbols and Âsramas. the nave of which is the Brahman. that. With your heart intent upon the real entity. All these actions of mine are. or residence in forests. O beautiful one! You (need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. or among mendicants. according to your own understanding. I am a Brâhmana. and also without qualities. again said to Janaka: ‘Know me to be Dharma. CHAPTER XIX The Brâhmana’s wife said: This is not possible to be understood by one whose self is frivolous. In the (rules for) final emancipation. indeed. I am a forester. have their understanding full of tranquility. and from that the fire of knowledge is produced. I will only state the means by which he can be comprehended or not. observing vows. You are the one person to turn this wheel. Actions have a beginning and an end. But the knowledge of the things beneficial to the self is produced in one who sees . know me to be the destroyer of them as fire is of wood. With numerous unconfused symbols only one knowledge is approached. come here today to learn (something) about you. or. verily. The Brâhmana said Know that he who devotes himself to the Brahman is the (lower) Arani. The Brâhmana’s wife said: As to this symbol of the Brahman which is denominated the Kshetrajña.

O terror of your foes! asked a Brâhmana preceptor of rigid vows. O son of Prithâ! said to the pupil who spoke thus: ‘I will explain to you everything. Listen to that. between a preceptor and a pupil. and know my understanding to be the Brâhmana’s wife. O venerable Brâhmana sage! O you of excellent vows! do you be pleased to explain correctly. they relate an ancient story (in the shape of) a dialogue. (when he was) seated. ‘whose goal is the highest good. all of various descriptions. And there exists none else but you who can destroy all doubts. O you of great intelligence! The pupil said: Whence am I. O Brâhmana? What are called the qualities by the good? And what paths are happy? What is pleasure. (which are) means of direct perception. after the destruction of the Kshetrajña. as may here be practicable – unperceived.’ The preceptor. O Krishna! is that Brâhmana’s wife. ‘I’ (he said). Speak. who was possessed of (the . Arjuna said: Where. O twice-born one! on which you verily have any doubt. A talented pupil. The Deity said: Then the mind of the Brâhmana’s wife. likewise. indeed. O undegraded one! The Deity said: Know my mind to be the Brâhmana. I pray of you with (bowed) head. am come to you (who are) venerable.’ Thus addressed by the preceptor. O son of Prithâ! O chief of the family of the Kauravas! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all those questions to that pupil. connected with final emancipation. for by your favor my mind is much interested in (these) subtle (subjects). and where is that chief of Brâhmanas. You are celebrated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected with the piety (required for) final emancipation. Vâsudeva said: That talented preceptor. and also desirous of final emancipation. And he. and what is the limit of their life? What is truth. too. who preserved (all) vows. There is none else here who can explain these questions. CHAPTER XX Arjuna said: Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which is the highest object of knowledge. and accurately. Then one reaches near that beyond which nothing exists. who had approached him (for instruction). who put (his) questions properly. in hundreds and in thousands. O best of the Kauravas! he who was devoted to the preceptor. and whence are you? Explain that which is the highest truth. something about the highest good. put (his) questions with joined bands. turned to that which is beyond (all) Kshetrajñas by means of a knowledge of the Kshetra. And we. O Brâhmana! that you should explain to me what I ask. and those whose form is perceived. Vâsudeva said: On this. O Dhanañjaya! who has been spoken of as the Kshetrajña. truly. what penance.and hears. and what sin? These questions of mine. by both of whom this perfection was attained? Tell me about them both. From what were the movable and immovable entities born? By what do entities live. are afraid of worldly life. is I myself. O best of those who understand piety! I feel the highest curiosity (in this matter). One should adopt as many of these things.

which ought to be apprehended. becomes eligible for assimilation with the Brahman. when thus spoken to by the sages. Bharadvâja. And he who understands determinately the true object of knowledge which is inexpugnable – the self abiding in all entities – and who can move about anywhere. from whom (all) sin has departed. which is understood by the multitudes of Siddhas. and is eternal. after having traveled over all paths. and of the four orders. and renunciation as the best penance. is esteemed highest. Listen (to that) O pupil! Brahman said: From the truth were the entities movable and immovable produced. Having saluted that high-souled one who was sitting at ease. is released from misery. desire. asked him this momentous (question) concerning the highest good: ‘How should one perform good action? How is one released from sin? What paths are happy for us? What is truth and what vice? By what action are the two paths southern and northern obtained? (And what is) destruction and emancipation. who is devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. Understand that. and who is devoid of egoism. He who does not desire anything. the sages. and also Kâsyapa. Brihaspati. met each other. who understands the creation of all entities. in the holes of which are the sprouts. and wealth. always possessed of flowers. and likewise of the castes. who are the establishers of the bridge of piety. the senses. and which is cultivated by the chief sages. and the seed of which is the Brahman. namely. and becoming wearied of their own actions. which is always possessed of leaves. which is eternal. from whom anger and vexation have departed. I will state to you. We consider knowledge only as the highest thing. . penance is the truth. O highly talented one! the true conclusion about the past. who are possessed of knowledge. in Brahman’s mansion. Therefore Brâhmanas whose final goal is always concentration of mind. and the severance also. I will state to you today. the universe consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. of which the great elements are the flower-bunches. on which all entities subsist. Accurately understanding the great (tree) of which the unperceived is the sprout from the seed. and casts off birth and death. and so forth. the gross elements the smaller boughs. Formerly. desiring knowledge. there is no doubt of that. And those twice-born (sages). the future. and from which pleasant fruits are always produced. For the truth joined with the qualities is invariably of five varieties. and understanding which talented men have here attained perfection. O you of excellent vows! By their own action they remain transcending their own source. Gautama. who was like (his) shadow. and Visvâmitra. even while dwelling in this world. the great sages. Prajâpati also is truth. and likewise Bhârgava. and Atri also. and who was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahmachârin. I will speak about those (Brâhmanas) who are restrained by one another.necessary) qualifications. The Brahman is the truth. who conducted himself in an agreeable manner. The preceptor said: All this. and cutting it with that excellent sword-knowledge – one attains immortality. saw Brahman. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. is emancipated. The learned man who perceives the abiding together. They live by penance. the present. Vasishtha. which is connected with the knowledge of the Vedas and involves a consideration of the real entity. and likewise unity and variety. which belongs to olden times. the birth and death of entities?’ What the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures. who was tranquil. the branches of which are the great egoism. and has no egoism about anything. are full of the truth. full of humility. and who are invariably devoting themselves to piety. was declared by Brahman. He who knows the truth about the qualities of nature. and piety. giving the lead to the old sage Ângirasa. the entities are born from the truth. I will speak of the four (branches of knowledge. and who are the constant creators of the people.

