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1) THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER By WOODROFFE. 2) Ṣaṭ-Cakra-Nirūpaṇa, Six-Cakra Investigation: Description of and Investigation into the Six Bodily Centers by Tantrik Purnananda-Svami (1526 CE). 3) THE FIVEFOLD FOOTSTOOL (PĀDUKĀ-PAÑCAKA Illustrations, Tables, and Highlights... By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER

INTRODUCTION PAGE 1 THE two Sanskrit works here translated---Ṣat-cakra-nirūpaṇa (" Description of the Six Centres, or Cakras") and Pādukāpañcaka (" Fivefold footstool ")-deal with a particular form of Tantrik Yoga named Kuṇḍalinī -Yoga or, as some works call it, Bhūta-śuddhi, These names refer to the Kuṇḍalinī-Śakti, or Supreme Power in the human body by the arousing of which the Yoga is achieved, and to the purification of the Elements of the body (Bhūta-śuddhi) which takes place upon that event. This Yoga is effected by a process technically known as Ṣat-cakra-bheda, or piercing of the Six Centres or Regions (Cakra) or Lotuses (Padma) of the body (which the work describes) by the agency of KuṇḍalinīSakti, which, in order to give it an English name, I have here called the Serpent Power.1 Kuṇḍala means coiled. The power is the Goddess (Devī) Kuṇḍalinī, or that which is coiled; for Her form is that of a coiled and sleeping serpent in the lowest bodily centre, at the base of the spinal column, until by the means described She is aroused in that Yoga which is named after Her. Kuṇḍalinī is the Divine Cosmic Energy in bodies
lOne of the names of this Devī is Bhujaṅgī, or the Serpent.

2 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (v. post). The Saptabhūmi, or seven regions (Lokas).1 are, as popularly understood, an exoteric presentment of the inner Tāntrik teaching regarding the seven centres. 2 The Yoga is called Tāntrik for a twofold reason. It will be found mentioned in the Yoga-Upaniṣads which refer to the Centres, or Cakras, and in some of the Purāṇas. The treatises on Haṭhayoga also deal with the subject. We find even similar notions in systems other than the Indian, from which possibly in some cases they have been borrowed. Thus, in the Risala-i-haq-numa, by Prince Mahomed Dara Shikoh,3 a description is given of the three centres" Mother of Brain," or "Spherical heart" (Dil-i-muddawar); the" Cedar heart" (Dil-i-sanowbari); and the Dil-i-nilofari, or "Lily heart.4." Other references may be found in the works of the Mahomedan Sufis. So some of the Sufi fraternities (as the Naqshbandi) are said 5 to have devised, or rather borrowed, from the Indian Yogis 6 the Kuṇḍalinī method as a means to realization.7 I am told that correspondences are discoverable
1 The seven" worlds" Bhiūh, Bhuvah, Suvah, Mahah, Janah, Tapah, Satya. See my "Wave of Bliss" (Comm. to v. 35). Lokas are what are seen (lokyante)-that is, attained-and are hence the fruits of Karma in the form of particular re-birth. Satyānanda's" Comm. on ĪŚa Up.," Mantra 2. See p. 258. 2 That is, the six Cakras and the upper cerebral centre, or Sahasrāra. As to Upaniṣads and Purāṇas, see post. 3 "The Compass of Truth." The author was the eldest son of the Emperor Shah-i-Jehan, and died in A.D. 1659. Its teaching is alleged to be that of the secret doctrine of the" Apostle of God." 4 Chapter I on Alam-i-nasut: the physical plane, or what the Hindus call the Jagrat state. Ed. Rai Bahadur Srisha-Candra-Vasu.

5 See "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia," by Shaikh Muhammed Iqbal, p. 110. 6 Al-Biruni is said to have translated Patañjali's works, as also the Sāmkhya-Sūtras, into Arabic at the beginning of the eleventh century. 7 The author cited, however, says: "Such methods of contemplation are quite unislamic in character, and the higher Sufis do not attach any importance to them."

INTRODUCTION 3 between the Indian (Asiatic) Sastra and the American-Indian Māyā Scripture of the Zunis called the Popul Vuh.1 My informant tells me that their" air-tube" is the Susumna; their" twofold air-tube" the Nāḍīs Idā and Piṅgala. "Hurakan," or lightning, is Kuṇḍalinī, and the centres are depicted by animal glyphs. Similar notions have been reported to me as being held in the secret teaching of other communities. That the doctrine and practice should be widespread, we might expect, if it has a foundation on fact. This form of Yoga is, however, in particular associated with the Tantras or Agamas, firstly, because these Scriptures are largely concerned therewith. In fact, such orderly descriptions in practical full detail as have been written are to be found chiefly in the Haṭhayoga works and Tantras which are the manuals, not only of Hindu worship, but of its occultism. Next, Yoga through action on the lowest centre seems characteristic of the Tāntrik system, the adepts of which are the custodians of the practical knowledge whereby the general directions in the books may be practically applied. The system is of a Tāntrik character also in respect of its selection of the chief centre of consciousness. Various people have in antiquity assigned to various parts of the body the seat of the" soul" or life, such as the blood2 the heart and the breath. Generally the brain was not so regarded. The Vaidik system posits the heart as the chief centre of Consciousness--a relic of which notion we also still preserve in such as "take it to heart" and to "learn by heart". Sādhaka, which is one of the five functions of Pitta,3 and which is situated in the heart.
1 A translation was, I am told, begun and not finished by the occultist James Pryse in Lucifer, the old Theosophical journal, which I have not seen. 2 Cj. the Biblical saying, "The blood is the life". 3 See p. 12 of the Introduction to the third volume of my Tāntrik Texts (Prapañcasāra- Tantra).

4 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER indirectly assists in the performance of cognitive functions by keeping up the rhythmic cardiac contractions, and it has been suggested 1 that it was perhaps this view of the heart's construction which predisposed Indian physiologists to hold it to be the seat of cognition. According to the Tantras, however, the chief centres of consciousness are to be found in the Cakras of the cerebro-spinal system and in the upper brain (Sahasrāra), which they describe, though the heart is also recognized as a seat of the Jivātmā, or embodied spirit, in its aspect as vital principle or Praṇa2. It is for the reasons mentioned that the first verse of the Saṭ-cakra-nirūpaṇa here translated speaks of the Yoga which is to be achieved "according to the Tantras" (Tantrānusāreṃa--that is, as Kālīcaraṇa, its Commentator, says, "following the authority of the Tantras". Recently some attention has been given to the subject in Western literature of an occult kind. Generally its authors and others have purported to give what they understood to be the Hindu theory of the matter, but with considerable inaccuracies. These are not limited to works of the character mentioned. Thus, to take but two instances of these respective classes, we find in a well-known Sanskrit dictionary 3 that the Cakras are defined to be" circles or depressions (sic) of the body for mystical or chiromantic purposes," and their location has in almost every particular been wrongly given. The
1 Kavidirāja-Kuñjalāla-Bhiṣagaratna in his edition of the SuśrutaSaṁhitā, Another explanation, however, may be given-namely, that during man's history the importance of the various perceptive centres has in fact varied. 2 According to some Indian views, the brain is the centre of the mind and senses, and the heart that of life. Caraka says that the heart is the root from which spring all other parts of the body, and is the centre of some of the functions or organs. According to Suśruta, the heart is the seat of sensations. 3 Professor Monier Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary, sub voce" Cakra ".

INTRODUCTION 5 Mūlādhāra is inaccurately described as being "above the pubis". Nor is the Svādhiṣṭhāna the umbilical region. Anāhata is not the root of the nose, but is the spinal centre in the region of the heart; Viśuddha is not "the hollow between the frontal sinuses," but is the spinal centre in the region of the throat. Ājñā is not the fontanelle or union of the coronal and

sagittal sutures, which are said to be the Brahma-randhra,1 but is in the position allotted to the third eye, or Jñāna-cakṣu. Others, avoiding such gross errors, are not free from lesser inaccuracies. Thus, an author who, I am informed, had considerable knowledge of things occult, speaks of the Suṣumnā as a " force" which "cannot be energised until Īdā and Piṅgalā have preceded it," which "passes to the accompaniment of violent shock through each section of the spinal marrow," and which, on the awakening of the sacral plexus, passes along the spinal cord and impinges on the brain, with the result that the neophyte finds" himself to be an unembodied soul alone in the black abyss of empty space, struggling against dread and terror unutterable". He also writes that the "current" of Kuṇḍalinī is called Nāḍī; that Suṣumnā extends as a nerve to the Brahma-randhra; that the Tattvas are seven in number; and other matters which are inaccurate. The Susumna is not a "force," 2 and does not pass and impinge upon anything, but is the outer of the three Nadis, which form the conduit for the force which is the arousing of the Devī called Kuṇḍalinī, the Cosmic Power in bodies, which force is not itself a Nāḍī, but passes through the innermost, of Citriṇī- Nāḍī, which terminates at the twelve-petalled lotus below the Sahasrāra, from which ascent is made to the Brahma-randhra. It would be easy to
. 1 A term which is also employed to denote the Brahma- Nāḍī, in that the latter is the passage whereby the Brahma-randhra in the cerebrum is attained. 2 Except in the sense that everything is a manifestation of power.

PAGE 6 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER It would be easy to point out other mistakes in writers who have referred to the subject. It will be more profitable if I make as correct a statement as my knowledge admits of this mode of Yoga. But I desire to add that some modern Indian writers have also helped to diffuse erroneous notions about the Cakras by describing them from what is merely a materialistic or physiological standpoint. To do so is not merely to misrepresent the case, but to give it away; for physiology does not know the Cakras as they exist in themselves - that is, as centres of consciousness - and of the activity of Sūkṣma Prāṇa-Vāyu or subtle vital force; though it does deal with the gross body which is related to them. Those who appeal to physiology only are likely to return non-suited. We may here notice the account of a well-known "Theosophical" author1 regarding what he calls the "Force centres" and the "Serpent Fire," of which he writes that he has had personal experience. Though its author also refers to the Yoga Śāstra, it may perhaps exclude error if we here point out that his account does not profess to be a representation of the teaching of the Indian Yogis (whose competence for their own Yoga the author somewhat disparages), but that it is put forward as the Author's own original explanation (fortified, as he conceives, by certain portions of Indian teaching) of the personal experience which (he writes) he himself has had. This experience appears to consist in the conscious arousing of the "Serpent Fire,"2 with the enhanced "astral" and mental vision which he believes has shown him what he tells us.
1 "The Inner Life," by C. W. Leadbeater, pp.443-478, First Series. 2This and the following notes compare his and the Indian theory.

The Devī or Goddess is called Bhujangi or Serpent because at the lowest centre (Mūlādhāra ) She lies "coiled" round the Liṅga. "Coiled" = at rest. The Cosmic Power in bodies is here at rest; when roused it is felt as intense heat. INTRODUCTION PAGE 7 believes has shown him what he tells us.1 The centres, or Cakras, of the human body are described to be vortices of "etheric" matter2 into which rush from the "astral"3 world, and at right angles to the plane of the whirling disc, the sevenfold force of the Logos bringing " divine life " into the physical body. Though all these seven forces operate on all the centres, in each of them one form of the force is greatly predominant. These inrushing forces are alleged to set up on the surface of the "etheric double"4 secondary forces at right angles to themselves. The primary force on entrance into the vortex radiates again in straight lines, but at right angles. The number of these radiations of the primal force is said to determine the number of "petals"5 (as the Hindus call them) which the "Lotus" or vortex exhibits. The secondary force rushing round the vortex produces, it is said, the appearance of the petals of a flower, or, "perhaps more accurately, saucers or Śallow vases of wavy iridescent glass". In this way - that is, by the supposition of an etheric vortex subject to an incoming force of the Logos - both the "Lotuses" described in the Hindu books and the number of their petals is accounted for by the author, who substitutes for the Svādhiṣṭhāna centre a six-petalled lotus at the spleen,4 and corrects the number of petals of the lotus in the head, which he says is not a thousand, as the books of this Yoga say, "but exactly 960" 6 The "etheric" centre which keeps alive the physical vehicle is said to correspond with an "astral" centre of four dimensions, but between them is a closely woven sheath or web composed of a single compressed layer of physical atoms, which prevents a premature opening up of communication between the planes.

1 Certain Siddhis or occult powers are acquired at each centre as the practitioner works his way upwards. 2 The petals of the lotus are Prāṇa-Śakti manifested by PrāṇaVāyu or vital force. Each lotus is a centre of a different form of matter" (Bhūta) there predominant. - A.A. 3 This is a Western term. - A.A. 4 Not mentioned in the account here given. - A.A. 5 See last note but three. 6So little attention seems to be given to exactitude in this matter that one of the letters is dropped in order to make1,000 petals - that is,50X20. "Thousand" is, here, only symbolic of magnitude. - A.A.

PAGE 8 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER is said to correspond with an "astral" centre of four dimensions, but between them is a closely woven sheath or web composed of a single compressed layer of physical atoms, which prevents a premature opening up of communication between the planes. There is a way, it is said, in which these may be properly opened or developed so as to bring more through this channel from the higher planes than ordinarily passes thereby. Each of these "astral" centres has certain functions: at the navel, a simple power of feeling; at the spleen, "conscious travel" in the astral body; at the heart, "a power to comprehend and sympathise with the vibrations of other astral entities"; at the throat, power of hearing on the astral plane; between the eyebrows, "astral sight"; at the "top of the head," perfection of all faculties of the astral life.1 These centres are therefore said to take the place to some extent of sense organs for the astral body. In the first centre, "at the base of the spine," is the "Serpent Fire," or Kuṇḍalinī, which exists in seven layers or seven degrees of force.2 This is the manifestation in etheric matter, on the physical plane, of one of the great world forces, one of the powers of the Logos of which vitality and electricity are examples. It is not, it is said, the same as Prāṇa, or vitality.3 The "etheric centres" when fully aroused by the "Serpent Fire" bring down, it is alleged, into physical consciousness whatever may be the quality inherent in the astral centre which corresponds to it. When vivified by the "Serpent Fire" they become gates of connection between the physical and "astral" bodies.
1 Certain Siddhis are said to be gained at each centre. But the top of the head is far beyond the "astral" life. There Samādhi, or union with the Supreme Consciousness, is had. - A.A. 2 Para-śabda which is Kuṇḍalinī in Her aspect as cause of all sound has seven aspects from Kuṇḍalī to Bindu.- A.A. 3 Kuṇḍalī is Śabda-Brahman or the "Word (Vāk)" in bodies, and is in Her own form (Svarūpa) Pure Consciousness, and is all Powers (SarvaŚakti mayi). Kuṇḍalinī is in fact the cosmic energy in bodies and as such the cause of all and though manifesting as, is not confined to, any of Her products. - A.A.

PAGE 9 INTRODUCTION the physical and "astral" bodies. When the astral awakening of these centres first took place, this was not known to the physical consciousness. But the sense body can now "be brought to Shareall these advantages by repeating that process of awakening with the etheric centres". This is done by the arousing through will-force of the "Serpent Fire," which exists clothed in "etheric matter in the physical plane, and sleeps1 in the corresponding etheric centre - that at the base of the spine". When this is done, it vivifies the higher centres, with the effect that it brings into the physical consciousness the powers which were aroused by the development of their corresponding astral centres. In short, one begins to live on the astral plane, which is not altogether 'an advantage, were it not that entry into the heaven world is said to be achieved at the close of life on this plane.2 Svadhisthana Cakra : Thus, at the second centre, one is conscious in the physical body "of all kinds of astral influences, vaguely feeling that some of them are friendly and some hostile without in the least knowing why". Maṇipūra Cakra : At the third centre one is enabled to remember "only partially" vague astral journeys, with sometimes half-remembrance of a blissful sensation of flying through the air. Anāhata Cakra : At the fourth centre man is instinctively aware of the joys and sorrows of others, sometimes reproducing in himself their physical aches and pains. Viśuddha Cakra : At the arousing of the fifth centre he hears voices "which make all kinds of suggestions to him". Sometimes he hears music "or other less pleasant sounds".3 Full development secures clairaudience in the "astral" plane.
1Kuṇḍalinī is called the Serpent (Bhujangi). She sleeps in the Mūlādhāra. As to what She is, see last note. She sleeps because She is at rest. Then man's consciousness is awake to the world, Her creation, in which She is immanent. When She awakes and Yoga is completed man sleeps to the world and enjoys super-worldly experience. 2The end of Kuṇḍalī Yoga is beyond all Heaven worlds. No Yogi seeks "Heaven" but union with that which is the source of all worlds. 3 According to the text translated, the sound of the Śabda-Brahman is heard at the Anāhata, or fourth centre. - A.A.

10 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER

Ājñā Cakra : The arousing of the sixth centre secures results which are at first of a trivial character, such as "half seeing landscapes and clouds of colour," but subsequently amount to clairvoyance. Here it is said there is a power of magnification by means of an "etheric" flexible tube which resembles "the microscopic snake on the head-dress of the Pharaohs". The Power to expand or control the eye of this "microscopic snake" is stated to be the meaning of the statement, in ancient books, of the capacity to make oneself large or small at will.1 When the pituitary body is brought into working order, it forms a link with the astral vehicle, and when the Fire reaches the sixth centre, and fully vivifies it, the voice of the "Master" (which in this case means the higher self in its various stages) is heard.2 Sahasrāra Cakra : The awakening of the seventh centre enables one to leave the body in full consciousness. "When the fire has thus passed through all these centres in a certain order (which varies for different types of people), the consciousness becomes continuous up to the entry into the heaven world3 at the end of the life on the astral plane.'' There are some resemblances between this account and the teaching of the Yoga Śāstra, with which in a general way the author cited appears to have some acquaintance, and which may have suggested to him some features of his account. There are firstly seven centres, which with one exception correspond with the Cakras described. The author says that there are three other lower centres, but that concentration on them is full of danger. What these are is not stated. There is no centre lower, that I am aware of, than the Mūlādhāra (as the name "root-centre" itself implies), and the only centre near to it which is excluded, in the above-mentioned account, is the Apas Tattva centre, or Svādhiṣṭhāna.
1 There is no mention of such a "snake". The Siddhis Anima, etc., do not depend on it. It is consciousness which identifies itself with the small or the great. - A.A. 2 As the text hero translated says, the Ājñā is so called because here is received the command of the Guru from above. - A.A. 3 See note2, page 9 ante.

INTRODUCTION11 Next there is the Force, "the Serpent Fire," which the Hindus call Kuṇḍalinī, in the lowest centre, the Mūlādhāra. Lastly, the effect of the rousing of this force, which is accomplished by will power (Yoga-bala),1 is said to exalt the physical consciousness through the ascending planes to the "heaven world". To use the Hindu expression, the object and aim of Śat-Cakra -bheda is Yoga. This is ultimately union with the Supreme Self or Paramātma ; but it is obvious that, as the body in its natural state is already, though unconsciously, in Yoga, otherwise it would not exist, each conscious step upwards is Yoga, and there are many stages of such before complete or Kaivalya Mukti is attained. This and, indeed, many of the preceding stages are far beyond the "heaven world" of which the author speaks. Yogis are not concerned with the "heaven world," but seek to surpass it; otherwise they are not Yogis at all. What, according to this theory, manifested force apparently does is this: it enhances the mental and moral qualities of the self-operator as they existed at the time of its discovery. But if this be so, such enhancement may be as little desirable as the original state. Apart from the necessity for the possession of health and strength, the thought, will and morality, which it is proposed to subject to its influence must be first purified and strengthened before they are intensified by the vivifying influence of the aroused force. Further, as I have elsewhere pointed out,2 the Yogis say that the piercing of the Brahmāgranthi or "knot"3 sometimes involves considerable pain, physical disorder, and even disease, as is not unlikely to follow from concentration on such a centre as the navel (Nabhipadma).
1

With the aid of bodily purification, certain Āsanas and Mudrās (v. post). 2In the first edition of my MahāNirvāṇa Tantra, CXXIV. 3 There are three "knots" which have to be pierced or centres where the force of Māyā is particularly strong.

12 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Further, as I have elsewhere pointed out, the Yogis say that the piercing of the Brahmāgranthi or "knot"1 sometimes involves considerable pain, physical disorder, and even disease, as is not unlikely to follow from concentration on such a centre as the navel (Nabhipadma). To use Hindu terms, the Sādhaka must be competent (Adhikari), a matter to be determined by his Guru, from whom alone the actual method of Yoga can be learned. The incidental dangers, however, stated by the author, go beyond any mentioned to me by Indians themselves, who seem to be in general unaware of the subject of "phallic sorcery," to which reference is made by the author, who speaks of Schools of (apparently Western) "Black Magic" which are said to use Kuṇḍalinī for the purpose of stiMūlating the sexual centre. Another author says:1 "The mere dabbler in the pseudo-occult will only degrade his intellect with the puerilities of psychism, become the prey of the evil influence of the phantasmal world, or ruin his soul by the foul practices of phallic sorcery - as thousands of misguided people are doing even in this age." Is this so? It is possible that perverse or misguided concentration on sexual and

the meaning which it attributes to the Indian terms which it employs is not always that given to these terms by Indians themselves. which is Liberation. for the Cakras are not in the gross body. This is sometimes confusing and misleading. and purpose. pure (Shuchi).thah. however. For this purpose the ViparītaMudrās are designed. even though such centres may have ultimate relation with gross physical function. many substantial points of difference between the account which has been summarized and the theory which underlies the form of Yoga with which this work deals. otherwise he is no Sādhaka". the division by "principles" more nearly adumbrates the truth. and inspired by a desire for union with It. such a possibility does not come under consideration. Breath and Sexual function are interconnected. 21 am aware that the Theosophical Society has no official doctrine. Brahmāparayana). Of such. The process in this work described is one upon the path of Liberation and has nothing to do with sexual black magic. and it is therefore considered inadvisable except for the fully competent (Adhikari). in its general sense. It is quite possible. whereby commerce is had with female spirits and the like. it must by no means be assumed that the connotation even in such cases is always exactly the same. ever doing good to all (SarvaPranihite ratah). concentration on the lower centres associated with the passions may. Theosophy.1 In fact those who are "centred" know how to make all their forces converge upon the object of their will. allow that this method is liable to be accompanied by certain inconveniences or dangers.1 His attitude in this as in all other matters is essentially a religious one. The experienced followers of this method. have recourse to the Prayoga. The Indian who practises this or any other 1 There are three "knots" which have to be pierced or centres where the force of Māyā is particularly strong. INTRODUCTION13 The Indian who practises this or any other kind of spiritual Yoga ordinarily does so not on account of a curious interest in occultism or with a desire to gain "astral" or similar experiences. extraordinarily heightens all mental and physical functioning.connected centres may have the effect alluded to. It . It is not easy for me to correlate with complete accuracy the Indian and Theosophical theories as to man's principles. dhikari syat tadanyatra na sadhakah. however. a result which would have been avoided had the writers of this school adopted in all cases their own nomenclature and 1 Mind. practice. abstaining from injury to all beings (SarvaHimsaVinirmukta). on the other hand." p. There are. What is competency for Tantra (TantraŚāstraAdhikara) is described in the second chapter of the Gandharva Tantra as follows: The aspirant must be intelligent (Dakṣa). and the aim they have in view. I have. never heard Indians refer to this matter.) and concentration is done upon the subtle centre. INTRODUCTION15 This is sometimes confusing and misleading. VII post). Brahmi. I put the word in inverted commas to denote doctrine so taught and held by this Society. 1 Those who do practise magic of the kind mentioned. which leads to Nayika Siddhi. work only in the lowest centre. may produce another result. also. whose faith and refuge is in Brahman (Brahmish. the nature of their practice. a believer in Veda (Astika). 14 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Doubtless. with its presiding Consciousness. and the force of the latter. with senses controlled (Jitendriya). The aim of the Yogi is to carry "his seed high" to be ūrddhva-retās as it is called. as pointed out by an Indian writer (Ch. probably because it does not belong to Yoga in its ordinary sense.) With such an attitude it is possible that. that another attitude. as also by reason of the antecedent discipline required of those who would undertake this Yoga. based on a firm faith in Brahman (Sthiranishtha). Brahmāvadi. as I have stated. a result which would have been avoided had the writers of this school adopted in all cases their own nomenclature and definitions. And it may be that the Commentator Lakṣmīdhara alludes to this when he speaks of Uttara Kaulas who arouse Kuṇḍalinī in the MūlĀdhāra to satisfy their desire for world-enjoyment and do not attempt to lead Her upwards to the Highest Centre which is the object of Yoga seeking super-worldly bliss. For though "Theosophical" teaching is largely inspired by Indian ideas. quiet them. (So'smin Śastre. there is a relationship and correspondence between the Śakti s of the mental and sexual centres. To speak. however. and may be so employed.1 Though for the visualization of our conceptions the term "planes" is a convenient one. 62. with which doctrines. and who is a non-dualist (Dvaitahina). The terminology and classification adopted by that account may be termed "Theosophical"2. is not necessarily wholly identified. if directed upwards. a Sanskrit verse runs "they are the true prostitutes". and train and then use all such forces and neglect none. and though it may be possible for those who are familiar both with this and the Indian terminology to establish points of correspondence between the two systems. 2 "The Apocalypse Unsealed. What I call "Theosophical" are the theories put forward by its leading exponents and largely accepted by its members. so far from rousing. on the other hand. "Such an one is competent in this Scripture. of concentration on the sexual centre is itself misleading.

the "dense" and "etheric" body. amount to . the Śabda. and are fifty1 in number. Jīva. knowledge. Again. the astral body corresponds with the ManoMāyā . A. from the spiritual Yoga standpoint. vitality and. Besant. as has been stated. if.Brahman or "Word" in bodies. as where it is said in v. but fell victims on the way to the illusions of the psychic world. according to this account." She is thus the Prāṇa Devatā. 1 Which are sometimes given as50 and sometimes as." apparently of the same kind and subject to the same external influence of the inrushing sevenfold force of the "Logos" but differing in this. of which inspiration is called by the general name of the force itself (Prāṇa). That this school of practical psychology was working very well in India at one time is evident from these living instances (not to speak of the numberless treatises on the subject) of men roaming about in all parts of the country. that these correspond to the Annamaya and PrāṇaMāyā Kośas.51) it is called the "Astral" body. and some statements are made as to the Cakras which are not in accordance with the texts with which I am acquainted.1 and the number of the petals of any specific lotus is determined by the disposition of the subtile "nerves" or Nāḍīs around it." calls the Liṅga Śarīra "the ethereal duplicate" (p. by Dr. then the vivification of the Cakras appears to be. and stopped at one or the other of the six Cakras. alleged. Kuṇḍalinī is some force which is distinct from Prāṇa. Jīvātmā) of the world by means of inspiration and expiration. the Theosophical Sanskritist SriŚa Candra Vasu. a rousing of the Kamik side of the mental sheath. And this is. understanding this term to mean vitality or the life-principle. Such statements seem to be made. appear to be centres of energy of the Prāṇa-Vāyu or Vital Force. Each of the five lower Cakras is the centre of energy of a gross Tattva . and are seen to possess some power which is not found even in the best intellectuals of the ordinary run of mankind. They are of varying degrees of attainment. the five Prāṇas. if any. is the splenic centre included among the six Cakras which are dealt with here.. According to the Hindu doctrine. It is also said that mastery of the centres may produce various Siddhis or powers in respect of the predominating elements there. including Prāṇa. then the "etheric centres'' or Cakras. 85).176. bear subtile sound-powers. 16 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER forces therefore are in Her. the Cakras are all vortices of "etheric matter.vehicled by the Tanmātras. This Sanskrit work also describes certain things which are gained by contemplation on each of the Cakras.1 Pandit Ananta Śastri says:2 "We can meet with several persons every day elbowing us in the streets or bazaars who in all sincerity attempted to reach the highest plane of bliss. which on entrance into the body shows itself in various manifestations of life which are the minor Prāṇas. freedom from desire and sin. of that form of Tattvik activity or Tanmātra which manifests the MahāBhūta or sensible matter.that is. or according to another account. 1 Thus. 2 "Ancient Wisdom. Kuṇḍalinī is the static form of the creative energy in bodies which is the source of all energies. been stated2 that the physical body has two divisions. Assuming for argument the alleged correspondence. Elsewhere (p. and the Sahasrāra is not called a Cakra at all. control of the senses." The mere rousing of the Serpent power does not. not necessarily with the intention of accurately recording the specific result. Some of them are of a general character. the Antah-Karaṇa and Indriyas . According to the English author's account. in fact.has. According to the ordinary Indian use of that term the Liṅga Śarīra is the subtle body . that in each of the Cakras one or other of their sevenfold forces is predominant. in his "Introduction to Yoga Philosophy. In the Indian system the total number of the petals corresponds with the number of the letters of the Sanskrit Alphabet. According to this author's theory. as She is (Comm. these Cakras are differing centres of consciousness. and that the "astral" (body corresponds to the Kamik or desire side of the Mano.Māyā kosa or mental sheath.that is." p. She is. Nor. These petals. Others are stated in connection with the contemplation upon one centre only. power of speech and fame. as are the letters of the Sanskrit Alphabet. however. further. according to this account. vv. which follows upon concentration upon a particular centre. INTRODUCTION17 of speech and fame. all forces therefore are in Her. She is. such as long life.21 that contemplation on the Nabhi-padma gains for the Yogi power to destroy and create the world.10 and11) Shshti-sthiti-layātmikā. the ŚabdaBrahman or "Word" in bodies. or Stuti-vāda. but by way of praise for increased self-control. Verses10 and11 say of Kuṇḍalinī: "It is She who maintains all the beings (that is. Tattvik energy. The lotuses are also this and centres of the universal consciousness. in fact.kosa. but. in fact. Some of these and other qualities are results common to concentration on more than one Cakra.51. The theory discussed appears to diverge from that of the Yogis when we consider the nature of the Cakras and the question of their vivification. as stated. The sixth is the centre of the subtle mental Tattva.

" (IshitvadyashtasiddhIḍā). and then told the story of his condition. According to Indian notions. is achieved until the Ājñā Cakra is reached. however. Brahmā. Nothing. Here. Not. Leadbeater attributes the power of becoming large or small at will (Anima and Mahima Siddhi) to a flexible tube or "microscopic snake" in the forehead. The style of thought differs in a way not easy shortly to describe. "This is but the highest PraŚarhsa-vada or Stutivada. success (Siddhi) in Yoga may be the fruit of experiences of many preceding lives. when the whole body regained its heat with a rush. There are other points of difference which the reader will discover for himself. that the Yogi attains that which is both his aim and the motive of his labour. and following on less complete experiences and results.47. Kuṇḍalinī must be gradually raised from one centre to another until she reaches the Lotus in the cerebrum. He said he had been going through some antics.) He was massaged with ghee (clarified butter). Rev. but not otherwise. is the paramount importance attached to Consciousness and its states. 20 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Thus the story is told of a man being found whose body was as cold as a corpse. and that. post) are pure. Thus. it is said that the Sādhaka whose Ātmā is nothing but a 1 See Yoga-tattva Upaniṣad. Thus the story is told of a 1 As this is by the Devī's grace. INTRODUCTION19 Thus. where contemplation on the Earth centre secures mastery over earth. can only be done when the Nāḍīs (v. (This is the state in Kuṇḍalī -yoga. As regards practice I am bold that Kuṇḍalinī cannot be roused except in the Mūlādhāra and by the means here indicated. The length of time required varies in the individual . See TriŚati.34). cessation from rebirth which follows on the control and concentration of the Citta on the Śivasthanam. add that the differences are not only as to details. complement .much.which in Sanskrit literature is as often void of reality as it is in our ordinary life. That which is the general characteristic of the Indian systems. and an experience may be in fact a true one. I told the Pandit (who gave me this story. and yet. he had unwittingly roused Kundall. though the top of the head was slightly warm. of real moment. It is not to be supposed that simply because the Serpent Fire has been aroused that one has thereby become a Yogi or achieved the end of Yoga. Leadbeater attributes the 1 This. It is these states which create. it is said that the Sādhaka whose Ātmā is nothing but a meditation on this lotus "becomes the creator. being a Yogi he could not bring her down again. In this and other matters. The latter is ever disposed to interpret all processes and their results from a subjective standpoint. we must distinguish both practice and experience from theory. again. when the head got gradually warmer. II. and whose brother practised it) of the case of a European friend of mine who was not acquainted with the Yoga processes here . though the theory which may be given to account for it is incorrect. to take but one instance. again. to take but one instance. A similar experience may possibly be gained by various modes of practice. Viṣṇu and Śiva are the names for functions of the one Universal Consciousness operating in ourselves. whilst the Rt. The following sections will enable the reader to pursue the comparison for himself. it is obvious. who was learned in this Yoga. as my object in comparing the two accounts has been to establish a general contrast between this modern account and that of the Indian schools. Though much is here gained. etc. imitating the posture of a Yogi. She is called "the giver of the eight Siddhis. She gives Aishvarya. but which will be quickly recognized by those who have some familiarity with the Indian Scriptures and mode of thought. however. 2 Ānandalaharl. sustain and destroy the worlds. Rev. At the same time it points out that these "powers" are obstacles to Liberation. however. and that in the degree that the Jīvarealizes that consciousness1 he Śares the powers inherent in the degree of his attainment.it may be years ordinarily or in exceptional cases months. Samādhi. The Indian theory is highly philosophical. And whatever be the means employed. and that which constitutes their real profundity. being in the right position and conditions. further. the Hindu says that all powers (Siddhi) are the attributes (Aishvarya) of the Lord Īśvara. though this may take place by accident when by chance a person has hit upon the necessary positions and conditions. This. I may. the Abode of Bliss.35. that is. It was surmised that his breath must have stopped. it is not until the Tattvas of this centre are also absorbed. it is the transformation of the "lower" into "higher" states of consciousness which is the process and fruit of Yoga and the cause of all its experiences. The man came to consciousness. from the higher Yogi's point of view. who had ascended to Her cerebral centre. p. The warmth descended to the neck. but into which I do not enter. when suddenly "sleep" had come over him. whilst the Rt. comes only after long effort. as the commentator points out (v. though for the purposes of Sādhana the objective aspect is not ignored. 18 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Here. and complete knowledge1 of the Sahasrāra is gained. or Creative Consciousness. however. preserver and destroyer of the three worlds".

to be symbolized by the Oaduceus of Mercury. An understanding of the recondite matters in the treatise here translated is. which can only be effected by the Yoga methods prescribed.described. as he wrote me. believed he had roused Kuṇḍalī by meditative processes alone. only possible if we first shortly summarize some of the philosophical and religious doctrines which underlie this work and a knowledge of which in his reader is assumed by its author. Iḍa and Piṅgalā. The present work is issued. The Pandit's observations on this experience were as follows: If the breath is stopped and the mind is carried downwards. being abnormally free from the infection of bodily desires. INTRODUCTION23 . 22 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER taught the practice he got confused. of this Introduction will deal firstly with the concepts of Consciousness1 and of the unconscious. he felt the serpent uncoil. "the flames spreading wingwise about my head. skull. "What is here is elsewhere. There is one simple test whether the Śakti is actually aroused. a matter which each will determine for himself. One night.1 the little ball at the top of the rod was identified with the Sahasrāra or pineal gland. a fuller. heat is felt. and blue or azure light. Taking the centres. post) which perceived Her. nevertheless. but as the experiencer had not been taught the practice he got confused." and felt. or Śakti . therefore. When she is aroused intense heat is felt at that spot but when she leaves a particular centre the part so left becomes as cold and apparently lifeless as a corpse. The pineal gland is much lower in the region of the Ājñā Cakra. is considered. however. Sushumaa. It was the mind (Buddhi) (v. whilst some of these flames. and who. 1 For the meaning of this term as here used. Kuṇḍalinī may have thus been seen as Light in the basal centre (Mūlādhāra ). seemed to expand and meet like gathered wings over my head. For as is said in the Viśvasara Tantra. Sushumaa. 1 In which the rod is the central channel (Suṣumnā). and it ran up. The following sections. where some warmth is felt. I felt a rocking motion. The two wings at the top are the two lobes or petals of the Ājñā Cakra. Iḍa and INTRODUCTION21 Taking the centres. palest azure . and in this way to experience Her without actually arousing Her and bringing Her up. like emanations. and there was a musical clashing as of cymbals. as the Power seemed something which could consume me. The radiance or aura round Iḍa was seen as moonlike . as Mind. and the "central fire" with a trembling aura of rosy light. 2 Here I differ. saw the "nerves" Iḍa and Piṅgalā (v. Matter and Life and with their association in the Embodied Spirit or Jīvātmā. post). convinced him that there was a real science and magic in the Indian books which treat of occult physiology. more particularly for those interested in occultism and mysticism. though he had read something about Kuṇḍalī in translation of Sanskrit works. He. as he said. and he was "in a fountain of fire. The progress upwards may thus be externally verified by others.2 and the wings as the flaming of auras on each side of the centre when the fire strikes it. the points of section being at the centres. Perhaps it was on this account that he said he did not regard the awakening of this power as a very high spiritual experience or on a level with other states of consciousness he experienced. more accurate and rational presentation of the subject. Nextly the kinetic aspect of Spirit. When the Śakti (Power) has reached the upper brain (Sahasrāra) the whole body is cold and corpse-like. its creative ideation and manifestation in the evolved Macrocosm and in the human body or Microcosm (Kshudra-Brahman da). not with the object of establishing the truth or expediency of the principles and methods of this form of Yoga. however.that is. see my "Śakti and Śakta". and so missed a divine adventure. The experience. The Sahasrāra is at the top of the skull or upper brain. Kuṇḍalī appeared in vision as of intense golden-like white fire rather burled spirally. and movements of forces were seen in the bodies of others. it was useless for him as a European to go into the minutiae of Eastern Yoga. I realy felt frightened. In fact. except the top of the. however. Fire was seen flashing from centre to centre with such rapidity that he could see little of the vision. which is interlaced by the Iḍa and Piṅgalā sympathetics. It is possible to "see" Kuṇḍalinī with the mental eye. which is a replica on a small scale of the greater world." My friend wrote me that in his agitation he forgot to fix his mind on the Supreme. but as a first endeavour to supply.and Piṅgalā red or rather pale rosy opalescence. this being the place where the static and kinetic aspects of Consciousness unite. and a white fire which rose up into the brain and flamed out in a winged radiance on either side of the head.

Similar considerations apply to other matters here dealt with. he is the manifestation of Śiva's Power. Chhand. one out of a thousand may have success. Kurma Purāṇa.1-9. Śiva represents the static aspect of Reality and Śakti the moving aspect. see "Śakti and Śakta. Power is Śakti . Up. or Śiva who is pure Consciousness. but is in the concise words of the Śakta Sādhaka Kamalakanta 'the Form of the Formless' (Śūnyasya ākāra iti Māyā ). to self-conserve and resist change. Up. for it is finite form and He is the formless infinite. Up. After an account of the "Word" and the letters of speech. are one. These three terms are chosen to denote ultimate Reality. 'To be' again is "to be conscious" and lastly perfect Being-Consciousness is the Whole. The latter will not be understood unless the subject of the preceding sections has been mastered. Life and Matter. Becoming does not = God. Those who wish to go farther. Rigveda S.1-8. For its understanding there is required a full acquaintance with Indian philosophy. because Being or 'Is-ness'. 6-8-6.. l As to the Advaita of Śakta Tantra. It is He who puts forth Power and creates the Universe. The Power-Holder is Śiva. when dealing with the practice of Yoga. They are each Being.10-129-2.. One mode of so doing is the Yoga here described. and. Up. and unlimited unconstrained Being is Bliss. It would need more than a bulky volume to describe and explain in any detail the nature and meaning of this Yoga. and to put into actual process this Yoga. the Great Mother of the Universe. and in particular with that presentment of these three matters which is given in the Śakta and Monistic (Advaita)1 Śaiva Tantras. and in its manifestation as forms it is as material cause. whereby man exchanges his limited or worldly experience for that which is the unlimited Whole (Pūrṇa) or Perfect Bliss. Sveta. Man is then as to his essence the static Power-Holder. I must. assume in the reader either this general knowledge or a desire to acquire it. Mund. Rest implies Activity. For on the practical side I can merely reproduce the directions given in the books together with such explanations of them as I have received orally. His experience alone will say whether the aspirant is capable of success.17-3. The world is its form and these forms are therefore Real. By the imposition upon these terms of Name (Nāma ) and Form (Rūpa) or Mind and Matter. and the bases on which it rests. Power implies a Power-Holder (Śakti man) There is no Power-Holder without Power. So also will a short analysis of the Śakta doctrine of Power be of value. must first satisfy themselves of the value and suitability of this Yoga and then learn directly of a Guru who has himself been through it (Siddha). and ritual in general. Taitt. But the essence of these forms is infinite Power which = infinite Power-Holder.1-12-28. All that is manifest is Power (Śakti ) as Mind. religious doctrine. as Mind and Body. It is necessary to explain and understand the theory of world-evolution even in the practical matters with which this work is concerned.. 6-3-4. 6-8. Māyā is not in this system "illusion". The two as they are in themselves are one. and as will thus facilitate the understanding of the difficult texts here translated. Br. as they are in themselves. Taitt. and Activity implies Rest. or Śakti or Mother. It is said that of those who attempt it. The object of Sādhana or Worship and Yoga is to raise this Power to its perfect expression.. 6-2-1. Yajurveda. Consciousness and Bliss. we have the limited Being-Consciousness and Bliss which is the Universe. which is perfect in the sense of unlimited experience. In evolution it is Power to become and to change. both Changeless and Changeful. the rule is that things dissolve into that from which they originate. 24 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER What then of Power when there is no Universe? It is then Power to Be.' . II page25 BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS THE bases of this Yoga are of a highly metaphysical and scientific character. He is thus Śiva-Śakti . He is as he stands an expression of Power..1 All is Real. and confine myself to such an exposition of general principles and leading facts as will supply the key by which the doors leading to a theoretical knowledge of the subject may be opened by those desirous of passing through and beyond them. Behind all activity there is a static background. There is no Śiva without Śakti . 7-8-14-1. therefore. 6-2-8. This return or dissolution process Nivritti in Yoga will not be understood unless the forward or creative (Pravṛtti) process is understood. the changeful Becoming of Worlds. or Power with out Power-Holder. 89. These three terms stand for the ultimate creative Reality as it is in itself. The two. and the Yoga process here described is such dissolution (Laya). as distinguished from particular forms of Being. 7-26-1. 8-8.What is not here is nowwhere" (Yad ihasti tad anyatra yannehatsti na tat kvaCit). cannot be thought away. I conclude with the method of involution or Yoga. or Śakti without Śiva. For as the Commentator says in v. 1 See as to Power.10-129-5.

Pure Consciousness is Cit or Samvit. though supreme Consciousness is Mindless (Amanah). For all that is not the conscious self is the unconscious object. Spirit is infinite (Aparichchhinna) and formless (Arūpā). and nourishes the universe sprung from Her womb (Yoni). For mind limits Consciousness so as to enable man to have finite experience. On the contrary all is essentially consciousness. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS27 supreme Consciousness is Mindless (Amanah). Spirit1 is one. Mind and Matter are many and of many degrees and qualities. Ātmā or Spirit as such is the Whole (Pūrṇa) without section (Akhanda). imagining (Sṛṣṭikalpana)2 the world to be. This is so because She is the active aspect1 of Consciousness. They are the notwhole (APūrṇa) and are the section (Khanda). the Śaktas. Where there is no mind (Amanah). This is Laya or dissolution. according to the impressions (Saṁskāra) derived from enjoyment and suffering in former worlds. moulding and guiding the practice as he will according to the particular capacities and needs of his disciple. Man then is Pure Consciousness (Cit) vehicled by its Power as Mind and Body. . and His Power (Śakti ) who as She is in Her formless self is one with Him. and call Her Mother. 1 'Spirit is Ātmā which manifests as the Self. and Matter. 26 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER of a thousand may have success. Some worship predominantly the masculine or right side of the conjoint male and female figure (Ardhanarishvara). In Theology this Pure Consciousness is Śiva. the Guru alone can save him from attendant risks. There are no degrees or differences in Spirit. And Mind too is unconscious according to Vedānta. their application is dependent on the circumstances of each particular case. for She is the Great Mother (Magna Mater). Mind and Matter are finite (Paricchinna) and with form (Rūpa). Matter as such is the unconscious. but that it is unconscious because it is the object of the conscious self. Whilst. This does not mean that it is unconscious in itself. is the Lord (Īśvara) or God. there is no limitation. She is the great Devī. therefore. Samvit) from out of which as and by its Power (Śakti ). Its Power (Śakti ) is active and changes in the form of Mind and Matter. There is no Mind without consciousness as its background. The Spirit which is in man is the one Spirit which is in everything and which. The ultimate or irreducible reality is 'Spirit' in the sense of Pure Consciousness (Cit. namely.3rd Edition. the five kinds of Bhūta or sensible matter. the Mahādevi who conceives. the cerebrum or Sahasrāra Padma. predominantly worship the left. Consciousness remaining in one aspect unchanged changes in its other aspect as active Power which manifests as Mind and Body. the reverse of Sṛṣṭi or involution of Spirit in Mind and Matter. Mind and Matter proceed. on this heading it is possible to explain some general principles. Mind and Matter are parts in that Whole. bears. If the latter enters upon the path. Ātmā is unchanged and inactive. Completed Yoga is the Union of Her and Him in the body of the Sādhaka. as the object of worship. Some. Its vehicles are Mind or Antahkaraṇa working with Manas and the Senses or Indriyas. the Mother of the Universe who as the Life-Force resides in man's body in its lowest centre at the base of the spine just as Śiva is realized in the highest braincentre.

.

30 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER as Śiva-Śakti .Hṛdaya Tantra). finally giving Mukti or Liberation by retiring from Him when He no longer serves Her. which is the Supreme Spirit (Paramātma ). and Her awe-inspiring grandeur as Kali. being embodied Spirit (Jīvātmā). Being-Consciousness. The father is a mere helper (Sahakari-Mātrā) of the Mother. Here we are concerned with Yoga which is the realization of the union of the Mother and Lord aspects in that state of consciousness which is the Absolute. 1 Saṁkoca. Vol. Avidya. (Vimarśa Śakti prAkāśatmana pararaashivena samarasya-viśvam srijati na tu kevala .that is. This Being Consciousness is absolute Bliss (Ānanda). Ch. And there is such objectivity as long as. as such (Cit or Samvit). The interpretation here given is that 1 The Supreme Father gives His illumination (PrakilŚa). It is because of this that the Devī is in the Tantras symbolically represented as being above the body of Śiva. It is their first word and generally their last. who lies under Her like a corpse (Śava). for it is creative ideation on the recalled memory of the past universe. states. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS29 The interpretation here given is that contained in the Śakta Tantras or Agamas.Bliss. it is not Brahmā. 3 It is said that "there is nothing more tender than Prakṛiti. maintain and destroy. and is Her manifestation (Pūrṇa-vikaŚa).1 The whole world of the five elements also springs from the Active Consciousness or Śakti . Philosophically also this is sound. Man by his constitution inveterately believes in an objective existence beyond and independent of himself. 823. Therefore men worship the Mother.vishranti). 66).28). But in the ultimate basis of experience. the source of the universe. I. is identical with Being as such. "the picture of the world is designed by her own will" (SvechchhaviśvamayollekhakhaCitam). 2 In Matri-Bhāva. 28 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER impressions (Saṁskāra) derived from enjoyment and suffering in former worlds. Anekani=the several Ājñā nas . 98). See Prāṇatoshini 9.. the realization of which saying the Prapanchasara Tantra calls the fifth or supreme State (Ch. Brahman i. Though in ordinary experience the two are essentially bound up together. we speak of Cit as Feeling-Consciousness we must remember that what we know and observe as such is only a limited changing manifestation of Cit. Consciousness or feeling. who create. . It is Bliss because.Hṛdaya Tantra says." I. Ekam=ekam Ājñā nam or Māyā. his consciousness is veiled or contracted1 by Māyā. if conscious. Vaishnavi. produces.3 saluting Her smiling beauty as the rosy Tripura-sundarī. for all that man knows (outside ecstasy of Samādhi) is the Mother in Her form as the world.2 than whom is none more tender. Veda says: "All this (that is. XIX. but not alone. according to the Sanskrit term. which is defined as "resting in the self" (Svarūpa. The first Mantra into which all men are initiated is the word Ma (Mother). Supreme Consciousness is the Supreme Śiva-Śakti (Para-Śiva ParaŚakti ) which never changes. The Supreme Śakti . Rudrani.1 The quiescent Śiva-aspect is by its definition inert. In the first place. All manifestation is associated with apparent unconsciousness.4 How the many can be the one5 is variously explained by the different schools. but their Śakti s. being the infinite All (Pūrṇa). it can be in want of nothing. as the MahāNirvāṇa Tantra says (VII. This blissful consciousness is the ultimate or irreducible nature or Svarūpa or own form of the one Reality which is both the Whole as the irreducible Real and port as the reducible Real. II. for in it lie. experience." who serves Puruṣa in every way in his enjoyment. the Vimarśa Śakti . the manifold world) is (the one) Brahman " (Sarvam khalvIḍām Brahmā). the symbolism also denotes ([particularly in the case of Kali) the liberating aspect of the Mother. which is the background of all experience. III. What limits it must be something either in itself unconscious or. She is both as Upadhi of Īśvara and Jīva(TriŚati. "seeing which Bhagavan was very pleased ". is embodied in every order of thing (SarvakramaŚaririni . The mind is evidently not a pure. 2 Sṛṣṭikalpana2 The world is called an imagination (Kalpana). however. "Tantrik Texts"). 4 This. the divergence has gone. what is the one Reality which appears as many? What is the nature of Brahman as it is in itself (Svarūpa)? The answer is Sat-Cit-Ānanda . When the Devī stands above Śiva. as distinguished from what it may appear to be. See "Principles of Tantra. Fullness or wholeness is "veiled" in order that the part or particular may he experienced.Yoginl. As the Kubjika Tantra. Viṣṇu and Rudra. 5 Thus it is said of Devī that She is in the form of one and many (EkanekaKṣarakritih). which is in itself the infinite changeless principle. Activity is the nature of Prakṛti (Sāṁkhya Pravachana Sutra. but eternally endures the same throughout all change effected in its creative aspect as Śiva-Śakti .Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra). When. who takes it back into Herself. Svarūpa is the nature of anything as it is in itself. As the Yoginī.that is. experiencer. and the experienced. they still diverge or seem to diverge from each other. For the same reason the female form is represented in sexual union as being above (Viparita) the male. but a limited consciousness. in undifferentiated mass. It is held natural to worship Her as Mother. She. who is not different from Śiva (ParaŚakti Śivabhinna). Ill. is the end and aim of Tantrika Kulachara.

The manifestation of consciousness is more or less limited as ascent is made from the mineral to man. however. reaching its fullest development in man. then. which is never absent in anything. when in essence he and they are the one Self." means power." for.capable of producing the appearance of consciousness.1 This is the Experience-whole (Pūrṇa) in which as the Upaniṣad says. It is that which establishes a dichotomy in what would otherwise be a unitary experience. As She is one with Śiva as Power-holder (Śakti man). "The Self knows and loves the Self. This is further manifested in those micro-organisms which are intermediate stages between the vegetable and animal worlds. It is this veiling by the power of Consciousness (Śakti ) which creates the world. infinite Being Consciousness-Bliss alone was . Śiva-Śakti as Cit and Cidrūpiṇī respectively.that is. Negates what? Perfect consciousness. Māyā is that power by which things are "measured" . feeling and will. The particular power whereby the dualistic world is brought into being is Māyā Śakti . the formless (into forms and the like. and have a psychic life of their own. and some more unconscious than others. though it is. What is it. veils and negates. and is the cause of the dualism inherent in all phenomenal experience. 1 The alternative is given to meet the differing views of Māyā vada and Śakti vada. that is. In the animal world consciousness becomes more centralized and complex. and Śakti is the kinetic active aspect of the same Consciousness. and projects from the store of its previous experiences (Saṁskāra) the notion of a world is which it suffers and enjoys. Cit. Śakti . The power of Consciousness is Consciousness in its active aspect. The universe is thus the creative imagination (Sṛṣṭikalpana. appear to be more conscious. Māyā-Śakti is that which seemingly makes the Whole (Pūrṇa) into the not-whole (APūrṇa). for otherwise all could not be one Brahman. It is a power which thus cuts down. as different from himself. Therefore it is Saccidānandamayī1 and Cidrūpiṇī. Spirit remains the same. The suffixes Mayī and Rūpiṇī indicate a subtle distinction . Consciousness and unconsciousness are always intermingled. who possesses all the psychic functions such as cognition. The sentiency of plants is more developed. a dormant consciousness. "Supreme love is bliss" (Nira- . and all things and persons therein. Consciousness veils itself to itself. as it is elsewhere said. yet manifests itself in various ways and degrees. "to be able. She as such Power is the power of Śiva or Consciousness. therefore. The appearance of development is due to the fact that It is now more and now less veiled or contracted by Mind and Matter. 2 In the form or nature of Cit. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS31 As Cit throughout all these stages of life remains the same it is not in itself really developed. Some things. 32 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER being is Māyā Śakti . Śakti as action veils consciousness by negating in various degrees Herself as Consciousness. changeless Cit as it is in itself (Svarūpa). as it is called) of the Supreme World-thinker (Ishyara). the infinite into the finite. its substance is Sat. as distinguished from the particular forms of its manifestation. Whilst. in the Bhanumati. as Cakra pani says. This is due to the fact that Cit. formed and made known (Miyate anaya iti Māyā ). or that which makes man see the world. "to have power". The degree of this manifestation is determined by the nature and development of the mind and body in which it is enShrined. which is both a veiling (Avarana) and projecting (Vikshepa) Śakti . Before the manifestation of the universe. Behind all these particular changing forms of sentiency or consciousness is the one formless." It is this Love which is Bliss or "resting in the self. some distinction. perception. As the Kubjikā Tantra says. which veils consciousness and thus produces world-experience? The answer is Power or Śakti as Māyā. and that physical consciousness which is called in the West atomic memory.1 In the phenomenal world there is nothing absolutely conscious nor absolutely unconscious. Is Śakti in itself the same as or different from Śiva or Cit? It must be the same. In the mineral world Cit manifests as the lowest form of sentiency evidenced by reflex response to stimuli. the mind and body change. Cit. Ānanda. the Parama Kalā is both Cit (Cidrūpa) and Nāda (Nādarūpā). 1 That is. that She is in Herself. at least in appearance.that is. which is both a veiling (Avarana) and projecting (Vikshepa) Śakti . It is the sense of difference (Bhedabuddhi). which comes from the root Śak. But if it is the same it must be also Cit or Consciousness. the former is the changeless static aspect of Consciousness. There is no difference between Śiva as the possessor of power (Śakti man) and Power as It is in Itself.namely.2 And yet there is. both Śiva and Śakti are Consciousness. and yet by appearance the effect of the Power something different from it.

Vimarśa samarasyarupini. In the first emphasis is laid on the "This".Prakāṣa and Vimarśa . who is called Vimarśa . on Shftrada Tilaka. Śiva. In VikalpĀjñā na there is subject and object. and its Philosophy of the Tattvas J. or Nirguṇa (attributeless). dealing with Mantra and its origin. to affect. Nāda is the first produced movement in the ideating cosmic consciousness leading up to the Sound-Brahman (Śabda-Brahman ). It is that which is pounded or handled by thought. IV. and the other the creative changing aspect. diagram: Anusvara-moondot. of "I" and "This". Vol. or Para-brahman. known as Sadāśiva or Sādākhyā Tattva. 34 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER In the Mantra side of the Tantra Śāstra. See as to the Kashmir School. or universe of objects. which is followed by the second or Īśvara Tattva. In Parā-saṁvit the "I" (Aham) and the "This" (Iḍām). which is called Śiva-Śakti Tattva. or manifestation of what is not manifest. This is ParamaŚiva.one the transcendental changeless aspect (Parā-saṁvit). or Śabda-Brahman (Brahman as the source of "sound.) BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS33 Parā-saṁvit. Chatterji's work on "Kashmir Śaivism". 3 This word comes from the root mrish=to touch. "Tantrik Texts"). in the second on the "I. as contrasted with Saguṇa (with attribute). these two Tattvas emanating from Śakti are from the sound side known as Nāda and Bindu. In its technical Mantra sense it denotes that state of active . Śakti . negates Herself as the object of experience.laye Sūkṣma sthita (Conam. Para-Śiva and ParaŚakti are motionless (Nih-spanda) and soundless (Nih-śabda). and then by the third or Shuddavidya Tattva. 2 ParamaŚiva has two aspects . there is the first transformation of consciousness. the language in which they are expressed (Śabda). At this point. that is. or Kāmeśvaraand Kāmeśvarīthe ParaLiṅga. Ch. This is the NirvikalpĀjñā na state in which there is no distinction of "This" and "That"." v. All three terms denote the principle of objectivity. Her function being negation (Nishedhavyapara-Rūpa Śakti h)." and in the third on both equally. leaving the Śiva consciousness as a mere "I. or Nishkala (devoid of manifested Śakti ). or Sakala (with parts or Śakti ). It is placed in the Candrabindu nasal breathing above Nāda (°).tiŚayapremaspadatvam Ānandatvam). and the objects (Artha) which they denote. I. Then Māyā severs the united consciousness so that the object is seen as other than the self and then as split up into the multitudinous objects of the universe. Pradhana and Prakṛti also involve the meaning "placing in front". I).pratyayah). This is Para-Śiva. PrAkāśa=asphutasphutikara. whence all ideas. are derived. This is a state of mere subjective illumination (PrAkāśa-Mātrā)2 to which Śakti . who in the scheme of the Thirty-six Tattvas. This Monism posits a dual aspect of the single Consciousness . Śiva. 2 Baghava Bhatta says Ya aNāḍī rūpā chaitanyadhyasena Mahāpra." "not looking towards another" (Ananyonmukhah aham. the first incipient stage of dualism. Bindu literally means a point and the dot (Anusvāra). 1 Aham Prakṛti Rūpa chet CidĀnanda-parayana (Kulachudarnani Nigama.2 is known as Parāsaṁvit. are indistinguiŚably mingled in the supreme unitary experience.16-24. which denotes1 in Sanskrit the nasal breathing (°).1 In Śiva-Śakti Tattva. that which is so placed is object. but now with a distinction of "I" and "This" as yet held together as part of one self. which is the negative aspect of the former. C. object of reflective thought.3 again presents Herself. to cogitate. vv. Ch. 1 As the Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra says : The Parā Devī is PrAkāśa. post.

is necessarily imperfect. is turned (Vakrarekhā amkushakara) by the force of the spiraline sack of Māyā in which it works 1 The imagery. for such a point. But when that object is completely subjectified. Again the imagery is faulty. is necessarily imperfect.1 This is the Śivabindu. like all of its kind.2 It subjectifies the "This. It collapses. is assumed to have a position. It is that state of gathered-up power which immediately precedes the burgeoning forth (Sphurana) of the universe. This is the universe-experience of the Lord-experiencer as Bindu. (Rijurekha) from the point which. is assumed to have a position.the spheroids or "eggs of Brahmā" (Brahmanda). whereas Śiva and Śakti are the One with dual aspect. 3 The two seeds are Śiva and Śakti . It sees that object as extended in space. Therefore there is no manifestation or dualism. When they come apart there is "creation". BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS35 It collapses. into a mathematical point without any magnitude whatever.Consciousness or Śakti in which the "I" or illuminating aspect of Consciousness identifies itself with the total "This". for such a point. It is conceived that round the Śiva Bindu there is coiled Śakti . when it has gone its length as a point. 2 For until the operation of Māyā at a later stage the "This" is still experienced as part of the "I". 3 For the same reason Śakti is then said to be Ghanībhūtā. the Śakti coiled round Śiva. post. so to speak. There is one indivisible unity of dual aspect which is figured also in the Tantras2 as a grain of gram (Chanaka).3 Where does the Universe go at dissolution? It is withdrawn into that Śakti which projected it. Here there is none. What goes with (anu) with vowel sound (Svāra or Svara). is compressed together with it. is Kuṇḍalinī Śakti . which. and because the nature of Her power is spiraline. and forms therefore also one and the same point. This word comes from the word Kundala or "a coil". Here there is none.4 1 Lit. into a mathematical point without any magnitude whatever. and in their circular or revolving orbits and in other ways. which is literally massive or condensed. "a bangle". which. When Consciousness apprehends an object as different from Itself. also without magnitude. She is spoken of as coiled. like all of its kind. in that there are two seeds. or we are in spacelessness. though it has no magnitude. This coiled Śakti may be conceived as a mathematical line. which has two deeds so closely joined as to look as one surrounded by an outer sheath. being everywhere in contact with the point round which it is coiled. lies coiled. 2 See the Commentary. when resting and sleeping. because She is likened to a serpent (Bhujangi). making one point (Bindu) with it. which again is withdrawn into the Śiva-Śakti -Tattva which produced it. so to speak. just as in the earth centre called Mūlādhāra Cakra in the human body a serpent clings round the self-produced Phallus (SvayaṁbhuLiṅga ). (Picture: Water-nut = Serpen4. though it has no magnitude. Thus the Tantras speak of the development of the straight line.3 To revert to the former simile. 4 The imagery.jpg) ." thereby becoming a point (Bindu) of consciousness with it. manifesting itself as such in the worlds . and the sheath is Māyā. or we are in spacelessness. it is experienced as an unextended point.

.

with whom She is essentially one." he says. which is Nishkala Śiva. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS37 The Indian Scriptures say. As creative will arises. or the static centre round which every form of existence as moving power revolves.rupini. This Māyā contains. to distinguish it from the same power which exists in individual bodies. 1 The shape of the Siṇgārā water-nut. ascending as a straight line into the plane of the third dimension.that is. who is Herself one with Consciousness or Śiva. Māyā. This takes place as a limited stress in the unlimited unmoving surface of pure Consciousness. every cosmic magma predestined to evolve into a new world has been the no less predestined end of a vanished predecessor. As Saguṇa She it is by whose power all creatures are displayed (SarvaBhūtaprakashini). must be conceived of in the solid mass. its liberation (Mukti) or formless aspect. p.the desire for enjoyment of and as form. They were produced by desire for worldly enjoyment. At the time of Dissolution (Pralaya) there is in Consciousness as MahāKuṇḍalī . At the end of the period of rest. This Śakti coiled round the Supreme Śiva is called MahāKuṇḍalī ("The great coiled power"). manifestation taking place after a period of rest. These constitute the mass of the potential ignorance (Avidya) by which Consciousness veils itself. the collective Saṁskāra or VĀsana . potentially exists as MahāKuṇḍalī . which is Īśvara Tattva. and themselves produce such desire. Prāṇatoshini. and back to the homogeneous again (Pralaya or Dissolution). in their totality. It is for . the Devī is called Kubjika (hunchback). though undistinguishable from its general mass.36 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER so as to form a figure of two dimensions. Kubjika Tantra. One of the cardinal principles of the Śakta Tantra is to secure by its Sādhana both Liberation (Mukti) and Enjoyment (Bhukti). The worlds exist because they. as the world. Oh. will to exist. formless Consciousness there springs up the desire to manifest in the world of forms . There are thus alternate states of evolution and dissolution. the present universe being but one of a series of worlds which are past and are yet to be. when it moves to manifest itself. which is Dissolution. and in creation Brahman andaprakashini). and a universe or form aspect. and is both attributeless and with attribute (Nirguṇa and Saguṇa). and which is called Kuṇḍalinī." that the universe is an unfoldment (Sṛṣṭi) from the homogeneous (MūlaPrakṛti ) to the heterogeneous (Vikṛiti )." This the Indian Śāstraaffirms in its doctrine that there is no such thing as an absolutely first creation. and is in fact constituted by. which again is turned upon itself. The one Consciousness is polarized into static (Śiva) and kinetic (Śakti ) aspects for the purpose of "creation".1) In other words. "as Kant suggests. This seed is therefore the collective or cosmic will towards manifested life . This Yoga is the resolution of this duality into unity again. but without affecting the latter. Kuṇḍalinī is an aspect of the eternal Brahman (Brahmārūpā Sanatani). this seed ripens in Consciousness. "It may be.. in which it is as mere Consciousness-Bliss. in which it becomes the world of enjoyment (Bhukti). in his " Evolution and Ethics". Śakti thrills as Nāda. In Her Nirguṇa aspect She is pure Consciousness (Chaitanyarupini) and Bliss itself (Ānanda.that is. it is He in his Śiva-Śakti aspect who comes forth (Prasarati) and endows Himself with all the forms of worldly life. which grows freely in the lakes of Kashmir. In the pure. So also Professor Huxley. When this seed ripens. and She with Śiva. 38 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Consciousness has thus a twin aspect. The flat drawing is a mere suggestion of the three-dimensional figure which the Yantra is. thus forming the triangular or pyramIḍāl figure called Śrīngataka (=Śṛṇgātaka. Śiva in His transcendent aspect does not change. Each individual exists because his will desires worldy life. whence all the worlds derive. the life of form and enjoyment. Here I may observe that Yantras. the potentiality or seed of the universe to be. speaks of the manifestation of cosmic energy (Māyā Śakti ) alternating between phases of potentiality (Pralaya) and phases of explication (Śrīshti). perfect. this Kuṇḍalī Śakti is that which. There is thus change in changelessness and changelessness in change.3 Kuṇḍalī Śakti in individual bodies is power at rest. the mental impressions and tendencies produced by Karma accomplished in previously existing worlds. To say that it is "coiled" is to say that it is at rest . in the words of Herbert Spencer in his "First Principles.that is.1 This is possible by the identification of the self when in: enjoyment with the soul of the world. When it is accomplished the individual Śakti (Kuṇḍalī ) is united with the great cosmic Śakti (Mahā-Kuṇḍalī ).2 It is with and through the last power that this Yoga is effected. but Śiva (Sakala) in His immanent aspect as Śakti does. in the form of static potential energy. 8. In the universe there is always in and behind every form of activity a static background. 2 Because She is thus bent. As this Śakti is Himself. though drawn on the flat. appears at the universe. Śiva is said to put forth His Śakti .2 and assumes the form of Bindu. I.

that is. The pure-impure categories are intermediate between the pure and the impure. Vol. The Devī is Samkuchadrūpā through Matri." but the latter is regarded. when there is a complete cleavage between the "I" and the "This. from Śiva Tattva to Śuddhavidya. Mana. the Kañcukās. The term Samkocha (contraction) expresses the same idea. here summarized. I): Kulam meyamanamatrilaKṣanam. the Mantra concepts of Nāda. 4 Forms of Śakti whereby the natural perfections of Consciousness are limited. . and 1 Akula is a Tantrik name for Śiva. Meya. See "Garland of Letters". (KulāṛnavaSaṁhitā. As already stated.219.an "I" (Aham) and "This" (Iḍām). "Tantrik Texts" Ch. v.1 becomes Vikarini"2 . IV. Bindu.3 Authors of the Northern Śaiva School. thirdly." but as part of a one self with two sides . 3 See as to these terms the author's "Garland of Letters". which constitute the universe. 2 Kulachudamani. IV. In the Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra it is said (Ch. the "Devī. called Ātmā. The states thus described are threefold: a transcendent mingled "I" and "This" in which these elements of experience are as such not evolved. and covers Herself with Her own Māyā ". "Tantrik Texts. Knowing. joyful in the mad delight of Her union with the Supreme Akula. and therefore so also is Śiva as Jīva(tatha shivo'pi samkuchadrūpāh). Again. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS39 own Māyā ". Therefore. Mana. kaulastatsamastih. 1 Bhogena Mokṣam apnoti bhogena kulaSādhanam Tasmad yatnad bhogayukto bhaved Vīra varah sudhih.16-24. and so forth. Both Śaivas and Śaktas equally accept the Thirty-Six categories or Tattvas. This last stage is itself twofold. 40 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER the third includes the five highest Tattvas called the pure Tattvas (Śuddha Tattva). in the words of the Nigama. the Vikaras or Tattvas of Mind and Matter. In the first the Puruṣa experiences 1 This is not counted as a Tattva. for that is Consciousness as Śakti ." Ch. . These thirty-six Tattvas are in the Tantras divided into three groups. The emphasis varies from insistence on the "I" to insistence on the "This.and its limitations . Vidya and Śiva Tattvas. from the lowest Pṛthivī ("earth") to Prakṛiti. The essential characteristic of experience constituted by the impure categories is its dualism effected through Māyā . General conclusions only are. and "sound" (Śabda). which is Matri. 3 Kulachudamani. Each consciousness thus became mutually exclusive the one of the other." and then to equality of emphasis on the "I" and "This" as a preparation for the dichotomy in consciousness which follows. I. form. the wise and good Vīra should carefully be united with world-experience. appear. the Śakti s Unmanī and the rest in the Tattvas. in which both the "I" and the "This" are experienced as part of the one "self. Śakti being called Kula. known. Thus from all-knowing it becomes little-knowing. vv. the state of manifestation proper. however. called the pure impure categories (Śuddha-aśuddha Tattva). Here the "This" is not seen as part of the Self.their creation that Kuṇḍalī uncoils. The Śāstras have dealt with the stages of creation in great detail both from the subjective and objective viewpoints as changes in the limited consciousness or as movement (Spanda). as presented by the pure categories. The first group includes all the Tattvas.4 and Puruṣa.3 "becomes desirous of creation. experience recognizes an "I" and "This. and. the Kalas." 2 Literally "sound.the result of the operation of the Kañcukas. it becomes a little-doer. etc. Meya. of which a leading Śāstra is the Malinivijaya Tantra. the second includes Māyā. vv." that initial activity which is the first source of the subsequently manifested Śabda (sound) which is the Word to which corresponds the Artha or Object. I. Kāmakalā. the supreme changeless state (Parā-saṁvit)1 is the unitary experience in which the "I" and "This" coalesce in unity. and a pure form of experience intermediate between the first and last. which are known as the impure categories (AŚuddha Tattva). from being almighty. being Tattvatita. not as something opposed to and outside the "I. In the kinetic or Śakti aspect.16-24. but as opposed to and without it as an object seen outside.)' "By world-experience (Bhoga Bhukti) he gains Liberation or World experience is the means for the attainment of Kula. When Karma ripens. Vol.YoginlHṛdaya Tantra." in which an outer object is presented to the consciousness of a knower which is other than the subject. These three are Knower. the Devī. have described with great profundity these Tattvas. the Ṣadādhvā.

She rests in Her last emanation. liquid. TATTVA5. Dipa (light).there is nothing further for Her to do.that is." "water.2 which. 1 These terms have not the ordinary English meaning. and from Nāda evolved Bindu (Īśvara Tattva). gaseous. This last centre or Cakra and the four above it are centres of the five forms of Matter. whose abode in the human body is the Earth centre or Mūlādhāra Cakra. water. Candana (sandal). though different from himself as Prakṛti . She is now Kuṇḍalī Śakti . 2 SachCidĀnanda-vibhavat sakalat parameshvarat Asichohhaktis tato nado nadad bindu-samudbhavah . In worship (Puja) they are symbolized by the following ingredients (Upachara): Pushpa (flower)." "fire. is called the Supreme Bindu (Parā-Bindu). which must be known if the Text is to be understood. but denote the ethereal. and the multitudinous beings of the universe which these compose. issued Śakti (Śakti Tattva). and then sensible matter (Bhūta) of fivefold form ("ether. fire.gif = As in the supreme state She lay coiled as the MahāKuṇḍalī round the Supreme Śiva. The sixth centre is that of Mind. and She rests. ether.BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS41 a homogeneous universe. who is Sat-Cit-Ānanda. Ahaṁkāra. so here She coils round the Svayaṁbhu Liṅga in the Mūlādhāra. to distinguish it from the Bindu which follows." "earth")1 derived from the supersensible generals of the senseparticulars called Tanmātra. earth. Manas) and senses (Indriya). air. wherein it is said that from the Sakala Śiva (Śiva Tattva). The mantra evolution. in the second Prakṛti is split up into its effects (Vikṛiti ). and solid states of matter. Dhupa (incense). Her creative activity then ceases. solid matter . Śakti as Prakṛti first evolves mind (Buddhi. When Śakti has entered the last and grossest Tattva ("earth") . Consciousness and its processes through Śakti prior to the appearance of Māyā are realized in the seventh lotus (Sahasrāra-padma) and centres intermediate between it and the sixth or Ājñā Mind centre. igneous." "air. the "earth" principle. Naivedya (food-offering). which are Mind and Matter. from the latter Nāda (Sādākhyā Tattva). is set forth with great clarity in the Śaradā Tilaka. She is again coiled and sleeps.

on Ch. The Commentary to v. as also the Guṇas which are implicitly contained in it. all the worlds and beings to be created. Nāda and Bīja are its three parts. the first of which is called Bindu. also speaks of Bindu as being Nādātmāka. for the Bindus themselves are not Nirguṇa. is described as the state of the letter Ma before manifestation. Bindu. "The eternal Śiva is to be known both as Nirguṇa (without attributes) and Saguṇa (with attributes). appears under a threefold aspect. as some MSS. though undistinguishable the one from the other. their mutual relation or interaction (Mithah samavāyah)5 or Yoga (union).ghana or massive consciousness . Thus in the Mantra "Krim. It implies both the void (Śūnya) . the Brahman state (Brahmāpada) . in so far as they are Mantra Śatras.58) is the first letter of a Kuta or group and what follows is Śakti . Bindu. Śakti and Śānta of the Oṁ and other Bīja Mantras. Bīja (according to the Kulachudamani.e.Śakti Tattva enveloped by Māyā or Parama-Kuṇḍalinī. such as that from which I quoted in Introduction to the MahāNirvāṇa . in which lie potentially in a mass (Ghana). This is Parama Śiva. as the Prayogasāra calls it. since it is in indissoluble union with Śakti .. Bīja is Śakti and Nāda is said to be the mutual relation between them by all who are versed in the Agamas. which has previously been explained. v. but spring from it." is the first of the produced intermediate causal bodies of manifested Śabda.6 1 See v." The verse as cited in Prāṇatoshini (p. In those Tattvas the germ of action (Kriyā Śakti ) sprouts towards its full manifestation. or Nāda. it does not matter what He is called. post BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS43 He is the Lord (Īśvara) who is worshipped in secret by all Devas. or produced. v. which within the human body exists in the pericarp of the thousand-petalled lotus (Sahasrāra) in the highest cerebral centre.1 The Parabindu is called the Ghanāvasthā or massive state of Śakti ." The first word of the third line reads better as Binduh Śivatmako." K is Bīja and R and I are Śakti . which also literally means "sound. O Mahesvari. 5 ParaŚakti Māyā h saKṣat tridhasau bhidyate punah Bindur nado Bījam iti tasya bhedah samlritah Binduh Śivatmako Bījam Śakti r nadas tayor mithah Samavayah samakhyatah sarvagamaviŚāradā ih (Ch. originated the three Bindus which are Brahmā-bindu.that is. It is Cid. Nāda.49. The Tantras. 4 In the case of the Mantras.1 and is pointed to in different phases of the Candrabindu.that is. See also to the same effect Kriyāsara. Bindu is Śivatmaka (i. Viṣṇu-bindu and Rudra-bindu. like all else. Cidrūpiṇī) Śakti . Mantra is manifested Śabda. 2 See v.4 Nāda is Śiva-Śakti . By the Bīja form is made (Bijena murtikalpana). being those states of Her which are the proper conditions for (Upayogā.that is. 6 See Raghava Bhatta's Comm.41-49 post. Ch. I). 8 of Śāradā : Nirguṇah Saguṇash cheti shivo jneyah sanatanah Nirguṇachchaiva samjata bindavas traya eva cha Brahmābindur Viṣṇubindu rudrabindur maheshvari. but this must be a mistake for Nirguṇachchaiva. whose substance is Supreme Śakti . Bindu. than as Bindur Nādātmāko. but explains that that means Śivatmaka.41. cited in v. and Kāma-kalamalini Tantra. are concerned with Śabda or "Sound" a term later explained. to distinguish it from the casual (Kāraṇa) Bindu or Parabindu.I. Śiva). consisting of the Śiva. "This (Bindu) which is both Śiva and Śakti divides itself again into three parts.1 As the Commentator says. post. I.18) reads in sound line Nirguṇashchaiva. in whom the Guṇas or factors constituting the material source of all things are contained. The Śāradā2 then says that this Parabindu. It is this Bindu who is the Lord (Īśvara) whom some Pauranikas call MahāViṣṇu and others the Brahmā-Puruṣa. Bindu is in the nature of Śiva and Bīja of Śakti .43.3 and the others Nāda and Bīja.in the empty space within the circle of the Bindu. Bindu. in whom are all the Devatas. IV. divides itself into three . aspects of Power or Śakti .that is. There are thus three Bindus.Post 2 Ch. ..vasthā) and in which She is prone to (Ucchūnāvasthā) "creation". Prom the attributeless (Nirguṇa). Cit associated with undifferentiated (that is. Its abode is Satyaloka. 3 Karya. Todala Tantra.42 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Nāda and Bindu are. 1 See vv.40.

which are in the nature of Jñāna. See Tika. ACit aspects of nature. subtle (Sūkṣma) and gross (Sthūla). Lalita). Jyeshtha. cited in Samketa2 of the last Tantra.).Jālaṁdharaudyanapitharūpāh. and Varṇa from Bīja.22 Shloka. Kalena bhidyamanastu sa bindur bhavati tridha. and Saubhagya-sudhodaya. 8. Kāmakalāvilasa. and Fire (Agni). 1Asmach cha Kāraṇabindoh sAkāśat kramena karyabindus tato nadas tato Bījam iti trayam utpannam tad Iḍām paraSūkṣmasthulapadaih kathyate (Lalita-Sahasranāma . The three Bindus separately indicate the operations of the three powers of Will (Icchā). terms constantly appearing in the works here translated. Vama. . and Kriyā Tamas in note I. From this Causal (Kāraṇa) Bindu again there originated Karya (Effect) Bindu. 2 Cited in Prāṇatoshini. I. Kala with creative will (here its manifestation).44 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The threefold Bindu (Tribindu) is supreme (Parā).40). Brahmā. Sattva.sambhavam) as stated in the next. Sūkṣma (subtle) and Sthūla (gross). Tamas. Prtharūpā iti tu nityahrIḍāye spashtam (ib). Sa bindunadabljatva bhedena cha nigadyate. CIḍāCit. Viṣṇu.). In Sun there are Fire and Moon. Knowledge (Jñāna). otherwise Jñāna would be associated with Vaishnavi. and in the form of such is not different from ParamaŚiva.3 It is known as Miśra Bindu. AdhiBhūtantu kamarūpāPūrṇagiri.1 It is said in the Prayoga-sāra and Śāradā that Raudrī issued from Bindu. Kamayukta Kala. 3 It is AgnishomaMāyā h. As the Text says (v. Tamas). Sun and Fire. 4 That is. p. Viṣṇu. VaikharlŚabda. But see next note.varahiranyagarbhaVīratsvarūpāh Śantavanajyeshtharaudrirūpā ambikechchhĀjñā naKriyārūpāsh cha (ib. Mahābindu = ParamaŚiva = Mishrabindu = Ravi = Kāmakalā. Rudra) who spring from them. Rudra. Yoginlhri. Madhyama Śabda.these three. 6. Rajas.1 Nāda is thus the union of these two in creation. the three Devas are aspects of the One. of Kāmakalāvilasa. from the Devatā aspect the unmanifest (Avyakta). Comm. These are spoken of as Parā (transcendent). and Action (Kriyā). from the Devī aspect Śāntā. See Comm. 9) says. Viṣṇu. The causal Bindu is from the Śakti aspect undifferentiated Śakti (Abhedarūpā Śakti ) with all powers (Sarva-Śakti Maya). and is Kāmakalā. From these came Rudra. Raudri. Jyeshtha from Nāda. Eka murtistrayo deva BrahmāViṣṇumaheshvarah Mama vigrahasamklipta srijaty avati hanti cha. the names are not to be read in the order of words (PratiŚabdam). Iohchha Kriyā tatha Jñānam gauri brahmiti vaishnavi Tridha Śakti h sthita yatra tatparam jyotir om iti.daya Tantra. Icchā. Comm. Kriyā. Moon (Candra). Jyeshtha. Samketa. PashyantiŚabda. but according to the facts (Yatha. and Moon.4 1 Icchā. SthulaSūkṣmaparatvena tasya traividhyamishyate. Kriyā.2 The three Bindus are known as Sun (Ravi). 7. Citing Bahasyagama. These represent the Cit. from the Prakṛti aspect TriGuṇamayi MūlaPrakṛti . and the three Guṇas (Rajas. Sattva. also the manifestation of the three Devis (Varṇa. As the author of the Prāṇatoshini (p. Raudrī bindos tato nadaj jyeshtha bljad ajayata Varṇa tabhyah samutpannah rudra-Brahmā-ramadhipah Te jnanechchha-Kriyātmano vahnlndvarka-svarupinah. Jñāna.2). it is by this division of Śiva and Śakti that there arises creative ideation (Sṛṣṭi-kalpana). See my "Garland of Letters". and thereafter Nāda and thereafter Bīja . Brahmā. CIḍāmŚah CIḍāchinmishrah aCIḍāmŚahscha teŚam rūpāni (Bhaskararaya. As the Rudra Yamala says (II. According to this account it would seem that Jñāna Sattva. Ete cha Kāraṇabindvadayash chatvara adhIḍāivatam avyaktesh. Ravi-paramaŚivabhinna mishrabindurūpā Kāmakalā. BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS45 Raudri) and the three Devatas (Brahmā. should be transposed. vv.

are Śakti . and the red Bindu of menstrual fluid (Rajasphala. Fire. Sometimes Miśra Bindu is called Śakti Tattva. Śoṇita). the other the Śakti aspect. their collectivity (Samaṣtirūpā). Candra) is Śiva Bindu. Moon and Sun are the Icchā. Sun is a mixture of the two. and white (Sita Bindu). to denote the supremacy of the possessor of power (Śakti man).2 All three Bindus . It is of coupled form (Yāmala-Rūpa). Action). Moon (Soma.46 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Kāmakalā is the Triangle of Divine Desire formed by the three Bindus . On the material plane the white Bindu assumes the form of semen (Śukrā). though one may indicate predominantly the Śiva. Jñāna. Knowledge. There is no Śiva . and red (Śoṇa-bindu).1 This Kāmakalā is the root (Mūla) of all Mantra. Kriyā Śakti s (Will. the Kāmakalā . and sometimes Śiva Tattva. Mahābindu is the state before the manifestation of Prakṛiti. to denote the supremacy of Śakti . Fire (Agni) is Śakti bindu.that is.that is.

their directing intelligences . concluding with Pṛthivī ("earth") in the Mūlādhāra centre. and is called Kuṇḍalinī. There is no Śiva without Śakti . Bhagamalini and Vajreshvari. nor Śakti without Śiva. the one Brahman has twofold aspects as ParamBrahman (transcendent) and Śabda-Brahman (immanent).that is. Comm. I. bhavat param. Ch. (Tantraloka-Ahnika.Śambhu. the centre of the mental faculties.15. KriyāŚakti pradhanayah Śabda-Śabdarthakarauam Prakriter bindurupinyah ŚabdaBrahmā. (And see also Śrīmad Bhagavata. 4 It is said in the Prāṇatoshini.3 The Brahman as the source of language (Śabda) and ideas on one hand. I. the Logos. to use a Western term. v. 6 Skandha. the Devatas of the five forms of Matter. In the one Śiva-Śakti there is a union (Maithuna).) Tena Śabdartharūpāvishishtasya ŚabdaBrahmātvam avadharitam (Prāṇatoshini. Kuṇḍalinī Śakti is the immobile support of all these operations. (Śāradā. Rudrā.16 Ch. which is Kāmakalā.that is. 5 On the physical plane this word denotes sexual union. as also the Lords of the Tattvas (Tattveśa) . Ch. which is Kameshvari. Ch. p.5 the thrill of which is Nāda. and the same. Viṣṇu. and then unites with Śiva in the Sahasrāra Lotus.) It will be observed that in this verse the first Bindu is called Parā and to make this clear the author of the Prāṇatoshini adds the following note: Paradbindor ityanena ŚaktyAvasthārupo yah prathamo bindus tasmat (By Parabindu is meant the first Bindu. the highest. so in the human body Kuṇḍalinī in the "Earth-Cakra " is the static centre (Kendra) round which She in kinetic aspect as the forces of the body works. 3 See Raghava Bhatta. Śāradā. The process . Just as the atom consists of a static centre round which moving forces revolve. As the KulāṛnavaTantra (Khanda5. 2 This. She withdraws with and into Herself these moving Śakti s. ŚabdaBrahmāparamBrahmābhedena Brahman or dvaividhyam uktam. (Śāradā-Tilaka. followed by the triangular Cakra. Ravi and Ra (fire).without Śakti . post. That is called the blissful Śakti from which creation arises.22..) See "Garland of Letters". When She is aroused and Herself moves upwards.10). BODILESS CONSCIOUSNESS47 (Tribindu). which itself becomes threefold 1 As Ravi or Sūrya (Sun) Bindu is in the form of Para-Śiva.them is as impossible as to separate the moving wind from the steadfast ether in which it blows. again rests.) 48 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER over the Ājñā ' Cakra. which is O. vv. it is the Samaṣtirūpā of them.3 To separate4. See further as to Kāmakalā. that Śambhu is the "associate of time" (Kalabandhu). whence Mahābindu is born. 5 Atha bindvatmanah Śambhoh kalabandhoh kalatmanah Ajayata jagat-sakshi sarvavyapi Sadāśivah Sadāśivat bhaved IŚas tato Budrasamudbhavah Tato Viṣṇus tato Brahmā teŚam evam samudbhavah. 8. and Sadāśiva. and the objects (Artha) they denote on the other. nor Śakti without Śiva. is called Śabdabrahman.) "The coupled form of these two (Śiva-Śakti ) is called junction. Candra." 4 Ib.16. 2 Bhidyamanat parad bindor avyaktatmaravo' bhavat Śabdabrahmeti tarn prahuh sarvagamaviŚāradā h.2 This unmanifested Śabda is through action (Kriyā Śakti ) the source of the manifested Śabda and Artha described later. becomes यं यं. which is a state of Śakti . or. 3 Tayor yad yamalam rūpām sa saṁghatta iti smritah ĀnandaŚakti h saivokta yato viśvam visrijyati Na Śivah Śakti rahito na Śakti h Śivavarjita.5 the presiding Devatā 1 In the Śrī-Cakra this is in the region of Baindava Cakra. Īśa. because Kala in the form of Nāda assists in giving birth to Him and the other Devatas. wherein the creative Śakti .4 From this differentiating Bindu in the form of Prakṛti are evolved the Tattvas of Mind and Matter in all their various forms. and in it are the other two Bindus.8 Ahn. The whole-body as Śakti is in ceaselss movement. having finished Her work.1 It is said in the Śāradā -Tilaka that on the "bursting" or differentiation of the Supreme Bindu there was unmanifested "sound" (Śabda). and is thus called Kāmakalā. Brahmā. I. Ullasa I) says.12.

