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during the year M. Thus fË IE is equal to the total number of line faults di vided by the total line kilometre years. During the period 1983-2002, the number of line shunt faults were 214; there were 72800 line kilometres altogether. The refore the estimate for annual line fault frequency per kilometre is 2.9E-03. Wi th the existing 4300 km of 400 kV lines, this estimate points to 12.5 5.2.2 line faults per annum. High resistance earth faults
There have been ten high resistance earth faults during the years studied. The f aults are presented in Table 2. Most of them were caused by single trees, one wa s caused by a forest fire and one by a tower insulator chain breaking; in one ca se, the cause remains unknown. Only on three occasions was the faulted line corr ectly tripped without any unwanted unselective trips. The sensitive earth fault relays in the Finnish 400 kV grid measure only the cur rent, not the voltage. The 400 kV grid is effectively earthed. Therefore, the ze ro-sequence voltage is small and the directional earth fault relays cannot be us ed, because the setting also needs to detect the earth faults, which have a faul t resistance of 500 â ¦. This limit is due to the electrical safety regulation. 44 For this reason, the selectivity is not always achieved by using sensitive earth fault relays. Table 2 High resistance earth faults in the Finnish 400 kV grid during the perio d 1983-2002 and the corresponding correct and unselective line trips Cause of the fault Unknown Yes A fallen tree An insulator chain A forest fire Correct Number of trips unselective trips 0 Yes Yes Yes 0 0 1 There was a fire under the line. The adjacent non-faulted line tripped at one line end. After the first fault, two healthy lines were tripped at one line end. The lines were reconnected. After three hours, the same tree caused a new earth fault. During this time Comment
Tree 1 Yes Tree 1 Yes
which analyses the possible consequences of the current transformer explosion.3. Tree 2 Only one line end 5 1 The tree caused four successive earth faults. 1 There were also unselective line 5. even though the position display showed the open position. so the reason for this 2-phase short circuit rem ains unknown. If we ignore the current transformer explosions. In the o ther case.2.3 Faults at the substations During the period 1983-2002. Only two busbar faults had causes other than those relating to the current trans former explosion. a busbar fault or a fault at the bay that combines two busbars.1 Special busbar shunt faults . as can be seen in Section 5. Thus the faulted line tripped at one line end only (1/2). No marks were found afterwards.four healthy lines tripped at one line end. busbar short circuits are rare. The analysis of current transformer explosions also requires a diff erent approach because the initiating event can be a line fault. A busbar was tripped during foul weather when there were snowy icicles and a flash was seen. The number would be different if the current transformer explosions were taken i nto account. which occurred in a substation with a s ingle circuit breaker busbar scheme. There is no automatic reclosing operation after a busbar protection trip.3. They were earth faults. the cause of the busbar short circuit was probably ice. the earthing switch at the SF6-switchgear was closed. Th e reason for this trip was the fact that the operation personnel had forgotten t o set off the busbar protection before they started to connect the tripped lines to the healthy busbar. According to these statistics. One busbar trip was due to a human error du ring the substation connections after the explosion of a current transformer. Tree 2 Only one line end Tree 2 Only one line end Tree 2 Only one line end trips and trips of near-by generators. Also the possible protection op erations are unforeseeable. They both occurred at the double circuit breaker substation an d were correctly tripped. the frequency of busbar short circuits is such t hat there would be one short circuit and one earth fault in 17 years. The terminal strip of the trip coil of the circuit breaker was 2 not connected at one line end of the faulted line. if the num ber of busbars remained the same. In one case. Three busbar trips were caus ed by the explosion of a current transformer in a line bay or in a main 45 transformer bay. there were six busbar trips. 5.