takes up any one of these modes of piety separately. one sees not these. next after that is that of foresters. The talented ones speak of piety as having faith for its characteristic. and of the understanding as ruler. and darkness the match of goodness. immaturity (of intellect). attains to all the spotless worlds. and which are bridges of piety. now speaking exhaustively. ignorance. fear. while one does not attain to the Adhyâtma. Its characteristic is also impiety. among all beings. It has three qualities. (the order) of the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits roots and air. and are joined to one another. Light. sleep. lightness. Passion is said to consist in activity. Light. and of the highest seat. Where passion is restrained. learn those accurately. and also all the deities. want of discrimination. finding fault with good acts. which you should understand. The order of foresters. and is called delusion. and which has been invariably traveled over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) assimilation with the Brahman. The number of the elements is celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. O noble ones! from me. and those three channels run on. . and goodness. indecision about actions. Now I shall state with accuracy and with reasons. Prajâpati. nihilism. being constituted by the three qualities. violation of (the rules of) conduct. And the talented man who understands the production and dissolution of (all) elements. everlasting. (but) having four quarters. he. Darkness should be understood to consist in obscurity. The wise always speak of piety as one. He who. of that highest path which is difficult to understand. The true nature of their characteristics. And the five constituent principles (are made up of) the three qualities. The three currents which are within this (city) support (it) again and again. and likewise serve one another. and getting rid of all bonds. the highest step must be understood to be that relating to the Adhyâtma. CHAPTER XXI Brahman said: That unperceived (principle). passion there prevails. its characteristic. and is the cause of successive (acts).distinctly. faith. grief. which depend on one another. sun. I will speak to you. it also appears combined (with others). The great self. want of liberality. air. appears to be production. O twice-born ones! of the happy path. haughtiness. and it is constant in sinful actions. as accepted by good men. which are all coupled with one another. blindness. He who accurately understands the elements. and goodness is also the match of passion. the whole of the qualities. Goodness is the match of darkness. consisting of mind as the distinguishing power. The first step is said to be the order of Brahmachârins. Darkness. eleven. Delusion. always comes in time to perceive the production and dissolution of (all) entities. Indra. rigid in his vows. which is in a state of equilibrium. of all beings. the unperceived likewise. and the five great elements. passion. and immutable. want of memory. all the elements which abide in parts in all objects. such is the eternal creation. I will subsequently state the means to that. such is stated to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among all beings. will now be stated together with the reasons. should be understood (to become) the city of nine portals. which are occupied by good and talented men by means of their actions. which is productive of pleasure. This is the nature of darkness. When it prevails. and attend on one another. and the specific characteristics of the five elements. and next after that too. and passion is the match of goodness. The order of householders is prescribed for all castes. casting aside sin. all-pervading. avarice. the ten senses and the one (sense). and likewise also egoism. is prescribed for the three twice-born (castes). space. encircled by the. Thus have I described to you the paths leading to the gods. never comes by delusion. and five constituent principles. consisting of three qualities. Learn. these are called the three qualities. in aggregation and separation. goodness there prevails. this is (an aggregate made up of) eleven. the second is that of householders. Where darkness is restrained.

wrath. and all quadrupeds. deaf and dumb men. they are all held to be dark. unfriendliness. Constant talk in disparagement of gods Brâhmanas and Vedas. fierceness and cruelty. lassitude. that one sees the real in what is unreal. stolidity. sink into darkness. The qualities of darkness have been described to you in many ways. and also creatures born from eggs. the great obscurity called anger. abuse . exercise and quarrel too. the thought (that this or that is) mine. These dark. perceives this properly? The definition of the essence of darkness is. harboring evil thoughts. doers of sinful acts. Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be the great delusion. vindictiveness. (or become) the immovable entities. the current of whose (thoughts) is downwards. and whatever others are attacked by diseases generated by sin. anger. delusion. who are sunk in darkness. pride of performance without (actual) performance. delusion. and growing old in their own duties. pleasure and pain. bonds. endurance. who bear the marks of their own actions. the great delusion. beauty. and growing old in (good) actions. want of faith also. sages and saints and gods become deluded. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). in full and accurately with reference to its nature. O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. animals. they attain to the worlds of those who perform good acts. peace. want of faith. wishing for pleasure.behavior of the lowest quality. how. to be born in the lower hell. O Brâhmanas! are celebrated as being dark. insects. And whatever other states of mind. vanity. I will now proceed to state their improvement and ascent. piercing. and vain eating. want of knowledge (of the subtle principle). all these qualities. slaughter. vanity. and also animosity towards people. animosity. are found in various places in this world. who break through (all) regulations. or deaf. backbiting. valor. by cutting. going beyond the Sûdra womb. and want of forgiveness. Injuring (others). they attain to higher and higher castes in order. they exert themselves. pride of knowledge without (actual) knowledge. thinking of (this) world. birds. and also its source. Resorting to a contrary (course of life). Learn. or lisping men. and worms. And darkness in its higher and lower (forms) has been accurately stated. There. I have now duly described to you. touching other people’s weak points. toil. desire. CHAPTER XXII Brahman said: O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. indeed. evil disposition. and through the ceremonies (performed for them) by benevolent Brâhmanas devoted to their own duties. repining. buying and selling. I will state the wombs appointed for these (men) of sinful actions. demons. (namely) the brute (species). They go to the hell. argument. want of liberality. becoming men of meritorious actions. want of forgiveness likewise. strength. want of straightforwardness. and idiots. animosity. indeed. who. and also its qualities. they go upwards to the same world (as the Brâhmanas) – the heaven of the gods. And whatever such people there are in this world. Coming to a sinful womb. vilifying. all these are dark qualities. this is considered to be dark conduct. battle. that is considered to be dark conduct. going into inferior ways. and (beyond) whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in the quality of darkness in the current (of this world). war. evilconducted men. beasts of burden. anger is called the great obscurity. breaking. as Chândâlas. sinful action. Reviling. deluded convictions. Whatever vain actions (there are). Darkness. pointing out others’ weaknesses. frenzy. Such is the Vedic text. Who. and death the blinding obscurity. this is considered to be dark conduct. want of self-restraint. preservation. they become men in this world whose nature is to return. and serpents. O Brâhmanas! this quality of darkness. affliction. want of knowledge. power. cold and heat. connected with delusion. understands this properly. and whatever vain gifts. The man who always understands these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities.

Getting rid of all sins. for articles. learning vain. and to be gods. O Brâhmanas! are described as passionate. devotion to dancing. Thus. wealth. and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death and that appertaining to this world also. and also sacrificing and study. and having gone to heaven they verily change in various ways. indifference. he attains the highest in the next world.’ affection generated by the qualities. purity. devoid of expectations. The man who always understands these qualities. those talented men reach heaven. He who possesses the piety of concentration of mind. association with women. and attachment also. and lust also – who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or the success of all their desires. They are said to have their currents upwards. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. belongings. and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. absence of cruelty. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways. self-restraint. freedom from delusion. enlightenment and happiness also. theft. laudation. they rejoice. absence of wrath. the wish ‘this may be mine and that may be mine. boasting. forgiveness. joy. and unblamable. harmlessness. and free from grief. (holding) knowledge to be vain. Confidence. absence of calumniation. these those high-souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. and the various decorations which prevail in this world. for living creatures. who are always devoted to the triad – piety. liberality. (to be) such is the eternal duty of the good. modesty. management. and labor vain. devotion. joviality. praise. all these qualities. expiations. absence of backbiting. forgiveness. They obtain and divide whatever they desire. defiance. perceive (everything) aright. and instrumental or vocal music. minuteness. O chiefs of the twice-born! have I described to you the conduct of the quality of goodness. and actions with expectations. pleasure. pleasure and delight. harboring desire. vexation. common scandal. Those talented Brâhmanas in this world. contentment. faith. salutation. by means of nature. and make Tarpana. (good) conduct vain. doubt.uttering falsehoods. CHAPTER XXIII Brahman said: Now I shall proceed to describe the third – the best – quality. abiding in the seat of the Brahman. disrespect and respect. have (their) currents downwards. who are enveloped by passion. penance vain. equability. gets rid of all passionate qualities. prowess. vows vain. and future entities in this world. obedience. gambling. service. freedom from (the notion that this or that is) mine. bad gifts. present. The power of governing. contumely. service vain. Born again and again in this world. sacrifices vain. courage. nobility. freedom from laziness. humility. unbroken piety. the duty of the good. vexing (oneself). (on another). The . and also sacrifice. Understanding this according to rule. and also want of faith. contentment. straightforwardness. absence of fear. the ceremony of Vashat. joy. for men. dexterity. the ceremony of Svadhâ. whose conduct is of this description. The men who meditate on past. righteous feelings. for women. haughtiness. one obtains whatever one desires. abandonment on all hands. piety vain. who adhere to the quality of goodness. not full of desires. receipt of gifts vain. slaughter. (holding that) gifts (are) vain. attendance. gifts and acceptance of gifts. auspicious rites. valor. life as a Brahmachârin. absence of stinginess. and for houses. and create (various) bodies. treachery and likewise deception. both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction. freedom from expectations. good behavior. They give and receive. ostentation. devoid of egoism. beneficial to all creatures. policy. heedlessness. censure. and of the quality of goodness. these men. and the various acts of public charity the ceremony of Svâhâ. purity. emancipation. equable everywhere. purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquility. wakefulness. vows and regulation. compassion to (all) creatures. truth. disgust.