In fact. As. whence in the case of the Yogi. ParaprAkāśarūpā. The Mother is the Antaryamin of the Devatas also. 3 "Little egg (spheroid) of Brahmā. the body is a vast magazine of Power (Śakti ). fine like an atom. as in the name BrahmāPuruṣa.. Sadrūpā and Cidrūpā and thus directs them (TriŚati. 7-9. for She is Para-brahman andarūpā. Here they are mentioned in connection with the form creation (Arthasṛṣṭi). Jīva in Māyā vada Vedānta is really Brahman (Jivo Brahmaiva nāparah) there is according to such doctrine in reality no independent category called Jīva(Nahi jivo Nāma kashCit svatantrah padarthah). like sparks issuing from fire . The Tantras say that it is in the power of man to accomplish all he wishes if he centres his will thereon. Whatever of Mind or Matter exists in the universe exists in some form or manner in the human body. It is of these Tattvas that the Cakras are centres. and of the "Garland of Letters" which is distributed throughout the six bodily centres. for the Ātmā. This term is sometimes applied to the Supreme. Before proceeding to a description of the Cakras it is. The object of the Tantrik rituals is to raise these various forms of power to their full expression. though there is but one great Mother of all whom these Lords themselves 1 So it is said Puruṣan na param kinCit sa kashtha sa Parā gatih.that is. be so."2 In the body there are the Supreme Śiva-Śakti who pervade all things. according to their doctrine.dinam utpattistu artharupena. etc. He is within. " As above. each of which is governed by its own Lords.that is.) The Mind 1 The Jñānārṇava Tantra (XXI. describes the Jivas as parts of Śiva enveloped in Māyā (which thus constitutes them as separate entities). Secondly. The centre in which the quiescent consciousness is realized is the upper brain or Sahasrāra. I. Ātmā is called Jīvawhen with Upadhi . There is thus nothing in the universe which is not in the human body.10) says that "antah" implies secret and subtle.47). Parvam teŚam utpattih Śabdarupena. Power manifest as the Tattvas mentioned. 2 Dehendriyadiyuktah chetano jivah. The Prāṇatoshini: Atra arthasrishtau punah rudra. Ātmā is revealed. And this must. This is the bird Haṁsah which disports in the Lake of Ignorance.1 All else is His power as Mind and Matter. is meant sentient being with body and senses . for man is in his essence one with the Supreme Lord (Īśvara) and Mother (Īśvarī) and the more he manifests Spirit the greater is he endowed with its powers.3 The world is the macrocosm (Brahman da). Paśyantī. etc. (See Plate VIII. placing on their heads the dust of Her feet. The Worlds are dissolved (Laya) from time to time for all beings. all Ātmā with Upadhi (attribute) is Jīva. such as the five Śivas. Madhyamā) and is expressed in uttered speech (Vaikharī). is within everything.2 Man is a microcosm (Kṣudrahmāṇda). so below ".limited by the associated Prakṛti and its products of Mind and Matter. . Philosophically. One of these powers is Prakṛti Śakti . which exists in the body in the three inner states (Parā. an explanation is required of the doctrine of "Sound" (Śabda). There are numberless worlds. There is no need to throw one's eyes into the heavens to find God. when it is Samhararupi.that is. The Transcendental Consciousness is called the Paramātma. necessary to describe more fully the constituents of the body . firstly.that is. In the first case Consciousness is formless and in the second it is with form. The centre and root of all his powers as Jīva is Kuṇḍalinī Śakti . II. the immediate source of Mind and Matter. This will help the reader to an understanding of the meaning of Mantra or manifested Śabda. Yoga is thus Laya. organic life." 50 THE SIX CENTERES AND THE SERPENT POWER worship. The KulāṛnavaTantra. body. Popularly by Puruṣa. Form is derivable from Consciousness as Power (Śakti ). being known as the "Ruler within" (Antaryāmin) or "Inner self " (Antarātma). The perfected Yogi dissolves the Universe for all time for himself. The corresponding static aspect is called Puruṣa. This is the work of Sādhana. ato na paunaruktyam iti kala Māyā tadatmanas tadutpannatvat.an old Vedantic idea. On dissolution. What is not here is nowhere. So as already stated it is said in the Viśvasāra Tantra: "What is here is there. however. In the body is Prakṛti Śakti and all Her products. III EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (Jīvātmā) page49 CONSCIOUSNESS as one with dual aspect is Transcendent and Immanent. extending from Prakṛti to Pṛthivī. the Prāṇa escapes through the fissure called Brahmarandhra at death.an Indian version of the Hermetic maxim. The consciousness which is embodied in Mind and Matter is the Jīvātmā. In everything there is all that is in anything else. as by Jīva. Brahmā. 2 Yad ihasti tad anyatra yan nehasti na tat kvaCit .upward (evolution) is the reverse of the involution above described.1 Here is meant a centre of limited consciousness .

IV." which has been supposed to be altogether inert." She is beyond the senses. and the whole universe which they compose. and has as such no lasting existence. The Devī. And as there is no second principle these Guṇas are Cit-Śakti .namely. Mukhyopadhyaya. presentation (Sattva). She is ineffable and inconceivable: with form (Vikṛiti ). Prakṛti Śakti .1-6 : "Yat chakshuŚa na pashyati. is to reveal consciousness. but not She. whether as Mind or Matter. Pra+dha+anat = Pradhatte sarvam atmani. is to develop Sattva-Guṇa. The light in a lantern is unaffected. or that which contains all things in itself. they are of the nature of forces. holding in Herself unbeginning (ANāḍī ) Karmik tendencies (Karma-saṁskāra) in the form of the three Guṇas. and Viśvasara Tantras. that the universe. Rajas. however. appears to be limited. The latter is only its grossest product. Prakṛiti. dealing with the matter monistically. maintenance (Sthiti). is called TriGuṇātmika (who is composed of the three Guṇas). and thus. whilst Māyā is Anirvachya (indefinable). these are the three elements of the Life Stress on the surface of pure Consciousness . of "Śakti and Śakta". EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ)53 The object and the effect of evolution.EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) Jīvātmā51 and body are effects of Prakṛiti.when evolving the universe. his temperament being called in the Tantras DivyaBhāva. To all seeming. or on Sattva to suppress Tamas. the greater the approach to the condition of Pure Consciousness. tis."24). in one of which (so far as any effect is concerned)2 She is quiescent. As to Mind and Matter see my volumes so entitled. yet Herself (MūlaPrakṛti ) formless. the function of Tamas Guṇa is to suppress or veil consciousness. Prakṛti exists in two states. it (Prakṛiti) finitises and makes form in the infinite formless Consciousness. Her substance consists of the Guṇas or modes of this natural principle which are called Sattva. since it is neither Sat nor Asat. and sometimes the Karma. and veiling (Tamas). The function of Rajas Guṇa is to make active . But one does it less and another more. as it is of all Sādhana.129. and dissolution (Laya) are done (PraKriyāte karyadikam anaya). as it is in itself (Svarūpa). It is also called Pradhana. as in the form of Prakṛiti. What can be seen by the eyes can be defined. however. creative power . though itself unlimited." 3 The three Guṇas are Prakṛiti. 2 See Sadānanda's Comm. 4 See an article of mine in the Indian Philosophical Review. is finitising principle. which are the three elements of creative evolution ("The Patent Wonder. for according to Sāṁkhya it is the real creator. is also composed of the same Guṇas in different states of relation. 52 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Though MūlaPrakṛti is the material cause of the world from which it arises. corresponding with the Greek affix sis. Prakṛti is the ultimate "material" cause of both Mind and Matter.4 So do all the Guṇas. assumes the role of Prakṛti . 3 See the splendid Hymn to Prakṛti in Prapanchasara Tantra. movement (Rajas).that is. "Śakti and Māyā. is not scientific Matter. All nature which issues from Her. III. Similarly.that is. by which creation (Sṛṣṭi). which is Cit or pure Consciousness. See Śāradā Tilaka. The first is Sattva-Guṇa the function of which. It is the mysterious fructescent womb (Yoni) whence all is born.. The greater the presence or power of Sattva-Guṇa. like all else." Kena Up. on4th Mantra of Īśa Up. is a play of force which in the case of matter we as the self or mind experience as object.44) as Idrigityavinirdeshya (who is not to be particularly pointed out as being this or that). Thus Sayana (Rig-Veda. Tamas. which is added to express Bhāva. cited in Prāṇatoshini.2) says that. Ktin inflected in the nominative becomes tih. p." p. Vamakeshvara. the Great Cause (MahāKāraṇasvarūpā). each as such. "Tantrik Texts". who is identified with Pure Spirit. or object of the action.24. Both having the same origin.5 1 Kriteh prarambho yasyah.3 The general action of Śakti is to veil or contract consciousness. She is only known by Her effects. by the Siddhayogi. it works on Tamas to suppress Sattva.19). The Guṇas always co-exist in everything. but its manifestation to those without is affected by the material through which the light shines. 5 In the words of Professor P. Pradhana also literally means "chief" (substance). whether physical or psychical.1 Through Sattva-Guṇa passage is made to Sat. relative to the other Guṇas. but variously predominate. Cit is definable as Sat. "Dialogues on Hindu philosophy. or the abstract idea.2 Consciousness.1 and limited instruments through which Spirit or Consciousness functions. are "material" things . The higher the ascent is made the more Sattva prevails. The lower descent is made in the scale of nature the more Tamas Guṇa prevails. Prakṛiti. Hence the TriŚati addresses the Devī (II.that is.33-35. That is. The truly Sattvik man is a divine man. X. "The changeless Brahman which is consciousness appears in creation as Māyā which is Brahman (Brahmamayi) consciousness (Cidrūpiṇī)..2 What She is in Herself cannot be realized. Vol. for Consciousness as Power and static Consciousness are one. Hence She is Guṇamayi despite being Chinmayi. Prakṛti therefore has been said to correspond with vois (nature) of the Greeks (Banerjee.3 1 So Herbert Spencer holds. 2 The word has been said to be derived from Kri and the affix ktin.1 ultimately. "It cannot be seen by the eyes. is Consciousness. in fact. in conformity with Indian doctrine. The Guṇas are . MahāNirvāṇa Tantra." reproduced in3rd Ed. as in so-called "brute substance. the source and receptacle of all matter and form.

Buddhi). mind (Manas. or Para-śarīra. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ)55 or Māyā of Him or Her as the Creator-Creatrix of all things. which as the Lord is "in all beings." and the twenty-fifth Tattva or Puruṣa. and governed by that Māyā-Śakti of Hers which makes the world seem to be different from what it in its essence is. is bound by the bonds (Pāśa). body. That is. Etymologically Tattva is an abstract derivation from pronoun "Tat" (that). The movement is twofold : (a) Sarūpāparinama or SadriŚatarinama in disolution. From this standpoint the Mother and Her child the Jīva are not. In the infinite. the different categories of Mind. Naparinamya Kṣanamapyavatishthante Guṇah (the Guṇas do not remain for a moment without movement). 2 Pāsa-baddho bhavej jivah pāśamuktah Sadāśivah (KulāṛnavaTantra. The latter term means distinguishing property. and which is Abhimānin. the time for creation takes place. She is the Ājñāna which is pure Sattva and attribute (Upadhi) of Īśvara. 2 The three Guṇas are essentially changeful. or Lord of Paśus (Jivas).15). and not affecting one another. The Ātmā appears as Jīva in the various forms of the vegetable.pradhana). and who from within all beings controls them". Jivas are many. as the Śaivas call it). Jivas ruled by it.5 according to the diversity in the nature of the individual Prakṛti caused by the appearance of Rajas and Tamas in it in differing proportions. senses (Indriya). The products of Prakṛti thus evolved are called Vikara or Vikṛiti.2-6). The latter is a Vikṛiti of the former. 7. They form the tabernacle of the Spirit (Ātmā).40 of the Ṣaṭcakra the commentator speaks of Vikṛiti as a reflection (Pratibimbata) of Prakṛiti. V. IX. however. and may.. These bodies in which the Ātmā is enshrined are evolved from Prakṛiti-Śakti . And so in the TriŚatī4 the Devī is called "in the form of one and many letters" (Ekānekākṣarākṛiti). and who work that Guṇa to suppress Tamas. Vol. all-powerful. there are Tattvas which precede the Puruṣa-Prakṛti Tattvas. 1 Tantrik Texts.16th Karika. upon which the author of the Prāṇa-toshini. Sattvarajastamasam samyAvasthā Prakṛti h. This is the unmanifest (Avyakta). or Thatness. Sāṁkhya -Kaumudi Karika:3. 8-45. 3 This is. thus. Īśvari3 is not affected by Her own Māyā.48). as milk into curd. 3 Feminine of Īśvara. the potentiality of natural power (natura naturans)." the sixteen "productions. says: "Thus the identity of Śiva and Jīva is shown" (iti Śivajlvayor aikyam uktam). subtle (Sūkṣma-Śarīra). Both are one. Senses and Matter. The bodies are threefold: causal (Kāraṇaśarīra. The first or Causal Body of any particular Jīva. Some worship Śiva. and are constituted of its various productions. who as manifested power (Śakti ) re-enters the Brahman-Consciousness These Vikṛiti s are the Tattvas issuing from Prakṛiti.3 This is the aggregate Prakṛti or Māyā of Him or Her as the Creator-Creatrix of all things. The Vedantasara thus musically defines the two terms : Satattvato' nyathapratha vikara ityudiritah Atattvato' nyathapratha vivarta ityudiritah. and formless Prakṛti there appears a strain or stress appearing as form. and here body (Deha). etc (ib. 1 As already explained. II.1 the Avidya Śakti .3 When. of the waking. and (b) Virūpāparinama in evolution.2 The former is Paśu. being employed as a concrete term to denote the eight "producers. attribute. For the latter is a limited consciousness subject to error. Up. yah sarvani Bhūtany antaro yaMāyā ti (Brih. in which there is impure Sattva. But in the Mother are all creatures. there is a stirring of the Guṇas (Guṇakṣoba) and an initial vibration (Spandana).namely. . On the relaxation of this strain in dissolution forms disappear in formless Prakṛiti. I. The Guṇas affect one another. 54 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Vikṛiti is manifest (Vyakta) Prakṛti (natura naturata). But in the Sāṁkhya it has a technical sense. 3 Śamkara's Bhashya. therefore. Vachaspati Misra: Sāṁkhya -Tattva. as Aneka She is Upadhi or vehicle of Jīva. etc.Kaumudi.seeing. Sadāśiva is free of them.. Vivarta is apparent hut unreal change. 4 Vikara or Vikṛiti is something which is really changed. Under V. such as the appearance of what was and is a rope as a snake.4 1 Those in whom Rajas Guṇa is predominant. Jīva. or attributor to itself.t I. it has been pointed out. be compared with the Haecceitas of Duns Scotus. There is no manifestation. The body of Jīva is therefore known as the individual Prakṛti or Avidya. and Rajas and Tamas (Malina-Sattva-Guṇa pradhāna). mind and body. and human worlds. and the universe made of these three Guṇas is created. As Ekā. She is all. are Vīra (hero). as the KulāṛnavaTantra l says.then in stable equilibrium.2 The body of the Lord (Īśvara) is pure Sattva-Guṇa (Śuddha-SattvaGuṇa. known in the Mantra Śāstraas Cosmic Sound (SabdaBrahman ). all-knowing. iii. and gross (Sthūla-Śarīra). 61. 2 Yah sarveshu bhuteshu tishthan. The Tattva in a general sense is Truth or Brahman. some Devī. the same. The Jīva is Chaitanya distinguished by Upādhi. animal. It is Prakṛti modified. and the man in whom the Tamas Guṇa prevails is a Pashu (animal). Whilst Īśvara is one. who cites this passage. in fact the definition of Prakṛti as opposed to Vikṛiti. Īśvara thus rules Māyā. The Jīva is in Māyāvāda thus Chaitanyarūpā with the Upadhi Ājñā na and its effects. dreaming and slumber states. owing to the ripening of Karma. is that Prakṛti (Avidya Śakti ) which is the cause of the subtle and gross bodies of this Jīva which are evolved from it. and the latter Paśupati. Sāṁkhya Pravachana.

namely. in the order of evolution Buddhi is the first principle.able.28. Buddhi or Mahāt Tattva is the state of mere presentation. such as the eye. Whilst. and smell. and is one only. and unaffected by sensations of particular objects (Manas and Indriyas).1 colour and form2 and sight.touch to solid pressure. touch and feel.1892. taste to liquid. feels and wills. together with the external instruments (BāhyaKaraṇa). which is also called Liṅga Śarīra or Puryaṣtaka." the experience!-. the internal instrument. but is given different names to denote the diversity of its functions. from which first proceeds the subtle body. to commence with the sense-objects and the sensations they evoke.26-28. without thought of "I" (Ahaṁkāra). Manas is the desire which follows on such experience.or from that in which they are regarded after creation." (Bain : "Mind and body.or from that in which they are regarded after creation. which means the "mere thatness.22.3 But sensible 1 See post: also my volume on "Matter". II. These may be considered from the point of view of evolution . an unconscious force which breaks up into particulars the Experience-Whole which is Cit. and so forth.4 Comm. By means of colour form is perceived." . 58 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER But sensible perception exists only in respect of particular objects and is thus perceived in its variations only. indicates. hearing to aerial pressure. and the Senses (Indriya) and their objects are the means whereby that enjoyment is had which is the end of all will to life. as that which succeeds is called the gross body of Matter. The experiencer is affected by Matter in five different ways. it comes last.16. like the experience which is had immediately on waking after sleep. 2 Rūpa is primarily colour. Manas. light to luminous rays. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ)57 limited experience of the Jīva is evolved . Sāṁkhya -Tattva-Kaumudi. as dissociated from Consciousness which is never the case. the Mind (Antah-Karaṇa). Ahaṁkāra. first experiences in a vague general way without consciousness of the self. that is. in the actual working of the Antah. in the order of creation. when the experience of concrete sense objects has been had. and has the consciousness "I am So-and-so". The Jīva exists in this body during dreamless sleep (Suṣupti). It is called the "working within" or "internal instrument" (Antah-Karaṇa).Kāraṇa after creation has taken place. however. 56 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER This body lasts until Liberation. being different aspects or attributes (Dharma) of Mind as displayed in the psychical processes by which the Jīva knows. when the Jīvātmā ceases to be such and is the Paramātma or bodiless Spirit (Videhamukti). is the personal consciousness which realizes itself as a particular "I. 1 The definition of a Bhūta (sensible matter) is that which can be seen by the outer organ. taste. The third or Gross Body is the body of "matter" which is the gross particular object of the senses1 derived from the supersensibles. for a perfectly colourless thing is not perceivable by the gross senses. and their supersensible objects (Tanmātra). 5 According to another Vedantic view there is only one Jīva. It then refers this experience to the limited self. It is thus the impersonal Jīva Consciousness. But there exist also general elements of the particulars of sense-perception. Ahaṁkāra.27 Karika. 2 Sāṁkhya -Pravachana-Sutra. otherwise the generals could not be formed from the particulars given by the senses as the physical facts of experience. Mind is abstractedly considered by itself. of which Buddhi is the basis." p. The Subtle Body. when the experience of concrete sense objects has been had. consciousness of being only. on "Mind". The second and third bodies are the differentiations through evolution of the causal body. is constituted of the first evolutes (Vikṛiti ) from the causal Prakṛitic body . II.40. and from the latter is produced the gross body. It is more convenient. The Jīva. the subtle body may be described as the Mental Body.1 their existence in some parts of the Jīva's nature as facts of experience. by Śamkara on v. and excret. it is said. giving rise in him to the sensations of hearing. That general ideas may be formed of particular sense-objects. or the Senses (Indriya). This general is called a Tanmātra. "Each sense is suited to a particular class of influences .2 The Sāṁkhya thus speaks of Buddhi. See my vol.) See Sāṁkhya -Pravachana-Sutra. According to the former aspect. prehensible. Shortly. 3 The other objects of the senses are the speakable. to which the Vedānta adds Citta. according to the sequence in which the limited experience of the Jīva is evolved .that is. therefore. ear. approachable. excitable (that which is within the genitals).

hands. These necessarily come into existence when the senses (Indriya) are produced. The Tanmātras have. at one and the same moment the experiencer is subject to receive a countless number of sensations which come to and press upon him from all sides. are accomplished. Their existence is only mediately perceived through the gross particular objects of which they are the generals. therefore. 4 Whereby the thermal quality of things is perceived. to Yogis). the classes into which the Indriyas are divided may be described as the sensory and motor nervous systems.minded" is not to know what is happening. walking. eye (sight). skin (feeling by touch). sufficient in themselves for this purpose. the Yogi claims to accomplish without the use of the latter all that is ordinarily done by their means.. like the gross sense-objects derived from them. anus. and then being engaged on it. They can be the objects of immediate (Pratykṣa) perception only to Yogis. or senses (Indriya). The outward sense-organs are the usual means whereby on the physical plane the functions of hearing and so forth. and genitals. With reference to their physical manifestations. Thus. The process of experience is the selection of a special section from out of a general whole. These Sūkṣma (subtle) Bhūtas. even when no use of the special physical organs ordinarily necessary for the purpose is made. however. The Indriya. are not ordinarily themselves perceived. grasping. legs."125. and through which effect is given to the Jīva's desires. mouth.. and procreation are performed. which are the gateways through which the Jīva receives worldly experience. and so forth. such as ear. colour and form (Rūpātanmatra). 3 So it is said Tani vastuni tanmatradini pratyaKṣa-Viṣayani (that is. which are the reactive response which the self makes to sensation . as Western psychology holds. and are of two classes: viz. but the faculty of mind operating through that organ as its instrument. but a manifold . five in number namely. aptly been called the "generals of the sense particulars"2 .3 Attention must therefore co-operate with the senses before the latter can "give" the experiencer anything at all. even though the hand is the seat of the Indriya for handling.that is. but the "thatness" of that sound .1 Sensations aroused by sense-objects are experienced by means of the outer instruments (BāhyaKaraṇa) of the Lord of the body. To be "absent. There are differences. for a sense necessitates something which can be the object of sensation. but not as they are in themselves. eye.or abstract quality.5 Lastly. . and which proceed from them. Each of these evolves from that which precedes it. In the first place. and the five organs of action (Karmendriya). that sound apart from any of its particular variations stated. Thus. 2 Ib. excretion. and odour (Gandhatanmatra) as 1 See for this in greater detail J.3 They are. a Yogi may accomplish by the mind only all that may be done by means of these physical organs without the use of the latter. so as to make it one's own. 60 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER So a hypnotized subject can perceive things. the general elements of sense perception. unless attention (Ālochana) co-operates there is no sensation at all.2 By the instrumentality of these Indriyas things are perceived and action is taken with reference to them. These are afferent and efferent impulses respectively.4 Nextly.that is. As the Indriyas are not the physical organs. see post.the manifold of' sense. but faculties of the Jīva desiring to know and act by their aid. the Tanmātra of a sound (Śabdatanmatra) is not any particular sensible form of it. for they are supersensible (Atindriya). the senses give not a completed whole. or sense. 1 In a general way the last four correspond with the Vaisheshika Paramanus. If any of these is to be brought into the field of consciousness. the five organs of sensation or perception (Jñānendriya). whereby speaking. Chatterji's "Kashmir Śaivaism. An act of "going" done by means of the hand (as by a cripple) is to be regarded really as an operation of the Indriya of feet (Pādendriya). flavour (Rasatanmatra). the latter are eternal (Nitya) and do not proceed from one another. either as a particular object of thought or a particular field of operation. sound (Śabdatanmatra). and nose (smell). The Indriyas are not.1 The fact of there being a variety of actions does not necessarily involve the same number of Indriyas. But as they are mere instruments and their power is derived from the mind. These are ten in number. or ear (hearing). of an object. tongue (taste). however. as they are also called. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ)59 universals. it must be selected to the exclusion of others. is not the physical organ. touch and feel4 (Sparśatanmatra).namely. C.

it selects the sensation which is to be presented to the other faculties of the mind. which cannot fulfil its functions except in conjunction with Manas. This is the Sāṁkhya n and Vedantic definition. unseen and unrevealed by the light of Buddhi and not moving the experiencer until he identifies himself with it in feeling. having perceived (Manas). therfore. and keeps others outside. in the Text here translated post. When.arrogation whereby all that constitutes man is welded into one Ego. Manas is that which gives knowledge of pleasure. 4 So in the Brihadaranayaka Upaniṣad. 94-114. the latter are necessary for Manas. According to the Vaisheshika. and as these Indriyas are those of perception and action. it is said: "My Manas (mind) was diverted elsewhere.3-27. It is the desire to perceive or act. read with the tip of her ear. called Manas.Tattva-Kaumudr. 2 Tantrasara Ahnika. 3 Tarn Ahaṁkāram upajivya hi buddhir adhyavasyati (Sāṁkhya . and the percept or concept is referred to that particular thinking subject and becomes part of its experience.1 See "Kashmir Śaivaism." This is the "I" of phenomenal consciousness as distinguished from "this" the known." pp. It has not an independent power to reveal itself to the experiencer. Manas is spoken of as a doorkeeper who lets some enter. and therefore exists in association with the Indriyas. Manas. 62 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER unknown by the experiencer. supra. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 61 These "points of sensation" must be gathered together and made into a whole. and Jīvātmā (I am So-and-so). where the author cites the dictum of Kant that perceptions (Anschauung) without conceptions are blind. of which the senses are powers. 8. comes to the determination. that is. and the efforts of Manas but blind gropings in the dark. Manas is thus the leading Indriya. 1 See "Kashmir Śaivaism.that is. Buddhi functions with its support." 5 So. being thus an experience of activity in the dark.112. Its function is said to be Samkalpa-Vikalpa. and Bk. and the efforts of Manas but blind gropings in the dark. 'This must be done by me' (Kartavyaṁ etat . These three functions of attention. Ahaṁkāra says: "It is I who perceive it. Sāṁkhya -Pravachana-Sutra. and cannot exist by itself. It is the power of self. Before things can be so revealed and realized as objects of perception. Ahaṁkāra the "I-maker" is self-arrogation2 . which co-operates with both. the realization of oneself as the personal "I" or selfconsciousness of worldly experience in which the Jīva thinks of himself as a particular person who is in relation with the objects of his experience. selection. is said to partake of the character of both cognition and action. Manas. the internal agent (Antahkaraṇa). being blind. Abhimano'Haṁkārah.120. Chatterji. 3 See "Kashmir Śaivaism. and thought.3 Buddhi considered with relation to the other faculties of experience is that aspect of the Antahkaraṇa 1 See "Kashmir Śaivaism. is itself neither intelligent result nor moving feelings of pleasure or pain. being particularized or differentiated by its co-operation with that particular instrument.that is.1 This Guṇa also prevails in the Indriyas and the subtle objects of their operation (Tanmātra). C." by J. 'I am concerned in this matter (Ahaṁkāra)' and thus having self-arrogated. they must be made subject to the operation of Ahaṁkāra and Buddhi. becomes manifold. there is Samkalpa. Therefore I did not hear. See Sāṁkhya -Tattva-Kaumudi. tasted with her knees.24 Karika. after having been brought into contact with the sense-objects. and smelt with her toes. through association with the eye or other sense. For the latter is the seat of desire.1 "A man is said to determine (Adhyavasyati) who. pain." p. is one in which the dark veiling quality (Tamas Guṇa) of Śakti Prakṛti is the most manifest." p. Thus Professor Lombroso records the case of a woman who. however. and synthesizing the discrete manifold of the senses. When. For without the aid and attention of Manas the other Indriyas are incapable of performing their respective offices.116. The activity of Manas. are those belonging to that aspect of the mental body. I. 2 Abhimana. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 63 Ahaṁkāra says: "It is I who perceive it. II. p. a sensation is perceived by Manas and determined by Buddhi. without whose intelligent light they would be dark forms unseen and unknown by the experiencer. selection and rejection from the material provided by the Jñānendriya.1 Just as Manas is necessary to the senses (Indriya). by making them his own in feeling and experience." which determines (Adhyavasāyātmikā buddhih). Manas. Sutra16. Nor can the images built up by Manas affect of themselves the experiencer so as to move him in any way until and unless the experiencer identifies himself with them by Ahaṁkāra .

Mayā). and the Senses are the horses. by which it is regarded as a modification of the. such as any determination by way of the forming of concepts and percepts ("It is so") and resolutions ("It must be done"). For such meditation (Dhyāna) is done through the recall and fixing the mind upon past percepts and concepts. and see Sāṁkhya -Pravachana. but represent an organized co-operative effort in the service of the Enjoyer. however. and in the operation of Ahaṁkāra Buddhi is the principal.23rd Karika: Sarvo vyavahartta alo. and makes over objects to Puruṣa that is. The latter in its turn is illumined by the light of Consciousness (Cit).that is. as a synonym for the Antahkaraṇa. And so it is said that Buddhi." viz. from which it goes . Buddhi (in which Ahaṁkāra is included). whose characteristic is Saṁkalpavikalpa. but. Buddhi determines but once only.5 In the works here translated and elsewhere Citta is. buddhavevantar. The subtle body or soul is imperishable until Liberation is attained. all the principles (Tattva) up to and including Buddhi being modifications of apparently unconscious Prakṛiti. in the operation of Manas Ahaṁkāra is the principal. and is in Sāṁkhya the seat of memory. No special mention is made of Prāṇa or Vital Principle by the Sāṁkhya. According to Vedānta. in Ahaṁkāra. is the reins. Manas. Sāṁkhya. 6 1 Śamkara's Commentary on KathopaniŚad. and resolves. The Sutra has Adhyavasayo buddhih. Chinta. Ātmā conjoined with body.3 It is the thinking principle which forms concepts or general ideas acting through the instrumentality of Ahaṁkāra. and the five Tanmātras. Buddhi pervades all effects whatever other than itself. the Commentator points out that Buddhi is not to be identified with its functions. and previ. II.) 5 Sāṁkhya Śastre cha chintavrittikasya Cittasya.40-44. For the outside world of objects (MahāBhūta) is then shut out and the consciousness wanders in the world of ideas. II.1 The Jīva lives in his subtle or mental body alone when in the dreaming (Svapna) state. Citta.39. but as endowments of the Spirit (Ātmā).. 3 Sāṁkhya -Pravachana. 4 Sāṁkhya -Pravachana. Manas and Buddhi."2 "Must be done" here does not refer to exterior action only. derived from Tanmātra) affect the senses (Indriya) and are perceived by Manas. on the principle of economy of categories. is the receptacle of all the Saṁskāras or Karmic tendencies. senses.4 It is Buddhi which is the basis of all cognition. Manas and the Indriyas. 4 Anusandhanatmika Antahkaraṇa-vrittir iti vedantah. Buddhi is thus called Nishchayakarini. With the instrumentality of all of these Buddhi acts.objects (Bhūta. and are determined by Buddhi.13. is that faculty whereby the current of thought dwells. Rajas.47. Nirguṇa Śiva. The subtle body thus survives the dissolution of the gross body of matter. The Māyāvādins insert the Prāṇa pentad instead of theTanmatra.3rd Valli. II. and as such is implicity included. but to mental action (Mānasī Kriyā) also. is included in Buddhi. For remembrance is the equivalent of. currently used as a general term for the working mind that is.chya mattva aham atradhikrita ityabhimatya kartavyam etat Māyā iti adhyavasyati. Tamas. the Experiencer or Puruṣa. which is the Puruṣa. Jīva is the Enjoyer (Bhokta) that is. In the operations of the senses Manas is the principal.ously known and determined by Buddhi. the ten senses (Indriya). Citta2 in its special sense is that faculty (Vṛtti) by which the Mind first recalls to memory (Smaraṇaṁ) that of which there has been previously Anubhava or pratyakṣa Jñāna . and neither more nor less than. Consciousness.4th Mantra: Atmendriyamanoyuktam bhoktetyahur manishinah. II. It is the principal Tattva because it pervades all the instruments (Indriya). 64). Ātmā conjoined with 1Sāṁkhya -Pravachana. 64 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Jīva is the Enjoyer (Bhokta) that is. The subtle body is thus composed of what are called the "17. whose characteristic is determination. Thus all the Tattvas work for the enjoyment of the Self or Puruṣa. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 65 To sum up the functions of the subtle body: the sense. They do not work arbitrarily as they will. Manas. This Smaraṇaṁ exists only to the extent of actual Anubhava. what has been previously known. regards Smaraṇaṁ and Chinta to be functions of Buddhi. the function of which is Chinta. immediate cognition.1 In Buddhi SattvaGuṇa predominates. (It is the faculty of the Antahkaraṇa which investigates in the Vedānta. again.3 remembrance being the calling up of that. when the Jīvātmā or seemingly conditioned consciousness ceases to be such and is the Supreme Consciousness or Parāmatma.45. They are not to be regarded as things existing independently by themselves. modifications taking place in Buddhi through the instrumentality of the sense functions. 3 So the Patanjala Sutra says: AnubutaViṣayasampramoŚah smritih (Nothing is taken away from the object perceived). sensation. 2 Chetati anena iti Cittam. thinks and contemplates upon (Chinta)4 the subject so recalled by Smaraṇaṁ. I. are referred to the self by Ahaṁkāra. 6 Cittam Antahkaraṇa-samanyam (Citta is the Antahkaraṇa in general): Sāṁkhya -Pravachana-Bhashya. in Manas and the Indriyas and their objects.bhavah (In the Sāṁkhya Śāstra. and the further recall and thought upon the mental object so determined is the faculty of the separate mental category called Citta. is the charioteer. 2 Sāṁkhya -Tattva-Kaumudi.

Matter is thus at base one. phosphate of lime. marrow and seedcomponents of the gross organism. "Again" implies habitualness : birth. and of these water constitutes some two-thirds of the total weight. carbon. fat. with the resultant of the possible and hitherto derided transmutation of one element into another. gelatine. it must be limited (Paricchinna) and of atomic dimension (Anuparimāṇa).1 Sāṁkhya -Pravachana-Sutra. carried from life to life in the Saṁskāras. no longer concerned therewith. fat. which is nevertheless. comes into being. when it leaves the body. or Apavarga (release).1 is the perishable body composed of compounds of five forms of gross sensible matter (MahāBhūta). and so on. the Self is not only endowed with the faculties of the subtle body. There. but with the gross objects of enjoyment on which those faculties feed. III. 9.dharma): Prapanchasara Tantra. to go one step farther back." well-known recent experiments go to re-establish the ancient hypothesis of a single Primordial Substance to which these various forms of matter may be reduced. and phosphorus. is dissolved. and fibrin. as a projection of the Power (Śakti ) of Consciousness. since each is but one of the plural manifestations of the same underlying unity. "Tantrik Texts". which is ever decaying. of which the chief are oxygen (to the extent of about two-thirds). so called because it is maintained by food which is converted into chyle (Rasa). for in that case it would be eternal (Nitya) and could not act (Kriyā). albumen. decay. In its reaching forth to the world. and the .that is. thirst. It turns to dust and the Jīva when it reincarnates does so in a new body. Its ultimate element is on the final analysis of one kind. flesh. The human. The present scientific hypothesis would appear to be as follows: The ultimate and simplest physical factor from which the universe has arisen is motion of and in a substance called "Ether. bone. that which has mass. which is guided by Īśvara. as Gautama says. according to Western science. notwithstanding the diversity of its forms. See my volume on "Life" (Prāṇa-Śakti ). III. until final emancipation which is Mokṣa. are characteristics of the body (Deha. Waves of existence: hunger. suited to give effect to its Karma. which." which is not scientific "matter". ten Fires. with its three Doṣas. Since it is not Vibhu. weight and inertia. which means "the arising again and again" . hydrogen. the gross body of matter called Sthūla Śarīra. Matter has been dematerialized and reduced. and so forth. like the last. seven Dhātus. from which it goes forth (Utkramaṇa). Pretya = having died. nitrogen. then death. or vitality. This ultimate substance is stated to be Ether in a state of motion. The Jīva lives in this body when in the waking (Jagrat) state. Ūrmis = waves. The word Śarīra comes from the root "Śṛ" to decay. II. grief and ignorance. or gross body is. with hunger and thirst. and Bhāva = "the becoming (born into the world) again". 2 Decay and death are two of the six Ūrmis which. as such. It is indirectly dependent on food. The Liṅga Śarīra is not all-pervading (Vibhu). and is at the end dissolved into its constituents at death. or impressions made on the subtle body by Karma. There is no such thing as the resurrection of the same body. leaves the organism. calcium. six Kośas. Again. death. This subtle body is the cause of the third or gross body. But it moves and goes (Gati). grief. 1 See Introduction to my edition of Prapanchasara Tantra. as the Nyaya calls it.punarutpattih pretya bhavah. For though the material body is the food-body (Annamaya ). and "reincarnates" l (to use an English term) until Liberation (Mukti). EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 67 The Sthūla Śarīra. The Soul (Jīvātmā) is. Mind is dependent on it when associated with the gross body. Mind in the subtle body bears the Saṁskāras which are the result of past actions. though the alleged indestructibility of the elements and their atoms is still said by some to present the character of a "practical truth. to something which differs profoundly from "matter" as known by the senses. The motions of this substance give rise from the realistic point of view to the notion of "matter". 1This is transmigration or pretyabhāva. for the gross body is at every moment undergoing molecular birth and death until Prāṇa. The whole process of evolution is due to the presence of the will to life and enjoyment. therefore. 5 66 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The subtle body thus survives the dissolution of the gross body of matter. Vol.2 This is the Vedāntik body of food (Annamaya-Kośa). blood. These substances are composed of simpler non-metallic and metallic elements. then birth. illusion 68 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Recent scientific research has shown that this original substance cannot be scientific "matter" . physical. which is a result of VĀsana . composed of certain compounds of which the chief are water. or world-desire. according to current hypotheses.

Dynamically and objectively considered they are (proceeding from Ākāśa) said to be five forms of motion. for form and solidity are not yet developed. there is the creative energy (Śakti ) of the Supreme who is the cause of the universe and Consciousness itself.. II. as it is a Dravya or thing.that is. flowers. but such particular contact as that by which is realized the thermal quality of things. 6 All matter in the solid state (Pārthiva) giving rise to smell is in the state of earth . but says that there are certain motions or forces (five in number) which produce solid matter. and hearing. being abstract qualities. all. and which are ultimately reducible to ether (Ākāśa). It is not an effect and is Vibhu.3 the second by touch through resistance and feeling. At the back of both "matter" and mind. which as things of physical magnitude perceivable by the senses approach the Western definition of discrete sensible "matter".differences in the various kinds of matter depend on the various movements of the ultimate particle and its succeeding combinations. See Sushruta. 2 Vāyu. action. Ether is the substratum (Āśraya) of sound. the Tanmātras are supersensible. Tejas (Fire). KaVīra j Kunja Lala BhiŚagratna. 1 It is Spanda-naśīla (vibratory)." having vibratory movements and affording the medium for the transmission of light. taste. or Prakṛiti-Śakti . not "matter. Their development takes place from the Tanmātra. See Chapter on 'Power as Matter' in "the World As power". therefore it cannot vibrate (GatiKriyā). as the Prapanchasara Tantra says. non-obstructive. however. and Air (Vāyu) is a helper (Sahakārī) in its manifestation.) 71 . indeed. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ. or personal consciousness produced from the superpersonal Jīva-consciousness as such (Buddhi). its characteristic of obstruction being the opposite of the non-obstructive ether in which it exists and from which it and the other Tattvas spring.g. like Prakṛti itself. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 69 substance of Prakṛti of which it is a transformation in which the other forces are observed to be operating. all-pervading (Vibhu). it must possess the general quality (Dharma) of Dravya or Kriyā . metals. with its quality (Guṇa) whereby Ākāśa affects the senses. The Sanskrit root Va = to move. whilst the senses perceive their variations in particular objects only. touch and feel. Ākāśa. Vol.5 the fourth by taste through flavour. The Vaiśeṣika Sūtrakāra regards it as a motionless. according to Sāṁkhya . The result of this is that each 70 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The result of this is that each Bhūta is more gross than that which precedes it until "Earth" is reached. and scientific "Ether" are not in all respects the same. colourless (Nīrūpa) continuum (Sarva-vyāpī). from one unit of that which is known in sensible matter as mass (Tamas). upward motion giving rise to expansion (Tejas). is characterized by motion (Chalanapara). The Commentators argue that. it is the air which is the cause of sound. p.2." p. giving rise in him to the sensations of smell. of "material" force or substance. and that motion which produces cohesion. ed. Vāyu (Air). are they elements at all. downward motion giving rise to contraction (Apas). charged with energy (Rajas) by the gradual accretion of mass and redistribution of energy. From the Śabda-Tanmātra and from the combinations of the latter with the other Tanmātras are produced the gross Bhūtas (MahāBhūta).e. 4 Touch is not here used in the sense of all forms of contact. 6 1 "Kashmir Śaivaism. emanating from the root-energy. where it is suggested that the lines of the magnetic field are connected with the lines of Dik (direction) as the lines of ethereal energy. into which Prakṛti differentiates itself: viz. symbolized as the "Hairs of Śiva"1 affording the space (Ākāśa) in which the other forces operate. Matter affects the Jīva in five different ways. The latter is an ultimate substance. Lastly. These five Bhūtas have no connection with the English "elements" so called. Āpas (Water) and Pṛthivī (Earth). According to Indian notions. transverse motion2 and locomotion in space (Vāyu). but is itself derived from the supersensible Tanmātra. which is produced by matter only in so far as it partakes of the solid state. Ākāśa is one of the gross forces into which the Primordial Power (PrakṛitiŚakti ) differentiates itself.directed motion radiating lines of force in all directions. and this Tanmātra is itself derived from the mental I-making principle (Ahaṁkāra). These five Mahā-bhūtas are Ākāśa (Ether). and the fifth by the sense of smell through its odour. As already explained. nor. it is possible that one form of matter may pass into another. 3 According to Western notions. and these products are not. that what the latter calls scientific or ponderable matter does not permanently exist.4 the third by sight as colour. Objectively considered it is a vibration1 in and of the substance of Prakṛti of which it is a transformation in which the other forces are observed to be operating. etc. These sense particulars are produced from the generals or Universals. for the products Share the character of the original vibrating Prakṛiti. being derived from the Tanmātras. the cause and basis of all forms. The first is sensed by hearing through its quality (Guṇa) of sound (Śabda).. Ākāśa is not an ultimate. Given such unity of base. 5 Fire is the name or that action which builds and destroys shape s. sight.132. The Indian theory here described agrees with the "Western speculations to which we have referred.

for. is the special relation of the Ātmā with a certain form of matter which by this relation the Ātmā organizes and builds up as a means . Thus the centres (Cakra ) of "Earth" and "Water" are the two lower ones in the trunk of the body. the sounds in it. 2 See as to this and other diagrams the coloured plates of the Cakras. we find in the Tantras that form. are related. as Helmholtz says. then.that is. Manas) and Prakṛti have their special centres of activity in the head. This latter. to each Devatā also there is assigned a Yantra. The remaining four subtle mental Tattvas (Buddhi. Ākāśa is represented by a transparent white circular diagram in which. there are dots (Cidra = hole).5 Pṛthivī does not denote merely what is popularly called "Earth". Again. derivable from the Ākāśa ("Ether") Tattva. which is called light when it falls on the eyes. which have now been made visible to the eye by the Phonoscope. which is a suggestion of the form assumed by the evolving Prakṛti or body of that particular Consciousness. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 73 Matter thus exists in the five states etheric. quardrangular diagram which. just as by the Optophone the blind may read by means of the ear. Each thing therein being thus made of all the Bhūtas. The gross body is thus a combination of the compounds of these Mahā-bhūtas. and "Air" and "Ether" in the two higher centres in the heart and throat. and which exists in space which is known by hearing .1 aerial. as the superficial presentation of the cube.2 Tejas. Thus. as Kamagni in the Mūlādhāra centre. the Bhūtas may be specially displayed in other portions of the bodily organism. six-cornered diagram. its great mystery being saluted by many names. Fire is manifold. And sound which is heard is that by which the existence of the "Ether" is known.The hard and stable obstructive "earth" is that which is smelt. The same ray of sunshine. intervenes between each of the Tattvas which are evolved from it. five Bhūtas. In the same Śāstravarious colours and figures (Maṇḍalas) are assigned to the Tattvas to denote them. a revolving disk appears to break up into a number of patterns. red. tasted. The smooth "water" is that which is tasted. each of the sounds of speech or music has a corresponding form. These Bhūtas when compounded make up the material universe. which vary with the variations in sound. and touched in space. white. seen. thus displaying the interstices which Ākāśa produces. Thus. as parts of these compounds. felt as temperature . yellow. Vāyu is denoted by a smoky grey. Vāyu in grasping and walking. the Apas state. The gross and subtle bodies above described are vitalized and held together as an organism by Prāṇa. crescentShaped diagram. and touched. itself evolved in manner described. derivable ultimately from Ether (Ākāśa). colour and sound. Agni manifests in the household and umbilical fires. " Fire " is what is seen and touched . a combination of the compounds of those Mahā-bhūtas.1 Thus the deaf may perceive sounds by the eye. Āpas. well denotes the notion of solidity. and the ten senses (Indriyas) which perceive them. 1 When words are spoken or sung into a small trumpet attached to the instrument. "Fire " predominates in the central abdominal region. 72 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER diagram which. The Tattvas regarded objectively evoke in the Indriyas smell. taste. is the cohesive vibration. seen.4 and solid. The gross body is. of which the common earth is a gross compounded form. sight. All solid (Parthiva) odorous substance is in the Pṛthivī state. triangular diagram. and Pṛthivī. Similarly.in space. are known as the twenty gross Tattvas which are absorbed in Yoga in the centres of the bodily trunk. or diagram.3 fluid. Prāṇa. These five Tanmātras. Tejas as hunger and thirst. Pṛthivī displays itself as bone or muscles. "Air" is what is so felt in space. for Ākāśa. All substance in the fluid (Apya) state is in.2 fiery. which is all-pervading. but particular Bhūtas are said to have centres of force in particular regions. These are all primary differentiations of cosmic matter into a universe of subtly fine motion. according to some accounts. the cause of solidity. which is evolved from the active energy (Kriyā Śakti ) of the Liṅga Śarīra. The Bhūtas and the Tanmātras.that is. as everything which has cohesive resistance is in that of Pṛthivī. Ahaṁkāra. the same object may effect the senses in different ways. as the superficial presentation of the cube. touch and hearing. therefore. All matter in the aerial (Vāyava) condition is in the Vāyu state. Apas as urine and saliva. or the vital principle. pervade the body. in Vadava or submarine fire and in the "Lightning" of the Suṣumnā in the spinal column. a truth which is of deep ritual significance. is called heat when it falls on the skin. So Tejas manifests both as light and heat. well denotes the notion of solidity.

and others become solids. since everything which is not the Ātmā or Puruṣa is. whether Devatas. ed. Though Prāṇa and its fivefold functions are called Vāyu. nor any mere mechanical motion resulting from the impulsion of such Vāyu. men.of having experience. which it ensouls as its inner self. whereby things can be rolled up into a lump (Pinda). It is so called from the fact of its coursing throughout the universe. 2 See my volume on "Life". or microcosmic physical body.1 into five chief divisions according to the differences in location and function. radiating as nerve force through the organism in constant currents. Brojendra Nath Seal." p. by Dr. according to Māyā vada Vedānta and Sāṁkhya. which result in the bodily motion. the Jati (species) of which is still water (Jalatva). p.2. As vital. 6 This special relation constitutes the 1 All-pervading (Sarvavyapi). as moistened flour or earth. It is a homogeneous unity (Sādhāraṇa) present in every part of the body. and Appendix C. by themselves moving. and as such it receives the homage of all created being. It is the lifeduration of all. For it determines the birth. but deny that it is the mere resultant of the concomitant activities of the organism. and is a manifestation in all breathing creatures (Prānī) of the creative and sustaining activity of the Brahman. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 75 The Vedantists agree in the view that the Prāṇa is neither Vāyu nor its operation. according to this school. bear the same name (Prāṇa) as that given to the force considered in . it is instantaneous in action. growth and decay of all animated organisms. so the mind and senses cause the body to move while they are engaged in their respective activities. Prāṇa. invisible. but is a name for the Brahman as the author of the individual Prāṇa. Invisible in itself. 6 "Hindu Realism. and colourless (Nirūpā). As to vibration. it maintains a state of equilibrium between the different Doṣas1 and Dhātus . to Professor B. known in its bodily aspect as Prāṇa. The individual Prāṇa is limited to the particular body which it vitalizes. II. moving (Chalanashila). on entry into each individual is divided into tenfold functions (Vṛtti) of which five are chief. Just as several birds when confined in one cage cause that cage to move. by KaVīra j Kunja Lala BiŚagratna. divine energy of eternal life. and hold that it is a separate independent principle and "material" form assumed by the universal Consciousness. though relatively so in Sāṁkhya.1 What life is has been the subject of dispute in India as elsewhere. not that it is unconscious in itself for all is essentially consciousness. or vitality. who is represented in individual bodies by the Devī Kuṇḍalinī. This is denied by the Sāṁkhya. ante.1 or root principles of the body. in Western parlance "material" (Jada). Vol." where some further authorities are given. or as spontaneous generation was supposed to occur under the influence of gentle warmth. The cosmic all. a resultant of the various concurrent activities of other principles or forces in the organism. Life is. and hard (Kathina). self-begotten. All beings. but is all the same a subtle kind of apparently unconscious force. then. the subtle.ghata). The Sanskrit root va = to move. 8-2. Vāyu2 which courses through the body is the manifestation. 1 See Commentary on Taittiriya Upaniṣad. combined (San. as are the principles called Pitta1 and Kapha. Life. in the same manner as the intoxicating property of spirituous liquors results from the fermentation of unintoxicating rice and molasses. the universal force of vital activity. The first or breathing. firm (Dridha). 84. unconscious or. edited by Mahādeva Śastri. both sensory Jñānendriya) and motor (Karmendriya). K. According to the view of this school. 1 Kaushitaki Upaniṣad.2 The materialists of the Lokayata school considered life to be the result of the chemical combinations of the elements. 2 With movements which are not straight (Tiryag-gamana-shila).pervading Prāṇa is not Prāṇa in this gross sense. the Prāṇamaya self which lies within the Annamaya self is a homogeneous undivided whole (Sādhāraṇa) permeating the whole physical body (Sarvapiṇdavyāpin). 76 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER homage of all created being. 74 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER This special relation constitutes the individual Prāṇa in the individual body. 2 In the sense of Prāṇa. See may volume on "Life". is not a Vāyu in the sense of a mere biomechanical force. Sarkar's "The Positive Background of Hindu Sociology. Unlike the latter. It is not cut off into distinct regions (Asādhāraṇa) as is the Piṇda. It has the quality of Sneha. Life is therefore a subtle principle pervading the whole organism which is not gross Vāyu. 4 Liquid (Tarala). or animals. yet its operations are manifest. dense (Ghana). 5 Without hollow. Some solid things become liquid for a time through heat. The bodily Vāyu is divided. 3 Illuminating (PrAkāśa) and heating (Tapa). By unconscious in Vedānta is meant that thing is an object of consciousness. v. In its normal condition. Vāyu. See Sushruta. exist only so long as the Prāṇa is within the body. all-pervading. it has no specialized organs each discharging a specific function. is the common function of the mind and all the senses. On the other hand.1 The gross outer body is heterogeneous (Paricchinna) or made up of distinct or well-defined parts.

A Jīva always recites the Supreme Mantra Haṁsah. XXIX. . subtle. See the illustration below In the case of the individualized Prāṇa. is for the 1 See Introduction to third volume of "Tantrik Texts. is the so-called "upward breathing".3 By the words "navel" and so forth it is not meant that the Vāyu is in the navel itself but in that region of the body so designated . and others are also said to be elsewhere. governs the excretory functions. Assimilation (Samana). The Sun as the great luminary is the body of the Solar God. but in worldly parlance we speak of such. This motion. It is these invisible rays which. Ch.1 but the source of all available energy and of all physical life on earth. and expiration (Ha). and Udana. Apāna in the anus.48. See my volume on "Life". 3 Amritanada Upaniṣad. which manifest in hiccup. Vol. and by Sahkara it comes in again. lit. vv. Śāṇḍilya Up. when regarded as an independent principle.) See also Dhyānabindu Up. See Sushruta Saṁhitā. Distribution (Vyana). In other words. a great manifestation of the Inner Spiritual Sun. and Vyana pervades the whole body. and in that Vāyu "which leaves not even the corpse". embraced by the Serpent Kuṇḍalinī. Ātmā as such has no states. 2 The Vāyus have other functions than those mentioned." is present throughout the body. The Devatas of these Dhātus are Dakinī and the other Śakti s in the Cakras. or Consciousness in bodies. as to Prāṇa. is expired. the solar breath of which is the cause of human breath with its centrifugal and centripetal movements. Accompanying the sunshine there proceeds from the orb a vast invisible radiation. Prāṇa is not the physical breath. digestion. the counterpart in man of the cosmic movement of the Haṁsah or Śiva. known as the Mantra which is not recited (Ajapā-mantra). which. which has been first drawn from without into the bodily system. Kurma.Ānandashrama Edition. for it is said without volition. Prapanchasara Tantra. the pre-requisite of all vegetable and animal life." where these terms are explained. The Prāṇa represents the involuntary reflex action of the organism and the Indriyas one aspect of its voluntary activity. the aspect aspect of Jīva several states exist. as Śakti . has itself no states. though informed by the same Cit. (By Haṁkāra it goes out. It is also said that Prāṇa is at the tip of the nostrils (Nasagravartti).1 2 Kṣudhākara. 78 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER By the words "navel" and so forth it is not meant that the Vāyu is in the navel itself but in that region of the body so designated . See also.. Ch. the Ātmā gives life to the earth organisms through the medium of terrestrial Prāṇa. The Sun is not only the centre and upholder of the solar system. which is one of the manifestations of that Energy which issues from and is at base the allpervading Ātmā. and Dhananjaya. Samana kindles the bodily fire and governs the processes of digestion and assimilation. Udana in the throat. and causal bodies. effecting division and diffusion. Devadatta. Cit. the downward "breath" which pulls against Prāṇa. which exists on all the planes of life. Rejection (Apana). 2 The Yoga works speak of the Moon-Cit (Chiccandra). and transcends them. Breathing is itself a Mantra. Samana in the navel. being immutable. Krikara. I. which are the soul of the Universe. closing and opening the eyes. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 77 This motion. the ascending Vāyu. 3 Thus the Niruttara Tantra (Chapter IV) says: Ham-karena vahir yati sah-karena vishet punah Hamseti paramam mantram jivo japati sarvada. it may be said. The five minor Vāyusare Naga. is immanent in the individual and collective gross. according to this theory.Śakti Tattvas. to be a force more subtle than that which manifests as terrestrial matter which it vitalizes. or Śakti .. and Utterance (Udana). "appetite-maker". which exists on all the planes of life. It is this spiritual moon which is shown on the cover of this book. The functions of Prāṇa may be scientifically defined as follows: Appropriation (Prāṇa). according to science. p. The matter is here stated only in a general way.the function whereby atmospheric air with its pervading vitality. is for the earth plane (Bhurloka) created and sustained by the Sun. Chaitanya.the abdominal region and its centre the Maṇipūra Cakra. while it only carries about2 per cent of its moment of momentum. however. cited ante. 85 . 1 yawning.its totality . and holding the body together in all its parts. resisting disintegration. One and the same Cit pervades and transcends all things. but that function of vital force which exhibits itself in respiration. So the Mandukya Upaniṣad2 speaks of the four aspects (Pada) of the Brahman. Prāṇa is in the heart. or Śiva. From. which is a gross thing.2 Apana. but is given different names to mark its different aspects in the Jīva. or principle which vitalizes the animal organism during its earth life. or diffused "breathing. 1 The Sun is said to hold the vast bulk of the total matter of the solar system. See my volume on "Life".the abdominal region and its centre the Maṇipūra Cakra. These localities denote special seats of function. may from this aspect be called states of consciousness. II.3 The divine current is the motion of Ha and Sa. for states can only exist in the products of the changing Prakṛti -Śakti . 84.2 On the physical plane Prāṇa manifests in the animal body as breath through inspiration (Sa). Vyana. sustain the mystery of all physical life.

The objects of dreams have only an external reality for the dreamer. Consciousness is not objective (Bahih-prajña ) nor subjective (Antaḥ-prajña ). impressions left on the mind by objects sensed in the waking state. The Lord is always the enjoyer of bliss. to v.that is. however. and the last with Prakṛiti.1 In the manifested world. and the last with Prakṛiti. he who takes upon himself the gross body called Viśva. with that state of Consciousness which is the seed from which the subtle and gross bodies grow. and works on that which has been registered in the waking state. therefore. Tantrik Texts. whereas the objects perceived when awake have such reality for all who are in that state. dreaming (Svapna). Jīva in the Suṣupti . Ill.118. is for the time being merged in his causal body . The mind ceases to record fresh impressions.. Here the ego lives in a mental world of ideas. Both these states are states of duality in which multiplicity is experienced. The state is one of bliss. In this way the Suṣupti state approaches the Brahman Consciousness.) Prapanchasara Tantra: Samjnarahitair api tair asyanubhavo bhavet punah svapnah.3 The Jīva in this state is called Jāgarī that is. 2 See Patanjala Yoga-Sutra: Sukham aham asvapsam na kinCid avediŚam iti smaranatat. or that of dreamless sleep (Suṣupti). is defined as that which is neither waking nor dreaming. and the enjoyer of what is subtle (Pravivikta-bhuk) . Beyond. Consciousness appears in three states (Avasthā). The first (Jagrat) state is that of sense perception.that is. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS JĪVĀTMĀ PAGE 79 From."2 This state is accordingly that which has as its objects the sense of nothingness. called Prajña. this is the enjoyer of bliss only (Ānandabhuk) . the state there is the "fourth" (Turiya). but in the first two states He enjoys bliss through objects. See also Prapanchasara Tantra: Atmajairudyuktataya nairakulyam bhavet Suṣuptir api (Ch. as the other two states are both associated with ignorance (Avidya) the first two with Vikṛiti.2 This Upaniṣad gives an analysis of the states of Consciousness on all planes.3 Whilst the two former states enjoy the gross and subtle objects respectively. The Jīva is not conscious of anything. Here He enjoys bliss itself free from both subject and object. Prakṛti inseparably associated with Consciousness . 62 of Lalita). Mantra3. and in which the varied experiences of the two former states are merged into a simple experience (Ekībhūta). I was not conscious of anything. because it. 3 Mandukya Up. when nothing in dreamt. In the waking state the Jīva is conscious of external objects (Bahih-prajña ). in dreamless slumber mind also is withdrawn. (Cited in Lalita. which. The Jīva. In waking the Jīva consciousness is associated with mind and senses. 80 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The third state. Here the pure experience called Śuddhavidya is acquired through Samādhi-yoga. and is the gross enjoyer of these objects through the senses (Sthūla-bhuk). III).4 1 Described in detail post. Mantra4.that is. 4 See Mandukya Up. under v. in dreaming the senses are withdrawn. 1 This state. 3 Abhavapratyayalambanavrittir nidra. In dreaming (Svapna) the Jīva is conscious of inner objects (Antahprajña ). Īśvarapratyabhijna: Manomatrapathe' dhyaKṣaViṣayatvena vibhramat Spastavabasabhavanam Sṛṣṭih svapnapadam matam. and dreamless slumber (Suṣupti). and should be studied in connection with Gaudapada's Karika on the same subject with Śamkaracharya's Commentary on the latter. 2 See Mandukya Upaniṣad (where these are analysed) with Gauda-pada's Karika and Śamkaracharya's Commentary on the same. XIX. but a simple undifferenced consciousness without an object other than itself (Prajñāna ghana). See Īśvarapratyabhijna: SarvaKṣagocharatvena ya tu vahyataya sthita (cited by Bhaskararaya in Comm. though informed by the same Cit.that is. may from this aspect be called states of consciousness. is rarer than is generally supposed. EMBODIED CONSCIOUSNESS (JĪVĀTMĀ) 81 (Avidya) the first two with Vikṛiti. Vol. and the Jīva consciousness is in the subtle body.. simble bliss without an object. But it is not that in its purity. Vol. as the variety of the day is lost in night without extinction of such variety. viz2: waking (Jagrat). the aspect aspect of Jīva several states exist. "Happy I slept. XIX. Here the Jīva consciousness is in the gross body.1 but on awakening preserves only the notion. Prapanchasara Tantra: Svairindriyair yadatma bhungte bhogan sa jagaro bhavati (Ch. of Tantrik Texts).

loc." and is merged in the Supreme Śiva. See as regards the subject-matter of this Chapter the Author's "Garland of Letters". that the Paramātma manifested as the collective Antahkaraṇa is Hiranyagarbha. Commonly Orientalists and others describe Mantra as "prayer. from the latter the Manas.Mantra (Bīja ) of the Tattva of the centre. Inasmuch as the Jīva in the Suṣupti state is possessed of the KāraṇaŚarīra (causal body) the same Jīva in the Turiya state is understood to be possessed of the Great Causal Body (MahāKāraṇaŚarlratvena vyavaharah). a fifth state. and the meaning of which they understand. which is the aggregate of the individual Jivas of each particular state. Those who think so might except Mantras which are prayers. for with prayer they are familiar. 2 Opening and closing of the eyes (of consciousness).are those of the individual Jīva. Thus Hiranyagarbha is he who has the consciousness of being all the Jivas. The Yoga-process is a return-movement to the Source which is the reverse of the creative movement therefrom. on which the animal immediately and in the presence of the General shrivelled up and died. Mantra is a power (Mantra-Śakti ) which lends itself impartially to any use. The order of production is as follows : Buddhi. which is attained through firmness in the fourth. "there is a scorpion by your foot.48 post. the answer in Yoga is "yes". Thus Nirvāṇa Tantra. etc.state is said to be in the causal (Kāraṇa) body. Mantra. as is shown on Plates II-VII. 1 There is said to be this distinction between the two.General J." The Sadhu leaned over.. and Jīva in the Turiya state is said to be in the great causal (MahāKāraṇa) body. but even in the latter case it is not the absurdity which some suppose it to be. and Sūtrātma1 (corresponding to the individual Taijasa body). The subject is so important a part of the Tantra-Śāstrathat its other title is Mantra-Śāstra. and Īśvara is the name of the collective form of the Jīvas described as Prājña.2 by Mantra a kind of union with the physical 1 The first is the subtle. See Bhaskararaya.Viśva. "You . but a collectivity the units of which are related to one another as parts of an organized whole. Kuṇḍalinī is both Light (Jyotirmayī) and Mantra (Mantramayī). There is nothing necessarily holy or prayerful about a Mantra. of which the Sādākhyā Tattva is the Nimeṣa. "Don't move. and causal worlds. and the Laya beyond is Śanta. and then into Mind and Mind into Consciousness as described later in Chapter V. as the collective Prāṇa it is called Sūtrātma.jnakah (Bhaskararaya. Here the Īśvara Tattva is attained. subjective. 3 Accounts vary in detail according as a greater or less number of stages of ascent are enumerated. Indriya and Tanmātra and from the last the Bhūta. The above divisions . and when he saw the scorpion he pointed at it with his fingers. To the question whether man can here and now attain the supreme state of Bliss. and Prapanchasara Tantra (Ch. then Ahaṁkāra. 2 As in Maranam and other of the ṣatkarma. This is the Unmeṣa2 state of consciousness. The latter is the last stage before the perfect Śiva-consciousness is gained. Svapna is Bindu. says the Paramātma is the Devatā in the Turiya state. cit. Samashtyabhimani Hiranyagarbhat. But there is also the collective or cosmic Jīva." "mystic syllables." he said.1 and Mantra is used in the process of rousing Her." and so forth. But such appreciation itself shows a lack of understanding. Mantra science may be well founded or not.3 In the macrocosm these collective4 Jivas are called Vaiśvānara (corresponding to the 1Bhaskararaya in his Comm. It is said that the letters (Varṇa) of the alphabet are distributed throughout the bodily centres on the petals of the lotuses. As the seat of the Source is in the human body the cerebrum in which there is the greatest display of Consciousness. T. Harris noticed a scorpion close to the foot of a Sadhu. beyond which there is the Supreme Consciousness.1 Beyond this there is. on Lalitāsays: Ata eva Suṣupti. Cosmically.2 Passing beyond "the spotless one attains the highest equality. Theosophist. There is perhaps no subject in the Indian Śāstrawhich is less understood than Mantra. Varṇa.daŚapannajivopadheh KāraṇaŚarīratvena turiyadaŚapannajivopadhhe MahāKāraṇaŚarīratvena vyavaharah. Supreme Yoga-experience and Liberation is attained by passing beyond the first three states of ordinary experience. 4 The nature of the collectivity is not merely a summation of units. to v. In each of the lotuses there is also a Seed. the seat of Mind is between the eyebrows and the seats of Matter in the five centres from the throat to the base of the spine. 61). 82 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER individual Viśva body). He is the aggregate of these Jivas. Suṣupti is Nāda. the second the gross form. Hiranyagarbha. XIX) says Jagrat is Bīja. To quote an example which I have read in an account of an author nowise "suspect" as an Occultist. When manifest through these two vehicles without differentiation it is Antaryāmin." "forMūlae of worship. some say. v. cit. . and Prajña . IV Chapter MANTRA REFERENCE is made in the Text and in this Introduction to Śabda. Taijasa. A man may be injured or killed by Mantra. Commencement of the return movement is made here and the various kinds of Matter are dissolved into one another. op. these are the conscious Lords of the objective. cited in Comm. "beyond the fourth" (Turiyatita). Turiya is Śakti .

is not understood in the West is the particular form of Thought-science which is Mantra-vidyā. such a Guru is hard to get. 4 This Sanskrit term expresses not so much a "fence" to which use a Kavacha is put. as it exists after. and regard it as superstition. and is meaningless. Śabda.3 by Mantra man is saved. The man projects the Mantra on to the woman. It was only manifested by the Dhvani.3 The latter is caused by the striking of two things together." by Major-General J. The lettered sound is produced by the formation of the vocal organs in contact with air. according to ideal conditions. Before there is Dhvani there must be the striking of one thing against another. A man is alleged to have lit the fuel in Kuṣandikā-Homa simply by Mantra and the Bīja of fire ("Ram") without recourse to light or match. magical projections (Mokṣaṇa). Those familiar with Western presentment of similar subjects will more readily understand2 when I say that. This opinion the Mīmāmsā denies. Harris. says: "Oh. The doctrine is ancient in India. the lightning. It is. but the Sadhu simply waived the matter aside as being of no importance ("China Jim" : "Incidents in the Life of a Mutiny Veteran. Mantra. such manifestation. This manifests it. 2 It is because the Orientalist and missionary know nothing of occultism. The Viṣṇu Purāṇa speaks of generation by will power. nor does it cease to exist on its ceasing to be perceived through the disappearance of its manifester. I am informed by some worshippers of the Bhairava Mantra. is twofold . saying that it is transitory. lettered (Varnātmaka Śabda) and unlettered. MANTRA page 85 prevent misuse. my head and limbs tremble. and so forth. 1 In the Samhitā called Kulārnava (not the Tantra of that name) Śiva. which by the will thus seeks outward expression in audible sound.1 What. not always with good results. thought (like mind. again and again I say it must not be spoken of" (Na vaktavyam na vaktavyam na vaktavyam punah punah). the throat. 2 As the KulāṛnavaTantra says. The root "man" means "to think". palate and tongue. 3 As is stated to have actually happended lately in the house of a friend of a collaborator of mine.namely. Thought-reading. the soiled linen of a Chandala woman. and so forth. is that Brahman sound which is not caused by the striking of two things together. with such modifications as are necessary to adapt it to its doctrine of Śakti . It is said that there are Gurus who can at once make their disciples fit for the highest aims. Such sound has a meaning. T. therefore.3 Perception is due to Dhvani caused by the striking of the air in contact with the vocal organs . Lettered sound is composed of sentences (Vākya)." who alone of all creation is properly a thinker. as it is in itself . or Dhvani (Dhvanyātmaka Śabda).2 This the Naiyāyikas deny. which is Anāhata (a term applied to the Heart Lotus). bats. power in the form of Sound. is a power (Śakti ). should be lighted. See the Author's "garland of Letters". as real. mukham shushyate Parvati). 3 This Dhvani is the gross body of the Mantra. of which it is the operation) is a Power or Śakti .2 by Mantra the Homa fire may and. Heinemann). for the Dhvani which manifests ideas in language is such. after referring to some terrible rites with the flesh of black cats. Parvati. gatrani mama kampante. one must not speak." which means 'to think'. Both are projections of the creative thought of the Worldthinker. But lettered sound. who then experiences the sensation of a physical union. which formation is in response to the mental movement or idea. which is a quality (Guṇa) of ether (Ākāśa). The disciple who receives this initiation gets all the powers of his initiator." the General said. Sound (Śabda). 74. adding : "One must not speak of it. and is sensed by hearing. saying that the perception of lettered sound must be distinguished from lettered sound itself. It was not produced at the moment it was perceived. It existed before. the shroud of a corpse.1 by Mantra in the initiation called Vedhadīkṣa there is such a transference of power from the Guru to the disciple that the latter swoons under the impulse of it. It is not the mere striking which is the lettered Śabda. one must not speak. The creative power of thought is now receiving increasing acceptance in the West. on the contrary.4 are becoming known and practised. but the knowledge of how a man may "catch" a Mantra projected at him. is also the root of the Sanskrit word for "Man. some of which are kept in general concealed to 1 An extraordinary use to which it is put. and letters (Varṇa). my mouth is dried" (Hṛdaya m kampate mama. The air in contact with the voice organs reveals sound in the form of the letters of the alphabet. The root "man. that their presentment of Indian teaching is so often ignorant and absurd.namely. and as may be readily understood. A word is uttered. 84 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER A man may be injured or killed by Mantra. and it is gone. according to the Indian doctrine here described. however. and . by Mantra a kind of union with the physical Śakti is by some said to be effected. thoughttransference. words (Pada). and shields (Grahana). and other animals. 86 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER letters (Varṇa). Mantra is the manifested Śabdabrahman. as outer material objects. But what is Śabda or "sound"? Here the Śakta-Tantra Śāstra follows the Mimamsa doctrine of Śabda. in short.4 It is this perception which is transitory. p. and underlies the practices to be found in the Tantras.1 Śabda manifesting as speech is said to be eternal. hypnotic suggestion. just as a jar in a dark room which is revealed by a flash of lightning is not then produced.seem to have some powers already.is eternal.

The sensible expressions are transient. The mind as Artha . At each moment the Jīva is subject to innumerable influences which from all quarters of the universe pour upon him. of which there are four states (Bhāva). The outer physical object of which the latter is. Madhyama and Vaikharī .Devatā) is at length. 2 Not as audible sounds (Dhvani). When an object (Artha) is presented to the mind and perceived. but as that which finds auditory expression in audible sounds. 89 MANTRA non-particularized .motion (Sāmānya-spanda) is Paśyantī. and the former or mental impression is called the subtle object (Sūkṣma artha). The letters are produced for hearing by the effort of the person desiring to speak. As the Vedānta says. and conveys it to the Buddhi. When the mind perceives an object it is transformed into the Shape of that object." which means to get.motion (Sāmānya-spanda) is Paśyantī. in the form of the mental impression . to enjoy. no more and no less. the whole creation is Nāma and Rūpa.is called the gross object (Sthūla artha). in one of which it is the perceiver and in the other the perceived in the form of the mental formation (Vṛtti) which in creation precedes its outer projection. Before describing the nature of Śabda in its different forms of development it is necessary to understand the Indian psychology of perception.that is. through continued devotion. the function of which is to distinguish and identify (Bheda-samsarga-vṛitti Śakti ). the next centre. whose place is from the Mūlādhāra to the Maṇipūra Cakra. Behind them is the eternal Logos (Śabda-Brahman ).that is. the latter is formed into the shape of the object perceived.terms further explained in Section V of this Introduction. whose manifestation they are. revealer (Prakāśaka) and revealed (Prakaśya).that is. called Parā. But besides the object there is the mind which perceives it. The mental impression and the physical object exactly correspond. The object perceived is called Artha. and that aspect in which it is its own object or cognized is called Artha or Rūpa (form). The latter attends to one or other of these sense impressions. and to the blind perforated dots give tactual expression. the physical object . Both Madhyama sound. By allowing the Devatā thus to occupy the mind for long it becomes as pure as the Devatā. so is Śabda. Just as the body is causal. as also its Artha or subtle (Sūkṣma) object (Artha). Only those reach his Consciousness which attract his attention. or concepts and concepts objectified. Paśyantī. It is here associated with Manas. denoter (Vachaka) and denoted (Vachya). and are thus selected by his Manas. then there arises in the mind the idea of a jar. Thus writing gives visual expression. 3 Samantu tatra darŚanam ("But alike is the perception thereof").1 When the word "Ghata" is uttered. denoter (Vācaka) and denoted (Vāchya). Subject and object are thus from the Mantra aspect Śabda and Artha . which it is the object of Yoga to suppress. for the physical object is. Mind is the power (Śakti ). so is the interior subtle mental form which corresponds to it. an impression is also Artha or Rūpa. That aspect of the mind which cognizes is called Śabda or Nāma (name). This is called a mental Vṛtti (modification). the next centre. and become audible to the ear of others through the operation of unlettered sound or Dhvani. a term which comes from the root "Ri. The latter being a manifester only. The mind as a Vṛtti is thus a representation of the outer object. It is Hiranyagarbha Śabda (Hiraṇyagarbha-rūpā) extending from Paśyantī to the heart. transformed into the likeness of that Devatā.terms corresponding to the Vedāntic Nāma and Rūpa. Parā sound is that which exists on the differentiation of the Mahābindu before actual manifestation. The latter . lettered Śabda is something other than its manifester. to know.is a reflection of the outer object or gross Artha. This is motionless causal Śabda in Kuṇḍalinī in the Mūlādhāra centre of the body. which is the inner "naming" by the cognitive aspect of mental movement. belong to the mental or subtle body (Sūkṣma or . in fact. whose place is from the Mūlādhāra to the Maṇipūra Cakra. non-particularized . This is a fundamental principle of Tantrik Sādhana or religious practice. though it has the same reality as the mind has. 4 This is only one form in which letters find sensible expression. Madhyama sound is associated with Buddhi. So the mind which thinks of the Divinity which it worships (Ishta. subtle and gross. in the individual. and spoken speech is the outer Śabda. The mind is thus both cognizer (Grāhaka) and cognized (Grāhya). but a projection of the cosmic imagination. It follows that the mind has two aspects. That aspect of it in which it commences to move with a general . As the outer object is Artha. and after the creation follows as the impression produced in the mind by the sensing of a gross physical object. 87 MANTRA their combinations in words and sentences. and which therefore is an object of enjoyment. These represent the motionless and first moving Īśvara aspect of Śabda. "When the Mantra of a Divinity is uttered there arises the idea of the Deity whose name it is. Artha is that which is known. But in so far as it is such representation it is as much an object as the outer one. 88 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (Prakashya).

and the uttered sound the gross. Śabda and Artha. When the word 91 MANTRA When the word "Ghata" is uttered this evokes in the mind the image of an object .just as the presentation of that object does. The last or Vaikharī Śabda is uttered speech developed in the throat issuing from the mouth. What is it which arouses this Saṁskāra? As an effect (Kārya) it must have a cause (Kāraṇa). Therefore in the gross physical world Śabda means language . and from it is evolved the physical world according to the ripened Saṁskāras. which is recalled when the Jīva re-awakes to world experience and recollects the experience temporarily lost in the cosmic dreamless state (Suṣupti) which is dissolution (Mahā-pralaya). whilst the thought-movement is similar in all men. When an Englishman or an Indian thinks of an object. This Kārana is the Śabda or name (Nāma). The inner forms of ideating movement constitute the subtle. 90 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER the subtle known object (Artha). Perhaps for this reason a thought-reader whose cerebral centre is in rapport with that of another may read the hidden "speech" . an impression left on the subtle body by previous experience. Its corresponding Artha is the physical or gross object which language denotes. There is thus a double line of creation. or Supreme Speech. and considered both in its knowing aspect (Śabda) and as the subtle known object (Artha). According to the Biblical account. This is Virāt-Śabda. The gross Śabda. The Artha creation are the inner and outer objects seem by the mental or physical vision. subtle or gross. In the subtle or mental world Madhyama Śabda is the mind which "names" in its aspect as cognizer. Therefore.that is. and that part of it which takes the Shape of the object (a Shape which corresponds with the outer thing) is subtle Artha. there is for the individual an already existing parallelism of names and objects. belong to the subtle body (Sūkṣma Śarīra). In the perception of an object that part of the mind which identifies and distinguishes. which are in indissoluble relation with one another as cognizer (Grāhaka) and cognized (Grāhya). belong to the subtle body (Sūkṣma Śarlra).Liṅga Śarīra). corresponding to that particular Artha. which is the waking (Jagrat) state.a jar. This belongs to the gross body (Sthūla Śarīra). the expression of it as Vaikharī-Śabda differs. causal and subtle. Then the cosmic mind projected this inner Madhyama Artha into the world of sensual experience. After creation. thus precede and lead up to spoken language. At that moment there was no outer Artha. are the projection of the subtle Śabda and Artha through the initial activity of the Śabda-Brahman into the world of gross sensual perception. Those two are inseparably associated. this was so before the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel. There is no Śabda without Artha or Artha without Śabda. which led to the existence of the particular existing universe. which is the manifested Śabdabrahman. Nor is this unlikely when we consider that difference in gross speech is due to difference of races evolved in the course of time. In creation Madhyamā-Śabda first appeared. and Artha is the same mind in its aspect as the mental object of its cognition. stands for the Śabda creation. Uttered speech is a manifestation of the inner naming or thought. Speech. sentences. The cause of these two is the first general movement towards particular ideation (Paśyantī) from the motionless cause. It is defined to be the outer in the form of the mind. This mental state corresponds to that of dreams (Svapna) when man lives in the mental world only. which are the expression of ideas and are Mantra. It is thus similar to the state of dreams (Svapna): as Para-śabda is the causal dreamless (Suṣupti) and Vaikharī the waking (Jagrat) state. 92 . name and form (Nāma Rūpa).that is. Two forms of inner or hidden speech. the thought of one whose spoken speech he cannot understand. or the physical object denoted by that speech. Thus. Perception is dependent on distinguishing and identification. VaikharīŚabda is therefore language or gross lettered sound. The whole world is thus Śabda and Artha . Both belong to the subtle body. Madhyama Śabda is mental movement or ideation in its cognitive aspect. In the Hiranyagarbha state Śabda as Saṁskāra worked to evoke mental images. This thought-movement is similar in men of all races. Mental Artha is a Saṁskāra. From the cosmic creative standpoint the mind comes first. the image is to both the same. or the cognizing part. accompanying mind movement. called Vaikharī or uttered speech. words and letters. and Madhyama Artha is the mental impression of the gross object. the mental Artha precedes the physical Artha. The inner thought-movement in its aspect as Śabdārtha. The Greek word Logos also means thought and word combined. If the instruments by. and named it in spoken speech (Vaikharī-Śabda). there was once a universal language. and the gross Artha. aspect of Mantra. whether evoked by the object itself or by the utterance of its name. which is an evolution in gross matter of the former. According to tradition. is subtle Śabda. Para-śabda. ideas and language together with their objects. as that which is heard. or the outer manifestation of Śabda. The perception of an object is thus consequent on the simultaneous functioning of the mind in its twofold aspect as Śabda and Artha.that is.

But the precise significance of this statement is a matter of great difficulty. the bones are gathered up around this Cakra. given to me places Devī Śakini here. which thought is revealed in speech were the same for all men. climate. are there. it is said that the letters have colours. such as the nature of the vocal organs. Thus in some Ganeśa is the Devatā of the Mūlādhāra. In the Text here translated it is Brahmā. The letters in this sense . From the above account it will be understood that. The former are conventional. the latter are real.2 Again. from it as the centre of the body the bones run up and downwards. in fact. When sitting in the prescribed Āsana (posture).namely. This is Mantra-chaitanya. four letters are said to be on the petals of the Mūlādhāra Lotus .THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER If the instruments by. however. As there are certain letters which are ascribed to each form of sensible matter (Bhūta). it is not to be supposed that it is intended to absurdly affirm that the letters as written shapes. But now this is not so. Therefore. Similarly this Text gives Dakinī in the Mūlādhāra as the Devatā of the Asthi Dhatu (bony substance). differ. This much is clear. Ṣa. one must be constantly on guard against falling into a possible trap . Va. and so forth. as gross things .1 Mistakes have also to be reckoned with. or as the uttered sounds which are heard by the ear. Next. and conditions under. for these are the Artha of Mantra as Śabda. Doubts on this matter are increased by some variations in the descriptive acoounts. It evokes that movement and again expresses it. I have been also told that the letters are placed according to their seat of .are manifested only in speech and writing. There is. That operation can be so intensified as to be itself creative. so also does language. and the letters of a particular colour are allocated to the lotuses of the same colour. moreover. 93 MANTRA the body the bones run up and downwards. and can only be ascertained and rectified by a comparison of several MSS. inherited impressions. and. the taking of prescribed methods of realization for actualities in the common sense of that term. The Text does not support this theory. Śa. no subject which presents more difficulties than Mantravidya. it seems obvious to suggest that the Earth letters (Pārthiva-Varṇa) are in the Earth centre. It evokes the idea and the idea is Consciousness as mental operation. It has been said that certain letters derive from certain Devatas. In the first place. whether considered generally or in relation to the particular matter in hand. Another account.namely. then there would be but one language. and Sa (= ल ळ ऴ व). But the letters produce the Devatā. when it is said that the "letters" are in the six bodily Cakras.that is. Why are these said to be there? Various statements have been made to me. Racial characteristics and physical conditions. But for each particular man speaking any particular language the uttered name of any object is the gross expression of his inner thought-movement. But an examination on this basis does not bear the suggestion out.

be Sa. 5 Of Sugarcane juice. Śa is Viṣṇu (Sattva-Guṇa ). the action of walking (GamanaKriyā). Thus. Fat (Meda. and is the Bīja of Yajus. and issue from.1 All beings in Pṛthivī (Earth) Tattva. from which I quote. certain facts of objective and universal reality. The centre as a lotus is said to have four petals.2 and Brahmā (Lord of the Tattva). Yajus. Śa. It may be that particular substances (Dhātu) of the body and particular Vṛtti qualities) are connected with particular Cakras. 73. 4 The four ages . xv. Blood (Rakta.6 These four are in Para-śabda in Mūlādhāra.Satya. 2 Thus in the text given me. being Puṇdarīkātma. portions of which have been revealed to the Rishis (seers) and embodied in the four Vedas. the sense of smell (Ghrana). 6 See Rudra-yāmala XVII. which is the diagram (Yantra) of that centre. and is the Bīja of Sāma.dhātu): Anāhata-Cakra .2. Devī Lākinī. But we are also told that the letters Va. but nevertheless there may be special seats of pronunciation for each letter or class of letters. As apparently supporting this suggestion it may be ष) above. as it is the Bīja of Śakti . Śa. have I yet seen. should be meditated upon in the Mūlādhāra. There are. The principle of solidity (Pṛthivī Tattva) is in the lowest of such centres. But. smell (Gandha). In the Sahasrāra Padma are all Dhātus beginning with Śukra (semen). Author's "Garland of Letters" (Kalās of the Śakti s). Here are therefore (as we might expect). the organs of feet (Padendriya). as given in the Rudrayamala (xiv. milk.pronunciation (Uccāraṇa). by the Yogi. and Sa are the Ātmā and Bījas of the four Vedas.2) is that the petal Va is Brahmā (RajoGuṇa). xvi. and Ha and Kṣa (= श ळ ऴ व र). there are certain centres (Cakra ) in the spinal column. Sa is the Bīja of Atharva. It is true that the four Vedas are in. and is the Bīja of Rik. The forces which go to the making of solid matter may. 2 See. which may be compared with that of the Text. Marrow (Majjā. Dvāpara and Kali. Samāna-Vāyu is also located here. There are. Śa is Rudra (Tamo-guṇa). which as the centre of the body contains the static or potential energy called Kuṇḍalinī-Śakti . the quality of Pṛthivī. for example. Treta. each letter undergoing variations according to the vowels. firstly. the seat of which is the Mūlādhāra. Śa of Yajus. according to other accounts. another class of details which have possibly only symbolical reality. The latter should. 94 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Again. wine. It seems to me (so far as my studies in 1 I am informed that the subject is dealt with in detail Kuṇḍalinī-kalpataru and in particular in the Adiyātma-s{gara. Ṣa of Sama and Sa of Atharva-Veda. Solidity is denoted aptly by a cube.5 which are therefore called ChaturVarṇatmaka. Skin (Tvak.dhātu): Maṇipūra-Cakra . why should Va be the seed of the Rigveda. and from the latter Ṛk. Devī Rākinī. from Sāma.3 Again. Nivritti Kala. Para-śabda. Śa. it is said that the letters on the petals are Bījas or seed-mantras of all activities (Kriyā) connected with the Tattva of the centre. The consciousness of that centre as Devatā is also aptly borne on an elephant.dhātu): Viśuddha-Cakra .dhātu): Ājñā-Cakra . where priority is given to Atharva as dealing with Ācāra of Śakti . and which are placed before . From Atharva arose Sāma. 95 MANTRA It seems to me (so far as my studies in the Śāstra have yet carried me) that the details of the descriptions of the centres are of two kinds.3 of the four Yugas. be seen as yellow.1.4 of the four oceans. or in the self of the four letters. neither of which MSS. however. the massive solidity of which is emblematical of the solid earth principle (Pṛthivī).dhātu) : Svādhiṣṭhāna-Cakra . 3 This is true. the four letters of the Mūlādhāra are given as Va. ghee (Ghṛita). and so forth? The ritual explanation. Flesh (Mamsa. 3 Va of Ṛk. because of the formation and distribution of the Yoga-nerves1 (Nādi) at that particular point. But it is replied that the Mūlādhāra is the common source of this (Uchcharanasthana) for all. Devī Dākinī. Devī Kākinī. Devī Hākinī. and in the Śa. it is said that the 1 This account. and so forth. For Veda in its primary sense is the world as idea in the mind of the creative Brahman. Śa of the Yajurveda. Śa Sa and La (= ल noted that the vowel sounds are placed in the throat centre. is as follows: Bone (Asthi-dhātu): Mūlādhāra Cakra : Devī Śākinī.

that is. however. These Nādis. Thus in the case cited the Vaikharī Śabda. as outer speech . gross things. of all thought. must receive the explanation given in my "Śakti and Śakta". But they are said to be there. as hidden speech or the seed of outer speech. who mentally and vocally utters with creative force the natural name of anything. The mere utterance. Japa or repetition of Mantra is compared to the action of a man shaking a sleeper to wake him up. for the latter springs from and re-enters the former. and can attain His power to the degree of his ability to consciously realize himself as such.Maya-Rūpa). which the creative or Cosmic Mind projects into the world of sensual experience to be the source of impressions to the individual experiencer therein. issuing in clearly articulate speech (Spaṣta-tara-spanda). if it has a real and not merely symbolical significance. that mere repetition of a Mantra without knowing its meaning will produce some benefit or that which arises from devotion. the "son" of the Sādhaka. 2Some attain these powers through worship (Upāsanā) of Agni Vetāla. A higher state of development dispenses with all outer agents. and then in the gross form of language as the expression of ideas and of physical objects (Artha). published as the seventh volume of "Tāntrik Texts". is the body of a power of Consciousness which enables the Mantrin to become the Lord of Fire. The subject of natural Name is dealt with in the author's "Garland of Letters". The Devatā thus produced is. with creative power. Thus "Ram" is the Bīja of fire in the Maṇipūra-Cakra. which is itself (Svarūpa) soundless (Nih-śabda). In each of the Cakras there is also a Bīja (seed) Mantra of each of the Tattvas therein. But as such forms they are Śabda of and as ideating movements. and the other Bījas in the other Cakras. 1 The mind must in worship with form (Sākāra) be centred on the Deity of Worship (Iṣṭadevatā). and the latter the Devatā whose name it is. This Mantra "Ram"is said to be the expression in gross sound (Vaikharī-Śabda) of the subtle sound produced by the forces constituting fire. called Yogā-Nādīs." just as it first worked in the "grand magical display" of the World creator. of "Ram" or any other Mantra is nothing but a movement of the lips. This is but the Mantra way of saying that Consciousness moves as Śakti . It is these subtle forms which are called Mātṛikā. Each man is Śiva. as it were. Mantra and Devatā are one and the same. In the same way objects are said to be moved. then a differentiated movement (Viśeṣa-spanda). The two lips are Śiva and Śakti .that is.then the Sādhaka can make the Mantra work.2 However this may be. but the allocation of particular letters to particular Cakras is a matter which. His thought was the aggregate. the Mantra is "awakened"1 (Prabudha) . It is true that in this sense the letters. 98 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER .1 however. though at a distance from the operator. not in their gross. or are the cause thereof.000 Japa. They cannot therefore exist as such in the Cakras. Consciousness. 1 Thought is not then only in the outer husk. and appears as subject (Śabda) and object (Artha) at first in the subtle form of Mind and its contents generated by the Saṁskāras. The former process. Śabda which issues therefrom is in the nature of Seed or Bindu. are not. it is said. some of Agni Himself.are manifested only after passing through the throat. in its supreme form (Para-śabda) 1 The term "nerve" is used for default of another equivalent. They are there. when there is Mantra-caitanya (Mantraconsciousness) . is given in Śābara-tantra. which requires12. brings into being the thing which bears that name. the former being the name. They are the seed of the Tattva. but is vitalized through its Conscious centre. and in Yoga on the light form (Jyotir. which is itself (Svarūpa) soundless (Nih-śabda). in its supreme form (Para-śabda) assumes a general undifferentiated movement (Sāmānya-spanda). He therefore. 97 MANTRA When. The inner movement has outer correspondence with that issuing from the lips by the aid of Dhvani. By practice (Japa) with the Mantra the presence of the Devatā is invoked.the Sādhaka for the purposes of instruction and meditation only. by the worship of Madhumatī-Devī. Their movement is the coition (Maithuna) of the two. like the Nādis of physiology. but in their subtle and causal forms. but subtle channels along which the life-force works in bodies. It is said. through its vehicle Dhvani. The Natural Name of anything is the sound which is produced by the action of the moving forces which constitute it. however. in all cases it is the creative thought which ensouls the uttered sound which works now in man's small "magic.2 The letters as we know them . are in the Cakras. A Mantra-Devatā is Śabda and Artha. 96 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Consciousness. The same explanation is given as regards "Lam" in the Mūlādhāra. 2 See the Demchog Tantra. For various purposes the Devatas are invoked. a Devayoni.