There is a substation fault. the line protection fai ls to measure a fault current.. the allowed consequence is â controlled operation. since the consequences of the explosion can be anything between a line trip and the substation trip. The reason was a flaw in design. 5. If such a fault occurs at the double circuit breaker substation. it trips the line circuit breaker after it has received the signal at the r emote end substation. all cur rent transformers of that type were removed from the grid. simultaneously.2 An explosion of a current transformer Nine times a current transformer has exploded during the 20-year period of the s tudy. If the distance protection at the remote end substation has star ted. This fault belong s to the group â other combinations of two faults with a common causeâ in the Nordel grid planning rules. both the busbar and one line are tripp ed. but would be tripped by the distance relays at the remote end substations. The explosion of a current transformer is a special k ind of substation fault. In this case.e. The explosion a current transforme r is not a controlled event and thus consequences other than the trip of the fau lted bay are possible. In order to do that. regional consequencesâ (Nordel. . which is a special case. after which the fault is isolated. Faults in the current transforme r and also other faults between the current transformer and circuit 46 breaker are special busbar faults. which makes it a sev ere fault. The trips and fault locations of the explosions of the current transformers are presented in Table 3. All the transformers were manufactured by the same company and they were of a similar type. If the fault is situated a t the bus coupler circuit breaker bay in a substation with a single circuit brea ker busbar scheme. There have been three earth faults at the bus coupler circuit breaker bay. 2004). Also the line has to be tripped. an instantaneous sub station trip by the busbar protection or the delayed substation trip by the remo te end back-up protection. The explosions happen ed in the summer. If this fault occurs at the substation with a single circuit breaker busbar scheme. the fault would not be tripped at t he faulted substation. the result is similar to a normal busbar fault. since the isolation of the fault requires the tripping of both busbars. The consequences of the explosion of a line bay current transformer need not be the same. The busbar protection trips the busbar. The fault duration would be about 500 ms. the busbar protection and/or breaker fail relays send the telecommunication signal to the line distance protection of the remote end substation. They were caused by the explosion of a current transformer. busbar trip. but th is does not stop the fault current flowing via the line.3. Possible consequences are line trip. After this fault. Usually the current transformer is situated on the line side of the circuit brea ker as can be seen in Figure 4 and in Figure 5. even probable. since tripping the busbar is not enough to di sconnect the fault from the grid. the transmission capacity loss is more than that following a normal bu sbar fault. i. the result can be the trip of the whole substation. After the explosions. The worst case would be if the secondary f ault current were large enough to damage the busbar protection in such a way tha t it could not send a trip signal while.
The busbar protection tripped only the bus coupler circuit breaker.47 Table 3 Explosions of the current transformers (CT) at the 400 kV substations du ring the period 1983-2002 CT Numlocation Line bay 1 Tripped components and other comments ber The trip of the faulted line. The busbar protection measures a fault current towards both busbars due to an electric arc between the primary and secondary windings. Both busbars tripped. Line 3 bay or 400/110 kV transfor mer bay Line bay Line bay 1 1 Bus 2 coupler CB bay Bus 1 coupler CB bay 48 The fault duration was about 0. Both busbars would not trip in double circuit breaker substations. where independent busbar protection systems exist for both busbars and there also exist separate current transformers for both circuit breakers. The primary fault current reached also the CT secondary windings. the current transformer was also on fire. The busbar protection acted correctly. All 9 . On this occasion. (2) The CT explodes in such a way that there is no current at the secondary side. Both busbars tripped. The busbar protection measures differential current. After the trip of the bus coupler CB the fault remained on one busbar only. The busbar protection relay tripped all the circuit breakers connected to the same busbar as the faulted line. Busbar trip. Possible reasons: (1) if the secondary and primary coils of the CT have galvanic contact and thus the busbar protection measures a fault current towards the busbar.5 s. after which the miniature circuit breakers of the busbar protection DC circuit tripped and the busbar protection did not act after that. since all the other current transformers measure the fault current. The only line connected to the faulted busbar was tripped by the 2nd zone of the distance relay at the remote end substation. The current of the secondary winding of the CT was induced from the primary winding in the proportion of the CT ratio and the current direction was normal. The busbar protection relays of the both busbars at the single circuit breaker busbar scheme have a closely interconnected structure. which in certain cases enables the secondary fault current to access both relays.