and passion also. the men of the quality of darkness. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra.qualities of goodness have been specifically described. the passionate remain in the middle. that as long as there is goodness so long darkness exists. and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness. in the lower entities. CHAPTER XXIV Brahman said: The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). the unperceived. not developed. destruction. and its pure operations. passion. Even from afar. immutable. For they act with cause or without cause. there darkness should be understood to be little. but is not attached to the qualities. passion in the Kshatriya. and the enlightener. threefold are the worlds. feel the warmth. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. and its eclipse on the Parvan days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. Threefold are the gifts given. threefold the sacrifices performed. They are attached to one another. evildoers are alarmed. Darkness. freed from the body. abiding in those of the upward current. holy. The creation of the qualities is eternal. evil-doers likewise are darkness. and the Udâna. suffering trouble from the heat. The past. and being free from all misery. unborn. and the qualities. and lust. understanding the truth about (all) distinctions. years. Where darkness is increased. eternal. are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. is said to be. and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). Where passion is developed. They perform their journey together. piety. the qualities of passion are variable. Pradhâna. there passion should be understood to be little. seasons. these are the three qualities. there darkness should be understood to be little. and passion likewise to be less. the increase and diminution will now be stated. and threefold the path. There is no doubt of this. Passion. is released from all qualities. The sun is goodness developed. wealth. and the future. all that is (made of) these three qualities. The day should be understood to be threefold. the heat is the quality of passion. so long is passion said (to exist) here. in the Brâhmana. and likewise months. change. and travelers. and the heat to the travelers is said to be a property of passion. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses. abiding. and the highest. the Prâna. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. being connected with the lowest quality. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. the Apâna. moving in a body. the night is stated to be threefold. and the conjunctions. And as long as goodness and darkness. immovable. And where goodness is developed. . unperceived. enjoys the qualities. The three qualities – goodness. Among immovable entities. and moving about collectively. the present. They all depend on one another. goodness. they feed on one another. existent and also non-existent – all these. womb. and likewise follow one another. and darkness also – are always acting unperceived. The light in the sun is goodness. Of all these acting with one another. and goodness likewise to be less. So in all shining bodies. darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species. he. go down. abiding in those of the middle current. production and absorption. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up. and goodness likewise to be less. (consisting) of the three qualities. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived. and the operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. but differing in development. threefold the gods. And whatever there is in this world. constant. half-months. in union. there: exist three qualities. nature. The man who always understands these qualities. not small. darkness. goodness. threefold the (departments of) knowledge. Seeing the sun rising. unshaking. goodness.

taste. Sound. it stands pervading everything in the world. and whose senses are subdued. taste. the operations (connected with these) have causes. of universal form. By consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities. whose minds are clear. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities. who are devoid of egoism. and their name is delusion. who are not avaricious. the final dissolution approaches. who are constant at concentration of mind. Caused by the production of avarice. and as that from which the changes take place. and likewise cognition. and are dissolved in the reverse order. That great self is signified by these synonymous terms – the great self. the understanding. ancient being. means of knowledge. It is a deity. O talented one! a great danger for all living beings arises. the great self. the supporter of consciousness. air. CHAPTER XXVI Brahman said: That Mahat which was first produced. it is said to be the first creation. and light as the fifth. it is the creator of the three worlds. who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. touch. That which feels thus – ‘I am all this’ – is called (by) that (name). not different from one another. Brahma. Then when every entity. creatures are deluded. Minuteness. is (afterwards) called egoism. inexhaustible. heads. It has hands and feet on all sides. and insignificant. the light. intelligence. creates (them). The being of great power is stationed in the heart of all. at the termination of the destruction of the great elements. and smell as the fifth. and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. color. who are true to their promises. and likewise color. who practice meditation. memory. the transcendent. in the operations of (perceiving) sound. it causes all this to move. attain greatness. verily. the valiant. and are inconstant. when it is born as (the feeling itself) I. who are talented. who are possessed of knowledge. and golden. CHAPTER XXVII Brahman said: From egoism.CHAPTER XXV Brahman said: From the unperceived was first produced the great self of great intelligence. the source of all qualities. these being emancipated. it has eyes. space. the Prajâpati. the producer of the entities. it likewise charms the world. the talented men who possess a (good) memory are not dissolved at all. means of perception. Knowing that (great self). and who are always possessed of a good heart. That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self. who have pondered on the self. he is the governor. Now people who comprehend the understanding. a learned Brâhmana comes not by delusion. has been dissolved. Sambhu. movable or immovable. courage. it is that from which the people are produced. it is full of light. And he who thus knows the lord lying in the cave. They are born one from the other. the highest goal of those possessed of understanding. touch. and faces on all sides. that talented man. he among all people comes not by delusion. and thus that source of all entities. water. The self-existent Vishnu is the Lord in the primary creations. In these five great elements. When. abides transcending the understanding. who have subdued wrath. the producer of the deities. and of the mind. and by its own light. and smell. connected with . that from which the changes take place. Every entity is dissolved into that from which it is produced. were the five great elements born – earth. (the power of) obtaining (everything) (are his). And the talented man who understands that high and holy goal. Vishnu. lightness. that is said to be the second creation.

and the presiding deity there is the sun. This is said to be the . as connected with the self it is the nose. There are three seats for all entities – a fourth is not possible – land. the tongue. excluded from the self. As connected with the self. As connected with the self. The Prâna and the Apâna. and the organ of generation. as connected with objects likewise it is smell. and depending upon one another. tongue. who perceive the truth. Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. as connected with the self it is called the ear. as connected with objects that which is to be understood. The fourth (entity) should be understood to be water. the cause of the whole course of worldly life. they mention the understanding impelling the six senses. as connected with objects it is taste. it is known as the skin as connected with the self. those born from germs. self-consciousness. he attains to that holy Brahman than which nothing greater exists. the organ of excretion. and worms of the like description. mind. as connected with objects it is excretion. water. likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound. and speech are restrained. And the (mode of) birth is fourfold. And all the rest are without distinction connected with action. The Apâna wind. Insects are said to be born from perspiration. and together with speech. the mind is the eleventh. the Udâna. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. as connected with the self it is called the tongue. and those born from wombs – such is the fourfold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Brahman. The fifth entity is earth. as connected with objects (it is) the object of touch. and the presiding deity there is Soma. and whose mind is pure. as connected with the self. and five the organs of action. The second entity is air. Thus are the five entities stated to be divided among the three. these five winds are also joined to the inner self.flesh and blood. as connected with objects it is the mental operation. the feet are mentioned by Brâhmanas. and the presiding deity there is Prajâpati. the two hands. O twice-born ones! I will describe specifically. The third (entity) is said to be light. the presiding deity there is Vishnu. the presiding deity there is the Moon. and understanding unswerving. the motion of which is downward. and the understanding is the twelfth. and the presiding deity there is Mitra. and space. Those should be understood to be born from eggs. is speech which relates to all the gods. the producer of all beings. and the presiding deity there is lightning. The mind should be understood to be among both. those born from perspiration. Understanding these. the skin. and the presiding deity there is the wind. Five (of these) are called the organs of perception. Then first. the two feet. which are stated as having been produced from egoism – these. as connected with objects it is the semen. as connected with objects it is actions. ear. next as connected with objects (it is) color. The ear. and the presiding deity there is fire. learned men think they have accomplished (everything). The five beginning with the ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. and understanding make the eight constituents of the universe. as connected with objects it is motion. these are helpless and powerless. He whose skin. and the Vyâna also. Space is the first entity. As connected with the self they mention the mind. such is the group of organs. nose. the nose also as the fifth. the Samâna. eye. as connected with objects it is what is spoken. is called the organ of excretion. as also all reptiles. then the Brahman shines (before him). Likewise (there is) egoism. the presiding deity there is Rudra. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. and whose mind is never burnt by these eight fires. which follows after the five entities. Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those moving in the air. Men who understand the Adhyâtma speak of the two hands as connected with the self. Those born from eggs. This group one should subdue first. as connected with the self. and the presiding deity there is Indra. as connected with objects. and speech as the tenth. I will now proceed to state all the various organs. And the eleven organs. the two eyes. As connected with the self the generative organ is mentioned. as connected with the self it is called the eye.