4 As the Haṭha-Yoga pradlpika says:5 "Whatever is heard in the form of sound Śakti . IV. to open (as a bud does). Srishtyunmukha-paramaŚiva-prathamollasamatram akhando vyakto nadabinduMāyā eva vyapako Brahmātmakah Śabdah. But for such a purpose a method is neoessary . and the Saguṇa Brahman of religion.that is. through 1 If Sūrya (Sun-God) be invoked. become articulate sound. Śāradā. it is an emanation which comes and then goes back to the sun.that is. and gains good thereby. Ch. When the Mantra is fully practised it enlivens the Saṁskāra. and immanent and with form (Saguṇa). is sensed as form (Rūpa). the Brahman as the cause of Śabda and Artha. whose substance is Nāda and Bindu. The occultist will understand all such symbolism to mean that the Devatā is a form of the consciousness of the Sādhaka which the latter arouses and strengthens. firstly. secondly. 99 MANTRA creative activity. These two are emanations from the same Conscious . that increasing activity in the Consciousness about to create (Bindu) produces that state in which it is the cause of subject and object. and when strengthened the full-grown Divine power itself. and the Artha appears to the mind. This Sphota is eternal Śabda. I. These. the head of the second division.12 : Śāradā.that in which no form exists."1 Śabda-Brahman thus projects itself for the purpose of creation into two sets of movement . so long is sound heard. and therefore also in combination.101. who is then made strong by the nurture which the Sādhaka gives to his creation.Śakti . 6 So long as there is the notion of Ether. 6 Yatkinchin nadarupena Shruyate Śakti r eva sa Yas tattvanto nirakarah sa eva parameshvarah.102.2 It is the eternal partless Sphota3 which is not distinguished into Śabda and Artha. 2 See Prāṇa-toṣinī. Mantravidya (which explains what Mantra is) also enjoins. passing through the vocal organs. 2 See. The first is sensed by hearing. uprises on the differentiation of the Supreme Bindu from Prakṛti in the form of Bindu through the prevalence of Kriyā2 Śakti . 100 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The soundless is called Para-brahman or Paramātma. the Artha of which becomes manifest to the consciousness which is fit to perceive it. It is Cit-Śakti vehicled by undifferentiated Prakṛti . there is cognition of the thing thereby denoted. is that by which the particular meaning of words is revelded. Comm. A word is not the thing. vv. undivided. when uttered. unmanifested. p. The essence of all this is concentrate and vitalise thought and will power. undifferentiated sound not specialized in the form of letters. 4 It is to be noted that of five Bhūtas. The unmanifest (Avyakta) power or Śabda. The sound. All Mantras are in the body as forms of consciousness (Vijñāna-rūpa). KriyāŚakti pradhanayah ŚabdaŚabdartha-Kāraṇam Prakriter bindu rupinyah Śabda-brahmābhavat param. but which is. 5 Ch. the creative aspect of the one Brahman who is both transcendent and formless (Nirguṇa). It is his consciousness which becomes the boy Śiva. Mantras are thus a form of the Saṁskāra of Jivas.1 In the case of worshippers of Śiva a Boy-Śiva (Bāla Śiva) appears.namely. 3 Sphota. Śabda is vibration for the ear as name. the proximate creative impulse in Para-Śiva and proximate cause of manifested Śabda and Artha. Raghava Bhatta.namely. Agni. in effect. Śabda-Brahman is thus the kinetic ideating aspect of the undifferentiated Supreme Consciousness of philosophy. v. but that through which. The causal state of Śabda is called Śabda-Brahman . and. but is the Power by which both exist and are known. Ākāśa and Vāyu belonging to the formless division (Amūrtta). The absorbed state (Laya) of the Tattvas (evalutes of Prakṛti )ia. as mind and matter.10. and the remaining three to the form division (Mūrtta). but in all cases an emanation produced by the Sādhaka for his benefit only. v. which is derived from Sphut. Avyakta Rava or Śabda (unmanifested sound) is the principle of sound as such (Nāda-Mātrā) that is. In plain English this means. which is the cause of manifested Śabda and Artha. the Śabda (with mental vibrations of cognition) which.It is not the Supreme Devatā (for it is actionless) who appears. Artha movements denoted by Śabda in the form of all things constituting the content of mind and the objective world. That which denotes the thing denoted is a disclosure (Sphota) other than these letters. the cause of manifested Śabda and Artha.12. Artha is vibration to the eye (mental or physical) as form. The letters singly. less is called 1 Tena Śabdartharūpa-viśiṣtasya Śabda-Brahmātvaṁ avadhāritam (Prāṇa-toṣinī13).1 It is the Brahman considered as all-pervading Śabda. language and determined varieties of practice according to the end sought. are non-significant.

which is Jñāna (knowledge). 2 Sometimes given as fifty-one. issued as Kuṇḍalī in the form of the letters (AKṣara).3 so this last is the Śakti of the gross letters of words and their objects. It is the fifty2 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet which are denoted by the garland of severed human heads which the naked3 Mother. and so on to Śrīmātṛikotpattisundarī with fifty-one coils3 In the body. withdraws all speech and its objects into Herself at the time of the dissolution of all things (Mahāpralaya). 6 Paśyantī = She who "sees" (lKṣana). which is supreme speech (Parā vāk) and supreme peace (Paramā Śāntā).) 101 MANTRA In the sexual symbolism of the Śākta Tantras. Possibly this may be the line rising to form the triangular pyramid. To see is to ideate. with three. When with the ten coils She is the well-known DaŚaMahāvidya. For it is She who "slaughters" . Kali. Here there is the first assumption of form as the Mātṛikā (Mātṛikātvam upapannā). and moving on and in coition with Him because She is the active and He the inert Consciousness. 5 Parama = supreme or first. 4 The same symbolism is given in the description of the Heruka in the Buddhist Demchog Tantra. I. manifesting itself by letters in the form of prose and verse.1 Madhyama Vāk.4 These letters are the Garland of the Mother issuing from Her in Her form as Kuṇḍalinī Śakti . The Vaikharī state is that of Kriyā Śakti . with the three and a half She is then actually creative with Vikṛiti . as such. and absorbed by Her in the Kuṇḍalinī-yoga here described. and the straight second. the three Śakti s (Icchā. the first cause of all the letters. which are the Mātṛikās or subtle forms of the gross letters or Varṇa which is the Vaikharī form of the Śabda at the centres. wears as She stands amidst bones and carrion beasts and birds in the burning-ground on the white corpse-like (Śavarūpā) body of Śiva. first Ullasa Utpattikhanda. This Kālī symbolism is explained in the Svarūpa-vyākhyā of the "Hymn to Kālī " (Karpūrādi Stotra) which I have published as Vol. 2 Viparītamaithuna. 7 Here the crooked line (Vakrarekha) comes first. is Jyesṭhā Śakti . 4 The first movement in creation. Kala = Vimarśa -Śakti of Ātmā. She "sees" the manifested Śabda from Paśyantī to Vaikharī. whose form is triangular2 and that of the universe. with two. The Paśyantī 6 state of Śabda is that in which Icchā Śakti (Will) in the form of a goad 7 (Amkuśākāra) is about to display the universe. When Śakti first "sees"4 She is Paramā Kalā5 in the mother-form (Ambikārūpā). IX of Tantrik Texts. That which first issues from it is in the lowest Cakra. 5 Caitanyam sarvaBhūtanam Śabdabrahmeti me matih Tat prapya kundalirūpām praninam dehamadhyagam Varṇatmanavirbhavati gadyapadyadi-bhedatah.Activity (Śakti ) which is the Word (Vāk or "Logos").spanda).5 In the sexual 1 Tavad Akāśasamkalpo yavachchhabdah pravartate NihŚabdam tatparam Brahmā paramatmeti giyate. unmanifested Para-śabda is in Kuṇḍali-Śakti . called lKṣana ("seeing") in Veda. ripening in the womb of Prakṛiti. and extends upwards through the rest as Paśyantī.4 Śabda-Brahman is the Consciousness (Chaitanya) in all creatures. and in form of a straight line (Ṛijurekhā).that is. seed (Bindu)1 issued upon the reversed union2 of Mahākala and Mahākali. Śakti is above Śiva. Kuṇḍalī when with one coil is Bindu. and are in consequence essentially the same. Ch. She is the "Bewilderer of all" by Her Māyā. This is the Śakti Vāmā. 3 Śakti samgama Tantra. It assumes the form of Kuṇḍali. Jñāna. with four She is the Devī Ekajatā. It is in the above sense that the universe is said to be composed of the letters. and abides in the body of all breathing creatures (Prānī). 1 So called because she "vomits forth" the universe (Vamanāt vāmā iti). then 1 The term Bindu also means a drop as of semen. but is Herself unaffected thereby. which seed. 102 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER in seed (Bīja ) form. Prakṛti -Puruṣa. . She is. for here is particular motion (Viśeṣa. Hence the connection between the two is permanent. dark like a threatening raincloud. As the former Śakti produces the subtle letters of Mātṛikā which are the Vāsanā. Madhyama and Vaikharī Śabda. Rajas. 3 She is so pictured because She is beyond Māyā (Māyātītā). who is the Devī Raudri. (Śāradā-Tilaka. Kuṇḍalī as Mahāmātṛikā-sundari has fifty-one coils. Kriyā) and three Guṇas (Sattva. Tamas).

Cunningham have disclosed the existence of highly sensitive grey matter in the filum terminale which was hitherto thought to be mere fibrous cord. having regard to the position assigned to the Mūlādhāra and the Serpent Power. consisting of twelve vertebrae. however. for nerves. Appendix to Professor Benoy Kumar Sarkar's "Positive Background of Hindu Sociology". for the rest is in general peculiar to Tantrik occultism. comprising the brain or encephalon. after their exit from the intervertebral foramina. contained within the skull. Writers of the Yoga and Tantra schools use the term Nāḍī. 887. of the two systems on the anatomical and physiological side. or Cakras or Lotuses (Padma). commencing from the lowest. or region of the loins. with the central spinal system. consisting of seven vertebrae. The Ājñā and other Cakras in the region between it and the Sahasrāra are centres of the Tattvas constituting the mental sheaths. and the spinal cord. an account of the Tantrik nervous system and Cakras. lastly. A description of the Cakras involves. never using the latter for arteries. The central system has relation with the periphery through the thirty-one spinal and twelve cranial nerves. or region of the neck. which is the seed of the ideating Cosmic Consciousness. consisting of five vertebrae united together to form a single bone. the grey being the inner of the two. mean cranial nerves when they speak of Sirās. it has been said. arousing sensation or stiMūlating action. p. It is continued in this for a variable distance. as is done in the medical literature. Roughly speaking. below the cerebellum. or Bhogāyatna aspect. the vertebral column itself is divided 104 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER into five regions. however. The Tantrik theory regarding the Cakras and Sahasrāra is concerned on the physiological side. a triangular pyramIḍāl figure of three dimensions. in the first place. the last six arise from the spinal bulb (medulla). and the cervical region. The cord is divided into two symmetrical halves. The spinal nerves. End Chapter on Mantra Chapter V THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Thus the five lower Cakras from Mūlādhāra to Viśuddha are centres of the Bhūtas. As exhibited by segments. PADMA)105 the case of man from the upper border of the atlas. which are both afferent and efferent or sensory and motor. I am told that microscopic investigations by Dr.1 It must. these correspond to the regions which are assigned to the governing control of the Mūlādhāra. It is to be noted that. I it calls Iḍa and Piṅgalā Nāḍīs or Sirās. Maṇipūra. the dorsal region. where it tapers to a point. Anāhata and Viśuddha centres. the sacrum. Of the cranial nerves. 3 That is. consisting of five vertebrae. which lie on each side of the vertebral column. an account of the Western anatomy and physiology of the central and sympathetic nervous systems. except the olfactory and optic nerves. Svādhiṣṭhāna. and. which. by preference. the cord shows different characteristics in different regions. which is a compound of grey and white brain matter. whilst.that is. which may shortly be described as subtle centres of operation in the body of the Śakti s or Powers of the various Tattvas or Principles which constitute the bodily sheaths. or region of the back. contained within the vertebral column (Merudaṇda). just as there are five centres (Cakras) hereinafter described. the lumbar region. Saṁketa I. the Sahasrāra or thousand-petalled lotus at the top of the brain. It is to be noted. and there ends blindly. called the filum terminale. are the coccygeal. and descends to the second lumbar vertebra. THE CENTRES OF LOTUSES (CHAKRA. This is of importance. and finally opening into the fourth ventricle of the brain. The word Dhamanī is also used for nerve. often united together into one bone called the coccyx. be noted that the Yoga Nāḍīs are not the ordinary material nerves. but subtler lines of direction along which the vital forces go. Within the bony covering is the cord. from the parts of the brain just in front of the bulb. passing into the medulla. and the other six. the sacral region. Brojendranath Seal. enter into communication with the gangliated cords of the sympathetic nervous system.2 Śrīṅgātaka . Saṁskāra or revived impression. secondly. or five forms of sensible matter. The spinal cord extends in 1 Dr. the reverse of the position on the encephalon. the correlation. PADMA) At this stage we are in a position to pass to a consideration of the Cakras. They also. is the blissful abode of Parama Śiva-Śakti which is the state of pure Consciousness. that the present work uses Sirās for other than cranial nerves. for in v. consisting of four imperfect vertebrae. which are connected together by a commissure in the centre of which . 4 Yoginīhṛdaya Tantra. so far as that is possible.

2 The white matter consists of tracts or columns of nerve fibres. corresponding to the ventral ganglionic chain of the invertebrates. Above this is the cerebrum. There are special enlargements in the lumbar and cervical regions which are due mainly to the greater amount of grey matter in these situations. 7. or first cervical vertebra. is connected together with the higher centres by the associating and longitudinal tracts of the spinal cord. which is said to be the remnant of the hollow tube from which the cord and brain were developed. to control these functions only in relation with the manifestations of volition. however. which have their proximate centres in the spinal cord. the fourth ventricle constituting the remnant of the original cavity. whereas the spinal centres with the subordinate sympathetic system are said to constitute the mechanism of unconscious adaptation. all the "Letters" which exist distributed on the petals of the lotuses exist in the Sahasrāra.. secretion. But throughout the whole cord the grey matter is specially abundant at the junctions of the spinal nerves. feeling. The centres influence not only the muscular combinations concerned in volitional movements. 106 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The centre canal opens into the fourth ventricle of the brain. and emotion. . Similarly. 1 See Ferrier's "Functions of the Brain ".there is a minute canal called the central spinal canal (wherein is the Brahmanāḍi). There are various centres in the spinal cord which. and the like.1 This canal contains cerebro-spinal fluid. but is also an independent centre or group of centres.1 All the functions which are ascribed primarily to the spinal centres belong also in an ultimate sense to the cerebral centres. in accordance with the varying conditions of of stimuli which are essential to the continued existence of the organism. The grey matter viewed longitudinally forms a column extending through the whole length of the cord. 2 Ib. but the width is not uniform. the spinal cord passes into the medulla oblongata below the cerebellum. The cerebellum is a development of the posterior wall of the hindermost of the three primary dilatations of the embryonic cerebro-spinal tube. but also the functions of vascular innervation. The cerebral centres are said. At the upper border of the atlas. The spinal cord is not merely a conductor between the periphery and the centres of sensation and volition. which is more apparent in the lower vertebrates. which with the parts below it is an enlarged and greatly modified upper part of the cerebrospinal nervous axis. though to a considerable extent autonomous. so that a necklace arrangement is visible.

.

the three upper of the five Cakras hereinafter described. or motor.The medulla. Both mind and body. It is to be noted that the nerve fibres which carry motor impulses descending from the brain to the spinal cord cross over 1 See Ferrier's "Functions of the Brain. trunk. As Consciousness is not a property of the body. Stewart. 95. neither is it a mere function of the brain. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. derives the impulses which it distributes from the central nervous system. be confused with that of physiological function. Its material has been worked up so as to constitute a suitable vehicle for the expression of Consciousness in the form of Mind (Antahkaraṇa). and others which pass into some of the cranial nerves." pp. sensory." p. extending all the way from the base of the skull to the coccyx. and from the anatomical connections deduce. with more or less probability. The living brain is constituted of gross sensible matter (MahāBhūta) infused by Prāṇa or the life-principle. are. and has nothing to do with the physiological conception of energy. though in the cervical region many of them appear to be missing. It is through the sympathetic that the tone of the blood vessels is kept up by the action of the vaso-motor centre in the spinal bulb. a fact which has been noted in the Tantras in the description of the Mukta Triveni. . The work of the sympathetic systems controls and influences the circulation. It is noteworthy that there is in the thoracic and lumbar regions a ganglion of each chain corresponding with great regularity to each spinal nerve. It is the subtle aspect of such centres as expressions of Consciousness (Caitanya) embodied in various forms of Māyā-Śakti which is here called Cakra. the regions governed by the Anāhata. The latter is connected by numerous afferent and efferent tracts with the cerebellum and cerebral ganglia. PADMA)107 rather suddenly from one side to the other on their way through the spinal bulb (medulla). 80. which is the introspective subject-matter of psychology.N. simply because "Consciousness" is not an organic conception. 1 "Manual of Physiology. The impulses issue from the spinal cord by the anterior roots of the spinal nerves. there may (it is said) be reasons to suppose that there are nervous centres in the central system related in a special way to special mechanisms. on the other hand. nerves are also given off which pass back into the spinal nerves. the nature of the physiological nexus which its parts form with each other and the rest of the body.1 In a general way. and that centres. however. are veiled expressions of Consciousness. cell and fibril. These are related through intermediate conductors with the gross organs of generation. The sympathetic nerves chiefly carry impulses which govern the muscular tissue of the viscera and the muscular coat of the small arteries of the various tissues. and not that consciousness is inherent alone in brain or that it is the property of the same. cardiac action. which in the case of matter is so veiled that it has the appearance of unconsciousness. of which latter the brain is a part. these do not arise in the sympathetic itself. digestion and respiration. respectively. these are thus distributed to the blood-vessels of the limbs. micturition. PADMA)109 central nervous system we can as yet do little more than trace the paths by which impulses may pass between one portion of the system and another. again. secretory. for a given physiological action exist in a definite portion of the spinal cord.1 The anatomical arrangement of the central nervous system is excessively intricate. 2 Ibid. 108 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER This is in communication with the spinal cord.2 And so it has been admitted that in the description of the physiology of the 1 See Poster and Shore's "Physiology. The fact that mental consciousness is affected or disappears with disorder of the brain proves the necessity of the latter for the expression of such consciousness. even now almost unknown. and other parts to which the spinal or cranial nerves go. The sympathetic. Maṇipūra. must not.5th edition. such as the alleged genito-spinal centre. The notion of Consciousness. whose inner introspective side it presents. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. and that extra large clusters of nervous structure are to be found in the region of the heart. stomach and lungs. 1 Auguste Forel's "Hygiene of Nerves and Mind. is also both a path of communication between the higher centres and the periphery and an independent centre regulating functions of the greatest importance in the system. digestion." p. the activity of which is ordinarily associated with conscious volition and ideation and the origination of voluntary movements. however. p.206." by Q. There is therefore no organ of consciousness.1 Consciousness in itself is the Ātmā. Above the cerebellum is the cerebrum. and pass through short branches into the sympathetic ohains. and the events which take place in that tangle of fibre. On each side of the vertebral column there is a chain of ganglia connected with nerve fibre. however. From the sympathetic chain on each side nerve fibres pass to the viscera of the abdomen and thorax.207. called the sympathetic cord (Iḍa and Piṅgalā). 657 (1906). From these. and Viśuddha.

or motion. to the twelve-petalled lotus in the pericarp of the Sahasrāra Padma.. there are minute fibres.000. the Prapanchasara Tantra of300. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. and not to the medical Śāstra(Vaidya-Śāstra). in the position assigned to its interior canal."2 Nāḍī is said in v. PADMA)111 .000.000. and extends from the basic plexus. and. only a limited number are of importance.. They therefore belong to the vital science as life-element. whatever be their total extent. passing the Cakras. "As in the leaf of the Ashvattha tree (Ficus religiosa). and will then endeavour to correlate the two systems. Ch. the Tatttvik centre called the Mūlādhāra. but of these. the Meru-daṇḍa.. leave the body through the Brahmā-randhra. Could we see them. Piṅgalā. or spinal column. veins and arteries. known to medical science. 110 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER For here the Prāṇa or Life Principle moves. Suṣumnā is the greatest. for by the power of Yoga (Yogabala) Prāṇa is made to go through it. But they are not all of this gross or physical and visible character. volitional. and to it all others are subordinate. This is the work of Prāṇayāma (v. or thousand-petalled lotus. even if not exclusive. their purity facilitates it. The conduits of Prānik or vital force are the nerves called Nāḍī. Hence the importance of the Sādhana. and ideative processes. and as to Suṣumnā see Maṇḍala-Brāhmaṇa Up.2 to be derived from the root nad. so is the body permeated by Nāḍīs. Of these three. They exist. I. which consists of the physical purification of the body and its Nāḍīs. and of these fourteen Iḍā. Of these Nāḍīs. which are reckoned to exist in thousands in the body. 1 Ibid 2 Śāṇḍilya Up. Through them its solar and lunar currents run. and are known as Yoga Nāḍīs. the principal are fourteen. where the Nāḍīs are given and their purification spoken of. the conduits of Prāṇa. They are the paths along which Prāṇa-Śakti goes. in subtle forms. The latter may be described as subtle channels (Vivara) of Prānik or vital energy. With this short preliminary in terms of modern Western physiology and anatomy. The Bhūtaśuddhi Tantra speaks of 72. as stated. like all else. Maṇipūra. such as the physical nerves. Purification of the Nāḍīs is perhaps the chief factor in the preliminary stages of this Yoga. the body would present the appearance of those maps which delineate the various ocean currents. I pass to a description of the Cakras and Nāḍīs (nerves). post). and Suṣumnā are the chief. Svādhiṣṭhāna. The Nāḍīs are.and respiration in ultimate relation with the Mūlādhāra. relation with various perceptive. Purity of body is necessary if purity of mind is to be gained in its extended Hindu sense. again. just as tracts have been assigned in the higher centres as being in special. It is situated in the interior of the cerebro-spinal axis. Anāhata. and Viśuddha Cakras respectively. First Brāhmaṇa. Dhyāna-bindu Up. and the Śiva-Saṁhitā of350. for just as their impurity impedes the ascent of Kuṇḍalī Śakti . Some are gross Nāḍīs.

When they reach the space between the eyebrows known as the Ājñā Cakra.. is on the right. and that from the left testicle to the right nostril. flow separately therefrom. At the moment of death breathing is through both nostrils at one and the same time." and hence is called Yukta-triveṇī. The interior of the latter is called the Brahmā Nāḍī. 3 The Hindus have long known that breathing is done through one nostril for a period of time and then through the other.3 The first. and the second.2 It is along this last-mentioned Nāḍī. 1 Hence She is called in the Lalitā-Sahasranāma (v. The first is said to be firelike (Vahni-svarūpā). the Nāḍī which proceeded from the right testicle goes to the left nostril. the pale Iḍa or Śaśī (Moon) and the red Piṅgalā or Mihira (Sun). Sun and Moon are aspects of the differentiated Parabindu or Kāmakalā (v. the second sun-like (Sūrya-svarūpā). It has been said that the distinction made between the heating "Sun" and cooling "Moon" is that which exists between the positive and negative . and Suṣumnā devours Kāla. Yamuna (Piṅgalā) and Sarasvatī (Suṣumnā). 112 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The Mūlādhāra is the meeting-place of the three "rivers. they enter the Suṣumnā. For on that path entry is made into timelessness. and for this reason the Ājñā Cakra is called Mukta-triveṇī.dropping Sāttvik Citrā or Citriṇī. which is "feminine" (Śakti -rūpā) and the embodiment of nectar (Amṛta-vigrahā). and within the latter the pale nectar. In Prāṇayāma to make the breathing change one nostril is closed. is on the left. for through it the Devī Kuṇḍalī enters to ascend. Proceeding from the Ādhāra lotus. making a plaited knot of three called Muktatriveni. An Indian medical friend tells me that these are not discrepant accounts. but represent different positions according as Iḍa and Piṅgalā exist inside or outside the spinal cord.106) MūlĀdhārambujarudha. See the Chapter on Sun. After separation. Moon and Fire in "Garland of Letters". According to another account. 2 The sun generally represents poison. known as the Kula-Mārga and the "Royal Road." which are again united at this point. and the third moon-like (Candra-svarūpa). The three "Rivers. ante). Outside this nerve are the two Nāḍīs. I). after the names of the three sacred rivers of India. Ch.Within the fiery red Tāmasik Suṣumnā is the lustrous Rājasik Vajrā or Vajriṇī Nāḍī. But the skilled Yogi can shift the breathing at his will without closing a nostril with his fingers. Both were obtained at the churning of the ocean. and represent the upbuilding and destructive forces of Nature. thus going round the lotuses. they alternate from right to left and left to right. The opening at the end of the Citriṇī Nāḍī is called the door of Brahman (Brahmā-dvāra).1 These are the threefold aspect of the Śabdabrahman. which is "masculine" as being in the nature of Rudra (Raudrāmikā). and the moon nectar (Śāṇḍilya Up. their position is that of two bows on either side of the spinal cord. Fire. which are connected with the alternate breathing from the right to the left nostril and vice versa." that the Śakti Kuṇḍalinī is led in the process hereafter described. They both indicate Time or Kāla. The three are also known as Ganga (Iḍā).

the left sympathetic chain. The two chains of sympathetic ganglia on the left and right are named Iḍa and Piṅgalā respectively. the conduit of the positive solar current. But the enumeration of the spinal nerves with the connected sympathetic chain and ganglia is a distinct improvement on the old anatomists. cranial and spinal nerves. moon and fire. Piṅgalā. Iḍā. all the Sirās. Of the seven hundred nerve cords of the sympathetic spinal system (see Sangitaratna.2. and the connected sympathetic nerves.''1 He then continues: "The Suṣumnā is the central cord in the vertebral Column (Brahmādanda or Meru).phases of the same subject. for the raising and lowering of the eyelids. Piṅgalā is thus. 1 Similarly. Gandhari. metabolic fluid.Kuhu.3.1 These are all but microcosmic instances of the vaster system of cosmic matter. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA.matter. according to this view. are cranial nerves. as we have seen. and Fire. every portion of which is composed of three Guṇas (Triguṇātmaka) and the threefold Bindus. Āgneyī. and Iḍa of the negative lunar current. to the left of the spinal cord. or blood. Dr..kara). Saurī. The sympathetic nerves have their main connection with Suṣumnā at the solar plexus (Nabhi Cakra ). Cāndri.5.4. Moon. for the understanding and use of speech. interior solar and lunar Nādīs in the fiery Suṣumnā where the two currents meet. for the sensations of the special senses. PADMA)113 These cranial nerves include pairs for the larynx and the tongue. There are also. for weeping.. positive and negative forces being present in every form of activity. which are Sun. and such of the Dhamanīs as are not vehicles of vital current. there are three Nāḍīs which in Latāsādhanā are worshipped in the Madanāgāra-viz. in the central channel of the spinal cord. the corresponding chain on the right. etc. the fourteen most important are:2 "1. a confused and unintelligent reproduction of Sushruta's classification. and proceed from the heart through the spinal cord to the cranium. Brojendranath Seal says: "With the writers on the Yoga. lymph. As regards nerve cords and fibres. stretching from under the left nostril to below the left kidney in the form of a bent bow. the pudic nerve of the sacral plexus. representing the sun. to . chyle.. Suṣumnā.

The reader must bear this observation in mind in the descriptions of the Cakras.14.3 By this and similar statements made as regards the other lotuses. Svādhiṣṭhāna. as explained later. to the right of Śuṣumnā. Viśuddha and Ājñā. proceeding from the sacral vertebrae to the urino-genital organs. The first centre. which in the physical body are said to have their correspondences in the principal nerve plexuses and organs. Ch.the back of the left sympathetic chain. Pathological facts were believed to point to a special nerve connection between the eyes and the toes. Appendix to Professor Sarkar's "Positive Background of Hindu Sociology. between Gāndhārī and Sarasvatī. stretching up to the tongue (the hypoglossal nerves of the cervical plexus). to the front of the right sympathetic chain." which some identify with the pineal gland. or Mūlādhāra Cakra. Śaṅkhinī. PADMA)115 These are the Mūlādhāra.2 is at the place of meeting of the Kaṇḍa (root of all the Nāḍīs) and the Suṣumnā Nāḍī. and others with the cerebellum.2 1 Citing Sangltaratnakara. In the portion of the body below the Mūlādhāra are the seven lower worlds. Yaśasvinī. It is thus the centre of the body for men. 3 Śāṇḍilya Up. 2 Some of these are referred to in the present work: see v. are the six main centres of Tattvik operation. which are the Cakras (centres or circles or regions) or Padmas (lotuses) of which this work is a description.1.. 116 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER . ramifying over the lower trunk and limbs. Inside the Meru. and with which loosely and inaccurately they are sometimes identified. It was evidently supposed that some nerves of the cervical plexus came down through the spinal cord and joined on to the great sciatic nerve of the sacral plexus. 1 P. have been said to be various plexuses in the trunk of the body and the lower cerebral centres mentioned."1 The Tattvas in the body pervaded by Prāṇa have certain special centres of predominance and influence therein. stretching from the right thumb to the left leg (the radial nerve of the brachial plexus continued on to certain branches of the great sciatic). 2 Varāha Up. such centre existing in the spinal column which forms its axis. Vāruṇā. 1 See Ch. 9. but that it is the subtle centre of that gross region. Varāha Up. Ch. and Dhyānabindu Up. 114 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER 6. 840.13. which is so called from its being the root of Suṣumnā where Kuṇḍalī rests. on the same supposition as before. Maṇipūra. V. Yogakuṇḍalī Up.12. Alaṁbuṣā. ramifying over the lower trunk and limbs.. III. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. centres of Consciousness (Chaitanya) as extremely subtle force (Śakti ). 8. also the Yogarnava Tantra. The author annexes a plan which attempts to give a rough idea of the relative position of the principal nerves of the sympathetic spinal system. V. The Cakras1 themselves are. 10. Pātāla and others. auricular branch of the cervical plexus on the left. but the gross regions which are built up by their coarsened vibrations. 7. where also the centres for birds and other animals are given. called Cakras or Padmas. the centre of the third or spiritual eye." subsequently published in his "Positive Sciences of the Hindus". to the front of the left sympathetic chain. the nerves of the lumbar plexus. Anāhata. stretching from below the corner of the left eye to the great toe of the left foot.11. This account has in parts been criticized by an Indian medical friend. however. Sarasvatī. supposed to stretch from below the corner of the left eye to the left leg. who tells me that it is in those parts influenced too much by Western physiology. which are subject to their influence. Pūṣā. which are the seats of Śakti . the coccygeal nerves. 2 Derived from Mūla (root) and Adhārā (support). together with the Śakti s which support all in the universe. to the back of the right sympathetic chain. In some diagrams (Kashmir "Nāḍī-Cakra ") Kuṇḍalī is represented above the position given in the Text. Shlokas144-156. and is in the region midway between the genitals and the anus. auricular branch of the cervical plexus on the left. between Kuhū and Hasti-jihvā. as the Sahasrāra above is the abode of Śiva. I. and Ch. the nerves of the sacral plexus. Hasti-jihvā. Viśvodarā. stretching from below the corner of the right eye to the abdomen (a connected chain of cervical and lumbar nerves). Payasvinī. or an erroneous notion will be formed of them. commencing from what is possibly the sacrococcygeal plexus to the "space between the eyebrows. it is not meant that the Cakra proper is in the region of the gross body described. between Pūṣā and Sarasvatī. or spinal column. between Kuhū and Yaśasvinī.

the creative Brahmā. and the gross fire known as Vaiśvānara is in the physical belly. When that Vāyu departs they cease to be manifest. which is here located. PADMA)117 At this centre is the Pṛthivī Tattva. but in Tarkalankara's Commentary to the MahāNirvāṇa Tantra. for Kuṇḍalī is both light (Jyotirmayī) and Mantra (Mantramayī). See v. Ṣam (ऴं). The Devatā of this centre is. This Bīja represents in terms of Mantra the Tattva regnant (reigning) at this centre. which the subtle centre governs. With the symbolism used throughout this work. This and the other animals figured in the Cakras are intended to denote the qualities of the Tattvas there regnant. The former is the Sūkṣma or subtil aspect which is led up to in Yoga. Śat-Cakra -nirūpāna cited as S.This crimson Mūlādhāra lotus1 is described as one of four petals. Sahajānanda.2 who. They are. again. 2 These Vṛittis or qualities (see post) denoting four forms of bliss are not given in the text here translated. when they turn upwards.2 On these four petals are the golden letters Vaṁ (लं) Śam (ळं). the Vṛttis of which are the four forms of bliss known as Paramānanda. Thus.N. As Śakti they are manifestations of Kuṇḍalī and in their totality constitute Her Mantra body. are the Śakti s of the Dhātus or bodily substances3 assigned to this and the other centres. and Sam(वं). Yogānanda and Virānanda. Lākinī and the rest. the Bīja of which is "La. and as such a Devatā. . THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Their specific enumeration and allocation denote the differentiation in the body of the total Śabda. and are in themselves Prāṇa-Śakti manifested by Prāṇa-vāyu in the living body. and its essential activity. according to the Text. with its quadrangular Maṇḍala. which are each a Mantra. whose Śakti is Savitrī. further. the vehicles (Vahana) of the Devatas there. associates the Bījas with the five Prāṇas. or "Earth" Tattva.4 1 This and other lotuses hang head downwards except when Kuṇḍalī passes through them. Bīja is said to be seated on the elephant Airāvata. Here is the "female" triangle or Yoni known as Traipura. the elephant is emblematic of the strength. of this Tattva of "Earth". 4 The Dhyānabindu Up.1 There also is the Śakti known as Dakinī.3 ( Each letter in its Vaikharī form is a gross manifestation of inner or subtle Śabda. This Lotus is the centre of the yellow Pṛthivī. the Bīja or Mantra of which Tattva is Laṁ (रं). Thus in this Cakra there is the seed-mantra (Bīja ) of Indra. whose vehicle is the elephant Airāvata. 3 In this and other cases meditation is done from the right (Dakshinavartena). which follow. The petals are configurations made by the position of the Nāḍīs at any particular centre. Thus "Laṁ" is associated with Vyāna. On the petals are figured the letters. and solidity." with Bindu or the Brahmā-consoiousness presiding over this centre or "Laṁ" which is said to be the expression in gross (Vaikharī) sound of the subtle sound made by the vibration of the forces of this centre. firmness. So. Each letter is thus a particular Śabda or Śakti and a surrounding (Āvaraṇa) Devatā of the Principal Devatā and its Śakti of the particular Cakra. the subtle Tejas Tattva and its Bīja Raṁ is in the Maṇipūra Cakra. as also the other Śakti s. The latter is the gross or Sthūla aspect of which Japa is done.

fat. which is known as the white region of Varuṇa. flesh.1. Maṁ. To the first three are assigned certain forms and colours . the sixteen vowels. N. luminous as lightning. Para is formless. 2 See v. as also certain letters . Yaṁ. Kamarūpā and the rest because they reflect Cit (Citsphurattādhāratvāt). Laṁ (फं बं भं मं यं रं). Ahaṁkāra. 118 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER According to the Yoginī-hṛdaya Tantra1 (Ch. On these petals are the letters like lightning: Baṁ.25 of the Prāṇatoshini.4-14). acts as keeper of the door. 6 The diagrams or Maṇḍalas symbolic of the elements are also given. cited at p. colourless and letterless. of the Shape and colour of a young leaf. the Māyā-Śakti and Cit-Śakti . 2 Who. 1 The Creator is called Savitā because He creates. crescent. Different Tantras give different descriptions. and Tha to Sa. II. I). They are the. according to the commentary. Citta. 3 Viz.namely.. according to the Vishbasara Tantra. where all the Cakras are named. chyle. marrow. but eight-cornered (Ashtasra). Bāṇa. the consonants Ka to Ta (soft). Ch. S. "Water" (Ap) is the Tattva of this Cakra. 3 These correspond with the three and a half Bindus of which the Kubjika Tantra speaks. seed.namely. 4Entrance to the Suṣumnā. See Śāradā. They are Vṛttis of Manas. . bone. with the exception that. The Devī Kuṇḍlinī. 1 Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra.Svayaṁbhu. The Lingas are four .2 lies asleep coiled three and a half times3 round the Liṅga. The Tattvik Maṇḍala is in the Shape of a crescent moon6 (Ardhendurūpalasitam). red. aspects of the Brahman as manifested in the particular centres (vv. Another derivation is "own abode" (of Śakti ). Ch. in the first chapter of the Śāradā-Tilaka and in the Viśvasara Tantra. triangular. Buddhi. so called after Sva or the Param Liṅgaṁ. as here stated. the Maṇḍala of water is not a. Raṁ. yellow. Ch. Itara. representing.5 It is a vermilion lotus of six petals placed in the spinal centre of the region at the root of the genitals.49. shining in the hollow of this lotus like a chain of brilliant lights. as do all Devis and Devas. covering with Her head the Brahmā-dvāra. I. the World-bewilderer who maintains all breathing creatures. in which is set the "male" Śiva-linga known as Svayaṁbhu. circular.which is the Śakti pīṭha. 5 For another definition see Dhyānabindu Up. and is. The Traipura is the counterpart in the Jīva of the Kāmakalā of the Sahasrāra. white. Bhaṁ. See ante. according to Sammohana-Tantra. blood.4 The Svadhisthana Cakra is the second lotus proceeding upwards. they are so called because they lead to Cit. Parā. being the collectivity (Samaṣṭi) of all letters in the form of bliss.

Śakti s of the Dhātus assigned to each of his bodily centres. Here is the old red Rudra smeared with white ashes. Dham-ढं . is evolved (vv. Dam-दं Dham-धं. This is the triangular region of ं the Tejas Tattva. are here (vv. Lākinī and the other special Śakti s of the centres here named are the Śakti s of the Yogi himself . because. PADMA)119 Manipūra Chakra The Bīja of water (Varuna) is "Vam". see Commentary . Hari (Viṣṇu) and Rakini Śakti of furious aspect. it is lustrous as a gem (Mani).2 It is a lotus of ten petals on which are the letters Dam-डं. The Śakti s of the higher centres are not meat-eaters. showing Her teeth fiercely. and is so called because it is in this place that Munis (continued) 1 An animal like an alligator. in the region of the heart. Nam-णं. Tam-तं. the carrier of Agni. owing to the presence of the fiery Tejas. derived from Samayaworship. Pham-प.that is. Tham-थं. and the Śakti Lākinī who as the Devatā of this digestive centre is said to be "fond of animal food. so called. 2 For another derivation. This. See Plate 8. waking body.14 -18). is the lotus Maṇipūra (Nābhi-padma). and concentration on this centre may involve the satisfaction of the appetites of this Devatā. From these three centres the gross Vīrat. at the centre of the region of the navel. according to the GautamīyaTantra. the Lord of Fire. Next above the navel lotus (Nabhipadma) is the Anahata. The red Bīja of fire. and whose breasts are ruddy with the blood and fat which drop from Her mouth". the Varuna Bīja.19 -21). Above it. "Ram" is seated on a ram.THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. which is red like a Bandhuka flower. is seated on a white Makara1 with a noose in his hand. The triangle has three Svastikas. Nam-नं Pam-ऩं.

Śabdabrahmeti tam praha sakṣad devah eadaśivah Anabateshu chakreshu sa Śabdah parikirttnate Anāhata m MahāCakra m hrIḍāye sarvajantushu Tatra omkara ityukto Guṇatraya-samanvitah. Ṭam-टं .on the Lalita-Sahasranāma . of which one is inverted). vv. 89. Kham-खं. and its colour that of smoke by reason of its being surrounded by masses of vapour. Cham-छं . Omkara is said to be there in association with the three Guṇas. manifests in Anāhata." This is a lotus of twelve petals with the vermilion letters Kaṁ-क. 120 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Anāhata Chakra or Sages hear that "sound (Anāhata Śabda) which comes without the striking of any two things together. Jñam-ञं." or the "sound" of the Śabdabrahman. Jam-जं. . 88.3 Its Bīja "Yam" 1 P. and is experienced by the mind invard-turned of the Blessed Ones. For it is here that the Puruṣa (Jīvātmā) dwells. This lotus is to be distinguished from the Heart Lotus of eight petals. whose hairs stand on end and whose eyes weep with joy. According to v. As the Viśvasāra Tantra cited in the Prāṇatoṣini says: "Śabda-Brahman is said to be Deva Sadāśiva. where in mental worship the Patron Deity (Iṣta-devatā) is meditated upon. which is represented in the place below it. the region of Vāyu is six-cornered (that is formed by two triangles.10. Jham-झं .) Here is the Tree which grants all desires (Kalpataru) and the jewelled Altar (Maṇi-piṭha) beneath it. Anāhata is the great Cakra in the heart of all beings. This is the centre of the Vāyu Tattva.22. ṅam-ङं. O Queen. That Śabda is said to be in the Anāhata Cakra. Ṭham-ठं ."l The Mahā-svac-chandra Tantra says:2 "The great ones declare that Thy blissful form. (See Plate V. Gam-गं ं Gham-घं. which is here the Pulse of Life. Cam-चं.

5 letters. 2 "Saundarya Lahari". the colours of the Bhūtas are as follows : Ākāśa (ether) is transparent (Svachchha): Vāyu (air) is black (Krishna). (2) Rechikā. Ganesh & Co (Madras) Private Ltd. joyous with a rush of desire "(Kāmodgamollasita). (8) ळ to ष to ऱ or5 letters. (5) त to न. on which are the sixteen vowels with Bindu thereon - . (4) Amṛitā.2 (1) Vaśinī. and (12) LakṣmiYoginī. At the spinal centre of the region at the base of the throat (Kaṇṭha-Mūla) is the Viśuddha Cakra or Bhāratīsthāna. (4) ट to ण. (7) Āpyāyanī. PADMA)121 is seated on a black antelope which is noted for its fleetness. and so forth. (8) Vyapinī. The Ātmā is so described because. (6) Jñānā. 3 According to the Śāradā. and the Śakti in the form of an inverted triangle (Trikoṇa). I (and to the same effect Prapan.1 with sixteen petals of a smoky purple hue. (10) Vyoma-rūpā. (3) Modinī. Here are Īśa. 122 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER These twenty Deities (eight Vaśinīs and twelve Yoginīs) are to be worshipped in Maṇipūra and Anāhata centres. (7) Sarveāvarī. their respective colours. still. wherein is the golden Bāṇa Linga. Agni (fire) is red (Bakta). See Maṇḍala-Brahman a Up. whose "heart is softened by the drinking of nectar".1 The seventeenth verse of the Ānanda-Laharī mentions that the Devatās and others are to be worshipped in the two lastmentioned Cakras. v. and is the Vahana of "Air" (Vāyu). Vaśinī and others are eight in number.218. the Overlord of the first three Cakras. (6) Jayinī. See the diagram below. (5) Dipikā. These are respectively the Presiding Deities of the following eight groups of letters. the Śakti Kākinī garlanded with human bones. Brahman as II. state is that of the Ātmā as such. (11) Siddhi-rūpā.17 of Ānanda-Lahari refer to the twelve Yoginīs. (6) ऩ to भ.121. and in v. अ अः क ङ च ञ ट ण त न ऩ भ म ल ळ ष ऱ THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. (2) क to ङ.16 letters.5 letters. Ch.chasara Tantra). and (8) Kālī or Kaulinī. (3) च to ञ. the Commentator quotes a verse from the Tāittirīyāraṇyaka. and Pṛthivī (earth) is yellow (Pita).22 -27). on Lalita.2 Cited by Bhaskararaya's Comm. (1) अ to अः. and the Haṁsa as Jīvātmā.5 letters. (9) Medhā. so the Ātmā is in itself unaffected by the motions of the world.5 letters. just as the flame is undisturbed by the wind.4 letters.5 letters. place. (5) Aruṇā. In respect of this.. with its property of motion. who are (1) Vidyayoginī. Ap (water) is white (Sveta). (4) Vimalā. The other beings in v. (3) Mochikā. referring also to Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra.. III. and gives a description of these Deities. (7) म to ल. on the title of the Devī as Nadarūpā. 1This steady. (2) Kāmeśvarī. where she is described as Nāda-rupini. like "the steady flame of a lamp in a windless place" (vv.

2 This is sometimes represented as a circle with a number of dots in it. "the gateway of the great Liberation".1 with sixteen petals of a smoky purple hue.. Ākāśa has innumerable Sushira . It is a red lotus with twelve petals bearing. Aṁ = अं. Iṁ = इं. or spaces between its substance. the Cakra is so called because the Jīva is made pure (Viśuddha ) by seeing the Haṁsa. Aṁ = अं Āṁ = आं Iṁ = इं Īṁ = ईं Uṁ = उं Ūṁ = ऊ ं Ṛṁ = ऋ ं ṚŪṁ = क ं Lriṁ = ऌं Lrīṁ = खं Eṁ = एं Aiṁ = ऐं Om = ओं Auṁ = औं Aṁ = अं Ah = अः 1 That is. for. Ūṁ = ऊ. Lriṁ = ऌं .that is. as the Prapanchasara Tantra says. Eṁ = एं. too. .. At the spinal centre of the region at the base of the throat (Kaṇṭha-Mūla) is the Viśuddha Cakra or Bhāratīsthāna. Om = ओं . Here also is the white Śakti Śakinī. or in some Tantras Kalā-Cakra. Uṁ = उं . abode of the Devī of speech. Ah = अः. According to the Devī-Bhāgavata (VII. Īṁ = ईं.that is. ं Ṛṁ = ऋ. is the lunar region.35). which is not mentioned in the works here translated. Above the Viśuddha. ं ं Aiṁ = ऐं . is a minor Cakra called Lalana. Lrīṁ = खं . Here is the centre of the white circular Ākāśa or Ether Tattva. It is at this place that the Jñānī "sees the three forms of time" (Trikāladarśī). Auṁ = औं and the two breathings Aṁ = अं. whose form is light (Jyoti-svarūpa). in which half the body is white and the other half gold. on which are the sixteen vowels with Bindu. at the root of the palate. Ākāśa is dressed in white and mounted on a white elephant. As all things are in the Ātmā. the Jñānī who has realized the Ātmā has seen them (vv. Chidra.28-31). It is because of its interstitial character that things exist in space. ṚŪṁ = क. Its Maṇḍala is in the form of a cirle. Here.2 Here is Sadāśiva in his androgyne or Ardhanarīśvara Murti. Āṁ = आं. the Bīja of which is "Ham".

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which is the grossest of the senses of knowledge (Jñānendriya). For. not. post. the feet occur in the 1 This term is generally applied to cases arising between two persons who are attached to one another. and which is the quality (Guṇa) of the Pṛthivī Tanmātra. and the residue is passed out through the anus. is as follows: The feet are associated with "Earth" because the latter alone has the Power of support. 2 Usually understood as affection towards those younger or lower than oneself. in which the senses occur is different from that given in this work. hunger. 1 At first sight this might appear not to be so.3 Ūrmi (appetite). (3) the nostrils with their sense of smell. In the order of successive merging or Laya.2 Śuddhatā. which has been given. from which is derived the Pṛthivī Sthūla Bhūta. Here the nostrils are classified as the grossest of the Jñānendriyas. and ether to the sense of hearing and mouth. its sensitivity having even given rise to what has been called a "Psychology of the anus". according to the Vedānta. The gross which are in and below the Mūlādhāra or connected with it are . no such relation appears to exist between them and the Tanmātras. and state the scheme of creation as it occurs also in the Purāṇas. Saṁtoṣa (contentment). of the senses of action (Karmendriya).4 (V. as man and wife. 124 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER same grade as earth. whereby the body becomes pure. but because these organs are in the same order of comparative subtlety as earth. Aparādha (sense of error). PADMA)123 the following Vṛtti or qualities: Śraddhā (faith). and so forth. the anus1 a subtler agent than the hands. however. Hands are supposed to be subtler agents than feet. The grosser are lower in the body than the more subtle.(1) the Pṛthivī Tanmātra.THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Saṁbhrama (agitation). Hitherto we have dealt with the comparatively gross Tattvas. and the feet rest on it. decay. thirst. and fire. ignorance (moha). and (4) the feet. is derived from the root Pā. PADMA)125 Power of support. and the feet rest on it. in that case. but the importance of the anus is well known to medical experts.that is. water to the sense of taste and anus. the hands coming second because they find their place between the feet and the anus when the arms are given their natural vertical positions. fire and anus.(purity). water. water and hands. and death.1 Sneha (affection). to drink (Pīyate anena iti pāṇi). according to the Vedāntik scheme. and "which have Pṛthivī (earth) for their support". because therein is the sense which perceives the quality (Guṇa) of smell of the grossest Tanmātra (Gandha). "Ether" is associated with the mouth because by the mouth sound is uttered. air to the sense of touch and hands. and mouth in the same grade as ether. It is to be remembered in this connection that the Tantras here follow the Sāṁkhya. which is the Guṇa (quality) of ether (Ākāśa). "Fire" is associated with the anus because what is eaten is consumed by fire in the stomach. "Water" is associated with the hands because in drinking water the hand is used. 3 Through reverence or respect. 4 Or it may refer to the six which are technically called ūrmi . (2) the Pṛthivī Mahā-bhūta. for the senses are related to the Tanmātras. it is to be here observed that the Commentator Kālīcharaṇa states the principle of this Yoga to be that that which is grosser is merged into that which is more subtle (Sthulānāṁ sukṣhme layah). This is also the order in which these agents are situated in the body. which are the grossest of the senses of action (Karmendriya). Arati (detachment). earth is related to the sense of smell and penis. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. seemingly artificial. and the mouth a subtler agent than the penis. fire to the sense of sight and feet. the twenty grosser Tattvas are associated (4 X5) as in the following table: . but the order. and so forth. Thus the Jñānendriyas have a relation with the Tanmātras through their Guṇas (qualities). hands in the same grade as water. sorrow. Another explanation. According to this work. The word Pāṇi. because there is any direct relation between earth and feet. for the perception of which these senses exist. In the case. Dama (selfcommand). "Air" is associated with the penis because in procreation the Jīvātmā as Prāṇa Vāyu throws itself out through the penis. There is a relation between the senses and the Tanmātras in the created Jīva. And so the Śruti says: "Ātmā itself is reborn in the son" (Ātmāvai jāyate putrah). according to which the Jñānendriyas and Karmendriyas and the Tanmātras issue from different aspects of the threefold Ahaṁkāra. Māna (anger). which means hands. apparently.) Before summarising the previous description. anus in the same grade as fire. the penis a subtler agent than the anus. penis in the same grade as air. however.

the Karmendriya of feet. In connection with this Padma. PADMA)127 phrase "opening the door's" refers to passage through these Granthis. and is known by the Vedānta". Ahaṁkāra and its product Manas (Sasaṁkalpa-vikalpaka). and when manifested through these two vehicles without differentiation it is known as the Antar-yāmin. it is the mental centre. the Karmendriya of penis. on which are the white letters Ham (शं ) and Kṣam (षं). Sun. Śabda (sound) Tanmātra.. Ap Tattva (water). as above stated. however. It will have been observed that there are fifty petals and fifty letters in the six Cakras. and dreamless slumber. "who was before the three worlds. the Karmendriya of mouth.granthis the force of Māyā Śakti is in great strength. Progress is next made to the last or Ājñā Cakra. The Yogi by contemplation of this lotus gains further powers (Siddhi). . It is a lotus of two white petals between the eyebrows. As. as displayed in Prāṇa it is Sūtrātmā. Here the Ātmā (Antarātma) shines lustrous like a flame. the Mūlādhāra. the Jñānendriya of sight. So far the Tattvas have been those of the "matter" side of creation. the Jñānendriya of hearing. In Chapter II of the Prapanchasara Tantra it is said: "Ether is in the ears.namely. Anāhata 5. and the number of the petals in the Viśuddha Cakra is the sum of the preceding differences. Maṇipūra 4. As explained below. Here are Paramaśiva in the form of Haṁsa (Haṁsa-Rūpa). It is here that the Yogi at the time of death places his Prāṇa. the Jñānendriya of touch. the Jñānendriya of taste.post. The Cakras are the bodily centres of the world of differentiated manifestation. with its gross and subtle bodies arising from their causal body. Pṛthivī Tattva (earth). Buddhi. 1 The nose is a centre at which sexual excitement may be aroused or subdued. which is set in it. This exhausts the fifty letters. the text (S. Anāhata. Citta. Viśuddha Grosser Tattvas Gandha (smell) Tanmātra. it includes all the aspects of mind above stated. The former is the Antahkaraṇa with Guṇas . Each Lotus has either two or four more petals than the one immediately below it. and earth in the nostrils. Commonly and shortly it is said that Manas is the Tattva of the Ājñā Cakra. for here at these three 'Knots' or Brahmā. the Karmendriya of hands. the white Hākinī-Śakti " elated by draughts of ambrosia. shining like lightning. Svādhiṣṭhāna 3. The latter term is applied to the manifestation of the Paramātma in the Antahkaraṇa. THE CENTERS OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Rasa (taste) Tanmātra. Tejas-Tattva (fire). Rūpa (sight) Tanmātra. The light of this region makes visible all which is between the Mūla and the Brahmā-randhra. and the Prakṛti whence they derive. Siddha-kāli. The same verse describes the method (Prāṇāropaṇa-prakāra).36) explains how detachment is gained through the Yoni Mudrā. converge. the Īśvara aspect) as Hiraṇya-garbha. and the Itara Liṅga. Vāyu Tattva (air). In the pericarp is the great Mantra "Om". The Cakra is so called because it is here that the command (Ājñā ) of the Guru is received from above. And this is the point at which each of the three groups of Tattvas associated with Fire.'' The Karmendriyas are possibly so arranged because the Tattvas of the respective centres in which they are placed are.1 The 1 V. Mahāt and Prakṛiti. Sparśa (touch) Tanmātra. Ākāśa Tattva (ether). sleeping.Centre in which dissolved 1." the inverted triangle or Yoni (Trikoṇa). and Moon. N. commencing from the lowest and grossest centre. the Jñānendriya of smell. the Purāṇa (ancient) Puruṣa. water in the tongue. Though the reproductive organ is higher up than the Mūlādhāra the sexual force ultimately proceeds from the latter 126 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER It will be observed that with each of the elements is associated an organ of sensation (Jñānendriya) and action (Karmendriya). Here in the Ājñā is the seat of the subtle Tattvas. in which are the subtle Tattyas of Mind and Prakṛiti. and then enters the supreme primordial Deva. Prom the last centre and the causal Prakṛti is evolved the subtle body which individually is known as Taijas. as also the Ātmā in the form of the Prāṇava (Om) its Bīja. Mūlādhāra 2. the Karmendriya of anus. fire in the eye. and its threefold planes of consciousness in waking. v. and becomes Advaitācāravādī (Monist). each class of Tattvas is dissolved in the next higher class. air in the skin. The three Liṅga s are thus in the Mūlādhāra. of similar grades of subtlety and grossness.and collectively (that is. and Ājñā Cakras respectively.

Sūrya (Sun).2 with Bindu above and Nāda below. This Kāmakalā is the Mūla (root) of Mantra. smell. (2) the triangle called A-ka-tha. The Manas Cakra is a lotus of six petals.32 -39) there are the minor Cakras called Manas and Soma. the embodiment of Puruṣa-Prakṛiti. is the Soma Cakra. (4) The fourth Paduka is the Haṁsa below the Antaratma.Vāyu. The twelve-petalled lotus and that which is connected with it is the special subject of the short book Padukapan. "where Yogis see the radiant Īśvara. which is the seat of) the sensations of hearing. The eternal Guru. This Triangle. Jñāna). are the Sūryaand Candra Maṇḍalas. in the pericarp. (3) Nāda-Bindu. and Knowledge (Icchā. which. which is the abode of Śakti (Abalālayam). The Śabda-Brahman with its threefold aspect and energies is represented in the Tantras by this Kāmakalā. This is the Supreme Triangle. and Vahni (Fire) Bindus. As to the causal bodies. is formed by the three Bindus which the text calls Candra (Moon). 7 of the Paduka. differences between this and the second classification are explained in the notes to v. set in the Ocean of Nectar. The former is the Bindu Haṁkāra at the apex of the triangle. So. Avalon. Kriyā. It may be here noted that Śakti is denoted by a triangle because of its threefold manifestation as Will. like all Yonī-piṭhas. In the Candra Maṇḍala there is a triangle. in which twelve-petalled lotus is the A-ka-ṭha triangle. not mentioned in the texts here translated. Above this.Above the Ājñā -Cakra (vv. again. 128 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER on the petals of which are (that is. and centrally initiated sensations in dream and hallucination. they are yet related to each other and form part of one whole. (3) The region of the altar (Maṇi-piṭha). a lotus of sixteen petals." the seven causal bodies (v.post. The.1 In this region are "the house without support" (Niralambapurl). which is a hymn by Śiva in praise of the "Fivefold Footstool". with a commentary by Śrī Kalicharana. on the material plane. if there are three forces. Here there is (2) the inverted Triangle the abode of Śakti called "A-ka-tha". This is the Haṁsa known as the triangular Kāmakalā. and then the Brahmā-randhra with MahāŚamkhini. which are also known as PrAkāśa. and at the apex a single Bindu. "white like a mountain of silver." should be meditated upon.1 and Miśra Bindu. and (5) the Triangle on the Pitha.ohaka Stotra here translated. which surrounds the jewelled altar (Maṇi-piṭha) on the isle of gems (Manidvipa). touch. there is no other way in which they can be brought to interact except in the form of a triangle in which. which makes the triangular Kāmakalā. or ParamaŚiva. as on the Jewelled Altar (Maṇi-piṭha). the white twelve-petalled lotus by the pericarp of the Sahasrāra (vv. These are the Bindus of Fire (Vahnibindu). and (5) the Haṁsa. while they are each separate and distinct from one another. taste. Above the Moon is Mahā. Action. on each side of which are Nāda and 1 V. Above this. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. and the two other Bindus called Visarga or Sa are Prakṛiti. According to this latter classification they are counted as follows : (1) The twelve-petalled lotus. Ed.32 -39). the Parabindu surrounded by the sixteenth and seventeenth digits of the moon circle. The Isle of Gems is a supreme state of Consciousness. the Supreme Tattva. is inverted. The footstools are variously classified as follows: According to the first classification they are .(1) The white twelve-petalled lotus in the pericarp of the Sahasrāra lotus. again. see "Garland of Letters". (4) the Maṇi-piṭha-Maṇḍala. and the Kāmakalā triangle and the Guru of all. . sight. 2 In mental worship the jewelled altar of the Iṣta-devatā is in the eight-petalled lotus below Anāhata (see Plate V).39) which are intermediate aspects of Ādyā Śakti . with certain Vṛittis which are detailed later. A. At the corners of the Triangle there are two Bindus. Moon 1 As to this term see "MahāMāyā " and Kāmakalāvilasa in "Tantrik Texts". PADMA)129 Bindu. Vimarśa . and the Ocean of Nectar is the infinite Consciousness Itself.

The lines of the triangle emanating from the three Bindus or Haṁsah are formed by forty-eight letters of the alphabet. says : "Prom the Bindu (that is.1 Three Śakti s emanate from these Bindus." The Brihat-Shrl-krama. These Śakti s are Volition (Icchā) Action (Kriyā). and Śiva. The Yamala thus speaks of this abode. the line of the Śakti Jyesṭhā. the Parā. With them are Brahmā. and Cognition (Jñāna). 1 The Kāmakalāvilasa says: "Bindu-trayaMāyā s tejas-tritayah" (three Bindus and three fires). Kṣa." and. and Fire. Rajas. and the line of the Śakti Raudri." The Kālī Urdhvamnaya says: "The threefold Bindu (Tribindu) is the supreme Tattva. Viṣṇu. the three Śakti s.130 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER These are the Bindus of Fire (Vahnibindu)."2 The triangle which is composed of the letters has emanated from the Bindu. and Rudra. and the three Forms (Trimurti). says: "She is the eternal One who is the three Bindus. Lla. associated with the Guṇas. Moon. and embodies in itself Brahmā. In the inner three corners of the triangle are the remaining letters Ha. "Tripura-sundarī sits in the Cakra which is composed of Bindus (Bindumaye chakre). the sixteen consonants beginning with Ka form the second line. proceeding. and the following sixteen letters beginning with Tha form the third line. These letters are known as the Mātṛikā Varṇa.bindu) She has assumed the form of letters (Varṇa vayavarupini). Her abode being the lap of Kameshvara.kala. The sixteen vowels beginning with A form one line. denoted by the lines joining the Bindus and thus forming a triangle. whose forehead is adorned by the crescent moon. in dealing with Kāmakalā. and Sun (Sūryabindu). She has three eyes. These lines are the line of the Śakti Vāma." . Viṣṇu. Moon (Candrabindu). which are Sun. Hence the triangle is known as the A-ka-tha triangle. "I now speak of Kāma. and Tamas. Sattva.

and Vahni. 132 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER in the Kāmakalāvilasa in the verses commencing "Supreme Śakti (Parā Śakti ) is the manifested union of Śiva and Śakti in the form of seed and sprout.). the sun. for this self-division marks the appearance of the differentiated Prakṛiti. beautiful. in which the Devī is addressed as being in the form of Kāmakalā (Kāmakalārūpā). They destroy the worlds and take them to themselves through the cosmic Yoga path.'' She is called (says the commentator cited)5 Tripurā. Hence it is called Kāmakalā." and ending with the lines "Kāma (means) desire. being white. desiring. tripurasiddhante : Tasya kameshvarakhyasya kameshvaryash cha parvvati Kalakhya salila sa cha khyata kamakaleti sa.4). 2 This appears to he in conflict with the previous statement of Raghava Bhatta."1 Kāma. here meaning Bindus. the treasure of Kula."4 After Śiva (with whom She is one) had destroyed Kāma. Haṁsah is the union of the male and female. v.124 of the Lalitā. and the Hakārārdha is named Kalā. being red.3) says that the Bindu is Parā-Śakti itself. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. 6). syllables. being in their Vaikharī state various manifestations of the primal unmanifested "sound" (Avyaktanada).2 The Mahesvarl Saṁhitā says: "Sūrya. who is adored by the three Devatas3 of the three Guṇas. 1 Tasyah svarūpām sphutaŚivaŚakti -samagamaBījamkurarupini Parā Śakti rityarabhya kamah kamaniyataya kala cha dahanendu. In his commentary to v. PADMA)131 These form the body of KulaKuṇḍalinī1 the Śabda. who is the desire (or will) of Śiva. and Bīja. Bindu. or Sun. Nāda. 3 Kamash chasau kalarūpā ceti va. Moon. is both Śiva and Devī. angles. that Bindu is Moon and Nāda the Sun." The triangular Kāmakalā is thus formed by Haṁsah (ib. Vol. They appear as manifested Śabda on the self-division of the Parā-bindu. and Brahmā. 2 Kamayoh kaleti va. Hence She is known as Kāmakalā. Viṣṇu. Kamartham agata yasman Mayā sardham Mahāgirau Kamakhya prochyate Devī nilakutarahogata Kamada Kāminī kamya kanta kamangadayini Kamanganashini yasmat kamakhya tena kathyate Iti ŚadaKṣaramIḍām Nāma (ib. The Haṁsa-pītha is composed of Mantras (ib. The commentary on the Pādukā-pañcaka (v.). Bhāskararāya's Guru Nṛsiṃhānandanātha wrote the following verse. Bhāskararāya says: "There are three Bindus and the Hārdha-kalā."2 Or She is the manifestation (Kalā) of desire (Kāma)3 that is. half the letter Ha (श).2 These form the Cinmaya or Ānandamaya-Kośa or sheaths of consciousness and bliss (Pādukā-pañcaka .3 Of these Bindus the first is called Kāma. v. and its variations are called Bindu. The Kālikā Purāṇa says: "She has three . desirable. v. restoring the body of Kāma (Manmatha) and destroying the body of Kāma. and Kalā the same. and the universe is Haṁsah. as She has three (Tri) Puras (lit. hence She is called Kāma." THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. As this subject is of great importance. and Nāda. so She (with whom He is one) afterwards gave a new body to the "Bodiless One" (Anaṅga). 3 Also called Hakārārdha . "Tantrik Texts".that is.4 who dwells in the Bindu and who manifests the universe. etc. Pārvati. of Icchā. lines. but. PADMA)133 and again by Their desire and will (Icchā) recreate them.. taduktam. See A. 4 Bindu-trayam Hārdha-kalā cha ityatra prathamo binduh Kāma. In the Āgamakalpadruma it is said: "Haṁkāra is Bindu or Puruṣa. when he sought by the instilment of passion to destroy His Yoga.1 This Devī is the great Tripura-sundarī. or creative Will. As She is also the giver or fulfiller of desire. Her limbs like unto those of Kāmarāja.khyash Charama kala cha iti Pratyāhāranyayena kamakaletyuchyate. and Fire. The two Bindus making the base of the triangle are the Visarga (ib.Brahman."4 He adds that the nature of Kāmakalā is set forth in the 1 The Kāmakalāvilasa says : "EkapanchaŚadaKṣaratma" (She is in the form of the51 letters). are the three Bindus. on which the disciple commentates: "I hymn Tripura. and Kalā is their manifestation. Kalā is the manifestation of Kāmeśvara and Kāmeśvarī. The two Bindus are said to be the Fire and Moon. the moon. cities).. 4 Kamapadamatra-vachyatayah Kallpurane pratipadanat. and Visarga is Sah or Prakṛiti. Candra.3). Avalon's edition and translation of this text. This is explained in the Tripurā-siddhantā: "O. and Śambhu are the three lines. The Kālikā-Purāṇa says: "Devī is called Kāma because She came to the secret place on the blue peak of the great mountain (Kailāsa) along with Me for the sake of desire (Kāma): thus Devī is called Kāma. These Bindus and Kalā are referred to in the celebrated Hymn "Waves of Bliss" (Ānandalaharī)..vigrahau bindu ityantena nirnitam Kāmakalāvilase tadrupetyarthaha (ib). some further authorities than those referred to in the work here translated are given.2 who is red of beauty. 9.

Moon. which Bindus indicate Icchā. v. and Tāmasik qualities. such as the Tripurarnava. The Commentator on the verse of the Ānandalaharī cited says:1 "In the fifth sacrifice (Yajñā ) let the Sādhaka think of his Ātmā as in no wise different from. citing Vamakeshvara Tantra). and Śakti . that is. and her Bhūpura 6 has three lines. Brahmā.19). Ekā . Anantakrishna Śastri. . in order that She may create the three Gods (Brahmā. the desire or will of Śiva. and on the other two Bindus as Her two breasts. Fire. The Kāma Bīja is Klīm. (Let him contemplate on the first Bindu as the face of the Devī. however. to v.a+i = e. Agni (red). 2 Atha panchaMāyā ge abhedabuddhya atmanam Śivarūpām ekat. and below that on the half Ha. and hence the meaning of the saying (ib. and Shyama. Vāgbhava. The Kuṇḍalinī energy is also threefold. and the mixed . and then let him meditate on the Cit-kalā who is Śakti below it. Tamas.) Half Ha is the Yoni. the Supreme energy endowed with the Sāttvik. 5 So also the Devī Bhagavata Pr. 3 Viṣṇu."2 The Bindu which is the "face" indicates Viriñci3 (Brahmā) associated with the Rajas Guṇa. red. which indicates all three Guṇas. the Mūlādhāra. and Iḍā. Piṅgalā. the doctrine of the Kaula Tantriks. I=Manmatha . post). extending from the Ādhāra lotus to Parama-Śiva. and mixed.angles (in the triangular Yoni) as well as three circles (the three Bindus). or Indu (white).viz. and the Kriyā and Icchā Śakti s. according to the Anekarthadhvanimanjari Lexicon. According to the Viśva Dictionary. red.. since She the supreme energy is everywhere triple. the Devī is said to have assumed three forms . and which is all these three Devatas.206. also be here made to the three outer lines of the Śrī-cakra. v.. Rajas and Tamas qualities respectively. Sattva. and origin of all. 6 The meditation given in the Yoginī-Tantra is as 1 Śankaracharyagranthavali (Vol.176) that he who hears the Bīja without Ka and La does not reach the place of good actions .189. Śrīvidya. She is Called Tripura-sundarī. black. but as the one only Śiva. 1 V. See Lalita. Kāma. 2 Kulanidhi. Rajas. Reference may.that is. but has a number of other meanings: Śakti (Akula is Śiva). The two Bindus which are the "breasts. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. 4 This is the Commentator's meaning of Ekām taṁ.that is.1 and She has three aspects. 6 The portion of the Yantra which is of common form and which •encloses the particular design in its centre. Three "Pāda" are also spoken of as Tripura . post) and in Buddhi Manas Citta (v. Below them meditate in the Yoni upon the subtle Cit-kalā. but to that attainable by knowledge alone (see ib. which according to the Vamakeśvara Tantra are the Jñāna-Śakti which confers salvation. as in the Varāha Purāṇa. v. Eka is therefore the spouse or Śiva. says : "The Śāṁbhavīis white. Rudra). and Sun. the spiritual hierarchy of Gurus. 5 Introduction to Lalita. p. the Parahanta (Supreme Individuality). post.. v." The Yantra of Śrīvidya is the Śrī-cakra mentioned.the above-mentioned as one inseparable modification (the Vṛtti) of "I". the pure samvit (Consciousness) untainted by any Upadhis. or Śivakama. The editor's notes are based on the Commentary of Achyuta-nanda Svami. 134 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER is said to be of three syllables. red.218.white. the three "feet" are explained in another work of Bhaskararaya as follows : White. PADMA)135 In the Kāmakalā meditation (Dhyāna) the three Bindus and Hārdha-kalā are thought of as being the body of the Devī Tripura-sundarī. red. Let him think of the three Bindus as being in Her body (Tripura-sundarī).manam vibhavya Ādhārat paramaŚivantam sutrarūpām Sūkṣmam Kuṇḍalinīm sarvaŚakti rūpām vibhavya sattvarajastamoGuṇasuchakam BrahmāViṣṇuŚivaŚaktyatmakam SūryagniCandrarūpām bindutrayam tasya ange vibhavya adhash Citkalam dhyayet (Comm. Rājasik. ed. Śrī Prasanna Kumara Śastri. Thus. These are known as the "three-feet" (Charana-tritaya).19). Rudra. Brahmā and Rudra of the Sattva. "A" has among other meanings that of Īśa or Śiva.white. and." and upon which meditation should be done in the heart. translator of the Lalita. and of the subtle thread-like Kuṇḍalinī which is all Śakti s. Viṣṇu. Kāmarāja. Klimkara is Śivakama. 3 V. II). etc.5 The one Śakti becomes three to produce effects. he does not go to the region attained by good actions.4 Elsewhere. Ravi (mixed). which says that the Devī is called Tripura because She dwells in the three Nāḍīs (Suṣumnā. Here Im means the Kāmakalā in the Turiya state through which Mokṣa is gained. 2 Other instances may be given. Jñāna ."2 These syllables are said by the commentator last cited3 to be the three Bījas of the three divisions (of the Pañcadaśi) . Kriyā. indicate Hari4 (Viṣṇu) and Hara5 (Rudra) associated with the Sattva and Tamas Guṇas. Her Mantra 1 Mukham bindum kritva kuchayugam adhas tasya tadadho Hakarardham dhyayet haramahishi te manmathakalam (v. the first Vṛtti (modification) from the Samvit. In its literal ordinary sense Kula means race or family. Viṣṇu. 4 According to a note of R.177. or desire. and black. the womb.

is the Sun or Ātmā among the letters.trayasuchikam hariharavirinchyatmikam Sūkṣmam Citkalam hakarardham kritva yonyantargata-Trikoṇakritim kritva dhyayet (ib. and that her body from throat to middle. as the Prapañcasāra Tantra2 says. Then imagine that the rest of Her body from genitals to feet is born from Kāma. Icchā. Jyesṭhā. as the Ṣaṭcakra-vivṛti adds. of the Omkara or Prāṇava." To the same effect are the Tāntrik works the Śrī-krama3 and Bhāva-cūdāmaṇi4 cited in the Commentary to the Ānandalaharī." l The Śrītattvārṇava says: "The glorious men who worship in that body in Samarasya2 are freed from the waves of poison in the untraversable sea of the world (Saṁsāra). 3 Tatha cha Śrīkrame : Bindutrayasya deveshi prathamam Devī vaktrakam Bindudvayam stanadvandvam hridi sthane niyojayet. The Traipura-Trikoṇa is that. U. tasyadho Hṛdaya sthane sattvatamoGuṇasuehakam hariharatmakam bindudvayam kuchayugam kritva. He who creates. et seg. But this means the same thing. and which are so called because Māyā is strong 1 Phetkarini Tantra. Viṣṇu. 3 Nityapujapaddhati. and is adored by Brahmā. feeling. It is to this Kāminī that in worship the essence of Japa (Tejo-rūpajapa) is offered. Verse 8 of the first work translated says that in the Mūlādhāra centre there is the Triangle (Trikoṇa) known as Traipura. or being one with. which are two of the Knots or Granthis. by Jaganmohana Tarka-lamkara.10) : Shivo Brahmā tatha Viṣṇuronkkare cha pratishthitah Akarash cha bhaved Brahmā ukarah sachCIḍātmakah Makaro rudra ityukta iti tasyarthakalpana. and is called Kāmakalā. the external Japa being offered to the Devatā worshipped in order that the Sādhaka may retain the fruits of his worship. Then let him meditate upon the subtle Kalā Hakārārdha (half letter of Ha) in the Yoni.). THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. 2 That is equal. 4 He who takes away or destroys (harati) all grief and sin. for it is Bindu. the aspect of Tripurasundarī in the Mūlādhāra. This Ka is the chief letter of the Kāma Bīja. let him contemplate the first as the mouth and in the heart the two Bindus as the two breasts. 4 Taduktam Bhavachudamanau : Mukham binduvadakaram Tadadhah kuchayugmakam Tadadhashcha hakarardham SuparishkritaMaṇḍalam. Ch. M. 5 Nityapujapaddhati. II. She is adorned with all manner of ornaments and dress. in the Mūlādhāra which is the grosser correspondence of the Kāmakalā.1 Ma. The first says: "Of the three Bindus. which is the root (Mūla) of all Mantras below the . and Rudra.4 Thus the Traipura-Trikoṇa is the gross or Sthūla aspect of that subtle (Sūkṣma) Śakti which is below the Sahasrāra. and then that from these a young girl sixteen years old springs forth." The three Devatas Brahmā. III.5 There are also two other Liṅgas and Trikoṇas at the Anāhata and Ājñā centres. where that Commentary is printed. illuminating every quarter of the firmament.3 That is. Īśa. Hakarardham kalam Sūkṣmam yonimadhye vichintayet. see p. with its two breasts and three belly lines of beauty (Trivali)." And the second says: "The face in the form of Bindu. and Raudrī and. Jñāna. which is an adjective of Tripura. however. I: Tebhya eva samutpanna Varṇa ye Viṣṇu-shulinoh Murtayah Śakti sajnyukta uchyante tah kramena tu. Here also.199 of the Nityapujapaddhati of Jaganmohana Tarkalamkara. and Kriyā. and Viṣṇu. loc. of Tantrik Texts. 6 Mukham bindum kritva rajoGuṇasuchakam virinchyatmakam bin. Thus formed. 80.117. Think of Her body from crown to throat as springing from the upper Bindu. Nityapujapaddhati. as Ha follows Sa. and below twin breasts. Vol. union of Śiva and Śakti . with their Śakti s. 136 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER follows: "Think of three Bindus above Kalā. 4 See p. From each of these ten Kalas arise. and below them the 1 See p. O Mistress of the Devas. PADMA)137 beauteous form of the Hakārārdha. Sapara is Hakara. tasyadhah yoniGuṇa. as the same verse says. are said to take birth from the letters A. cit. there are the three lines Vāmā. and Kaṁ3 is the Bīja of Kāminī. Then let the Sādhaka think of his own body as such Kāmakalā. It is so called because of the presence of the Devī Tripura within the Ka inside the triangle. And so also Viśvasara Tantra (see Prāṇatoshini.199. by Jaganmohana Tarkalamkara. The third line of this verse is also printed Tadadhah saparardham cha. 138 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER at these points of obstruction. 2 Ch. arise from the two lower Bindus.dum mukham kritva. 5 The same. shining with the light of millions of rising suns.. at which each of the three groups converge. p. For further Dhyānas and mode of meditation. from Vi +rich.

Vīrānanda. Ūrmi. arrogance or hypocrisy. certain Bījas. pitilessness. Praśraya. discrimination. Thus. is the correspondence in Jīvaof the Tribindu of Īśvara. Arati. Īrśa. (9) Sahasrāra or Soma-Cakra--. Māna. (3) Manipūra---Susupti. Ghṛnā. 4 Both were extracted at the churning of the ocean. Vairāgya. world-liness. Dhṛti. Huṁphat. In the Mūlādhāra. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Ārjava. Riṣaba. Kṛpa.4 and in the petals and pericarp of the Ājñā the three Guṇas and in the former the Bījas. suspicion. Ghrāṇa. Vaṣat. ignorance. PADMA)139 to Svādhiṣṭhāna. Rasopabhoga.141 and142. sadness. Dhyāna. meditativeness. humility or sense of propriety. Pañcama." there are the four forms of bliss already mentioned. Tṛṣṇā. emotionlessness (being undisturbed by emotion). and which. mineness (resulting in attachment). Sammada. Gāṁbhīrya. Ch. Sthiratā. sense of languor. Saṁpat. patience or composure. Mṛduta. covetousness. Garvanāśa. Samatā. 2 Credulity. Dhṛti. Namah. (5) Viśuddhi---Prāṇava. Anutāpitā. rapture or thrill. Gāṁbīrya. (8) Manas-Cakra--Svapna. the Vṛttis. constancy. Yogānanda. Toṣa. Kaṣāya. Vairāgya. Dhyanāśru. indecision. Sahaja.Praśraya. however. Moral qualities (Vṛtti) appear in some of the lower Cakras in the secret twelve-petalled lotus called the Lalanā (and in some Tantras Kalā) Cakra. 3 Mercy.kṛpā. and so forth. aversion (or disgust). (or disinclination). Garvanāśa. (4) Anāhata---Laulyapraṇāśa. Avajñā. I. (7) Ājña-Cakra---Sattva āvirbhāva. Vitarka. Daṁbha. Svāhā. Amṛta. Kaṣāya. smell.1 to the Maṇipūra. Viṣāditā. Dhairya. and in the six-petalled Manas Cakra above the Ājñā are Śabda-jñāna. prosperity. Saṁbhrama. in the Viśuddha the seven subtle "tones. 7 of the Hamsopanisad and see SaIilgitaratnakara. Ekāgratā. Krūratā. endeavour. Huṁphat. Niṣāda. Dhaivata. Udyama. which has been described as the "source of a massive pleasurable aethesia. Khedla. Lajjā. Tṛṣṇā. Svadhā. Avajñā. Sparśa. Viṣa. Rupa-jñāna. Kṣamā. at the root of the palate (Tālumūla). sight. SuSthiratā. That they exist at any particular Cakra is said to 1 Shame. delusion. Akṣobha. touch. Haṁ and Kṣaṁ. Sneha. Pañcama. desire. Aviśvāsa. Aviśvāsa. Cintā. in the eight petal "venom. Vitarka. care or anxiety. Svāhā. with their opposites. Svadhā. Gāndhāra. magnanimity. Rṣabha.3 to the secret Soma-cakra . Samūhā. Ānutāpa to Anāhata2. Ekāgratā. Śoka. Prakarana ii. Udyama. (I) Mūladhāra--Parama. which summarises some of the details above given upto and including the Sahasrāra. situate above the Viśuddha. 140 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER be shown by their disappearance when Kuṇḍalī ascends through the Cakra. again. the reader will find it convenient to refer to the tables on pp. gravity (of demeanour). disdain. Vaṣat. Vauṣat. gentleness. Viveka.Sahasmra. Piśunatā. Ceśṭā. destruction of everything which false knowledge leads to). Samatā. Śraddhā. Daṁbha. Āśā. Tama āvirbhāva. Moha. enterprise or effort. duplicity. dealing in detail with the Sahasrāra. and centrally initiated sensations in dream and hallucination It is stated that particular Vṛttis are assigned to a particular lotus. jealousy. Lajja. Bhaya. Śabdabodha. Vikalatā. Vinaya. such as the Adhyātmaviveka. Uparodhitā. represent the destructive and upbuilding forces of the world. taste.2 are assigned 1 Quoted in the Dipika to v. Rāja āvirbhāva. regret. Romāñcanicaya. denoting the sensations of the sensorium . supineness. Audārya. Ahakṛti. Dhaivata. Krūratā. Sparśa-jñāna. Ahaṁkāra. dispassion. Āghrāṇopalabdhi. Piśunatā. Bhaya. Thus the bad Vṛttis of the lower Cakras pass away in the Yogi who raises Kuṇḍalī above them. as also in the sixteen- . Gāndhāra. Lolatā. Rūpopalaṁbha. fear. Madhyama . concentration. 2 Hope. Lubdhatā. Acchatva. Moha. Vaikalya. Udgītha. as so spoken of. Prakata. Suṣupti. Mūrcchā. Kapaṭatā. (6) Lalanā -Cakra---Mada. Viveka. false knowledge (lit. Sadja. because of a connection between such Vṛtti and the operation of the Śakti s of the Tattva at the centre to which it is assigned. In the description of the Cakras given in this work. and.1 commencing with the root-lotus and ending with the Soma Cakra.hearing. Cintā. Ghṛṇā. Before. Dhairya. Rasopabhoga. Ṣadja. (2) Svadhisthana-. Audārya.. no mention is made of the moral and other qualities and things (Vṛtti) which are associated with the Lotuses in other books. Romāñca. Namaḥ. egoism or self-conceit. and Svapna. Viśāda. Āśa. treachery. quietude or restfulness. Madhyama . (spiritual) cheerfulness. Mūrchā. Hāsya." and in the sixteenth "nectar". Hāsya." Niṣāda. Prakāśa.

Kapatata (duplicity). with Daṁbha (arrogance). and Unmanī (in Śiva Tattva). PADMA)141 commencing with the lowest. descending from Unmanī to Bindu. ya. Nāda. and this must be so as the Jīva approaches or lives in his higher principles. They are not co-extensive. I. da.3 which. hand (organ of action) Rūpa (form & colour. ma. CAKRA Mūlādhāra Svādhiṣṭhāna Maṇipūra SITUATION Spinal centre of region below genitals Spinal centre of region above the genitals Spinal centre of region of the navel NUMBER OF PETALS 4 6 10 LETTERS ON SAME va. sight (organ of sensation). gha. Crescent Viṣṇu on Garuda Triangle Raṁ on a ram Rudra on a bull . ga. la da. na. Bodhini. kha. Between Ājñā and Sahasrāra. Viveka (discrimination). . to read it backwards. wherein is the abode of the Supreme Bindu Para-Śiva. called the Kāmakalā. Lolatā (covetousness).petalled lotus above the Manas-cakra. we find AŚa (hope). Six-pointed hexagon Yaṁ on an antelope Īśa Kākinī Bāna and Trikoṇa OTHER TATTVAS HERE DISSOLVED Gandha (smell) Tattva. pa. o. there are seven Śakti s... Above the Ājñā is the causal region and the Lotus of a thousand petals. both of which belong to what is called the Anuloma order:2 so in the region between the Ājñā Cakra and Sahasrāra. touch (organ of sensation).1 those of the Lalanā Cakra are predominantly good. au. lri. tha the vowels: a. taste (organ of sensation). sa ba. Śa. i. and viloma (nivritti) the path of return. cha. dha. na. the ordinary as opposed to the reversed (viloma) order.ri. Chapter on "Causal Śakti s of the Prāṇava". dha. to read the alphabet as A to Z is anumola. stiMūlating sense of hearing Manas (mental faculties) COLOUR OF TATTVA Yellow White Red Anāhata Viśuddha Ājñā Spinal centre of region of the heart Spinal centre of region of the throat Centre of region between the eyebrows 12 16 2 ka. producing heat and stiMūlating sight-sense of colour and form Vāyu. 142 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER SHAPE OF Maṇḍala Square BĪJA AND ITS VĀHANA (CARRIER) Laṁ on the A i r ā v ata elephant Vaṁ on Makara DEVATĀ AND ITS VĀHANA Brahmā on Haṁsa ŚAKTI OF THE DHATU Ḍākini Rakinī Lākinī LlNGA AND YONI Svayaṁbhu and TraipuraTrikoṇa . Ṣa. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. ja. It is noteworthy that the Vṛtti of the two lower Cakras (Svādhiṣṭhāna and Manipūra) are all bad. they are not here co-extensive with and present a different aspect. thus indicative of an advance as we proceed from the lower to the higher centres.ri.nya. 3 See Garland of Letters or Studies in Mantra Śāstra. sight) Tattva. is viloma. and known as the Soma-Cakra.a. cohesion. 2 That is. at the seat of the Kāraṇa Śarīra of Jīva. Cheshta (endeavour). ai. expansion. ta. bha. 1 E. and those of the Soma Cakra wholly so. u. am. Just as in the Īśvara or cosmic creation there are seven creative Śakti s from Sakala Parameśvara to Bindu. In the above matter. a. In the twelvepetalled white lotus in the pericarp of the Sahasrāra is the abode of Śakti . already described. with all the letters. contraction. tha.. Though these latter Śakti s have a cosmic creative aspect. jha... which is the seat of the causal body (Kāraṇa Śarīra) of Jīva.g. Z to A. Vyāpikā. therefore anuloma is evolution (Sṛṣṭi) or the forward movement. and in the microcosmic or Jīva creation seven creative Śakti s from Kuṇḍalinī. Mahānada or Nādānta (in Sādākhyā Tattva). Samani (in Śakti Tattva). anus (organ of action) Sparśa (touch and feel) Tattva. feet (organ of action) Rasa (taste) Tattva. nga. are the Varṇāvalī-rupā Viloma-Śakti s. stiMūlating sense of smell Ap. stiMūlating sense of touch Ākāśa. space-giving. are Bindu (which is in Īśvara Tattva). general movement. e. Thus. smell (organ of sensation). those of the Anāhata centre are mixed. because the last-mentioned Śakti s are. ah ha and Kṣa Smoky White . ta. stiMūlating sense of taste Tejas. ra. from the latter. lri... to Bindu. pha REGNANT TATTVA AND ITS QUALITIES Pṛthivī. who is in the Mūlādhāra. chha.