3. after the line was inspected. the operation principle of the power syste m (n-1. the reason for a 2-phase short circuit was the explosion of a capacitor voltage transformer of the line bay. At a line bay. n-0). a line circuit breaker was closed but the temporary earth remaine d on the line. 49 Unwanted spontaneous line trips Unwanted spontaneous trips are those that are independent of power system faults . relay tests or spontaneous circuit breaker trips can be reasons for u nwanted trips. the line was disconnected. the earth fault relays were not equipped with a filter for a 100 Hz component. For ex ample.3. n othing exceptional was found. causing an earth fault and the line to trip. During the 20 years of the study. for example.5 Line trips without a power system fault Unwanted trips are not power system faults. Another time. Another time. Table 4 Substation originated spontaneous unwanted line trips 1983-2002 Cause Number of spontaneous unwanted trips 5 Substation secondary system planning . the protection system malfunctions. However. be a human error during relay testing or a fa ilure in the relay. 5. it caused an earth fault. a line voltage transf ormer exploded. 5. the average frequency o f these faults is not dependent on line length.3 Line trip due to a short circuit or earth fault at the substation There have been five substation-originated shunt faults that have led to a line trip. These faults belong to the protection zone of the line protection. At this time.5. A line was tripped once due to an electric arc in the bushing of a transformer. A reason for a n erroneous trip can. One circuit breaker failure was such that one pole was open. Once there was a substation earth fault and once a short circuit due to a human error.4 Miscellaneous line trips As soon as somebody announced to the control centre that the conductor of a line has fallen. Almost half of them were unwanted trips during relay testing.3. Trips unwanted by the protection are classified as unwanted spont aneous trips and unwanted unselective trips. When the personnel closed a wrong disconnector. A transformer inrush current caused a line to trip once. This is why they are called spontaneous instead of unselective. However. the loading of the grid and the possible occurrence of simultaneou s faults. the explosion of the voltage transformer disconnected the wire of the power line carrier transfo rmer and this connected two phases together. but they cause a disturbance. but on the amount of components at the substation. erroneous trip signals from the contr ol centre. The consequences of the spontaneous unwanted tripping depend on the number of components tripped. In this case. there were 29 unwanted spontaneous l ine trips.
If the correct tripping is missing. see Section 5. the consequence is a longer faul t time and the loss of several components.4 Concluding remarks on grid faults . Relay setting or configuration 1 Telecommunication 1 Error in the temporary relay system during a short circuit test 1 10 The terminal strip of the circuit breaker trip coil was not connected when a tree caused four successive high resistance earth faults Total 22 5. but the fault duration is no t extended. If both the correct and the unselective trip or trips occur. The consequences of the unselective unwanted trip depend on the same issues as those of the unwanted spontaneous trips and on the operation of the protectio n.2. there is a loss of several components. which should trip the fault.2.Circuit breaker 2 Relay failure 3 3 14 Human error in operation Relay or disturbance recorder testing Other Total 2 29 Unwanted unselective line trips Unwanted unselective trips are those that occur together with a power system fau lt. 50 Table 5 Substation originated unselective line trips 1983-2002 Cause Number of unselective trips 3 6 A hardware failure in a relay system A high resistive earth fault with unselective trips.
it is possible to have a directional setting . The reliability analysis for high resistance earth faults. To get an overvie w of the reliability after power system faults. A current transformer explosion is a special fault case that c annot be treated as a normal busbar earth fault. would require a different approach 51 and cannot be made with the same model. If the current transformer explosions are included. The line faults that can be tripped by the distance relays are much more frequent than high resistance faults and they also have a greater effect on stability. The majority of the faults occur along the transmission lines. Therefore. the explosions of current transformers are exclude d. With the modern relays. which may in some cas es cause random unselective line trips. the reliability model was developed for those l ine faults that have enough fault current and can be tripped by distance relays. it is reasonable to first concen trate on line faults. it has already been decided that t he old sensitive earth fault relays will be replaced with modern relays in the n ear future. Also. In this comparison. the number of substation faults is eleven.During the 20 years studied there were 214 line shunt faults and two busbar shun t faults. since the consequences of the e xplosion are unforeseeable and the busbar and protection operations after the ex plosion depend on the details of the explosion.
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