which has nine passages and two deities. this same (body). and which is full of the Brahman. Space is the first entity. which is surrounded by the five currents. and is sanctifying. The third is called light. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the ear. and released from everything.) the senses. as connected with objects it is the object of touch. so the great self shines forth through the restraint of the senses. and hold them by the mind. having his cravings destroyed. unfit to be seen. the hideous holder of the mud is earth. then being self-illumined. pleased with contacts. (namely) sacrifice. curtail it. (viz. the pleasures of (worldly) life are not esteemed. The world. Thus have I accurately described to you the creation as connected with the (individual) self. Action should be understood to be of various descriptions. and full of delusion. for (every one) who is born. as connected with objects likewise it is called sound. made up of three qualities and of three constituent elements. too. as connected with objects it should be understood to be taste. When everything is absorbed into the mind. should cast it aside.second (mode of) birth. Such is the doctrine of the learned. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the nose. and than which there is nothing higher. becomes possessed of concentration of mind. that he is released from all sins. The fire of the Adhyâtma is kindled in a sage by his abandoning the country. as connected with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the eye. The learned (men) whose understandings are possessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived from that. When one with a tranquil self perceives all entities in one’s own heart. is ever happy. Now I shall proceed to describe that discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and hard. Those beings. as connected with objects likewise it is called smell. and restrain it. and likewise the sound is space. which is full of passion. he becomes fit for assimilation with the Brahman. and the five great elements. and the presiding deity there is the quarters. It is settled. O chief of the twice-born! and know. as connected with the (individual) self it is stated to be the tongue. as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. Understand about them also. He who duly understands this. which is difficult to move in this mortal world. which is pervaded by disease and sorrow. and friendly and affectionate to all beings. O ye who understand piety! is here obtained by those who possess knowledge. . the flowing (element) water. together with the immortals. and the feeling of touch is air. fearful and unfathomable. bursting through the earth. the presiding deity there is Soma. The fourth should be understood to be water. which is made up of the five elements. the presiding deity there is Vâyu. O best of the twiceborn! Beings of two feet or more than two feet. which produces attachment to subtle (topics). It is a great ocean. The learned man who absorbs objects of desire from all sides. As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great blaze. and sacred study. A knowledge of this. One should place all these together. and is named delusion. which are born after the lapse of some time. that the body in which the color is fire. and who is devoid of passion. is the very wheel of time which rotates in this world. is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate. and which rests on the real (entity). Such is the teaching of the ancients. gift at a sacrifice. the objects of the senses. and being concentrated in mind. as connected with the (individual) self it is called the skin. The (mode of) conduct in which qualities are not (treated as) qualities. The second entity is air. and those which move crookedly. however. the presiding deity there is the sun. and the presiding deity there is the lightning. and by the restraint of all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. are the beings born from wombs. O best of men! The eternal seat (where) the Brahman (is to be attained) should be understood to be twofold-penance and meritorious action. one attains to that which is subtler than (the most) subtle (thing). in which one lives alone. The fifth element is earth. which is free from attachment. are said to be born from germs. Restraining objects of desire within the self. which is uninterrupted. next as connected with objects it is color. and inferior.

The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the king of kings over all. and Pitris. and the moon among the Nakshatras. concentrating the mind within the mind. he sees the self with the self in all entities as one. among cattle also the bull. and the creator. who am full of the Brahman. And he who in this world has vanquished the three qualities and the five constituent elements. and Rakshasas. and . Understand him to be the ruler. among all sacrificial animals the sheep. demons. Purandara of (all) deities. the Sveta. the Trikûtavat. sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies. Likewise the Maruts are (the princes) among the Ganas. the Pâriyâtra. treachery. and also gods. and among females a male. He is the lord whose faces are in all directions. these are the princes among mountains. and likewise the Mâlyavat mountain. and Indra is said to be (the king) of the Maruts. the Nîla. CHAPTER XXVIII Brahman said: Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle quality. the creator. Crossing the river of which the five senses are the lofty banks. The Nyagrodha. Agni. he then perceives that highest (principle). and great. and Brâhmanas are the bridges of piety. and among the dwellers in holes the snake. For he is the ruler of men. ever extol. changing from time to time. and Mitra. and the bands of Rakshasas. likewise. Yama is the prince among the Pitris. Understanding everything. Arka is the king of hot (bodies). and Varuna. Among all those who are followed by (men) full of desires. which are difficult to get rid of. and likewise the Sâlmali.Desire. and likewise the bamboo and willow. and go into wrong paths after death. of gods. Vishnu is the chief among the strong. Among women who are (a source of) happiness. the good do get rid of by restraint of the senses. and Prajâpati. the agitation of mind the mighty waters. (am lord). these are the princes among trees in this world. He verily is Vishnu. Him. and Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures. and among all vipras the powerful king Soma. obtains the highest – the infinite-seat in heaven. among vehicles the elephant. lose all their qualifications. the brilliant Apsaras (are chief). and also all the great sages. Know the goddess Umâ to be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. avarice. and of all entities whatever I. Understand this. Tvashtri is the prince of the Rudras. and attain the infinite (seat) after death. and the bands of Bhûtas. snakes. and the Koshthavat mountain. likewise. and delusion the reservoir. and Nâgas. Non-destruction is the highest piety. the Jambu. of Gandharvas. one should vanquish both desire and wrath. and demons. wrath. and Yakshas. and Yakshas. the Sinsapâ. there is no doubt of that. and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. Kubera (is lord) of all jewels. Soma is the lord of herbs. the sun is the prince among the planets. who has beautiful eyes. the uncreated Hari. Kinnaras. and seeing the self within the self. (all these). and also as various. (In him) the great self – the heart of all beings – is resplendent. fear. O chiefs of the twice-born! I shall now proceed to state the invariable characteristics of piety. Therefore a king should always endeavor to protect the twice-born. and the Meshasringa. There is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. Prajâpati (is lord) of all peoples. the Vindhya. the Guruskandha. the Bhâsa. and Pisâkas. the Sahya. the Mahendra. Kings desire piety. (the chief) is the great goddess Mâhesvarî. Varuna is the king of the waters. But those highsouled kings in whose dominions good men are protected. rejoice in this world. The Himavat. He is the supporter. Freed from all sins. and birds. and Maghavat likewise of the gods. and the ocean among rivers. the Pippala. Such is the highest creation among all entities. She is called Pârvatî. Those kings in whose dominions good men lie low. and falsehood also. He can always perceive (numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one light. and among denizens of the forest the lion. all companies of Brâhmanas. Fire is ever the lord of the elements. the north among the quarters. and Brihaspati of Brâhmanas.