Whilst the cosmic creative Śakti s are looking outwards and forwards (Unmukhī). the Śakti in the Parabindu. He who has truly and fully known the Sahasrāra is not reborn in the Saṁsāra. Bindu implies Guṇa. in Yoga.. Jīva or Kuṇḍalī is but an infinitesimal part of the Parabindu. See "Wave of Bliss. is liberated though living (Jīvanmukta). the Śakti s above the Ājñā. Here in the region of the Supreme Lotus is the Guru. The Īśvara of the Sahasrāra is not then the creative aspect of Īśvara. Amākalā. the abode of Īśvara. There He is in the Nirvāṇa mood. going round the Lotus from right to left. "which is served in secret by all the Devas".121.000). is spoken of in S. 144 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER twenty times to make the1. who is Śiva-Śakti and is the seat of the aggregate Kuṇḍalī or Jīva. and the Mother of all the three worlds. the abode of bliss where the Ātmā is realised. Nirvāṇa-Kalā.. mouth (organ of action) Mahāt. on the dissolution of his physical body. The names of the groups are derived from those of the Presiding Deities. in which is the Supreme Bindu (O). on which are all the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. Avalon. N. And hence it is said that all the letters are here twentyfold (50 x20 =1. but this seems to be due to a mistake. OF RAYS OF TATTVA 56 62 52 NAME OF GROUP Agni Khaṇḍa Sūrya NAME OF CONVERGING POINT Rudragranthi REMARKS In Sahasrāra the rays are numberless. the Sūkṣma Prakṛti called Hiranyagarbha (v. and according to others Kṣa. 2 V. Haṁsa. or Videha-Kaivalya. Śakti and Vyāpikā being regarded as distinct Śakti s instead of differing names for the third of this series of Śakti s... and in its application to the Supreme Light.1 and the fire of Nibodhikā. Svadhishthana 3. and the Śakti s leading up to Nirvāṇa Śakti are "upward moving" that is.1 "She is above all the Tattvas.52) THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. These seven states or aspects of Bindumaya-paraŚakti (S. vv. p. liberating Śakti s of the Jīva. PADMA)145 NAME OF CAKRA 1. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. as some call it. for he has by such knowledge broken all the bonds which held him to it. in the situation of the fontenelle) and the exit of Śaṅkhini Nāḍī is the Supreme White (or. Each of these groups has a knot or apex where converge the Cakras that constitute that group. ••• Om Śaṁbhu Hākinī Itara and Trikoṇa penis (organ of action) Śabda (sound) Tattva. the Supreme Śiva Himself." by A. Chapter on "Kalas of the Śakti s".Circle Haṁ on a white elephant S ad āśiva Śākinī . The six centres. There is another Viṣṇu granthi . are. PADMA)143 as here mentioned. Mūlādhāra 2. which is the Ātmā of all being (Sarvatma). looking backwards towards dissolution. are called causal forms (Kāraṇa-rūpā). which is formless.000. too. omitting according to some the cerebral Lakara. Every one of the six centres represents a Tattva. v. The passage within quotation marks is taken from that work. vv. He is the possessor of all Siddhi. Anantakṛṣṇa Śāstrī. eternal and unlimited by space.36 (Ganesh & Co. Every Tattva has a definite number of rays. Lalita-Sahasranāma. or thousand-petalled lotus.42 -49. variegated) Lotus of a thousand petals (S. and attains bodiless liberation (Mokṣa).40) leading up to Unmanī. Śakti s of the Jīva. The subtle Śūnya (Void). which are described in this and other Tantrik books. The commentary to the Lalita2 apparently enumerates eight.40 -49) known as the Sahasrāra. hearing (organ of sensation).. His earthly stay is limited to the working out of the Karma already commenced and not exhausted. Below Visarga (which is the upper part of the Brahmā-randhra. In the Sahasrāra are Para-bindu the supreme Nirvāṇa-Śakti . are divided into three groups. Hence the Śaivas call it Śivasthana. is the Supreme Nirvāṇa Śakti . is symbolical of its decaylessness. The following table clearly puts the above : 1 See Pandit R. and are read from beginning to end (Anuloma). or Cakras. N.. Another difference is to be found in the aspect of the Śakti s. The latter is in the Sahasrāra. but it also means the void of space. These are repeated 1 See Garland of Letters. Here is Mahāvayu and the Candra-maṇdala. N. Here. "Saundarya Lahari". In the Parabindu is the empty void (Śūnya) which is the supreme Nirguṇa Śiva. In the fourteenth verse and commentary thereon of the Ānandalaharī the Deity in the Sahasrāra is described. Maṇipūra NAME OF TATTVA Bhū Agni Apas NO.

These360 rays are made up as follows : Agni (Fire) 118. where She.. his consort. and I have not imparted it to anyone till now. also. O Beauty of the three worlds.1 Just as it is in Sahasrāra. Listen.. Baindava is above all Tattvas. so 1 Māyā to Sadāśiva are the Śiva Tattvas described in "Garland of Letters". O Supreme One. and connect the same with the360 days of the year..nay. Śiva addresses (vv. the Moon for the night. He enumerates all the360 Deities and describes the mode of worshipping each of them. In discoursing about Candra. Śuddhavidya MaheŚa. Agni (Fire) occupying a mean position between the two. the protectors of the world. and also with the human body. then.1 -17. the author recommends here the worship of the Āvaraṇa-Devatās i. and give rise to the calculation of time . Everything has come to exist by the command of Parameśvarī. these three luminaries enlighten the macrocosm as well as the microcosm. 146 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER cosmically. Sun. Anāhata 5. the Munis. rests united with Her Lord Sadāśiva. A. Ājñā Vāyu Ākāśa Manas 54 Brahmā granthi Candra here whose rays are countless and over-shining. Deities residing in each of the Cakras or centres without propitiating whom it is impossible for the practitioner to lead the Kuṇḍalinī through these Cakras.the Sun for the day.'1 "Hence they constitute (or are called) Kāla (time). O good one.e. and Sadāśiva. thus: "'Welcome. Uncountable are the rays that issue forth from Her body. Moon136. Chandra-jñāna-vidyā-prākaraṇa) Parvati. Candra 72 64 360 Total a"Lakṣmīdharā quotes the Taittirīyāraṇyaka in support of his commentary. and the360 days (rays) make a year. (But I shall now tell thee the grand secret. The Veda says: 'The year itself is a form of the Lord. . protection. of the universe. The Lord of time. In the middle of this Cakra is a place called Baindava. from which we have taken the notes above given. the cause of the creation. Viśuddhi 6. having already described the Antaryāga (inner worship). "There are other commentators who understand the360 rays esoterically. He interprets it as meaning that. and Moon." ed. and destruction. etc. Avalon. But for this light there would be no light at all in the universe. rests there ever united with Sadāśiva.. first created Marīci (rays). Every commentator quotes the Taittirīyāraṇyaka. who as well is above all Tattvas and ever-shining. to 1 See "Wave of Bliss.360 of these rays illumine the world in the form of Fire. The extracts which he makes from 'Bhairava Yāmala' are very valuable. lakhs . Devī. welcome is Thy question.' "Diṇḍima takes a quite different view of this verse. the whole Cosmos is a Śrī-cakra formed of the twenty-five Tattvas -5 elements +5 Tanmātras+10 Indriyas+Mind+Māya. first chapter.4. O Śaṁkari. who is above all Tattvas. crores. with attention:) "'Śrī-cakra (in the Sahasrāra) is the form of Parā-Śakti . This knowledge (which I am about to disclose) is the secret of secrets. Sun106. the Maker of the world. they emanate in thousands.

this is for the present a difficult matter. so it is said that all the fifty "letters" which are distributed throughout the spinal centres of the Suṣumnā exist here in multiplied form that is. in his Prize Essay on the Hindu System of Medicine. and the petals of the Mūla lotus are on four sides of this (v. by Yoga.1). are called Candrakala. here given of that centre. and as such is well described by the books as the principal of all the Nāḍīs. Indeed. in the hope that they may be followed up and tested by others. It is. which it has been suggested are represented in the physical body by the Cerebellum and Sensorium respectively. Close by it is the Cakra called Lalanā . has been said to comprise the centres in the middle of the Cerebrum above the Sensorium. with which it is to be compared. just above -the palate (Tālumūla). until. which enters the fourth ventricle. possible to be practically acquainted with this Yoga without knowing its physiological relations. explanations and suggestions which must in some cases be of a tentative character. The ventricle connected with the spinal cord is also semilunar in Shape.1 or to a point below the twelve-petalled lotus (v. and the mystic mount Kailasa is undoubtedly the upper brain. and is spoken of as extending to the region of the Brahmā-randhra. PADMA)147 support his views. The highest of the six centres called Cakra in the Suṣumnā is the Ājñā. probably not numerous) who are acquainted with the subject are not conversant with Western physiology. The Suṣumnā is said to be closed at its base. Basu. it starts from practically the same (sacro-coccygeal) region. resembling half-moons. It is to be noted. cited in v. with its sixteen "petals"."1 An Indian physician and Sanskritist has expressed the opinion that better anatomy is given in the Tantras than in the purely medical works of the Hindus. called the "gate of Brahman " (Brahmā-dvāra). however. at a spot below but close to the Sahasrāra. 7. The spinal cord ends blindly in the filum terminale. 2 Dr.samuccaya. with its cortical convolutions.that is. according to the Tripurā-sāra. It is clear that the Meru-daṇḍa is the vertebral column. It extends from the Mūla (root) or Mūlādhāra to the neck. and the like.2 It is easier. Lastly. and at the back with the pineal gland. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. the material as regards the latter is insufficiently available and known to us. cerebellum.2 The place of the union of Suṣumnā and Kaṇḍa is known as the "Knot" (Granthi-ṣṭhāna). It is in this Suṣumnā (whatever for the moment we take it to be) that there are the centres of Prāṇa Śakti or vital power which are called Cakras or Lotuses. Working in what is an unexplored field. D.1. the convolutions or lobes of which. that according to the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā the Kaṇḍa is higher up. which will be suggested to the reader on an examination of the Plate VIII. between the penis and the navel. Its position as well as the nature of the Ājñā would indicate that it is slightly below the latter. The first chapter of the Āraṇyaka referred to is chanted in worshipping the Sun. XVI. further. which is undoubtedly a Nāḍī within the vertebral column. "Sacred Books of the Hindus. The Soma Cakra above this. II. If we include the filum. 148 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER of spinal nerves (Nāḍī ) and cranial nerves (Śiro-Nāḍī ).38 of Pandit Anantakrishna Śastri's Saundaryalahari. contain what has been described as the central system 1 P. B. Thus it seems that Taittirīyāraṇyaka contains much esoteric matter for the mystic to digest. and take the Kaṇḍa to be between the anus and penis. on the lines of the Text and such information as I have gathered.1 The Suṣumnā passes into the ventricles of the brain. It is called Āruṇam because it treats of Aruṇā (red-coloured Devī). the thousand-petalled lotus Sahasrāra corresponds to the upper Cerebrum of the physical body. and the top of the cerebellum. Ganesh & co (Madras) Private LTD." by Professor Benoy Kumar Sarkar. Just as all powers exist in the seat of voluntary action. The nectar-rayed moon2 is possibly the under part of the brain. and those native scholars and Sadhakas (now-a-days. and is apparently closed there.50x20. It and the connected upper tracts. or cerebellum. PADMA)149 Cakra which is situate (sic) at the root of . the Mūlādhāra. 2 V. of the Indian Medical Service. where the nerve Citriṇī also ends. The Suṣumnā. . a position which corresponds frontally with the space between the eyebrows (Bhrumadhya). however. In the first place.4). to give a statement of the present and ancient physiology than to correlate them. the pituitary body. Above the Lalanā are the Ājñā Cakra with its two lobes and the Manas Cakra with its six lobes. from the head to the Ādhāra. The position of the Kaṇḍa is that stated in this work (v. as does the spinal cord of Western physiology. which as the axis of the body is supposed to bear the same relation to it as does Mount Meru to the earth. as does the spinal cord. and in some Tantras Kalā 1 Saramohana Tantra. cited in Vol. I can only here put forward. published in the Guy's Hospital Gazette (1889).THE CENTRES OB LOTUSES (CAKRA. if we include therewith the filum terminale. post. Kuṇḍalī makes its way through it.1) . spinal bulb.that is. runs along the length of the Meru-daṇḍa. or.

the other Nāḍī connected with the right scrotum passes to the left nostril. And. (13) Kāla-dvāra. as well as defective printing. according to some. The six here given are the principal ones. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. is the white nervous matter of the spinal cord. (11) Kāla-daṇḍaka. in any case. II. which according to some represents them. do not lie merely on one side of the cord. (20) Mahotsāha. contains within it two 1 Vide "introduction to Tantra-Śāstra" pp. 2 See Śiva-Saṁhitā. as the ŚivaSaṁhitā and all other Yoga 1 Ch. I incline to the latter view. the rest of the body is dependent on Suṣumnā. and the grey matter cannot be so described. the three form one. and Soma Cakras. but cross it alternating from one side to the other (see v. But a query may be raised if it is meant that the canal alone is the Suṣumnā." "Moon. passes." and the three Guṇas.2 of this work describes Citriṇī as being as fine as a spider's thread (Lūtā-tantūpameya). . (16) Ānanda-lalitā. Iḍa and Piṅgalā when they reach the space between the eyebrows make with the Suṣumnā a plaited threefold knot called Triveni and proceed to the nostrils. It goes up to a position near the left shoulder. (5) Raudra. Vajrini. (15) Dīpaka. Ānandashrama Series XXIX. bending as it passes the heart. (18) Nākula. (2) Kuladīpa. and that within or part of it are two still more subtle and imperceptible channels of energy. but nerves. in the Yoga here described. through which. Kuṇḍalinī. Similarly. but is a gross thing.2 They are apparently Parama. There is thus a threefold division." and "Fire. but considered separately they are distinct. called Vajriṇī and Citriṇī. Suṣumnā. and then proceeds to the right nostril.1). (6) Karāla. numbering them as follows: (1) Ādhāra. in the Śiva-Saṁhitā. It is to be noted that. Thus we have mentioned Lalanā. That is. "who is tremulous like a woman in passion. It has been suggested to me that Iḍa and Piṅgalā are blood-vessels representing the Inferior Vena Cava and Aorta. a very long list exists of Cakras or Ādhāras. Vajriṇī the grey matter. and. the inner Nāḍī of which is known as the Brahmā-nāḍī . including Lalanā and kalā Cakras. but that which in the respiratory centres appears as such and which appears in other forms in other functions and parts of the body.As above stated. (8) Vidyāprada. directs the Sādhaka "to get into the white and very subtle Nāḍī." are the left and right sympathetic cords respectively on each side of the "fiery" Suṣumnā. Indeed. II. (14) Karamgaka. Iḍa and Piṅgalā. it is said that they are Shaped like bows.3 to be pure intelligence (Śuddha-bodhasvabhāvā) as a force of Consciousness. We must therefore discard this suggestion. (7) Gahvara. This.2 which speaks of the Suṣumnā." is as a whole composed of "Sun. there is no doubt that the Suṣumnā is situated in the spinal column. Elsewhere (v. p. But the works and the Yoga process itself indicate not arteries. (10) Tripada. 6. it has been said. and Citriṇī the central canal. one is united with Suṣumnā and connected with the left scrotum. (3) Vajra or Yajña. according to this work. (9) Trimukha. Brahmā-randhra. For the latter Nāḍī. (12) Ukāra. part of the spinal cord. as some call them.namely. a circumstance. (17) Maṇipūraka. as being the chief spinal representative of the central nervous system. They are threefold in the sense that Suṣumnā. The true nature of the Citriṇī Nāḍī is said in v. 2 Ed. others. Then for no apparent reason. according to one and a common notion reproduced in this work. however.49-51 for a brief description of the Cakras. Vajriṇī and Citriṇī.1 But as against such suggestion it is to be noted that v.1). there are. which are described as being pale and ruddy respectively (v. and it has been said that it represents the central canal. This is stated by Viśvanātha in his Ṣatcakra-Vivṛti. or Brahman adi. or "moon" and "sun. which makes it difficult in some cases to say whether the Sanskrit should be read as one word or two. As v. There remains to be considered the position of the Cakras. It has been suggested that the Suṣumnā when not considered with its inner Nāḍīs as a collective unit. crosses over to the right shoulder.145. Manas. It is noteworthy in this connection that the Kshurika Upaniṣad. and to drive Prāṇavayu through it. these Nāḍīs. (19) Kāla-bhedana. Prāṇa does not here mean gross breath. thus forming with the Suṣumnā and the two petals of the Ājñā Cakra the figure of the Caduceus of Mercury. Though this work speaks of six. 150 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER others ." These three.1 says. but as distinguished from them. many others are given without numbers. and Citriṇī. (4) Svādhiṣṭhāna. There seems also to be some ground to hold that the Nāḍīs. is the spot in the medulla where the sympathetic cords join together or whence they take their origin. are all.18. and hold to the opinion either that the central canal is the Suṣumnā or that the latter is in the canal. and the central canal. It is probable that its genera] position is that of the central canal.1). PADMA)151 works say. v. In a modern Sanskrit work called "Advaitamārtaṇḍa" the 152 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER In a modern Sanskrit work called "Advaitamārtaṇḍa" the author l gives twenty.

the 1 Brahman anda Svami.namely. cruelty. Ājñā. Pada. Yantraputa (printed Yatro). Padmas). Triputa. Thus. The three Liṅga s are Svayaṁbhu. and at p. The sixteen Ādhāras are named in the commentary to verse 33 of the text. from which nerves (Nāḍī. Hālavarta. Various suggestions have been here made. Lolama. 21 am not sure that the author himself was aware of this in all cases. those italicised in the above list. a native of Palghat.petals) concerned in the excitation of sexual feelings. and others) we read of only six Cakras . In passing it may be noted that the last suggestion cannot in any event be correct. apart from bracketed notes in the text. the sacro-coccygeal plexus with four branches. Poṣaka. not being mentioned.14 it is said. the source of a massive pleasurable aesthesia. The Author of the work cited2 identifies (commencing with the Mūlādhāra and going upwards) the Cakras with the sacral. amongst others. Yoga-cūdamanī. the centres and plexuses of the connected spinal and sympathetic systems may be described as follows: "(1) The Ādhāra Cakra. 3 P. Brojendra. The rendering. trunk. (Translation. Ethnology. and the Sahasrāra with the Medulla. and gather together a considerable number of facts of importance on Indian Geography. Jālaṁdhara and Auddīyāṇa. Kāmarūpa.. as regards the ganglionic centres and plexuses consisting the sympathetic spinal system: "Beginning with the lower extremity. 2 (3) The Nābhi-kaṇḍa (corresponding to the solar plexus. and it has been stated that the Padmas or Cakras correspond with various plexuses which exist in the body surrounding those regions.e. The work is printed at Jummoo. Kalā. Connected with this is the Manipūraka. late Guru of H. Ghorābhairava. Krauñca-bheruṇḍa-vibhava. Kanṭhaṁ. with connected sympathetic nerves. Professor Sarkar's work contains some valuable appendices by Dr. and limbs. Kula-phīṭhaka. It is apparently based on verse120 of chapter V of the Śiva Saṁhitā. Pūrṇakaṁ. Putabhedana. Śakti rūpa. Dhruva.jvalana). Kamkālaka. Bhānu-bhavanam). voluminous organic sensations of repose. These Appendices have since been republished separately as a work entitled "Positive Sciences of the Hindus". Bodhana. 2 These and other Vṛttis. Sirā. . cardiac. Kalākandalaka. contempt. and Acoustics. Bandha-jvalana (printed as Bandhe. in some respects an uncritical aspect . Mahā-granthivirākā. Seal are of interest and value. the sacral plexus. in the Madras Presidency. But. to my eyes. Vyoma-cakra. laryngeal (or pharyngeal). Padaṁ (or Pādakaṁ-padaṁ). the late MahāRāja of Kashmir. Mahā-vyoma. distinction between the Cakras and Ādhāras. the elements are also described in he text. (2) The Svādhiṣṭhāna Cakra. epigastric. Kalpa-jāla. Hindu ideas concerning plant 1 The six Adhvās (paths) are Varṇa. and the same distance below the membrum virile (Mehana).3 But this work does not in my opinion support the suggestion. petals. Elsewhere the Author cited rightly identifies Mount Kailāsa with the Sahasrāra. as the author says.1 After pointing out that the cerebo-spinal axis with the connected sympathetic system contains a number of ganglionic centres and plexuses (Cakras. with the accompaniments of lassitude. the lumbar plexus. 2 "The Positive Background of Hindu Sociology. nine Angulis (about six inches and a half) below the solar plexus (Kaṇḍa. owever. Mineralogy. Kamarūpa and Pūrṇagiri are Pīṭhas the others. the sixteen Ādhāras. that Kuṇḍalinī is "of the form of electricity". 154 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Professor Sarkar's work contains some valuable appendices by Dr.Pādukaṁ. Mechanics. Pūrṇagiri. the latter says. The last quotation he makes draws a. and Kuṇḍalinī is not. with six branches (Dalāni . suspicion.) 3 That is. Tattva. are enumerated in the Introduction to my first edition of the MahāNirvāṇa Tantra. amongst others. mere electricity. There is no warrant for this in the text. Yogaśikha Upaniṣads. Viśuddhi. according to the Śāstra. Kāka-puttaṁ. Nādāvarta.g. H. and cavernos plexuses. a large portion has been omitted without word or warning. stupor. PADMA)153 three Liṅgas and the five (elements) the first of which is Ether?" l I have already pointed out that the positions of the Cakras generally correspond to spinal centres of the anatomical divisions of the vertebrae into five regions. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. in the Vedas (that is. the ten branches3 of which are concerned in the 1 Both the work of Professor Sarkar and the Appendices of Dr. including accounts of the nervous system in Charaka and in the Tantras. Anāhata. is a minor centre called the Agni-śikhā. The anatomical position of the Medulla is below that assigned to the Ājñā Cakra. which is undoubtedly the upper cerebrum. Bhuvana and Mantra. to which I refer because the author cited does so. Śṛīngātaṁ.54 of the translation of Srīś. does not do justice to the text. Bānā and Itara also dealt with in the text.nath Seal on. He may have been quoting himself from some lists without other knowledge on the subject.Candra-Vasu. Zoology. Dāmara. and liberties have been taken with it. Botany and Hindu Physiology. The list has. Uttamaṁ (quaere Viśuddhikantham or Kanthamuttamam)." by Professor Benoy Kumar Sarkar. Brojendranath Seal on. An inch and a half above it. and Dhamanī) radiate over the head. and described in the works here translated . Kula-kolāhala. as they are called. prostatic. and biology. Brahmagranthi). Hindu ideas concerning plant and animal life. which forms the great junction of the right and left sympathetic chains (Piṅgalā and Iḍā) with the cerebro-spinal axis. physiology. Mahd-bhaya.and so it is said : "How can there be any Siddhi for a man who knows not the six Adhvās.

supposed to be the tract affected in the production of ego-altruistic sentiments and affections. the Gandhavaha Nāḍī (olfactory sensory). which has twelve leaves (or lobes).. conceit. the Śabdavaha Nāḍī (auditory). grief. pride. the sensorium. remorse. efferent or motor nerves. and the afferent or sensory nerves of the special senses. (7) The sensorimotor tract. by means of nerves like the pneumogastric. respect. opposite the uvula. and (b) the Manas Cakra. reverence. anxiety. this centre of command over movements. the circle of command over movements) with its two lobes (the cerebellum). etc. PADMA)155 production of sleep and thirst. the Rasavaha Nāḍī (gustatory).2 the junction of the spinal cord with the medulla oblongata.THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. fear. The Ājñā vaha Nāḍīs. comprising two Cakras : (a) the Ājñā Cakra (lit. (6) The Lalanā Cakra. possibly the cardiac plexus of the sympathetic chain with twelve branches. stupefaction. the seat of the egoistic sentiments. doubt. regulate the larynx and other organs of articulation. the Rūpāvaha Nāḍī (optic).. (5) The Bharatisthana. affection. shame. and the SparŚavaha Nāḍī . communicate motor impulses to the periphery from this Ājñā Cakra. egoism. hope. in pairs. (4) The Anāhata Cakra. etc. with its six lobes (five special sensory for peripherally initiated sensations. like self-regard. contentment. which. connected with the heart. regret. etc. and one common sensory for centrally initiated sensations. as in dreams and hallucinations). and the expressions of passions like jealousy.

attention. Indeed. determination. then. cerebellum. gentleness. for instance. the ĀjñāvahāNāḍī brings down the messages of the Soul from the Sahasrāra (upper cerebrum) to the Ājñā Cakra (motor tract at the base of the brain). The Suṣumnā. and compares the figure to an inverted gourd with a thousand-branched stem hanging down. the special and highest seat of the Jīva. When sensations are centrally initiated. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. to various parts of the periphery. digestive. the sensory tract at the base of the brain. solar. The uncertainty which prevails as regards some of . and the Manovahā Nāḍī must therefore co-operate with the Ājñā vahā in producing the consciousness of effort. I may add that the special sensory nerves. comprising the centres in the middle of the cerebrum.e. magnanimity. argues that the Nāḍīs (even the volitional or motor nerves) are themselves sensitive. in any motor nerve.(tactile). which is due to the fact that minute fibres of the inner touch-sense are interspersed with the machinery of the automatic nerves (the Prāṇavahā Nāḍīs). For all that is known to the contrary each centre may have more than one of such correspondences. In the same way. and this is done by means of the Manovahā-Nāḍī. earnestness. the soul. (9) the Sahasrāra Cakra. meditativeness. is the stem of this gourd (or a single branch). Thus the assimilation of food and drink by the automatic activity of the Prāṇas implies an (automatic) effort (Prayatna) accompanied by a vague organic consciousness. whether the navel centre corresponds with the epigastric.. the Author cited says: "Vijñānabhikṣu. But efforts of the will (Ājñā. ending in the Repose of pure Consciousness. the one being the channel for carrying up the sensory and the other for bringing down the motor messages. are sometimes generally termed Jñānavahā Nāḍī . and for functions of Ājñā vaha Nāḍī and Manovahā Nāḍī to Śankara Mishra's Upaskara.ratnakara.lit. It must. There is no difficulty so far."1 Then. as 1 The author cited refers to the Jñāna Samkalini Tantra. which is the seat of the presiding energy. or pharyngeal. whether Ājñāvahā (volitional motor) or Prāṇavahā (automatic motor). an effort of which we are conscious through the channel of the Manovahā Nāḍī. upper cerebrum) and the sensory currents received at the sensorium. pituitary body. the central passage of the spinal cord. come from the periphery (the peripheral organs of the special senses) to this ManasCakra. the characteristic function of Manas. pineal gland. and respiratory functions.." To a certain extent the localizations here made must be tentative. On this view. together with the Manovahā Nāḍī. Saṁhitā. and their affections are conveyed to the sensorium by means of the nerves of the (inner) sense of touch (which are interspersed in minute fibrillae among them). identifies the Manovahā-Nāḍī (vehicle of consciousness) with the cerebro-spinal axis and its ramifications. PADMA)157 in dreams and hallucinations. All that can be said with any degree of certainty is that the four centres. resolution. above the Mūlādhāra. A communication must now be established between the Jīva (in the Sahasrāra Cakra. (8) The Soma Cakra. thousand-lobed. the Manovahā-Nāḍī is the channel of the communication of the Jīva (soul) with the Manas Cakra (sensorium) at the base of the brain. a generic name for the channels 2 This is a name for the Viśuddha Cakra as abode of the Goddess of Speech (Bharati). and their respective relations to the conscious life.g. or lumbar. But this is not sufficient for them to rise to the level of discriminative consciousness. renunciation. a sixteen-lobed ganglion. patience. and so forth. along efferent nerves. The ManasCakra also receives the Manovahā Nāḍī. channel of presentative knowledge. a special Nāḍī (Svapnavahā-Nāḍī ). The consciousness of effort. The sensory currents are brought to the sensory ganglia along afferent nerves of the special senses. the Ājñā with the cavernous plexus. be a matter of opinion whether the throat centre corresponds with the carotid. in the passage just quoted. implies effort (Prayatna) on the part of the soul (Ātmā. The Manovahā Nāḍī and the Ājñā-vahā Nāḍī connect the sensori-motor tract at the base of the brain (Manas Cakra and Ājñā Cakra ) with the highest (and special) seat of the soul (Jīva) in the upper cerebrum (Sahasrāra). above the sensorium. or all three. laryngeal. dealing with the cerebro-spinal axis and the heart. and that the two upper centres (Ājñā and Sahasrāra) denote various forms of cerebral activity. The writers on the Yoga (including the authors of the various Tantrik systems). serves as the channel of communication from the Jīva (soul) to the sensorium. the author of the Upaskāra on Kaṇāḍa's Sutras. the upper cerebrum with its lobes and convolutions. use the term somewhat differently. gravity. And lastly. messages which are thence carried farther down. But how to explain the presentation of effort in the motor nerves? Śankara Mishra. depends on the 158 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER tactile nerves or nerves of organic sensation) mixed up with it. Prayatna) are conscious presentations. have relation to the genito-excretory. Jīva). etc. compassion. the seat of the altruistic sentiments and volitional control . 156 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER along which centrally initiated presentations (as in dreaming or hallucination) come to the sixth lobe of the Manas Cakra. cardiac. which appears to be only a branch of the Manovahā Nāḍī. by which it raises sense-presentations to the level of discriminative consciousness.

I disagree. The Tantrik theory.. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. on which the well-known Yoga called 'Ṣaṭcakra bheda' is founded. if I read them correctly. Verse1 speaks of THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. PADMA)161 to any but a Yogi's vision. they will rather have recourse to excuses revolting to common sense than acknowledge the evidence of their own eyes. should possess any anatomical knowledge at all. but disappear the moment he dies. Vol XI. vital. however. in my opinion. however..486 -440.. the Yamuna. relying on the Nigama-tattva-sāra.. is nevertheless quite correct. with a shamelessness unparalleled.. But by this is meant appertaining to this Nāḍī. In this connection I may cite an extract from an article on the "Physical Errors of Hinduism. to identify the Cakras with the physical plexuses mentioned. therefore.those matters is indicated in the Text itself. but Iḍā.2 The Author of the work from which this citation is made says that. 2 This reminds one of the story of a materialistic doctor who said he had done hundreds of post-mortem examinations. These lotuses are in the Suṣumnā. though not uncommonly accepted.. based on the Kalpa-sūtra. There in the spinal column they exist as extremely subtle vital centres of Pṛāṇa-Śakti and centres of consciousness. are inside the Meru. the Cakras proper. the Tāntriks must nevertheless have obtained their knowledge of them by dissection. pp. even when we show them by actual dissection the non-existence of the imaginary Cakras in the human body. the emblems of the Ganges. This work. Verse2 says that inside Vajrā (which is itself within Suṣumnā) is Citriṇī. pp. which as subtle. says that all the six lotuses are attached to the Citriṇī Nāḍī (Citriṇī grathitaṁ). much less dissect it.. It is a mistake. that these Padmas exist as long as a man lives." Calcutta Review. erroneously suppose that Suṣumnā is outside the Meru. PADMA)159 Verse1 speaks of the "Lotuses inside the Meru (spinal column). and who like a spider's thread pierces all the lotuses which are within the backbone. and as Citriṇī is within the latter. and not in the nerve plexuses which surround it. that.. and connected by three imaginary chains. Some confusion is raised by the statement in v. statements in the above-cited accounts with which. whereas the Cakras are extremely subtle vital centres of various Tattvik operations. 160 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER with some extraordinary pieces of information concerning the human body. and are governed by. quoting from the Māyā Tantra. hut had never yet discovered the trace of a soul. 1 Published in Vol..486 -440. The Author in the same place combats the view.. makes it plain that the Cakras are in the Suṣumnā. XI. all bearing a special resemblance to that famous flower. and as the Suṣumnā supports these (that is."1 This. Such is the obstinacy with which the Hindus adhere to these erroneous notions. on the strength of a passage in the Tantracūḍāmani... the Tantras lie in the greatest obscurity. The commentator Viṣvanātha. and conscious centres in the spinal cord are invisible 1 "Physical Errors of Hinduism. and the Saraswati. supposes the existence of six main internal organs. But of all the Hindu Śāstras extant. of the Calcutta Review. and Piṅgalā. and that the Svādhiṣṭhāna is the sacral plexus. suppose that not only Suṣumnā. It is said. It is the Tantras that furnish us with some extraordinary pieces of information concerning the human body. the lotus. though these Cakras cannot be satisfactorily identified. for they are in Suṣumnā.. that the lotuses are within Citriṇī." This is said in answer to those who. that the Ādhāra Cakra is the sacro-coccygeal plexus. These are placed one above the other. In the same way the Commentator refutes the error of those who.1 existing when the body is alive and disappearing when vitality (Prāṇa) leaves the body as part of the Liṅga Śarīra. that the Lotuses are in the vertebral column in Suṣumnā. called Cakras or Padmas. A contrary conclusion might indeed be described as "shameless" stupidity.51. and so forth. One conclusion emerges clearly from all this namely. for instance. They say. on which the lotuses are strung as it were gems. she pierces but does not contain them. which shows that on various of the subjects here debated differing opinions have been expressed as individual constructions of statements to be found in the Tantras and other Śāstras."1 for which I am indebted to Professor Sarkar's work: "It would indeed excite the surprise of our readers to hear that the Hindus. that the lotuses are in or on the Brahmā-Nāḍi. There are. not to mention others. By this he must refer to the physical regions which correspond on the gross plane to. however. who would not even touch a dead body. the lotuses) She must needs be within the Meru. of which the Brahmā-Nāḍi is the central channel.. for conscious and vital centres cannot exist in a body when the organism which they hold together dies. These latter are things of the gross body. In a sense we can connect with these subtle centres the gross bodily parts visible .

fire. as is realized by the Yogi when drawing the Devī from Her worldabode in the earth centre (Mūlādhāra ) he unites Her with ParamaŚiva in the Sahasrāra in that blissful union which is the Supreme Love (Ānanda). Every cell of the body has a consciousness of its own. There are thus six subtle centres in the cord with grosser embodiments within the cord itself. with still grosser sheaths in the region pervaded by the sympathetics Iḍa and Piṅgalā. and Bhūrloka (the Earth). which is its expression. notwithstanding all such subtle and gross transformations of and by Kula-Kuṇḍalinī. water earth. mental operation on the one will affect the other. vitalize and control the gross bodily tracts which are indicated by the various regions of the vertebral column and the ganglia. Bhuvarloka. These centres. Maṇipūra. Lastly. and organs. those connected with the existence of the "Petals". In other words. The centres are said to be composed of petals designated by certain letters. The subtle aspects of the six centres according to Tantrik doctrine must not be overlooked whilst attention is paid to the gross or physiological aspect of the body. It is the collective Prāṇa which holds it together as an individual human unit. just as it supports the different Principles and Elements (Tattva) of which it is composed. A Yogi "sees" the Cakras with his mental eye (Ājñā ). As the gross and subtle are thus connected. Svarloka. arteries. there are six Devas . Śaṁbhu. have yet various special centres of operation.to the eyes as plexuses and ganglia. In a similar manner other statements as regards these Cakras should be dealt with. Īśvara. These Tattvas. The six Cakras are therefore the divine subtle centres of the corresponding physical and psychical sheaths. Viśuddha. She ever remains in Her Brahman or Svarūpa aspect the One. The special operation of each of the Tattvas is located at its individual centre in the microcosm. with its corresponding bodily elements.namely. Sadāśiva. which extends from the subtle centre to the periphery. and as the six centres in the body-axis or spinal column. PADMA)163 And the consciousness of such bodily region is its Devatā . The various organic parts of the body which the cells build have not only particular cellconscious. and sensible "matter" . Out of all this and the gross compounded elements of the body are fashioned the organs of life. and other Nāḍīs. ether. Rudra. descends through its manifestations from the subtle to the gross as the six Devas and Śakti s in their six abodes in the world-axis. Viṣṇu. from an objective standpoint the subtle centres. pervades and is at base all being. which is the individual Jīva. situate in these respective regions. except by paraphrase. 162 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER representatives of the spinal centres that we can connect the plexuses and so forth with the Cakras spoken of in the Yoga books. Certain forces are concentrated in these Cakras. the number of which in each 'case has. for instance. Brahmā . Mahārloka. whose abode is Satyaloka. lie along the axis. in the Shape of Mind . Sat. Thus there may be an abdominal consciousness. is composed.supersensible "matter" (Tanmātra). the Cosmic aspect of the Sahasrāra in the human body. and Ahanda.ness. as one might otherwise suppose. as. may be regarded as the Cakra. As previously and in the Commentary to the thirty-fifth verse of the Ānandalaharī explained. But. as the ultimate experiencing principle. been said to be determined by characteristics of the gross region which the particular Cakra governs. and are the Sūkṣma Rūpa. Then there is the subtle form or body of these Devatas.viz. In other words. with their centres at the Ājñā. In the case of others they are the matter of inference (Anumāna). or Cakras. though they pervade the body.. plexuses. Tapoloka. The Supreme. but the consciousness of the particular organic part which is other than the mere collectivity of the consciousness of its units. The seventh or supreme centre of Consciousness is ParamaŚiva. They are manifestations of Prāṇa-Śakti or Vital Force. nerves.whose abodes are the six Lokas or regions: viz. Indian thought and the Sanskrit language. the vital heart of which is the subtle Cakra by which they are vivified and controlled. In this sense only the whole tract. or subtle forms of that which exists in gross form (Sthūla Rūpa) in the physical body which is gathered around it. Of these six Tattvas. It is only therefore (if at all) in the sense of being the gross outer 1 So it is said: Tani vastuni tanmatradini pratyaKṣaViṣayani (Such things as the Tanmātra and others are subject to immediate perception by Yogins only). have a peculiarly penetrative and comprehensive quality which enables one to explain many ideas for which. not only the gross human body. Consciousness (Cit). Janaloka.that is. that aspect of Cit which is associated with and informs that region. Svādhiṣṭhāna and Mūlādhāra. Cit. It is by the Power or Śakti of the Ātmā or Consciousness that the body exists. Anāhata.. Professor Sarkar1 expresses the opinion that these . and therefore and by reference to their function they are regarded as separate and independent centres. the organism as a whole has its consciousness. but the vast macrocosm. It is these Divinities who are the forms of Consciousness presiding over the Ṣaṭcakra. therefore. there is no equivalent meaning in English. air. But to connect or correlate and to identify are different things. And the consciousness of such bodily region is its Devatā Devas Regions Śaṁbhu Mahārloka Sadāśiva Tapoloka Īśvara Janaloka Viṣṇu Svarloka Rudra Bhuvarloka Brahmā Bhūrloka THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA.

but an examination of the case on this basis fails to account for the position of the letters as letters which are assigned to one element may be found in a Cakra the predominant Tattva of which is some other element. and around and 166 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER associated with these are the subtle forms of the Mantras. PADMA)165 It is for this reason that the Tantra correlates sound. regulate. In the Cakras is subtle Śabda in its states as Parā. Why. There are. giving that Lotus its name.1 Op. all such energies existing in magnified form in the Sahasrāra. Letters when spoken are. Verse19 and other verses speak of the letters there mentioned as being coloured. and is composed of Mantras. or Madhyama Śakti . the corresponding gross manifestations in the regions surrounding them. which gross sheath is said to contain the determinant. and control. whether gross or subtle. The same energy which produces these letters manifesting as Mantras produces the gross universe.1 In the five lower Cakras their characteristics are displayed in the number and position of the Nāḍīs or by the lobes and sensory and motor tracts of the higher portions of the cerebro-spinal system. particular letters are assigned to particular Cakras is the next question. which in its ascending movement through other Cakras takes on other characteristics and names (Paśyantī and Madhyamā).that is. form and colour. Further. There are therefore as many Devatās in a Cakra as there are petals which are surrounding (Āvaraṇa) Devatas or Śakti s of the Devatā of the Cakra and the subtle element of which He is the presiding Consciousness.000.1 Apart from this one can only say that it is either Svabhava or the nature of the thing. manifests.40. These sound powers vitalize.292. and when uttered by the mouth appears as Vaikharī in the form of the spoken letters which are the gross aspect of the sound in the Cakras themselves (see vv. the objects denoted by the ideas which are expressed by sound or words. Thus.28 and29. which constitute the petals and the bodies of associated energies. or letters pertaining to the Vāyu Tattva. the Cakra is not to be identified with the physical ganglia and plexuses. for instance. and in a gross sense represented by them. And sound (Śabda) has its meaning . Paśyantī. Brahmā is the presiding Consciousness of the Mūlādhāra lotus. which is made of their combinations. whether as ideas or speech. the Buddhi which is free of impurity resulting from worldly pursuits. has an aspect which corresponds to each of the senses. 72. The whole human body is in fact a Mantra. As I have already explained. All these letters multiplied by 20 exist potentially in the Sahasrāra. A probable solution is that given by me in my "Śakti and Śakta". Particular forms of energy of Kuṇḍalī are said to be resident at particular Cakras. Why. It has been said that in the utterance of particular letters the centres at which they are situated are brought into play. there are certain letters which are called Vāyava Varṇa. Sound produces form. or the second or cerebral La (ib. Kuṇḍalī is a form of the Supreme Śakti who maintains all breathing creatures. Each object of perception. That sound or Mātṛikā when uttered in human speech assumes the form of letters and prose and verse. then. according to the Kamkalamalini Tantra cited in v. the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet less Kṣa. as the effect of the constant practice of Yoga. By the impulse of Icchā-Śakti acting through the Prāṇavayu (vital force) of the Ātmā is produced in the Mūlādhāra the sound power called Parā. which when translated to the vocal organ assumes the audible sound form (Dhvani) which is any particular letter. where they therefore number1. My reference there to the lotus as a plexus of Nāḍīs is to the gross sheath of the subtle centre. and a Mantra is the body of a Devatā. however. though in another sense it is the ffect. which in that case is as little susceptible of ultimate explanation as the disposition in the body of the gross . p.that is. Each manifested letter is a Mantra. of the characteristics of the subtle centre. on the other hand.namely. She is the source from which all sound or energy. which is the body of the earth Devatā.10 and11). the manifested aspect in gross speech of the subtle energy of the Śabda-Brahman as Kuṇḍali.000 Nāḍīs which rise from the Kaṇḍa. indicated by the Bindu of the Bīja La (Laṁ = रं). though it is connected with. that these letters in the Cakras are not gross things is shown by vv. or the nerves distributed from such ganglion or plexus. The letters in the six Cakras are fifty in number . cit. and form is associated with colour. The lotuses with these petals are within the Suṣumnā and they are there represented as blooming upon the passage through them of Kuṇḍalī.). Thus. and that this is the solution of the question why those particular letters were at their particular centre. It is for this reason that the Tantra 1 See my Introduction to Tantra Śāstra". 164 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER petals point to either the nerves which go to form a ganglion or plexus. should Ha (= श) be in the Ājñā and La (= र) in the Mūlādhāra ? It is true that in some places in the Tantras certain letters are assigned to particular elements. I have been told that the disposition of the Nāḍīs at the particular Cakra in question determines the number of its petals. which say that the vowels of the Viśuddha are visible to the enlightened mind (Dīptabuddhi) only . THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. The letters are on the petals.

). in which case no further explanation is necessary. or action). as Supreme Śakti . The Ācharya.that is. Just as there is an apparent evolution5 in the cosmic body of Īśvara. and the formless Consciousness passing through Bindu Tattva manifesting as Haṁsa. Thus it has been said: "Drawn by the force of Icchā Śakti (will). in the bodily aspect (Adhyatma) the 1 See Chapter. The ArthaSṛṣṭi (object creation) of Kuṇḍalinī are the Kalas. so there is a similar development in the human body in Kuṇḍalī who is the Īśvarī. such as the apperance of what was and is a rope as a snake. Nāda. in the human body are so called as being states in which sound or movement is prdouced or becomes. As already stated. and are known as Parā sound. as Jīvātmā. Madhyamā. 4 So'yam avibhagAvasthāh Kāraṇa-binduh (ib. Paśyantī. and the like. is in the Mūlādhāra Cakra : the second. he no longer enters the Saṁsāra of world of transmigration.the latter is called Cit Śakti or Śakti simply. Īśvara. Kuṇḍalinī Śakti . and Vaikharī. Dhvani. Śakti .2 Kuṇḍalī is a name for Śabda-Brahman in human bodies. Bindu. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA.a state known as the ParamAkāśAvasthā. When She into whom Sattva has entered is next "pierced" by Rajas. 3 Śakti h Kuṇḍalinīti viśva-jananavyaparabaddhodyamam Jnatva ittham na punar viŚanti jananigarbhe 'rbhakatvam narah" ityadirityacharyair vyavahritah (ib. which is the AKṣarAvasthā. He who has known Her never again enters the mother's womb as a child or suffers old age. or the arrangement may be an artificial one for the purpose of meditation. and Vīrat. she is called Nāda. Ardhendu. There are evolved the following states. The former is a Vikṛiti of the latter. says: "There is a Śakti called Kuṇḍalinī who is ever engaged in the work of creating the universe. Each one of the letters composing the body of Kuṇḍalī exists in four states as Parā Śakti . The first is a state of undifferentiated sound. Hiranyagarbha. Vivarta is apparent bur unreal change. "when Sattva enters" . She is called Dhvani. the Avyakta Nāda which is the Parabindu. is in the Brahmā-randhra (see Tika of first Samketa of Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra). Lalita. which exists in the body of Īśvara. is in Ājñā. the life-pulse. Haṁsah is Pada. The Svachchhanda as also the Śāradā say : Pindam Kuṇḍalinī-Śakti h Padam Haṁsah prakirtitah Rūpām bindur iti khyatam Rūpātitas tu chinmayah. Bindu. and is there known as the Śakti -Piṇḍa1 or Kuṇḍalinī. Here is the Kendra (centre) of all the Śakti s.3 This Kāraṇa Bindu exists in a non-differentiated condition. and the combination of the two (Icchā and Jñāna) in which Rajas as Kriyā Śakti works is called Bindu. "Kuṇḍalī-yoga". illumined by Jñāna Śakti (knowledge). called Nirodhikā. which arise from the letters such as the Rudra and Viṣṇu Murtis and their Śakti s. These are all states of Kuṇḍalī Herself in the Mūlādhāra. She in whom Tamas abounds is. and again resting as Kuṇḍalinī. Bindu is Rūpa.). or states of sound. In the Sakala Parameśvaraor Śabda-Brahman in bodies . where the heart beats. as potentiality of all manifested power.." That is. as Raghava Bhatta says. Again.] The first. When She is again "pierced" by Tamas. represented in the seven states preceding 1 She is so called because all the Śakti s are collected or "rolled into one mass" in Her. 5 Vikara or Vikṛiti is something which is really changed. the causal form body. or in the succeeding states of sound. [Kuṇḍalinī Śakti is Pinda. This is the AvyaktAvasthā. Comm. In the cosmic aspect these four states are Avyakta. as curd from milk. 2 Adhyātmaṁ tu Kāraṇa-binduh Śakti -PiṇḍakundalyadiŚabdavachyo Mūlādhāra sthah (Bhaskararaya.organs themselves. The Vedānta-sāra thus musically the two terms: Satattvato 'nyathapratha vikara ityudiritah Atattvato 'nyathapratha vivarta ityudahritah. speaking of Kuṇḍalinī. therein. Nirodhikā. in the bodily aspect (Adhyatma) the Kāraṇa Bindu resides in the Mūlādhāra centre." . is in Anāhata. evolving from Parā Śakti in the body of Īśvara to the gross Vaikharī Śakti in the body of Jīva. to which reference is later made.viz. She in whom Sattva abounds is called Ardhendu. Śakti the Lord appearing as male creates (Kriyā Śakti . v. the Kamas and GaneŚas and their Śakti s.132). 168 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER from Sakala-Parameśvara to Bindu. corresponding with the cosmic development . The four Bhavas. but Cinmaya (Cit) is formless. the second and third as existing in the body of Jīva are stages towards that complete manifestation of differentiated sound in human speech which is called Vaikharī Bhāva.4 The body of Kuṇḍalī is composed of the fifty letters or sound-powers. PADMA)167 As already stated.

THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CHAKKA."2 It is this Śabda-Brahman which is the immediate cause of the universe. and Bīja) there arises that Unmanifested Brahman -word or Sound called the Śabda-Brahman (Sound Brahman ). "It is said in the Mūlādhāra in the body the 'air' (Prāṇa-vāyu) first appears. Nāda. manifests the all-pervading Śabdabrahman. which is sound and movement manifesting as idea and language. which is one with the Kāraṇa Bindu.''3 The Śabda-Brahman which is in the form of the Kāraṇa Bindu when it 1 Ayam eva cha yada karyabindvaditrayajananonmukho bhidyate . PADMA)169 See table on Sound and excerpts from The Garland of Letters by Woodroffe at the end of the article. and is therefore all-pervading. yet first appears in man's body in the Mūlādhāra. When the Kāraṇa-Bindu "sprouts" in order to create the three (Bindu.1 It is said: "From the differentiation of the Kāraṇa Bindu arises the unmanifested 'Sound' which is called Śabda-Brahman by those learned in Śruti. That 'air' acted upon by the effort of a person desiring to speak. This sound.

ra=to go or enter. or. Thereafter the same Śabda-Brahman as it is led by the same air to the heart is in a state of manifestation and united with Buddhi which never errs and becomes possessed of Nāda whose vibration is perceptible. being more manifest as th3e letters A and others. when it goes as far as the heart and is joined to the Buddhi. developed in the throat. which is described as Jñānatmaka and Bindvātmaka (in the nature of Cit and Bindu). khara=hard. 170 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER remains motionless (Niṣpanda) in its own place (that is. extending from the region of Paśyantī to the heart.).). In this way articulated sound is produced by air.When the child wishes to cry the first state of sound attached to the Suṣumnā as it arises in the Mūlādhāra is called Parā. But She is in the middle between these two. It is called Madhyama Vāk. Taduktam: Dehe'pi Mūladhare'smin samudeti samiranah. in the commentary to the same verse (132) of the Lalita. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. When this (Kāraṇa-bindu) inclines to produce the three Bindus the first of which is Kārya-bindu and bursts or divides itself (Bhidyate. It is then called Vaikharī-vāk. gives the following derivations: Vi = much.. everywhere. is called Vaikharī speech.1 Paśyantī. the same 'air' rising upwards. VivakshorIcchāyotthena prayatnena susamskritah. the Śabda-Brahman manifested by the same "air" proceeding as far as the heart. therefore. by the same air going up to the navel. extends from the Mūlādhāra to the navel. Sa ravah shrutisampannaih Śabdabrahmeti giyate (ib.From the bursting Bindu there arises the indistinct sound which is called Śabda-Brahman by those versed in Śruti.neshvabhivyajyamanam akaradiVarṇarūpām parashrotra-grahanayog. next Paśyantī. according to some accounts. next.rupena manasa yuktam Sāmānya-spandaprAkāśarūpākarya-binduMāyā m sat Paśyantī vag uchyate (ib. Thereafter the same (Śabda-Brahman when led by the same air to the mouth is in a state of manifestation.). So it has been said: . being led there by the air purified by the effort made by the maker of the sound. The full manifestation is Vaikharī of the man wishing to cry out. this (air) is purified by the effort and will of the person wishing to speak and manifests the Śabda which is everywhere. 2 Taduktamacharyaih : Mūlādhāra t prathamam udito yash cha bhavah parakhyah.2 This is Hiranyagarbha sound.44): . This evolved Śabda-Brahman which is one with the Kāraṇa-bindu when it is in itself and vibrationless (motionless) is called Parā-Vāk. so called because it "comes out". But according to the Yoga Śāstras. possessing the nature of the manifested Nāda and endowed with special motion (Viśeṣa-spanda) is called Madhyama speech. the Devī who is in the form of Vaikharī (Vaikharīrūpā) is so called because she was produced by the Prāṇa called Vikhara. Baddhas tasmat bhavati pavanaprerita Varṇasamjna (Bhaskararaya. Vai = certainly. possessing the nature of the manifested Bīja with quite distinct articulate (Spaṣtatara) motion. Atha tadeva nabhiparyantamagachchhata tena pavanenabhivyaktam Vimarśa .). She is neither like Paśyantī nor does She proceed outward like Vaikharī. articulated and capable of being heard by the ears of others. driven (upward) by air.). 1 That is.3 the same ŚabdaBrahman manifested by the same air proceeding as far as 1 Tad Iḍām Kāraṇabindvatmakam abhivyaktam ŚabdaBrahmā-svapratishthataya nishpandam tadeva cha Parā vag ityuchyate. 3 So'yam ravah Kāraṇa-bindutadatmyapannatvat sarvagato'pi vyan. So it is said: In the body also in the Mūlādhāra air arises. op. Pashchat pashyanty atha Hṛdaya go buddhiyug Madhyama khyah.prAkāśarūpānadaMāyā m sat Madhyama vagityuchyate (ib. in Kuṇḍali. This sound again being one with the Kāraṇa-bindu and. then at that stage there arises the indistinct (Avyakta) sound (Rava) which is called Śabdabrahman. It is there called Paśyantī Vāk. with articulation fully developed. 2 Tadapyuktaṁ: Bindos tasmad bhidyamanad avyaktatma ravo 'bhavat.2 The Nitya Tantra also says: "The Parā form rises in the Mūlādhāra produced by 'air'.jakayatnasamskritapavanavaŚat praninam Mūlādhāra eva abhivyajyate. manifests itself in the Mūlādhāra of animals.yam spashtataraprAkāśarūpāBījatmakam sat Vaikharī vag uchyate (ib. The same Śabda-Brahman manifested by the same "air" proceeding as far as the navel. the Svadishthana. who is Herself in the Mūlādhāra ) is called Parā Śakti or speech. 2 Atha tad eva ŚabdaBrahmā tenaiva vayuna Hṛdaya paryantamabhivyajyamanam nishchayatmikaya buddhya yuktam Viśeṣa-spanda. Bhaskararaya. PADMA)171 the mouth.). further evolved and united with mind. Vaktre vaikhary atha rurudishor asya jantoh Suṣumnā. united with the Buddhi. Sa vyanjayati tatraiva ŚabdaBrahmāpi sarvagam (ib. it is called 'Madhyamā. possessing the nature of the manifested Karya Bindu with general (Sāmānya-spanda) motion. Śabda in its physical form." This name is derived from the fact that She abides "in the midst".. etc. united with the Manas. Next.taddaŚayam avyaktah ŚabdaBrahmābhidheyo ravas tatrotpadyate (ib. it next becomes Paśyantī and in the heart united with Buddhi it gets the name of Madhyama and in the mouth it becomes Vaikharī and from this arise the letters of the alphabet. kha = cavity (of the ear).). According to the Saubhagya Sudhodaya. in the throat and other places and becomes capable of hearing by others. . is named Paśyantī speech. 3 Atha tad eva vadanaparyantam tenaiva vayuna kanthadistha.1 This is the Viṛāṭ state of sound. which is Vimarśa then it becomes Kārya-bindu slightly vibrating and manifest. Next. So it has been said by the great teacher (Śamkara : Prapanchasara II. This matter is thus explained by the Ācharya: "That sound which first arises in the Mūlādhāra is called Parā. when that again is. cit.

Pāṇini says (Sutra I. and not the pure Supreme Brahman. cit. Thus.). the conclusions of Śruti and Smriti are that the "That" (Tat) in the human body has four divisions (Parā etc. this Mother is called Paśyantī and Uttīṛṇā.that is." Thus. imperfect in so far as it does not possess the first three forms. Vol.2 Śruti also says:3 "Four are the grades of speech .). The relation of the two Brahmans is possible." 2 Nitya-tantre'pi: Mūladhare samutpannah parakhyo nadasambhavah. She is ever inseparate from Cit. 4 The Pada. as the two are one and the same. men who see and accept only the gross aspect of things. How can the word Tat in the Vaikharī form indicate Brahman and replies that it only does so indirectly. men speak the fourth. The same word also indicates indirectly 1 Ittham chaturvidhasu Mātṛikāsu paraditrayam ajananto manushyah sthuladrisho vaikharim eva vacham manvate (Bhaskararaya. Prapanchasara Tantra. and is the four who are represented in the sense above stated by the four forms of speech.). which in its creative aspect is Saguṇa Śabdabrahman. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. turiyam vacho manushya vadanti (ib. Again rising upwards.1 just as they take the gross body to be the Self. Guha trini nibita nemgayanti. whose powers are not yet displayed." The Suta Saṁhitā also says: "Apada (the motionless Brahman ) becomes Pada (the four forms of speech). 2 Tatha cha shrutih: Tasmad yadvacho' naptam tanmanushya upajivanti iti. in ignorance of its subtler principles. 4 That is. The same slowly rising upwards and manifested in the Anāhata united with the understanding (Buddhi). The causal (Kāraṇa) or Supreme Bindu (Parabindu) is unmanifest (Avyakta). think speech to be 1 Bhaskararaya cites Her other name. and then of the threefold (Tri-bindu). is that which has a termination. sound are state (Bhāva). 5 Bhaskararaya. 3 Shrutyantare'pi Chatvari vakparimita padani tani vidur Brahman a ye manishinah. and assumes the form of Para-bindu.e. cit. A. though there are four kinds of speech.that is. The Nitya-tantra also says : . The commentator cited then asks. III. and Pada may become Apada. is Madhyamā. himself becomes) Brahman. maintenance. II. The same led upwards becomes manifest in the Svādhiṣṭhāna and gets the name of Paśyantī. and appearing in the Viśuddha. Anahate buddhi-tattvasameto Madhyama bhidhah. There is first the Nirguṇa Brahman."5 Thus. and blossoms in Vaikharī. and as She rises (Uttīṛṇā) above the path of action. Tatha tayordhvam nunnah san Viśuddha u kanthadeŚatah Vaikharyakhya ityadi (Bhaskararaya.172 THE SlX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER manifested in the Svādhiṣṭhāna. ib). Whosoever realizes the great Lord of Speech (Vāk) the undifferentiated illuminating Self is unaffected by any word. loc. or Īśvara endowed with the work of creation. The following will serve as a summary of correspondences noted in this and the previous Chapter. 3 Ch. anaptam aPūrṇam tisribhir Vīra hitam ityartha iti veda. For sound in the physical form of speech (Vaikharī) only expresses or is identified with the physical form of Brahman (the Vīrat). be it what it may.those Brahman as who are wise know them: three are hidden and motionless. which says: "As She sees all in Herself. buds forth in Madhyamā.14): "That which ends in Sup (nominal endings) and in Tin (verbal terminations) is called Pada." Again. 174 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (Lakṣanayā) the unconditioned of supreme Brahman who is without attributes.. Śruti says: "Hence men think that alone to be speech which is imperfect" . or word. By reversing the above order sound is absorbed. attains the Paśyanti1 state. Pashyantyakhyam avapnoti tathaivordhvam Śanaih Śanaih. But even in the Parā form the word Tat only denotes the Avyakta with three Guṇas. . Though they appear as different (by attributes). PADMA)173 Vaikharī alone. the Devī or Śakti is the one consciousness-bliss (Cidekarasarūpiṇī) .From the Mūlādhāra first arises sound which is called Parā. Gently led upward again in the same manner to the Anāhata (in the heart) it becomes united with Buddhitattva and is called Madhyama and led up in the same manner to the Viśuddhiin the region of the throat it gets the name of Vaikharī and so forth. of the Universe. it issues from the throat as Vaikharī"2. As the Yogakuṇḍali Upaniṣad3 says: "That Vāk (power of speech) which sprouts in Parā gives forth leaves in Paśyantī. the Sup (termination) has five divisions. Sa evordhvam taya nitah svadhisthane vijrimbhitah. op. the cause of Parā. and not the unconditioned Brahman who is above Avyakta. undifferentiated Śiva-Śakti . The word "Tat" which occurs in the transcendental sayings means the Śabdabrahman. ed. iv. and "destruction".bhashye. III of Tantrik Texts. He who knows the distinction between Pada4 and Apada.). See also Ch. Uttīṛṇā (risen up) and the Saubhagya-Sudhodaya. The relation between the two Brahmans is that of sameness (Tādātmya). yet at the same time they are one. but are about to be displayed from out the then undifferentiated state of Mūlaprakṛiti. Avalon. gross-minded men (Manuṣyāh sthūladṛśah)4 who do not understand the first three (Parā. he really sees (i. etc.

and length. In the Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra it is said that Varṇa and Icchā Śakti are in the Paśyantī body. that which remains is a point having position. Kriyā. and Vaikharī is in the form of the universe. So also in "Les Mysteres de la Croix." an eighteenth-century mystical work. So much is clear. Kriyā Śakti is Raudri. Ch. says that the Sun is Kriyā because. depth. Ch.This is the state of Supreme Speech (Parā-Vāk). from which. which appears three-fold as a Trinity of Manifested Power (Śakti ). When Jīva through Jñāna knows itself to be Brahman it ceases to act. in Vol. some difficulty in co-ordinating the accounts of the threefold powers manifesting upon the differentiation of the Great Bindu (Mahā-bindu). and attains Liberation (Mokṣa). then as the Knowledge or Wisdom (Jñāna) according to which Will acts. so as to accuMūlate Karma. Wherever there is one there is the other. if abstraction be made of position. according to the Paurāṇik account. See also Tantraloka. and then as Action (Kriyā). the Action (Kriyā) of creation. non mathematicum sed diffusivum.viz. p. the gist of the matter is simple and in accordance with other systems. Ṣoṇabindu (Red Bindu). nor Śakti from Śiva. in his Commentary on the Śāradā. PADMA)175 (Yathāsaṁbhavaṁ). There arises the Desire to create (Icchā Śakti ). (Śāradā-Tilaka.l Nextly. From Nāda similarly issue Jyesṭhā Śakti and Viṣṇu. There is no question but that Bīja is Moon. a manifestation may predominantly signify one or another. Fire. and Nāda is the combination of the two (Tayor mithah samavāyah).1 Icchā Śakti in terms of the Guṇas of Prakṛti is Rajas Guṇa. According to one account2 Bindu is "Fire" and Kriyā Śakti (action). and from Bindu Raudrī and Rudra. the seat of which in the individual body is the Mūlādhāra Cakra. the one (Śiva-Śakti ) becomes twofold. There is one Spirit. and Moon. So. I. gross (Sthūla). and Jñāna is Fire because knowledge burns up all creation." 3 See "Garland of Letters" or Studies in the Mantra-Śāstra. Kriyā = Brahmi. though men think of each separately and as coming into being .separately. This is due in part to the fact that the verses in which the accounts appear are not always to be read in the order of the words (Śabda-krama). For He first considers or knows something. There is first the unmanifested Point (Bindu). Śiva and Śakti . which impels Sattva to self-display. Nāda. but according to the actual order in fact.2 The evolution of the Bhavas is .that is. which in terms of the 1 Raudrī bindos tato nadaj Jyesṭhā Bījad ajayata Varṇa tabhyah samutpanna rudraBrahmāramadhipah SamjnanechchhaKriyātmano vahnindvarka-svarupinah. however. There is. Sitabindu (White Bindu). According to this account of the Devas of different Ādhāras of Prāṇa-Śakti Upāsana the order is (according to sequence of words) : Icchā = Gauri. IV. Icchā. and Nāda is "Sun" and Jñāna Śakti . manifested in time . According to one nomenclature the Supreme Bindu becomes three-fold as Bindu (Kārya). So it is said that Bindu is in the nature of Śiva (Śivātmaka) and Bīja of Śakti (Śaktyātmaka). then the Knowledge (Jñāna Śakti ) of what He is about to create. Bīja. These are also called Mahābindu (Parabindu). 2 Stromata. Apart from names and technical details.2 when citing the verse from the Gorakṣa Saṁhitā: Icchā Kriyā tatha Jñānam gauri brahmi tu vaishnavi Tridha Śakti h sthita yatra tatparam jyotir Om iti. there is some apparent variance in the commentaries. Commentary already cited referring to Saubhagyasudhodaya and Tattvasandoha. 1 As pointed out by the author of Prāṇatoshini. THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Jñāna = Vaishnavi. from whom comes Brahmā. we read : "Ante omina punctum exstitit. It may be that this refers to the Jīva. that from Bīja issues the Śakti Vāmā. and. who are in the nature of the Moon and Will-Power (Icchā Śakti ).1 Rāghava-bhatta. This is the order of Śakti s in Īśvara.) 2 Yoginīhrḍāya Tantra. There is another nomenclature . This is Paśyantī Śabda. however. Sun. Ch. Informed by such knowledge. Jñāna and Jyesṭhā are called Madhyamā. and Miśrabindu (Mixed Bindu). like that luminary. He wills and then acts. VI. the Supreme Word or Logos. at the commencement of creation Brahmā wakes. subtle (Sūkṣma). Antenicene Library. II. the seats of which are the Anāhata and Viśuddha Cakras respectively. Though Śiva is never separate from Śakti . 176 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The three powers are. though counted and spoken of as arising separately. it makes all things visible. Clement of Alexandria says2 that if from a body abstraction be made of its properties.. The Saṁskāras then arise in His mind. which are Madhyama and Vaikharī Śabda. As so manifesting. as the former represents the creation of Īśvara. The One first moves as the Great Will (Icchā). These are supreme (Parā). inseparable and indivisible aspects of the One.3 there is the state of primordial unity. the seat of which is in the Svādhiṣṭhāna Cakra. and the relation (Nāda) of these two (Tayor mithah samavāyah) makes the threefold Trinity common to so many religions. as to which symbol St. In the case of Jīva the order is Jñāna. whatever that may be THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. Book V. breadth. PADMA)177 Guṇas are Tamas and Sattva respectively. lastly.

says:1 "'Bhagavatī is the word used in the text to denote Devī.' "According to the Agamas. emanating from Mūlādhāra ). Rudrani. Jñāna. (2) destruction of the universe. and then follow Dhvani.consists of things which have name.consists of things which have form and colour. and (6) Avidya. This Bindu is called by the different names of Parā and the rest. Fire.2 "9. Ardhendu. or ignorance. Kriyā. who is both in the form of consciousness (Tejorūpā) and composed of the Guṇas (Guṇatmika). and actually these works have for a long time become food for worms and white ants" (Ananta Śastrl). Nirodhikā is the same with abundance of Tamas (Tamah-prācuryāt). its opposite is the next one (Paśyantī). 2 IcchāŚakti s tatha Varṇa pashyantivapuŚa sthita JñānaŚakti s tatha Jyesṭhā Madhyama vag udirita KriyāŚakti s tu Raudriyam Vaikharī viśvavigraha. 1Ananta Śastri. CIT. The sun and moon are included in this group. "3. (4) Manas. Bindu Sitabindu = " Śiva. Jñāna.. The following is a translation of a few lines from Nāma-kalā-vidyā. Śakti is Cit with Sattva (Paramākāśāvasthā). SOUND. TIME.2 (2) Icchā (desire2 strengthened. (3) Buddhi. Kalā group .consists of fifty letters from Mūlādhāra to Ājñā. (2) Citta. He that knows all these six items is qualified for the title Bhagavan. Again. (4) the end of beings. which will be of interest to the reader: "'Parā is Ekā (without duality). It is divided into two branches: Savikalpa (mixed and subject to change. or developed desire). "The Presiding Deities or Tattvas of the four constituent parts of Nāda are Māyā. Devī has nine manifestations which are: "1.consists of (1) Rāga (desire). Mūlādhāra and the rest.. Viśuddha. In this way Kuṇḍali. Varṇa.1 "8. Svādhiṣṭhāna. creates the Garland of Letters (Varṇamala). PADMA)179 (3) Kṛti (action. "5. "4. NAME.consists of (1) Ahaṁkāra (egoism). and the other the effect. Madhyamā. and (4) Prayatna (attempt made to achieve the object desired).lasting from the twinkling of an eye to the Pralaya time. and (5) Unmanas. Maheśa. Kriyā. (3) the origin of beings. Nāda group .. Paśyantī. 2 I do not know what the Pandit means by this term. Desire is a gross thing which comes in with the material world. and (4) Vaikharī (the fourth stage of sound as coming out of the mouth).consists of the six Cakras from Mūlādhāra to Ājñā. and so there is no material difference between the sound and its gross forms. FORM. (Cited under v. Nāma group . 2 Rāga should be translated as "interest. THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER 178 (Tejorūpā) composed of the Guṇas (Guṇatmika).63-66. Viṣṇu. pp. Nāda is Cit with Sattva. One that possesses Bhaga is called a Bhagavati (feminine). THE CENTRES OR LOTUSES (CAKRA. PSYCHIC ESSENCE. Citta group . Rudra. itself one of the following nine manifestations of Devī. but these terms are not clear to me. I. according as it is in the different centres. referring to Lakshmīdhara's commentary on v. to (1) Parā (the first stage of sound. Bindu. Sattva. (2) Paśyantī (the second stage).Intelligence. Jñāna group . cit. Kula group . Icchā. Nirodhikā. THE SPIRITUAL GERM. and Nirvikalpa (pure and unchanging). op. creates the Garland of Letters (Varṇamala). and Sadāśiva. dealing with occult matters in the houses of any ancient Pandits.34 of Ānandalaharī. Comm. if we find any MS. MIND.' 1 I cite the passage as written. Ardhendu the same with abundance of Sattva.consists of souls in the bondage of matter. The Commentator deals with this subject fully. Śuddhavidya. Anāhata. Vaikharī. Bha = 9.3 a work on phonetics. 3 "This work is not easily available to Pandits or scholars. Icchā is the will towards action (Kriyā) in conformity therewith. Brahmā. The four Bhāvas have been dealt with as coming under Nāda. in order. One is the cause. Tamas. or active form of desire). The make-secret policy has spoiled all such books. Rajas. Madhyama is divided into two.) 3 Chap. "2. (3) Madhyama (the third stage). Tamas (Avyaktāvasthā). Sun. gross and subtle forms. Nāda Miśrabindu = Śiva-Śakti . Pandit Anantakṛṣna-Śāstri. Raudri. KEYNOTES. 1 The following shows the correspondence according to the texts cited: Blja Sonabindu = Śakti . "6. These correspond. Bindu group . Kāmakalāvilasa. we do not find this name in any of the catalogues prepared by European or Indian scholars. Even now. Moon. Jīva group . . Nāda. quoting extracts from occult works. "7. and the subtle form is the sound which differentiates the nine letters. Jyesṭhā. Bhaga signifies the knowledge of (1) the creation.. Bharati. and Bindu the combination of the two. Kāla group . who is Icchā.22. the gross form consists of the nine groups of letters. "Bhagavati" refers to the nine-angled Yantra (figure) which is used in the Candrakalā-vidya. Rajas." as in Rāga-kañcuka. we will not be allowed even to see the book. Viśvarnbhara.given in the Śāradā-Tilaka3 as follows: the all-pervading Śabda-Brahman or Kuṇḍalī emanates Śakti . Dhvani is Cit with Sattva and Rajas (Akṣarāvasthā). (5) real knowledge or divine truth.

Liberation or Mokṣa therefore is potentially in the possession of every Jīva. and Yoga means. Ṣa. 6. or practice.. Jñāna considered as means or mental action (Manasi Kriyā) is an intellective process that is the discrimination between what is and what is not Brahman . La and Va). "The above is the substance of the philosophy of the Kaulas as expounded by Śrī Śaṁkarācārya in this śloka of Ānandalaharī (No. Where Ātmā as such not truly free. which produces nine distinct forms of sound represented by nine groups of letters: viz. and Parā is nothing but Caitanya (Consciousness). It is He that confers enjoyment (bliss) and liberates the souls (from bondage). (and all the other vowels). Paśyantī is the state when the three Guṇas become unequal (and consequently produce sound). but has a body.1. Thus all the forms and letters originate from Parā. (त Tavarga. Samādhi (ecstasy) consists in the realization that the Jīvātmā is Paramātma .5. For such attainment.4. and from the standpoint of natural dualism. but the process. the realization of such identity is attained by Vidya or Jñāna. the universe comes into existence. He has feeling and devotion. (ट Ṭavarga. (2) Bhogya (objects of enjoyment) . (ळ Śa.34). again. 'Eka': When the three Guṇas. What the Siddha (complete) Jñānayogi or Jīvanmukta himself accomplishes in this life is thereafter attained as the sequel to Brahmā-sāyujya. Mind is then absorbed into Brahman as pure Consciousness. however.5). (च Cavarga. Liberation (Mokṣa) would not be possible. Liberating Yoga short of perfect Jñāna effects what is called Kramamukti . He is not only these. "The nine groups or Vyūhas (manifestations of Devī) above enumerated are. But man is not only intellect. Other processes (Yogas) are therefore associated with and in aid of it. as the essential being of every Jīva. The latter alone can immediately produce Liberation (Sadyomukti). by which this result is attained. It is thus not a result. through which Jīvātmā and Paramātma appear as separate.namely.3. His consort is Ānandabhairavī. 9. (म Ya. and Tamas. In commenting on this. the second is those intellective processes which are the means taken to acquire the first. of which the following is one: "' The blissful Lord is of nine forms. Sattva. Yoga is thus a term for those physical and psychical processes which are used to discover man's inner essence.' "The Commentator remarks here that the power of Devī predominates in creation.that is. (ऩ Pavarga. But if Jīva and Paramātma are really one. This God is called Bhairava. are in a state of equilibrium (Sāṁya).5 in number). Svarūpa-Jñāna and Kriyā-Jñāna.comprises No. Jñāna is used in a twofold sense . method. This result is possible. the subtle form of this is called Sukṣma-madhyamā." End Chapter V VI PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA) 181 YOGA is sometimes understood as meaning the result and not the process which leads to it. according to Advaita Vedānta. there can be no such thing in a dualistic system as union. 7.5). Ra.180 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "Com. the ever-blissful consciousness (Caitanya). As ignorance of the identity of the 182 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER As ignorance of the identity of the Jīvātmā and Paramātma is due to Avidya. According to this meaning of the term. Yoga has been described to be the union of the individual spirit with God. Jīva-vyūha. but represent only the ideas of men. but the means by which it is attained. Lakṣmīdhara quotes several verses from the KaulaĀgamas.5). that state is called Parā. is not in itself fettered. this is realization or the attainment of the state of pure consciousness. the Yogi attains Sāyujya or union with Brahman in Satya-loka. (क Kavarga. which term is strictly applicable to the case of the coming together of two distinct beings.comprises. not this realization. the right understanding of what is meant by Brahman.5). because pure Cit. These letters do not in reality exist. Mind and body are the instruments whereby the ordinary separatist worldly experience is had. and the second and gross form is called Sthūlamadhyamā. and the fixing of the mind on what is thus understood until the Brahman wholly and permanently occupies the mind to the displacement of all else. When these two unite in harmony.2. such as those belonging to worship (UpĀsana ) and the gross (Sthūla Kriyā) and subtle processes (Sūkṣma Kriyā) of Hathyoga. Jñāna-vyūha. groups Nos. which alone remains. and that of Śiva in dissolution. which is the end and aim of Yoga. The first is Pure Consciousness. which is the Supreme. and 8. which is thence perfected into complete Mukti through the Devatā with whom he is thus united.comprises No. Sa and Ha). which is Jñāna in its Svarūpa sense. all screenings (Āvaraṇa) of Cit must be cleared away. (3) Bhoga (enjoyment) . As long. but is not realized owing to the veil of Māyā. but appears to be so. His identity with Paramātma exists now as then. and (ष Kṣa). classed under the following three heads: (1) Bhoktā (enjoyer) . Rajas. The next stage is called Madhyamā. as they are so used they are impediments in the way of attainment of the state of pure Consciousness (Cit). .

It supervenes without further effort on the absorption of matter and mind into the primordial Power (Śakti ) whence they sprang. "that form 1 The Tattva (Reality) is revealed when all thought is gone (KulāṛnavaTantra. of Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā). 6 The root pad = "to go to. The first means the Giver of Knowledge. VII Tantrik Texts.namely. again. The Yogi.4. Each of these forms has the same eight subservients. v.3 These are all various modes of practice (Sādhana) whereby the feelings and intellectual activities of the mind (CittaVṛtti) are brought into control and the Brahman is in various ways realized (Brahmāsakṣātkāra). 2 As water poured into water the two are undistinguishable (Kulāṛnava Tantra. IV. This on the dissolution of the body is followed by bodiless (Videha-kaivalya) or supreme Liberation (Paramamukti). in degree of result. or Śuddham (pure) . they differ. and the second That which obstructs . like the Consciousness with which he is one. or ecstasy. on which there arises freedom from alternating joy and sorrow and a changeless (Nirvikāra) state. Comm. Yoga therefore is the method whereby mental intellection and feeling (Citta-vṛitti) and Prāṇa are first controlled and then stayed. The Āgamavādis proclaim that the knowledge of Śakti (Śaktyātmakaṁ Jñānaṁ) is Yoga.2 It is. 3 Ch.5 .2 Jivanmukti (liberation in the body). Haṭha-yoga. "One who has attained complete knowledge of the Ātmā reposes like the still waters of the deep" (v. 184 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER of contemplation (Dhyāna) in which there is neither 'here' nor 'not here.15). the methods by which it is attained vary. 7 Advaita (non-dual). as to the means employed and.that is. which is the permanent state (Svarūpāvasthānaṁ). IX. The arising of such state is called Samādhi . v.7. therefore Niranjana destitute of that (Tadrahitam. of the third as 1 This is the Niralambapuri referred to in the Text. obstructs the affectation of the mind by the objective world through the senses. Sahajāvasthā (natural state of the Ātmā).' in which there is illumination and stillness as of some great ocean. and which is the Void Itself. The Māyā Tantra defines Yoga as the unity of Jīva and Paramātma (v. and others. 5 See Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. of whom they are manifested forms. Unmanī. 9. The same simile is used in the Buddhist Demchog Tantra. which are called the "eight limbs" (Aṣtāṅga). IV.51). An unmodified state (Samarasatvam) is thus produced which is the natural state (Sahajāvasthā) of the Ātmā. and Samādhi.1 When the Citta. As the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā says:3 "Rājayoga. the experience which is realization of Brahman .the realization by the human spirit that it is in essence the Great Spirit.31). declare that the knowledge of the union of Śiva and Śakti is Yoga (ib.that is.). is beyond both. who as the Ruler of the worlds is known as God. Until then there is that fluctuation and modification (Vṛtti) which is the mark of the conditioned consciousness. and who is Herself as Śiva one with Him who is Śiva or Consciousness. the ecstatic condition in which the "equality" that is identity of Jīvātmā and Paramātma is realized. This pruning action is well illustrated by the names of a Śakti which in this work is variously described as Nibodhikā and Nirodhikā. or appearance). Laya-yoga. four forms of Yoga. II. 87. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)185 Nirālaṁba (without support . The Samādhi of the first has been described as Mahābhāva. then Cit or Paramātma stands revealed. detachment of the Manas from the external world). and Turīya (Fourth State).4 Amaratvaṁ (Immortality)..1. IV. all mean one and the same thing . Śunyāśūnya (=Śunya-aśūnya = void yet non-void). it is said. and Prāṇa are stilled. 2 Anjana=Mayopadhi (the Upadhi. the Brahman.1. of the second as Mahābodha. The experience is achieved after the absorption (Laya) of Prāṇa and Manas and the cessation of all ideation (Saṁkalpa). 1 IX. Ch. Whilst the aim and the end of Yoga is the same. IV. or apparently limiting condition produced by Māyā. 4State of mindlessness. the Brahman. it is commonly said. It is by the prohibition of such impressions that the state of pure consciousness arises.5 Paramapada 6 (the Supreme State). All such definitions refer to one and the same thing . Haṭha-Yoga pradlpika. 2 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā.4 Manonmanī.10). There are. the Prakṛti vādis. and Rāja-yoga. . Samādhi. on v. called Mantra-yoga. 8. the cessation of both mental functioning (Citta) and action (Karma).i.. that by which oneness is attained with the Supreme (Paramātma ).that is. is this unity of Jīva and Ātmā (ib. vv. which mingled in water becomes one with it". Yoga thus works towards a positive state of pure consciousness by the negation of the operation of the principle of unconsciousness which stands in the way of its uprising. Amanaska (without Manas . however. Other wise men say that the knowledge of the "Eternal Puruṣa" (Purāṇa-Puruṣa) is Yoga. See Vol. in the words of the KulāṛnavaTantra. 7 See MaṇḍalaBrahman a Up.e." and Padam therefore is that to which one has access (Comm.suspended operation of mental functioning). IX.PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)183 cleared away. with its self-diremption of "I" and "Thou" The state of Samādhi is "like that of a grain of salt. III.1 Niranjana (stainless). IV.).that is.2 Others define it as the knowledge of the identity of Śiva and Ātmā. Each of these has the same aim . Vṛtti. See Nadabindu Up."1 The all-knowing and venerable Teacher has said.

By Sakāma-Karma is attained the "Path of the Fathers" (Pitṛ). Bhakti Yoga (Upāsana Kaṇḍa). Thus. It is to be noted." its Karma (rites). Mention is also made of a threefold division corresponding to the three Vaidik Kandas. Artha (wealth). For Her union with Śiva in the Sahasrāra brings. Dharma. such as that with the elements giving "powers" (Siddhi) over them. Prāṇayāma. in Haṭha-Laya-yoga there is Kriyā-jñāna. to which different considerations apply. and discipline (Sādhana). to sustain. This is a part of Magic. Karma Yoga is good action without desire for its fruit. and then follow with an account of Mantra and the lower Haṭha-Yoga s as a preliminary to that form of Layayoga which is the subject of this work. or the path of return (Nivṛtti). The pre-requisites of all Yoga are the eight limbs or parts. The word Dharma. Pratyāhāra. and by Rāja-yoga and Jñāna-yoga. comes from the root dhri. as hereafter described. but has also a wider context. In Mantra Yoga. Bhakti Yoga is devotion to God. and discipline (Sādhana). V. Dharma is thus the law governing the universal evolution. In Haṭha-Yoga there is more stress on physical methods. Morality. and involution. such as breathing. viz. Niyama. the Haṭhayogi gets this Jñāna through Kuṇḍalinī Herself. Karma Yoga (Karma Kaṇḍa). and the Lord who is its Supreme Sustainer is embodied in the eternal law and is the Bliss which its fulfilment secures. to deal with the general subservients (Aṣtāṅga) which are common to all forms of Yoga. Jñāna or Rāja Yoga (Jñāna Kaṇḍa). But whereas the Jñāna Yogi attains Svarūpa-Jñāna by his mental efforts without rousing Kuṇḍalinī. which are either Sakāma (with desire for fruit) or Niṣkāma (disinterested). the liberation called Kaivalyamukti is obtained. of these Yogas employs some methods of the others. Dhyāna. For this reason it is finely said. But Niṣkāma-Karma produces that purity of mind (Citta-Śuddhi) which makes .. and includes within itself elements to be found both in Mantra and such Haṭha-Yoga s. In this scheme the Jīva passes from Śabda-vidyā. Dhāraṇā. or the path of outgoing (Pravṛtti).1 And only those can attain the liberation to which the latter path leads who by adherence to Dharma co-operate in the carrying out of the universal scheme. Ch. Āsana.. are essential pre-requisites of all Yoga which has as its aim the attainment of the Supreme Experience. that in the estimation oft the practitioners of Kuṇḍalī Yoga it is the highest Yoga in which a perfect Samādhi is gained by the union with Śiva of both mind and body. however. It will be convenient. with its Tapas involving egoism and fruit attained through the "Path of the Gods.3 Varāha Upaniṣad. to Brahma-vidyā (knowledge of the Brahman ) or Theosophy as taught by the Upaniṣads. are essential prerequisites of all Yogas Mantra-yoga Haṭha-yoga Laya-yoga Rāja-yoga Jñāna-Yoga Mahābhāva Mahābodha Mahālaya Kaivalyamukti Worship and Physical: Intellective Devoton Breathing. however. This transition is made through Niṣkāma-Karma. Each. therefore. and Samādhi.1 Morality (Dharma) is the expression of the true nature of being. In Rāja and Jñāna Yoga intellective processes are the predominant where they are not the sole means employed. The Universe is sustained (Dhāryate) by Dharma. "Doing good to others is the Supreme Duty" (Paropakāro hi paramo dharmah). and not of religion. II. A useful analysis of Yoga will be found in Rajendra Ghose's "Śaṁkara and Ramanuja". So the uniting of Prāṇa with the Tejas Tattva in the navel (AgneyiDhāraṇā Mudrā) is said to secure immunity from fire. worship and devotion predominate. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)187 The word Dharma. Yama. 1 There are forms of Yoga. and others. and is therefore both the sustainer and the act of sustaining. Svarūpa Jñāna. religious disposition and practice. Yoga Samādhi Yoga Samādhi Observance of Aṣtāṅga yogam: Yama. Kāma (desire and its fulfilment). and in fact is. Niyama. religious disposition and practice. Kriyā-jñāna Svarūpa-Jñāna Jñāna through Kuṇḍalinī Kuṇḍalī Yoga Perfect Samādhi: Union of mind and body with Śiva 186 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Mahālaya. Morality. which includes both ethics and religion.. it is said. Yoga-tattva Up.

mind. then he is competent for Yoga without this preliminary preparation. Haṭha.50 of the first of these works says: "He alone whose nature has been purified by the practice of Yama and Niyama and the like (referring to the Sādhana hereinafter described) will learn from the mouth of the Guru the means whereby the way to the great Liberation is discovered. It is obvious that before the pure blissful state of the Ātmā can be attained the Jīvamust first live that ordered life which is its proper expression on this plane. and "goes down" in the scale of Being. however. which leads to. The aim of Yoga is the achievement of complete detachment from the finite world! and realization of its essence. It may. only those who follow. suited to the development of the Sattva-Guṇa . and vitality or Prāṇa is lessened and injured. malice. can be based. (The body is poisoned by the secretion of passions' poisons. and Samādhi. mercy. but there is life for him who preserves it. however." is centred on. Liberation (Mokṣa). I do not use the term "immorality " in the absurdly limited meaning which ordinary English parlance gives it. the expression of Adharma (unrighteousness) itself. It is the inherent law of all manifested being. Coition with emission of semen at this stage is likely to prove fatal. on the principle what a man thinks that he "becomes. For the expenditure of the latter tends to death. fortitude in happiness or unhappiness (Dhṛiti).1 Yama is of ten kinds: avoidance of injury to all living creatures (Ahimsa). Desire to achieve the highest aim of Yoga can only spring from 1 According to Indian notions. and such a disposition and practice (Sādhana) furthers the acquisition of those qualities which Yoga requires. and then. Niyama. XI. kindliness (Dayā). All such infringements are founded on selfishness.) The mind under the influence of anger. therefore. In a life governed by Dharma. This grand concept. The preliminaries are necessary only for those who have not attained. 190 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER [bearing patiently of all things pleasant or unpleasant (Kṣama). As the object of Yoga is the surpassing of the limited self even in its more ordered manifestation. Therefore is it that the Commentator in v. For if as is said fire and the other elements cannot hurt him. For those who have. the dictum cited applies. speech. but as the infringement of all forms of moral law. Dharma in its devotional aspect is also necessary. however. the 1 Varāha Up. or Raja. the Vaiśeṣika Darśana describes Dharma as "that by which happiness is attained in this and the next world. If. As pain follows wrong-doing. but they must be resisted.. Samādhi may be achieved. and is permanently moulded into and becomes. for continence must in all cases tend to strength and longevity. Ch." Evam samraKṣayet bindum mrityum jayati yogavit Maranam bindupatena jivanam binduDhāraṇāt.3 . Āsana . that the practice of Yama and the like is only necessary for those whose minds are disturbed by anger. the penis shrinks. are needless. Niyama. whether Mantra. All forms of Yoga.) It is thus the Law of Form. 2 As the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā says: "He who knows Yoga should preserve his semen. there is unrighteousness (Adharma).2 forbearance. a man through merit acquired in previous births is by good fortune of a nature which is free of these and other vices. 90. and the like. But a Siddha regains his sexual power and can exercise it.28. attachment (Rāga) exists in its worst and most injurious form.1 lust. or covetousness (Asteyam). Dhāraṇā. there is that natural attachment to worldly objects and sense of separateness even in acts of merit which must exist until by the absorption of Manas the Unmanī or mindless state is attained. which says that Haṭha-Yogasecures such personal beauty to the Yogi that all women will desire him. Where. And see also v. and the second is gained through the science of the Self (Adhyātma-vidyā). post). or body (Brahmacarya). the essence of which is beyond both Dharma or Adharma. however. and life. be that the physical perfection assumed negatives the ill effects observed in ordinary men. and birth and suffering are brought to an end (Mokṣa-dharma) 188 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER To use theological language." He adds. and the sense of separateness (Dvaitabhāva) which Yoga seeks to overcome is predominantly present in sin. is first distracted. V. have the same eight limbs (Aṣtāṅga) or preparatory subservients: Yama. particularly dealt with by Haṭha-Yoga(v. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)189 Desire to achieve the highest aim of Yoga can only spring from a religious disposition. simplicity (Ārjavaṁ). its doctrines clearly presuppose the absence of a state governed by the selfishness which is the grossest obstacle to its attainment. Prāṇayāma. is a name for all those laws (of which "religion" is but one) which hold the universe together. Dhyāna. however. lust. In such a case the Jīva is not merely bound to the world by the Māyā which affects both him and the virtuous Sakāma Sādhaka. sexual continence in mind. and other evil propensities. and purity of body and mind (Śaucaṁ). Pratyāhāra. which shows the connection between semen. but suffers Hell (Naraka). restraint from taking what belongs to another. truthfulness (Satyam). and other passions. Āsana. Dharma can go to its Lord. what can a woman do? Presumably.29. by persevering devotion to the Mother. and sexual powers are largely lost. The first form of purity is the external cleansing of the body. See also Yoga-tattva Up. Indeed.. KulāṛnavaTantra. and in its completest sense is. The disorder of an immoral life is not a foundation on which such a Yoga. or Theosophy. anger is the worst of sins.man competent for Brahma-vidyā. In the early stages of Haṭha-Yoga Sādhana the heat goes upwards. moderation1 in and regulation2 of diet (Mitāhāra).