words are the characteristic of speech refined into vowels and consonants. And all the quarters residing in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) to the knowledge of sound. to be created and tied down to a beginning. the essence of water. a determination is here formed by (that) understanding about objects which have been thought over by the mind. then enters into the Kshetrajña. to the truth. and that is comprehended by the ear. and hear it.destruction is of the nature of impiety. who resides in the tongue. To (this) positive comprehension. and knowledge. the supporter of all beings. abandoning qualities. The characteristic of mind is meditation. do not know themselves. and transcending the qualities. and having his sins destroyed. he is the Supreme Lord. and about the means for its comprehension. Enlightenment is the characteristic of gods. And the Kshetrajña likewise perceives all the operations of the qualities. The characteristic of devotion is action. know. which is void of symbols. the Nakshatras Sravana as the first (among them). I will now proceed to explain properly the comprehension of the qualities. verily. Thought is the quality of mind. which is in its essence devoid of qualities and eternal. is appointed to the knowledge of taste. and the seasons the winter as the first (among them). The earth is the source of . As to the smell of the earth. The quality of space is sound. the unperceived (is appointed). transcendent. and that is comprehended by the understanding. belonging to the air. The Kshetrajña. there is no doubt of that. and the characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived. The (sensation of) touch. The supporter of consciousness residing in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind. Taste. And I always see. and homeless. Only the Kshetrajña attains. giving prominence to knowledge. CHAPTER XXIX Brahman said: I will state truly all about that which has a beginning. is not to be comprehended by any symbols. The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra in which the qualities are produced and absorbed. (else) attains. in this world. action the characteristic of men. It is stated that day was first and then night. is perceived by the skin. Likewise as to what is described here as understanding. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshetrajña. The understanding (is comprehended in the form of) determination. the characteristic of earth. The quality of light is color. together with names and characteristics. Therefore a man of understanding should practice renunciation. and the Mahat of knowledge. the characteristic of renunciation. The qualities created again and again. is smell. the characteristic of mind is thought. and the creation. middle. and the wind likewise residing in the nose is a pointed to the knowledge of smell. that months have the bright first. middle. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. And crossing beyond darkness. free from the ceremony of salutations. (the sensation of) touch is the characteristic of air. color is the characteristic of light. sound is the characteristic of space. no one. and the sun residing in the eye is appointed always to the knowledge of color. who is unmoving. And the moon likewise. and end. and from the svâhâ ceremony. and transcending death and old age. which is great. The renouncer possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. is always comprehended by the tongue. he repairs to that which has no second. and that is comprehended by the eye. therefore is he called Kshetrajña. Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the characteristic of piety. and end. is the Kshetrajña. And there is no doubt of this that determination is the characteristic of the understanding. that is comprehended by the nose. taste is the characteristic of water. Hence a man who understands piety. and the wind residing in the skin is always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) of touch. The Purusha knows it. (though) concealed. and beyond the qualities and the entities (produced) from the qualities. being nonintelligent. is purely knowledge.

selfexistent Vishnu is stated to be my own self. which moves in the midst of disease and misfortune. a wheel of which the spoke is the understanding. whose senses are subjugated. gift. Sâvitrî of all branches of learning. Dânavas. . the goat is mentioned (as the first). and Yakshas. which is lit up by the great egoism. the rotations of which (constitute) day and night. which is ever revolving and void of consciousness. Îsvara is the lord.smells. Among all things to be eaten or swallowed food is the highest. and among all reptiles. there is no doubt of that. there is no doubt of that. water is the best. Of all orders. all this ends in destruction. too. The unperceived is the source of the worlds. of which the outer rim is the five great elements. the wind is stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch. the ever holy field of Brahman. observances. Of all mountains. is the source of the entire universe. of which the environment is home. Now I shall proceed to state the highest and first of all entities. there is no doubt of that. Likewise the Gangâ going in three paths is stated to be the first-born among rivers. and regulations. and among vegetable (products) likewise the barley seed. who is devoid of egoism. The great Vishnu. study. which moves through (all) the worlds. of all words. And the unthinkable. Prajâpati of deities. the mud for which is penance and regulations. whatever is prescribed in this world. Sacrifice. is stated to be the first. water of tastes. which is enveloped in the fearful waters of delusion. The Syena is first among birds. is everchanging. that of householders (is the first). and Rakshasas. the fastenings in which are vexations. There is no end for knowledge. And among all quarters and sub-quarters. of which the bonds are the group of the senses. These are the qualities of the elements. the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction. all ascents end in falls. and than whom there is no higher being in these three worlds. the offering (into the fire) is the best. likewise. which is measured by months and half months. I. snakes. Bhûtas. The Gâyatrî is the first among meters. gold (is the first). the noise of which is trouble and toil. all that is called Sâvitrî. and the twice-born among men. Pisâkas. the night ends with (the sun’s) rising. O best of the twice-born! the snake is the highest. fire is said to be the first of the elements. without distinction. Cows are the first among quadrupeds. among sacrifices. who is devoid of (the idea that this or that is) mine. All accumulations end in exhaustion. and of men. the end of pleasure is ever grief. which staggers in the opening or closing of an eyelid. all associations end in dissociations. The sun is the first among shining bodies. who is full of the Brahman. which rotates in space and time. And among all immovable entities. is released from all sins by pure knowledge. the end of grief ever pleasure. which is full of actions and instruments of action. and hunger and thirst the nails fixed into it. (am the first) among all the patriarchs. the ocean is the first-born. Among all precious things. Therefore one whose self is tranquil. CHAPTER XXX Brahman said: The wheel of life moves on. among (sacrificial) animals. and life ends in death. the syllable Om of all the Vedas. Days end with (the sun’s) setting. which is encircled with cold and heat of which pleasure and pain are the joints. (everything) movable or immovable in this world is ever transient. and the Prâna lifewind. And likewise of all wells and reservoirs of water. the mover of which is the force of the quality of passion. the light (of) the sun is the source of colors. penance. of which sunshine and shade are the ruts. death is certain for whatever is born. which abounds in old age and grief. and the same is also the end of everything. And of all gods. Kinnaras. which is sustained by the qualities. likewise space is the source of sound. Of all ages the Krita is the first. All action ends in destruction. the eastern quarter is the first. the Plaksha. and of all liquid substances which are to be drunk. of which the pole is the mind.

and equable to all creatures. or of cotton. which is produced by ignorance of various (matters) which is attended upon by fear and delusion. with the permission of the preceptor. he should have matted hair. who is self-restrained. and be of pure vows. which is rendered unsteady by avarice and desire. one should perform the five sacrifices in this world. this has been celebrated from ancient times. and also the beggar. the imperishable source (of all). and which is extended by means of attachments. who applies himself to what is agreeable and beneficial to the preceptor. One should always have the sacred thread and a clean cloth. the speed of which is like that of the mind. and who understands the Vedas. conquers heaven. There should also be a girdle of muñga. should be kind. or a cloth entirely (dyed with) reddish color. to such a one the (word) good applies. and should stand. who is not thoughtlessly active with the hand or foot. which is made up of (the entities) beginning with the Mahat and ending with the gross elements. should. the sage who understands piety. should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings. and should give and receive gifts. who is thus devoted. is never deluded. who is devoted to Vedic rites. should avoid heedlessness. who always accurately understands the movement and stoppage of the wheel of life. all these four orders are stated to have the order of householder for their basis. and take exercise (duly). being (born) in a caste of (high) qualifications. released from all impressions. kind. And as to the other remaining three duties. and which is the cause of the delusion of all beings. one who is devoted to his own duty and learned. The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of linen. and constant in veracity and piety. should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming clean and with a concentrated (mind). – (thus) one should adopt the sixfold mode of life. which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances. one should restrain one’s lust and hunger. Know that three (of these) duties are the means of livelihood for Brâhmanas. Always devoted to his own wife. the two teaching and officiating at sacrifices. (That) sage. and should always bear a staff of the Bilva or Palâsa (wood). and check. who duly performs sacrifices and gifts according to his means. and keep a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water. possessed of forgiveness. and full of faith. study. and alms.which is large. and sacrifice. should likewise perform sacrifices and officiate at others’ sacrifices. and which is devoid of consciousness. in the way above stated. abridge. The householder. which is associated with the pairs of opposites. and the Brahmachârin. and likewise always (carry) water (with him). all the world. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. That man among all creatures. The Brâhmana householder. The sage who eats what remains after (offerings) to deities and guests. He who has been first refined by ceremonies. behaving like good men. take food without decrying it. and who is not thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his limbs. and should always associate with good men. and released from all sins. This wheel of life. transcending all pairs of opposites. together with the immortals should cast away. With regard to those three duties. who is a sage with all his senses restrained. should behave like the good. which moves towards joy and pleasure. CHAPTER XXXI Brahman said: Thus duly studying to the best of his power. with his senses restrained. should return (from his preceptor’s house). and also receiving untainted gifts. One should learn and teach. or also a deerskin. discharging all these duties as much as is in his power. they are pious duties. and which is (never) fatigued. and who has duly observed vows. Whatever system of rules is prescribed in this world. and self-restrained. attains the highest goal. and with one’s external organs restrained. making gifts. who is pure. gift. who is of rigid vows. who is not thoughtlessly active with the eye. which is unchecked. the forester. and have his sacred . sit. to follow it is good.

he should not taste any articles of food which have been eaten by others. he may dwell in one place. his path being pointed out by the sun. He should not wish for earnings in common with another. always dexterous. He should move about the world like a worm. and reaching the highest seat. and restrained in all his senses. astringent. or a Brahmachârin. freedom from anger. and devoted to veracity and piety. And the man who understands final emancipation should verily do all acts which he has to do. and he should walk with circumspection over the earth out of compassion to all beings. and which have come spontaneously. addicted to sacred study. And with his senses restrained. or a river likewise. and should also give them shelter at (the proper) time. always with clean water. be engaged in sacred study. air. eating little. He should not make any accumulations. and should eschew dwelling with friends. always making offerings likewise of pure water to satisfy the deities. kind. who is concentrated in mind. should not enter a town again. He should without sloth feed on water. does not return to birth. full of forgiveness. He should always practice a sinless (mode of) conduct. or bitter. One who understands final emancipation should seek for a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures. and likewise living as a Brahmachârin. A householder. the sage should become free from all action. and free from attachment should always make one who comes (as a guest) take a morsel of food. He should honor guests. in accordance with the (regulations at his) initiation. He should eat just enough for livelihood – for the support of life. nor should he eat when honored. When eating. and of rigid observances. conquers heaven. he should bathe (every) morning and evening. or again a forester. and likewise no sweet juices. pure in body. He should not parade (his) piety. One who is thus devoted.thread. in order. he should go about for alms with a concentrated mind. and all forest-products down to grass as they come. a sage who has renounced (all) should go out of towns and dwell in forests. Restraining the external senses. Offering safety to all beings. and be agreeable to all beings. A man should always bathe in clean water. or the cavern of a mountain. seeking merely to sustain life. or which are pungent. and always living within the forest. Refined by means of all ceremonies. preserving his hair and moustache. He should also eat always after the deities and guests (are satisfied) and with his speech restrained. and when he goes about for alms. always in forests. and should not . And he should always without sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. or the foot of a tree. and should not be dejected if he does not obtain (alms). and continent. restraint of the external organs. and concentrated in mind. and also straightforwardness. being restrained in mind. he should devote himself to these eight observances – harmlessness. And he should eat (only) what has been obtained with piety. (Such) a Brahmachârin. fruits. he should move about in a secluded place. – a forester whose senses are subdued and who is thus devoted conquers the worlds. and free from avarice. One who understands final emancipation should seek to obtain alms after the cleaning of the vessels (used for cooking). (he should pass) but a single night in a town. life as a Brahmachârin. looking out for the (proper) time. performing sacrifices. He should eat just enough for his livelihood – for the support of life. Nor should he beg for too much alms. and should not rejoice if he obtains. having a mind free from envy. and depending on the deities. not deceptive and not crooked. is esteemed. living on fruits and leaves. veracity. and in the rains. for an ascetic should be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with honor. Eating only a little. who wishes to apply himself to final emancipation should adopt the best (line of) conduct. and roots and Syâmâka grain. or a forest. In summer. in a place free from smoke and where people have already eaten. he should not go following after another. and habitual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. by (giving him) water accompanied with roots. He should honor a guest who comes. Wearing a skin or the bark of a tree. He should make a fire and feed on the alms (obtained) without asking and without trouble. kind. and leaves. free from passion. freedom from (the habit of) carping. He should resort for shelter to an empty house.

He should perform piety. One who knows the truth. nor penance. nor valor. who is free from attachments to any entity. a wise man should always share (with others). who is free from egoism. without a head. depending on none. or the mind. He should not accept anything at all other than food and clothing. Nor. mind. untainted. and also devoid of sound. or by speech. He who is trusted by all beings is said to be the foremost among those who understand final emancipation. and who is free from salutations. which is free from the operations of the qualities. Freed from all attachments. . nor worlds. who is free from expectations. and the five great elements. and stable. nor should one wish for gold. being released from all bonds. which is free from anxiety. The senses. behaving so that others would always disrespect him. pebbles likewise. should not teach. One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs. and should be void of (all) belongings. one should disregard the present. nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. water. and the Purusha likewise. not finding fault with piety. nor the senses. nor should one be perturbed by any other (person). flowers. any action involving expectation of fruit. by an accurate determination about the truth. devoid of smell. and without fixed appointments with people. or the assemblage of people. Though undeluded. One should not think of what is not come. and who understands the truth. Rejecting all things. always dwelling in all entities. one attains heaven. they never die. He should not defile anything by the eye. Therefore the learned man who knows (the) property of being void of symbols. nor reflect on that which is past. or back. and who is dependent on none. and which is also devoid of flesh. who is free from desires. understanding these same (entities) at the time of the termination (of his life). or cause to be performed. nor Vedas. There the understanding reaches not. Those who perceive the self. nor should he ever give to others. like the atmosphere dwelling in space. And he should accept as much as he eats and no more. One should not live by the occupation of an artisan. and then. and self-controlled. and who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. devoid of taste or touch. there is no doubt of that. and being equable to all beings. understanding. imperishable. is emancipated. One should not perform. and resorting to concealed piety should adopt the mode of life (necessary) for experience. which is unattached. nor the deities.follow his own (mere) desire. absolute. after understanding all these. He should not receive from others. and free from distress. the attainment to it of those who are possessed of knowledge is stated to be without comprehension of symbols. divine. foot. sacrifices. and understanding are absorbed. with his accumulations exhausted. he gets emancipation. the unperceived. he should act in the manner of the deluded. who is attached to the self. One should eat what is consecrated by faith. That sage is said to be the best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. One should not perturb any other (person). devoid of color. He should not appropriate another’s riches. should be free from attachment. one should become an ascetic with small belongings. being concentrated (in mind) and indifferent to time. and in whom the senses. which is to be understood. and should not take (anything) unasked. who understands all truth. who is free from the pairs of opposites. who is free from anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old acquisitions. after enjoying any object should one become afterwards attached to it. and fruits which are not secured (by anybody). without a stomach. he attains to the highest seat. and though dwelling in a house. exclusively pondering on one point. or involving any destruction of life. egoism. One who has anything to do should take earth. and mind. which is without hands. and should not find fault with the ways of the good. and should avoid (all) controversies. should act without a purpose. as they come. verily. One should not hate. should meditate. and leaves. and the objects of the senses. But owing to the helplessness of people. and from the ceremony of svâhâ. being devoted to pious conduct. moving and unmoving.

even for (the space of) a wink. is emancipated. and understand the Brahman and wish for the supreme. The men of talent. of unthinkable qualities. association and dissociation. There are these two birds. devoid of qualities. developed from the qualities. becomes fit for immortality. (correct) conduct is the means to piety. is emancipated. attains to that everlasting (principle) which is free from the pairs of opposites. free from (the ceremony of) svadhâ. (which are) unchanging. He who desires nothing. Abandoning all action. He who even for (the space of) a (single) exhalation. and devoid of qualities. is released from misery. The learned man who perceives. death. and abandoning both truth and falsehood. who are pure. Cutting and piercing this (tree) with the sword of knowledge of the truth. The great tree of Brahman is eternal. then understanding the Kshetra. and old age. and some (think of) the Brahman as unperceived. But as to that other who is above them. and transcending the qualities he is released from all sins. and renunciation the best penance. and despises nothing. whose collection of boughs is the great egoism. and abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment. which cause birth. a wise man who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. becomes eligible. and which should also be known to be unintelligent. and being untainted. there is no doubt of that. Penance is said to be a light. Restraining the self in the self. some (think of) the Brahman as a great forest. he is called intelligent. there is no doubt of that. at the time of the termination (of life) becomes equable. whether agreeable or disagreeable. transcending passion. for assimilation with the Brahman. even dwelling in this world. go to the happy path by penance. and they think all this to be produced from and absorbed into the unperceived. knowledge verily should be understood to be the highest. perceive that supreme (principle) by means of knowledge and penance. understands that which is beyond nature. there is no doubt of that. and who is devoid of egoism. devoid of knowledge of nature. and (the attainment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge. by tranquility only. everlasting. it is free from the pairs of opposites. and whose minds are refined. he is laid down (as being able) to move everywhere. and understands the Pradhâna of all entities. who is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine. and free from egoism. he repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition of those who have knowledge. attaining to the self. through the tranquility of the self. One who is free from the pairs of opposites. in which agreeable and disagreeable fruits are always produced. which is always possessed of leaves. and likewise unity and diversity. He who understands determinately the self which is unperturbed. and which is the essential element in knowledge. a tree which is produced from the unperceived as the seed. and the Brâhmanas dwelling in the seat of the Brahman understand knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman. always possessed of flowers. He who knows the truth about the qualities of Pradhâna. Those who are constantly devoted to renunciation. the sprouts within which are the senses.CHAPTER XXXII Brahman said: The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call renunciation penance. and (as it were) non-intelligent. And restraining the life-winds again and again . and some as transcendent and without misery. CHAPTER XXXIII Brahman said: Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree. (When) the inner self. free from the (ceremonies of) salutation. and which is fed upon by all creatures. and the side branches the objects of sense. a creature is emancipated. the great branches of which are the great elements. The highest Brahman is very far off. and with an understanding comprehending all. which consists of the understanding as its trunk. which abides in all entities. and supreme.