Ch. worship of the Lord or Mother (Īśvara-pūjaṇaṁ) according to His or Her various forms. Varāha Up. vv. These accessories or limbs may be divided into five exterior methods1 (Bahiraṅga). Ch.30. Yoga.. The Pātañjala-Sūtra mentions only five Yamas . According to English parlance. modesty and shame felt in the doing of wrong actions (Hrī). Comm. of Tantrik Texts. or cleanliness. In modern times in the West." 2 For foods detrimental to Yoga. This.'' and so forth.that is. craftsmanship in the one case and intelligence in the other being usually thought to be sufficient. 192 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER and impermanent.133. contentment (Saṁtoṣa). Āsana. such purity merely connotes absence of irregular sexual imaginations. see Yoga-tattva Up. It is turned inward on the Buddhi which becomes dissolved (Laya) in Prakṛiti.4 1 Yoga-yājñā valkya (Ch. 4 Which is either spoken (which.4 arising from the knowledge of the permanent 1 See Ch. again. belief in Veda (Āstikyam). no country since the Middle Ages and until our own has laid greater stress on the necessity of the association of morality and religion with all forms of human activity. On the contrary.the first four and freedom from covetousness (Aparigraha). detachment. religion inspires Indian Art. "acrobatic posturing. of which they are particular processes.). such as fasts and the like. Those who seek the joys of any heaven can never attain the end of monistic Yoga. a mind rightly directed towards knowledge revealed and practice enjoined by the Śāstra (Mati). Dhāraṇā. I.16. which is described as the observance of actions enjoined and refraining from actions prohibited. which is the vehicle of the Jīva's existence and activity. in the nature of purifactory actions (Tapah). clear thinking. and concentration. Purity of mind is here used in the Hindu sense. . ed. Renunciation may doubtless be practised by giving up what one wants. and p.2 The statement of such obvious truths would hardly be necessary were it not that there are still some who see. The Śaṇḍilya Up. and three inner methods2 (Antaraṅga). or states affecting the development of the mind. 3 Śāṇḍilya Up.namely. is loud or soft) or mental (Śaṇḍilya Up. Pratyāhāra. Śaucaṁ. in all Yoga mere "Shamanism. and intense desire for and incessant striving after emancipation.).32. Yama and Niyama are the first two of the eight accessories of Yoga (Aṣtāṅga-yoga).16 for a forest recluse. the things of this world and of the next. I) says: "32 mouthfuls for householder. than India has done.3 The practice of Yama and Niyama leads to renunciation of. I.Kuṇḍalī Up. Ch. is yet obviously insufficient for the purpose in hand.. charity (Dānaṁ) . V.Niyama is also of ten kinds: Austerities. Five of the latter are stated .that is gifts to the deserving of what one has lawfully acquired. and detachment from. Ch. 9. chiefly concerned with the subjugation of the body. see also Maṇḍala-Brahmaṇa Up. 3 So. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)191 and Homa sacrifice (Hutaṁ)1 . both of (which are shortly dealt with later in connection with Haṭha-yoga. I." feats of breathing. purificatory action (Tapah). Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. and the Ātma-tattva or Brahman. A. particularly in a civilization which almost seems designed to fan every desire. 2 Dhyāna.. and 8 for a Muni. as was the case in our Mediaeval guilds. cleanliness (Śaucaṁ). Pratyāhāra 1 Yama. Purity of mind is not possible without purity of the body in which it functions and by which it is affected. to v. Samādhi which is both incomplete (Savikalpa or Samprajña ta) and complete (Nirvikalpa or Asamprajña ta).2nd vol. By these the Manas is freed of all those mental modifications (Vṛtti) which enshroud the Ātmā from Itself. Attention is paid to the physical body. See also Ch. Niyama. Proper thought and conduct in all its forms is but the alphabet of a school in which they are merely the first step to the conquest of greater difficulties to follow. 2 Patañjali's Yoga-Sūtra. recitation of Mantra (Japa). religious observances in general (Vrata). as by study of the Vedānta (Siddhānta-vākya-śravaṇaṁ). I). hearing of Śāstric conclusion. but renunciation or abandonment (Tyāga) here means the want of desire of enjoyment (Tyāgah=bhogech-chābhāvah) (ib. Ahimsa is the root of those which follows. the relevancy of religion in these matters has not been generally considered to be apparent. or longs for Liberation. II. which characterises him who is Mumukshu. is included among the Niyama. 4 Such as the Sudhā (nectar) which is gained in the heavens (Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. though creditable. Provision therefore is made in respect both of Āsana (posture) and Prāṇayāma or breath development.17. and devotion to the Lord (Īśvara-praṇidhāna). Avalon. What is here meant is that state of the mind or approach thereto which is the result of good functioning. and Indian speculation is associated with religion as was the Western scholastic philosophy. contentment with that which one has unasked (Santoṣa). study of the Scriptures leading to liberation (Svādhyāya). gives Vrata as the last. Prāṇayāma.

is fixed on one object. according to the Haṭha-Yogaaspect. Savikalpa-Samādhi -called Saṁyama. tat tādṛśaṁ Cittaṁ antahkaraṇam yeśām (Comm. I.that is. and Savikalpa Samādhi . Amṛitanāda Up. Ch. The first is the "holding by" . Uniform contemplation on the subject which the Citta holds in Dhāraṇā is Dhyāna (meditation). These are concentration of the mind on an object. 4 Amritanada Up.. These three -. and so forth. The mind is by nature unsteady. of external objects which Manas through the agency of the senses (Indriyas) perceives. I.namely. Ritambhara.a particular object of thought or concentration (Dhāraṇā). MaṇḍalaBrahman a Up. . continuously and to the exclusion of all other objects. the last of which is Dhāraṇā on eighteen important points of the body. 7 Comm. are merely stages in the mental effort of concentration. I. First brāhmaṇa . in which the self is its own object. which is thereby steadied. It must therefore be detached from the objects of the senses. Ch. assumes the nature and becomes one with the subject of its contemplation. Maṇḍala-brahmaṇa Up. sounds. Manaso vrittiŚūnyasya Brahmākarataya sthitih. withdrawn from whatsoever direction it may happen to tend. Guṇa. resulting in the last or consciousness of the object only. on the title of the Devī as Ekāgra-citta-nirdhyātā).. 194 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER first cast away thought of all other objects. unity of the mind with its object by contemplation. The Śāradā Tilaka defines Pratyāhāra as "the forcible obstruction of the senses wandering over their objects" (Indriyānāṁ vicharatāṁ viṣayeṣu balād āharaṇaṁ tebhyah Pratyāhārah vidhīyate).) speaks of five kinds of Pratyāhāra. though. The mind. cit.. or meditation of a form (Murti).7 "On which being known everything is known" 1 Vijātīya-pratyaya-tiraskāra-pūrvaka-sajātīya-vṛittikabhih nirantara (vyāpti-viṣayīkṛta-caitanyaṁ yasya.. Ch.5 Complete Samādhi is thus the state of Parā-saṁvit or Pure Consciousness. The second is that in which every kind of Avarana (screening) is cast away. If the Jīva's mind is freed of these.2 The three processes known as the "inner limbs" (Antaraṅga) . they are progressions in Prāṇayāma.1 The mind is withdrawn from the objects of the senses. 85 of TriŚati. for it is at every moment being affected by the sight. PraŚantavahita. and in the second (Nirvikalpa) in a complete degree. on .complete the psychic and mental discipline. alone.1 Through Dhyāna is acquired the quality of mental realization (Pratyakṣa). 5 Yogakuṇḍalī Up. The mind has always Vṛtti (modifications) . freed from all distraction. Those from whose Citta or Antahkaraṇa (inner sense) have been removed all impressions of a conflicting nature and are constantly realizing or experiencing Caitanya. such as the Devatas of the Bhūtas. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)195 (Yasmin vijñāte sarvaṁ Iḍam vijñātaṁ bhavati). Maṇḍala-brāhmaṇa Up. 2 Śāṇḍilya Up.. Ch. 2 Śāṇḍilya Up. and Nirguṇa. Dhyāna. Entrance is here made into Nirvikalpa-Samādhi by Rājayoga. II. Śāṇḍilya Up. ibid. having 1 See Gheraṇḍa -Saṁhitā.3 that state in which all is known as one (equal)4 and the "nectar of equality'' (oneness).. on v. There are in Advaita Vedānta three states (Bhumika) of Samprajña ta (Savikalpa) Samādhi . Fourth Upadeśa. Dhyāna has been defined to be the state of the Antahkaraṇa (mind) of those whose Caitanya holds to and is occupied by the thought of one object. v.namely. First Brāhmaṇa. Amritanada Up.6 In the first the content of the mental Vṛtti is SachCidĀnanda. The Śāṇḍilya Up. 6 Comm.. Dhyāna.that is. (loc. and kept under the control of the dominant self..PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)198 is the restraint of and subjection of the senses to the mind. fixing the Citta. or thinking principle. Ch. in the first of which (Savikalpa) the mind in a lesser degree. having been drawn away from the objects of the senses by Pratyāhāra.35 of the Triśatī. Steadiness (Dhairya) therefore is the aim and result of Pratyāhāra. Prajña loka..2 Samādhi or ecstasy has been defined to be the identification of Manas and Ātmā as salt in water. and there is Sākṣātkāra Brahmajñāna passing into the third state of Peace in which the mind is void of all Vṛtti and the self exists as the Brahman alone. as later stated. Dhāraṇā.. 3 Varāha Up.. Of Samādhi there are two degrees. First Brāhmaṇa. he is Brahman. It is of two kinds: Saguṇa. III.. There is still a separate knower.

MahāNirvāṇa Tantra. 4 Mudrās. Mantra-Yoga comprises all those forms of Sādhana in which the mind is controlled by the means of its own object . so to break worldly bonds the first and easiest method is to use those bonds as the means of their own undoing. do I dwell. or Brahman. It is on this Bhāva that both character and the whole outlook on life depend. Āsana . which thereafter appeared when Prakṛti entered the Vaiśaṁyāvastā state. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)197 and the other Bīja-Mantras are the same equivalents of the various Saguṇa forms.each stage being a longer period of retention of Prāṇa. the manifold objects of the world of name and form (Nāma-rūpa). and the mind is not for one moment devoid of ideas and feelings. and both are united and interdependent. Bhāva) with which an act is done which determines its moral worth. is given as the object of contemplation. certain modes of training and worship are prescribed. the modifications (Vṛtti) of the Manas cease and Buddhi alone functions. Meru. Devas and Devis. the Sthūla-Śarīra is expressly designed to enable the Sūkṣma-Śarīra to work out the Karma it has incurred. 6 With this the prescribed Mantra is said (Japa) either aloud or softly only. but this Nāma-rūpa may be utilized as the first means of escape therefrom. and passions. Sālagrāma). In the latter material media are utilized as the first steps whereby the formless One is by Jñāna-yoga attained . and the Yogi attains the true unmodified state of the Ātmā. As the latter is connected with the superphysical or subtle body (Sūkṣma Śarīra). the body is controlled by these and Prāṇayāma the Prāṇa is controlled. The mind is itself modified into the form of that which it perceives. suited for those whose powers and capacities are not such as to qualify them for either of the other methods. As a man who falls on the ground raises himself by means of the same ground. or prescribed (methods of exercise and practice. It is sought therefore to render the Bhāva pure. I am there where the knowers of the Kula doctrine are" (ib. Besides the ordinary "eight limbs" (Aṣtāṅga)2 common to all forms of Yoga. the Prāṇava (Om). is the articulate equivalent of that primal "Sound" which issued from the first vibration of the Guṇas of MūlaPrakṛiti. of which it is the outer sheath. it follows that operation in and upon the gross body affects the subtle body. of the wise in the Heart. The source of all Bīja-Mantras (Seed-Mantra). As the former is constructed according to the nature of the latter. 1 This is an essentially Tantrik principle. v. Maṇḍalas and Yantras (diagrams). In Mantrayoga. 2 Vide ante. It is the feeling or intention 1 See Yoga-tattva-Upaniṣad. (Benares. These ritual Mudrās are not to be confused with the Yoga Mudrās later described. 6 See Introduction. pictures (Citra). IX. which are concerned primarily with the gross or physical body (Sthūla-Śarīra).192.44). in which the Jīva who is then pure Buddhi is merged in Prakṛti and the Brahman. feelings. "O Beautiful-Eyed! Not in Kailāsa. 2 See two publications by the Śrī Bharata-dharma-mahāMaṇḍala – Mantra-yoga and Haṭha-Yoga in the Dharma-Pracāra Series. devised to meet the requirements of different natures. by these and Pratyāhāra the senses (Indriyas) are brought under subjection. These modifications are called its Vṛtti. Haṭha-Yogacomprises those Sādhanas.such as images (Murti). By the further and long practice of dispassion or indifference to both joy and sorrow (Vairāgya) Buddhi itself becomes Laya. therefore.that is. In fact. This is the simplest form of Yoga practice. This is called Sthūla or Saguṇa Dhyāna of the five Devatas.5 Nyasa. Passing then to the processes2 peculiar to the different Yogas. The Deva of those who know the Ātmā is everywhere"(KulāṛnavaTantra. 5 lb. Ch. See Kularnava.1 Thus by Yama. 196 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (that is. 4 See Introduction. productive of pure Bhāva. or Mandara. of the Vipras in Fire. 3 "The Deva of the unawakened (Aprabuddha) is in Images. p. Niyama. The whole universe is made up of names and forms (Nāma-rūpātmaka) which are the objects (Viṣaya) of the mind. In Mantra-yoga the state of Samādhi is called Mahābhāva. control of the gross body affects the subtle body with its intellection.3 emblems (Liṅga. MahāNirvāṇa Tantra. a particular form of Nāma-rūpa. the physical processes of this Yoga have been . II. Then through the operation of Dhāraṇā. as salt in the waters of ocean and as camphor in the flame.) The latter in a short compass explain the main essentials of each of the four systems.. 94). mural markings (Bhitti-rekhā). Dhyāna and the lesser Samādhi (Savikalpa or Samprajñāta).1 The mind is distracted by Nāma-rūpa.

which mean the "Sun" and "Moon" . which is the common end of all schools of Yoga. Adhibhūta. just as the followers of the latter system will be helped by the exercises of Mantrayoga. which are parts of Haṭha-Yoga . are one. is first made to harmonize the individual breath. 8 of the Ṣaṭ-cakra-nirūpaṇa it is said that the Prāṇa (which dwells in the heart) draws Apāna (which dwells in the Mūlādhāra ). But whereas it is used in Mantra. These two by their disagreement prevent each other from leaving the body. and Vīrya (semen). With Prāṇayāma the semen (Shukra) dries up. and the Samādhi called Mahābhāva is attained by contemplation of and by means of Nāma-rūpa. Haṭha-Yogaor Haṭhavidya is therefore the science of the Life-Principle. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)199 word in the sense of the various forms of vital Vāyu into which Prāṇa is divided. and therefore concentration. are also parts of Mantrayoga. In Haṭha-Yoga . In the latter there is concern with things outside the physical body. with the cosmic or collective breath. Strength and health are thereby attained. if the Vīrya is controlled. In Haṭha-Yoga .1 is made to flow upwards (Urdh-. and the substance which under the influence of sexual desire develops into gross seed. The objects of contemplation are Devas and Devis in their various manifestations and concrete symbols. varetas). on the other hand. Nor is the Mantra given to a Brahman a suitable for a Shudra. Both their union or Yoga in the Suṣumnā and the process leading thereto is called Prāṇayāma. and the respective duties of men and women (Kula Dharma). as an auxiliary. therefore. and Apāna draws Prāṇa. Similarly. The body of a man who is truly ūrdhvaretas has the scent of a lotus. Prāṇa (vitality). A chaste man where gross semen has formed may.1 These merely physical processes are auxiliary to others. control is had over both Manas and Prāṇa. In correspondence with the threefold division Adhyātmā." and the Samādhi called Mahā-bodha is attained by the aid of control of breath and other vital Vāyus (Prāṇayāma). As the KulāṛnavaTantra says:2 "Neither the lotus seat nor fixing the gaze on the tip of the nose are Yoga.that is. An attempt. the question of the fitness or otherwise of a novice is determined from the physical point of view. the subtle body with its mental functioning may be brought under control. Those who practise the latter will derive benefit from taking advantage of some of 'the other exercises of Haṭha-Yoga . whereby the mind is also controlled. So the Mantra which is given to the male initiate may not be given to a woman. on the other hand. just as a falcon attached by a string is drawn back again when he attempts to fly away. . 198 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER of life (Varṇāśrama-Dharma). that physical body being first mastered. Due regard must be paid to the laws of the caste and stages 1 See the short summary of the Haṭha-Yoga Saṁhitā given in the Dharma-Pracāra Series (Śrī Bharata-dharma-mahā-Maṇḍala. Adhiḍāiva. proceeding on the basis that the Vṛtti or modification of the mind 1 According to Hindu ideas semen (Shukra) exists in a subtle form throughout the whole body. This school. It is the identity of Jīvātmā and Paramātma. the Prāṇa and Apāna Vāyus. The regulation of the harmonized breath helps to the regulation and steadiness of mind. in order that. and its absorption in the general system. known as Pinda or Vyaṣti Prāṇa. Prāṇayāma is recognized as one of the "limbs" of all the (Aṣtāṅga) forms of Yoga. Mind (Manas). or the "Great Breath". smell like a buck goat. Again. 2 IX. Laya and Rāja-Yoga. The seminal force ascends and comes back as the nectar (Amrita) of Śiva-Śakti . In v. by controlling Prāṇa. which is Yoga. Benares). Manas and Vīrya are auto-matically controlled.1 using that 1 See my volume on "Power as Life" (Prāṇa-Śakti ). but when they are in accord they leave it. and special attention is given to outward observances of ceremonials. 80. and rules are prescribed to procure and increase health and to free the body of disease. As already observed. Āsana and Prāṇayāma. Therefore the subjection of Manas causes the subjection of Prāṇa or Vāyu and Vīrya . The word Haṭha is composed of the syllables Ha and Tha. Under the influence of the sexual will it is withdrawn and elaborated into a gross form in the sexual organs To be ūrdhvaretas is not merely to prevent the emission of gross semen already formed but to prevent its formation as gross seed. contemplation is on the "Light. the Haṭha-yogi as such regards this regulation and Yoga of breath as the chief means productive of that result (Mokṣa)." The special features of this Yoga may be first contrasted with Mantra-Yoga. Prāṇa in the body of the individual is a part of the Universal Breath (Prāṇa). or the Brahmāṇḍa or Samaṣti-Prāṇa.prescribed for particular temperaments.

exercise. by which the body is filled with water. Samādhi was attained. the Haṭha-Yogamethod is perponderantly a physical one. and so forth. It naturally flows in to fill the void created by the depletion of air in the intestines. phlegm and bile are removed. III of Tantrik Texts. Antardhauti is also fourfold . II. Ch. health is gained. l The intestines are depleted of air and then by the action of the anal muscles water is sucked in. held that by the aid of the union of Ha and Ṭha in the Suṣumnā. sexual function. by which air is drawn into the belly and then expelled.21 . and according to some teachers the practice of Prāṇayāma alone is sufficient. (Dantadhauti). the second of the Ṣaṭ-karma. which is retained half a Yāma.200 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER always follows Prāṇa. Vol. In the second form the Yogi sits in the Utkatāsana1 posture in water up to the navel. which is then evacuated by the anus1. Danta-dhauti is fourfold. of realization (Pratyakṣa) by meditation (Dhyāna). and out again.3 and then sent downward. I). PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA) 201 of the body and Nāḍīs. then both are controlled (Yoga Kuṇḍalī Up. Recourse is also had. Apart from its suggested medical value as a lavement of the bladder it is a Mudrā used in sexual connection whereby the Haṭhayogi sucks into himself the forces of the woman without ejecting any of his force or substance . Under the heading of gross physical training come provisions as to the place of residence. and the leading of the combined Prāṇas therein to the Brahmā-randhra. and is either of the dry (Śuṣka) or watery (Jala) kind. Vahni-sāra. in which the belly is by Kākini-Mudrā2 filled with air. These will be found described in my Introduction to the Prapanchasara Tantra. if necessary. and of the anus (Mūla-dhauti). cleansing (Śodhana) by the six processes (Ṣaṭ-karma).namely. of the "heart. the internal fire is rendered more active.1 and on the sufficiency of that fact.namely. of steadiness of mind (Dhairya) by restraint of the senses (Pratyāhāra). and Bahiṣkṛita. If one is controlled.88. and the anus is contracted and ex- . Vāta-sāra. Third Upadeśa (v. to Oṣadhi-yoga. or swallowed. These form the first steps in the Haṭha-Yoga . see also Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā.. the ears.Vāsanā and Prāṇa. This is done by a stick (Danda-dhauti) or cloth (Vāso-dhauti) pushed into the throat. or washing. which is fourfold." that is. and in my volume on "Power as Life". Those who suffer from inequality of the three "humours"2 are required to practise the "six acts'' (Ṣaṭkarma) which purify the body and facilitate Prāṇayāma. though the gross physical acts of the preparatory stages of this Yoga are succeeded by Kriyā-jñā na and subtle vital processes which have Prāṇa as their subject. 2 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. throat and chest (Hriḍ-dhauti). or by vomiting (Vamana-dhauti).a practice which (apart from any other ground) is to be condemned as injurious to the woman who "withers" under such treatment. Cleansing (Śodhana) is effected by the six processes known as the Śatkarma. is twofold. and bodily states influence psychic or mental states as the latter the former. The practice and exercises connected with Haṭha-Yogaare divided into seven parts or stages . 8G). Vāri-sāra. Vasti. 2 Vata. Mūla-dhauti is done to cleanse the exit of the Apānavāyu. and restraint of breath (Kuṁbhaka) is facilitated. and of detachment (Nirliptatva) in Samādhi. 202 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER either with the middle finger and water or the stalk of a turmeric plant. and the "hollow of the skull" (Kapāla-randhra). of fortitude (Sthiratā) by bodily positions (Mudrā). the attain ment of strength or firmness (Dṛḍhatā) by bodily postures (Āsana). in which the Nābhi-granthi is made to touch the spinal column (Meru). mode of life as regards eating. the first is Dhauti. etc. Kapha and Pitta. drinking. 3 A Yāma is three hours. cleansing of the teeth. Though the reciprocal action of matter and mind is common knowledge. Of these. By Hṛd-dhauti. in which herbal preparations are administered to cure defective health. Another feat which I have seen is the drawing in of air and fluid into the urethra. consisting in the cleansing of the root of the teeth and tongue. On this cleansing (Śodhana) 1 Citta has two causes . or inward washing (Antar-dhauti). For others who are free from these defects they are not necessary in such case. of lightness (Lāghavā) by Prāṇayāma.

is attained by Āsana. 4 Some Yogis can make both the penis and testes disappear in the pubie arch so that the body has the appearance of that of a woman. back. 84 . the ordinary position for worship. Vyūtkrama. Lāulikī is the whirling of the belly from side to side (see Plate X). The right heel is pressed against the anus and the left against the region of the genital centre and in order to close the aperture of the penis.2 Patanjali. such as Muṇdāsana . and buttocks resting on heels.20. the hands closing the others -nostrils. The term is generally described as modes of seating the body. The Āsanas are postures of the body. the acquisition of which is the second of the above-mentioned processes. or the same is done in the Paścimottānāsana. There are certain other Āsanas which are peculiar to the Tantras. of which four are recommended . Āsana . Trikoṇāsana . Ugrāsana . except that the hands are passed behind the back. the heels off the ground. Svastikāsana and Padmāsana . ears. The interior cremation ground is there where the Kāmik or desire body and its passions are consumed in the fire of knowledge. merely points out what are good conditions. 1 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. and Śitkrama. and a corpse. Dṛḍhatā. And so the Tantras prescribe as the scene of such rites the solitary mountain-top. though they have other ritual and magical objects. vv. Bhujangāsana . or strength or firmness.000 of these. but 1 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā.91) eighty-four postures are mentioned. etc. eyes. and Baddha-padmāsana . on the subject of Āsana . Another account given me added four more – Baddha-padmāsana . and the right hand holds the right toe and the left hand the left toe. Mayūrāsana . without winking.1. and the gaze fixed on the tip of the nose (see also Śiva Saṁhitā. and out of these thirty-two are auspicious for men. squatting resting on the toes. By this. the reverse process. A Haṭha-yogi can. The test of suitability of Āsana is that which is steady and pleasant. The position is figured in Plate XVII. by inhalation and exhalation. Citāsana . 2 Ibid. mouth (Yoni-Mudrā). Siddhāsana . Ch. Kapālabhāti is a process for the removal of phlegm. and when the Ṣaṭ-karma are dispensed with. is the next. v.52). Two of the commonest of these are Mukta-padmāsana 2 (the loosened lotus seat). for some Āsanas are done on the belly. Second Upadeśa. form the seat of the Sādhaka. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)203 the posture is not necessarily a sitting one. The sphincter [muscles are opened and shut.400.2 and the abdomen below the navel is gently moved. and the cremation ground. and the nerves are braced with the tightening of the body. the funeral pyre. By this the "celestial vision" (Divya-Dṛṣṭi) so often referred to in the Tāntrik-Upāsana is acquired. In Neti the nostrils are cleansed with a piece of string. is the first stage of Haṭha-Yoga . Āsana is an aid to clear and correct thought. increased pressure is placed on the Mūlādhāra. which is the quality of a Yogi. 204 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER in which skulls. and is threefold: Vāta-krama. by water drawn through the nostrils and ejected through the mouth. it is contracted and withdrawn into the pubic arch so that it is no longer seen.panded by Aśvinī-Mudrā. or posture. leaving each one to settle the details for himself according to his own requirements. These are the various processes by which the body is cleansed and made pure for the Yoga practice to follow.viz. and that there are 8. the lonely empty house and riverside. also form part of the discipline for the conquest of fear and the attainment of indifference. gazes at some minute object until the tears start from his eyes. I. which are described in detail. These. That is. and the hands are crossed and placed similarly on the thighs. hands. it is said. III. It is said1 that the Āsanas are as numerous as living beings. Second Upadeśa (v. and Śavāsana .3 Kundaliyoga is ordinarily done in an Āsana and Mudrā in which the feet press upon the region of the genital centre and close the anal aperture.28). v. . and suction established. the chin is placed on the breast. In the Śiva Saṁhitā (Ch.1 respectively. the left foot on the right thigh..600 are daclared to be excellent. In Trātaka the Yogi. 3 The same.4 The tongue is turned back in Khecari Mudrā so as to close the throat also where these two Mudrās are combined.. 2 The right foot is placed on the left thigh. give himself a natural enema by sitting in water and drawing it up through the anus.

nostrils. 3 According to the Commentary on the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā (Ch. however. the legs are brought up to right angles with the body. but only such as are necessary to accomplish the purpose in that particular case. IV. post) are achieved without difficulty. The author of the work last cited says that as among the Niyamas the most important is Ahimsa. v.4 They are gymnastic. the outer burning is no burning at all. 89. v. Third Upadeśa. The only Vāyu in it is the Dhanaṁjaya. III). 2 Ch. so as to shut out all external impressions. This is part of Nīla Sādhana done by the "Hero" (Vīra ). III of Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā.3 The Mudrā dealt with in works of Haṭha-Yoga are positions of the body. facing the Sādhaka. These are more in the nature of a gymnastic than an Āsana in its sense of a seated posture.19 . These exercises secure a fine physical condition and freedom from disease. and standing on the head. In Yoni-mudrā.85. or fortitude. since the Devatā which is invoked into it is the Mahā-vidya whose Svarūpa is Nirguṇa-Brahman.46. and by the union of a perfect mind and body. 4 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. 3 Hum is called Kūrca-Bīja. the action of which produces fickleness of mind. See Plate XV. and by such invocation becomes Saguṇa. in Cakrāsana the Yogi stands and bends and touches his feet with his hand. or air. it is said. but others are not so. Mudrā is so called because it removes pain and sorrow (Mudrāyati kleŚam iti Mudrā). a kind of goose step. he arouses the sleeping Kula-Kuṇḍalinī by the Mantra "Hum Haṁsah"3. but standing upright. 87). Some forms of this gymnastic are done seated. or dissolution (Laya). v. lying down. They are also said to assist in Prāṇayāma. and Krodha its reverse.3 The Rajas Guṇa. So-called "angry" Devatas are not angry in the ordinary sense. 2 As the Yogakuṇḍali Upaniṣad says (Ch. 87). and destructive of disease and of death. is acquired by the practice of the Mudrās. A corpse is selected as being a pure form of organized matter. At the conclusion of a successful rite. I. prescribes a very large number of. Kāma here means creative will (Sṛṣṭi).12. II of Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. vv. as is also Vāma-dakṣina-pādāsana . 3 Pātanjala Yogasūtra. Posture becomes perfect when effort to that end ceases. 86.205) ten are said to be of importance in Kuṇḍalī Yoga. but are then in that aspect in which they are Lords of Dissolution an aspect which seems angry or terrible to the worldly minded. Bodily action and the health resulting therefrom react upon the mind. what is necessary in one case may not be necessary in another. bidding him name his boon. Ch. so that there is no more movement of the body. With 1 Ibid. 2 The lips are formed to resemble the beak of a crow. such as the 1 See Ch. The corpse is free from sin or desire.47 (Sthira-sukhaṁ āsanaṁ). and Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā.) He inhales by Kākinī-mudrā. is restrained.1 They also bring different portions of the body into such a position as to establish a direct contact of Prāṇa-Vāyu between them. I.-that is. Haṁsah=Prakṛti (Sah) and Puruṣa (Haṁ) or Jīvātmā. 206 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Jālaṁdhara1 and other Mudrās. I. They also preserve from injury by fire.'' Hum stands for Kāma (desire) and Krodha (anger). Huṁ is Kavaca-Bīja = "May I be protected. in which. so is Siddhāsana (in which the Mūlādhāra is firmly pressed by the heel and the Svādhiṣṭhāna region by the other foot) among the Āsanas. or a moderate diet (a significant choice). The Mudrā is also described as the key for opening of the door of Kuṇḍalinī Śakti . Sthiratā. l In successful Śavāsana the Devī. of which (with the eight Āsanas mentioned at p. (See Plates XI. and to help to effect its object. which may be spiritual or worldly advancement as he wishes. A suitable steady Āsana produces mental equilibrium. This Mantra is used in taking Kuṇḍalinī up. In Śava-Sādhana the Sādhaka sits astride on the back of a corpse (heading the north).. bending. and the air gently drawn in (Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. The Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā describes a number of Mudrās.[a matter which each will settle for himself. III. a familiar exercise. including the rousing of Kundalin. See Ch. health-giving. It is said of the Tarā-mantra that the Hūm in it is the sound of the wind as it blew with force on the Cola lake to the west of Meru what time She manifested. to each of which a peculiar effect is ascribed. eyes. and the three Bandhas (v. Śāṇḍilya Upaniṣad. Siddhi is by their means attained. As already stated he presses with his heel the Sivānī or centre of the perinaeum thus closing the anal aperture and withdrawing the penis into the pubic arch. and So'ham (He I am) in . that the head of the corpse turns round. and mouth.' speaks. water. it is said. and. Thus. There is a possession of it (Aveśa) . again. for it and Śavāsana are attended by many terrors. entry of the Devatā into the dead body.2 and unites it with Apānavāyu. of which Khecari is the chief as Siddhāsana is chief amongst Āsanas. Meditating their order upon the six Cakras. It is not (as I understand it) that all keys are necessarily to be employed in each case. the Yogi in Siddhāsana stops with his fingers the ears. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)205 however. Haṭha-Yoga . appears to the Sādhaka. The Devatā materializes by means of the corpse. Mastery of this helps to secure the Unmanī Avasthā. on which he draws a Yantra and then does Japa of Mantra with Śodhānyāsa and Puja on its head. and among Yamas Mitāhāra. This latter is Vṛikṣāsana . XlI). "which leaves not even a corpse".

and slowly taps the Kanda (v.1 which. is said to ward off death and disease. Commentary to Ch. (Śakti -cālana is the movement of the abdominal muscle from left to right and right to left. 4 See as to this tapping Plate IX which shows the position off the ground before or after it has been tapped.1 Mahā-Mudrā2 and Mahā-vedha are done in conjunction with Mahā-bandha. II. stops by methods already described the upward and downward course of the Prāṇa. The Yogi should then think himself to be pervaded with Śakti and in a state of blissful union (Saṅgama) with Śiva. and. 87 -42. the Yogi seated in Vajrāsana takes firm hold of his feet a little above the ankles. the object being to arouse Kuṇḍalinī by this spiraline movement. III. which disappears with the slow expiration which follows. post) with them. is made active. as well as the Yoni Mudrā.become united upon the entry of the Prāṇa into the latter Nāḍī.) Jālaṁdhara-Bandha is then done. III. become lifeless. by reason of that union.that is. v. It is then turned back in the throat. In Mahā-vedha3 the Yogi assumes the Mahā-bandha posture. The process is accompanied by inhalation and the union of Prāṇa and Apāna whilst in Siddhāsana . and this heat is made to play on Kuṇḍalī-Śakti . 72.1 Aśvinī-mudrā consists of the repeated contraction and expansion of the anus for the purpose of Śodhanā. Ch.25. and in blissful union (Saṅgama) with Śiva." is described in the Com. like other Haṭha-YogaMudrās." or the Sun.49 . The Yoni Mudrā "which detaches the Manas from the objective world. and closes . is referred to in the text translated. is the lengthening of the tongue until it reaches the space between the eyebrows. He raises Her to the Sahasrāra. Bhastrikā-Kuṁbhaka is done and the abdomen is contracted. takes hold of the two feet with both hands. 2 Ibid. post. Piṅgalā. 316. Third Upadeśa. and stretching out the right leg. 3Ibid.49. which is repeated until Vāyu manifests in the Suṣumnā. heat is produced. v. he taps the ground with his buttocks (Sphich). By "Sah" the Kāma or will (Icchā)." and "Fire" . 4 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā.114 et seq. and Sah lifting Her upwards. III. 5 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā..3 which should be well practised first before the Yoni Mudrā is done. With "Haṁsah" She is roused. and Suṣumnā . concentrating his mind. The rectal muscle is contracted by Aśvinī-mudrā until the Vāyu enters the Suṣumnā. already described.. to v. and the Mudrā should be practised an equal number of times on the left and right side of the body. 86 of work here first translated. The vital air (Vāyu) in the Mūlādhāra is in the form of both Moon and Sun (SomaSūrya-rūpi). he meditates upon himself as. et seq. v." "Sun. vv. Then. 82. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)207 "Ham. and Sah=Moon (Indu)= Kāma=Icchā. vv. now that Prāṇa has left them. a fact which is indicated by a peculiar sound which is heard there.. Ham rousing Her with his heat. Haṁ also=Sun (Sūrya).2 Yoni Mudrā is accompanied by Śakti -cālana Mudrā. (In the first the Yogi presses the Yoni (Mūlādhāra ) with the left heel. 208 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "I am the Bliss Itself. Iḍā. Śakti -cālana employs the latter Mudrā. When Kuṇḍalinī is awakened. placing the palms of his hands on the ground. Bliss Itself and the Brahman. This Mudrā. 2 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. or of contraction to restrain the Apānavāyu in Ṣaṭ-cakra bheda. 87.4 And with the Kuṁbhaka the Serpent goes upwards to the Sahasrāra roused by the Mantra "Huṁ Haṁsah".4 and the "Moon. Expiration should be done slowly. Then the body assumes a death-like aspect. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)209 The Khecari Mudrā." "I am the Brahman ".5 1 The Mantra Haṁsah is the breath held in Kuṁbhaka. According to another mode of rousing Kuṇḍalinī. then deeming himself pervaded with the Śakti .61. He then contemplates: 1 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā.bringing Her down. and Iḍa and Piṅgalā. the Prāṇa enters the Suṣumnā.) (See Plate XVI.

. vv. because Prāṇah uddīyate (goes up the Suṣumnā) in this Bandha. 3Yoga-kuṇḍalī Up. and the Apāna drawn up. Dhyāna-bindu Up. II. Nāda and Bindu are thus united. As the Dhyāna-bindu Upaniṣad says. or like a bird which. according to some. Ch. v. feeling it. has its origin above.16. the right foot being placed on the left thigh. it is called Uḍḍiyāṇa. just as a ball which is hit to the earth with the palm of the hand uprises again.2 The natural course of the Apāna is downwards. XIV. and from the Soma-Cakra comes a stream of nectar which. III. that is.25 -27. and the nectar (Piyūṣa) which flows from the cavity above the palate. Then the inner "sounds" are heard.4 (See Plates XI. The Varāha Up.76. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)211 and is also used to cause the breath to become Laya in the Suṣumnā.3 the fire becomes bright and strong. Piṅgalā and Suṣumnā..50. being fanned by Apana. and Prāṇa and Apana.. I. By the process of Viparīta-Kāraṇa these are made to change positions. See also Yogakuṇḍalī Up. Ch. 3 Vahner Maṇḍalam Trikoṇam nābher adhobhāge (Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. the rectal muscle contracted (by Aśvinī Mudrā). says that as Prāṇa is always flying up (Uddiyana).). 4 Ib. Boileau. the Jīva oscillates up and down under the influence of Prāṇa and Apāna and is never at rest. In Mūla-bandha the perineal region (Yoni) is pressed with the foot.46. and Kuṇḍalinī. Through Mūlabandha (see Plate XIV) the Prāṇa and Apāna unite l and go into the Suṣumnā. N. See Śāṇḍilya Up. food. 210 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER by a strong expiration. says that Jālaṁdhara should be done at the end of Pūraka. carrying the diaphragm along with them. ib. I. the chin being held firmly pressed against the root of the neck at a distance of about four fingers (Aṅguli) from the heart. Suspension of breath and insensibility result.45.1 This union of the three Nāḍīs. it should be expired slowly. and the tongue through this Mudrā enters Kha. and Dhyāna-bindu Up. of the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. If the thoracic and perineal regions are simultaneously contracted. In ŚāṁbhavīMudrā is the mind kept free from Vṛtti or functioning in Siddhāsana . Jalaṁ-dhara Bandha is done by deep inspiration and then contraction of the thoracic region (wherein is situated the Viśuddha Cakra ). Paul's "Treatise on the Yoga Philosophy. but by contraction at the Mūlādhāra it is made to go upwards through the Suṣumnā when it meets Prāṇa. or drink.. post. In the Viparīta position the Yogi stands on his head. Ch." p. v. McGregor and Lieut. v. by which its flight is errested. so that the Yogi may be buried in the ground without air. comm. Iḍā. C. There is also the Mahābandha.. Dhyāna-bindu Up. The Yoga-kuṇḍalī Up. V.2 which also aids the fixation of the mind in the Ājñā. certain physical methods of controlling Prāṇa. defines Prāṇayāma to be the union of Prāṇa and Apāna. Pressure is done on the perinaeal region between the anus and penis with the left heel. and Prāṇa is forced downward and Apāna upward. 66).5 1 The Śāṇḍilya Up. vv. Here is the Soma-Cakra under the Ājñā.33. and are thereafter united with Bindu in the Ājñā. III. Ch. which swallows it.. When the latter Vāyu reaches the region of fire below the navel. and UḍḍiyāṇaBandha at the end of Kuṁbhaka and beginning of Rechaka. H. Ch. Yoga-tattva Up. . says. and while the mind is centered on the Suṣumnā the Vāyu is contracted. v. post.57. cited in N. Ch. I. according to the Dhyāna-bindu Up.. The heat in the body then becomes very powerful. cited in notes to S. II. The mind is fixed in the Ājñā2 until with Siddhi this "path of the upward Kuṇḍalī " (Ūrdhva-Kuṇḍalinī) conquers the whole universe. the Vāyu enters the Suṣumnā. After the breath has been restrained as long as possible. Breath is inspired and the chin placed firmly on the root of the neck that is top of the breast-bone as in Jālaṁdhara (see position in Plate XVI) or alternatively the tongue is pressed firmly against the base of the front teeth. Ch. a vibration is felt. Ch. 2 Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. v. which is realized in the Yogi's body as not different from Ātmā.) In the first. The term Mudrā also includes4 what are called Bandha (bindings). XII. the lungs are emptied 1 So called. go to the heart. Ch. It descends to the "Sun" near the navel.. In Ch. The effect of this Bandha is to stop the upward course of the breath through all the Nāḍīs except the Suṣumnā.4 or vital centres. 4 See Commentary. 5 The "Moon" is situate in the palatal region near the Ājñā. 2 See Āgama-kalpadruma. IV. Yogakuṇḍalī Up. I. III. as in the case of the Yogi spoken of in the accounts of Dr. and the internal fire (Jāṭharāgni) is increased. I. v.the exit of the breath previously inspired.3 It is said that sometimes the frenum is cut but others can do the Mudrā without doing a physical injury which interferes with the putting out and withdrawing the tongue without manual help. may be also effected by the Mahābandha. and Prāṇa is made to rise and enter the Suṣumnā. Three important ones which are referred to in the texts here translated are Uḍḍiyāṇa. 80.. and drawn against the upper part of the thorax. Mūla and Jālaṁdhara.. Ch. Ch. because Citta moves in Kha (Ākāśa). A. Then it enters the Suṣumnā. (See Plate XIII.55 ... This is said to bind the sixteen Ādhāras. The breath exercise should be done first on the left and then on the right side. uniting with Nāda of the cardiac Anāhata Cakra.. says that the downward tendency of Apāna is forced up by bending down. so this Bandha. it is said that concentration between the eyebrows is the easiest and quickest way of attainment of Unmanī Avasthā. is called Uddiyanabandha... awakes from Her sleep "just as a serpent struck by a stick hisses and straightens itself".

2 Prāṇasya Śūnyapadavī tathā rājapathāyate (ib. 1 Śāṇḍilya Up. Thus.. Sūrya-bheda Kuṁbhaka is practised until Prāṇa is felt to pervade the whole of the body from head to toe.2.." It should not. the term is not altogether inappropriate if it is understood that "breath" means not only the Sthūla but the Sūkṣma-Vāyu. so also the breath when rightly managed comes under control.46. Prāṇayāma is frequently translated "breath control". When the physical body has been purified and controlled. which latter term. It is an advanced stage in which control is acquired over both mind and body.25..) The Devatas of these elements of Prāṇayāma are Brahmā. But the word does not come from Prāṇa (breath) and Yama (control). who blocks the entry (Brahmadvāra) thereto. and therefore rhythmic breathing is sought. From the fifth or Prāṇayāma arises lightness (Laghava) . and then by its transference to the Suṣumnā.. mind and breath react upon one another. ib. daily experience. 2 Comm. extensity. and seeks to acquire the equipose of. III. v. according to the Amarakośa. for unless this is so the Prāṇa does not enter the Suṣumnā. Yoga-tattva Up. I) says that the contraction of the upper part of the body is an impediment to the passage of the Vāyu upwards.. fills the body from throat to heart. v. which must be adapted to the needs of each person. means length." leading to the union of Prāṇa and Apana. however. else it kills the practitioner. The breath is controlled only in the sense that it is made the subject of certain initial process. assuming the Padmāsana posture. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)213 through Suṣumnā in their middle. as the blacksmith works his bellows. v. it is the process whereby the ordinary and comparatively slight manifestation of Prāṇa is lengthened and strengthened and developed. and. are stayed by Yoga. and according as the breath is suddenly stopped without Pūraka and Rechaka.. flies away and is drawn back again. it becomes the "Royal Road"2 which is the Suṣumnā."3 and the Prāṇa in Suṣumnā by means of the Śakti -Kuṇḍalinī pierces the six Cakras which block the passage in the Brahmanāḍī. The latter is then moved into Suṣumnā by the stirring of Kuṇḍalinī. the subtle body.1 The Yogi. Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. Yoga-kuṇḍalī Up. vv.that is. By control over the Sthūla Vāyu the Prāṇa-Vāyu (SūkṣmaVāyu or subtle air) is controlled. 4 The Śāṇḍilya Up. As already stated. Prāṇa forces its way with ease 1 Dairghyam ayama arohah parinaho viŚalata (AmaraKośa Dictionary). elephants and tigers are gradually tamed. Rudra.1 in other words. done in conjunction with Mahā-Mudrā and Mahā-vedha. to the Brahmā-randhra. Many have injured themselves and some have died through mistakes made in the processes. they are relaxed and devitalized. with his senses under control. The most appropriate term. There are also various forms of Kuṁbhaka. which unites the Prāṇas. there follows Pratyāhāra to secure steadiness (Dhairya). like all other dualities. I. The Yoga manuals speak of various forms of Prāṇayāma according as commencement is made with Rechaka or Pūraka. says : "As lions. control over. and if retained sufficiently long goes. but expand. rising. after the piercing of the Cakras. The breathing is a manifestation of a vitalizing force called Prāṇa-Vāyu. therefore attempted without instruction.1 From being the small path of. Iḍa and Piṅgalā "die. I. 3 That is. the levitation or lightening of the body. This Prāṇayāma is said to be successful only when the Nāḍīs are purified. therefore. and eventually becomes Laya in the Great Breath which is the final end and aim of this process. and Viṣṇu. when it is said to bloom (Sphurati)2 or to display itself in its fulness. Prāṇayāma is first practised with a view to control and develop the Prāṇa. Having regard to the processes employed. II.. described post. expansion. inhales (Pūraka) and exhales (Rechaka) alternately through the left (Iḍā) and right (Piṅgalā) nostrils. When the body has been purified by constant practice. The air which is breathed through the mouth and nostrils is material air (Sthūla Vāyu). Ujjāyī until the breath. Ch. (Ch. With this the Yogi passes from the physical plane. as every part of the body is from which the Prāṇa Śakti is withdrawn. 212 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER These movements. but from Prāṇa and Āyāma. such as Sahita-Kuṁbhaka. Dhyāna-bindu Up. 214 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER and when the latter is regulated so is the mind. Prāṇayāma4 should be practised according to the instructions laid down by the Guru. vv.27. do not control in the sense of confine. ib. These processes. and in Bhastrā the breath is inhaled and exhaled again and again rapidly. the process concerned with this is called Prāṇayāma. 1 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā.2 The Prāṇa enters Suṣumnā. With the disappearance of Prāṇa therefrom.3). retaining the breath meanwhile (Kuṁbhaka) for gradually increasing periods. which .19. the Sādhaka living on a nutritious but moderate diet. This takes place firstly in the Prāṇa as it courses in Iḍa and Piṅgalā. as already described. Ch.47. III. for Prāṇayāma is "breath control and development. and Yoga-tattva Upaniṣad. Hence the necessity for an experienced Guru. 2 Dhyāna-bindu Up.tied to its perch by a string.

and explain them as degrees of Kuṁbhaka varying according to the length of its duration. which is an important Kuṁbhaka. see Ch. if the Prāṇa is retained for a particular time it is called Pratyāhāra. life is prolonged. and Kevalī. Ujjāyī. Vol. eating. The value is measured by the length of the Pūraka. with or without the use of Bīja Mantra.. frees from disease. Kuṁbhaka is. II.3 Thus.2 This object colours also the methods Pratyāhāra.4 All beings say the Ajapa Gayatri. In Uttama it is double of the last. Prāṇayāma similarly varies. and see Amritanada Up.4 and the diseases arising therefrom. 4 See Comm. and Samādhi. viz. and then become Laya in the Sahasrāra after the Prāṇa Devatā Kuṇḍalinī has pierced the intervening Cakras. et seq . produces detachment from the world. Manilal Nabhubhai Dvivedi. 5 This is the Mantra-Haṁsah manifested by Prāṇa. and man becomes Ūrdhva-retas . as it operates in the case of all three Doṣas. ed.-V Maṇḍala-brahmaṇa Up. in Madhyama tremor.1 It will be observed that all the methods previously and subsequently described practically subserve one object. and Kapha.. 1 Haṭha-Yoga pradlpika. Bhastrikā.32.32 respectively =112. and Bhastrā. Ch. and its inspiration by Sah-kāra. It is necessary that the Nāḍī should be cleansed. and inhales .16=56. Ch. and 36 breadths. Meditating in "Yam". p. Dhyana. for whereas in the Rajayoga aspect they are various mental processes and states. Mūrcchā. III.. The cleansing of the Nāḍī (Nāḍī-śuddhi) is either Samanu or Nirmanu . Śītalī. the making the Prāṇa enter Suṣumnā. The Sādhaka passes through three different stages in his Sādhana which are similarly named. In Adhama perspiration is produced. but in singing. Kuṁbhaka with Japa of Bīja 64 times. II. Varāha Up. Fire is raised from Maṇipūra and united with Pṛthivī. See Haṁsa Upaniṣad.. 3 See Yoga Sutra. Prāṇa is motionless.75. Therefore it is that some works describe them differently to harmonize them with the Haṭha theory and practice. I. walking. Prāṇayāma awakens Śakti . vv. coition. Months or years may be spent in the preliminary process of cleansing the Nāḍīs.16. Kuṁbhaka with 64 Japa of the Bīja.600 times a day. respectively. and 8 respectively =28.that is. sleeping. in which the breath is restrained without Pūraka and Rechaka. He then meditates on the lunar brilliance. In Adhama Prāṇayāma it is 4. 2 Dhyānabindu Up. if for a longer time it is called Dhāraṇā. v. and which should be practised until the Prāṇa enters the Suṣumnā. Ap. the distances are16. which is equivalent to its retention for the longest period.16. Kuṁbhaka. Haṁsah is Jīvātmā. his seminal energy goes upward instead of developing into the gross seed which is thrown by Apāna downwards.44 . viz. from the Haṭha-Yoga point of view.12. In violent exercise these distances are exceeded.5 which is the expulsion of the breath by Haṁ-kāra.3 Then there are others which cure excess of Vata.30.1 . 4 See Introduction to Prapanchasara Tantra. and Uttama done for a100 times is said to result in levitation. and Rechaka. Then follows inhalation by the solar Nāḍī With the Vahni-Bīja16 times.. and inferior (Adhama). and Paramahāmsa is Paramātma. says that by Kevala the knowledge of Kuṇḍalī arises. which are firmly placed in the Suṣumnā. 2 Yogakuṇḍalī Up. As to the Bhedas associated with Sahita. of eight kinds: Sahita. according to the Gheraṇḍa-Saṁhitā. I. the Yogi in Padmāsana does Guru-nyāsa according to the directions of the Guru. or the Yoga fails. and so on until Samādhi is attained. and then exhalation through the solar Nāḍī and Japa of Bīja 32 times.that is.24. and bliss. II. Ordinarily the breath goes forth a distance of 12 fingers' breadth. Dhāraṇā. viz. best (Uttama). Kuṁbhaka is the retention of breath between these two movements.4 and aids the 1 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. Sūrya-bheda.20. which is concerned with "breathing" they are progressions in Prāṇayāma. Tantrik Texts. I.. the greatest distance being 96 breadths. followed by exhalation through the lunar PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)217 Nāḍī and Japa of the Bīja32 times. It is of varying values. middling (Madhyama ). VI. 64. 21. Bindu (seminal energy) must be conquered. to Haṭha-Yoga pradlpika. 216 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Where the breathing is under the normal distance. The number given is that of the recitations of the Prāṇava Mantra. it is shortened.6. for when Prāṇa flows through the Suṣumnā the mind becomes steady. Pitta. gazing at the tip of the nose. for air does not enter those which are impure. When Cit is absorbed in Suṣumnā. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)215 Prāṇa to break through the three Granthis. Ch. Ch. In Madhyama it is double of that. Pūraka is inspiration. 8.resembles the first two above mentioned. and Kevala. Ch. 3 The Śāṇḍilya Up. Bhrāmarī.11.. See Dhyāna-bindu Up. and Rechaka expiration. Yoga-kuṇḍalī-Upaniṣad. Where it is above that.. he does Japa through Iḍa of the Bīja16 times. According to the first form.

which is ultimately dissolved in the supreme Viṣṇu. and thereafter Mukti (Liberation) is attained. Meditating on Hari (Viṣṇu) as Sattvamaya and the black Bīja U-kāra. It is said by Bhāskararāya. and exhales by Iḍa with the same Bīja.5 The Sādhaka.4 in which the Sādhaka in a silent place closes both ears and does Pūraka and Kuṁbhaka until he hears Nāda in sounds varying in strength from that of the cricket's chirp to that of the large kettledrum. the place should not be so distant as to induce anxiety. or.. and other fragrant trees. The island is clothed with a Kadamba forest in yellow blossom. a deerskin.sexual intercourse. and the title of the Devatā. Dhyāna. it says. raiment. He then thinks of himself as flooded by nectar. In the middle of that Ocean is the Island of Gems. inhaling by Piṅgalā 218 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER he does Kuṁbhaka. alternatively. in six measures (Mātrā). in the Lalitā (v. the Yogi should not remain without food for more than one Yama (three hours). v. such as a forest. of six kinds:1 (1) DhyānayogaSamādhi. In the midst of the Kadamba forest there rises the beautiful Kalpa tree laden with fresh blossom and fruit. and the Light (Jyotih) with the Manas therein is seen. the taking of one meal a day and the like are prohibited.. the subtle (Sūkṣma). By this Yoga (vide post) the Ātmā is revealed (Ātma-sākṣātkāra). Champaka. as it were the tapering flame of a candle. and is then introduced in a reversed position into the mouth. time.) As stated. or gross. as follows: The Sādhaka meditates on Vidhi (Brahmā). consideration of proper place..53). One form of Dhyāna for this purpose is as follows : Let the Sādhaka think of the great Ocean of nectar in his heart. and food. the shores of which are made of powdered gems. attained by Khecari Mudrā. dwells. on which let him picture to himself his Iṣṭa-devatā. meditating on Śiva as Tamomaya and his white Bīja Ma-kāra.by Iḍa with Japa of the Bīja "Thaṁ"16 times. (2) Nāda-yoga. through Samādhi the quality of Nirliptatva. then. The KulāṛnavaTantra divides Dhyāna into Sthūla and Sūkṣma (IX. Sixth Upadeśa.. Before Kuṁbhaka he does the Uḍḍiyāna-bandha-Mudrā. and enjoys with Him the bliss which is Śṛṅgāra-rasa. the physical (Sthūla). feels himself in union (Saṅgama) with Śiva. nor in a city or crowded locality. the subtle consists of Mantra. (2) Jyotih. He exhales by Piṅgalā with 32 Japa of the Bīja Lam. does Prāṇayāma. then. 65 et seq. etc. in the technical sense of the Mantra Śāstra. The Guru will direct him as to the form. 8) beyond which. Fasting. Yoga should be commenced. . and. that there are three forms of the Devī which equally partake of both the Prakāṣa and Vimarśa aspects . The Sādhaka then meditates upon the Tejomaya (Light) Brahman. as also . of three kinds: (1) Sthūla. red in colour. (3) Sūkṣma. it is said. sour. is. etc. The process is repeated in the normal and reversed order. which is either with (Sagarbha) or without (Nirgarbha) Bīja. feet. Third Upadeśa. nor in an unprotected place. 2 Ibid. Lastly.3 in which the tongue is lengthened until it reaches the space between the eyebrows. and considers that the Nāḍīs have been washed. The stomach should only be half filled.certainly in the case of beginners . and the supreme is the Vāsanā . (4) Laya-siddhiyoga accomplished by the celebrated Yoni-Mudrā already described. and the supreme (Parā) The physical form has hands. This Samādhi Yoga is. in spring or autumn. attained by Kuṁbhaka. (3) Rasānanda-yoga.1 In the first form the Devatā is brought before the mind. or detachment. the forms of Prāṇayāma vary. or bitter. Thus. Kuṁbhaka is done with the Bīja Vam 64 times. the latter is resolved into the Mahākāśa or the Great Ether. and the image of A-kāra. By daily practice the Anāhata sound is heard. pungent.2 in which. or. which induces distraction. he does Kuṁbhaka with 64 Japa of the Bīja. Its four branches are the four Vedas. Jyotir-dhyāna is the infusion of fire and life (Tejas) into the form so imagined. The food taken should be light and strengthening. attained by Śāṁbhavī-Mudrā. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)219 Sūkṣma-dhyāna is meditation on Kuṇḍalinī with Śāṁbhavī-Mudrā after She has been roused. 1 Gheraṇḍa-Saṁhitā. The food should be pure and of a vegetarian character. or subtle. This may be done with or without cutting of the fraenam. Sahita. On the contrary. he exhales through Piṅgalā with 32 Japa of the Bīja. Amidst its leaves the black bees hum and the Koel birds make love. according to the former form. 6 and becomes 1 Seventh Upadeśa. There the Jīvātmā. is. Thus. and within it a beautiful couch. salt. Vāhana.viz. after meditation on the Bindu-Brahman and realization of the Ātmā (Ātmā-pratyakṣa). thinking of himself as Śakti and the Paramātma as Puruṣa. and considers himself thereby as strengthened. between the eyebrows on the Prāṇavātmaka flame (the light which is Om) emitting its lustre. Under the tree there is a great Mandapa of precious stones. in addition to Nāḍī-Śuddhi (purification of "nerves"). He inhales by Iḍā. He then takes his seat on a mat of Kuśa grass. facing east or north. This forest is surrounded by Mālati. according to the Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā. or meditation. It should not be too hot or too cold. Pārijāta. For its exercise there must be. Long walks and other violent exercise should be avoided. own form. In the Mūlādhāra lies the snake-like Kuṇḍalinī. according to the Gheraṇḍa-Saṁhitā. is Samādhi. who is full of Rajo-guṇa.

Nāda is thus like a snare for catching a deer.198) the Devī is addressed as Layakari . the eyes are bright. the further void (Ati-śūnya) of the thoracic region. II.24). What the Yogi enjoys is that supersensual bliss which manifests on the earthly plane as material Śrīngara. Both Saccidānanda or Śiva and Saccidānanda or Śakti are present in the body. for like a hunter it kills the mind. Rāja-yoga-samādhi is attained. Fifth Upadeśa.1 There are also other methods2 by which Laya is achieved. When the Brahmagranthi has been pierced. 5 In the Lalitā(v. Then the Prāṇa. and by union with Nāda the self-effulgent Chaitanya (Consciousness) is said to be attained. As long as sound is heard the Ātmā is with Śakti . detached from all worldly objects. which becomes one with that at which it is aimed. 222 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The Laya state is soundless.3 The Yogi in MuktĀsana and with Śāṁbhavī-Mudrā 1 Ibid. The mind thus becomes one with Nāda. the fourth or Niṣpatti state occurs. or the Brahman. Raudra (wrath). In this Yoga there are four stages.. Prāṇa and Apāna have united in the Suṣumnā. through the various Bandhas and Mudrās described.. There is a particular method by which Laya (absorption) is said to be attained by hearing the various bodily sounds. Fifth Upadeśa. v. for it is here that the Śabda-Brahman manifested by Vāyu and in association with Buddhi. Cit exists within these sounds. the seat of all powers (Siddhis).viz. in connection with other auxiliary Haṭha processes. The mind is kept off all external objects. The Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā says that on perfection being attained in Haṭha the body becomes lean and healthy. Hasya (humour). the Nāḍīs are purified. (6) Rajayoga. the internal fire is increased. 6 Śṛṅgāra is the love sentiment or sexual passion and sexual union. in which the Jñānī sees all things. says. goes to the abode of Īśvara. Though sound (Śabda) is not distinct and heard by the gross senses until it issues in the form of Vaikharī speech.1 The Antahkaraṇa. 78.2 These sounds (Nāda) issue from Anāhata Cakra in the cardiac region. the Akṣara (imperishable) is that which is Aghoṣa (without sound). on which it is fixed. and. and Kuṁbhaka is done. In this. and gradually become very subtle.. 2 Ch.25 et seq. then after closing the sense apertures by Śaṇmukhī-Mudrā and after Prāṇayāma a sound is heard in the Suṣumnā. It first attracts it and then slays it. The mind absorbed in Nāda is freed from Vṛttis. in which meditation is made on the Iṣṭa-devatā with devotion (Bhakti) until. the sweet tinkling sound of ornaments is heard in the ethereal void (Śūnya) of the heart. is attracted to the sound of the bells. 220 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Bliss itself. adds Śānti (peace). author of the Kāvya-prAkāśa. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)221 concentrates on the sounds heard in the right ear.the cause of Laya or absorption. and the Nāda sounds above-mentioned are heard. is fixed between the eyebrows in the Ājñā Cakra. (5) Bhakti Yoga. Śṛṅgāra.. like a deer. exists as Madhyama speech. having forced the Rudragranthi or Ājñā. Bībhatsa (disgust). the sound controls the mind which roves in the pleasure-garden of the senses. Adbhūta (wondering). which. and is centred first on the loud and then on the subtle sounds. 1 As the Amṛtānada Upaniṣad says (v. v.) Bhayānaka (fear). or the recitation of Mantras according to a particular method. During the initial stages the sounds are loud. sounds are heard like those of a kettledrum. the Yogi is said to hear this subtle Nāda when. the Yogi like a skilful archer kills it by directing his breath to the Brahmā-randhra through the Suṣumnā. 3 As the Nādabindu Up. and Laya-Yoga consists in the control of Citta-vṛitti by merging the Prakṛti-Śakti in the Puruṣa-Śakti according .3 Ibid. Here Śṛṅgāra-rasa is the cosmic root of that. the semen is concentrated. Karuṇa (compassion). and of the nature of manifested Nāda endowed with a special motion (Viśeṣa Spanda). accomplished by aid of the Manomūrcchā Kuṁbhaka. which are its Śakti s. which is neither vowel nor consonant and is not uttered. to which Mammata-bhatta. in the second stage the Prāṇa united with Nāda pierces the Viṣṇu-granthi.1 Here the Manas. when the Prāṇa goes to Brahmā-randhra. is the subject-matter of the works here translated. the ecstatic condition is attained. with tears flowing from the excess of bliss. 82. In the third stage a drum-like sound (Mardala) is heard in the Ājñā or Mahā-śūnya. Vīra (heroism). By the union of the Manas with the Ātmā. 77 et seq. v. Laya-Yoga is the third and higher form of Haṭha-Yoga. This combined Prāṇa and Nāda proceed upwards and unite with Bindu. v. such as Mantra-Yoga. On the insetting of the fourth stage. The first of the eight or nine Rasas (sentiments) . 4 Ibid. remaining immovable.

called Kula-kuṇḍalinī in the Yoga Śāstras. In addition to these are certain features peculiar to this Yoga. Niyama. Laya-yoga deals with the supersensible Pīṭhas (seats or centres) and the supersensible forces and functions of the inner world of the body. It is thus made a source of spiritual life instead of one of the causes of physical death. There are besides those already noted. 3 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. Some processes described are for practice (Sādhana) only. 4 Yogakuṇḍalī Upaniṣad. Arundhati (unstayable helper to good action).to the laws which govern the Pinda (individual . or the science relating to the Nāḍīs. so Dhāraṇā is. or seats of the Devatas. Kundalinya tatha yogi Mokṣadvaram vibhedayet. or recitation of Mantra. Īśvarī (Sovereign Lady). 66. and are followed by Prāṇa-yāma. that only two are employed in Laya-yoga .." so the Yogi should force open the door of liberation (Mokṣa). which when it is fixed by practice and contemplation becomes the subject of Bindu-Dhyāna. mind is released of its most powerful bond. IV. it is conserved as a form of subtle energy. Āsana . When Kuṇḍalī wishes to go up nothing can stop Her. She sleeps above what is called the Kaṇḍa or Kanda-yoni. the Lord of Serpents. supports the whole universe. and the Laya-Kriyā. who is known by various names. III. Svarodaya. are the Cakras already described. raise and lower Kuṇḍalī Śakti within an hour. such as Yama. however. closing with Her mouth the entry to the Suṣumnā called the "door of Brahman " (Brahmadvāra). Ch. 224 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER It is said that as Ananta. It is the lower door at which the already perfect in this matter need not enter. Ch. as already 1 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. calls Sarasvati Arundhati. With the extinction of sexual desire. . 1 Of the several forms of Prāṇayāma given in Haṭha-Yoga .3 Speaking in a general way. which is called Mahā-laya. Sūkṣma-prāṇa.Samaṣti) bodies and thereby gaining Liberation (Mokṣa). IV. I. 2 Amritanada Upaniṣad.2 and that "as one forces open a door with a key. In Mantra-Yoga the material forms in which Spirit clothes Itself are contemplated. though Nāda is the best of them all. Mantra-Yoga is specially. and under Dhāraṇā the rousing of Kuṇḍali. Instead. concerned with the physical body. which is four fingers in length and breadth. vv. and is covered by a "soft 1 Varāha Upaniṣad. Ch. Ch. Dhyāna (on Bindu). which are super-physical exercises (Sūkṣma Kriyā). it is said. saying that it is by arousing Her that Kuṇḍalī is aroused. though. These belong to the physical processes (SthūlaKriyā). Dhāraṇā. 65 -102. though affecting the body. Pañca-tattva-Cakra. of the Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā.3 This Śakti is the Supreme Śakti (Parā-Śakti ) in the human body. These Pīṭhas. with the last as a preliminary. such as the Śakti .105 : Udghatayet kapatan tu yatha kunchikaya Haṭhat. that Prāṇayāma is only a preliminary method to secure mastery of the breath."1 the support of all Yoga practice. An expert (Siddha) can. v. by the aid of Kuṇḍalinī3 (the coiled one).1 Pratyāhāra. and affects the subtle body through the gross body. which is also the name of a Nāḍī. concerned with the forces and powers at work outside. leading through Nāda and Bindu to the Samādhi. Ch. is the chief element in Mantra-yoga. according to this method of Laya-yoga . 9.5. ranging from the Sahasrāra. and Prāṇayāma in the ordinary Haṭha-Yoga . the abode of the unattached (Nirlipta) Saccidānandamaya Paramātma to the Mūlādhāra. though only a limited number of these and of the Mudrās of Haṭha-Yoga are used. It is to be observed. and the like inner forces of nature. The object of this Yoga is therefore to take and merge this Śakti in Puruṣa when Samādhi is attained. v. embodying all powers and assuming all forms. been roused by constant practice. Methods are followed which are common to all the systems. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA) 223 stated. its reflection is manifested as a Light between the eyebrows.Vyaṣti) and Brahmāṇda (cosmic .600. I. ordinary Haṭha-Yoga is specially. though not exclusively. Kutilāṅgī (the crooked one). After Prakṛti-Śakti in the form of Kula-kuṇḍalinī has. In Haṭha-Yoga the contemplation of "Light" is in particular prescribed. Ch. The hearing of the Nāda sounds is included under Pratyāhāra. the most important part of Laya-yoga. Ch. so is Kuṇḍalinī. III. The Yogakuṇḍalī Up. of descending into gross seminal fluid. and rises to Śiva along with Prāṇa. its power and functions. As in the case of the preceding systems. v. its Dhyāna is threefold. says that Śiva has given out a quarter of a crore (2. The same verse occurs in Ch.4 She the "Serpent Power" sleeps coiled up in the Mūladhara. however. Laya-Yoga has special features of its own. "by whom the body is supported. Kuṇḍalī is aroused by various Haṭha and other processes hereafter described. v. Thus the sexual force is one of such powers and is utilized. the seat of Prakṛti-Śakti . it is said. As Japa. V. Bhujangi (serpent). III. 2 Hatha-yoga-pradīpikā. though not exclusively.000) of ways for the attainment of Laya. 3 See Dharma Pracāra Series.1: Sarveṣam yoga-tantrāṇāṁ tathādhārā hi Kuṇḍali. Therefore She is called Arundhati.

for She is all letters and Dhvani3 and the Paramātma Itself. holds within Herself the mystery of creation. So Veda. vv.2 Just as in space sound is produced by movements of air. et seq. and of Dharma. post). and by it eternal consciousness is awakened5 . the Genetrix of all the universes. 3 See "Garland of Letters" as to the Kalās. Words in themselves seem lifeless (Jada). the Omnipotent Kala3 in the form of NadaŚakti .5 As.that is. as in descending She creates and binds. post. Prāṇa and Apāna are declared to be the maintainers of animate being (v. etc.1 From this Kaṇḍa spring the 72. in Her are creation.1 incessantly revealing knowledge2 of the nature of Brahman. XI. the subtlest of the subtle. Śruty vedasya ātmabhedena svaprakāśatayā. Hence Mantras are used in the rousing of Kuṇḍalinī. Kaṇḍa is also applied to the seat of Prāṇa.000 Nāḍīs which here both unite and separate.PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)225 white cloth" . dealing with the Pañchadaśi Mantra: Sarve vedā yatrā ekam bhavanti. 4 She is creation itself (Sṛṣṭi-rūpā).1 She is the source of all Speech. because it is a manifestation of Chaitanya. but the Mantra power which they embody is Siddha . 8). which is Satya Itself. 15 226 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (Avidyā-Śakti ) and is the means as Vidyā-Śakti whereby Liberation may be attained. She both binds as Creatrix 1 As given by Yājñavalkya. Verse12 describes Kuṇḍalinī as the revered supreme Parameśvari (Sovereign Lady). v. She is Mātṛikā. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)227 (Apauruṣeya). and is displayed in words (Siddha-śabda) which are without human authorship 1 Viśvanatha the Commentator says that She makes this sound when awakened. owing to the movements of the vital air (Prāṇa-vāyu ).that is. although the substance of . XI and XII. 4 Veda is one with Caitanya. Ch. membrane like the egg of a bird. It is She who maintains all the beings of the world by means of inspiration and expiration. cited in Commentary to v. Her sweet murmur is like the indistinct hum of swarms of love-mad bees. It is because She is Mantra-devatā that She is roused by Mantra. the truth and capable of teaching it. Triśatī. by which the universe is sustained (Dhāryate). or Pure Being. XII. She is the Worldconsciousness (Jagaccaitanya). for She is the Mother of all and not the child of any. ib. And so the Divine Mother is said to be Brahman-knowledge (Brahma-vidyā) in the form of that immediate experience4 which is the fruit of the realization of the great Vedantic sayings (Mahā-vākya). notwithstanding the existence of feeling-consciousness in all things. the Mantra-devatā. II. 5 For She is also beyond the universe (Viśvātītā).that is. v. According to the Commentator Śankara. For this reason one of the names of this. The substance of Mantras is the Eternal Śabda or Consciousness. and those who are ignorant of Yoga are kept in the bondage of this worldly life. By Her radiance the universe is illumined. maintenance. ib. and dissolution (Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-layātmikā).4 and the stream of Ambrosia which flows from the attributeless Brahman. Ch. so. which also refers to the Gorakṣaśataka. "Principles of Tantra. 3 See "Principles of Tantra.113. II.2 and shines in the hollow of the Mūla lotus like a chain of brilliant lights. physical and psychical and spiritual. twelve fingers (Vitasti) above the Mūla-sthāna." Mantras are in all cases manifestations (Vibhūti) of Kula-kuṇḍalinī Herself. the Viṛāṭ consciousness of the world as whole. is the self-illumined Principle of Experience4 (Cit) itself. III.11.19). 2 See Vol. The verse itself appears to fix its position as between the penis and navel (Nabhi). it does not manifest without particular processes. which is the formless (Amūrti) Brahman in Veda-form (Vedamūrti). though their appearance and expression is in words.10 and11 of the Ṣatcakranirūpāna say: "She the World charmer is lustrous as lightning. It is generally described as being two fingers (Anguli) above the anus (Guda) and two fingers below the penis (Medhra). whose substance is "letters" is Mātṛikā.that is.3 or those principles and laws. For he who knows Her knows Yoga." Vol. and its inward and outward passage as inhalation and exhalation. the heart (see Ṣaṭcakra nirūpāna. She. For this reason it is said in the Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā that She gives liberation to Yogis and bondage to the ignorant. and is Consciousness itself (Jñānarūpā). Kula-kuṇḍalinī is the Śabdabrahman. 8. As vv.10. so also in the ether within the Jīva's body currents flow. of Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. As such She is thought of as going upwards. and all Mantras are Her manifestation (Svarūpa-Vibhūti)." Ch. 2 Thus. As Śankara says (comm. this indicates the Vaikharī state of Kuṇḍalinī.