and (others) that it exists not. equability. and others tranquility. too. The preceptor said: Then those Brâhmanas. and others say that is not so. straightforwardness. and others that that is not so. other Brâhmanas (say) sacrifice. and others (that it is) mixed. and others. knowledge. Thus addressed by those Brâhmanas. O best of the twice-born! Forgiveness. but others extol penance. and some given up to destruction. holy. and some for pain. By inference we understand the (attainment to the) being to depend on goodness. of ten or twelve (modes). others are intent on fasting. courage.by control of the life-winds. O best of the gods! piety being thus confused and abounding in contradictions. some knowledge. believe it to be one. Some (say) everything is doubtful. be obtains whatever he desires. and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. Between the gnat and the udumbara there is observed unity and diversity also. some are for merit and glory. and also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) conduct of the quality of goodness. and renunciation. Unity and diversity are likewise laid down. Some Brâhmanas. some say that is not so. this is good. the venerable. Be pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) mysterious. others distinct. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Some have matted hair and skins. People are acting. That they are always distinct (from one another) is also (said) without (due) consideration. It is not possible otherwise to attain to that being. who know the Brahman and perceive the truth. such is their relation. that fits one for immortality. The men of knowledge extol nothing else beyond goodness. (such is) the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of the lotus. others that that is not so. and what is the cause of the connection between the Kshetrajña and nature. And. Some (say it is) of one form or twofold. assert the unity of the Kshetrajña and nature. Some extol everything. some various kinds of enjoyments. But that is not correct. Thus having first a tranquil self. Some are for taking food. CHAPTER XXXIV The sages said: Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most worthy of being performed? We observe the various modes of piety to be as it were contradictory. some are in the midst of doubts. Some people (say) meditation. Some (say) means should be resorted to. and others nothing. (saying) this is good. O best (of beings)! to be informed of what is good. we are deluded. too. Some are devoted to goodness. By this very inference the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as one. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks down. some are for pleasure. (he repairs to) that which is beyond the twenty-four. and our mind is distracted. who are devoted to knowledge. Some people are for bathing. and come to no determination. gifts. Distinction and also association should be accurately understood. and other persons sacred study. some wish for riches. having again felt doubts. and talented creator of worlds told them accurately (what they asked). As a fish is in water distinct (from it). always esteems that. nature. truth. Some extol final emancipation. who were the best of sages. that it exists. harmlessness. some for the omission of bathing. and those who ponder on the element. there is no doubt of that. and others again (that it is) manifold. When the quality of goodness predominates in the unperceived. abandonment. We wish. Some are devoted to harmlessness. And he who is attached to a certain (form of) piety. Some say (it remains) after the body (is destroyed). and others indigence. Some say both time and space (exist). and others. interrogated the grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. . and others that there is no doubt. Some learned men. Some say the permanent (principle) is impermanent. Some people extol action.

but the flame is extinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. being born again and again. and who knows about the qualities. and having crossed (it) goes to the other shore. Nature which is non-intelligent knows nothing. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. For a man to see within (his) self what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him is good. And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances (his) happiness even with a fourth share. such is the progress of the men of understanding. and who entertain avarice and delusion. comprehending the gradations one above the other. throwing aside the boat. But those wise and talented men. travels with great discomfort. This is the highest seat. And as one who is devoid of a perception of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way unseen before. undoubtedly wishes for destruction. and is connected with (all) knowledge. and in essence free from the qualities. that by action the fruit is or is not produced. And those who are constantly engaged in destruction. and soon crosses the reservoir. Now I will proceed to. Even brought into contact with all qualities. though it is the object of enjoyment. Hearing it all. and to be constituted of the qualities. while (another) goes by the same way in a carriage drawn by horses. O Brâhmanas! Well now. go verily to hell. As far as there is a carriage-path. As a man traveling along some way without provisions for the journey. Having climbed up a mountain one should not look at the surface of the earth. free from any connection with expectations. where the carriage-path stops. This has been already explained by the parallel of the . and void of intelligence. Understand this. While there is oil and wick. For the talented man who knows (these) means. afflicted by reason of the chariot. the being is laid down (as being) unperceived. And the relation of the two is like that of matter and the maker. and going swiftly. devoid of parts. and nature is stated to be the object. state how the association and dissociation of Kshetrajña and nature (take place). free from vexation and holy in character. Thus nature is perceived. rejoice in this world. a learned man remains untainted. He abides in everything alike. and devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. that is deemed to be the greatest duty. The ancients who perceived the established (truth) call knowledge the highest happiness. Thus should one understand the accomplishment of piety by (apt) means. so should one understand. Learn that. as (having the relation) of the gnat and the udumbara. perceive correctly. through delusion. attains supreme happiness. The subject is always the being. O best (of men)! The relation here is said to be that between the object and subject. he goes in the carriage. who understands the procedure respecting (knowledge of the) truth and devotion. As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking a light (with him). So travels the talented man. It is established that nature is the property of the being. while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions and having a boat with good oars. who perform actions with faith. O best (of men)! Learn what a preceptor told a pupil who went to him. As one who without a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released from all sins. the Kshetrajña is free from the pairs of opposites.CHAPTER XXXV Brahman said: Well then. Non-destruction of all creatures. I will tell you something more. There is no doubt that the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop of water placed upon a lotus-leaf. and who are infidels in their conduct. One who has a bad understanding does not acquire knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). and may even be destroyed on the way. I will declare to you what you ask of me. and he always enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. a learned man goes on abandoning the carriage. goes in the water without fatigue. Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of opposites. One sees a man traveling in a chariot. the light shines. deliberate on it properly. It has been explained in the above mode. Who enjoys and what is enjoyed is learnt from the Sâstras. so those who wish for the supreme go with the light of nature.