3 The object. 85.that is. as the six centres are the lower.10. for on this ensues Laya of Manas. is that word without human authorship which tells of Brahman and Dharma: DharmaBrahmāpratipadakam apaurusheyam vakyam. post. The Vedānta here means Upaniṣad.19 : "Veda is Brahman . and not any particular philosophy so called.106. Śakti . passim. after entry into the Suṣumnā or void (Śūnya). The Yogi is then said to be free of the active Karma. vv. Nirvāṇa Experience (Aparokṣa-Jñāna) as opposed to indirect (parokṣa) or merely intellectual knowledge. III. so the Yogi should force open the door of Liberation by Kuṇḍalinī. and attains the natural state. closing with Her mouth the channel (Suṣumnā) by which ascent may be made to the Brahmā-randhra. shines brilliant as lightning in the Mūlādhāra of every Jīva. and the whole current of Prāṇa thrown into that column. 2 lb. to know. yet it is only in the lotuses of the hearts of Yogis that She reveals Herself and dances in Her own joy. 4 Sākṣātkāra . "She. Ānandalaharī. and see the Yamala cited in Prāṇatoshini.16 and17. if She is moved Prāṇa is moved. Kuṇḍalinī being Prāṇa-Śakti . IV.' 'Moon. Ch. 2 Haṭha-yoga-pradīpikā. is to devitalize the rest of the body by getting the Prāṇa from Iḍa and Piṅgalā into Suṣumnā.3 The mind thus trained detaches itself from the world. all Mantras.' and Śabda-Brahman Itself. vv. 5 Vedānta-Mahā-vākyajanya-sākṣātkārarūpā-Brahma-vidyā (Śanka-ra's Comm. ib.namely. 3 Ib. "As one forces open a door with a key.11. the subtle cause of the will towards life which is the cause of rebirth.. is to be despoiled 1 lb." and then to make it ascend through the lotuses which "bloom" on its approach. For the semen fluctuates as long as Prāṇa does so. Kuṇḍalī is the Śabda-Brahman . Yet Śakti and Śiva are one. there is no cessation of Vṛtti (mind functioning).. are used to rouse Kuṇḍalinī. Commentary thereto. 4 lb. 3 Veda." the Suṣumnā.Mantras is feeling-consciousness. Śiva "dwells" in the Sahasrāra. Therefore the body of Kuṇḍalinī Śakti consists of eight parts (Angas) . and Sadāśiva Her Lord. 9.' and 'Fire. Bandhas. that is. on v.19 -21. though existing in subtle form). upon What follows refer also to Ch. Ch. 3 See ante. The Six Centres and all evolved therefrom are Her manifestation. on TriŚati. and all Tattvas. These various results are said to be achieved by rousing Kuṇḍalinī. Her substance is all Vedas. Kuṁbhakas. and in every power. She does not reveal Herself. which is for this reason regarded as the most important of all the Nāḍīs and "the delight of the Yogi. and by the subsequent processes for which She is the "key". IV. and Varāha Up. Hence it has been said in the Śāradā-Tilaka: "Although KulaKuṇḍalinī whose substance is Mantras. v. and if Prāṇa is to be drawn up through the "middle path. and Commentary (Tattva-jñāna m mano-nasho vĀsana Kṣaya eva cha). the six centres of psychic and physical force. Ch. so that the Prāṇa withdrawn from Iḍa and Piṅgalā may by the power of its Śakti . or supreme knowledge. See Bhūtashuddhi Tantra cited under v.''4 For it is She who sleeps in the Mūlādhāra. (In other cases. and Mudrās. ' 228 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER body. By daily practising restraint of Prāṇa in Suṣumnā the natural effort of the Prāṇa along its ordinary channels is weakened and the mind is steadied. The 1 See Lakṣmīdhara 's Comm. as the Yoga-vāśiṣṭha says. it feeds upon the objects (Viṣaya) of the objective world.. towards the Brahmā-randhra. person. And. it is called Śruti ("what is heard") : Shruyate eva na tu kena Cit Kriyāte (Vachaspati Miśra in Sankhya Tattva Kaumudi). then. .1 When there is movement of Prāṇa (Prāṇa-spanda).that is. Ātmā as manifested Śakti . it must of necessity pierce the lotuses or Cakras which bar the way therein. is the destruction of both Citta and Vāsana .. that feeling-consciousness is not perceptible without the union of the Sādhaka's Śakti (derived from Sādhana) with Mantra-Śakti . according to Vedānta.1 In the Sahasrāra Kuṇḍalī is merged in the Supreme Ātma-Śakti .50. and thing. The latter is the upper Śrī-Cakra. so long as Prāṇa does not cease to exist there is neither Tattva-jñāna nor destruction of Vāsana. And when the semen is not steady the mind is not steady. v. For Tattva-jñāna . 'Sun. it came out as His breathing.2 Restraint of breath also renders the semen firm. This must be opened when the Prāṇa naturally enters into it. says that the eight forms are the six (Mind to "Earth"). The body on each side of the spinal column is devitalized. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)229 Manonmanī state is said to arise with the dissolution (Laya) of Prāṇa. For when there is movement (Pari-spanda) of Prāṇa there is movement of mind. She is the Mother of the three forms of energy. v." for "Suṣumnā devours time".in bodies. The Āsanas.'' Kuṇḍalinī is therefore the mightiest manifestation of creative power in the human 1 And because it is without such authorship and is "heard" only. go upwards towards the Brahmārandhra2. the 'young widow'. v. But when Prāṇa is in Suṣumnā "there is neither day nor night.. Kuṇḍalinī is the great Prāṇa-devatā or Lord of Life which is Nādātmā. ib. the Sun and Moon." 2 The term Veda is derived from the root vid. 8). Dindima on v. V.

is the Supreme Consciousness which arises upon the acquisition of knowledge. v. When this is achieved these Nāḍīs become "dead. where the bliss is the same as that experienced in Liberation (subject in this case to return). knowledge concerning the Cakras. aroused by the heat thus generated. or enters into the Suṣumnā. and particular powers. when operating from the Mūlādhāra. and even disease. with a view to acquiring power to manipulate this Śakti . In the earlier stages.112 et seq. and secondly of imparting that knowledge of Brahman (Tattva-Jñāna) which leads to Liberation.. The position seems to be thus similar to a hollow tube in which a piston is working at both ends without escape of the central air. but embody a common principle namely. The first cause of such knowledge is an acquaintance with and practice of the Tantrik Yoga Sādhana which is concerned with the Cakras. though in exceptional cases it may be done in a short time. being wishful to rescue the world sunk in the mire of misery. The first verse says that the Brahman will be realized. moreover.that is. is to be despoiled forcibly. As already explained.2 At first She can only be led to a certain point. She then hisses and straightens Herself. The former . as the Commentator says. Then the Serpent Force. and enters the Brahmadvāra. 282 THE IX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Śakti Kuṇḍalinī with the vital centres. the six Cakras in the Suṣumnā becomes Laya or absorbed in the Sahasrāra. the reverse of their natural directions) by the Jālaṁdhara and Mūla-Bandha. or Cakras. At each centre a particular kind of bliss (Ānanda) is experienced. the forcing of Prāṇa downward and Apāna upwards1 (that is. III. it is admitted. He who has led Her to a particular centre can reach the same centre more easily at the next attempt. and then gradually higher. or he may transfer himself into another body. In the perfection of practice the Yogi can stay as long as he will in the Sahasrāra.1 It generally takes years from the commencement of the practice to lead the Śakti to the Sahasrāra. when operating from the Mūlādhāra. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)231 The means to this end. 1 See Varāha Upaniṣad. and so forth . the 'young widow'. gained. and Kuṇḍalinī. But to go higher requires further effort. The next question is. Kuṇḍalinī. The principle of all the methods to attain Samādhi is to get the Prāṇa out of Iḍa and Piṅgalā. seem to vary in detail. to which we now proceed. The Prāṇa then enters the Suṣumnā and. Some of the above-mentioned processes are described in the present work. particularly the abdominal knot. such as the conquest of the elementary forms of sensible matter (Bhūta) are. but embody a common principle namely. seem to vary in detail. the forcing of Prāṇa downward and 1 Ib. and which on this matter may be summarised as follows: The preliminary verse (and in the reference to the verses I include the Commentary) says that only those who are acquainted with the Six Lotuses can deal with them. Where the Nāḍīs are pure it is easy to lead Her down even from the Sahasrāra. Nāḍīs. Brahman. after piercing by the aid of Kuṇḍalinī. Ch.230 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "She." It is prescribed that there Shall be daily practice. the next cause is the realization of . when by their union the internal fire is increased. these "knots" are the points at which converge the Cakras of each of the three groups. has undertaken the task firstly of instructing it as regards the union of the Śakti Kuṇḍalinī with the vital centres. The means to this end. when by further repeated efforts the Cakras in the Suṣumnā are pierced. and secondly of imparting that knowledge of Brahman (TattvaJñāna) which leads to Liberation. a practice known to both the Indian and Tibetan Tantras. in the latter of which it is called Phowa. This is a gradual process which is accompanied by special difficulties at the three knots (Granthis) where Māyā-Śakti is powerful." because vitality has gone out of them. or Cakras." in which She lies curled up. the piercing of which may. III. which thus becomes heated. is aroused from Her potential state called "sleep. and the first verse says that Yoga by means of the method here described cannot be achieved without knowledge of the Cakras and Nāḍīs. involve considerable pain. Oh.is the "first shoot" of the Yoga plant. In the continued practice facility and greater control are gained. it is said. physical disorder. 2 As related by a Yogi from a Girnar speaking of his own case. until at the Ājñā centre the whole universe is experienced. or otherwise. How is this effected? The Commentator in the preliminary verse says that the very merciful Pūrṇānanda-Svāmī. there is a natural tendency of the Śakti to return.

in which concentration is between the eyebrows. Prana enters of itself with Her. and when aroused and taken to the upper cerebral centre is the giver of true knowledge (Svarūpa-Jñāna). the natural heat arising therefrom. which is the effect of the action of Kuṇḍalinī.). which is the Supreme Consciousness. The Kuṇḍalī also sleeps in Ādhārakunda. The Yogi does a drawing-up-movement in which the shoulders are raised and dropped. In the commentary 2 on verse 32 of the Anandalahari it is said: "The sun and the moon. is tending downwards through the channels in the Nāḍīs. When the sun and the moon meet at MulĀdhāra. The upper part of the body is then contracted by Jālaṁdhara-bandha. I. accompanied by suitable physical action. Kuṇḍalī takes the form of the eight Prakṛtis. and the final result is experience as Brahman. . kindle the fire of Kāma (Kāmāgni). Mind is as much one of the forms of Kuṇḍalī as is that which is called "matter". The arousing of this force is achieved both by will and mind power (Yogabala). The Sādhaka2 sits himself in the prescribed Āsana and steadies his mind by the Khecarī-Mudrā. or the five Tanmātras. and Knowledge (Jñāna). dries the system (thus moistened by nectar). the Vāyu is again raised with the Bīja "Yam". Both are equally products of Prakṛti-Śakti . The air so checked tends downwards. the Para-haṁsah or Paramaśiva. Action (Kriyā). are travelling (incessantly in the Microcosm) by Iḍā and Pingala day and night. The sun. The moon. post. travelling by the right Nadi (Pingala). from the throat to the belly. Jīvātmā (individual Consciousness). holding the sides by each hand.that is. Yogakuṇḍalī Up. .1 the constituents of the second. Ch. The Yogakundali-Upaniṣad 1 states the following methods and others mentioned: When Prana is passing through Iḍā. Draw the body up a little to let Kuṇḍalī enter Susumna. the faculties of sense (Indriya) or mind operating to receive impression through the sense organs. and the Vahni Bīja (Fire Mantra) "Ram". as they move always in Devayana and Pitr-yana (northern and southern orbs) in the Macrocosm. under the direction of mind and will. This. the pressure of the Prāṇa and Apāna held in Kuṁbhaka. which is thought of as being in the Shape of the tapering flame of a lamp. according to Sankhya. as in the case of ordinary positive and negative electric charges. The air (Vāyu) thus stored becomes an instrument by which.)2 This is a form of Icchā Śakti . 2 A form of Apāna Vāyu. and exists in forms both subtle and gross. I. stir up Kuṇḍalinī with all one's strength from right to left fearlessly for 48 minutes. and Prāṇa. Jīvātmā here spoken of is the Ātmā of the subtle body . in which the anal muscle is contracted. Compressing above and expanding below.50. By this 1 Śāṇḍilya Upaniṣad. 2 The account here given follows and amplifies the text. See Commentary to v. When the Yogi feels that the air within him. .1 The Power which is aroused is in itself (Svarūpa) Consciousness. the escape of Vāyu as Apāna is again checked by the Mūla-bandha and Aśvinī-Mudrā. which is a grosser form of the Nādamayi-Śakti . PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)233 By this contraction the air so inhaled is prevented from escape. and in inhalation comes in 12. The fire encircles and arouses the slumbering serpent Kuṇḍalinī. bedews the whole system with her nectar. the Antahkaraṇa or mind as Buddhi (including therein Ahamkāra) and Manas.. assume Padmasana and lengthen the Akasa of 12 points by 4--that is. that day is called Amavasya (new moon day) .3 so that the upward breath (Prāṇa) is checked. Following such concentration and impact of the retained Vāyu on this centre. inhale for 16 and thus gain power. third.. Air is inhaled (Pūraka) and then retained (Kuṁbhaka). is brought from the region of the heart to the Mūlādhāra. 234 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER active is drawn to Siva. Śakti thus rendered 1 According to the Vedāntik definition. ever travelling by the left Nadi (Iḍā). Then. which are themselves but other manifestations of the universal polarity which affects the manifested world. who is the Śakti or power of Will (Icchā). Prana rises.that Sādhana by the rousing of Kuṇḍalinī. and vice versa.. Ch. The process of mental concentration on this centre is described as follows: With mental Japa of the Mantra prescribed and acquisition thereby of Mantra-Śakti . as in exhalation Prana goes out in 16 measures. A revolution from left to right is given to the "air of Kāma" or Kandarpa (Kāmavāyu.. in the language of the Śāstra. and fourth bodily sheaths. 3 Vide ante and Dhyānabindu Up. the potentialities of the vital force in the Mūlādhāra may be forced to realization. . who is then. The Citta (mind) therefore enters Suṣumnā along with Prāṇa (Yoga-tattva Upaniṣad and Dhyānabindu Up. seized with the passion of "desire" for Her Spouse.

are dissolved in Rasa (Taste) Tanmātra. the latter is taken to the Viśuddha. which after the passage of the Visuddha-Cakra replaces them all. then the Kuṇḍalī wakes up for 1 Ch. Gandha-Tattva is then taken to the Svādhiṣṭhāna. Parā. and consequently the moon cannot shed its nectar nor the sun dry it. within the entrance of the Citrini-Nadi. then the latter is taken into the Anāhata. but now open. and the latter into Viṣṇu-vaktra or Puṁ-bindu.namely. She then pierces. She in Her form as Vaikharī bewitches Svayambhu Liṅga . and Vaikharī . I. Next. Vyāpikā into Samani. and there it.1 When all the letters have been thus dissolved. which turn their heads upwards as She passes through them. though itself in its Śiva aspect undifferentiated. I " Saundaryalahari.52). each of the lotuses. when Kuṇḍalī starts to go to Sahasrāra. The Candra-Mandala in Sahasrara is also called Baindava. the latter is taken to the Maṇipūra and there Rasa Tattva. which is in the Mūlādhāra . In the case of the latter merger there are various stages PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)237 which are mentioned in the text (v. Samani into Unmanī. post) says that the four sound-producing Śakti s . there and beyond. and the latter is united with Parabindu in the Sahasrāra. She is the Śakti of the 236 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER mental and psychic or subtle body l(Hiraṇya-garbha). which. when She reaches the stage of Para-bindu. Paśyantī. and the order of dissolution of the Tattvas is as follows: Pṛthivī with the Indriyas (smell and feet). or Tanmātra of smell. Mahāt in Sūkṣma Prakṛiti. and it. Afterwards. and all that has been above described to be in them. and. She attains the state of Parā (Parā-bhāva). each of the grosser Tattvas enters into the Laya state.are Kuṇḍalī Herself (Kundalinya-bhedarūpā). in that Nadi. and its connected Indriyas (sight and anus). Nādānta into Vyāpikā. Then the nectar begins to flow. Afterwards the fifteen eternal Kalas (part) of Candra (moon) in. Ajna go to Visuddhi and move thereon." through the aperture hitherto closed by Her own coils. and associated Indriyas (hearing and mouth). is dissolved into Gandha-Tattva. The senses which operate in association with these grosser Tattvas are merged in Her. contains in its Power-aspect all lower planes in a concealed potential state. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA). and the connected Indriyas (touch and penis). It is understood by this that. and its connected Indriyas (taste and hands). one should practise in the lunar fortnight alone. For whereas in the Mūlādhāra She is the Śakti of all in their gross or physical manifested state (Virat). She then similarly bewitches Bāṇa Liṅga in the heart as Madhyamā and Itara-Liṅga in the eyebrows as Paśyantī. Tejas. Then. the latter is then taken to the Ājñā. One Kala remains there always. at the stage of Ajiia. She runs to Sahasrara and bites the Candra (moon). As 'Kuṇḍalinī united with the subtle Jivatma passes through each of these lotuses. Ākāśa. then the moon and sun become confined. As the ascent is made. We call Her Tripurasundari. Kuṇḍalinī Herself takes on a different aspect as She ascends the three planes. The Māyā Tantra (see v. which is also called Atman. as also the sun. the latter of which have Pṛthivī (the earth as ground) as their support. and is replaced by the energy of Kuṇḍalinī . . and unites with each of the Lingas in that form of Hers which is appropriate to such union. all the six Cakras are dissolved as the petals of the lotuses bear the letters.When a Yogi whose mind is under control is able to confine the moon in her own place. when the place of nectar becomes dried by the fire with the help of Vayu. Vāyu. 235 want of food and hisses like a serpent. which is in the middle of the same. and not in the solar one." pp. That Kala is nothing but Cit Itself. breaking through the three knots. are dissolved in the Śabda (Sound) Tanmātra. 60. as of into Nādānta. and it. She absorbs into Herself the regnant Tattvas of each of these centres." Kuṇḍalinī is led upwards "as a rider guides a trained mare by the reins. it Manas are dissolved in Mahāt. are dissolved in Sparśa (Touch) Tanmātra. and wets the (other) CandraMandala in Ajiia-Cakra. Hence. 61. in order to rouse the Kuṇḍalī.51. Madhyamā. Ap. The upward movement is from the gross to the more subtle. and in the region of the Sahasrāra She is the Śakti of the "spiritual" plane (Īśvara). are dissolved into Rūpa (Sight) Tanmātra. From the latter the whole body becomes bedewed with nectar. which is also Paramaśiva. who then absorbs into Herself the subtle Tattvas of the Ajna.

again closes and hangs its head downwards. as is also the Mahī-Maṇḍala or Prithivi. I of the Haṭha-Yoga pradīpika. the Śakti -Kuṇḍalinī who has been seized by desire for Her Lord is said to make swift way to Him. such as poets and others. which propelled it. the Niralamba-puri. self-illuminating (Svaprakāśa). In language borrowed from the world of human passion. At length the Bīja of Vyoma (ether) or "Ham" is absorbed into the subtle Tattvas of the Ājñā. and to know It is as the bliss of knowing a virgin. are dissolved in Her. are merged in the Devī.15 of Ch.. Thus "earth?' springs from and is dissolved in its seed (Bīja). the Devī reaches the Ājñā known as the "Knot of Rudra" (Rudragranthi). which remains in Her body as the Bīja "Ram". Vaikuṇṭhadhāma. and so forth. of the Mūlādhāra. and water converted into its Bīja "Vam" remains the body of Kuṇḍalinī. The Pṛthivī or Earth Bīja "Lam" is dissolved in the Tattva water. v. pallor (Vaivarṇaya). The Bīja of Fire "Ram" is sublimed in air. The Varuna Bīja "Vam" is dissolved in fire. The uttered Mantra (Vaikharī Śabda) or "Lam" is the expression in gross sound of that. which is that particular aspect of the creative consciousness. which. the choking voice (Sara-bhaṅga).. the Dharma-Śāstrakāra. thinking of himself as Śakti and the Parāmatma as Puruṣa. the Sādhaka in Layasiddhiyoga. the Devas. that lotus. For these Bījas. Lakshmi. are dissolved in Her. the "Garland of Letters". and the Pṛthivī Bīja "Lam" into which it passes. which is itself but a gross reflection on the physical plane of corresponding.3 It is so intense and all-exclusive as to render the lover unconscious of all other objects of knowledge (Vedyāntara-sparśa-Śūnyah). supersensual activities and bliss. are absorbed in Kuṇḍalinī. that lotus opens out and lifts its flower upwards. Goloka. express the subtle Mantra aspect of that which is dissolved in them. Upon Her entrance. Prāṇava. and so forth. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)239 This is the most intense form of physical delight representing on the worldly plane the Supreme Bliss arising from the union of Śiva and Śakti on the "spiritual" plane. the Viśuddha Cakra. This Ādirasa (Śrīngara) which is aroused by Sattva-Guṇa2 is impartite (Akhaṇḍa). are dissolved in the body of Kuṇḍalinī. even the true love-bliss of the mortal world "is known to a few knowers only" (Jneyah kaiścit pramātṛibhih). cited in Commentary to v. the gross is absorbed into the subtle.51). or the love sentiment and bliss. commencing with the gross elements. and all else therein. as the Alaṁkāra Śāstra last cited observes.''1 Similarly. the16 vowels. and the own brother4 of Brahmā-bliss (Brahmāsvādasahodara). and the Deva and Devī residing therein. Siddhakali. so. where Paramaśiva. aided by the physical and other processes described. As Kuṇḍalinī reaches the Svādhiṣṭhāna.5 But as the Brahmā-bliss is known only to the Yogi. By this method of mental concentration. Kuṇḍalinī unites with Paramaśiva. When the Devī leaves the Mūlādhāra. The Śakti next reaches the Anāhata Cakra. Ardha-nārīśvara Śiva. and. the Devas. or sound powers. Brahmā. including the well-known Romāncha or thrill in which the hair stands on end (Pulaka). So Dakṣa. itself being transformed into the Bīja "Ham. When the Devī reaches the MaṇiPūra Cakra or Brahma-granthi. She has thus in Her progress upwards absorbed in Herself the twenty-three Tattvas. the first of the nine Rasas. and enjoys with him the bliss which is Śrīngararasa. which is known as the Knot of Viṣṇu 1 See as to all these Śakti s of the Prāṇava. bliss (Ānanda) whose substance is Cit (Cinmaya). Mātṛikās and Vṛtti. and then into the Devī. Sexual as well as other forms of love are reflections or fragments of the Brahman-bliss." is merged in the body of Kuṇḍalinī. Nāda. enjoys Him (S. says: "The Brahman is to be known by Itself alone. After passing through the Rudragranthi. which by reason of the awakening of Kuṇḍalinī and the vivifying intensity of the Prānik current had opened and turned its flower upwards. Śakini. feels himself in union (Saṅgama) with Śiva. unites with Paramaśiva whose nature is one with Hers. each dissolving into its immediate cause and all into the Ciḍātma or the Ātmā which is Cit. the cause of all Śakti s. are all Sattvik. though more subtle. Rakini. that these . Piercing the concealed Lalanā Cakra. etc. Upon Her entrance. all that is in that Cakra merges in Her. 2 So all the eight Bhāvas commencing with Sveda. By the term Sāmarasya is meant the sense of enjoyment arising from the union (Sāmarasya) of male and female. N. and Vṛttis. She then ascends to the abode of Bharati or Sarasvati. As She proceeds upwards from the two-petalled lotus. Dakinī. Staṁbha. Mātṛikās. where also all which is therein is merged in Her. and then remaining Herself Śakti as consciousness. 1 Svasaṁvedyaṃ etat Brahma kumārī-strī-sukhaṁ yathā. kissing the lotus mouth of Śiva. The Bīja of Air "Yam" is dissolved in ether.On this upward movement. 238 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER (Viṣṇugranthi). Mantra. Savitrī. Viṣṇu. and air converted into its Bīja "Yam" is absorbed in Kuṇḍalinī. Sarasvati. The objection of an Indian friend.

1 Ch. flooding the Kṣudra-Brahmānda. Above the Ājñā the relationship of Guru and Śiṣya (Master and disciple) ceases. 4 Sahodara . 240 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER This union of the Śakti -Kuṇḍalinī with Śiva in the body of the Sādhaka is that coition (Maithuna) of the Sattvika Panchatattva which the Yoginī-Tantra says is "the best of all unions for those who have already controlled their passions. He is the Mahādeva. is dissolved into the next above it until the last element. so Her return is Sṛṣṭikrama. It is then that the Sādhaka. post) says: "They with the eye of knowledge see the stainless Kalā united with Ciḍānanda on Nāda. of which they are Vikṛitis. attributed to Śrī Śaṁkarācārya. and is the effulgent Cause (Bimba-rūpa-niḍāna). In other words. increased power and enjoyment. brothers born of the same mother. which in ambrosial stream runs from the Brahmā-randhra to the Mūlādhāra. the Sādhaka can. the descending Jīvātmā makes for himself the idea of that separated multiple and individualized world which passed from him as he ascended to and became one with the Cause.'' On their union nectar (Amrita) flows.Bhāvas could not be Sattvik inasmuch as Sattva was "spiritual. so also does every part of the body when She has passed through and leaves it.. as She "recreates" or makes them manifest. Kuṇḍalinī having pierced the fourteen "Knots" (Granthis) . In short. follows upon each visit to the Well of Life. In this manner She again reaches the Mūlādhāra. v.. three Liṅga s. and Bliss as the creative Brahman. Kuṇḍalinī). forgetful of all in this world. returns along the path whence She came to Her own abode (Mūlādhāra ).viz." and are thus Yati. v. 5 Sāhitya-Darpana. Suṣumnā). together with the subtle element (Tanmātra) from which it proceeds and the connected organ of sense (Indriya).1 Of this the Bṛhat Śrīkrama (vide S. In this Yoga there is a gradual process of involution of the gross world with its elements into its Cause. 242 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER intense heat.c. entering the royal road (i. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)241 and the five Śivas which they contain. with the Tanmātra sound and Manas.e.. which is the Supreme Being. it is said: "This family woman (i.. and indeed must." is an apt instance of the disassociation from Indian thought effected by English education and the danger of rendering the terms of Sanskrit into English. from the Sahasrāra). etc.246 et seq. Consciousness.. Ahaṁkāra is merged in Mahāt. and the latter into Bindu.1 As She returns She pours from Herself into the Cakras all that She had previously absorbed therefrom. or Samādhi. p. III. embraces the Supreme Husband (Para-Śiva) and makes nectar to flow (i. unaided by his own effort. Sexual-bliss is the reflection (faint comparatively though it be) of formless-Brahman bliss of which it is a form.. 3 It is not a Tāmasik thing such as dream or madness. the lower limbs become as inert and cold as a corpse. the return of Kuṇḍlinī is the setting again of the Jīvātmā in the phenomenal world of the lowest plane of being after he had been raised therefrom in a state of ecstasis. but no special directions are given : for after this Cakra has been pierced. causing all things in the Cakras to pass into the Laya state (dissolution). are dissolved in Egoism (Ahaṁkāra). white like a pure crystal.e. ether.51. Cakras). N. taking rest at intervals in the sacred places (i. Each gross element (Mahā-Bhūta). Refreshment. This is due to the fact that She as the Power which supports the body .that is.e. or abode of Brahman. Maithunam paramam dravyam yatinam parikirtitam. or microcosm. She as Consciousness absorbs what She as conscious Power projected. and satisfying the Devatas of its Cakras. and She is the lovely woman of beauteous limbs which are listless by reason of Her great passion. In fact. As Kuṇḍalinī ascends. VI: Sahasraropari bindau kundalya melanam shive. Oh. as Her passage upwards was Layakrama. is immersed in ineffable bliss. when all that has been already described to be in the Cakras appears in the positions which they occupied before Her awakening. the first manifestation of creative ideation. In the Cintāmaṇi-stava. The Yogi thus knows (because he experiences) the nature and state of Spirit and its pathway to and from the Māyik and embodied world." The Guru's instructions are to go above the Ājñā Cakra. reach the Brahma-sthāna. Kuṇḍalī when aroused is felt as 1 As to the Samaya practice. six Cakras. post. and then Herself drunk of the nectar which issues from Para-Śiva.

so that She only returns by the will of the Sādhaka. for the longer this is done the nearer 1 See MahāNirvāṇa Tantra Ullasa. obviously denoting the passing away of something which supplied the previous heat. The "residual" vital force in this centre there exists in a latent and potential state. and worship Her there. and not rousing Kuṇḍalinī. warmth. or sound-powers. and of course still less is it gained by stirring it up in the Mūlādhāra or fixing it in any of the lower centres. closes both nostrils with Japa done sixty-four times. the upper part of the head becomes "lustrous. 99. indicating that its supporting power has (though not entirely) left it. closing both nostrils.e. and exhalation.as an organic whole is leaving Her centre. belong to the Samaya group. If its aid . In a similar way with the Bīja of water "Vam" the formation of the body is continued. Then. This is the meaning of the statement that the Serpent with its coil closes the gate of Brahmā. or a Yogi operating by meditation only. therefore. and with the Bīja "Lam" of the cohesive Pṛthivī -Tattva it is completed and strengthened. where the ascent and descent are imagined only. vv. when by the preliminary Sādhana purity of physical and mental function is gained. of which She is the Prakṛti aspect.i. During inhalation. They may observe his ecstasis and the coldness of the body. The downward return of the Śakti thus moved is. Those. V. When the Yoga is complete. holding of breath.1 For it is to be observed that liberation is not gained by merely leading Kuṇḍalī to the Sahasrāra. making Japa of the Bīja thirty-two times. meditating upon the red-coloured Bīja "Ram" in the Manipura. Its progression may be seen. inhales. reference may here be made to the Sādhana accompanying the return of Kuṇḍalinī to Her resting-place in the ritual practice called Bhūta-śuddhi." by which is not meant any external lustre (Prabha). If they take the Kuṇḍalinī lower than Hṛdaya .2 Thus. he PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)243 makes Japa of the Bīja sixty-four times. making Japa of the Bīja sixteen times. Also Devī-Bhāgavata. Kuṇḍalī does not at first stay long in Sahasrāra. 98. It is said that after staying in Sahasrāra for a time. on the other hand. and the normal consciousness. it is said. This is done by those who are unable to stay long in Sahasrāra. but brightness. He then inhales through the right nostril with thirty-two Japa. inhales through Iḍā. He next inhales through Iḍā. and then meditates upon the white Candra-Bīja "Thaṁ". Some forms of meditation are given in v. cited. but She Herself exists at the Mūlādhāra or earth centre as a gross aspect of Śakti in its sleeping form. the Yogi sits rigid in the posture selected. The Sādhaka then. who are sceptical can easily verify some of the facts should they be fortunate enough to find a successful Yogi who will let them see him at work. He then thinks of the "black man of sin" (Pāpa-Puruṣa) l in the left2 cavity of the abdomen as being dried up (by the air). and so thinking he exhales through the right nostril Piṅgalā. The return process is one of evolution from the highest state of attainment to the point of departure. For having so completely manifested Herself She rests or sleeps in what is her grossest and concluding manifestation. making Japa of the Bīja sixteen times. The Yogi will use all effort at his disposal to retain Her above. The length of stay depends on the strength of the Yogi's practice. and the only trace of warmth to be found in the whole body is at the crown of the head. with the Mantra "So'hain" ("He I am") the Sādhaka leads the Jīvātmā into its place in the heart. The Sādhaka thinking of the Vāyu Bīja "Yam" as being in the left nostril. indicated by the reappearance of warmth. post. where the Śakti is united with Śiva.51. and animation. Liberation is gained only when Kuṇḍalī takes up Her permanent abode in the Sahasrāra. This is the normal abode of the Śakti who is the Śabdabrahman. making sixteen Japa.. the Sādhaka learns how to open the entrance of the Suṣumnā. Kuṇḍalī in the form of Her creative emanations as mind and matter is the whole moving body. Lastly. some Yogins lead the Kuṇḍalinī back to Hṛdaya (heart). This cold is an external and easily perceptible sign. 2 The worse or weaker side. At the base of the Suṣumnā Nāḍī and in the Ādhāra lotus the Śakti Kuṇḍalinī lies slumbering coiled round the Liṅga. worship Her in the three Cakras below Anāhata they no longer. On the contrary. embodied in their Vaikharī form as lettered sound) dropping from the "Moon". and then doses the nostrils. Ch. the Śiva or Puruṣa aspect in that centre of the Śabda-Brahman. which is not present in the case of what is called the Dhyāna Yogi. There is then a natural tendency (Saṁskāra) on the part of Kuṇḍalī to return. making sixteen Japa of the Bīja. The body seems lifeless. vitality. 244 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER approach is made to the time when She can be in a permanent manner retained there. and exhales through Piṅgalā with thirty-two Japa. Though not dealt with in this work. Whilst making Japa he thinks that the body of the "man of sin" is being burnt and reduced to ashes (by the fire). whore the Bhūtashuddhi process is shortly described. he should consider that a new celestial body is being formed by the nectar (composed of all the Mātṛikā-Varṇa. which is ordinarily closed at the base.

2 As long as She remains in the Mūlādhāra lotus . When the Jīva thinks the world to be different from himself and the Brahman. called the Samayācāra. then becomes the universal consciousness. from which it appeared to be different only by reason of the world-creating activity of Kuṇḍalī which is thus withdrawn.1 Great Power (Siddhi) is had by the man who can keep Kuṇḍalī. and Śuka. cit. 2 Lakṣmīdhara . in fact. The rousing and stirring up of Kuṇḍalī or Kuṇḍalī Yoga is thus a form of that merger of the individual into the universal consciousness or union of the two which is the end of every system of Indian Yoga. She is therefore aroused from sleep. And it is for this reason that man is engrossed in the world. the influence of the Cosmic Śakti . being united with the world-consciousness in Her. 3 Tantra. that of the Paśu asleep. "to shine").that is. In short. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)245 towards Yoga is sought. It is because She is in this state of latent activity that through Her all the outer material world functions of life are being performed by man. This is also the course advocated by the Yoga-Śāstras. 71. 5-10 2 This term is apparently of varying significance. all the while having before his mind's eye the figure of the Murti or God connoted by the Mantra he chants. Pandit R. I. in its creative aspect as Power. the world is for such Jīva dissolved. at the close of which the universe again evolves into those Jivas whose Karma has not been exhausted. The pupil is initiated in the chanting of certain Mantras which he has to repeat a fixed number of times at particular hours of the day. It seems to be used here in a sense opposed to. By a successful development and working of this Śakti . 1 Saundaryalahari. however. The individual consciousness of the Yogi. Tamas is destroyed there. and which with such withdrawal disappears. The establishment through Her of the pure state of Being-Consciousness-Bliss is Samādhi. Here Tapas refers to the process of Prāṇayāma. and who have therefore not been liberated. MaṇḍalaBrāhman a Up. op. Sanatkumāra. or Paramātma. pp. who is but Herself in another aspect. 2 Śāṇḍilya Upaniahad. cited by Ananta Śastri. The most important of these Mantras is said to be the Pañcadaśī. As Śakti it is through Her activity that the world and all beings therein exist. and there reunited with Itself in its other aspect as the Static Light which shines1 in the cerebral centre. Under. it is through the influence of Kuṇḍalinī who dwells within him. Kulācāra..2 is dealt with in five treatises whose reputed authors are the great sages Sanaka. In short. When this individual Śakti manifesting as the individual consciousness (Jīva) is merged in the consciousness of the Supreme Śiva. Hence it is said3 that the Śakti of the initiate is awake. latent activity looking outwards (Bahirmukhī). for the bondage of the ignorant. Kuṇḍalī is the individual bodily representative of the great Cosmic Power (Śakti ) which creates and sustains the universe. Ch. the development of which is the subject of these treatises. the first process must be that by which the Serpent is aroused from its slumber. or Consciousness.namely. V. Ananta Śastri says l that "The Samaya method of worshipping Śakti . Kuṇḍalī-Śakti is Cit. In other words. Her return is. . "(2) By Mantras. which means the regulation of the breath and holding it for stated periods of time. in that state of Hers which is the concomitant of the cosmic appearance -so long must that appearance endure. is. 246 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER appearances. For on Her upward Path She absorbs into Herself all the Tattvas which had emanated from Her. and thus goes round the wheel of life in its unending cycle of births and deaths. and under the lure of Māyā takes his body and egoism to be the real Self. man is in the waking state (Jāgrat). The place where it resides is called the Mūlādhāra (original abode). the liberation of the soul is attained. The first purpose of the practitioners is to awaken this sleeping snake. and is yet used in the Kaula Śāstras to denote their worship with the Pañcatattva. In the ordinary condition Kuṇḍalinī sleeps quietly at the Mūlādhāra. this force is raised from its latent potential state to one of activity. and this is effected in two ways : "(I) By Tapas. PRACTICE (YOGA : LAYA-KRAMA)247 The following is a summary of the teachings contained in these Samaya-Āgamas. Sananda. each of which goes after the name of its author: "The Śakti or energy. Prakṛti-Śakti is in the Mūlādhāra in a state of sleep (Prasuptā) . the universe continues for those who are not liberated until the Great Dissolution (Mahāpralaya). therefore. p. Ch. some forms at least of. when She is asleep. and Liberation (Mukti) is obtained. and when awake returns to Her Lord. or Kuṇḍali. the withdrawal of that activity of Hers which produces the world of 1 For this reason the Sahasrāra is also called Bhāloka (from the root bha. the Jīvātmā. Vaśiṣṭha. Her sleep in the Mūlādhāra.Śakti in the Sahasrāra three days and three nights. is called the Kuṇḍalinī.

248 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "The passage of the Kuṇḍalinī from the Mūlādhāra through the above centres of energy up to Ājñā constitutes the first part of the ascent. Guṇa."When it is thus roused up.1 into which he will be initiated by his Guru (teacher and guide). and each of these has its own quality. or Guṇa. or cosmic planes.the Śakti here is transformed into sound. he passes through the corresponding Lokas. OR COSMIC PLANE Mūlādhāra at the stage when Śakti is roused up Bhuvarloka GUṇA. When the disciple ascends centre by centre. not emanating from the collision of bodies) . the Kuṇḍalinī ascends from (1) Mūlādhāra. (5) Viśuddhi (place of purity) .which is called the ŚrīCakra in Sanskrit. called the (2) Svādhiṣṭhāna (own place). where it was sleeping. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)249 . The Anāhata centre (the heart) is the critical point in the course of this ascent. At this stage the practitioner may be said to have so far been successful in securing a command over this Śakti . a little knowledge). and hence much is found written in the Agamas about this centre. The six centres of energy above enumerated from Mūlādhāra to Ājñā. the six-pointed star . which now appears to him. OR QUALITY PRESIDING DEITY Agni (Fire) 1 Tamas 2 3 4 5 6 Svādhiṣṭhāna Maṇipūra Anāhata Viśuddhi Ājñā Svarloka Mahārloka Janaloka Tapoloka Satyaloka Tamas Rajas Rajas Sattva Sattva Agni (Fire) Sun Sun Moon Moon 1 In this and other citations from the Pandit the English equivalents of Sanskrit term's are unsuitable. The following table gives the correspondences. The disciple who takes to this practice has to undergo a course of Upāsana (contemplation and worship of the prescribed Deity) and Mantra Japa (chanting of incantations). in the form of a Sharp flash of lightning.here it becomes a pure Sattvic element. "These centres in the body of man (Piṇḍāṇḍa) have their correspondence in the cosmic planes. as might be expected in one to whom English is not his own tongue. joined together by imaginary straight lines. to the next higher centre. and Presiding Deity: No PSYCHIC CENTRE IN MAN'S BODY LOKA. Thence with great effort this Śakti is carried to the following centres in regular ascending order: (3) Maṇipūra (full of rays). and (6) Ājñā (ājñā. and a Presiding Deity. though only for a moment. (4) Anāhata (sound. form a double-faced triangle -a hexagon.

In this place live in union the Sat (Sadāśiva) and the Cit. presided over by the Moon. The Kuṇḍalinī which has been led all the way to the Sahasrāra should be merged into this union. They perform all Karmas. The Cit.namely.1 and gain their temporal objects and enjoy. Hence the indication that it is the most difficult and important step in the ascent. Nay.2 The Mishras are far above the Kaulas. In the Sahasrāra there is a certain place of lustre known as Candra Loka (a world of nectar). a man dies after leading the Śakti to the Anāhata . On reaching the Anāhata. and have betaken themselves to practices most inhuman. Pṛthivī. thus. and this union itself is taken to be the twenty-sixth Tattva. It always tends to return. the Kaulas have Nirvāṇa always near at hand. I. they are not liberated from birth and death they do not go beyond this earth. Rajas. they follow the Vāmācāra or black magic.. and to be therefore in the Tamasic stage. is also called Sādākhyā. and Sattva. Therefore the aspirant in the first and second stages is said to have more Tamas than in the succeeding stages. 9 and10. the Śakti should be taken into the Sahasrāra from the Ājñā. The process should again and again be repeated by the aspirant several times. such as the sun. PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)251 Beyond the Mūlādhāra they do not rise. the twenty-fifth and the twenty-fourth Tattvas. which lives in the Mūlādhāra . These two Tattvas are always in union. awake her. worship the Devī or Śakti in the elements. The Sahasrāra (lit. the Deity which is assigned a higher plane than the Sun and Agni. 1A statement by the same author at p. Sadāśiva. and that Tamas. and does return to its original position. so Mūlādhāra ). the twenty-fourth Tattva. it attains the Yoṣit stage (womanhood).12. and the Śakti in that stage is called Pativratā (devoted to husband). In the next two stages he is similarly said to be in the Rajasic stage. The aspirant is then a Jivan-mukta. later on we Shall have to speak of it in detail in our treatment of the second part of the aspirant's ascent. more. the Kaulas worship the Kuṇḍalinī without rousing her from her sleep1 in the Mūlādhāra. and bear no comparison with their common acceptation. He is all joy. presided over by the Sun. This subject is vast and a very difficult one. they think that they have attained their object. and leads the Śakti onwards from the Anāhata. When this is done. See vv. They worship the Kuṇḍalinī. But it is to be noticed that the aspirant does not get at pure Sattva until he passes on to the Sahasrāra. It is not possible for one to go into the intricacies of the subject unless one be a great Guru of vast learning and much personal experience. in his next birth he begins where he has last left.3 . until the Śakti makes a permanent stay with her Pati (husband) . are but relative. So much of Samayācāra. is in the Kumāri (girl) stage. citing Lakṣmīdhara. and becomes Pativratā. or Śuddha-Vidyā. He there says. air. which are far from being divine. this is the end of the aspirant's journey. Ku = earth. "Kuṇḍalinī is the grossest form of the Cit. he is born again having all the advantages of the stages gained.. which is presided over by Agni. referred to in the above table.27. and is the Eternal itself. he now enjoys beatitude itself (Paramānanda). the Kaulas are now so far degraded that they have left off altogether the worship of the Kuṇḍalinī in the Mūlādhāra. and there they stop. Some of the Miśra worshippers rise even as far as the Anāhata. "This aspiration to unify one's soul with the Eternal One has been held by some to be an attempt of a Tamasa origin to rid itself of all Tamas and Rajas in it. In the next two he is in the Sattvic stage. or until the union of Sadāśiva and Cit is complete. as already mentioned. or pure Sattva. The Kaulas who worship Kuṇḍalinī in the Mūlādhāra have no other aim than awakening it from its sleep. 250 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The description of this place in Sanskrit is too difficult to be rendered satisfactorily into English. "We learn from the Commentators that this whole subject of Śakti-worship is treated of in detail in the 'Taittirīya Āraṇyaka' (1st chapter). "The second part of the ascent of Kuṇḍalinī consists of only one step. etc. and do Upāsana with Yantras made of gold or other metals. See Taittirīyāraṇyaka . the 16th Kalā of the moon. and hence Kaulas (Sans. It is this union of Sat and Cit that is the goal of the aspirant. In their own words. Some of them even quote from that 'Āraṇyaka' in support of their explanations. where we left her. This Kuṇḍalinī. and attempt to lead her on. as soon as it is awakened. "But this Kuṇḍalinī does not stay in the Sahasrāra for a long time. which is called Kula. "Now to the other methods of Śākta worship. a thousand-petalled lotus) forms in itself a Śrī-Cakra . 75 is in apparent contradiction with this."If one should die after attaining any of these stages. He is not conscious of this material limitation of the soul. The next stage is in the Sahasrāra. of which we Shall speak hereafter.

and Śakti Bhairavī. and an opponent of the Kaulas. (3) both together perform the function of creating the universe. 3 Here I whole-heartedly agree with my distinguished friend the Paṇḍit. "Similarly for other Cakras mentioned in the preceding Ślokas. as the Mahākāla-Saṁhitā says (Ullāsa II). If (as is probably the case) "inhuman" is the Pandit's phraseology. which is the locality where the ever-existing 26th Tattva -the union of Śiva and Śakti . Śiva and Śakti (1) have Mūlādhāra for their seat. 2 The Pandit here apparently adopts the opinion of Lakṣmīdhara. There may have been. It lies above all the 25 Tattvas." l "The followers of the Samaya group are prohibited from worshipping Devī in the Macrocosm. (2) occupying the same position (Avaṣṭhāna. in worshipping Devī in the Ādhāra-Cakra. some Kaulas who.resides. But to state baldly that Kaulas as a whole do not rouse Kuṇḍalinī and lead her to the Sahasrāra is incorrect. 8 -13. pp. or worship in the external world. like the Vaidikas. there are two ways of realizing it. (5) Śiva is called Bhairava. He should contemplate on the said union and identify himself with it. . Ānandalaharī. (4) both are red in colour. 252 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER great works have been written on even single points in the ascent of the aspirant up the psychic centres." the nearest Sanskrit equivalent for which is Abhicāra. They should worship Her in any of the Cakras in the human body. and the whole object of the work is to secure Liberation (Mokṣa). This shows that those who carry on Bāhya-Pūja. do not belong to the Samaya School. Pūrṇānanda-Swāmi. But there have been different communities with very differing views and practice. and is situated in Candra-maṇḍala (the sphere of the moon) in Sahasrāra. Thus.1 Vāmācāra is not "black magic. Advanced students worship Devī in the Sahasrāra. it is inapt. a Brahma Kaula and a Kāpālika. (2) both of them occupy the position of dancers. How is the worship to be carried on in Sahasrāra? "The worshipper should fix his attention on Baindava. was himself a Kaula. (4) having the same form (Rūpa).sāmya).g. This is the way how beginners have to practise. and (5) as having the same name (Nāma ). See as to the rituals to which the Pandit refers "Śakti and Śākta" (Secret Ritual). As regards the identification of oneself with the union of Śiva and Śakti at Baindava just spoken of. one is known as the fourfold path. (3) performing the same functions (Anuṣṭhāna-sāmya). sought enjoyment in this and the next world. and not Liberation (Aihikārthaṁ kāmayanti amṛte ratiṁ na kurvanti). choosing that centre which their practice and ability permits them to reach. and not in the lower centres. and the 1 See his edition.. They should contemplate on Devī and Her Lord Śiva as (1) having the same abode (Adhiṣṭhāna-sāmya). e. the author of the text here translated. a follower of the so-called Samaya School.

. the mildest form of Vairāgya being the mark of the first or MantraYoga and the greatest degree of detachment being the mark of the highest Yoga or Rāja-Yoga. Pratyādhi-devatā.2 There are. going up suddenly to Maṇipūra. This statement is not at variance with the teaching contained in this book. the metre is that in which it was first uttered by Śiva."1 The last. the aspirant feels Brahmānanda (Brahmā bliss). "A novitiate in the SamayaSchool has to go the following course: "(1) He should cherish the utmost regard for and confidence in his Guru. and so on. and never returns. Mantrādhi-devatā. 3 This. Thence he has to take Her slowly to the higher Cakras one after another. for the Sūrya-maṇḍala referred to applies to the Piṇḍāṇḍa (microcosm). if there be a veil. and what is it? 254 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER continue the process until She is joined for ever with Sada-Śiva in the Sahasrāra. 2 Śiva initiates him in the knowledge of Brahman. and not to Brahmāṇḍa (macrocosm). within. unless it perfects into the second kind. when the latter will be pleased to initiate him in some Mantra and the real nature of the six Cakras and of the sixfold path of identification." PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)255 the world and in which therefore there is no return thereto but eternal unity with Brahman. Śiva is considered the Teacher of the Spiritual Gurus (Ādinātha). "'Subhagodaya' and other famous works on Śrīvidyā say that the practitioner should concentrate his mind on Devī who resides in SūryaMaṇḍala (the sun's disc). Varṇādhi-devata. becomes visible to the devotee-practitioner. and enjoys with Him. When the Ājñā Cakra is crossed. (2) He should receive the Pañcadaṣī Mantra from his Guru.PRACTICE (YOGA: LAYA-KRAMA)253 other the sixfold path. Another mark of distinction is the prominence given to the mental side. The first three kinds of Yoga prepare the way for the fourth. it is said. This is not so in the Samādhi of Rāja Yoga in which there is not the slightest seed of attachment to 1 Comm. "The process heretofore described and others of a similar nature are always kept secret. on Ānandalaharī. and chant (repeat) the same according to instructions. and there performs the prescribed worship. By means of Mantra. and enters the Island of Gems surrounded by the Kalpa trees in the Ocean of Nectar. as well as some other details of this description. four states of detachment (Vairāgya) from the world3 corresponding to the four Yogas. Even if any of the Samaya practitioners have some worldly expectations. pp. Mahā-navamī. there is a return to the world and its experience. It is through Rāja Yoga alone that he can attain to Nirvikalpa-Samādhi. and the Deity (Devatā). All Yoga is concerned with mental practices but this is more specially so of Rāja-Yoga which has been described4 as the discrimination of the real from the unreal. Thus. Ādhi-devatā. In the Samādhi of Laya-Yoga described in this book the Yogi has no outer consciousness and is also immersed in the Ocean of Bliss. yet the commentator says he has. "The practitioner should now wait outside the veil3 until Kuṇḍalinī returns to Her own place. Then the Kuṇḍalinī awakes. Who is waiting outside the veil? The Jīva is. all the verses advocating outer worship are to be applied to the corresponding objects in the Piṇḍāṇḍa. "After he is thus qualified. metre (Chandas). and the Devatā is the Artha of the Mantra as Śabda. if he has no other expectation.. .' one of the five Saṁhitās of the Samaya group. and She will appear to him more and more clearly. I do not follow. The former Samādhi or Ecstasy is one in which. they must still worship in the microcosm only. he should at midnight prostrate himself at his Guru's feet. unites with Sadāśiva there.1 In the Samādhi of Mantra-Yoga the state of Mahābhāva is attained marked by immobility and speechlessness. out of compassion towards his disciples. "Even in the mere expectation of the return of Kuṇḍalinī from Sahasrāra. on the case stated. that is the infinite and enduring from the finite and transient by reasoning with the help of the Upaniṣads and the recognized systems of Philosophy. In the Samādhi of Haṭha-Yoga respiration ceases and to outward experience the Yogi is without sign of animation and like a corpse. the Kuṇḍalinī quickly darts away like a flash of lightning to Sahasrāra.1 (3) On the eighth day in the bright fortnight of Āśvayuja month. He who has once taken Kuṇḍalinī to Sahasrāra is led to desire nothing but Mokṣa (Liberation).. with a knowledge of its seer (Ṛṣi). The Samādhi of Rāja-Yoga is complete (Cit-Svarūpa-Bhāva) and final (Nirvikalpa) Liberation. Similarly. and.75-77 ending with: "For full particulars of these principles vide 'Śuka Saṁhitā. The Artha is fivefold as Devatā. Lord Mahādeva2 gives him the knowledge or capacity to see his inner soul. and on Her return 1 The Rishi of the Mantra is he to whom it was first revealed. given here an outline of the method. These should be learnt from the Guru. Haṭha and Laya-Yoga the practitioner by gradual attainment of purity becomes fit for Savikalpa-Samādhi. highest and most difficult form of Yoga is Rāja-Yoga.

by Swami Dayānanda. is to be found in other Sastras than the Tantras.207. whilst engaged in this work. and others appear to do so.2 It is obvious that if we understand the Bhuta-suddhi to here mean the Yoga practice described.20. There are seven varieties of Vicāra (reasoning) in seven planes of knowledge (Bhūmika) called Jñānada. again. This. Līlonmukti. viz. 4 Ibid. as a form of worship the Sādhaka may. It is the exercise of Reason by the morally pure and intellectually great under the conditions and subject to the discipline above described with Vairāgya or Renunciation.The English reader must not however identify it with mere philosophising. Nāmapara..5. Adhimātra (high degree when worldly enjoyment even becomes a source of pain). published by Śrī-Bhārata-Dharma Mahāmaṇḍala. 3 Rāja-Yoga.1 By exercise therein the Raja-Yogi gradually effectively practises the two kinds of Dhāraṇā. preserver and dissolver of all this as the Lord (Īśvara) and the supreme aspect beyond that is Saccidānanda. for the literature relating to Kuṇḍalinī and Laya-Yoga is very great. 1 It will. There are four forms of Samādhi. 1. next mentioned. The following review does not profess to be exhaustive.. Tanumānasā. Padārthābhāvini. its subtle aspect as the creator. discernment). There are three aspects of Brahman. Yogadā.. clearly establish that this doctrine concerning the Cakras. or portions of it. Some references kindly supplied to me by Mahamahopadhyaya Adityarama Bhattacarya have also been inserted. viz. Rāja-Yoga lays down different modes of Dhyāna for the three aspects. Ānandapadā and Parātparā. by Dayānanda Swāmī. Sattāpatti. Guṇapara. VII THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA THIS Yoga has been widely affirmed. Śakti para. though the references in some cases are so curt that it is not always possible to say whether they are dealing with the matter in the same Yoga-sense as the work here translated or as forms of worship (Upasana). Satpadā. Rāja-Yoga comprises sixteen divisions. It is to be noted in this connection that Bhuta-suddhi is a rite which is considered to be a necessary preliminary to the worship of a Deva. Madhyama (middling). with the exception of the Yogi expert in this Yoga.3 Of the four Samādhis won by these exercises. Vividiṣa or Subhecchā.. 1 Similarly there are seven Bhūmikās or planes of Karma.. 4 The mass of Karma Saṁskāras in their seed (Bīja) state. In this ordinary daily Bhuta-suddhi. then. therefore. Vicāranā. vague and weak). 2 Ibid. Further.4 In the general view it is only by Rāja Yoga that this Nirvikalpa Samādhi is attained. there is still a subtle connection with the conscious working or the power of Vicāra (reasoning. 256 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER or Reason holds full sway. no one would be competent for worship at all. Rūpapara. There are many others. however. Svarūpapara. For it is only the accomplished (Siddha) Yogi who can really take Kuṇḍalinī to the Sahasrara. Vibhūtipara. There are three kinds of Dhyāna whereby the power of self-realization (Ātmapratyakṣa) is produced. In the man of Knowledge (Jñānī). 3 Mṛdu (intermittent.. the process is purely a mental or imaginary one. Sannyāsadā. but includes merely a short reference to some of the Upanisads and Purāṇas which have come under my notice. \ 258 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER and does. Buddhi 1 Rāja-Yoga. 2 See p. and not Yoga. Asamśakti . and therefore forms part of worship or Upasana. viz.. but the last two are without this or Nirvicāra. Some of the Sastras however. is a part of Upasana. Prakṛtyāśraya and Brahmāśraya dependent on Nature or Brahman respectively. Turyagā and also seven planes of Worship (Upāsanā Bhūmikā). Parā (highest when the mind is turned completely from worldly objects and cannot be brought back to them under any circumstances). adore his Iṣṭa-devatā in various parts of his body. ante. Bhāvapara.19. and of which I kept a note. 2 See Taranga I of the Mantramahodadhi: Devarca-yogyata-praptyai bhitta-suddhim samacaret. Benares. . Its gross aspect as immanent in the universe known as the Viṛāṭ-Puruṣa. in the two first or Savicāra.19. clearly refer to the Yoga process.2 viz. On reaching this fourth state the Raja-Yogi attains Liberation even when living in the body (Jīvan-mukta) and is severed from the Karmāśraya.

" which. ears. with which are associated certain Vrttis. places (Sthana) "where the four quarters of the Brahman shine". throat (Kantha). describes himself as "one whose sole support is Sruti" 2 (Narayanena srutimatropajivina). they. 2 P. like every other Indian Sastra. The Commentator Narayana says that the Vrtti of the petals are given in the Adhyatma-viveka which assigns them to the various lotuses. badness or cruelty (Krūra-mati). The Upaniṣad directs that with Puraka meditation should be done in the navel on the Great Powerful One (Maha-vira) with four arms and of the . In the passage cited from the Hamsopanisad. waking. the external senses are withdrawn. The Upaniṣad (§ 4) mentions by their names the six Cakras. 71 (January. in the pericarp the sleeping state (Svapna). or a number of these. Thus. 2 The Tantra. as the ancient Aitareya-Aranyaka says. and "up breathing" through one of these Nadis. • with the North-Western. III.R. Reference is also made to the 72. we find reference to the four states of consciousness. As already stated. The 'Commentator Narayana says that the Brahmopanisad. 2 "is Brahman ". 7.. with the South-Western. p. Thus. and the like. 1 For some references from the older Upanisads. the Susumna itself is referred to in the Siva-samhita as the Brahmarandhra. and by the practice of the tenth kind of Nada the Brahmapada is said to be attained. The Brahma-Upaniṣad 1 mentions in v. 3). see an article by Professor Rhys Davids in J. until in dreamless sleep (Susupti). p. manual appropriation of things (Dravyagrahana)4. These to some extent probably involve the acceptance of other elements of doctrine not expressly stated. 4 Lit. With the Eastern petal is associated virtuous inclination (Punye matih). 6. and the mind is spoken of as the "tenth door" the other nine apertures being the eyes. In the filaments is the waking state (Jagradavastha). self-controlled (Danta) and devoted to the Guru (Guru-bhakta). such as perspiration. through which alone the Prana passes to the Brahma-randhra. other Vrttis is tentative.000 Nadis . attachment and pleasurable contentment (Rati and Priti). and so forth. 260 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER dreamless slumber (Susupti). Into it. XXX. Above the lotus is "'the place without support" (Niralamba-pradesa). which is the Turiya state. with the Western. the four sheaths. heart (Hrdaya).In what are called the earliest Upanisads. precise meaning or to find an English equivalent. Jiva) is stated to be in the eight-petalled lotus below Anahata 3 (§ 7) where the Ista-devata is worshipped. in the Indian schools the heart was considered to be the seat of the waking consciousness. sinful inclination (Pape manisa). 593. "taking of things". There are eight petals. and with the North-Eastern petal. the eight-petalled lotus is in the region of the heart (Hrd) in the body. and to the cavity of the heart as a "soul" centre.Tilaka. apparently. the Kuṇḍalinī -Yoga. and so forth. 3 This lotus is commonly confused with the Anahata. It is not easy in every case to understand the . appear to be collected in the centre of meditation upon the Ista-devata. 1899) "Theory of Soul in Upanisads ". • THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 259 The Harhsa Upaniṣad 1 opens with the statement that the knowledge therein contained should be communicated only to the Brahmacari of peaceful mind (Santa).A. the reference to the Brahmarandhra and the "one nerve" imply the cerebro-spinal axis with its Susumna. who cites amongst other works the Tantrik Compendium the Sarada. as also the method of raising of Vayu from the MulĀdhāra--that is. indicates that they are the centres from which the Brahman may (according to the method there prescribed) be attained. various inferior or bad qualities (Krida). The latter is a Cakra in the spinal column. See also my "Principles of Tantra. The translation of this and some of the . for which reason. Vol. in the stalk the state of 1 Upanisadam Samuccayah: Anandasrama Series. with the Northern.2 Reference is made to the lotuses at these four places." referring amongst others to Prasna Upanisad. with the South-Eastern.S. The Dhyanabindu-Upaniṣad 3 refers to the hearing of the Anahata sounds by the Yogi (v. and contracts in sleep. intention in movement or action (Gamanadau 'buddhih). and head (Murdha). In § 9 ten kinds of sound (Nada) are mentioned which have definite physical effects. it also is withdrawn. claims to be based on Veda. The Hamsa (that is. nostrils. shaking. 2 the navel (Nabhi). with the Southern. by the mention of these four. Liberation is finally effected by "knowledge. sleep (Nidra) and laziness (Ālasya). The heart expands during waking.. In the centre of this lotus is dispassion (Vairagya). though the representative faculty is awake. 1 mention is made of certain matters which are more explicitly described in such as are said by Western orientalists to be of later date. the entry and exit of the Prana through the Brahma-randhra (above the foramen of Monro and the middle commissure). 236 (edited by Arthur Barriedale Keith) of "Anecdota Oxoniensia ". during dreaming sleep (Svapna). the Commentator. Narayana.

8 Ibid. can "be served by Dhyana-Yoga" (ib. XXIX. and the latter speaks of the closing of the "inner door. Vol. by Kuṇḍalinī entering the Brahma-dvara). THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 261 lotuses has eight petals. and Haṭha processes are referred to. 2 and Yoga-sikha Upaniṣad 3 refer to Hatha-yoga. see pp. in the eight-petalled lotus the eight-lettered Mantra of Narayana.. For. and Fire.. and thirty-two petals respectively. Ajna (vv. taking the Bīja from it.. as above explained. XXX. The lowest of these 1 Anandasrama Series. twelve. 262. and of Ida. the second lotus should be one of ten petals.): Verse 8 directs the Sādhaka "to get into the white and very subtle Nada (Qaere Nadi) and to drive Prana-Vayu through it" . and in Sattva Acyuta). p. and Fire (each of these being within the other. Moon. 441. and. For in the six-petalled lotus is the six-lettered Mantra of Sudarsana . 25 that Prana and Manas go along the way the Yogi sees (paśyati). Kumbhaka. The Amrtanada. 71 deals generally with Yoga. Moon. for v. which.colour of the hemp flower (i. 262 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER sixteen. 8. The sixth chapter of the Maitri-Upaniṣad 1 speaks of the Nadis. remarks that Kuṇḍalī should be heated by the internal fire and then placed inside the Brahma-nadi. Visnu). see p. p. 8 Ibid. He also gives some Haṭha processes. and Sun. All these. with Kumbhaka meditate in the heart on the red Brahma seated on a lotus. 9-12). XXIX. Both the Yoga-tattva-Upanisad. and then on Sun.. speaks of the Sudarsana (which is apparently here the MulĀdhāra) changing into lotuses of six. p. Vol. and so forth. Sattva in Fire. Dvarapuja. 450. eight. The Commentator Narayana on v.000 Nadis. p. 15). goes to Moon. and Puraka. and in the twelve-petalled lotus the twelve-lettered Mantra of Vasudeva. taking this to be the Svadhisthana. is the purification of the elements 1 Vol. p. meditation is directed on a hundred lotuses with a hundred petals each. Apparently this divergence is due to the fact that this is the number of letters in the Mantra assigned to this lotus. and expressly mentions Bhuta-suddhi. p. 2. the second has its headdownwards.Upaniṣad 1 refers to the five elements and above them Ardha-matra--that is. 145. in the sixteen-petalled lotus are the sixteen Kalas (here vowels) sounded with Bindu or Anusvara. Recaka. . 61. 13. and the third.. 483. p. 2 Same edition. The Nrsimha-purvatapaniya Upaniṣad 3 in Ch. 485. The elements here are those in the Cakras. 477. As is the case ordinarily. 458 and 460. 2 Ibid. The Amrta-bindu-Upaniṣad at p. The thirty-two-petalled lotus (Ajna) is really twopetalled because there are two Mantras here (each of sixteen letters) of Nrsimha and His Śakti . such as Asana. 2 It will be observed that the two lower Tamasie centres are not here mentioned. The Rama-tapaniya-Upaniṣad 4 refers to various Yoga and Tantrik processes. Pingala and Susumna (vv. 31). it is said. ·1 Op. which is compounded of all the Devatas (Sarvadevamaya). which is another name for Unmani. and with Recaka think of the three-eyed one (Rudra) in the forehead. 26 speaks of the heart entrance as the aerial entrance (for the Vayu-Tattva is here). the piercing of the Mandalas Sun. for which purpose the Jalandhara-Bandha should be employed. which the Commentator says refers to the way Prana enters (and departs " from) MulĀdhāra. 325. It is stated in v.. cit. is like a plantain flower (vv. V. The Ksurika-Upaniṣad 2 speaks of the 72. In v. 14. 3 Anandasrama Edition. and in particular of the Susumna . 451.e. and as to the passage of Kuṇḍalinī through the Brahma-dvara. Vol. 43. XXIX of same edition. v. XXIX. 345. Vol. 30. Fire. with the exception of Susumna. and the piercing of the Sun. and of Amana." the opening of the gateway of Susumna (that is. is the gate of Liberation (Moksa-dvara). Above this. Pitha-puja. This corresponds with the number of petals as given in this work except as to the second. It is Atma which rouses the lotus.

XXIX. it passes out by the Brahma-randhra. if tradition be correct. XI. III of my "Tantrik Texts ". in whose Maths may be found the great Tantrlk Yantra called the Sri Cakra. and by the space between the eyebrows is meant the Ajna Cakra. Samkara. where Sri-Cakra is mentioned). Anantakrsna-Sastri says: 1 "'Many a great man has successfully worked the Kuṇḍalinī to the Sahasrara. the names of which are given by the Commentator. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 263 in the Cakras. which reads very much like another which is given in the Prapancasara-Tantra." The famous hymn called Anandalahari (" Wave of Bliss "). and Ajna centres the body of the Sādhaka is refreshed by the flow of nectar. ending with Mahat in Prakrti. but for the benefit of men He resides in the body with Uma. as also the fruit to be gained by worshipping the Devata in each Cakra. after having placed Prana between the two eyebrows (see v. Finally. the Varaha and Yoga-Kuṇḍalinī -Upanisads of the KrsnaYajurveda. by the aid of Kuṇḍalinī . the Yogi reaches the lustrous light-giving Purusa. 35. uniting Jiva therewith by the Hamsa-Mantra. LXXV. and the conquest of Bhumi and the rest is done by following the path indicated by the Guru. see also ib. Bhuta-suddhi . VIII of the Bhagavad-Gita: "First the heart lotus (Anahata) is brought under control. XI. Vol. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 265 Pandit R. Allusion is also made to the destruction of the" man of sin" (Papapurusa). Part I. etc. in terms similar to those to be found in the Maha-nirvana and other Tantras. Narayanasvami Aiyar (Theosophical Society of Madras.." On this the Tika of Anandagiri runs: "By the Susumna-Nadi between Ida and Pingala.bala) Prana must be led along the Susumna. XXXV." by K.2 Linga-Purāṇa . 2 See Ch. Vol. which is ascribed to Samkara. Ṣaṭcakra-nirupana). and Mantras. By conquering earth (Bhumi) is meant the process by which the five Bhutas are controlled. and it and the other Mandalas are described in the manner here stated. heart. 38. p. the rousing of Kuṇḍalinī (who is called the Para-devata) in the Mūlādhāra by the manner here described. says in his Commentary on vv. an adverse critic of this Yoga whom I cite later invokes the authority of the great Samkara.) and by the upward going Nadi (Susumna)." Sridhara-Svami says: "By the power of Yoga (Yoga. mentions the Cakras with their different petals.nandagiri's Samkaravijaya and Madhava's Samkaravijaya (Ch. by conquering Bhumi (MulĀdhāra.1 The great Devi-bhagavata-Purāṇa (VII. 1914). 520. either as an imaginative or real process. I have already cited in the Notes numerous passages on this Yoga from the Sandilya. Śiva is Nirguna. Maya in Atma. deals with this Yoga (Ṣaṭcakrabheda) . which is replete with Tantrik rituals. Chapter XXIII of the Agni-Purāṇa . magic. it is against him. and in the thirteenth chapter of Vidyaranya's Samkara-vijaya the six lotuses are mentioned. also refers to the Bhutasuddhi rite wherein. 264 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER respective Bīja-Mantras on the navel. and Yogis meditate upon Him in the different lotuses.4 Anandasrama Edition.Upaniṣad of the Atharva-veda. 9 and 10 of Ch. A remarkable Dhyana of PranaŚakti is to be found in this chapter. Then. the dissolution of the gross Tattvas into the subtle Tattvas. after meditation with the 1 These Yoga-Upanisads have been recently translated as part of "Thirty Minor Upanisads. The throat is reached by the same way-the space between the eyebrows." And Madhusudana Sarasvati says: "The upward-going Nadi is Susumna. 8)' mentions in a full account the Six Cakras or Lotuses. and the Jiva becomes one with the Purusa. though in fact. The Bījas of Prthivi and other Tattvas are given. and the Nada-bindu-Upaniṣad of the Rgveda. By placing Prana there. The Dhara-mandala is mentioned. it says. Ch.1 1 See also A. the Mandala-Brahmana-Upaniṣad of the SuklaYajurveda. and effected her union with .

and with reason. 266 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER according to Sudha-vidyotini and others only the following slokas constitute the text of 'Ananda-Lahari': 1-2.' it contains forty and-one slokas. I have had access to all of them. . 26-27. 10-11.. 18.1 Various commentaries are followed in various places but few have risen to be universally accepted. 2 He seems to be adverse to the Uttara or Northern Kaula School. application for the third Purusartha or Kama (desire). some recognize only 30. The commentaries are not entirely different. etc. In my opinion. 2 his views are broad and liberal. He sides with no party. Of these stands foremost the great and far-famed Samkaracarya. 14-21. Other commentaries advocate this or that aspect of the various philosophical schools. All schools of philosophers are represented in his commentaries. "As has been remarked already. the illustrations he adduces 1 Thus.' Ananda-Lahari' is but an enlargement of the work called Subhagodaya by Gaudapada." Only a few of these Prayogas are recognized by all the commentators. -A. Laksmidhara has also commented on many other works on Mantra-Sastra. According to some commentators the slokas are 35 in number. And adding his own personal experience to the above advantages. the author of the well-known 'Subhagodaya' (52 slokas). too. He has also written an elaborate commentary on Gaudapada's Subhagodaya." pp. Some hold that Śiva is the real author of 'Ananda-Lahari. ―‘Ananda-Lahari' may be said to contain the quintessence of the Samayacara. 8-9.A. But here I have followed only one of them.the Sat and Cit. and 1 "Saundaryalahari. but each has its own peculiar views and theories. also. without any of the characteristic admixture of illustrations. above noticed. but Laksmidhara collates some of the views of others. consisting of 100 slokas. the first forty-one of these forming the 'Ananda-Lahari. and records them side by side with his own. yet in spite of this it is the most popular. he composed his famous work on the Mantra-sastra. the last statement seems to be correct. It comes from an ancient family in . 19 are said to treat of Madana-prayoga-that is. one who realized the process and gave it to the world. "There are only three or four works treating of Prayoga (application). The references to that in the commentary to this work.' and not Samkaracarya. "Of all the commentaries on 'Ananda-Lahari' Laksmidhara's seems to be the most recent. Lengthy commentaries are written on almost every syllable of the text. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 267 smack invariably of the South. "Acyutananda's commentaries are in Bengali characters. and is consequently of much high repute. Sri Samkaracarya received special instructions based upon the personal experience of his Guru. That work gives only the main points. the latter apostrophizes the Devi as a being who is beauteous from head to foot. while the rest are passed over as being entirely Karmic. 10-15. a humble pupil of one of the students of Gaudapadacarya.' and the rest forming the Saundarya-Lahari '. and are followed as authority in Bengal even to this day. His commentary is in this way the most elaborate. Among them we find one written by our great Appaya-Diksita. vv. as being the most prominent and important. No less than thirty-and-six commentaries on this work are now extant. who was but a Mantra-drasta or RSI. So his commentaries are as valuable to both ' Ananda-Lahari' and ' Saundarya-Lahari' as Sayana's are to the Vedas. and even to this day his views are more followed in the South than in the North. the observances and customs he describes all point to this conclusion. The value attached to the work may be adequately understood by the following theory. The work is all the more valuable because the author teaches it from personal experience. lead to the inference that the author had for his life-work the commentary on the original book. as the other slokas treat only of Prayogas (applications of Mantras) for worldly purposes. and the commentator's apology here and there for repeating what he has written on the former occasion. 31-41. Having well acquainted himself with the principles contained in this work. "As for the text of 'Ananda-Lahari. 13. who is the Guru of the author's Guru. "Laksmidhara seems to have been an inhabitant of Southern India.

By Mahadeva-vidya-vagtsa. 3. Gauri-kanta-satvabhauma-bhattacaryagranthas about 1. 31. It contains 100 slokas.' by Gangahari. 268 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER of Vallabhacarya---sloka about 1.' This is popular in the Bengal Presidency. and. the (father) should lose his kingdom. Pravarasena.500.' by Kaivalyasrama. "The following is a list of commentaries written upon Ananda-Lahari '. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 269 well known to the public. 17. The Yantras (figures) for the Mantras contained in the slokas. are clearly described in it to the minutest detail. . "There seems to be some mystical connection between '. many more commentaries there are upon this hymn." . By Srirangadasa. By Gopiramanatarkapravacana---granthas about 1. lest he.' Perhaps this may be the same as No. 33. some of them include' Saundarya-Lahari' also: "1.Conjeevaram. nor has any of the Prayoga Karras 3 explained the same. This commentator says that the author of this famous hymn was his father. his son. threw him out in the forest.000 granthas. 20. This is very rare and important. Though some commentators have given different meanings to some of the verses. the father of Pravarasena. 'Tattva-dipika. and similar prescriptions. author of the Ṣaṭcakra-nirupana. the different postures . of the worshipper. 2 Bīja or root-mantra.College Library). It contains about 2. By GangĀdhāra. 10. 19. with much difficulty. 13. though She is like a filament of the lotus. 16. he says that the god Mahadeva specially incarnated as Samkaracarya to promulgate the Science of Sri-vidya. . 24. 28. 14. Another Commentary. By Jagannatha-Pancanana.A. "Besides the above commentaries.A.' by Brahmananda I-granthas about 1. He tells us a story in connection with PravaraSena's birth which is very peculiar. By Srikantha-bhatta. . This has been brought out excellently in Deva Nagara type by the Mysore Government lately. pleased with it. each sloka and its Bījaksara.-A. By Ramananda-tirtha. the present commentator. By Ramacandra-granthas about 3.' by Krsnacarya. 11. By Kaviraja-sarman---about 3. 23. by name Suka. He seems to give the Yantra also for each verse. 'Manju-bhasini. 2.-A. The Adyar Library has a copy of it. a small Commentary based on Tantra-Sastra. A commentary by Appaya-Diksita (Tanjore Palace Library). the son 1 I have followed this commentary also in my" Wave of Bliss ". the Devi fostered and took' care of him in the forest.' and seems to be a valuable relic of occult literature.000 (Deccan College Library).700. C Bhavarthadlpa. This is popular throughout India. The account. By Acyutananda (printed in Bengali characters). It gives the esoteric meaning of the verses in 'Ananda-Lahari. 27. By Madhavavaidya (Deccan College Library). Madras). 32. by the son of Pravarasena. Sri-vidya. 21. each sloka being applicable to Devi and Visnu at the same time. 6. 'Visnu paksi. . Seems to be of recent origin. 29. By Govinda. The chief peculiarity of this commentary is that it explains the text in two different ways.Tarka-vagiSa-Bhattacarya-granthas 600. 9. By Jagadisa. 22. The story ends by saying that the boy returned to his father's dominion and became King.000 (Deccan College Library). Dramida.000 granthas (Deccan. 7. Brahmananda was the author of the celebrated Sāktānanda-tarangini. 12. we do not know how . As he was born in an inauspicious hour. I got from South Malabar. By Ramacandra-Misra---granthas about 1. of the same as we require from different places.A. and needs no comment. The book of Yantras with Prayoga. Madras).2 But it is not intelligible. yet all of them apply to the different aspects of Devi alone. He says in his Introduction that Srl-Saṁkaracarya praised the Brahma-Śakti called Kuṇḍalinī when he was meditating on the banks of the Ganges. Rama-Suri.A. 'Manorama' a Commentary. Prince of the Dramidas. Laksmidhara's . Another nameless Commentary (Government Oriental Library. 8. who creates innumerable worlds continuously. '4. 3 Those writers who deal with the practical application. 25.) 26. 18. and who resides at the root of the tree (MulĀdhāra) to be roused and led (to Sahasrara). 30. appears to be rather fantastic. so we can get as many MSS. By Narasirhha---granthas 1.400. 15.-A. By Dindima (Adyar Library. By Mallabhatta. in consultation with his wise minister. after being fully initiated into this mystic Sastra. Sudha-vidyotini. SadaŚiva (Government Oriental Library. however. This MS. By his command. By Visvarhbhara.700. which is 1 This is the celebrated Bengali Parama-hamsa guru of Purnanandasvami. and not to the different Devatas. called "Saubhagyavardhani. Further. The child praised Devi by this hymn. Of recent origin. He gives the purport of this work in his first sloka: 'I praise constantly the Kuṇḍalinī . 11 given below. 5. By Kesava-bhatta.-A. wrote Sudha-vidyotini.300.

or outer. respectively. 3 and the third. eight spokes. [2] "Now. Tannah. each Cakra has three divisions-inner. Krodha-daivata (Bījas). what is the middle circle? There are six such. as would appear from the following account. To each of these belong Nārasiṁhāya. [1] 1 Sarveṣām prāninām shirasi amṛtam asti iti yogamārgena kuṇḍalinīgamane tatratya tatpravāhāplutena yoginārn Īśarasāmyam jāyate iti yogaśāstreṣu prasiddham (Comm. . 6 Sakalaloka-rakṣaṇa-cakra. seven. ed.2 Apparently reference is here made to cosmic centres in the worship of the Visnu Avatara called Nṛsiṁha. His Śakti (in Sucakra). the following Bījas: Ksauṁ (in Ācakra). Siṁhah pracodayāt. tannah siṁhah pracodayāt. and Hūṁ (in Asurāntaka-Cakra). coming to Śatyaloka. Now. 5 Good. Oṁ (in DyuCakra)." 1 The Cakras. 7 The Cakra which by the Śaktis of ]ñāna and Kriyā protects all regions (Loka). May that man-lion direct us. or liars. may we meditate on his Vajra-like claws. To conclude with the words of the Commentator on the Triśatī . 2 The root Mantra. . Klīm (in Sakalaloka-rakṣaṇa-Cakra). middle. in the self of Ānanda (bliss). 4 Ānandātmaka. the fourth. Aim (in Mahā-Cakra). to each of them is assigned the several parts of the Nārasiṁha-gāyatri above-mentioned. 6 Lustrous (Tejomaya). and outer. 1). the third. these are the Nārasiṁha. Kāmadeva. the fourth is Māyātmā or Sakala-loka-rakṣaṇa-Cakra. These six are the Nārasiṁha Cakras. what are their names (that is what you ask). Now. the Mantra. Now. (May we contemplate on Nārasiṁha. 2 the second.) 4 That is. what are the six outer circles? The first is Ānandātmā or Ācakra. respectively. Nārasiṁha-gāyatri. what is the inner circle? There are six such (for each Cakra has one). The first and second have each four spokes. Mantra. mentioned are not always those of the body above stated. Asiatic Society (I871). The Devas. or Bīja. 2 Bibliotheca Indica.8" Asurāntaka-cakra. 7 Dyucakra. Srīṁ. the second is Priyātmā or Sucakra. These are the six outer circles of the six Nārasiṁha -Cakras. middle and outer. 8 The Cakra of the path reached by Yoga. thus spoke to Prajāpati. it will be observed. and which is taken from the Ṣaṭcakra Upaniṣad of the Atharvaveda. Sārasvata. saying. "Om. Vidmahe. v. "It is well known in Yoga-Sāstras that nectar (Amṛta) is in the head of all breathing creatures (Prani). what are the three circles (Valaya)? These are inner. Dhīmahi. 1 The first is Bīja. 9 The Cakra which is the death of all Asuras. the fifth. is Mantra. 'Tell us of the Nārasiṁha 3 Cakras.9 These are their respective names. is peculiar. perfect. which. 3 That is. (to which he replied): There are six Nārasiṁha Cakras.4 Sucakra. the third is Jyotirātmā or Mahā-Cakra .4 These are the six interior circles of the six Narasimha-Cakras. which in this case are those given in the next note but one. the fifth is Yogātmā or Dyu-Cakra.5 Mahācakra. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 271 "Now. five. Nārasiṁhāya vidmahe vajranakhāya dhīmahi.270 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER The celebrity of" Ānanda-Laharī" and the great number of commentaries upon it are proof of the widespread and authoritative character of the Yoga here described.6 [3] 1 That is. and the sixth. 5 That is.5 These are the six circles of the six Nārasiṁha-Cakras. Praṇava. and the sixth is Samāptātmā or Asurāntaka-Cakra. 3 The man-lion incarnation of Viṣṇu. Mahālākṣmya. The notes are from the Commentary of Nārāyaṇa. Vajra-makhāya. six. however. Nārasiṁha -Gayatri. They are Ācakra. and that on Kuṇḍalī going there by the Yoga-path which is moistened by the current of that nectar Yogins become like Īsvara.

Here ends the Ātharvaṇīya Ṣaṭcakropaṇiṣad. 3 Śriṁ vidmahe sucakrāya priyātmane svāhā sirase svāhā. 10 That is. success in all regions and amongst all beings. [5] "He who reads this becomes versed in all Vedas. 6 Om tanno dyu-cakrāya yogātmane svāhā netra-trayāya vauṣat. He becomes the destroyer of all Rākṣasas. an adept in all Mantras. 5 Klirn dhimahi sakala-loka-rakṣaṇa-cakraya mayatmane svāhā. and the concluding Cakra which is the destruction of all Asuras. Pretas. There is. where should these be placed? 1 Let the first be placed in the heart. He knows the beginning and end of all things and is able to explain all things. In order that we be liberated we must secure that particular Bliss which is the Brahman. not complain. 2 It is always important to record such a fact. changeless Brahman by shutting their eyes in church and repeating that He is the merciful. and by a false display of a new kind of Nirvāṇa-Mukti locked up these two doors which gave entry to liberation. capacity to officiate as priest at all sacrifices. I am sure. light or energy. nor piety generated. Sākinis. Some centuries ago. however. it has not escaped some modern criticism." 10 [6] 1 That is. 272 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "Now. the critic would. gains. The following passage in inverted commas is a summary 1 of that passed by an English-educated 2 Guru from one of whose disciples I received it. worship.6 The Atmā as bliss. for it generally influences the outlook on things. who in Western fashion think that they can control the formless. Therefore should this Nyāsa be done. and Vetālas. for instance.. 9 Various forms of terrifying and malignant spiritual influences. The first is the doctrine that by faith one attains Kṛṣṇa. the favour of Nṛsiṁha is not gained nor is strength. 8 That is. the fourth all over the body. 2 the second in the head. he becomes capable of speech--a poet.8 attains the favour of Lord Nṛsiṁha. 5 the fifth in all the eyes 6 (Sarveṣu netreṣu) and the sixth in all the regions 7 (Sarveṣu deśeṣu). . The second is the error of the Brahmos. In some cases the mind is so westernized that it is unable to appreciate correctly ancient Indian ideas. on the other hand. therefore should it not be spoken of to an unbeliever. how should Nyāsa be done? That is explained in the text and following notes where the Nyāsa is given. Bhūtas. points the piteous acerbities of the original. for it is the union of the Jīvātma with the Brahman who is Bliss (Ānanda). for worship (Upāsanā) is flattery. By the omission thereof. Yoga is doubtless bliss. not to one who is not competent (Adhikārī) to receive this knowledge. [4] "He who does Nyāsa of these Nārasiṁha-Cakras on two limbs becomes skilled Anustubh. To-day these doors are secured by three padlocks. Yoga. 9 He becomes freed of all fear. but where there is argument (Tarka) He is far away. 4 Aiṁ vajra-nakhāya mahā-cakrāya jyotirātmane svāhā śikhāyai vaṣat. is pious. kavacāya huṁ. becomes like one who has bathed in all places of pilgrimage. It is a mistake to suppose that because a method of Yoga procures bliss it therefore secures liberation. the Buddhists) discovered the doctrine of the Void (Sūnyavāda). This Nyāsa purifies. and pleases Nārasiṁha. physical bliss. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 273 Notwithstanding the universal acceptance of this Yoga. and (at the end) Liberation (Kaivalya). loving Father who is ever occupied with our good. 7 Hauṁ nṛsiṁhah pracodayāt asurāntaka-cakrāya satyātmane svāhā astrāya phat. 3 the third at the site of the crown-lock 4 (Śikhāyaṁ). love. But there are various forms of Bliss. By this one is made perfect in worship. 2 Kṣauṁ Nārasiṁhāya ācakrāya ānandātmane svāhā hṛdayāya namah. and that if He be flattered He will be pleased. to whom self-interest 1 If my summary. Māyā. Piśācas. The third is the opinion of those to whom all religious acts are nothing but superstition. a band of Atheists (i.e. gross or subtle as it may be. taken from the Bengali. and pure both within and without. It was elicited by the gift of the Sanskrit text of the works here translated: " Yoga as a means to liberation is attained by entry through the doors of Jñāna (Knowledge) and Karma (Action).

He would say that it is ignorance (Avidyā) which sees any differences between Veda and Āgama. and as a doctor can then squeeze it out there is not need for a Guru. In fact. 276 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER them with their fascinating talk about Ṣaṭcakra. Viṣṇu and Śiva asked each other. however. to be proclaimed. Viṣṇu. and this shows itself when one attempts to earn some fruit from one's endeavours. too. 'all ready at every moment for inspection '3 And. For nearly 2. Mlecchas. a sweet in the hands of a child'. and a number of Ucchiṣta (or low malignant) Rudras whose deeds are never good. The Bliss which is said to be attained by leading Kuṇḍali to the Sahasrāra is not denied. Nectar. discriminate between Śāstras. attests its wide pervasivenes . A child who is wayward is given a sweet to keep him quiet.1 " The Tantrik seeks to remain in the body. and whose pleasure it is to throw dust into the eyes of others and secure the praise of those whom they have thus blinded. For bad as it is. it is a gross (Sthūla) and perceptible thing. called Karma and Jṇāna. One of such Scriptures was the Tantra with a materialistic Yoga system called Ṣaṭcakra-Sādhana. he throws it away. which is nothing but a trickery on the part of the professional Gurus. but in leaving it by piercing the Brahma-randhra and becoming bodiless. they offer to show their socalled . it must be admitted to be some advance for such a creature as a Mleccha to adhere even to Tāntrik doctrine. then. manifested as the atheist Buddha and allowed various false doctrines. as if there was more than one Brahman. and not the Bliss which' is Brahman and liberation. these persons (for whose benefit this Guru makes these remarks) are full of Mlecchatā 3 though. Lotuses' to those who will join them. admit. Rudra was affected by the sin of destroying the head of Brahma." for Ātmā. I think. that they might haply thereby rise through them to higher things. Then he began to dance.' The Ṣaṭcakra-Sādhana is a mere obstruction to spiritual advancement. and thus to obtain liberation cheaply. Dākinīs. is cheap with the Tantriks.. the Tantrik Ṣaṭcakra is nothing but ." so Hindus of the Exoteric School call all non-Hindus. the Gurus delude 1 It is true that complete Mukti or Kaivalya is bodiless (Videha).274 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER is the only good. does not come and go. Of the enemies of the Vedas 1 for whom such Sastras were designed. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 275 Bliss which disappears with the body.l The Tantrik says there are really 'Lotuses' there. who have not hesitated also to promulgate forged scriptures. But if he has sense enough to know that the sweet is given to distract him. But what is cheap is always worthless. Men are sent to collect people to bring them to a Dīkṣā-guru (initiator). In truth. Mlecchatā is the state of being a Mleccha.6 when destroying atheism. All the same. some became Vaiṣṇavas. 'Can we do these people any good?' Their partial manifestations then promulgated Sastras opposed to the Vedas. the nectar is said to be of the colour of lac. This process of Yoga was expelled from Hindu society centuries ago. and finds the key to the locked doors of Yoga. All that is opposed to Veda and Smrti must be rejected. But this Bliss (Ānanda) is merely a momentary superior kind of physical 1 This no Tantrik would. such as that of the Arhatas. than nothing at all. But there is a Mukti in which the Yogi retains his body (Jīvanmukti). in order to cause the disappearance of the Vedas in the Kali age.4 And. Yoginīs. fitted for the atheistic bent of their minds. And the Hindu now-a-days has been put in such a maze by his Tāntrik Gurus that he does not know what he wants.2 and his eyes are therefore not clear enough to see that it is as truly unacceptable to a Hindu as it is to a Mussalman. 'The very mention of Tantrik Śāstra fills us with shame." In short. after all. 'And yet all men are attracted when they hear of Ṣaṭcakra. there is no "leaving. as Saṁkara says. at any rate. issued from His body. Just as the Greeks and Chinese called anyone not a Greek or a Chinese a "barbarian. Well. It is to the credit of the Sākta-Tantra that it does not encourage such narrow ideas. We must now. In this respect the Tantriks act just like coolie recruiters for the tea-gardens. The critic re-echoes some Western criticisms.' Many are so steeped in Tāntrik faith that they can find nothing wrong with its Śāstras. God fools the wicked with such Scriptures. 2 This. whether' aboriginal tribes or cultivated foreigner. why are we not told how we may see them? 2 And there also are supposed to be Devatās. Like a lot of the present-day advertisers. then. exterminated also . it is better. but if the Lotuses are really there. and others Śaivas. For centuries he has been accustomed to the Tāntrik Dharma. how material it all is! They speak of a Para-Śiva above Śiva. 3 This is a contemptuous term which has descended from the days when the stranger was looked on as an object of enmity or contempt. since it is affirmed by those who say they have experienced it. just as the Brahmos and Members of the Ārya-Samāja have become Brahmajñānis (knowers of the Brahman) at a cheap price. It is not because it is said in Sanskrit 'Śiva says' (Śiva uvāca) that we should accept all which follows this announcement.. if so.500 years ago Saṁkara. Mokṣa is not to be got by entering the Sahasrāra.

it is contended. What is perceptible is not always such a gross thing as those with which medicine is concerned. some reply may be made. The Gurus of the right type as a matter of fact are very particular about the competency of the would-be disciple. as Tāntriks will contest his account of the origin of their Śāstra. but to reform and establish bonds of unity between them. "Meditate on Śiva and Devi in the different lotuses. whereas the Tāntrik Cakras are not. to which they are then conveyed by means which. except by such mystification. I am not. the extreme Tantrik sect of Kāpālikas which he represented is' said to have continued to exist with Saṁkara's approval.1 Saṁkara then showed the worthlessness of the Tantras. even though Krakaca was absorbed into his God. nor is anything mentioned of any Sādhana in connection with them. according to the Purāṇa . Thus. "In the Paurānik description of the Cakras everything is stated clearly. notwithstanding its " pious" acerbity against forms of doctrine of which the writer disapproved. are not always admirable. to be imagined only for the purpose of worship. but endeavoured to meet the fact that they are also described in the Purāṇas by the allegation that the Paurānik Cakras are in conformity with the Vedas. See Mādhava's Śaṁkara-vijaya. It is true that Karma and Jñāna are means for the attainment of Mokṣa. his action was not to abolish any of the sects existing at his time. It is not obvious how any question of such competency arises when each of the Cakras is imagined only. according to this view. and must be again destroyed. one worships an interior lotus. They are again to-day attempting to enter Hindu society. Truth makes it necessary to state that the allegation that the Gurus employ agents to secure followers is baseless. though possibly in a modified form. These and Bhakti (devotion) which may partake of the character of the first or the second. under its leader Vatukanātha. the latter invoked to his aid the fierce form of Śiva called Bhairava. convert what is external worship into internal worship. to say the least. They are. But on Samkara's worshipping the God. Only those are said to see who have mastered the great difficulties in this path. may resent this critic's remarks so far as they touch themselves." There is. nor is proof on either of these points available except through actual experiment and experience. The Brahmos. it is 1 When disputed with the Kāpālika Krakaca. Attention is drawn to he fact that in the LingaPurāṇa there is nothing about the rousing of Kuṇḍalī.Yoga. The Purāṇa merely says. a radical difference between the two systems. 277. the drinking of nectar. 3 It is not a peep-show open to any. . in fact. here concerned to establish the reality or value of this Yoga method.1 These wander about India persuading the villagers to go and work on the tea-gardens. and to induce them all through their differing methods to follow a common ideal. according to the Saṁkara-vijaya. 1 See ante. however. The Historian will call in question the statement that Saṁkara1 abolished the Tantra. 5 This nectar is in the body. but will limit the following observations in reply to the subject in hand: The criticism. XV. it is not to be supposed that there is anything there. could they dishonestly carry on their profession as Gurus? " Buddhists may dispute this critic's understanding of their Sūnyavāda. 278 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER thus contended. 2 The books and the Gurus claim to do so. 6 This is the Indian tradition as to the philosopher's date. but with the Tāntrik all is mystery. or else how indeed. the piercing of the six centres. however. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 277 Ṣaṭcakra. ." The writer of the note thus summarized omitted to notice or perhaps was unaware that the Cakras are mentioned in the Upaniṣads. Ch. If. In external worship Devas and Devis are worshipped in similar Lotuses. From a doctrinal and historical point of view. according to this critic. the latter said to Krakaca. though it is curious to note that it is said that this figment secures' certain advantages to the worshipper and the latter must commence. and so forth." and absorbed His devotee into Himself. The Purāṇas . and Śaivas. with the Cakra which he is qualified to worship. Vaiṣṇavas. "Thy time has come. It is admitted that in the ŚivaPurāṇa there is an account of the six centres. 4 There is one Brahman with His aspects. I am not here concerned with this religious faction. contains some just observations. For. Āryasamāja. but it is said that they are not there alleged to actually exist. p. One is worshipping merely a figment of one's imagination.

His Atma is the Dhyana of Om. The Hamsah of the Sahasrara contains in Himself all Devatas (v. a material side or Haṭha aspect. discipline and progress in both the aspects is needed. 36). that that is the seat of the operation of the Brahman. when perfection has been obtained in Yoga practice. "It is he whose being is immersed in the Brahman. subtle. wrapt in Samādhi and devoted to the Lotus Feet of his Guru. in Parama-Śiva are united two forms of Bliss (v.).). 34). Kuṇḍalī is aroused by Mantra. in order to attain the Unmani-Avastha. 42)-namely. 38). are but names for different manifestations of the One. "well concealed and attainable only by great effort. He thus becomes an Advaitavadi or one who realizes the identity of the individual and universal Self (ib.Yogis have done is to develop the physical or Haṭha processes and aspect. For the Yogi meditating on the Mantra whereby he realizes the unity of Prana and Manas closes the" house which hangs without support". He realizes that he and' the Brahman' are 'one. like other forms of Yoga.Yoga. it is said. Atisattva. The Tantrik does not suppose that there are several Sivas in the sense of several distinct Deities. 42). since man is gross. Parama-sattva. they include Tapas. but it has a Jñāna aspect also. is a form of Samādhi. 36). V. It has. and who is known by the Vedanta" (v. 51). The Sādhaka's Atma must be transformed into a meditation on this lotus (v. and Jñāna -Tapas and the like practices form part of Upāsanā -Kāṇḍa. which is a form of Consciousness (Caitanya). whilst Bhakti in its transcendental aspect. 2 When.. such as Āsana and Prāṇayāma. he disengages the Manas from all contact with the objective world (v. Upāsanā. 3 Sattva. The true view of Haṭha-vidya recognizes that it is 'an auxiliary of Jñāna whereby Mokṣa is obtained.1 are all contained in the eight processes of yoga. the" eight-limbed" Yoga (AṣtāṅgaYoga) includes processes. the Devī whose substance is Consciousness itself). which is the inner Atma of those whose Buddhi is pure. It is also obviously true that all Bliss is not Mokṣa. In the Ājñā centre Manas can only unite with and be absorbed into Kuṇḍalinī by becoming one with the Jñāna-Śakti which She is. 280 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER abode of Liberation within the pure Lotus. but no one supposes that this is liberating Bliss. Rasa or . and on this the Sādhaka meditates (v. That is. is accompanied by Haṭha processes. Ānanda (Bliss) of a kind may be secured through drink or drugs. and such practice is mental operation itself (v. Haṭha-Yoga processes may secure various forms of gross or subtle bodily Bliss which are not The Bliss.2 and Dhyana. This meditation unites Kuṇḍalinī and Jivatma with the Bindu which is Śiva and Śakti (Siva-Śakti maya). piercing the Brahma-randra is freed from the body at death and becomes one with Brahman (ib. The secondary causal body (Karanavantara Sarira) above Ājñā and below Sahasrara is to be seen only through meditation (v. Thus. In the Ājñā is Manas and Om. As has been pointed out. and Viśuddha-sattva. are five different forms of Caitanya. the offering of flowers and the like to the Divinity partakes of the nature of Karma. It is true that this action. But these are associated with meditation. Parama-Siva. The mind (Cetas) by repeated practice (Abhyasa) is here dissolved. Passing to the Sahasrara. however. "who was before the three worlds. The former mediately and the latter directly achieves Moksa. and the Yogi after such union.THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 279 according to the nature of its display. It is here in the Ājñā that the Yogi places at the time of death his Prana and enters THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA ' 281 the supreme Purusa." Meditation is made on every centre in which She operates. The Devi is Herself Suddha-Sattva 3 (v.Kuṇḍalī along with Jīva to Her Lord the ParaŚiva in the 1 Thus. 50). The Brahman is one. and so forth. and spiritual. 'and as he leads Kula-kuṇḍalī he should make all things absorb in Her. As the Jīva is both material and spiritual. 40 refers to Samadhi. As these operations vary. The LayaYoga is therefore a combination of Karma and Jñāna. and meditate upon Her who grants all desires as the Caitanyarūpā Bhagavatī (that is. There is. Siva. and that Brahman is alone real (Sat) and all else unreal (Asat). "The wise and excellent Yogi. is that subtle 'Void' (Sūnya) which is the chief root of Liberation" (v. What Haṭha. 39). however. a misunderstanding of the system here described when it is described as merely materialistic. Here is Parama-Siva. it is meant. in which by love of the Lord the devotee is merged in Him. we deal with what are called the three Kāṇḍas: Karma. should lead Kula. In all Yoga there is mental exercise. When it is said that any Devata is in any Cakra. The above definition is for the purposes of Yoga classification only. 44). a process of Jñāna-Yoga. Similarly. Rudra. so do the Devatas." who arouses the Devi Kuṇḍalī by the Mantra Hūṁkāra (v. 33). a form of Karma-Yoga. Śuddha-sattva. like others. which operation in its Daiva aspect is known as Devata. for She is all Śaktis.