– thus should smell. and grey likewise. so does it result to them. glutinous. I will speak at length of the numerous qualities of sound. and are conversant with piety. the great elements. thus is light said to have three qualities. square. Taste is stated to be of numerous descriptions. sour. and above that understanding is the self. Rough. and smell as the fifth – these. red likewise. who are conversant with piety and perceive the truth. and smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. touch. O best of the twice-born! should be understood to be the five qualities of earth. and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. green. And likewise one cannot move in water after entering a carriage. and of the elements respectively. slippery. is of four qualities. a development of the unperceived is the Mahat. sour. it is said that light has three qualities. and color likewise. and saltish likewise – thus are the forms of taste. which is produced in space. broad. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a product also again and again. who speak the truth. black. air is said to have two qualities. Smell is agreeable or disagreeable. yellow. The quality of light is color. and color is stated to be of numerous descriptions. Thus sound. Madhyama. and above the unperceived is the being. abounding with movables and immovables. should be understood to be of five qualities. sharp. Sound. Space is the highest element. and also productive in its essence. cold and hot likewise. smooth. to be of twelve descriptions. touch. Now space has one quality. Thus there are various actions in regard to different objects. above that is the unperceived. that is called the Pradhâna. air is said to have (these) two qualities. and taste. namely. sweet. adheres to that like a fisherman to his boat. One who knows which is superior and inferior among entities. And touch is the quality of air. Smell always belongs to the earth. and circular-thus is the color of light said to be of twelve forms. Learn about their properties. Sweet.carriage and pedestrian. be understood to be of ten descriptions. short long. and who identifies himself with every being. and clear also. Now space has one quality. said to be of six descriptions. The unperceived is of the nature of seed. full of examples of agreeable and disagreeable (things). and bitter likewise. hard. together with Gândhâra. which belongs to the earth. which is a development of water. soft. Sound. are stated to be the qualities of water. and earth. I will now give (some) information about taste. repairs to the imperishable self. astringent. It should be understood by aged Brâhmanas. Shadga. but they do not yield products. and likewise color. objects of sense are verily stated to be the development. diffusive and compact also. and a development of the Pradhâna (when it is) become Mahat is egoism. being overcome by (the thought that this or that is) mine. The objects of the five elements are of the nature of seed. hurtful. which is void of any smell whatever. It is not possible to move on land after embarking in a boat. bitter. egoism is above that. And the five great elements are verily of the nature of seed and products. and who knows the proper procedure in all actions. That which sages by their understanding meditate upon. narrow. tender and clear also. color likewise. touch. White. One who has come by delusion through affection. void of taste. too. From egoism is produced the development. And we have heard that the great self is of the nature of seed and a product. or sound. and soft – thus the quality of air is properly said by Brâhmanas who have reached perfection. and beyond these should be understood to be Nishâda and Dhaivata likewise. CHAPTER XXXVI Brahman said: . agreeable and disagreeable sound also. Sound and touch also should be understood. and of (many) ingredients. above egoism is understanding. should be understood to be of ten descriptions. I will state at length the numerous qualities of smell. the divine source of all entities. and that is stated to be sound only. Rishabha. taste. Sound. and likewise Pañkama. compact. And as action is performed in this world. and rough. and water. touch. Now that Pradhâna is unperceived. and void of color.

and having their minds always tranquil. is released from. and in which the understanding is the drag. in (the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth. and resorting to the pure (quality of) goodness. they go near Prajâpati. is adorned with planets and nakshatras. which is the unperceived. always reach perfection by penance. all that can be accomplished by penance. Whatever is difficult to obtain. and ends with the gross objects. That which begins with the unperceived . and the understanding are always joined to the Kshetrajña. has the mind for a charioteer. (who are) constantly devoted to penance. and it is called the Kshetrajña. even from those five elements. and is decked on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains. Those who are free from (all thought that this or that is) mine. Pitris. (He) necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind (is fixed). The Lord Prajâpati created all this by the mind only. gods. one who destroys an embryo. The great elements are in every way (beyond) the elements that make up the world. a sage should sit down self-restrained. the mind. This forest of the Brahman begins with the unperceived. the creators of the world. The senses. and abandons everything as fruitless. and getting rid of the (qualities of) passion and darkness. Born from that same unperceived (principle). and (after) these developments. receives light from the radiance of the sun and moon. and always beautified likewise by various (descriptions of) waters. by means of a pure concentration (of mind) on contemplation. difficult to learn. And he who is released. like billows in the ocean. enter into the unperceived accumulation of happiness. (sacrificial) animals. And in like manner. Those who best understand the self. Gandharvas. obtain the great and highest world. The understanding proclaims its power. In this the Kshetrajña always moves about. that sin only by penance well performed. all the elements. difficult to vanquish. and the understanding for a drag. a man gets rid of all sins. again acquiring knowledge. and includes movables and immovables. These Brâhmanas. For all acquisition has penance for its root. for penance is difficult to overcome. and being full of egoism. And whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements. who have acquired concentration by a course of penance. and the various sciences are all acquired by means of penance alone. goes to the highest goal. one who violates the bed of his preceptor. and difficult to pass through. nor by a cause. movable or immovable.Since the mind is ruler of these five elements. Medicines. Those who without sloth perform actions with expectations. and next the developments produced from the elements. That individual self. the mind itself is the individual self. they are the very first to be dissolved. He who understands him understands the Vedas. That learned and talented person verily. The mind yokes the senses as a charioteer (yokes) good horses. and who likewise feed on fruits and roots. And in like manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven. And in the same manner the sages attained the godhead by means of penance. The mind always presides over the great elements. those who have achieved perfection. perceive the triple world here by penance. and devoid of egoism. enter the highest world of the great. and all other creatures movable or immovable. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation. Withdrawing from the mind the objects of mental operations. One who drinks spirituous liquors. drives about on all sides the great chariot which is pervaded by the Brahman. one who kills a Brâhmana. Râkshasas. not by actions. are born here again and again. He should be understood to be the Kshetrajña. has the group of the senses yoked (to it). Those high-souled ones who are devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine. and it is the goal of all living creatures. This is the eternal mystery. beasts and birds. men. Gods. one who steals. comes not by delusion in the midst of all entities. it is (the means of) subsistence for all entities. and who are free from egoism. all have been created by nature. Whatever entities (there are) in this world. (Those) men. and herbs. mounting the chariot to which big horses are yoked. Asuras. Pisâkas. Such is the upward gradation among entities. who always understands thus the chariot pervaded by the Brahman. attaining concentration (of mind) on contemplation.

O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! then having heard this (instruction) relating to the self. O Krishna! and who the pupil. he understands that holy Brahman. O Phâlguna! Vaisampâyana said: . O Janârdana! If this verily. This is the uncensored (mode of) conduct. Two syllables are death. is fit to be heard by me. which is uncreated. This goal can be reached by one who is alike to all beings. too. than which nothing greater exists. I wish to see him. Knowledge brings forth the being. Then will you attain perfection. he dies not. And when the understanding is clear. attained to that seat. And the nature of tranquility is as when one sees a dream. changeless. those high-souled sages acted accordingly. And the pupil. and then attained to the worlds. The self-restrained man who thus understands the immortal. He who thus understands the self to which there is nothing prior. The preceptor said: Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman. O noble person. O you of mighty arms! Therefore fix your mind on this. he attains tranquility. Then when this piety is duly practiced. If you have love for me. and ever indestructible and unattached (principle). and that is acceptable and constitutes immortality. indeed. who is without expectations. This is the goal of those who are indifferent (to the world). Expelling all impressions. always duly act (according to it). I have now declared everything to you. O Dhanañjaya! I have related this mystery to you out of love for you. who is without attachment. he certainly becomes immortal and not to be restrained. changeless. having done all he should have done. three syllables the eternal Brahman. Vâsudeva. And now. incomprehensible. O best of Brâhmana. By action a creature is born with a body and made up of the sixteen. Some men of dull understandings extol action. This is the eternal piety. did everything (accordingly). with your consent. not full of action. you will attain the absolute final emancipation. unmoving. O son of Kuntî! and then attained final emancipation. This being is stated to be full of knowledge. But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid of qualities. Arjuna said: Who. which is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on nectar. and not mine is the eternal. Mine is death. O Lord! then tell it me. and restraining the self in the Self. Do you. was that Brâhmana. O supporter of the family of the Kauravas! going to which one grieves not. Therefore those who are far-sighted have no attachment to actions. And. And they see all the movements which are produced by development. O you of mighty arms! And know the mind to be my pupil. in consequence of these means. Vâsudeva said: I am the preceptor. But as to the high-souled ancients they do not extol action. getting rid of all sins. This is the goal of those emancipated ones who are intent on knowledge. of pure self! duly act according to the words of Brahman which I have stated. said: That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety by the preceptor. This is what is acquired by men of knowledge. O chief of the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw the lord my father. It was this same thing I stated to you before when the time for battle had come.and ends with the gross objects is stated to be of the nature of ignorance. sages! Act thus forthwith. then you will acquire perfection. and who looks alike on everything.

’ Om Tat Sat . and after taking leave of him to go to your own city. Dhanañjaya replied (saying). ‘O Krishna! let us verily go today to the city of Gagasa. Be pleased. who is of a devout heart.When Krishna spoke these words. O you who understand piety! to see there king Yudhishthira.