Otherwise men say that the knowledge (Jñāna ) of the Purāna -Purusa is Yoga. and as Thou returneth to Thine own place. A Brahmo Author 1 who is so little favourable to the Tantra as to describe the difference between it and the 1 GayatriMūlaka-Satcakrer vyakhyana o sadhana (Mangala Ganga mission Press).). 45). the activity of which has already commenced--just as a revolving wheel will yet run a little time after the cause of its revolving has ceased. It is this jñāna which secures liberation (ib. including Dhyana with its resulting Samadhi). There is here Kriya-jñāna . which gives an explanation of it. for Her nature (Svarūpa). at the will of the Yogi. Then the Sādhaka is Jivanmukta. is never again reborn. 10): "Kuharīṇi . It is from the latter union that there arise the universe and the nectar which floods the lesser world. remaining only so long in the body as is necessary to workout the Karma. for instance. Samkaracarya---in his celebrated Ananda-Lahari thus hymns Her return (v. After She has repeatedly 1 gone to Him. 47). After union with Siva. that the Yoga which the author affirms to be the cause of Liberation is not merely material. 54 says that the Yogi who has practised Yama and Niyama and the like (that is. which is 282 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "pure Consciousness itself" (v. In other cases this is done by concentration of thought on the Paramapurusa and in other cases by the meditation of the Sādhaka on the union of Śiva and Śakti " (ib. and when Kuṇḍalinī unites with Śiva She gives Jñāna (Svarūpa). The Maya-Tantra says: "Those who are learned in Yoga say that it is the unity of Jiva and Atma (in Samadhi). Kuṇḍalinī makes Her return journey.). 57). so Her return is Sristi-krama (re-creation of the Tattvas). Whether the method above described be or be not effectual or desirable. by dissolving Kuṇḍalinī in the Para-bindu. Thou sprinklest all things with the stream of nectar which flows from the tips of Thy two feet. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 283 makes a journey from which. Jñāna is Kriya-Jñāna and Svarūpajñāna . but that it is the arousing of the Power (Jiva-Śakti ) of the World-Consciousness (Jagacaitanya) which makes man what he is. The ascetic (Yati) of pure mind is instructed in the knowledge by which he realizes the unity of the Jivatma and Paramatma (v. It is "that most excellent of men who has controlled his mind (Niyatanija-citta)that is. effects the liberation of some Sadhakas through their meditation upon the identity of Śiva and Atma in the Bindu. and has known it-who is freed from rebirth. and" is attainable only by Yogis through pure jñāna " (ib. the Prakrtivadis declare that the knowledge of the union of Śiva and Śakti is Yoga" (v. and others again. "The revered Lord Preceptor"that is. V. Thou vivifiest and makest visible all things that were aforetime invisible. he is at peace." and thus attains Mokṣa (v. Śakti }. concentrated the inner faculties (Antahkarana) on the Sahasrara. She does so in the case of others by a similar process and by meditation (Cintana) on Śakti . In other forms of worship he realizes his identity with Kuṇḍalinī who is embodied by the different Mantras worshipped by different worshippers. In short. According to the experience of others. the worshipper of any particular Devata should realize that he is one with the object of his worship. it is the knowledge (jñāna) of the identity of Śiva and Atma. 284 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER . and its result in the end becomes permanent. He becomes Jivanmukta. it must be obvious upon a perusal of the text. the worshipper realizes his identity with the Omkara. (Ksudrabrahmanda). The former are the meditative processes leading to it. when he can achieve bodiless (Videha) or Kaivalya-Mukti (Supreme Liberation). the bliss of Moksa) and Virasa (or the bliss which is the product of the union of Śiva and. and whose mind has been thus controlled. " The Devi. Within Her is Nityananda. there is no return." That is.). The latter is direct spiritual experience. Tattva-jñāna . the other processes of Astanga-Yoga. It is the" Bhagavatī Nirvaṇa-Kalā who grants divine liberating knowledge--that is. and on reaching Thy abode Thou resumest Thy snake-like coil and sleepest. or knowledge of the Brahman (v. The Agamavadis say that knowledge (Jñāna ) of Śakti is Yoga.Paramananda-Rasa (that is. In Pranava worship. as also His. She 1 This is necessary in order that the aptitude be attained. as Her passage upward was Laya-krama (dissolution of the Tattvas). By repetition the act becomes natural. In fact. Gladdened by the constant realization of the Brahman. is that. The Yogi thus does claim to secure the bliss of Liberation by making entry thereto through the doors of Karma and Jñāna-Yoga. His body is preserved until such time as the active Karma is exhausted. 43). or the body. 49).

Veda as being "as great as that which exists between the Netherworld (Pātāla) and Heaven (Svarga)" 1 does not deny the efficiency of the Tantrik Ṣaṭcakra-Sādhana, but contrasts it with the Vaidika-Gayatri-Sadhana in an account of the two methods which I here summarize in inverted commas. "The Cakras (the existence of which is not disputed) are placed where the nerves and muscles unite." 2 The Ājñā is the place of the Command. This manifests in the operation of Buddhi. If the command is followed, the. Sādhaka becomes pure of disposition (Bhava) and speech. Speech displays itself in the throat, the region of the Visuddha. The next lower Cakra is called Anahata because of its connection with Nada, which is self-produced in the heart. The Vayu in Anahata is Prāṇa-Śakti . Here when free from sin one can see the Atma. Here the Yogi realizes 'I am He'. Fire is at the navel. The seat of desire is at the root of the Svadhisthana. In the lowest lotus, the MulĀdhāra, are the three Śakti s of Jiva-namely, Iccha, Kriya, and Jñāna -in an unconscious unenlivened state. The Sādhaka by the aid of
1 The unorthodox author cited, quoting the saying that" to attain Siddhi (fruition) in Sruti (study and practice of ordinances of the Vedas) the Brahmana should follow the Tantra," asks, in conformity with his views on the latter Sāstra, "How can those who are divorced from Veda get Siddhi or Sruti?" This echoes a common reproach, that the Tantra is opposed to the Vedas which the Sastra itself denies. The Kularnava-Tantra speaks of it, on the contrary, as Vedatmaka. Of course it is one question to claim to be based on Veda and another whether a particular Sāstra is in fact in accordance with it. On this the Indian schools dispute, just as the Christian sects differ as to the Bible which all claim as their basis. 2 This definition is inaccurate. As explained later, the physical ganglia are merely gross correspondences of the subtle vital Cakras which-inform them.

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 285 the Parātmā as fire (Agni) and air (Vayu) 1 awakens these three forces (Śaktis) and ultimately by the grace of the Parātmā he is united, with the Turīya-Brahman." "In days of old, Sadhana commenced at the Mūlādhāra Cakra; that is, those who were not Sadhakas of the Gayatri Mantra commenced from below at the lowest centre. There was a good reason' for this, for thereby the senses (Indriya) were controlled. Without such control purity of disposition (Bhava) cannot be attained. If such purity be not gained, then the mind (Citta) cannot find its place in the heart; and if the Citta be not in the heart there can be no union with the Parātmā, The first thing, therefore, which a Sādhaka has to do is to control the senses. Those who achieved this without fixing their minds on the Lord (Isvara) 2 had to go through many difficult and painful practices (such as the Mudras, Bandhas, etc., mentioned later) which were necessary for the control of the Indriyas and of the action of the Gunas. All this is unnecessary in the Gāyatri-Sādhana or method. It is true that the senses should be controlled in the three lower centres (Cakras)--this is, cupidity (Lobha) in the MulĀdhāra, lust (Kama) in the Svadhisthana at the root of the genitals, and anger (Krodha) at the navel. These three passions are the chief to set the senses in motion, and are the main doors to Hell. The way, however, in which control should be effected is to place the Citta (mind) on Satta (existence) of Paramatma in these Cakras. The Citta should be taken to each of these three lowest centres and controlled, whereby
1 The Author here refers to the processes subsequently described, whereby air is indrawn and the internal fires are set ablaze to rouse the sleeping serpent" The Parātmā is the Supreme Atma. 2 This observation suggests a line of thought which is of value. Some pursue the path of devotion (Bhakti), but what of those who have it not or in less degree?

286 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER these passions which have their respective places at those centres are controlled. Whenever, therefore, the senses (Indriya) get out of control fix the Citta (mind) on the Paramatma in the particular Cakra." [To give the above an English turn of thought: if, say, anger is to be controlled, carry the mind to the navel, and there meditate upon the existence of the Supreme One (Paramatma) in this centre, not merely as the Supreme without the body and within the body, but as embodied in that particular part of it; for that is Its manifestation. The result is that the passionate activity of this centre is subdued; for its functioning is attuned to the state of the Atma which informs it, and both the body and mind attain the peace of the Atma on which the selfis centred. I] "Having thus controlled the senses, the Gayatri-Sadhana commences, not at the lowest, but at the highest, of the six centres-namely, the Ājñā between the eyebrows. There is no necessity for the difficult and painful process of piercing the Cakras from below. 2 Fix the mind on the Lord (Isvara) in the highest centre. For the ether (Ākāśa) there is the being (Satta) of the Supreme Atma. There and in the two lower centres (Visuddha and Anahata) enjoyment is had with Isvara. The union between Jiva and Prakrti is called Honey (Madhu) in the Upanisads. By Sadhana of the Ājñā centre (Cakra)

purity of being (Bhava-suddhi) is attained, and purity of speech follows on the attainment of such Bhava. Yoga with the Supreme Devata who is all-knowing is had here. He who is freed from all disturbing conditions
1 The paragraph in brackets is mine.-A.A. 2 This observation appears to show a misunderstanding of the specific character of the Yoga. If it is desired to rouse Kuṇḍalī, the operation must, I am told, commence at the lowest centre. There are, however, other forms of Yoga in which Kuṇḍalī is not aroused.-A.A.

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 287 of body and mind reaches the state which is beyond the Gunas (Guṇātīta), which is that of the Supreme Brahman." We may conclude these two criticisms with the true Indian saying somewhat inconsistently quoted in the first: ―To dispute the religion (Dharma) of another is the mark of a narrow mind. O Lord! O Great Magician! with whatsoever faith or feeling we call on Thee, Thou art pleased." Whatsoever difference there has been, or may be, as to forms and methods, whether in Upasana or Yoga, yet all Indian worshippers of the ancient type seek a common end in unity with Light of Consciousness, which is beyond the regions of Sun, Moon, and Fire. It will now be asked what are the general principles which underlie the Yoga practice above described? How is it that the rousing of Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti and Her union with Śiva effects the state of ecstatic union (Samadhi) and spiritual experience which is alleged? The reader who has understood the general principles recorded in the previous sections should, if he has not already divined it, readily appreciate the answer here given. In the first place, the preceding section will have indicated that there are two lines of Yoga-namely, Dhyāna or BhāvanāYoga, and Kuṇḍalinī -Yoga, the subject of this work and that there is a difference between the two. The First class of Yoga is that in which ecstasy (Samadhi) is attained by intellective processes (Kriya Jñāna) of meditation and the like with the aid, it may be, in the preliminary stage of auxiliary processes of Mantra or Hatha-Yoga 1 (other than the rousing of Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti ) and by detachment from the world; the second is that Yoga in which, though intellective processes are not neglected, the creative and
1 Such as Prāṇāyāma, Āsana. See ante, p. 192.

288 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER sustaining Śakti of the whole body as Kuṇḍalinī is actually and truly united with the Lord Consciousness so as to procure for the Yogi a result which the Jñāna-Yogi directly gains for himself. The Yogi makes Her introduce Him to Her Lord, and enjoys the bliss of union through Her. Though it is He who arouses Her, it is She who gives Jñāna , for She is Herself that. The Dhyana-Yogi gains what acquaintance with the supreme state his own meditative powers can give him, and knows not the enjoyment of union with Śiva in and through his fundamental body-power. The two forms of Yoga differ both as to method and result. The Hatha-Yogi in search of Laya regards his Yoga and its fruit as the highest. The Jñāna -Yogi thinks similarly of his own. And in fact RajaYoga is generally regarded as the highest form of Yoga. Kuṇḍalinī is so renowned that many seek to know Her. Having studied the theory of this Yoga, I have often been asked "whether one can get on without it". The answer of the Sastra is: "It depends upon what you are looking for and on your powers." If you want to rouse Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti to enjoy the bliss of union of Śiva and Śakti through Her, which your capacities do not otherwise allow you to have or if you wish to gain the accompanying powers (Siddhi),1 it is obvious that this end can only be achieved by the Yoga here described. But if liberation is sought and the Yogi has capacity to attain it without Kuṇḍalinī , then such Yoga is not necessary, for liberation may be obtained by pure Jñāna Yoga through detachment, the exercise, and then the stilling, of the mind without any reference to the central bodily power at all. Indeed perfect Liberation (Nirvikalpa Samadhi) can only be obtained in this way by Raja-Yoga of which Kuṇḍalinī - Yoga is a preliminary
1 Thus, by raising Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti to the Manipiira centre, power may (it is said) be acquired over fire.

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 289

method.1Samadhi may also be attained on the path of devotion (Bhakti), as on that of knowledge. Indeed, the highest devotion (Para-bhakti) is not different from knowledge. Both are realization. A Dhyana-Yogi should not neglect his body, knowing that, as he is both mind and matter, each reacts the one upon the other. Neglect or mere mortification of the body is more apt to produce disordered imagination than a true spiritual experience. He is not concerned, however, with the body in the sense that the Hatha-Yogi is. It is possible to be a successful Dhyana-Yogi and yet to be weak in body and health, sick, and short-lived. His body, and not he himself, determines when he shall die. He cannot die at will. The ecstasis, which he calls "Liberation while yet living" (Jivanmukti), is (so it was said to me) not a state like that of real Liberation. He may be still subject to a suffering body, from which he escapes only at death, when he is liberated. His ecstasy is in the nature of a meditation which passes into the Void (Bhāvanā-Sāmadhi) effected through negation of thought (Citta-vṛtti) and detachment from the world-a process in which the act of raising the central power of the body takes no part. By his effort 2 the mind, which is a product of Knndalini as Prakrti Śakti , together with its worldly desires, is stilled, so that the veil produced by mental functioning is removed from Consciousness. In Laya-Yoga Kuṇḍalinī Herself, when roused by the Yogi (for such rousing is his act and part), achieves for him this illumination. But why, it may be asked, should one trouble over the body and its central
1 Subject to Dharma, Yama, Niyama, etc. In any case where the end sought is purely" spiritual" there is Vairagya or renunciation. 2 This makes Raja-Yoga the highest and most difficult of Yogas, for mind is made to conquer itself. In Laya-Yoga the conquest is achieved for the Sādhaka by Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti - He arouses Her and She achieves for him Siddhi. It is easier to arouse Kuṇḍalinī than to win by one's thought alone Nirvikalpa-Samadhi.

290 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER power, the more particularly that there are unusual risks and difficulties involved? The answer has been already given alleged certainty and facility of realization through the agency of the power which is Knowledge itself (Jñāna -rūpaŚakti ); an intermediate acquisition of powers (Siddhi); and both intermediate and final enjoyment. This answer may, however, usefully be developed, as a fundamental principle of the Sakta-Tantra is involved. The Sākta-Tantra claims to give both enjoyment 1 (Bhukti) in this and the next world, and Liberation (Mukti) from all worlds. This claim is based on a profoundly true principle.2 If the ultimate Reality is one which exists in two aspects of quiescent enjoyment of the Self in Liberation from all form and of active enjoyment of objects-that is, as pure , Spirit' and 'Spirit' in matter-then a complete union with reality demands such unity in both of its aspects. It must be known both "here" (Iha) and" there" (Amutra). When rightly apprehended and practised, there is·truth in the doctrine which teaches that man should make the best of both worlds. 3 There is no real incompatibility between the two, provided action is taken in conformity with the universal law of manifestation. It is held to be false teaching that happiness
1 As there are persons who always associate with the word" enjoyment" (Bhoga) "beer and skittles," it is necessary to say that that is not the necessary implication of the word Bhoga, nor the sense in which it is here used. Philosophically, Bhoga is the perception of objects upon which enjoyment, or it may be suffering, ensues. Here any form of sense or intellectual enjoyment is intended. All life in the world of form is enjoyment. Bhoga in fact includes suffering. 2 Which it is possible to adopt without approval of any particular application to which it may be put. There are some (to say the least) dangerous practices which in the hands of inferior persons have led to results which have given the Sastra in this respect its ill repute. 3" Worlds," because that is the English phrase. Here, however, the antithesis is between the world (whether as earth or heaven) and liberation from all worlds.

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 291 hereafter can only be had by neglect to seek it now, or in deliberately sought for suffering and mortification. It is the one Śiva who is the supreme blissful experience, and who appears in the form of man with a life of mingled pleasure and pain. Both happiness here and the bliss of liberation here and hereafter may be attained if the identity of these Sivas be realized in every human act. This will be achieved by making every human function, without exception, a religious act of sacrifice and worship (Yajña). In the ancient Vaidik ritual, enjoyment by way of food and drink was preceded and accompanied by ceremonial sacrifice and ritual. Such enjoyment was the fruit of the sacrifice and the gift of the Gods. At a higher stage in the life of a Sādhaka it is offered to the One from whom all gifts come and of whom the Devatas are inferior limited forms. But this offering also involves a dualism from which the highest Monistic (Advaita) Sadhana of the Sakta-Tantra is free. Here the individual life and the world-life are known as one. And so the Tantrik Sadhaka, when eating or drinking 1 or fulfilling any other of the natural functions of the body, does so, saying and believing, Sivoham (" I am Śiva "), Bhairavohaṁ (" I am Bhairava ").2 Sā-ahaṁ (" I am She ").3 It is not merely the separate individual who thus acts and enjoys. It is Śiva who does so in and through him. Such a one recognizes, as has been well said 4 that his

life and the play of all its activities are not a thing apart, to be held and pursued egotistically for its and his own separate sake, as though
1 Thus in the Sakta ritual the Sādhaka who takes the wine-cup pours the wine as a libation into the mouth of Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti , the Śakti appearing in the form of himself. 2 A name of Siva. 3 That is, the Mother of all appearing in the form of Her worshipper. 4 By Sj. Aurobindo Ghose in" Arya ".

292 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER enjoyment was something to be seized from life by his own unaided strength and with a sense of separateness; but his life and all its activities are conceived as part of the divine action in nature (Śakti ) manifesting and operating in the form of man. He realizes in the pulsing beat of his heart the rhythm which throbs through, and is the sign of, the universal life. To neglect or to deny the needs of the body, to think of it as something not divine, is to neglect and deny that greater life of which it is a part, and to falsify the great doctrine of the unity of all and of the ultimate identity of Matter and Spirit. Governed by such a concept, even the lowliest physical needs take on a cosmic significance. The body is Śakti . Its needs are Śakti 's needs; when man enjoys, it is Śakti who enjoys through. him. In all he sees and does it is the Mother who looks and acts. His eyes and hands are Hers. The whole body and all its functions are Her manifestation. To fully realize Her, as such, is to perfect this particular manifestation of Hers which is himself. Man, when seeking to be the master of himself, so seeks on all the planes, physical, mental and spiritual; nor can they be severed, for they are all related, being but differing aspects of the one all-pervading Consciousness. Who is the more divine, he who neglects and spurns the body or mind that he may attain some fancied spiritual superiority, or he who rightly cherishes both as forms of the one Spirit which they clothe? Realization is more speedily and truly attained by discerning Spirit in, and as, all being and its activities, than by fleeing from and casting these aside as being either unspiritual or illusory and impediments in the path.1 If not rightly conceived, they may be impediments and the cause of fall, otherwise they
1 The first is the Tantrik method of applying Vedantic truth; the second, the ascetic or Māyāvādin method, with a greatness of its own, but perhaps in less conformity, with the needs of the mass of men.

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 293 become instruments of attainments; and what others are there to hand? And so the Kularnava-Tantra says: "By what men fall, by that they rise." When acts are done in the right feeling and frame of mind (Bhava), those acts give enjoyments (Bhukti); and the repeated and prolonged Bhava produces at length that divine experience (Tattva-jñāna ) which is liberation. When the Mother is seen in all things, She is at length realized as She is when beyond them all. These general principles have their more frequent application in the life of the world before entrance on the path of Yoga proper. The Yoga here described, is, however, also an application of these same principles in so far as it is claimed that thereby both Bhukti and Mukti are attained. Ordinarily it is said that where there is Yoga there is no Bhoga (enjoyment), but in Kaula teaching Yoga is Bhoga and Bhoga is Yoga, and the world itself becomes the seat of liberation (" Yogo bhogayate, moksayate sarhsarah "). 1 In Kuṇḍalinī -Yoga enjoyment (Bhoga), and powers (Siddhi) may be had at each of the centres to which the Central Power is brought and by continuance of the practice upward the enjoyment which is Liberation may be had . By the lower processes of Hatha-Yoga it is sought to attain a perfect physical body which will also be a wholly fit instrument by which the mind may function. A perfect mind again approaches, and in Samadhi passes into, pure Consciousness itself. The Hatha-Yogi thus seeks a body which shall be as strong as steel, healthy, free from suffering and therefore long-lived. Master of the body, he is master of both life and death. His lustrous form enjoys the vitality of youth. He lives as long as be has the will to live and
1 Yogo bhogayate sak~at duskrtam sukrtayate, Moksayate hi samsarah kauladhanne kulesvari, (Kularnava- Tantra)

294 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER

enjoy in the world of forms. His death is the "death at will," when making the great and wonderfully expressive gesture of dissolution 1 he grandly departs. But it may be said the Hatha-Yogis do get sick and die. In the first place, the full discipline is one of difficulty and risk, and can only be pursued under the guidance of a skilled Guru. As the GorakṣaSaṃhitā says, unaided and unsuccessful practice may lead not only to disease, but death. He who seeks to conquer the Lord of Death incurs the risk of failure of a more speedy conquest by Him. All who attempt this Yoga do not, of course, succeed, or meet with the same measure of success. Those who fail, not only incur the infirmities of ordinary men, but others brought on by practices which have been ill pursued, or for which they are not fit. Those, again, who do succeed, do so in varying degree. One may prolong his life to the sacred age of 84, others to 100, others yet further. In theory, at least, those who are perfected (Siddha) go from this plane when they will. All have not the same capacity or opportunity through want of will, bodily strength, or circumstance. All may not be willing or able to follow the strict rules necessary for success. Nor does modern life offer in general the opportunities for so complete a physical culture. All men may not desire such a life, or may think the attainment of it not worth the trouble involved. Some may wish to be rid of their body, and that as speedily as possible. It is therefore said that it is easier to gain liberation than deathlessness. The former may be had by unselfishness, detachment from the world, moral and mental discipline. But to conquer death is harder than this; for these qualities and acts will not alone avail. He who does so conquer holds life in the hollow of one hand, and if he be
1 Samhara-mudra, the gesture which signifies dissolution, "Now I am about to die". '

THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 295 a successful (Siddha) Yogi, liberation in the other. He has Enjoyment and Liberation. He is the Emperor who is master of the world and the possessor of the bliss which is beyond all worlds. Therefore it is claimed by the Hatha-Yogi that every Sadhana is inferior to Hatha-Yoga. The Hatha-Yogi who rouses Kuṇḍalinī gains various occult powers (Siddhi) and enjoyment thereby. At every centre to which he leads Kuṇḍalinī he experiences a special form of bliss (Ananda) and gains special powers (Siddhi). If he has Vairagya or distaste for these he carries Her to the Śiva of his cerebral centre, and enjoys the Supreme Bliss, which in its nature is that of Liberation, and which, when established in permanence, is Liberation itself on the loosening of the spirit and body. She who "shines like a chain of lights" -a lightning-flash-in the centre of his body is the "Inner Woman" to whom reference was made when it was said, "What need have I of any outer woman? I have an Inner Woman within myself." The Vira (" heroic") 1 Sādhaka, knowing himself as the embodiment of Śiva (Sivoham), unites with woman as the embodiment of Śakti '" on the physical plane.2 The Divya (" divine") Sādhaka or Yogi unites within himself his own principles, female and male which are the" Heart of the Lord" (Hṛdayaṁ parameśituh) 3 or Śakti , and Her Lord Consciousness or Siva. It is their
1 See my " Śakti and Śākta ". 2 The statement in the Tantras that this union is liberation (Mukti) is mere Stuti-that is, praise in the Indian fashion of the subject in hand, which goes beyond the actual fact. The European reader who takes such statements au pied de la lettre and ridicules them makes himself (to the knowing) ridiculous. What actually happens in such case is a fugitive bliss (or Vīra), which, like all bliss, emanates from the Great Bliss, but is a pale reflection of it which nowise, in itself, secures immunity from future rebirth. It is the bliss of this lower Sādhana, as the union of Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti with Śiva is that of the higher eṇḍ 3 As the Parāprāveśika beautifully calls Her. Yogiṇīhrdaya-Tantra says, "She is the heart, for from Her all things issue."

296 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER union which is the mystic coition (Maithuna) of the Tantras.1 There are two forms of Union (Sāmarasya) 2-namely, the first, which is the gross (Sthūla), or the union of the physical embodiments of the Supreme Consciousness; and the second, which is the subtle (Sūkṣma), or the union of the quiescent and active principles in Consciousness itself. It is the Latter which is Liberation. Lastly, what in a philosophical sense is the nature of the process here described? Shortly stated, energy (Śakti ) polarizes itself into two forms--namely, static or potential and dynamic as Prāṇa, the working forces of the body. Behind all activity there is a static background. The static centre in the human body is the central Serpent Power in the Mūlādhāra (root support). It is the power which is the static support (Ādhāra) of the whole body, and all its moving Prāṇik forces. This centre (Kendra) of power is a gross form of Cit or Consciousness--that is, in itself (Svarūpa) it is Consciousness and by appearance it is a power which, as the highest form of force, is a manifestation of it. Just as there is a distinction (though identity at base) between the supreme quiescent Consciousness and its active power (Śakti ), so when Consciousness manifests as energy (Śakti ) it possesses the twin aspects of potential and kinetic energy, In Advaita-

2 This matter has been so well put by my friend and collaborator Professor Pramathanatha Mukhyopadhyaya that I cannot improve on his account. the various elements of it holding one another in check (or. is stirred to action. the so-called atom is a miniature universe very much like our own solar system. In my own writings 1 I have constantly urged this polarity between pure Cit and the stress which is involved in it: there is a stress or Śakti developing the mind through an infinity of forms and changes but all these forms and changes are known as involved in the pure and unbounded ether of awareness (Cidākāśa). and appearance is real. becoming is tending to appear. and represents the world-process as a polarization in Consciousness itself. and the whole dynamism 1 thus engendered moves upward to unite with the quiescent Consciousness in the highest Lotus. the algebraic sum of the forces being zero). The Sakta-Tantra is a rendering of Vedantic truth from this practical point of view. in fact. is the coition (Maithuna) of those who are Yati (who have controlled their passions). To the perfect eye of its Siddha the process of becoming is an ascription (Adhyāsa) to the ultimate Real. on which the moving forces (dynamic Śakti ) supported by it are drawn thereto. Therefore Consciousness is reached there. again. This polarity as it exists in. Of course. The chemical atom has ceased to be an atom (indivisible unit of matter). Adhyāsa is attributing to something that which it does not really possess. of Reality. 3 In a letter to me. seeing that Consciousness is all pervading? True. Cosmic energy in its physical aspect may be considered either as static or as dynamic. . "In the tissues of a living body. I am led to think of an analogy (and it may be more than an analogy) in modern science. the body.3 and therefore cite it in lieu of giving a further description of my own: "When you say that Kuṇḍalī-Śakti is the primordial Śakti at rest. as the Yoginī-Tantra says. the operative energy (whatever the nature of that may be. In the human body the potential pole of energy. This analysis therefore exhibits the primordial Śakti in the same two polar forms as before--static and dynamic and here the polarity is most fundamental and approaches absoluteness." which I reproduce in the text. He wrote that my letter had suggested certain ideas "on a subject of supreme interest philosophically and practically in the life of a Hindu. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 297 (perfected accomplishment)-to the spirit which is still toiling through the lower planes and variously identifying itself with them.Vedanta there can be no partition. but there the Tamasik force of Māyā is at its lowest strength. or apparent and not real evolution (Pariṇāma). We have instead the electron theory. it may be asked. and as. as the mathematicians will say. 3 To the eye of Siddhi. which is the supreme power. The important thing to note is this polarization of Śakti into two forms-static and dynamic. the latter a condition of motion or change of relative position. to the spirit who is Udāsīna (simple witness unmindful of the external world). is destroyed by Yoga. 298 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Thus a material thing apparently at rest (there being no absolute rest except in pure Consciousness or Cit) should be regarded as energy or Śakti equilibrated. The bracketed translations of the Sanskrit words are mine. in reply to one of mine answering some inquiries made by him as regards this Yoga. becoming is Adhyāsa and nothing real (in the Indian sense of that term. the aspirant for Siddhi 1 This. as used by Śaṁkara). 1 "Approaches to Truth" and" The Patent Wonder. "In the mind or experience also this polarization or polarity is patent to reflection.3 To the eye of the Sādhaka---that is. whether we believe in a special 'vital force' or not) polarizes itself into two similar forms--anabolic and katabolic--one tending to change and the other to conserve the tissues. "Lastly. the actual condition of the tissues being simply the resultant of these two co-existent or concurrent activities. 2 This term indicates the enjoyment which arises from the union of male and female. which disturbs the equilibrium of bodily consciousness which is the result of the maintenance of these two poles. which may be either of bodies or of their inner principles. According to this." two valuable presentments in modern terms of the ancient Vedantic teaching. in any given case the equilibrium is relative rather than absolute. 1 The projecting power of consciousness withdraws its projections into the sensuous world. I Why here. the former being a condition of equilibrium. Creation (Sṛṣti) is Vivarta. and the power of Consciousness remains as Power to Be. let us consider for one moment the atom of modern science.

a magazine of power to be drawn upon and utilized for further activity. .. Nirguṇa (attributeless) as well as Saguṇa (with attribute). The positive and the negative charges hold each other in check. which is otherwise all right). That law we have seen to be the law of polarization into static-dynamic or potential-kinetic aspects. and the negative charges in motion round about the centre: a most suggestive analogy or illustration. a microcosmic plan. 1 That Kuṇḍalinī is the static Śakti. though it may possibly break up and set free its equilibrated store of energy. Of course. as manifesting itself in the universe. For the present we may. if there should arise any need for such. 'as said in a well-known passage of the Candi. hence perhaps 1 the name Mūlādhāra . it is the Śakti left over (you have yourself pointed this out. "Before I proceed. perhaps. It is Guṇāśraya (support of Guṇas) as well as Guṇamaya (whose substance is Guṇas}. much like the poles of a magnet. Thus Cit is also Śakti. let me point out what I conceive to be the fundamental significance of our Tāntric and Purānic Kali. Śakti at the Mūlādhāra is both co-existent with every act of creation or manifestation and is the residual effect of such act--both cause and effect. Now. just as myriads of planets and smaller bodies revolve round the sun. there must be such polarization. that you cannot have it in a dynamic form without at the same time having it in a corresponding static form. because the dynamic aspect or pole can never be without its static counterpart. the body necessarily presupposes and finds such a static support. a reproduction on a miniature scale. perhaps. In another sense. therefore. " Your suggestive hint 1 makes the nature of the Kuṇḍalinī -Śakti rather clear to me. deeply looked into. You are quite right. the working. carrying on processes and working out changes. nude and dark. as the Tantras say. white and inert (Śava-rūpa) because pure Cit is in itself Svaprakāśa (selfmanifest) and Niṣkriya (actionless). In the living body. as indeed every Mūrti in the so-called Hindu mythology is. according to this cosmic principle. Taking the two senses together (yours as well as mine). 300 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER apart from and beyond Consciousness there can be nothing--no power or Śakti--hence the Divine Mother stands on the bosom of the Divine Father. This figure or Mūrti is both real and symbolic. and does not therefore ordinarily break up. Her nakedness means that though She encompasses all. the positive charge at rest at the centre. this is no partition of reality into two (there lies the imperfection of the Sāṁkhya doctrine of Puruṣa and Prakṛti. Her darkness means that She is inscrutable--Avāṅ-manasa-gocarā (beyond the reach of thought and speech). draw this important conclusion: "Śakti . which is dynamic. In any given sphere of activity of force we must have. there is nothing to encompass Herself. but I may as well forbear going into details. Śiva is Śakti and Śakti is Siva. and the italics are yours) after the Prthivi--the last of the Bhūtas--has been created. of the whole. in fact--an idea which. on whose breast She dances. The law or principle of the whole--that of macrocosmic Śakti--should therefore be found in the Kuṇḍalinī .' as the Tantras say. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 301 The Mūlādhāra is the static pole in relation to the rest of the body. so that the atom is a condition of equilibrated energy. therefore.THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 299 At the centre of this atomic system we have a charge of positive electricity round which a cloud of negative charges (called electrons) is supposed to revolve. but merely polarization in our experience of an indivisible fact which is the primordial (Ādyā) Śakti itself. What do we 'notice here? The same polarity of Śakti into a static and a dynamic partner---viz. as probably it does in the emanations of radium. may be compared to a magnet with two poles. is the static background of pure Cit. Sadasiva. in saying that the cosmic Śakti is the Samaṣṭi (collectivity) in relation to which the Kuṇḍalinī in the bodies is only the Vyaṣṭi (individual): it is an illustration. the static Śakti at the Mūlādhāra is necessarily co-existent with the creating and evolving Śakti of the body. I think. The illustration may be carried into other domains of science and philosophy. a static background--Śakti at rest or 'coiled. the Divine Mother Kali is a symbol of the cosmic truth just explained. In one sense. divides itself into two polar aspects--static and dynamic--which implies. Now. of the cosmic facts. the fundamental support. At the same time. The Mother Herself is all activity and Guṇamayī (in Her aspect as Prakṛti composed of the Guṇas). the Kuṇḍalinī coiled three times and a half at the Mūlādhāra is the indispensable and unfailing static-background of the dynamic Śakti operative in the whole body. The body.

which is the father-element. and there perhaps Henri Bergson. where Śakti is Kuṇḍālinī coiled. and is transmitted in the process of reproduction to the offspringthat is. the Mūlādhāra. In the earliest stage of creation. though it is but an hypothesis. I do not mean to throw up the principle of conservation of energy in relation to the Kuṇḍālinī. is the closest physical parallel of the case that we are trying to understand. and sustained by the Śakti concentrated at. as taught by old Heraclitus and the Buddhists and by modem Bergson. principle is not to be expected. one pole (possibly the static). 2The process of fertilization is dealt with in the Mātṛkabheda-Tantra. so to say. is correlated to. As a well-known passage in the Upaniṣad has it. Hence the philosophical doctrine of absolute motion or change. It is merely the conversion of static (potential). The Kuṇḍālinī that mounts up the Nādī is also the whole Śakti in a specially dynamic form-an eject (?) likeness of the Eternal Serpent. By the way. divides and sub-divides itself. Shakti flows out of the germinal cell (fertilized ovum). in the development of the former. and thereby grows in bulk. All the functional activity of the body. or Pūrṇa . an exact physical rendering of this. 2 From their fusion proceed those processes which the biologist calls differentiation and integration. In the living body this necessary static background is Mūlādhāra. the germ-cell which evolves the body does not. who claims that the creative impulse is ever original and resourceful. In our own experiences. 'The whole (Pūrṇa) is subtracted from the whole. and the spermatazoon. the other half remains encased within the body practically unchanged. A purely dynamic activity (which is motion in its physical aspect) is impossible without a static support or ground (Ādhāra). the germ-plasm. perhaps. an unending process in a different sense. and assimilates it. but in all this process of creation the cycle can be fairly easily traced. represents the other (possibly the dynamic). Let us take the impregnated ovum--the earliest embryological stage of the living body. this germ-plasm is unbroken THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 305 through the whole line of propagation. As we have to deal with infinities here. the correlate principle or pole of Aham (I). When again I say that the volume or intensity of the coiled power can be affected (though not its configuration and relative equilibrium). The Yogi therefore simply 'awakens. in fact. and yet the whole remains. the latter serves as the static background. cease to be a germ-cell in any stage of the complicated process.' I think our present case comes very near to this. seizes upon foreign matter. starting from the development of the germ-cell. is wrong. which holds together all the loose beads of our . "4. energy into dynamic (kinetic) energy in part.' and never creates Sakti." In a subsequent postscript the Professor wrote: "1. which the mother-element represents. 'apperception' or consciousness of self is the sustaining background-a string. There is. The Kuṇḍālinī at the Mūlādhāra is the whole primordial Śakti in monad or germ or latency: that is why it is coiled. and then again co-ordinates all its divided parts into one 1 Certainly. Cosmic creation. In it the Kuṇḍalinī-Śakti is already present in its two polar aspects: the ovum. when the world arises in Divine Consciousness.Kuṇḍāli-Śakti in the Cinmaya-deha (body of Consciousness) of Parameśvara or Parameśvarī (the Supreme. The constitution of an atom reveals the static-dynamic polarization of Sakti.shows no real contradiction. is right). The original germ-cell splits up into two: one half gradually develops itself into the body of a plant or animalthis is the somatic cell. This is Weismann's doctrine of' continuity of the germ plasm. 304 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER it is like the emanations of radium which do not sensibly detract from the energy contained in it. it requires. every dynamic form necessarily presupposes a static background. also presupposes a cosmic static background (over and above Cidakāśa-ether of Consciousness). as the principle or pole of Tat (That). too. much less is it dispensed with. This last.Lord in male and female aspect). which is the embodiment of all energy. The result of the last fusion (there are successive fusions in the various centres also) in the Sahasrara is also the Whole. too. This is how I look at it. other and more complex forms of existence also do the same. according to modern biology. ending with the evolution of Pṛthivī-Tattva (it is. what the physicist will describe as a cycle or circuit in action. the sum remaining constant. Now. however. which is the Mahā. it is based neither upon correct logic nor upon clear intuition.' which has been widely accepted. Śakti being either static or dynamic. In this conception the permanent static background is not really depleted.

When. of course. the dynamic equivalent. The potential Kuṇḍali-Śakti becomes partly converted into THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 307 kinetic Sakti. but repeated raising of Kundalini. in one form or other. and Kāraṇa--gross. Commonly. it is not depleted: the potential store always remains unexhausted. Take an electro-magnetic machine. Cit-Śakti (Consciousness as Power) itself. My remarks about the rising or awakening of the Serpent Power at the Mulādhāra have been. because the static background in relation to a particular form of existence has now wholly given way. to which full credence must be given in this matter. Not so induction. "2. it will induce in it an equivalent and opposite kind of electro-magnetism 2 without losing its own stock of energy. that is to say. however.· As . only a sort of 'ethereal double' or 'eject' is unloosed and sent up through the system of centres. however the infinite potential becomes an infinite kinetic-when. so that the source loses and the other thing gains what it has lost. the coiled power of the Mūla becomes absolutely uncoiled-we have necessarily the dissolution of the three bodies (SthīĪūla.' This fact is symbolized by the Kālī-mūrti: not a mere symbol. in fact. energy flows over into another thing. therefore is found. I am tempted to think. 2 if a suitable substance be placed near it. is not perhaps altogether fantastic. induces in the neighbouring centre (say. or root. 'Pītvā 'Pītvā punah pītva. and yet. Now.' etc. this ethereal double or eject means the dynamic equivalent of the static power concentrated at the Mūla. 2 We may say" Take a magnet" and" magnetism ". In conduction. the unfailing Light of awareness about which our Gāyatrī (Mantra) says: 'Which sustains and impels all the activities of Buddhi. like an electro-magnetic machine. is an infinitude. The coiled power remains coiled or static. though awakened. in every phase and stage of creative evolution.viz. subtle. having again drunk. There the source does not lose. causal). thus making it a void. all dynamic operation in the body would cease directly for want of a background. and yet something apparently passes out of the Mūla. but projected upwards an emanation in the likeness of Her own self. unequivocally affirm that Kuṇḍālinī Herself does. 308 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER over-saturated. when it becomes 1 "Having drunk. In this case the dynamic equivalent is a partial conversion of one mode of energy into another. the Mulādhāra becomes. Svādhiṣthāna) a dynamic (not static) equivalent? 1 Is this what the rise of the Serpent Power really means? The explanation. Herself uncoil and ascend. Whenever by Prāṇāyāma of Bīja-mantra. however." In reply to this highly interesting and illustrative account of my friend. The coiled power. This paradox can perhaps be explained in two ways: "(a) One explanation was suggested in my main letter. the Yoga books. were it so. even as given in the Mūla-centre. in plain language." a passage in the Kularnava-Tantra signifying not actual drinking (as some suppose). The sustaining ground or Ādhāra. hence individual Mukti (liberation) need not mean dissolution of Samsara (transmigrating worlds) itself. as the seat of static force. The absolute or ultimate form is. as the Tantra says. I referred to a passage in the Upaniṣad about Pūrṇa. and consequently Videha-mukti (bodiless liberation). But Mahā-Kuṇḍalī remains. a dynamic or operative equivalent of the static power is set up. according to our hypothesis. over-saturated (though the Kuṇḍalī-Śakti at the MūIa is infinite and exhaustless.306 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER elements of feeling. I wrote suggesting some difficulties in the way of the acceptance of his statement that Kuṇḍālinī-Śakti did not. by which the static power itself is not depleted or rendered other than static. Thus a positive charge will induce an equivalent negative charge in a neighbouring object. or any other suitable means. and the induced energy is equivalent and opposite in kind to the inducing energy. This is borne out by some inquiries made of a Tantrik Pandit very familiar with this Śāstra 2 after the receipt of the letter quoted. perhaps almost of the nature of a paradox. and therefore there may be over-saturation). Now. in fact. Liṅga. The difficulty I felt was this: In the first place. yet the capacity of a given finite organism to contain it in a static form is limited. and its gain is similar in kind to the loss. and. uncoiled and rising. since Sakti.. In Laya-Yoga (here described) it is ordinarily so. shall we suppose that the Mulādhāra. It is not that static energy at the Mūla wholly passes over into a dynamic form the coiled Kuṇḍālinī leaving the Mūla. possibly by a law similar to Nature's law of induction. having drunk.! " (b) The other explanation is suggested by the law of induction. that cannot be. never really stirs from its place. ascend.

As a subscriber to the Śakti-vāda (doctrine of Śakti) I am inclined. The Kuṇḍālinī Śakti is the static aspect of the life of the whole organized body. His statements I have always found of peculiar value. and remains as the very possibility of the dynamic upheaval. I suggested that Kuṇḍalī was the static centre of the whole body as a 1 Here is the seat of the first moving. it is the dynamic expression of the Kuṇḍālinī power. but a mere emanative spark of Her. I think. so to say. and that each of the parts of the body and their constituent cells must have their own static centres. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 309 complete conscious organism. but this basic centre or seat is not depleted or rendered void of static energy in consequence of that operation. It is... or are the lives of the individual cells only detailed manifestations of the common life? In other words. I think. But the question is: Is the Mūla depleted or deprived of all power (especially coiled power) when that dynamical expression leaves it and ascends the axis? Is the dynamic expression wholly at the expense of the static ground? Should the latter cease in order that the former may commence? 310 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "Here. also. subtle. like most paradoxes. when consciousness of it is lost. though it may be that there are also difficulties in the acceptance of the statement that the Mulādhāra is entirely depleted of the great power. as you say rightly. though in an inert corpse-like condition. causal). something viz.e. and the whole development of the Jīva-deha (Jīva body) is only the detailed carrying out in particulars of what has been already given in substance. I am quite willing to concede THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 311 . Professor P. can never be dispensed with. I have claimed throughout that the Mulādhāra. If Kuṇḍālinī does not ascend. causal). The ascending power is therefore uncoiled or non-Kuṇḍālinī power. his brother. it is likely to be true. was sustained by the nectar which flowed from Kuṇḍālinī-Śakti when in union with Siva in the Sahasrāra. In reply. that the point of view which you have taken can be reconciled with this interpretation of the matter. like a naval or any other kind of heavy gun against its base or emplacement.as follows: "According to my presentation of the case. when the triple body (gross. The ascending power is simply the dynamic counterpart of the static ground. and merely sent forth a dynamic equivalent of itself? There were further difficulties in the theory put forward by my friend. as a collection of material particles (from which the general organic consciousness as a whole was withdrawn). was an adept in the Yoga. be remembered that. it is possible for him to be ignorant of the scientific implications of his doctrine and practice. is the common life cause and the cell-lives effects or vice-versa? Science is not yet settled on this point. it is the case of the Kuṇḍalī being uncoiled in one aspect or pole and remaining still coiled in another aspect or pole. The Mūla (root). a dynamic equivalent or ' operative double '-is certainly sent forth from the Mulādhāra. how (he further asked) is it that the body becomes cold and corpse-like? Would this follow if the power still remained at its centre. or Paṣyantī Śabda. The relation between the lives of the individual cells and that of the whole organism is not clearly understood in science. This nectar is an ejection of power generated by their union. 2 Though not practising himself. but. To say that Kuṇḍālinī leaves its place and ascends is only to say that it ceases to be Kuṇḍalī and becomes dynamic. as the seat of static or coiled power. however learned or practised a Pandit or Yogi may be. in the germcell itself the common life is given in substance. So far all can agree. to give primacy to the common life. It is the sine qua non of all functions of the triple body (gross. I must answer in the negative. Nevertheless. I asked him how the body was sustained when Kuṇḍālinī left Her central abode. I hold in utmost reverence.the body of the Yogi still lives. however. Mukhyopadhyaya dealt with the matter . which. and that the life of the body. the buffer or base against which any activity of the Jīva (embodied consciousness) must react or recoil. "Is scriptural authority. the static or coiled Śakti retains its place at the Mūla. subtle. which would uphold such parts and cells. can never be rendered a vacuum in relation to such power except in the circumstances of Videha-mukti (bodiless liberation). as the seat of static (i. by-the-by. His answer was that it was maintained by the nectar which flows from the union of Siva and Śakti in the Sahasrāra. according to the principle of Adṛṣṭa (Karma). perhaps. Thus while the dynamic or uncoiled Śakti ascends the axis. from whom he had learnt. must dissolve. It must. It is a case of Power leaving as well as remaining-leaving as dynamic and remaining as static. Is the common life a merely mechanical resultant of the lives of the individual cells. really challenged by this interpretation? The nature of the dynamic equivalent and its relation to the static background have been indicated in the previous two communications. A paradox. however. coiled) power. and I need not dilate on them.

e. Benefit or injury to the life of the whole reacts on the condition of the cells. This is what the rising of the serpent perhaps means. this dynamic power is distributed over the whole body. dynamic power ordinarily diffused over the whole body. the coiled power has not lost its general equilibrium or static condition. by which the Prāṇas are collected and converged. there is coiled power at the base of the axis and its necessary correlate. In mathematical language. together with the lives of the cells. etc. Commonly in Yoga this withdrawal and convergence of Prāṇa 312 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER is incomplete. though inert or corpse-like. static-dynamic polarity. and Vyāna). Thus ordinarily the dynamic equivalent is the Prana diffused over all the tissues. diffused all over the body in the five forms. Samāna. vitalizing not merely the larger tissues. and the dynamic correlate is the operative power (the five Prāṇas--viz. In Kuṇḍālinī -Yoga some part of the already available dynamic Prāṇa is made to act at the base of the axis in a suitable manner. analogous to electromagnetic action. and reacts on the whole diffused dynamic power (or Prana) of the body by withdrawing it from the tissues and converging it along the line of the axis. There something like condensed lightning (Taḍit) is rising from the Mulādhāra. But look back. of course. insensibility.. till the consummation is reached at the Paramaśivasthāna) (abode of the Supreme Siva).. In the whole organism the static pole or correlate is the coiled power at the Mulādhāra. which actually carries on the various functions of the body. there is such polarity or correlation. Thus also the polarity or correlation is maintained: in the former case between Śakti at Mulādhāra and the diffused Prāṇa. keeps the body alive. but to the concentration or convergence of the. Now. the dynamic Prana. She has . THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 313 " (b) The modus operandi of this reaction is difficult to indicate. lastly.. so that the dynamic equivalent which is set up against the static background or Kuṇḍālinī-Śakti is only the diffused fivefold Prana gathered home-withdrawn from the other tissues of the body-and concentrated in a line along the axis. "(a) In thus reacting. and behold the Kula-Kuṇḍālinī is also there at the Mūla coiled three times and a half round the Svayaṁbhū-Liṅga. Apāna. without itself being depleted or rendered other than static" induces or produces a dynamic equivalent which is the diffused Prana of the body gathered and converged along the axis. the cells will die and the body disintegrate. ' Semi: because they require to be sustained to a considerable degree by the life of the whole. or (ii) an inductive action. the residual Prana.. these two explanations in understanding the modus operandi. and gathering momentum in going up from Cakra to Cakra. and going up the axis and influencing neighbouring tissues. Ordinarily. In this way the diffused dynamic equivalent becomes the converged dynamic equivalent along the axis. but the microscopic cells. This will perhaps adequately explain coldness. nothing would be subtracted from the already available dynamic energy of the body. but no direction). "Suppose. but something would be added to it on account of the static power at the Mūla being rendered kinetic. in Yoga it is converged along the axis. the diffused Prana is a scalar quantity (having magnitude. Prāṇa. In this latter case there is no need for conversion of the static energy . not to the depletion or privation of the static power at the Mulādhāra. we are witnessing with a Divya-caksus (inner eye) the progress of Kuṇḍālinī-Yoga. "Hence I should venture to conclude that the static power at the base of the axis. and so on. and converge it in its own resultant line along the axis.to the individual cells lives of semi-independence. I venture to think. We shall have perhaps to choose between. "2. while the converged Prāṇa is a vector quantity (having both magnitude and definite direction). then there should be an excess rather than a defect of vitality all over the body. "Now. 'The states in the process may thus be summarily indicated: "1. the static equivalent or Kundalini-Śakti enduring in both cases. dynamized) in Kuṇḍālinī-Yoga. in the latter case between Śakti at Mūla and the converged Prāṇa along the axis. by which means the base-or particularly the four-petalled Padma (lotus) which represents this centre--becomes over-saturated. also. in every cell there is. Udāna. increased inertia. In the case of complete withdrawal and focussing. but it is probably (as suggested in my previous communications) either (i) a partial conversion of the infinite coiled power into the sort of influence that can thus gather the diffused Prana. To begin with. therefore. in the whole organism. or rather co-ordinate. the devitalization (as you say) of the body in Kuṇḍālinī -Yoga or Ṣaṭ-cakra-bheda is due. the death of the whole life is followed by the death of the cells. "On the other hand if the coiled power were simply and wholly uncoiled (i. of the rest of the body in Kuṇḍālinī-Yoga of which you write.

which they have not yet received. is actually united with Siva. Though in both cases bodily consciousness is lost. and who is therefore Jñāna Śakti itself. 2 What. and is again coming back to Herself. loses all consciousness of the world and enters his causal body. The reason which they allege is this: In DhyānaYoga ecstasy takes place through detachment from the world and mental concentration." and. in its fullest and literal sense. I believe. when awakened by the Yogi. As the states are different. maybe. Secondly. The enjoyment of the Vīra-Sādhaka is but a reflection of it on the physical plane. produces. with the hope that others will continue the inquiry I have here initiated. Only he who has had all Yoga experiences can say. in Kundalini-Yoga not only the mind. I leave at this point the subject. In Yoga he passes beyond to formless Consciousness. he sleeps-that is.and the experience of the Yogi? " Putting aside detail. It. or the uprising of pure Consciousness unhindered by the limitations of the mind. a welling up of the true bliss through the deadening coverings and trammels of matter.and that the Samādhi (ecstasy) attained thereby is more perfect. this word is used in Vīra Sādhana in a figurative sense only. being an experience of Bliss itself. who is all Saktis. when once set in movement. the main principle appears to be that. In Indian doctrine. On the other hand Kuṇḍālinī. with the accompanying bliss and acquisition of special powers (Siddhi). and other matters in the Tantra Sastra. a power which carries with it the forces of both body and mind. Is not this vision supported by scriptural authority . Hence its claim to be the Emperor of all Yogas. indicating a bliss which is. and a Bhava or feeling of momentary union of Śiva and Śakti which ripens in the higher Yoga-Sādhana into the literal Liberation of the Yogi. its 1 I do not say either that this is admitted or that it is a fact. in the Samādhi of Dhyāna-Yoga there is no rousing and union of Kuṇḍālinī-Sakti. is drawn to that other static centre in the thousandpetalled lotus (Sahasrāra). leading to vacuity of mental operation (Vṛtti). has both Enjoyment (Bhukti) and Liberation (Mukti). that practitioners of this Yoga claim that it is higher than any other1. but the body in so far as it is represented by its central power (or. I have only to add. Further. However this may be. whilst it is said that both have liberation (Mukti). The union in that sense is claimed to be more complete than that enacted through mental methods only. the Christian Scientist calls the" mortal mind". two terms are better than one. A.2 The degree to which this unveiling of consciousness is effected depends upon the meditative powers (Jñāna-Sakti) of the Sadhaka and the extent of his detachment from the world. When Kuṇḍālinī 314 THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER "sleeps" man is awake to this world. Contents of table and excerpts are from The Garland of Letters by Sir John Woodroffe Unmanifested or indistinct Manifested Sound sound Avyakta = Unmanifest or Īśvara Hiranyagarbha Sound Vīrat . that of the former is infinitely more intense. This union produces an enjoyment (Bhukti) which the Dhyāna-Yogi does not possess.A.left and yet remained or stayed. full Jñāna for him. Again. which is Herself in union with the Siva-consciousness or the consciousness of ecstasy beyond the world of forms. when "wakened. THEORETICAL BASES OF THIS YOGA 315 eject). the nearest approach on the physical plane to that of Mukti. the content of which is held only so long as She" sleeps. mind is a temporal and limited manifestation of the unlimited eternal Consciousness. without further discussion of the point. seem to me (whatever be their inherent value) worthy of an investigation. but through the central power of the jiva." Kuṇḍālinī -Śakti either Herself (or as my friend suggests in Her eject) ceases to be a static power which sustains the world-consciousness. When She" awakes . in Kuṇḍālinī-Yoga there is not merely a Samādhi through meditation. Whilst both the Divya-Yogi and the Vīra-Sādhaka have enjoyment (Bhukti). I merely here state the facts. He.

as well as the physical objects it denotes. 5) Raudrī is Kriyā in triangular or pyramidal (Śṛn gātaka). Raudrī. and a fourth transcendent state or Turīya. Hiraṇyagarbha2. Viśva3. Prājña1. and Vaikharī in the throat. 8) Parā is Śabda as Para-bindu and is motionless (Niṣ. Each of these are manifested forms of the Unmanifested Para-bindu or Śabdabrahman. and then projects this subtle Artha into the world of sensuous experience and names it in spoken speech developed in the throat and issuing from the mouth. 81) derives it from Vi = very.indistinct Parā Vāk or Paraśabda (Bindu) Sabdabrahman. This last Gross Śabda is language. dreamless sleep1. Khara = hard. Kha = cavity (of the ear): Ra = to go or enter.panda). words (Pada) and letters (Varṇa) which are the expressions of ideas and Mantra. Jñāna. and as there are three cosmic and individual states. Madhyama is specific movement (Viśeṣa-spanda). the manifested letters which singly. This is Virāt-śabda. Vaikharī is Virāt-śabda (manifest sound) belonging. for Paśyantī is the actual moving aspect of the unmoving Parā. Madhyamā. Icchā. that is. Madhyama and Vaikharī. soul. 3) Paśyanti ―She who sees. Kriyā. Jyeṣṭhā. According to the SaubhāgyaSudhodaya. Viśesa Spanda = Special motion. But according to the Yogaśāstras the Devī who is in the form of Vaikharī (V i h rīrū ) is so called because She was produced by the Prāṇa called Vikhara. the Vāyu commencing to differentiate. or in combination. Exists in consciousness.Śabda. (c) Kriyā Tamas Raudrī Rudra VaikharīŚabda. the first undefined push of the Vāyu towards manifestation. 2) The Supreme Speech (Parā-vāk) is without idea or language before it develops further: Paśyantī.‖ Īksana. Madhyama is Hiraṇyagarbhaśabda. sentences (Vākya). that is. Vāmā. 4) Jyeṣṭhā which is in the form of a straight line (Ṛjurekhā) attaining the state of Mātṛkā ( t tv u ) is Madhyama vāk. mind and soul. that is. Madhyama in Anāhata (and upwards). becomes threefold and the threefold aspects from the Śabda standpoint are Paśyanti. Virat Śabda = defined movement (Spaṣtatara Spanda). Dreaming2. Vaikharī. Causal Īśvara. Madhyama Vāk. Unconditioned Brahman is above Avyakta. Madhyamā. 12) The Triads and the fourth state. In creation the Cosmic Mind first develops Paśyanti-śabda and Artha (object). 9) Parā is in the Mūlādhāra cakra. gross. 7) Paśyantī and the others only exist in the created body. Paśyanti is characterised by non-particular general movement (Sāmānyaspanda). Mantra means those letters or combination of letters which are used in Upāsanā and MantraYoga and are the Mantras of the Devatās of Śāstrik worship. so there are three states (Bhāva) of sound Paśyantī1. Madhyama in Anāhata and Vaikharī in the throat (in Viśuddha Cakra) as the Mother of all sounds. Exists in the mind. She becomes Paśyanti in Svādhiṣṭhāna. This last and Paśyantī represent the causal aspect of Śabda. Subtle Form. Īkṣaṇa = creative thought and action by Bindu. 10) As Sabdabrahman Mother Kuṇḍalī goes up from the Mūlādhāra Cakra (Paravāk). waking3. 6) the order would appear to be (a) Icchā Rajas Vāmā Brahmā Paśyantī-Śabda. Paśyantī. intellect. all uttered speech having a common origin or development: but in the more usual sense. Vai = certainly. Undifferentiated Sound Body of Īśvara Mūlādhāra cakra Visual Middle Sound Sound Body of Jīva Body of Jīva Svādhiṣṭhāna Anāhata Spoken Speech Body of Jīva Vaikharī 1) Vāk or Devī Sarasvatī. Vaiśvānasa or Virāt3. This. to the gross body (SthūlaŚarīrā). This Sūksma-śabda and its corresponding Artha (object) belong to the subtle body (Liṇga-Śarīra). another synonym for Śabda. Just as the body is causal. three-dimensional form. mind. Paśyanti in Svādhiṣṭhāna (and upwards). and is the manifested VaikharīŚabdha. Vaikharī. (b) Jñāna Sattva Jyeṣṭhā Viṣṇu Madhyamā. 11) Vaikharī: Bhāskararāya (Lalitā v. Paśyantī Vāk. Para-śabda is unmanifested Caitanya (consciousness. Vaikharī Vāk. Strictly speaking all uttered sounds are Mantras. Associated with Buddhi. Vaikharī3 developed from a fourth supreme and undifferentiated state (Parā). as already explained. Madhyamā2. subtle. and Vaikharī. Īśvara1. Taijasa2. Vāmā is so called because this Śakti vomits forth the universe (Vamamāt Vāmā). make certain sounds which are called Mantras. .

Artha is Kalā. Here there is the first assumption of form as the Mātṛkā ( t tv = assumption). for their individual and racial characteristics and the conditions. Of these letters and names and their meaning or objects. or can understand. so the latter is the Śakti of the gross letters (Varṇa) of words and their objects. In this way Her Garland is understood. buds forth in Madhyamā. In Her they are dissolved in the fiery ending of the worlds. She is Paramā-Kalā in the Mother form (Aṃ bikārūpa = Mother Fom) which is both supreme Peace (= Paramā-Śāntā) and Supreme Speech (Parā-vāk). issuing from Her as Kuṇdali and absorbed by Her in the Yoga. 18) The Jīva who inbreathes and outbreathes utters a great Mantra. (say) an ordinary peasant knows of. These are called Paramākāśāvasthā. Śakti it is who is the Cause of the sweet. gives forth leaves in Paśyantī. Madhyamā. When Kālī withdraws the world. and then Paśyantī. throat and palate and going through the passages of the head and nose and teeth and coming out from the base of the tongue and the lips becomes audible Vaikharī—the Kuṇdalinī who has invested Herself with the Varṇas and is the Mother of all varieties of Śabda. Pada (syllables) Mantra. ―Surely‖ I hear it said ―not by all. Out of Vāk and Artha the whole world. no more than. in which there is a trace of Tamae (Tamo‘nuviddha). When. understand what it means both to the high as well as to the humble worshipper. XXIV) which sounds like the humming of black bees. vanishes. which bears Her name. which is creation. a Sāttvik condition in which there is also a trace of Rajas. This is the Śakti -Vāmā. Does every Hindu worshipper think such profundities when he sees the figure of Mother Kālī?‖ Of course not. Having so created it. (See Ch.13) When the time for creation comes She uncoils Herself and creates the whole universe in the form of the Letters and the objects which they denote. and Vaikharī Śabda. the dualism in consciousness. Kuṇdalinī. Whether then we have to deal with Dhvani in the sense of a form of causal Śabda or as a gross manifestation of Śabda depends upon the context. Rajas and Tamas. signifying the confusion of tongues. that is the names and forms which the Letters signify.‖ Śakti . consisting of six Adhāvas (Ṣadadhvātmaka) originated. and Bhuvana the other so called Adhvās. As the former Śakti produces the subtle letters or Mātṛkā which are the Vāsanā. that is. Tattva. This sound is Parā. however. buds in Madhyamā. 15) As the Yoga-kuṇdalī-Upaniṣad says: ―That Vāk (Power of speech or Logos) which sprouts in Parā. is the manifestation in bodies of the Paramātmā. and Artha is Vimarśa its object. and blossoms in Vaikharī. Round the neck of Kālī the Letters (Varṇa) which make the syllables (Pada) and Mantra are hung. 16) This manifested speech varies in men. the illuminating consciousness. Akśarāvasthā. Avyaktāvasthā. which becomes subtle as Madhyama and gross as Vaikharī. There is a tradition that there was once a universal speech before the building of the Tower of Babel. for here is particular motion (Viśeṣa-spanda). Madhyamā-Vāk which is knowledge (Jñāna) is Jyeṣthā. the Western undertakes to depict and explain Indian symbolism. he should. Thus Śakti is defined as the Sattva-predominant (Sāttvika) condition of Cit. Vāk is in the form of Varṇa (letters). She again rests as Kuṇdalī in the root centre of the body (Mūlādhāra) of all living creatures from which She issues as Paśyantī. and Nāda a state of Causal Śabda. Dhvani as the Rājasik-Sāttvik condition (Rajo‘nuviddha Sātttvika) of Cit. . 17) ―She (Kuṇdalinī) being in the heart. indistinct and murmuring Dhvani (See Ch. Vāk is Prakāśa. Dhvani. This is the Ajapā-Mantra or Haṃ sah. XXVII). She sees the manifested Śabda from Paśyantī to Vaikharī. 19) the Yogakuṇḍali Upaniṣad3 says: "That Vāk (power of speech) which sprouts in Parā gives forth leaves in Paśyantī. in the interest both of knowledge and fairness. The Paśyantī state is that in which Will Icchā-Śakti ) is about to display the universe then in seed (Bīja) form. the subtleties of either the Catholic mystics or Doctors of theology. who is Varṇamayī and Dhvanimayī.‖ because it repeats itself naturally without any effort on the part of the Jīva. Nāda and the rest are described as various aspects of Cit due to its varied association with the Guṇas—Sattva. called ―Ajapā. such as country and climate in which they live differ. Salutation is thus made to Her from whom the mind and its thoughts proceed and the language (Vāk) in which they are expressed. and blossoms in Vaikharī. It is the heaving of the Dhvani which causes alternate inspiration and expiration. 14) when Śakti first ―sees‖ (that is. that is concepts and concepts objectified the whole Universe is composed. ideates). These letters form the Garland of the Mother (Varṇamālā). The Vaikharī state is that of Kriyā-Śakti (action) whose form is that of the gross universe. There is neither ―I‖ (Ahaṃ ) nor ―This‖ (Idaṃ ) but the one nondual Perfect Experience which Kālī in Her own true nature (Svarūpa) is.

short. This article is about Kundalini Chakras as described by Swami Purnananda. about seven miles from Gauhati. This work is part of Sri-Tattva-Cintamani.Author: Purnananda-Svami (1526 CE) Commentary: Kalicarana in Sanskrit English Translation: Sir John Woodroffe Source: the Serpent Power Flowcharts.. illustrations. Commentary: . This includes my comments.. SAka year 1448) and achieved Siddhi in VasisthAsrama. India. Assam. English translation by Woodroffe (Serpent Power) is full in some verses. segments of the verses and their translation are color-coded for easier identification by sight. Preliminary verse: Author: Purnananda-Svami (1526 CE) Commentary: Kalicarana in Sanskrit English Translation: Sir John Woodroffe Source: the Serpent Power Flowcharts. Translation of some Sanskrit words and phrases follows the Monier Williams dictionary and may differ from that of Woodroffe. condensed in some verses. and modified in other verses. Commentary: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Sat-Chakra-Nirupana Six-Chakra Investigation Description of and Investigation into the Six Bodily Centers By Tantrik Purnananda-Svami (1526 CE) Sat-Chakra Nirupana is the Premier Composition on Kundalini Chakras. montages. For your convenience. Some verses have extensive commentaries and illustrations by me. illustrations. drawings.. The Commentary was by Kalicarana in Sanskrit. Pūrnānanda a Brahmana of Kasyappa Gotra wrote Sat-Chakra-Nirupana (1526 CE. flowcharts. He wrote many other Tantrik works. additions.

Pūrnānanda a Brahmana of Kasyappa Gotra wrote Sat-Chakra-Nirupana (1526 CE. and modified in other verses. Go to Kundalini Power for more details on Kundalini Yoga. India. SAka year 1448) and achieved Siddhi in VasisthAsrama. about seven miles from Gauhati. English translation by Woodroffe (Serpent Power) is full in some verses. The Commentary was by Kalicarana in Sanskrit. condensed in some verses. Preliminary verse: Atha tantrānusāreṇa ṣaṭ chakradi kramodvatah Ucyate paramānanda-nirvāha-prathamāṅkurah . Assam. flowcharts. montages.. He wrote many other Tantrik works.. short. segments of the verses and their translation are color-coded for easier identification by sight. drawings. Translation of some Sanskrit words and phrases follows the Monier Williams dictionary and may differ from that of Woodroffe. This work is part of SriTattva-Cintamani.Sat-Chakra-Nirupana Six-Chakra Investigation Description of and Investigation into the Six Bodily Centers By Tantrik Purnananda-Svami (1526 CE) Sat-Chakra Nirupana is the Premier Composition on Kundalini Chakras. This includes my comments. additions. This article is about Kundalini Chakras as described by Swami Purnananda. Some verses have extensive commentaries and illustrations by me.. For your convenience.

a string of blooming Dhatura flowers. ṣa. which is to be achieved. extends to the middle of the Kanda to the Head. the knowledge of which is necessary for Kundalini Yoga.. ṣa. whose substance is the threefold Gunas. the five elements. and Fire. Rajas and Tamas. Anahata.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras.. Sasi and Mihira. The accomplished Kundalini Yogi only can explain the principles of Kundalini Yoga. according to the Tantras. She is the form of Moon. Atha = Now. Siva Sakti. www. Other things refer to Nadis. tantrAnusArena = following the Tantras PrathamAnkurah = First step. Knowledge. Neither the best of the wise nor the most advanced in age can explain them without the mercy of the Guru.Now I speak of (the first step) sprouting shoot of the Yoga plant of complete realization of the Brahman. shining.htm . the central pole of the world. nirvAha. Bliss). from the Medhra to the Head. Vishnu. by means of the six Cakras and so forth in their proper order.. Vijananam and Anandam (Eternal. Gunas refers to the qualities of the central Susumna Nadi as Sattva. Commentary: Here is the mention of Nadis and Chakras. Ucyate ParamAnanda = Says Paramananda. Ida and Pingala Nadis of the left and right side.bhagavadgitausa. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Verse 1 Merorbāhyapradeśe śaśi mihirasire savyadakṣe niṣaṇṇe Madhye nādi suṣuṁnātritaya-guṇamayi candrasūryagnirūpā Dhattūra-smera-puṣpagrathita-tamavapuḥ kandamadyacchirahstā Vajrākhyā meḍhradeśā cchirasi parigatā madyameऽsyā jvalanti In the space outside the Meru. Meru is literally a mountain. likewise Meru is the vertebral column of the human body. श ष ह the last three letters of ParamAnanda is Supreme Bliss and Nityam. Sa. and Siva. Ha point to Brahma. placed on the left and the right. It is full of the greatness of śa. are the two Siras. Manipura. Sun. The Nadi Susumna. Lingas. Siras and Sasi are the Moon and the Sun. Her body.= Complete realization Sat Cakradi Kramodvatah = Achieved by means of the six Chakras and other things. is in the middle. Ha ( the Sanskrit alphabet). Vissuddha and Ajna. and the Vajra inside Her extends. Svadhisthana. The six Chakras are Muladhara.

the point being two fingers above the anus and two fingers below the root of the phallus (medhra). Kanda means bulbous root. Susumna is fiery red like Fire. Serpent Power: Page 150 lists Susumna Nadi. There is a central Nadi which has three components. divides into two branches. She (Citrini) is beautiful by reason of these (Lotuses) which are strung on her. who is lustrous with the lustre of the Pranava and attainable in Yoga by Yogis. Susumna clings on to the stalk of Sankhini as it goes up the spinal cord. Pingala. one branch going to the left ear and the other goes to the crown. of which only three are the most important: Ida. She (Citrini) is subtle as a spider's thread. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Verse 2 Tanmadhye citriņī sā praṇavavilāsitā yoginām yogagamyā Lūtātantūpameyā sakalasarasijān merumadhyāntarasthān Bhittva dedipyate tad-grathana-racanayā śuddha-bodha-svarūpā Tanamadhye brahmanāḍī harakukha-kuharadādi-devāntarātmā. Vajra Nadi is Rajas. goes to the forehead. Susumna goes to the neck. and Susumna. savyadakṣe niṣaṇṇe = placed on the left and right. madyameऽsyā = Vajrah inside her = Inside Susumna Nadi. Susumna Nadi is Tamas. candrasūryagnirūpā = Moon-Sun-Fire form. present in the Uro-genital Triangle in man. śaśi-mihira-sire = Moon and Sun Nadis = Ida and Pingala nadis. reaches the throat. Citrini Nadi and the central Brahma Nadi or canal. Vajrini is of the form of Sun. Meru = Meru mountain = spinal column from the Muladhara Chakra to the neck. Vajrini Nadi. . three tubes in all: Citrini Nadi is Sattva. tritaya-guṇamayi = whose substance is the three Gunas or modes: Sattva Rajas and Tamas. which extends from the orifice of the month of Hara to the place beyond. goes near the Brahma Randhra and ends near the 12-petalled lotus. Madhye-nādi-suṣuṁnā = the central Nadi or canal = susumna Nadi. Citrini Nadi is pale and of the form of Moon. Inside her (Citrini) is the Brahmanadi. Susumna Nadi extends from Muladhara to Brahma Randhara-the anterior fontanel area. and pierces all the Lotuses which are placed within the backbone.bāhyapradeśe = in the space outside. emerges from the spine. Remember these Nadis are subtle and not anatomical. kandamadyacchirahstā = Kanda-MadhyAt-SirahsthA = from the middle of the Kanda to the head. where Adi-deva is. passes between the eyebrows united with Kundali. Inside her is Citrini. a tube within a tube. 72K Nadis emerge from the Kanda. Sankhini is a Nadi that starts at Kanda. and is pure intelligence.

middle Nadi is Chitra Nadi (AKA Citrini) and the outer Nadi (Vajra Nadi). Lūtātantūpameyā = like a spider's thread. sakalasarasijān merumadhyāntarasthān Bhittva dedipyate = She pierces all the lotuses. Tanamadhye = inside Her.Tanmadhye = Inside Her (Vajra). Remember these are subtle channels. placed one tube inside the other. Kundalini is of the from of Sabda Brahman. See the Diagram below . Adi Deva is the Supreme Bindu in the pericarp of the 1000-petalled lotus. She is fine like a spider's thread. Within Citrini is Brahma Nadi. Essentially Susumna consists of the substance of the spinal cord with the three Nadis inside it. Susumna = Su + Sumna = Excellent + musical hymn. Chitra Nadi = Citrini = The Nadi is anthropomorphized and deified. Kundalini passes through the Central Brahma Nadi. All these important Nadis are called Susumna. It is the orifice at the top of the Svayambhu Linga in Muladhara. canals or Nadis and not anatomical entities. happiness or joy = perfect harmony. praṇavavilāsitā = lustrous within the luster of Pranava (om). There is the central Nadi (Brahma Nadi). through which Kundalini goes from Muladhara to Parama Siva. She absorbs the luminosity from Pranava in Ajna Chakra as she passes through it. harakukha-kuhara = The orifice of mouth of Hara.

www. tadetat = the place near the entrance. Sankara reads śuddha-bodha-svabhāvā as śuddha-bhāvā-svabhāvā. The Brahma-dvara shines in her mouth.bhagavadgitausa. the mouth of Brahma Nadi. sva-bhāvā: Kalicarana says it means one's nature. as also the mouth of Susumna. She is the source of all Bliss. She1 is beautiful like a chain of lightning and fine like a (lotus) fibre. the awakener of pure knowledge.Verse 3 Vidyanmālā-vilāsā manimanasilasat-tantu-rūpa susūkṣmā śuddhajṅanaprabhodhā sakala-sukha-mayī śuddha-bodha-svabhāvā Brahma-dvāraṁ tadāsye pravilasati sudhādhāragamya-pradeśaṁ Granthi-sthānaṁ tadetat vadanamiti suṣuṁnākhya-nadyā lapanti. She is extremely subtle. whose true nature is pure Consciousness. sakala-sukhamayī = Sukha is Ananda or Spiritual Bliss. agreeable. gentle. tadāsye = her mouth. Literal meaning = Pure1 Consciousness2 by natural constitution3.union of [Parma-Siva and Sakti]-place = The place that contains Ambrosia (Suddha) which comes from the union of Siva and Sakti. lasat-tantu-rūpa = Fine like a (lotus) fiber and shines (because of the presence of Kundalini). This place in the entrance to the region sprinkled by ambrosia. sudhā1dhāra2gamya3-pradeśaṁ4 = literal meaning = Purecontaining. śuddha1-bodha2-svabhāvā3 = Whose true nature is Pure Consciousness. entrance or exit for Kundalini and Her ascent to Siva or descent from Siva. and is called the Knot. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj She1 = Citrini who ascends through Brahma Nadi. the embodiment of all Bliss. Sankara says it means Jnana which is Paramatma or divine or spiritual Jnana. and shines in the minds of sages. Here the union (StrIpum-yogAt = woman-man union) is symbolic.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. the innermost tube of Susumna Nadi.htm . Sukha = (literal meaning) pleasant. gate. Brahma-dvāraṁ = Brahma's opening. Also known as Chitra Nadi. Granthi-sthānaṁ = Knot-place = the place where there is a knot at the root of all Nadis.

It has four petals of crimson hue. catuh-śoṇa-patraṁ. The letters of the alphabet on each of the petals of the six lotuses are to be meditated upon going round a circle from the right (Dakṣināvartena: clock-wise direction. Red or crimpson. The letters on the petals are to be meditated upon in a clockwise fashion. śa (palatal). suṣuṁnākhya-lagnaṁ = It is attached to the mouth of Susumna. Vakarādisāntair yutaṁ veda-varṇaih. Next we come to the Adhara Lotus1. = The four letters are Va. Paramanand describes the Muladhara Chakra. It is attached to the mouth of the Susumna. ṣ (cerebral).) . Dhvajādho gudordhvaṁ = from below the root of the genitals to Susumna. Vedavarna = Veda character = means four Vedas. Adhovaktramudyat-suvarṇābhavrṇaih Vakarādisāntair yutaṁ veda-varṇaih. From Verses 4 to 13. of the shining colour of gold. = four red petals. Its head (mouth) hangs downwards. and is placed below the genitals and above the anus. and Sa.Verse 4 Athādhārapadmaṁ suṣuṁnākhya-lagnaṁ Dhvajādho gudordhvaṁ catuh-śoṇa-patraṁ. Four Petals of the Muladhara Chakra are present at the junction of Kanda and Susumna. Adhara Lotus1 = Support-Lotus = Muladhara Chakra Lotus at the base of the spine in the Uro-genital triangle. Here Veda stands to mean four. On its petals are the four letters from Va to Sa.

Verse 5 .

Prithvi is Earth. which is a Tattva.htm . principle or building block of the world. as is also the Bija of Dhara which is within. Lam. Tad-ante = inside the region of Prithvi (Dhara Mandala). Ajna Chakra is the home for the mind. Ether is smoky and oval. Water is translucent and crescent-shaped. lam is Aindra-BIja (Bija of Indra) of yellow color possessed of four arms. principle or building block of the world. Fire is red and triangular. śūlāṣṭa = Asta + Sula = 8 spears.bhagavadgitausa. dharāyāḥ svabījaṁ: Bija of Dhara: it is the Root mantra of Earth. Lam. Lasat pītā-varṇaṁ tadit-komalāngaṁ = shining yellow color. Air is blue and circular. www. All the elements are assigned a shape and color: Earth is yellow and square. It is of a shining yellow colour and beautiful like lightening. holding the thunder in one hand. beautiful like a lightning. Svadhistana for water and Muladhara for earth. Parts of the translation are not by Woodroffe. Earth's four-angle Chakra.Amuṣmin dharāyaś-catuṣkoṇa-cakraṁ Samudbhāsi śūlāṣṭakairāvṛtaṁ tat. The Kundalini Chakras from Sahasrara to Muladhara centers are the home for the building blocks of the human body. Eight spears meaning eight directions or points of compass. Amuṣmin dharāyaś-catuṣkoṇa-cakraṁ = In this (Lotus). mighty and seated on the elephant Airavata. which is a Tattva. having a tender body. which is the Bija of Earth: Lam. Anahata for air. Vishuddha for Ether.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. Manipura for fire. surrounded by eight shining spears. This Bija is of shining yellow color (Lasat-pIta-varnam = shining yellow color). Lasat pītā-varṇaṁ tadit-komalāngaṁ Tadante samāste dharāyāḥ svabījaṁ In this (Lotus) is the square region (Cakra) of Prthivi. Prithvi is Earth. Tadante samāste dharāyāḥ svabījaṁ= within it seated Bija of Dhara: it is the Root Mantra of Earth.

Himalaya. Mandara. The four angles and four side have the eight spears (see the arrows). Suvela. The tips of the spears are shaped like the breast of a woman or the mountain. The spears are those of Deity Dakkini. Woodroffe quotes Nirvana Tantra by saying that the eight spears are like the seven Kula Mountains: Nilacala. one of the Bhairavis (Consort of Bhava--Siva) BHAIRAVI .In the pericarp of the lotus is present the square Earth. Chandr Sekhara. Remember the name of Wyoming's majestic mountains. 'Grand Tetons' of Grand Teton National park. and Suparvata. Earth is round but its representation here is a square and of yellow color. Malaya.

Indra is the chief of gods and his physiognomy and body habitus are different from human beings. The elephant of Indra in the Chakra denote qualities of Tattva and the vehicles of the devata therein. It is the Bija of Indra (the god of thunder and lightning of the Indo-Aryans) who holds the thunderbolt in one hand sitting on the elephant Airavata.wikipedia.The Bija Mantra (Lam) is right in the middle of the square earth. Long hands reaching the knee in an earth-bound person are characteristic of Marfan's syndrome. http://en.org/wiki/Marfan%27s_syndrome President Lincoln had Marfan syndrome and I doubt. the tips of his fingers reach the knees. one of the great BhairavIs. is an incarnation of the Thunder and Lightning God Indra of Indo-Aryans. Indra is MAhA-bAhu. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj . It is of yellow color. AjAnu-lambita-bAhu = Arms reaching the knees. possessed of great long arms--sign of prowess. It is said that Indra has mighty arms. The Chakra is inhabited by DAkinI. The Bija of Earth and of Indra are the same.

= The bounty of whose lotus-face is fourfold. . Dhara Bija (Earth Bija Mantra) is in Muladhara and Creator Brahma dwells in its Bindu which is above Nada. tadaṅke navīnārka-tulya-prakāśaḥ. Ornamented with four arms and mounted on the King of Elephants. here some replace Bhedah with Veda meaning that Vedas emanated from the four lotus-faces of Brahma. By this is meant the four-faced Brahma. śiśuḥ sṛṣṭkārī = the child creator = Brahma. The king of Immortals. Indra. He carries on his lap the child Creator. lasad-veda-bāhuḥ = glowing four arms. = on his lap (of Dhara Bija) resplendant like the young sun. Cuturbāhu-bhūṣaṁ gajendrādhi-rūḍhaṁ = Ornamented with four arms and mounted on the king of elephants. Veda = Vedas or four (as in four Vedas).Cuturbāhu-bhūṣaṁ gajendrādhi-rūḍhaṁ tadaṅke navīnārka-tulya-prakāśaḥ. resplendent like the young Sun. and the wealth of whose lotus-face is four-fold. śiśuḥ sṛṣṭkārī lasadveda-bāhuḥ mukhāṁbhojalakṣmiś-caturbhāgabhedaḥ. mukhāṁbhojalakṣmiś-caturbhāgabhedaḥ. who has four lustrous arms. is seated on the elephant.

It is thus that she should be meditated upon by those who desire immortality. Lakini. her four arms shine with beauty. Kakini. Da. She is the carrier of the revelation of the ever-pure Intelligence. is in Adhara or Muladhara Chakra and enables the Yogi to acquire knowledge of the Tattva (Tattva Jnana). She is resplendent like the lustre of many Suns rising at one and the same time. who strikes terror in the hearts of Pasus. who holds in her two right hands the spear and the khatvanga and in her two left hands the sword and a drinking-cup filled with wine. Dakini. Meditation of Dakini is as follows: Meditate on her. prakāśaṁ vahantī sadā śuddha-buddheḥ = She is the carrier of the revelation of the ever-pure Intelligence. She is plump of body. and her eyes are brilliant red. Vasedatra devī ca ḍākinyabhikhyā lasadeva bā-hūjjvalā rakta-netrā = Here dwells the Devi Dakini by name. and her eyes are brilliant red. Dakini Sakti. the red-eyed Dakini. her four arms shine with beauty. She is of fierce temper and shows her fierce teeth. the presiding deity. .Vasedatra devī ca ḍākinyabhikhyā lasadeva bā-hūjjvalā rakta-netrā Samānoditāneka-sūrya-prakāśā prakāśaṁ vahantī sadā śuddha-buddheḥ Here dwells the Devi Dakini by name. in the Muladhara. Samānoditāneka-sūrya-prakāśā = resplendent like the lustre of many Suns rising at one and the same time. Sakini and Hakini (all named after the initial Sanskrit letters. Rakini. and is fond of Payasanna. the red. Ra etc) are the queens of the respective Chakras. Dakini is the queen of Muladhara Chakra and also the door keeper. She crushes the whole host of enemies.

there constantly shines the beautifully luminous and soft. forehead mark of vermilion. and eyes ornamented with collyrium. Those on Nivrrti Marga are making the centripetal journey towards the Supreme Consciousness and merge with Him. and known as Traipura.bhagavadgitausa. sugar. and in the pericap (of the Adhara Lotus). more on them at: Primer in Saiva Siddhanta. Tilaka is the red vermilion mark worn on the forehead to indicate their life with a living husband. Maya and Kanma Malams. who is of a deeper red than the Bandhujiva flower.She has Tilaka. The are devoid of impurities. sword = used in sacrifice of animals. raisins. as said by Siva to Parvati. There is always and everywhere the Vayu called Kandarpa. khatvanga = A staff with human skull at the upper end. lightening-like triangle which is Karmarupa. rice. the path of Evolution.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. and is the Lord of Beings and resplendent like ten million suns. butter. Pasus = The unillumined ones. The lotus is turned up in the path of renunciation (Nivrrti Marga) and return to Para Brahman and turned down in life of action (Pravrrti Marga).htm . www. a path away from the Supreme Consciousness. We are afflicted with impurities (mummalam: three impurities. Anava. Vajrākhyā viaktradeśe vlasati satataṁ karṇikā-madhyasaṁsṭhaṁ koṇaṁ tat traipurākhyaṁ taḍidiva vilasat-komalaṁ kāmarūpam kandarpo nāma vayur nivasati satataṁ tasya madhye samantāt jīveśo bandhu-jīva-prakaramabhί-hasan koṭisūrya-prakāśaḥ Near the mouth of the Nadi called Vajra. is clad in black antelope skin and decked with varied jewels. Payasanna = a kind of milk pudding with boiled milk. saffron. We as earthlings are on the Pravrrti Marga.

they leave the body. Kandarpa-VAyu is part of the ApAna-VAyu. Tantraraja Siva says to Devi.' Thus Kam is the Bija of KAmini adn Klim is the Mantra. It is the embodiment of the devotee's desire. ApAna in the anus. thus preventing each other from leaving the body. being part of ApAna is the Lord of Life and prevents the PrAna from leaving the body. The Triangle is the charming Sakti Pitha. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj komala = soft = oily and smooth. It is MadanAgArAtmaka meaning Chamber of Madana (Deva of Love)-the Yoni. kāmarūpam = that by which KAma is caused to be felt. When they are in accord.gif shows the triangle under the verse 37. ApAna and PrAna draw each other. Knowledge. the latter ka is the chief letter of KAma Bija.The Triangle of Mulachakra in the pericarp is described. JyestA and Raudri. TANTRA7. Go to BG04 for description of Airs or Vayus. Kandarpa. Continuation of Life is dependent on kAma or Kandarpa-Vayu. above DharA-Bija. This Muladhara Triangle is the Sthula (gross) aspect of Suksma (subtle) Kamaraja Triangle in Sahasrara Chakra. The triangle according to Visvanatha and Gautamiya Tantra is Iccha-Jnana-Kriyatmaka (the powers of the Will. PrAna and ApAna are the maintainers of animate being. koṭisūrya-prakāśaḥ = resplendent like ten million suns. 'the letter Ka is thy form. jīveśa = Lord of Beings. Vayu = air. and Action). Go to TANTRA to see the Triangle. The three lines are VAmA. Vajrākhyā viaktradeśe = near the mouth of the Nadi called Vajra. kandarpa = This is the Kandarpa-Vayu in the Triangle. PrAna dwells in the heart. koṇaṁ tat traipurākhyaṁ = Triangle is so called because of the presence of Devi Traipura within the Ka inside the Triangle. Tanmadhye lingarūpī druta-kanaka-kalā-komalaḥ paścimāsyah Jñāna dhyānaprakāsaḥ prathamakisalayākārarūpaḥ svayṃbhuḥ Vidyupūrṇēṇdubimba-prakara-karacaya-snigdha-saṁtānahāsī Kāsīvāsī vilāsī vilasati saridāvartarūpaprakāraḥ .

Parabrahman gives rise to Sabda or Soundbrahman (Bindu. He is revealed by Knowledge and Meditation. beautiful like molten gold. with His head downwards. alphabets. Siva-Linga's other name. poetry and the universe of beings and matter.Inside it (the triangle) is Svayambhhu in His Linga-form. Kāsīvāsī vilāsī = The Deva who resides happily here as in KAsi. (He is beautiful and blue-green Siva --Sivam-SyAmala-Sundaram. so does His beauty. sarid-āvarta-rūpa-prakāraḥ = Like a whirlpool (Whirlpool is the depression on the top of the Linga. paścimāsyah = His head downwards. The Deva who resides happily here as in Kasi is in forms like a whirlpool. sound and word of Sabdabrahman or God (logos). Vidyut- pūrṇēṇdu-bimba-prakara-karacaya-snigdha-saṁtāna-hāsī = As the cool rays of lightning and of the full moon charm. drutakanaka-kalā-komalaḥ = His body has the soft luster of molten gold. so does His beauty. Tasyordhve bisatantu sodara-lasat sūkṣmā jaganmohini . prose. Svayambhu is both Parabrahman and SabdaBrahman meaning by Jnana we realize His attributelessness (Brahman) and by DhyAna the attributefulness (Isvara). words. This refers to the Svayambhu Linga like the tapering shape of the new unopened leaf-bud. and is of the shape and colour of a new leaf. Kundalini) which is the origin of sounds. Simply put. Jñāna. As the cool rays of lightening and of the full moon charm. syllables. There are two kinds of Brahmans: ParamBrahman and SabdaBrahman (Supreme Brahman with no attributes and Sound Brahman who is the creator of the universe.dhyāna-prakāsaḥ = Revealed by Knowledge and Meditation. Self-existent. we all originated from thought. By Spiritual Knowledge we apprehend Parabrahman and by meditation the Sabdabrahman or Isvara. Tanmadhye lingarūpī svayṃbhu = Inside it (the triangle) is Svayambhhu in His Linga-form. prathama-kisalayā-kāra- rūpaḥ = The shape and color of new leaves. Svayambhhu = Self-originated. ready to be moved by KAmaBija. The ever-blissful Svayambhu being inactive has his head down. 10.

Pictorial appearance of the verse. a horse (Asva-Bandha). Prakrta and other languages. Like the spiral of the conch-shell. inspiration and expiration." Her sweet murmur is like the indistinct hum of swarms of love-mad bees = When She is awakened She makes this sound. = It is said that man makes 21600 cycles of inspiration and expiration. She dwells in the triangular hollow in the pericarp of the Muladhara Lotus resting on the svayambhu-Linga. Her shining snake-like form goes three and a half times round Siva. She makes the sound of humming bees and is the source of speech. according to Sankara. Purport: Kundlini Sakti is in the Svayambhu-Linga. example: A lotus (padma-Bandha). . navīna- capalā-mālā vilāsāspadā = A strong flash of young lightning. 10. Devi-Kundalini maintains the existence of individual beings (Jiva and Jivatma) by functions of inspiration and expiration. the Vaikhari state of Sound (Articulated sound). melodious poetry and Bandha = The composition of the verse (s) is arranged to look alike a diagram or picture. there is no breathing. madhuraṁ = Sweet.. 'possessed of the wealth of a strong flash of young lightning. Lit. Without Her. Kūjantī kulakuņdalī ca madhuraṁ mattalimālā-sphuṭaṁ vācāṁ komalakāvya-bandaracanā bhdātibheda-kramaiḥ śvāsocchvāsa-vibhañjanena jagatāṁ jīvo yayā dhāryate sā mūlāmbuja gahvare vilasati proddāma-dīptāvaliḥ Over it shines the sleeping Kundalini. This indicates. fine as the fibre of the lotus-stalk. Her sweet murmur is like the indistinct hum of swarms of love-mad bees. and shines in the cavity of the root (Mula) Lotus like a chain of brilliant lights. and Her lustre is as that of a strong flash of young strong lightning.brahmavāramukhaṁ mukhena madhuraṁ saṁchadayanti svayaṁ śakāvarta nibhā navīna capalāmālā vilāsāspadā suptā-sarpasaṁā śvopari lasāt sārdha-trivṛttākṛtiḥ 11. Tasyordhve bisatantu sodara-lasat sūkṣmā jaganmohini ---Verse 10 line 1 brahmavāramukhaṁ mukhena madhuraṁ saṁchadayanti svayaṁ ---Verse 10 line 2 śakāvarta nibhā navīna capalāmālā vilāsāspadā ---Verse 10 line 3 suptā-sarpasaṁā śvopari lasāt sārdha-trivṛttākṛtiḥ ---Verse 10 line 4 vācāṁ komalakāvya-bandaracanā bhdātibheda-kramaiḥ Verse 11 line 2 bisatantu sodara-lasat sūkṣmā = Shines fine as the fibers of the lotus stalk.' komala-kāvya-banda-racanā-bhdātibheda-krama = She produces melodious poetry. gently covering the mouth of Brahma-dvara by Her own. It is she who maintains all beings of the world by means of inspiration and expiration. This MAyA is dear to Me. She is the world-bewilderer. world-bewilderer = Siva says. She drinks the nectar coming by the sweet Brahma-dvara. and is Brahman Itself. Over it shines the sleeping Kundalini and Her shining snake-like form goes three and a half times round Siva = She as the snake wraps around the Linga three and half times and over it with Her head. Go to Sabda or Sound for full description of Sound. She produces melodious poetry and Bandha and all other compositions in prose or verse in sequence or otherwise in Samskrta. by which this world is bewildered. "This Supreme Sakti is in me. jaganmohini = Worldbewilderer.

" Kundalini is always meditated upon as red (RaktA) in color. Existence and Dissolution. a woman who is warm in winter and cool in summer and lustrous like the molten gold. . is resplendent like million of moons rising at the same time and has four arms and three eyes.Devi Kundalini is Srsti-rupa meaning she is of the form of Creation itself. She is Urddhva-VAhini meaning She goes upwards from Muladhara to Sahasrara Chakras. with very large and beautifully formed breasts. She is SyAma. She is Ista-Deva-SvarUpini. decked with all the varied kinds of jewels. the Brahman Itself. meaning that She is meditated upon as The Particular Devata. red in color. Her hands make the Vara and Abhaya Mudras (Granting Boons and Fear-Not Pose of hands). She is VisvAtitA meaning She is beyond the universe. She is Jnana-Rupa meaning She is of the form of Consciousness. She. She is Srsti-Stithi-layatmika meaning She is Creation. lustrous as the full moon. She is Immanent and trascends the universe. and hold a book and a Vina--musical instrument. with restless eyes. She sits on a lion and as She passes to Her own abode (Muladhara Chakra) the Awe-inspiring One assumes different forms. "She is a damsel of sixteen in the full bloom of Her first youth. Before she pierces the Chakras.

and is subtler than the subtlest. human consciousness is derived from Cit-KalA. Parampara = linear descent (connected step by step) as follows: Nirguna-Brahman→ Saguna-Brahman→ Sakti → NAda → Bindu → Kundalini. Prana. CitkalA unites with Lakshmi and appears as a tapering flame. Nityānada paraṁparātivigalat pīyūṣa-dhārādharā = She is the receptacle of that continuous stream of Ambrosia flowing from Eternal Bliss (Brahman). the Awakener of eternal knowledge. It is the BrahmanConsciousness. Siva. above. She is the Omnipotent Kala who is wonderfully skilful to create. a fragment of which is incorporated in the human mind. SUra (Sun) and Paramesvara. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Within it = Within Svayambhu-Linga. In Bhagavad-Gita Bhagavan says: 15. of which the mind is the sixth. She is the receptacle of that continuous stream of ambrosia which flows from the Eternal Bliss. Verse: KalA: Cit-KalA is Devi who is Consciousness-Brahman and its part or fragment is resident in the mind of humans. KAlAgni (The destructive Fire at Dissolution) and Chandra (moon).7: A fragment of My own Self becomes the eternal living soul in this world of Jivatmas and draws the senses of material nature (Prakrti). meditate upon Kundalini within. the Sri-Paramesvari. so She is Cit-KalA. To relinquish all sins. Nityananda = Eternal Bliss = Nirguna Brahman = Attributeless Brahman = Unqualified Brahman. Brahmani. By Her radiance it is that the whole of this Universe and this Cauldron is illumined. atikuśalā = She is wonderfully skilful to create. which cannot function without CitKalA.Tanmadhye paramā kalātikuśalā sūkṣmātisūkṣmā parā Nityānada paraṁparātivigalat pīyūṣa-dhārādharā Brahmāņḍādī katāhameva sakalaṁ yadbhāsayā bhāsate seyaṁ śrī parameśvarī vijayate nityaprabhodhodayā Within it reigns dominant Para. Para = AKA: Kundalini. In Kundalini is the ParA state of Sabda or sound. Vishnu. below the flame as Brahma. Cit-KalA is another form .

this nectar comes down to Para-Bindu. Anahata. ativigalat pīyūṣa-dhārādharā = She is the receptacle of the stream of Ambrosia which flows copiously from Nityananda. She is Supreme MAyA. whose radiance illumines this Universe and its cauldron. All the foremost of the Deities. . He pleases them by words of adoration. and Siva. The Ambrosia trickles down step by step to Paramesvari AKA CitkalA. Manipura. who is like a straight thread above Kundalini. He becomes ever free from all diseases. SuraGurun refers to Brahma. and reaches Muladhara. GurUn like Simha (lion). From Nityananda. who is NityanandaParampara. Cauldron = Cauldron shape of the lower half of Brahmanda (Brahma's egg =Universe). Vishnu. NAga (serpent) are appended to male names to imply excellence. Example: He is lion of a man. dwells in the Svayambhu-Linga above where Kundalini is coiled and holds supreme sway. with the lustre of ten million Suns. sevate = He serves. kalā = is a form of NAda-Sakti. a man becomes Lord of speech and King among men. Pure of disposition by his deep and musical words. Swami Paramananda talks about the Staff-like Para-Sakti. Sri-Paramesvari. Dhyātvaitan-mūlacakrāntaravivaralasatkoṭisūryaprakāśāṁ Vācāmēśo narendrah sa bhavati sahasā sarvavidyāvinodī Ārogyaṁ tasya nityaṁ niravadhi ca mahānandaittāntarātmā Vākyaiḥ kāvyaprabandhaiḥ sakalasuragurūn sevate śuddhaśilaḥ. he serves the foremost of the Devas. Vākyaiḥ kāvya-prabandhaiḥ = His deep and musical words. passes through Ajna Chakra. the Trinity of Hinduism. mūla-cakra antara-vivara-lasat-koṭisūrya-prakāśāṁ = She shines in the Muladhara Chakra like ten million suns shining at one and the same time. sakala-sura-gurūn = all-devas-guru-like excellence. Visuddhar Chakra. Mula-Cakra = Root Chakra = Muladhara Chakra. SArdUla (Tiger). a descendant of the original Nirguna-Brahman. Another way of looking at this flow of Ambrosia. and his inmost Spirit becomes full of great gladness. Svadhistana.of Kundalini. and an Adept in all kinds of learning. paramā = Omnipotent. who is coiled round Svayambhu-Ling. By meditating thus on Her who shines within the Mula-Cakra. He uses his words in hymns of praise and for purpose of a like nature.

Summary: Muladhara is a Lotus of four red petals having on them gold letters Va. In the pericarp. and has four hands with Danda (staff). inside which are kAma-VAyu and KAma-Bija. and above this last upstands. CitkalA. KhatvAnga (skull-mounted staff). In the Pericarp is the DharA-mandala with eight spears and in the lower part is the DharA-Bija (Lam) who has four arms and is seated on the elephant Airavata. Śa. and holds Vajra (thunderbolt) in his hands. Above this is the Svayambhu-Linga which is SyAma-Varna (black color) and above and round this Linga is Kundalini coiled three and half times. both of which are red. Ṣa. on the top of the Linga. Khadga (sword). four-armed Sakti DAkini. the presiding deity of the Chakra (ChakrAdhisthAtrI). and Casaka (drinking-cup). Inside the Bindu of DharA-Bija is the four-faced child Brahma. Kamandalu (gourd). SVADHISTHANA . holding SUla (spear). In the pericarp besides Brahma there is a red lotus on which is seated red-colored. there is lightning-like triangle. Rudraksa rosary and Abhaya-Mudra (Fear-not pose). He is yellow. who is red in color. Sa.

Susumna = means that Susumna Nadi has three tubes one within the other. sauṣuṁņa-madhya-ghaṭitaṁ = Placed inside the Susumna. being the Bija of Puramdara or Indra. within which is the Svadhisthana Lotus. Ma. Aṅga-chadaiḥ = On its six petals. . Svadhisthana Chakra is within Susumna NAdi. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj another Lotus1 = Svadhisthana Chakra. with the Bindu3 superposed.(Svadhisthana) Sindūra-pūrarucirāruņapadmamanyat sauṣuṁņamadhyaghaṭitaṁ dhvajamūladeśe Aṅgacchadaiḥ parivṛtaṁ taḍidābhavarņaiḥ bādyaiḥ sabindu-lasitaiśca Puraṁdarāntaiḥ There is another Lotus1 placed inside the Susumna at the root of the genitals.com/Sat-ChakraNirupana-Kundalini Chakras. dhvaja-mūladeśe = At the root of the genitals. of a beautiful vermilion colour. of the shining colour of lightening. Puramdara2 = the letter La. Five verses from 14 to 18 describes Svadhisthana Chakra of vermilion color. or Supreme Linga. The central Nadi or channel is Brahma Nadi. Bindu3 = The AnusvAra. Bha. Svadhisthana: The place of Sva. Ya.bhagavadgitausa. This is the seat of Supreme Linga. one placed on each of the six Lotus petals.htm Sindūra-pūra-rucirā-ruņa = Of a beautiful vermilion color. On its six petals are the letters from Ba to Puramdara2. The lustrous letters Ba. La are the six letters. www. meaning Para-Linga. bādyaiḥ sabindu-lasitaiśca Puraṁdarāntaiḥ = The letter La. Ra.

(Svadhisthana)
Tasyāntre pravilasadviśadaprakāśamambhojamaņdalamatho varuņasya tasya Ardhendurūpalasitaṁ saradinduśubhraṁ vaṁkārabijamamalaṁ makarādhirūḍhaṁ.

Within it1 is the white, shining, watery region of Varuna, of the shape of a half-moon2, and therein, seated on a Makara3, is the Bija Vam, stainless and white as the autumnal moon. Within it1 = Within Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra. half-moon2 = Half-moon is the sign of Makara3 = A legendary animal as seen on the plate.
Svadhisthana Chakra and water is the element of this chakra.

ambhojamaņdalam = The pericarp of the Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra contains the watery region (Ambhoja Mandalam) of Varuna. Ardhendurūpalasitaṁ = half-moon form shining. viśadaprakāśam = luminously white. Varuna Bija is white and sits on Makara, the carrier of noose-holding Varuna. Above Varuna is four-armed and blue-colored Hari (Vishnu), worthy of worship. The letter Va in Vruna-Bija belongs to the semivowel group, Ya, Ra, La, Va.

(Svadhisthana)
Tasyānkadeśakalito harireva pāyāt nīlaprākasaruciraśriyādadhānaḥ Pītāmbaraḥ prathamayauvanagarvadhārī śrīvatsakaustubhadharo dhṛtavedabāhuḥ.

May Hari, who is within it1, who is in the pride of early youth, whose body is of luminous blue beautiful to behold, who is dressed in yellow raiment, is four armed and wears the Sri-vatsa2, and the Kaustubha3, protect us! May Hari, who is within it1 = This verse tells that Vishnu is the Varuna-Bija. Vishnu is within the lap of the Bindu of VAm. Sri-vatsa2 = the favorite of Sri or Lakshmi. This is the auspicious curl of hair on the chest of Vishnu and His Avatara Krishna. It symbolizes Prakrti (the world of matter). Kaustubha3 = The gem worn by Vishnu symbolizes the souls that are united with the Kaustubha gem. anka-deśa-kalita = Within it. In the Bindu above Varuna-Bija, in the same way as Brahma is in the lap of DharA-BijA (Earth Bija) in Muladhara Chakra. nīla-prākasa-rucira-śriyam = Blue effulgence lustrous splendor. He possesses the enchanting beauty of His blue effulgence. His luminous effulgent blue body (Vishnu) is beautiful to behold. śrīvatsakaustubha = (Vishnu wears) Srivatsa and Kaustubha gem. The gem shines like ten thousand gems; His VanamAla (garland of forest flowers) shines like ten thousand moons. The Srivatsa curl of hair on His right chest shines like ten thousand moons. All these are chanted in eulogizing Vishnu. Meditate on dark-blue Hari (Vishnu) wearing Pitambara (yellow garment) holds the Conch, Discus, Mace and Lotus in His four hands. VanamAla (garland of forest flowers = All-season Forest flower garland of many colors and hues comes down to the level of Vishnu's knees and has in it Kadamba flowers in the middle. The garland symbolizes the elements, Earth, Water, Fire. Air and Ether. prathama-yauvana-garvadhārī : Of prime youth, proud Vishnu. Vishnu's weapons: Mace or Club symbolizes Mahat (Adi-Buddhi, Universal Intelligence, Divine Mind, Cosmic Intellect, Nous-Greek, Radiation from the Universal Absolute). the Conch: Sattvic Ahamkara. Virtuous self-illumined I-doer. Sattva = Virtue, illumination, enlightening Knowledge. Ahamkara = I-doer, the Universal Ego of Vishnu. The

bow = symbolizes Tamasic Ahamkara meaning absorption of the universe. Tamas = darkness. The Sword: Divine Knowledge. Its Sheath: ignorance. Discus: the mind. the arrows: the senses. In Muladhara, Brahma sits on his transport (Vahana) Hamsa and here Vishnu flies on Garuda ( a mythical bird appearing like an Eagle.

(Svadhisthana)
Atraiva bhāti satataṁ khalu rākiņī sā nīlāṁbujodarsahodarakāntiśobhā Nānāyudhodyatakarairlasitāṅgalakṣmīṛdivyāṁbarābharaņabhūṣitaattacittā

It is here that Rakini always dwells1. She is of the colour of a blue lotus. The beauty of Her body is enhanced by Her uplifted arms holding various weapons. She is dressed in celestial raiment and ornaments, and Her mind is exalted with the drinking of ambrosia. Rakini always dwells1 =
Rakini shines (bhāti) here in Svadhisthana Chakra.

nīlāṁbujodarsahodarakāntiśobhā = Her radiant beauty equals the interior of the blue lotus. Rakini is the resident Devi of Svadhistana Chakra sitting on the double lotus with a streak of blood running from her nostrils. Meditate of blue-colored Rakini with red eyes and fierce teeth. She is the furious aspect and holds in Her hands a spear, a lotus, a drum, and a battle-axe. She grants wished-for boons and is fond of rice.

(Svadhisthana)
Svādhiṣṭhānākhyametatsarasijamamalaṁ cintayedyomanusyastasyāhaṁkāradoṣādiksakalarepuḥ kṣīyate tatkṣaņena yogīśaḥsoऽpiṃohādbhutatimiracayebhānutulyaprakāśo gadyaih padyaiḥ parabhandhairviracayati sudhāvākyasandoha lakṣmiḥ

He who meditates upon this stainless Lotus, which is named Svadisthana, is freed immediately from all his enemies, such as the fault of Aha kara and so forth. He becomes a Lord among Yogis, and is like the Sun illumining the dense darkness of ignorance. The wealth of his nectar-like words flows in prose and verse in well-reasoned discourse. enemies = Enemies of six passions: KAma = Lust. Lobha = Greed. Moha = delusion. Mada = pride. MAtsaryya = envy. All these six enemies arise from Ahamkara, a sense of mineness. kara = Egoism. The benefits from contemplation of Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra are described. Ahaṁkāra-doṣādi: the Ahamkara fault and so forth. See above for the six evil predispositions. These six ennemies are destroyed by contemplating on Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra. The darkness of MAyA and MohA are destroyed. Summary of Verses 14 to 18: Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra of vermilion color has six letters (Ba, Bha, Ma, Ya, Ra, La) of the color of lightning placed on the petals. In the pericarp of the Main Lotus there is a white region with second 8petalled Lotus with half-moon in its center. Inside this region is the Varuna-Bija, VAM seated on Makara with a noose on hand. In the hollow of Bindu is Vishnu sitting on Garuda holding in His four hands the Conch, the Discus, the Mace, and the Lotus. Vishnu, of youth and pride, wears yellow raiment, a garland of forest flowers, the mark of Srivatsa on His chest and a gem Kaustubha on His breast. Fierce looking Sakti Rakini with three eyes, projecting fangs, and bleeding nostrils, sits in the pericarp of the red lotus, is of syAma varna, holds in her four hands SUla, Abja, Damaru, and Tanaka (a spear, a lotus, a drum, and a battleaxe) and is fond of white rice.
MANIPURA

Tasyordhve nābhimūle daśadalalasite pūrṇameghaprakāśe nīlāmbhojaprakāśairrupahitajaṭhare dādipāntaiḥ sacandraiḥ Dhāyedvaisvānarauṇamihirasamaṁ maṇḍalam tat trikoṇaṁ tadbāhye svastikāvyaistribhirabhilasitaṁ tatra vahneḥ svabījam. Above it1, at the root of the navel, is the shining Lotus of ten petals2, of the colour of heavy-laden rain-clouds. Within it are the letters Da to Pha, of the colour of the blue lotus with the Nada and Bindu above them. Meditate there on the region of Fire, triangular in form and shining like the rising sun. Outside it are three Svastika marks3, and within, the Bija of Vahni himself4. Above it1 = Above Svadhisthana Lotus Chakra. the shining Lotus of ten petals2 = The Manipura Chakra, the seat of the element of Fire, the sign of which is a triangle. three Svastika marks3 = It is an auspicious mark In the Indian context, the svastika stands for universal welfare. "Swasti" means well-being of one and all, "ka" means symbol. the Bija of Vahni himself4. = Ram is the seed Mantra of Fire. Vahini = Fire. Svastika (Ansate Cross) is derived from the Sanskrit svastika (in Devanagari, स्लस्स्तक), meaning any lucky or auspicious object, and in particular a mark made on persons and things to denote good luck. It is composed of su(cognate with Greek ευ-, eu-), meaning "good, well" and asti, a verbal abstract to the root as "to be" (cognate with the Romance copula, coming ultimately from the Proto-Indo European root *h1es-); svasti thus means "well-being." The suffix -ka intensifies the verbal meaning or confers the sense of 'beneficial', and svastika might thus be translated literally as "that which associated with well-being," corresponding to "lucky charm" or "thing that is auspicious."[1] The word first appears in the Classical Sanskrit (in the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics)-Wikipedia. Svastika sign is made by drawing a cross and then drawing lines that go in clockwise direction at 90º angles. Dasa-dala-Lasite = Shining Lotus of ten petals. The Lotus shines by reason of its ten petals. Purna-meghaprakase: of the color of the heavy rain clouds. 2nd line. Nilambhoja-prakasair-upahita-jathare-dadiphantaihsancandraih = the color of the blue lotus, the ten letters, Ḍa, Ḍha, Na, Ta, Tha, Da, Dha, Na, Pa, Pha on ten petals as seen in the diagram. Sacandraih = Moon dot. The letters have Bindu and NAda over them. ArunaMihira-Samam: like the young sun

Dyāyenmeşādhirūdham navatapanaibhaṁ vedabāhūjvalāṇgaṁ tatkroḍe rudramūrtiirnivasatī satataṁ suddhasindūrarāgaḥ Bhasmāliptāṅgabhūşābharaṇasitavapurvṛddhārūpī triṇetro lokānāmişṭadātābhayalsitakaraḥ sṛşṭstisaṁhārakarī. In his lap ever dwells Rudra. granting boons and dispelling fear1 = the deities exhibit hand poses that give boons (Vara) and quell Fear (Abhaya Mudra) . who is of a pure vermilion hue. He (Rudra) is white with the ashes with which he is smeared. Meditate upon him (Fire) seated on a ram. radiant like the rising Sun. 20. four-armed. His hands are placed in the attitude of granting boons and dispelling fear1.. He is the destroyer of creation. of an ancient aspect and threeeyed.

and Sakti in the other. Bhasmaliptanga-bhusabharana-sita-vapu = His body is smeared with ash. His ornaments makes Him look white.Meditation on Vahni (Fire): Seated on a ram. . a Rudraksa rosary in one hand. Rudra is never meditated upon as seated on a bull. though he is of red hue. The other two hands holding no weapons grant boons and quell fear.

the city of jewels because it is lustrous like a gem. vividhaviracanālaṁkṛta = Decked with various ornaments. who is blue and has three faces. who is red in color. fierce aspect. Her right hand She holds the thunderbolt and the Sakti (the weapon of Vahini (Fire) and in the left She makes gestures (mudra) of dispelling fear and of granting boons. The Nabhi Padma--Navel Lotus--is rain-cloud-colored with ten lustrous blue petals having on them the letters: Ḍa. By meditating on this Navel Lotus the power to destroy and create (the world) is acquired. three-faced with three eyes on each face. Vani = Sarasvati . and with the teeth protruding I. Rudra red in color sits on a bull on the lap of Vahni-Bija. Ḍha. Here abides Lakini. Ta. is fond of eating cooke rice and dhal mixed with meat and blood. and exalted with the drinking of ambrosia. Devi or Goddess of speech. Summary of Verses 19 to 21. is smeared with ash and appears old. The navel lotus is called Mani-pura. clothed in yellow raiment and decked with various ornaments. Tha. She is blue. She is four-armed. She is in the pericarp of the navel Lotus with ten petals. All her ornamets (pearsls and gems) are arranged in varied and beautiful designs. the benefactress of all.21. Da. She is fierce with protruding teeth. Here ends the third section. is dark (of complexion). and three eyes on each face. Pha with Bindu above each of them. lakini = lakini is meditated upon as follows. Sakti Lakini sits on a red lotus in the pericarp. Dha. within which is the four-armed Bija of Fire. holds in Hsi hands the Vajra (thunderbolt) and the Sakti weapon and makes signs of Vara and Abhaya. Vani with all the wealth of knowledge ever abides in the lotus of His face. of radiant body. holds the Vajra and Sakti weapons in her two hands and makes abhaya and Vara mudras with the other two hands. Let the excellent worshipper meditate upon the Devi Lakini. Triangular-shaped red region of Fire with Svastika signs on its three sides is in the pericarp. sits on a ram. Ram. She is fond of meat (Mamasi) and Her breast is ruddy with blood and fat which drop from Her mouth. Na. ANAHATA . Na. Atrāste lākinī sā sakalaśubhakarī vedabāhūjjvalāṅgī śyāmā pītāmbarādyairvividhaviracanālaṁkṛta mattacittā Dhyātvaitannābhipadmaṁ parabhavati nitarāṁ saṁhṛtau pālane vā vāṇī tasyānanābje nivasati satataṁ jñānasaṁdohalakşmiḥ. four-armed. Pa.

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Ga. is here. Ca. wishing-tree = Kalpa-taru is a wish-tree in the garden (heaven) of the chief of gods Indra. which is like unto the smoke in colour. Gha. is the charming Lotus.htm charming Lotus: Verses 22 to 27 describes Anahata Lotus Chakra. Ṭa. Jha. Na. Ja.bhagavadgitausa. which is meditated upon in the heart. Cha. with the twelve letters beginning with Ka. of the colour of vermilion. . Tasyordhve hṛdi paṅkajaṁ sulalitaṁ bandhūkakantyujjvalaṁ kādyairdvādaśavarṇakairupahitaṁ sīndūrarāganvitaiḥ Nāṁnāṇāhatasamjñakaṁ surataruṁ vācchātiriktapradaṁ vāyormaṇdalamatra dhūmasadṛśaṁ şatkoṇaśobhānvitaṁ Above that. and is like the celestial wishing-tree. in the heart. of the shining colour of the Bandhuka flower. It grants all that is wished for and Moksa (liberation). www. placed therein. It is known by the name of Anahata.22. Kha. The 12 letters from Ka to Tha are on the petals: Ka.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. bestowing even more than (the supplicant's) desire. Ṭha. six corners = see the interlacing triangles with six corners (Sat-kona). beautiful and with six corners. Ña. The Region of Vayu.

. meaning that the sound is not produced by two clanging objects. vāyormaṇdalaṁ = Vayu Mandalam or Region of Air.hṛdi paṅkajaṁ = Heart Lotus. it is Unstruck Sound. Nāṁnāṇāhata-samjñakaṁ: name Anahata it is known. dvādaśavarṇa= 20 letters. Munis called the Lotus Anahata because they heard the sound of sabdabrahman in the Heart Lotus.

Paramatman).‘ ‗Hamsa‘ comes into being by inversion. with four arms.23. Hamsah is the union of male and female and the universe is Hamsah. the subtle sound ‗sah‘ going in and the subtle sound ‗ham‘ going out. Hamsa is also AntarAtmA (the Inner Atman or Soul. stands for an ascetic --Hamsan. It is Bija Yam. madhuraṁ = sweet and excellent. Vishnu. and seated on a black antelope. the Abode of Mercy = Sankara opines that it is a Ocean of Mercy (Kripa Sagar or KarunAvAridhi). Every breath (and the Mantra) that you take pervades the whole universe of your body. Soham. or Gauri [Parvati or Sakti]. whose carries his Ankusa (goad) in the same way Varuna carries his PAsa (noose). Ham = I am. As you are breathing this chantless Soham in and out. This chantless Mantra pervades the breath going in and out. This chantless Mantra (Ajapa Japa) is called Ajapa Gayatri. Hamsa is Mantra of every breath. dhūmāvalīdhūsaraṁ = Dhuma is smoke. .Sun = Sun is Hamsa and also the name of the Supreme. so = Parvati.} As one chants this subtlesound Mantra ‗soham‘. Tirumular says that AUM. Pavana Bija = The Bija of Yam. (Sa = Siva. Lakshmi. Sa (Sah) is Sakti and Ha is Siva. The black antelope. according to Woodroffe. two hands = Bija has hands and feet. Isa (Siva) is in Vayu Bija. Grey as a mass of smoke. is one-letter Mantra. you are identifying your individual self with the Great Self of the Supreme Being. though a three-letter word. the Stainless Lord who is lustrous like the Sun. Verse Explanation: pavanākşaraṁ = the letter of Pavana (Air). grey as a mass of smoke. meaning ‗Swan‘ as in RamaKrishna ParmaHamsa. a derivative of ‗sah-ham. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Purnananda Svami says that VAyu Bija is in the Anahata Chakra. All of us including all air-breathing living beings recite this Mantra ‗Soham‘ unknowingly for a lifetime. grey as a mass of smoke. Hamsa and AUM (Pranava) are equipotent. This life giving force or Mantra has the Great Self as the basis. and whose two hands make the gestures which grant boons and dispels the fears of three worlds. meaning ‗I am He. Tanmadhye pavanākşaraṁ ca madhuraṁ dhūmāvalīdhūsaraṁ dhyayetpāṇicatuştayena lasitaṁ kṛşnādhirūḍhaṁ paraṁ Tanmadhye karuṇānidnamamalaṁ haṁsābhamiśabhidhaṁ pāṇibhyāmabhayaṁ varaṁ ca vidadhallokatrayāṇāmapi Meditate within it on the sweet and excellent Pavana Bija. It is Aditya (sun) because it is perpetual motion (SAyana).‘ Hamsa. known for its fleetness is the Vahana (carrier) of Vayu (Air). And within it also (meditate) upon the Abode of Mercy. Ham means motion. Soham is the unintonated sound of normal breathing.

blood . exhilarated and auspicious. pūrṇasudhārasārdrahṛdayā = Totally Pure nectar softens her heart. Pandit Purnananda Svami says that there is Sakti Kakini in Anahata Chakra. three-eyed and the benefactress of all. Kakini is exhilarated. Meditate on Kakini. is of yellow complexion. who in colour is yellow like unto new lightning.24. The nectar flows from Sahasrara Chakra. Drum (Damaru). trident (SUla). semen of which sometimes 10 are given . likes to eat Dadhy-anna (curd and rice) drink VAruni (Rice wine). the above 7 and hair . sinews (tendon). She wears all kinds of ornaments. ingredient): chyle . Atrāste khalu kākinī navataḍitpītā triṇetrā śubhā sarvālaṁkaraṇānvitā hītakari saṁyagjnānāṁ mudā hastaiḥ pāśakapālaśobhanavarān saṁbibhrati cābhyaṁ mattā pūrṇasudhārasārdrahṛdayā kaṅkālamālādharā Here dwells Kakini. Her heart is softened with the drinking of nectar. skull (KapAl). fat . . The Seven Saktis or Yoginis have each an abode in one of the Dhatus (layer. skin . She wears the skin of a black antelope. and in Her four hands She carries the noose and the skull. marrow . mattā = exhilarated. who is in the Fat holding in her hands a noose (PAsa). stratum. bone . flesh . and makes the sign of blessing and the sign which dispels fear. constituent part . She with a bending pose.

sūkşma = minute. This is the description of Bāna-Linga. The Bindu is in the head of Siva-Linga. Within the Triangle is the BAna-Linga. maṇiḥ = jewel. which is below Vayu-Bija. prollāsalakşmyālayaḥ = Resplendent abode of Lakshmi. vibheda = piercing. Pandit Purnananda Svami tells of the triangle (Trikona) in the pericarp of Anahata Lotus. maulau sūkşma-vibheda-yuṅ maṇiḥ = on his head is a minute orifice as that in a gem. The orifice is the little space in the Bindu which is within the half-moon which is on the head of the Linga. and on his head is an orifice minute as that in a gem. Alaya = temple. Sakti appears as a down triangle with apex down.25. This Linga is like shining gold. Etannīrajakarṇikāntaralasacchaktistrikoṇābhidha vidyutkotisamānakomalavapuḥ sāste tadantargataḥ Baṇākhyaḥ śivalinṅgakoऽpi kanakākārāṅgarāgojjvalo maulau sūkşma-vibheda-yuṅ maṇiriva prollāsalakşmyālayaḥ The Sakti whose tender body is like ten million flashes of lightening is in the pericarp of this Lotus in the form of a triangle (Trikona). Inside the triangle is the Siva-Linga known by the name of Bana. trikoṇābhidha = In the form of a triangle. He is the resplendent abode of Laksmi. . abode. The down Triangle is symbolic of female escutcheon or Yoni which also appears like an inverted triangle.

and (like) Isvara he is able to protect and destroy the worlds. and Chandr (Moon) are placed one above the other. Pandit Purnananda Svami talks about the good gained by meditating on the Heart Lotus. Surya Mandala is in the pericarp of Anahata Lotus. BhAnu Mandala = Sun Mandala. maintain and destroy the Universe. he can create. bhānormaṇdala-maṇditāntara-lasat kiñjalka-śobhādharaṁ = The filaments which surround and adorn its pericarp. anila-hīna-dīpa-kalikā-haṁsena saṁ-śobhitaṁ = Hamsa (Jivatma) is like the steady flame of lamp in a widless place. The region of Vayu covers the whole pericarp. portion. charm. Anahata Lotus filaments around the pericarp are the only ones thus tinged by the rays of the sun and other filaments of other lotuses are not so touched by the Sun's rays. the abode and seat of Sarva. Hamsa = Here it stands for Jivatma. Mam is the Mantra of mental worship in the region of Fire with his ten KalAs.26. Dhyayedyo hṛdi paṅkajaṁ surataruṁ śarvasya pīthālayaṁ devasyānila-hīna-dīpa-kalikā-haṁsena saṁ-śobhitaṁ bhānormaṇdala-maṇditāntara-lasat kiñjalka-śobhādharaṁ vācāmīśvara īśavaroऽpi jagatāṁ rakşavināśe kşamaḥ He who meditates on this Heart Lotus becomes (like) the Lord of Speech. illumined by the solar region. Above it is region of Surya or sun. charm. illumined by the solar region. One should meditate upon all these. It is beautified by the Hamsa. Above them are the Vayu-Bija and Trikona etc. and enhances the beaty of this Lotus. and (like) Isvara he is able to protect and destroy the worlds. Arka (Sun). This Lotus is like the celestial wishing-tree. Dhyayedyo hṛdi paṅkajaṁ surataruṁ śarvasya pīthālayaṁ = He who meditates on this Heart Lotus becomes (like) the Lord of Speech. The filaments surrounding the pericarp tinged with the rays of the sun give beauty and charm. The regions of Vahini (Fire). The filaments which surround and adorn its pericarp. īśavar = Creator. . which is like unto the steady tapering flame of a lamp in a windless place. Kala = digit. Sarva = Maha-Deva = Siva. part. rakşavināśe kşamaḥ = Equally able to protect and destroy the world.

the KapAla (skull). priyātpriyatamaḥ kāntākulasya = dearer than the dearest to women (because he is skilful to please them). His mind in its intense concentration is engrossed in thoughts of the Braham. In the pericarp of the Anahata Lotus is another red lotus wherein abides four-armed Sakti Kakini of golden hue.27. lakşmī-raṅgaṇadaivataḥ = He is like the Devata who is the beloved of Laksmi. Slakshmi is the consort of Vishnu. and AvadhAna means steady and intense concentration of the mind. enter an enemy's fortress. Summary of Verses 22 to 27 on Anahata Chakra. Yogīśo bhavati priyātpriyatamaḥ kāntākulasyāniśaṁ jñānīśoऽpi kṛti jitendriyagaṇo dhyānāvadhānakşamaḥ Gadyaiḥ padyapadādibhiśca satataṁ kavyāmbhudhārāvaho lakşmiraṅgaṇadaivataḥ parapure śaktaḥ praveştuṁ kşaṇāt. He gains power to render himself invisible. and fly across the sky. four armed and carrying a goad (Ankusa). He is joyous with a rush of desire. His inspired speech flows like a stream of (clear) water. yellow raiment. He is pre-eminently wise and full of noble deeds. kavyāmbhu-dhārā-vaha = His inspired speech flows like a stream of (clear) water. above it is Surya Mandala with the Triangle shining like ten million flashes of lightning within it. jitendriya-gaṇḥ = His senses are completely under control. Sankara says that he is dearer than their husbands. he in the end goes to the abode of Liberation. Goldencolored Siva in the form Bana-Linga with crescent moon and Bindu on his forehead abides in the middle of the triangle. Laksmi = Lakshmi is the family Devata. parapure = another's body. He is able at will to enter another's body. Having enjoyed in this world th best of pleasure. His senses are completely under control. and making Vara (boons) and Abhaya (fear-not) signs. dhyānāvadhāna-kşamaḥ = His mind in its intense concentration is engrossed in thoughts of the Braham. Foremost among Yogis. Hamsa Jivatma below him is like the steady tapering flame of a lamp. Dhyana is meditation --Brahma-Cintana. He is like the Devata who is the beloved of Laksmi and is able at will to enter another's body. many jewels and garland of bones carrying PAsa (noose). Her heart is softened by the nectar. Hexagonal Vayu Mandala of smoky color is in its pericarp. Below the . Rangana is good fortune. meaning he is always prosperous. he is ever dearer than the dearest to women. Above it is Vayu-Bija of smoky hue sitting on a black antelope. The yogi is capable of both. In the lap of Vayu-Bija abides three-eyed Isa who like Hamsa extends His two arms in gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. The Heart Lotus of the color of Bhaduka Flower has vermilion letters from Ka to Tha on its 12 petals with Bindu above them.

pericarp. the jeweled altar surmounted with an awning. there is a red lotus of 8 petals with its head turned upward which contains the Kalpa tree. VISUDDHA . flags and the like and is the place of mental worship.

On an elephant white as snow is . Viśuddhākhyaṁ kaṇṭhe sarasijamamalaṁ dhūmadhūmrāvabhāsaṁ svaraiḥ sarvaiḥ śoṇairdalaparilasitairdīpitaṁ dīptabuddheḥ Samāste pūrneneduprathitatamanabhomaṇḍalaṁ vṛttarūpaṁ himacchayanāgopari lasitatanoh suklavarnambarasya 29. which is pure and of a smoky purple hue. and white like the full Moon. Bhujaiḥ pāśābhītyaṅkuśavaralasitaiḥ śobhitāṅgasya tasya manoraṅke nityaṁ nivasati girijābhinnadeho himābhaḥ Triṇetraḥ pañcāsyo lalitadaśabhujo vyāghracaramāmbaraḍhyaḥ sadāpūrvo devaḥ siva iti ca samākhyānasiddhaḥ prasiddhaḥ In the throat is the Lotus called Visuddha. are distinctly visible to him whose mind (Buddhi) is illumined. All the (sixteen) shining vowels on its (sixteen) petals. In the pericarp of this lotus there is the Ethereal Region. circular in shape.28. of a crimson hue.

com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. is the element of Visuddha Lotus Chakra. circular in shape. The Bija (root) of a thing is that thing in essence. dīpitam= Distinctly visible. white in his Bija form wearing white raiment. with ten beautiful arms. Various texts have assigned different colors to Ethereal region: white. and wears the skin of a tiger and a garland of snakes as His ornaments. smoky. Daughter of Mountain King Himavat (Himalaya Mountains). a body smeared with ash. and the other two make the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. purnenedu = Full-Moon. dala-parilasitaiḥ = shining on the petals. Ethereal. Visuddha in the region of the throat is called Visuddha: Pure (amala = without impurity) by reason of its being tejo-maya (purified by Fire and its substance is Tejas) and hence free from impurity. hima-cchayanāgopari lasita-tanu = On an elephant white as snow is seated. and white like the full Moon. The intellect has become free of impurities of worldly pursuits as a result of constant practice of Yoga. Its filaments are ruddy and it is adorned by Vyoma-Mandala. www. altogether 16 in number. and He is known by what His name. and the other two make the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. Sadasiva has five faces. full Moon: Ether. tasya manor anke = In the lap of His Bija. Bija = Ham is the Bija of Visuddha.bhagavadgitausa. pūrnenedu-prathita-tama-nabhomaṇḍalaṁ vṛtta-rūpaṁ = the Ethereal Region. Hamsa (the Jiva) attains purity. and clothed in a tiger's skin. Nāga is not a serpent but an elephant in this context. is the Mother of the Universe. signifies. three eyes in each face. Sadasiva with white garment. looks like a mountain of silver. His body is united with that of Girija. accouterments and offering boons. Ten beautiful arms carry the following. and Excellent. two hold the noose and goad. so this lotus is called Visuddha (pure). dwells in the lap of Nabho-Bija. Sula Trident Tanka Battle-axe Krpana Sword Vajra Dahana Nagendra Ghanta Ankusa Goad Pasa Noose Abhitikara no-fear sign Thunderbolt Fire Snake-King Bell . Meditate on Him as Deva with ten arms carrying the following weapons. Four verses from 28 to 31 describes Visuddha Lotus Chakra. beginning from A-KAra (A) ending with Visarga. These add to His beauty. His lap: Ham (Nabho-Bija). sits on a elephant of the color of snow. Ambhara = Ethereal region. These add to His beauty. Mountainborn Devi. girijabhinna-deha (girijābhinna-deha) = the snow-white Deva whose body is united with or inseparable from that of Girija. Ambhara.seated the Bija of Ambhara. svaraiḥ sarvaiḥ = all the vowels. vṛtta-rūpaṁ = Circular in shape. Great. two hold the noose and goad. dīptabuddheh = Whose mind (Buddhi = Intellect) is illumined. Sada-Siva = Ever-Beneficent One. lalita-dasa-bhuja (lalita-daśa-bhuja) = beautiful-ten-arms. whose Mandala is a circle (Vrrta-rupa). In His lap there ever dwells the great snow-white Deva. 16 in number and red in color with Bindu above them. nabhomaṇḍalaṁ = Ethereal Region. The letters are lighted up as it were for the enlightened mind (Dīpta-Buddhi). Sada-Siva.htm Of His four arms. Ham is Bija of Ether in the pericarp of Visuddha Lotus and we are to meditate on it. three-eyed and five-faced. This means Siva-Sakti body is androgynous. Bhujaih pasabhityankusa-vara-lasitaih sobhitangasya (Bhujaiḥ pāśābhītyaṅkuśa-vara-lasitaiḥ śobhitāṅgasya) = Of His four arms. tasya manoh = His Mantra = The Bija of Ambara or Ether = Ham. of golden color on the left (Sakti) and snow-white on the right (Siva). He. who is white of colour. half of Siva's body. also means raiment. This refers to Androgynous from of Siva-Sakti. The Eternal Gauri (SadA-Gauri). Nirvana Tantra says: Within the Yantra (AmA KalA) is the Half-Bull and half-Lion (Simhasana). Vyoma = Ether. Mandala = region or circle. on which sits the Eternal Gauri (Sakti on half-lion) with Sada-Siva on Her right (on half-bull). Girija = Giri is mountain.

man on the Moon. in the pericarp of the Visuddha Chakra. Purer than the Ocean of Nectar is the Sakti Sakini who dwells in this Lotus. Sudhāsindhoḥ suddha nivasati kamale sākinī pītavastrā śaram cāpaṁ pāśam sṛṇimapi dadhatí hastapadmaīścaturbhíḥ sudh|mśoḥ saṁpūrṇaṁ śaśaparirahitaṁ maṇdalaṁ karṇikāyāṁ mahāmokşadvāraṁ śriyambhimataśīlasya śuddhendriyasya. That nature is the gateway to liberation. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj . without the mark of a hare. Sudhasindhoh suddha ( Sudhāsindhoḥ suddha) = Purer than the ocean of Nectar. Sakini who is of the form of light itself (Jyotih-svarupa) is white and heatless. Whose senses are pure and controlled. hare = hare on the moon.30. kamale = in this Lotus. the arrow. Meditation on Sahini is as follows: "Let the excellent Sadhaka meditate on the Devi Sakini in the Throat Lotus. among other practices. and in Her four lotushands She carries the bow. The gateway to Great liberation-. by meditating in this in the path of Yoga. This (region) is the gateway of great Liberation for him who desires the wealth of Yoga and whose senses are pure and controlled. suddhendriya (śuddhendriya) = Suddha + Indriya = Pure + Senses. the goad. She is purer and whiter than the nectar in the moon. She is fond of milk food and gets drunk and elated on the nectar. the noose. Sudhasindhu is Chandra or Moon according to Sankara." The Devi (Sakti Sakini) is the Lunar Region within the pericarp. Swami Purnananda says that Sakini abides in the pericarp of Visuddha Lotus Chakra. She makes the Pasus (the uninitiated people) mad and has her abode in the bone (She is the Devata of Asthi-Dhatu. and the goad.Nirvana Mukti (in the praise of this Mandala) for those who have purified and conquered their senses. Her raiment is yellow. She carries in Her Lotus hands the noose. they attain Liberation (mukti). the sign of the book and makes Jnana-Mudra (thumb and pinky touching at the tips). Sri is wealth (of Yoga). stain on the moon. maha-moksa-dvaram (mahā-mokşa-dvāraṁ ) = Great-heaven-gate. She is Light itself. sriyambhimata-silasya (śriyambhimataśīlasya) = Who desires the wealth of Yoga. sasa-parirahita = In this pericarp is the spotless region of the Moon. The whole region of the Moon without the mark of the hare is in the pericarp of this Lotus.

He becomes proficient of all Sastras without instruction therein. free from disease and sorrow and long-lived. Free from disease and sorrow--by having attained Siddhi (Spiritual perfection) in his Mantra. there think of the snowy Akasa seated on the elephant. Think of the full-moon in the triangle within the pericarp. pure and the like. and free from greed. The one who has attained complete knowledge of Atma reposes like the still waters of the deep. niravadhi-vipadam-dhvamsa-hamsa-prakasah (niravadhi-vipadāṁ dhvaṁsa-haṁsa- .2 & 3. inside which is Nabho-Bija (Ham). modest. the destroyer of endless dangers.In the pericarp of the Lotus of Nabho-Mandala: inside the latter is the triangle. whose raiment is while. Svami Purnananda speaks of the good gained by meditating on the Visuddha-Chakra. courageous. atma-sampurna-yoga (ātma-sampūrṇa-yoga) = who has attained complete knowledge of the Atman (Brahman) by virtue of the fact that Brahman is all-pervading. inside which is the Chandramandala. "He becomes merciful not looking for any rewards." Bhagavad-Gita16. Another meaning is One who has obtained perfection Yoga. Iha sthāne cittam niravadhi vinidhāyātmasampūrṇayogaḥ kavirvāgamī jñānī sa bhavati nitarāṁ sādakaḥ śāntacetāḥ Tríkālānāṁ darśī sakalahitakaro rogaśokapramuktaściramjīvī jīvī niravadhivipadāṁ dhvaṁsahaṁsaprakāśaḥ. He sees the three periods. and. He sees the Atma (Self) and all objects of knowledge therein. his Citta is peaceful. He is constant. forgiving. 31. like Hamsa. present and future. There is the Deva Sada-Siva whose raiment is white--qualifies Akasa. roga-soka-pramuktah (roga-śoka-pramuktah) = Disease-Sorrow-the Liberated. and enjoys uninterrupted peace of mind. malice and pride. and becomes the benefactor of all. Such a person is a Knower (Jnani). Tri-kala darsi (Tri-kāla darśī )= three-periodsseer. self-controlled. gentle. He who has attained complete knowledge of the Atma (Brahman) becomes by constantly concentrating his mind (Citta) on this Lotus a great Sage. he sees the three periods-Past. He is free of MAyA and thus feels no sorrow. eloquent and wise.

clothed in yellow and carrying in Her hand a bow. five-faced and three-eyed on each face. sacrificial sword. and making Abhaya-mudra. Circular and white Nabho-Mandala is in the pericarp inside which is Chandra Mandala with elephant-mounted white. a noose. The Sadhaka becomes Hamsa Which is the Antartma (Inner Soul) that dwells by the pericarp of the Sahasrara for he can destroy all such dangers and in the result open the gate of Liberation. He wears a tiger's skin. Iha Sthne cittaṁ niravadhi nidhāyāttapavano yadi kruddho yogī calayati samastaṁ tribhuvanaṁ Na ca brahmā vişṇur na ca hariharo naiva khamaṇīstadīyaṁ sāmarthyaṁ śamayatumalaṁ nāpi gaṇapaḥ. four-armed.prakāśaḥ)_ = endless-dangers-destroying-Hamsa-showing. Sankara calls Hamsa Sun. an arrow. He is in the form of Ardha-narisvara. with five faces. 31. Summary of the Visuddha Chakra Visuddha Chakra is in the base of the throat with ruddy filaments. thunderbolt. and makes Vara and Abhaya Mudras. and a down-turned digit of moon on His forehead dropping the nectar. ash all over His body. . which holds in four hands noose and goad. a garland of snakes round His neck. Within the pericarp and in the Lunar region and seated on bones. bell. the destroyer of endless dangers. white in color. In his lap is Sada-Siva seated on a great lion-seat placed on the back of the bull. half the body snow-white Siva and the other half golden Sakti. and 16 petals of smoky purple hue and 16 red Vowels on the petals with Bindu above them. Like Hamsa. is Sakti Sakini. goad. and a goad. garmented and four-armed Bija Ham above it. Hamsa is the 12-petalled Lotus below Sahasrara. the great snake. noose. battle-axe. ten arms holding trident. shining.

End of 5th section. who has taken the air in. his mind constantly fixed on this Lotus. Ātta-pavana = his breath controlled by Kuṁbhaka (retention of breath in Pranayama—breath) control). . wrath = This is SturivAda = praise of his great powers. his breath controlled by Kumbhaka (retention of breath). ! Om is the Bija letter of Ajna Chakra. Harihara = The Yugala--combined--form of Viṣṇu and Śiva. If He were to get angry.The Yogi. is in his wrath able to move all the three worlds. Neither Brahma nor Visnu. AJNA Ha and Ksa are the letters on the petals. Swami Purnannda speaks of the power of Yogi. Literally it means. khamani = the jewel of the sky = the sun. he could move the three worlds. neither Hari-Hara nor Surya (sun) nor Ganapa (Ganesa) is able to control his power (resist Him). which is done by Kuṁbaka.

The moon is the receptacle of Ambrosial nectar and cool and beautifully white. mudram (mudrā) = hand poses depicting granting of boons and dispelling fear. Hima means cool. It shines with the glory of Dhyana (meditation). Hakini sa ( hākinī sā) = She is Hakini. Kara means causer. Name of the Lotus between the eyebrows above Visuddha Chakra. Inside it is the Sakti Hakini. Ājñanāmāmbujaṁ taddhimakarasadṛśam dhyānadhāmaprakāśaṁ hakşābhyāṁ vai kalābhyāṁ parilasitavapurnetrapatraṁ suśubhraṁ Tanmadhye hākinī sā śaśisamadhavalā vaktraşaṭkaṁ dadhānā vidyāṁ mudrāṁ kapālaṁ ḍamarujapavaṭīṁ bibhrtī śuddhacittā. The Lotus named Ajna is like the moon (beautifully white). book = Pustaka-Mudra. Ajna = Command. On its two petals are the letters Ha and Ksa. vidyam-mudram = this may also mean the hand pose of Knowledge. the mind) between the eyebrows is reached by Kundali. Its body shines like the glory of Dhyana Sakti. Going upwards after entering the throat and palate. A hand gesture of Vidya or knowledge. Ajnanama (Ājña-nāmā) = Ajna name. two others are lifted up in the gestures of dispelling fear and granting boons. the white and auspicious lotus (the place of manas. Hima-kara is Moon. netrapatraṁ = two petals. whose six faces are like so many moons. Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38 Verses 32 to 38 describes Ajna Chakra. himakara-sadrsam (hima-karasadṛśam) = Like the moon. Its 2 petals have Ha and Ksa on them. Her mind is pure (Suddha-Citta). Netra = eye. a small drum. in one of which She holds a book. . The Lotus named Ajna. the resident Devata of the Ajna Chakra. beautifully white. Ajna or Command of the Guru comes down (GurorAjneti) to this Lotus between the eyebrows. and a rosary. or Cool like the moonbeams. She has six arms.32. dhyana-dhama-prakasam (dhyāna-dhāma-prakāśaṁ) = it shines with the glory of Dhyana. which are also white and enhance its beauty. Ha-ksabhyam kalabhyamparilasitavapuh-susubhram = (Ha-kşābhyāṁ kalābhyāṁ parilasitavapuh su-śubhraṁ) The letters Ha and Ksa which are also white. and with the rest She holds a skull.

and likes food cooked with Turmini and feels elated by drinking ambrosia. See below. . She sits on a white lotus. the Rosary. the Vidya (sign of the book) and the Mudra (hand pose of granting boons and dispelling fear). She has six red faces with three eyes in each. the Skull. abides in the marrow. and holds in her hands the Damaru.Meditate on Sakti Hakini who is white.

htm Swami speaks of the Manas. The SAdaka should meditate on all of these: Hakini in the pericarp. Manas abode is above these.bhagavadgitausa. www. Sutra is thread and cognate with suture. What is the proof of its existence? It is universally accepted (prasiddha) and handed down from AnAdiPurusa as realized thing. Manas. Akula is not Sakti but Siva.33.com/Sat-ChakraNirupana-Kundalini Chakras. is also here. vedanam-adibijam (vedānāmādibījaṁ) = First Bija of the Vedas. The Itara-Siva in Linga form is within the Yoni. The Sadhaka with steady mind should meditate upon these according to the order (prescribed). the flaming lamp is the charming NAda and Bindu is MakAra (M of AUM). The Manas is beyond the scope of the senses. Vidyun-malavilasam (Vidyun-mālā-vilāsaṁ) = Linga resembles continuous streaks of lightning flashes. linga-cihna-prakasam (liṅga-cihṇa-prakāśaṁ) = shining Phallic form. which is the abode of the most excellent Sakti. Sivalinga is in the Yoni within the pericarp. Itara-Sivapada within the triangle in the pericarp is white and crystalline with three eyes. brahma-sutra-prabhodam (brahma-sūtra-prabhodaṁ)= makes visible the Brahmasutra. Brahma Sutra is Brahma thread or Citrini Nadi. The luster of Pranava makes the Sutra visible. in His phallic form. Manas at the top. Etatpadmantarale nivasati ca manah suksmarupam prasiddham (Etatpadmāntarāle nivasati ca manaḥ sūkşmarūpaṁ prasiddhaṁ) = Within this Lotus dwells the subtle mind (Manas). Itara Linga in the triangle above her. Inside the Yoni in the pericarp is the Siva called Itara. The vertical linearity of the entities are from below up: First Hakini in the pericarp. It refers to M of Pranava (AUM) in the pericarp pf the lotus. Atma is in the form of Pranava in the triangle in the pericarp. Within this Lotus dwells the subtle mind (Manas). Kula is Sakti of Triangular form. The first Bija of the Vedas. Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38. He here shines like a chain of lightning flashes. which is the abode of the most excellent Sakti and which by its lustre makes visible the Brahma-sutra. Itara Linga and Pranava in the order prescribed. . Etatpadmāntarāle nivasati ca manaḥ sūkşmarūpaṁ prasiddhaṁ yonau tatkaraṇikāyāmitaśivapadaṁ liṅgacihṇaprakāśaṁ Vidyunmālāvilāsaṁ paramakulapadaṁ brahmasūtraprabhodaṁ vedānāmādibījaṁ sthiratarahṛdayaścintayettatkrameṇa. Manas is above the First Bija of the Vedas. the Mind in Ajna Chakra. Above it. It is well-known. Pranava in the triangle above Him. parama-kulapadam = Excellent-Kula-place.

The universe is Brahman's amsa or fragment. prasiddha = full of fame for his excellence. He realises his unity with the Brahman and acquires excellent and unknown powers. of the three worlds. Muni literally means the silent one. Muni. soऽpi karta tribhuvana-bhavane samhrtau palane ca. Advaitacara-vadi (Advaitācāra-vādī )= He realizes. Versed in the meaning of Sastras. Destroyer.) = He ever becomes the Creator. he ever becomes the Creator. and becomes the most excellent among Munis. The Sadakha becomes absorbed in the Supreme on the dissolution of his body and thus becomes the source of Creation. This is Praśaṁsā-Vāda = Praise-statement = Eulogy. munindrah = the most excellent among Munis. from Verse 32 to 38. Advaitavadi is the one who has realized the identity of the individual soul with the Supreme Spirit and preaches it to others. and Preserver. parama-purva-siddhi (paramāpūrva-siddhi) = excellent and unknown powers. everything else is unreal (Asat) and everything shines by the light of Brahman. whose Atma is nothing but a meditation on this Lotus. he knows Brahman alone is Real (Sat). He knows that universe and beings are Brahman. and Preserver. He becomes the benefactor of all. sarva-sastrarthavetta (sarva-śāstrarthavettā)= versed in all the Sastras. is able quickly to enter another's body at will. Destroyer. (The generally held view is that the individual soul does not merge literally with either Siva. Full of fame and long-lived. Swami Purnananda talks about the benefits of meditating on Ajna Lotus. Dhyānātmā sādhakendro bhavati prapure śighragāmī munindraḥ sarvajñah sarvadarśī sakalahitakarah sarvaśāstrarthavettā Advaitācāravādī vilasati paramāpūrvasiddhipraśiddho dīrghāyuḥ soऽpi kartā tribhuvanabhavane saṁhṛtau pālane ca. (so'pi kartā tribhuvana-bhavane saṁhṛtau pālane ca. and versed in all the Sastras. or . Muni-indra = Muni-king = the king among Munis = excellent Muni.Proficient in sacred texts and Divine Knowledge. the silent Yogi is accomplished in meditation and Yoga. Preservation and Destruction. and all-knowing and all-seeing. of the three worlds. The excellent Sadhaka. Maunam is silence.34.

shining in its form of Bindu. you are all in one place and yet you are separate. ever dwells the combination of the letters A and U which by the rules of Sandhi make the . Within the triangle in this Cakra ever dwells the combination of letters which form the Pranava. maintain. privilege and power of the Supreme Being. Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38. Above this is Nada. letters = That is. again.Vishnu in Vaikuntam. and resembles a flame in its radiance. is Ma-kara. or Mother Goddess. It is the inner Atma as pure mind (Buddhi). and with anusvara (m) thus form the Pranava. It is like a family gathering. Thus the ability to create. a state of proximity and union is the highest state an individual soul can attain in Vaikuntam or other heavens. whose whiteness equals that of Balarama and diffuses the rays of the Moon. and above this. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Balarama = Samkara reads it as Jala-dhavala. and within the triangle which has already been spoken of. a and u. . The author desires to speak of the presence of the Pranava in the Ajna-Cakra and says that in this Cakra.) 35. All keep their separate identities.. etc. Above it is the half (crescent) moon. Tadantaścakreऽsminnivasati satataṁ śuddhabuddhyantarātmā Pradīpābhajyotiḥ praṇavaviracanārūpavarnaprākaśah Tadūrdve candrārdhastadupari vilasadbindurūpī makāra stadūrdhve nādoऽsau baladhavalasudhādhārasaṁtanahāsī. Ma-kara = The letter M in its Bindu form in Candra-bindu. or mantra Om. It is not a physical union. and explains it by "white like water". the patriarch or matriarch is at the top of the heap. and destroy is the exclusive domain. It is spiritual and yet it is not a fusion. which by Samdhi becomes 0. Sayujya. The last portion may also mean" smiling whiteness equals that of the Moon ".

is Ma-kara. the innermost Spirit manifesting as pure intelligence (Buddhi). "Below Bindu-rupi Ma-kara is Nada ".e.e. But that is incorrect.. which challenges as it were the whiteness of Baladeva and the Moon (bala-dhavala-sudhā-dhāra-saṁthana-hāsī). excelling. that being so." It is by adding the half Moon (Nada) and Bindu to O that the Pranava is formed. in whiteness both Baladeva and the rays of the Moon (Visvanatha says. is ma-kāra. This combination of letters is Suddha-buddhyantaratma-i. To obviate this the author qualifies it by saying" above it is the half Moon. au is the 13th vowel and m is AnusvAra or the after-sound. shining in its form of Bindu" it is thus shown that by the placing of the crescent moon and the Bindu over the thirteenth vowel the Pranava is completely formed.. above the Pranava is the Avantara (final or second) Nada. By this he means to say that it is extremely white. He next gives its attributes: Pradipabhajyotih (Pradīpābhajyotiḥ ) = "Resembles a flame in its radiance? But how can this thirteenth vowel by itself be Suddha-buddhyantaratma ? He therefore says: Tadurdve candrardhah (Tadūrdve candrārdha) = " Above it is the crescent moon" candrārdha = half-moon or crescent moon tadupari vilasad-bindu-rupi ma-kara (tadupari vilasad-bindurūpī makāra)" And above this. AnusvAra is an m with a dot over or under it (eg. etc. shining in its form of Bindu. again. ṁ) The here-depicted AUM/Om shows the dot.thirteenth vowel O. The text says: "Above this. Bindu = AnusvAra = After-sound when AUM is intonated. The question may be asked if the thirteenth vowel (O) is that. . Some read Tadadye nado'sau (in the place of Tadurdhve nado'sau) and interpret it as. tadūrdhve nādo'sau-" Above this is Nada " i. again. means multitude of moons)." and there is Nada below it. it is useless to repeat that Nada is below.

.Besides. ante). close the inner house. The Manas cannot be purified and steadied unless it is completely detached from the material sphere.. If. it be urged that it is necessary to state the details in describing the special Pranava (VisistaPranava). the region of material sense. he then sees within the middle of and in the space above (the triangle) sparks of fire distinctly shining." 36. Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38. he now speaks of its union (with Cetas). i. he sees. he should make Yoni-Mudra in the manner prescribed and thus effectually close the inner house. sparks of light resembling sparks of fire appear before his mental vision above the triangle on which the Pranava rests. or. Pranava-yoga. this Nada is beyond the Nada. Then. It is therefore that the mind (Manas) should be completely detached by Yoni-Mudra.e. to put it plainly. and it is asked. with his mind set on the act. or.e. and when the Cetas by repeated practice become dissolved in this place which is the abode of uninterrupted bliss. "Why do you say a second Nada is inappropriate? " then the reading Tadadye nado'sau may be accepted. When the Yogi closes the house which hangs without support. Such repetition is free from blame on the authority of the maxim that" the great are subject to no limitations. But read. The use of the word Pur shows that the Yoni-Mudra is meant. which forms part of the Pranava. when his Cetas by repeated practice (Abhyasa) or meditation on the Pranava becomes dissolved (Lina) in this place (the Ajna-Cakra). The Yogi should close the house (Puram baddhva)-i. and is part of the differentiating (Bhidyamana) Para-bindu placed above the Pranava. COMMENTARY Having described the Pranava. . in other words. sparks of Fire (Pavana-suhrdarm kanan). within and in the space above the triangle wherein the Pranava is. and the Nada first spoken of is also so described. he should. however. It is by Yoni-Mudra that the inner self (Antah-pUr) is restrained and detached from the outside world. Iha sthāne līne susukhasādhane cetasi puraṁ nirālambām badhvā paramagurusevāsuviditāṁ Tadabhyāsād yōgī pavanasuhṛdāṁ paśyati kaṇāṅ tatastanmadhyāntaḥ pravilasítarūpānapi sadā. thus it should be interpreted in the manner following: " This Nada shown below the Bindu-rupi Ma-kara is Bala-dhavalasudhadhara-samthana-hasi (v. the knowledge whereof he has gained by the service of Parama-guru.

As has been said.) Yoni-Mudra: i. by Kaki-Mudra. with your index-fingers the eyes.-Such knowledge is obtained from the Guru by pleasing him by personal services (Seva). Sruti says that when Vayu is drawn in by this Mudra and stopped by Kurnbhaka. Brahmananda. with your lips formed to resemble a crow's beak1.without support = Niralarhba-puri. has been said by Sruti." It can be attained by the instructions of the Guru. . This is Yoga. adopts the last meaning in interpreting this verse (Ch. Brahman. 55 of the Hathayoga-pradipika gives it the meaning of Brahman.-This may also mean Khecari Mudra6. That is. Ch. Khecari Mudra6 = One of the Mudras of Hatha. therefore is Khecari Mudra honored by all the Siddhas. without Unmani there is no Yogi!' Niralamba means that which has no support -namely. is thus defined: " Place the left heel against the anus. the favorite of Yogis. and in commenting on v. recite the Hamsa or Ajapa-mantra. "The mind under the influence of Hamsa5 moves to and fro. Niralamba (v. closes the avenues of the mind and concentrates it within itself. and with the senses controlled meditate on the Marttra whereby you realize the unity (Ekatvam) of Prana and Manas4. The first portion of this passage describes Siddhasana."Serving the Guru" .-Parama is excellent in the sense that he has attained excellence in Yoga practice (by instructions) handed down along a series of spiritual preceptors (Gurus). Hamsa5 = The Jivatma manifesting as Prana. Next2 close tightly your earholes with the thumbs. When the wind blows. Retain the air3: That is. "As by this the Citta roams in the Brahman (Kha7). the nostrils by your middle fingers. See Introduction. by restraining Harnsa. the mind is restrained." That steadiness of mind is produced by restraint of breath through the help of Mudra." a crow's beak1: KAki = crow. sparks of Fire = Pavana-suhrd-" He whose friend is air "= Fire. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Citta is Khecara1 when. draw in air and fill therewith your belly." (puraṁ badhvā) ="Closes the house". v. " The knowledge whereof he has gained by the service of his Paramaguru ••parama-guru-sevā-suviditāṁ (Paramagutu-seva-suviditam). Cf. Kha7 = has three meanings-viz.' This latter also produces steadiness of mind. 46.e. and sit erect with your body and neck and head in a straight line." Ether.Yoga. by Kumbhaka. disunited from Manas and devoid of all attachment to all worldly things. post) means that which has no support-viz. Next2= These and following verses occur in Sarada-Tilaka.. uttered word8 = Lit. steadiness of mind is produced. it becomes Unmani2 As has been said3 "the Yogi is united with Unmani. or breathing in Kumbhaka. and as the sound of uttered word8 also roams the Ether (Kha) . and not the result of book-learning4 .. that from which the minds' connection with the world has been removed. fire spreads. Then. XXV. Retain the air3 within you. and space between eyebrows (Ajna). tongue. and the right heel on the left foot. which detaches the Manas from the outside world. 45. III. Akasamamsi= whose flesh or substance is Akasa (Rajanighantu Dictionary. over different subjects. Retaining the air in the lungs." . and not by ten million of Sastras. and your mouth by the remaining fingers. Yoni-Mudra. that by which the mind's connection with the world has been removed and realization of the infinite established. 41). vv. the commentator of the Hatha-yogapradipika. Manas4: 'That is..

and Sun4 . and mani is from Manas. As has been said3= This is from Jnanarnava-Tantra. v." The abode of uninterrupted bliss" su-sukha-sādhane (Su-sukha-sadhana-e-i. 40. Ch.e. XXIV. going its own way." Khecara1 = What moves about in the sky or ether.JvaladdIpākāraṁ tadanu ca navīnārkabahulaprakāśaṁ jyotirvā gaganadharaṇīmadhyamilitaṁ Iha sthāne sākşad bhavati bhagavāṅ pūrṇavibhavosvyayaḥ sākşi vaḥneḥ śaśimihirayormaṇdala iva. It is Manas which deprives the Citta of freedom by causing attachment to the world. ceases. to coin a word. Ut = without. 37.) "Sparks of fire distinctly shining" pavana-suhṛdāṁ pravilasítarūpān kaṇāṅ (Pavana-suhrdam pravilasitarupan kanan). the" Manasness " of Manas. on all sides surrounded by sparks of light. and witnesseth all. and glows between the Sky and the Earth2 . Elsewhere it is clearly stated that the Pranava is surrounded by sparks of light: " Above it is the flame-like Atma. He then also sees the Light1 which is in the form of a flaming lamp. Unmani2 = Unmani is there where. On being disunited from Manas it moves freely in the ether. It is here that the Bhagavan manifests Himself in the fullness of His might3 . 37. Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38. COMMENTARY . Moon. auspicious and in shape like the Pranava.e. He knows no decay. It is lustrous like the clearly shining morning sun. See note to v. book-learning4= Which is well recognized to be insufficient in these matters. and is here as He is in the region of Fire. this is the place where one enjoys happiness that nothing can interrupt.. Ajna-Cakra.-These sparks of Fire shine quite distinctly. This word qualifies place (Iha-sthane-e-i.

. however. thus. The lines of the triangle are formed by 48 letters of Sanskrit alphabet starting with Vowels A. The triangle has three corners occupied by three Bindus: VAhini Bindu. The line of Fire is Rajasic Vama line. Vishnu and Rudra with their respective spouses. This Sakti is represented by an inverted triangle. feel. Sakti Jyesthi (maintenance) and Sakti Raudri (destruction). which. Everything you see. the 3rd line is that of 16 Consonants starting with Tha.Yogis such as these see other visions beside the sparks of light. the line of Sun is Tamasic Raudri line. and touch. the universe beyond this earth are all goddess. and related portfolios. Chandra Bindu. and Sun4 = That is. (Practicle = ? participle. His might3 = Purna-vibhava. They are distinct in its parts and yet parts of the whole. The 16 Vowels form one line. meaning that He or She is not the impalpable. Moon. the sides being Will. ha. These three entities cannot be put in any other form except a triangle. Sabdabrahman (Sound Brahman) is Clinical Brahman or God or Goddess. ksha are in the inside corners of the triangle. These lines are also called Vama line. hear. See the diagram below. These lines are also called Sakti Vama (creation). After seeing the fiery sparks they see the light. taste. the triangle on Manipitha within the A-ka-tha triangle. invisible entity but the palpable. and Raudri line. Moon. Fire. gunas. visible entity which is the entire breathing pulsating universe.5 (tadanu)-i. as Kalicarana points out post. the forces of nature. According to Visvanatha. It is the abode of power (Sakti--AbalAlayam = AbalA + Alayam = Sakti + abode). la. Sattva and Tamas. the triangle is called A-Ka-Tha Triangle. Kamakala is that Sabdabrahman with three saktis: creation. as we realize the presence of Rahu by his action on the sun and moon. post.-This compound adjective qualifies Jyotil) or Light.e = "Then" after seeing the sparks spoken of in the preceding Sloka. the second chapter of the Kaivalya-Kalika-Tantra contains a verse which says that the presence of the all-pervading Brahman is realized by His action. Surya Bindu (Sun). He then describes this Light (Jyotih). Ka at the right corner and Tha at the left corner. may be interpreted in various ways. This inverted triangle has A at its apex. maintenance and destruction.5 = The practicle va in the text is used in an inclusive sense. the 2nd line is that of 16 consonants starting with Ka. See v. Rajas. Action and Knowledge. The remaining alphabets. Jyesta line. gagana-dharaṇī madhya-militaṁ = " Glows between the Sky and the Earth". Sabdabrahman is represented by this triagular kamakala (AbalAlaya = Abode of Sakti). fire. the line of Moon is Sattvic Jyesta line. 4 of the Padukapancaka. Light1 = Jyotih Earth2 = See Commentary. The Saktis "sprout from three Bindus." The associated deities are Brahma.) More on A-Ka-Tha Triangle. the light.

JvaladdIpākāraṁ tadanu ca navīnārkabahulaprakāśaṁ jyotirvā gaganadharaṇīmadhyamilitaṁ Iha sthāne sākşad bhavati bhagavāṅ pūrṇavibhavosvyayaḥ sākşi vaḥneḥ śaśimihirayormaṇdala iva. Continued .37.

Or it may be that the author means that as He in the shape of a grain of gram dwells in the regions of Fire. subject as we are to limitations (Maya). and has two petals. We shall describe the Arka. is not ever-existent. Up. 3." and purna "all-spreading". In that case the word would mean: "One who has in Him such powers.e.e." Cj. and Fire (Agni). and again: "Thus is Hamsah in Mani-dvipa2 and in its lap is Parama-Siva." (d) Puma3 may also mean the quality of one whose wish is not moved by the result and is not attached to any object. and Dharani (Earth) is the Dhara-mandala in the Muladhara. bhavati)-i. " As He is in the region of Fire. with Siddha-Kali3 on his left.. and vibhava infinite powers. and in whom having originated they live.htm " It is here" (Iha sthāne)-i. Bhagavan is Parama-Siva. It would then mean: " He who in His omnipresence pervades all things. or in other words. He next speaks of the presence of Parama-Siva in the Ajna-Cakra." As It is in the Sahasrara so It is represented here.5 In the space within is Parama-Siva. in the Ajna-Cakra. Purnavibhava would then mean one who is possessed of that quality. in the Sahasrara. and is not attached to any object. Indu. Purna-vibhava may also be interpreted in the following different ways: (a) Purna may mean complete in Himself. Parama-Siva is here.gagana (sky) is the sky or empty space above Sankhini-Nadi (see verse 40. Moon (Indu).) " Manifests Himself" (sākşad "In the fullness of his might" (pūrṇa-vibhava)--This compound word which qualifies Bhagavan is capable of various interpretations. post). etc. as in the Sahasrara. to whom they go and into whom they enter" (Sruti2).4 So it has been said in describing the Sahasrara: "There are the two Bindus which make the imperishable Visarga. and Supporter of the Universe. and by .---> (Tait. Puma3 = Phalanupahita-visayitanaspadecchakatvam: He whose wish is not moved by the result. 1. again. may mean" the diversified and limitless creation. of Paramatma and Jinanatma should be performed on the Mandalas of Sun (Arka) . He is here1. again. which is very difficult to achieve. is the Bija of Sambhu ". and according to the Utkaladimata9 also creates." By lap is meant the space within the Bindus which form the Visarga at the end of Hamsah. www.. This light also extends from the Muladhara to the Sahasrara." (b) Vibhava. Siva and Sakti.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. so is He here." From whom all these originated..== (He is seen here. Visuddha) Lotus is Jnana Lotus.e. The omnipresence of the ethereal region (Akasa)." and Purna "all-spreading". as the letter Ma (Makaratma). it is the region1 of the full moon. and that they are surrounded (Accadana) by Maya." Again: "Inside it. are here in union (Bandhana) in the form of Parabindu." Here the Parama-Siva as in the form of a gram dwells. By Paramatma ParamaSiva is meant. In this sense Purna-vibhava means "He from whom this all-spreading and endless (vast) creation has emanated. etc. Moon and Sun" vaḥneḥ śaśimihirayor maṇdalamiva (Vahneh sasimihirayor mandalamiva)-As the presence of Bhagavan in these regions is well known. 1. The Nirvana-Tantra (Ch. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" Above this (i. She is' the very self of eternal Bliss... In Pitha-puja the Puja. in the form of Hamsah.) (c) Vibhava. may mean: "omnipresence. so does He dwell here also. Destroyer. All things except Atma pass away. such as the power of creation.7 "She the Eternal One stays here (Ajna-Cakra) in the form of a grain of gram8. and Sun. He whose ways are inscrutable to us. and Agni Mandala in the Sahasrara later. IX) speaks of the presence of Parama-Siva in the Ajna-Cakra in detail." and creates beings (Bhutani). Moon.bhagavadgitausa. who is the absolute Creator.6 We are to understand that these two.

consisting of the inseparable couple namely Siva and Sakti. grain of gram8 =CaI. and the commentary of Samkaracarya and Madhusadana-Sarasvatl on those verses. the Purusa. Utkaladimata9 = Apparently a school of that name. Primeval Deva. Visarga. and who is known by the Vedanta. (The grain referred to is divided in two under its encircling sheath--two cotyledons. The Rudra-Yamala says that it is in the centre of the Ocean of nectar outside and beyond the countless myriads of world systems. Ch. . presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Swami Purnananda talks about Ajna Chakra from Verse 32 to 38.Iha sthāne vişṇoratulaparamāmodamadhure samāropya prāṇaṁ pramuditamanāḥ prāṇanidhane Paraṁ nityaṁ devaṁ puruşamajamādyaṁ trijagatāṁ purāṇaṁ yogīndraḥ praviśati ca vedāntaviditaṁ.6 = That is. it is the region1 = Purna-candrasya mandalam.li.lakakara-riipiI. which is a male letter. Maya. Bindu is here the unmanifest Ma.Jaanatma Jaana-Sakti. vv. Eternal. Mani-dvipa2 = The isle of gems in the Ocean of Ambrosia.4 =. (Prana)1 = Compare. which is its Pratika. Hamsah.5 = Imperishable visarga-Visargariipam avyayaril. Siddha-Kali3 = A form of Sakti. The Bindu should be meditated upon as like the grain of gram. It is represented here. • Apparently a school of that name. VIII. 9 and 10. This is the incomparable and delightful abode of Visnu. Bhagavad-Gita. 38. The excellent Yogi at the time of death joyfully places his vital breath (Prana)1 here and enters (after death) that Supreme. See Introduction. Birthless. the Para-bindu is represented in the Ajiia by the Bindu of the Omkara. who was before the three worlds. and that there is the Supreme abode of Sri-vidya.7 = Bindu is the nasal sound of Ma. the two dots which form the aspirate breathing at the end of Hamsah.

which the Veda Vidahs call Imperishable (Aksaram). receives Vijnāna or the intuitional wisdom and knowledge. Aksara is the imperishable word AUM. The angas are eight in all: (1) Yama. before he can be called an ascetic. According to the Kundalini yoga. he attains to Purusam and Divyam. Prāna is life and breath. Abstinence (Don‘ts) (2) Niyama. Concentration (7) Dyana. with the mind fixed (on the Lord) in devotion. by the strength of yoga. They enter Aksaram by freeing themselves from passion. Such a person is Ramana Maharishi. 8. with his prāna fixed between the eyebrows. The yogi who rises to this level of attainment resolves (burns) all previous prārabda karmas. Breath Control (5) Pratyahara. and earns liberation in this life: This is jivan mukti (liberation while alive). He is in full control of himself and concentrates his attention and life-breath on the glabellar locus. Glabella = spot in the forehead between the eyebrows. meditation (8) Samādhi. Body Postures (4) Prānayama. the glabellar plane is the Ajna Chakra. This particular moment in the life and times of a yogi is penultimate. Veda Vidhas are those proficient in Vedas.Bhagavad-Gita 8. Divyam is divine. Glabella = Trikuuti = bone of the forehead or protuberance. Brahmacharya or celibacy is one of the angas. Purusum is the Supreme Person. and he becomes one with the divine. Abrogation of contact with sense objects (6) Dharana. or steps that an ascetic has to climb. Restraint (Dos) (3) Asana. Union or Absorption .10: At the time of departure. Go to Kundalini Power for details. desiring which the ascetics practice bramacharya.11: I shall briefly explain to you the path. limbs. which is the seat of the mind.

" At the time of death" (prāṇa-nidhane). and then enters the Supreme Purusa.38. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paraṁ nityaṁ devaṁ puruşamajamādyaṁ trijagatāṁ purāṇaṁ yogīndraḥ praviśati ca vedāntaviditaṁ.) " Visnu"=Bhagavan=Parama-Siva (see previous Sloka).. and passes away.e.. " Here" (Iha sthāne-i.Iha sthāne vişṇoratulaparamāmodamadhure samāropya prāṇaṁ pramuditamanāḥ prāṇanidhane Paraṁ nityaṁ devaṁ puruşamajamādyaṁ trijagatāṁ purāṇaṁ yogīndraḥ praviśati ca vedāntaviditaṁ. he places it on the Bindu already spoken of.e... (Atmanandena hrsta-cittah. This verse means: The excellent Yogi (Yogindra) at the time of death (prāṇa-nidhane) joyfully (pramudita-manāḥ) places his Prana (prāṇaṁ samāropya) in the abode of Visnu in the Ajna-Cakra (Iha sthāne vişṇoh--i. (38) sthāne prāṇaṁ samāropya)-i.e. "Joyfully" (pramudita-manāḥ)-Glad in mind in the enjoyment of the blissful union with Atma. feeling the approach of death. "Places the Priina here" (Iha Purusa as Eternal. in the abode of Bhagavan in the Bindu already described). in the Bindu in the Ajna-Cakra spoken of above). COMMENTARY He now speaks of the good to be gained by giving up the Prana by Yoga in the Ajna-Cakra. He describes .

Vidya. Ch. and a book. and is seated on a white lotus. "VV.3 in the Commentary to the Satcakra.1 are on the two petals. Pratistha. 1 Purana Purusa1 According to Samkara. which having done. Svah. in Kundalini. Last of all. Above Nibodhika is Nada and its five KalAs-Indhika. He is known by a Knowledge (Jnana) of these. within another Trikona. Jnana-bodha. of the region beyond the Ajna-that is. Jyotsnavati. She is white. is Itara-Linga. within a Trikona. 4 by contracting the anus4 GudariI akuncya-that is.Tantra. by Asvini-Mudra. with the Kalas of the latter-Bandhati. and six arms. Here is the Lord of the State beyond Santi (Santyatitesvara).-He is the one known as the purāṇa Purusa1 " deva" means he whose play is Creation. in the region of the Moon. Hakini. Vimala. Bhuvah.-Indestructible (VinaSarahitarm). and Parama. taken from the Svacchanda-samgraha. and glad that he is about to be absorbed into the Brahman. he unifies Her and the Jivatma with the Bindu whose substance is Siva and Sakti (Siva-Sakti-maya). and Destruction. Above Her. beginning with Prthivi. This is Bindu-Tattva. Bodhini. and becomes merged in the Brahman. On His left is Santyatita Manonmani." Eternal" (nityam). and bright with the brightness of ten million suns. and means "He who is the cause of Creation. a human skull. Suprabha. Surrounding them are Nivrtti. The presiding Sakti of the Cakra. 2 tri-jagatāṁ ādyaṁ)2 That is. The letters Ha and Ksa. Existence. floating in air. and leads it along with the Jiva through the different Cakras according to the rules of Cakra-bheda to Ajna-Cakra. with five heads and ten arms and lustrous as a mass of lightning flashes. Each of these is adorned with a moon and has five heads and ten arms. 13-18. " Birthless" (aja). and by contracting the anus4 and following other prescribed processes rouses the Kundalini. he pierces the Brahma-randhra and leaves the body.2 and holds a Rudraksa rosary. again. " Who was before the three worlds" (tri-jagatāṁ ādyaṁ)2 -By this the implication is that He is the Cause of all as He preceded all. are sparks surrounding a light which by its own lustre makes visible all between Mula and the Brahmarandhra. (Here ends the sixth section) [Visvanatha. and Santi. Tamo'paha. Recika. 3 vedānta-vidita3 Samkara reads Vedanta-vihita. XXI. gives under this verse a description. 5 form of Prana5 Pranarupa-svasa-paramatmakam. He then merges the Hamsa which is the Paramatma in the form of Prana5 in the Nada. The way the Prana is placed (Pranaropana-prakara) in the place of Visnu is described below: Knowing that the time for the Prana to depart is approaching. with the Kalas of the latter-namely. it is an adjective. and explains the expression to mean ―this is the teaching of the Vedanta"." and the like. SUMMARY OF THE AJNA CAKRA. blissful Nada which is threadlike and whose substance is Kundali (Kundalini-maya). Kanti. the Vyahrtis of the Gayatri. " Primeval" (purāṇa). the Yogi sits in Yogasana and restrains his breath by Kumbhaka. beyond the Samasti or collective or cosmic Ajna: " Within the Bindu is a space a hundred million Yojanas 4 in expanse. lustrous like a flame. He there dissolves all the diverse elements from the gross to the subtle. Ordhvaga. is Hamsah. is in the pericarp. Trasa. and above Manas. a small drum. See Jnana-arnava. VERSES 32 TO 38 The Ajna Cakra has two petals and is white. He next meditates upon the lightning-like. With Her hands She displays Vara-mudra and Abhaya-mudra. Jyotsna. is Manas. Above Ardha-candra is Nibodhika. He then leads the Jivatma in the heart to the Muladhara. On its four sides. . which is lightning-like. and above this again. is the inner Atma (Antar-atma). which are white. Above this. has six red-coloured faces each with three eyes. Bodhii. "Known by the Vedanta" (vedānta-vidita)3 -Vedanta are sacred texts dealing with the inquiry concerning the Brahman. On the lotus above this . within whom is Parama-Siva with His Sakti.5. Above Bindu is Ardha-candra. the three spheres Bhuh.

5 = See. p. and he holds the trident (Sula).. through the service of the Lotus feet of his Guru. See also Introduction to this volume. He is five-headed. Ajna-Cakra) the form of Mahanada. Within the Bindu is a space a hundred million Yojanas 4 = A Yojana is over eight miles.e. ed. Introduction to Vol. The Mahanada. Pratistha. Visvanatha. and like the plough in shape3. III. 337 ante. Nivrtti. and Santi. in all respects good.2 = V. When the actions of the Yogi are.3The portion in brackets is my note."] white. is tranquil and grants boons and dispels fear. Layasthanam vāyostadupari ca mahānādarupaṁ śivārdhaṁ sirākāraṁ śantaṁ varadamabhayaṁ śuddhabuddhiprakāsaṁ Yadā yogi paśyed gurucaraņayugāmbhōjasevāsuśīlas- . as to the Kalas. which is the place of dissolution of Vayu2 is the half of Siva. Avalon. and also means variegated. then he will see above it (i. and makes manifest pure Intelligence (Buddhi)4.1 = Karbura = white. Vara-mudra and Abhaya-mudra. and each head has three eyes. 39. and The Garlaruf of Letters. Tantrik Texts.-A.last is Isvara. and will ever hold in the Lotus of his hand the Siddhi of Speech1. and lustrous as ten thousand moons. A. Layasthānaṁ vāyostadupari ca mahānādarūpam śivārdhaṁ sirākāraṁ śāntaṁ varadamabhayaṁ śuddhabuddhiprakāśaṁ Yadā yogī paśyed gurucaraṇayugāmbhōjasevāsuśīlastadā vācāṁ siddhiḥ karakamalatale tasya bhūyāt sadaiva. in extent a hundred million Yojanas. His hair is matted. He is the one who goeth upwards (Urdhva-gamini). Vidya. and in His embrace (Utsanga) is the Kala Urdhva-gamini.

the remaining portion of the letter has the form of an Indian plough. From Bindu3 originated the Void7 which is empty of all things and is the Sound-container. It is derived from the root Sri. in all respects good-that is. And from all these8 Issued the twenty-five Tattvas which are Guna-maya. all powers of speech. pure Intelligence (Buddhi). the waters and Tlrthas4 issued. and makes manifest pure Intelligence (Buddhi). The author then qualifies Nada. and he becomes accomplished in speech (Vak-siddha). COMMENTARY He now wishes to describe the intermediate causal body (Karana-vantara-sarira) situate above Ajna-Cakra and below Sahasrara and says: When the actions of the Yogi are." Hence. We have the authority of Revelation (Sruti) for this: " Prthivi. which is the place of dissolution of Vayu 2 is the half of Siva. Karanavantara-sarira would thus mean" the intermediate Sarira of the Cause ". Mahanada is one of its effects and a Karanavantara-sarira as regards that which it produces and which follows it.e.3 who is Rasa." also called Tvak-tattva. when he excels by intense concentration of the mind in Yoga practice-he then sees the image of Maha-nada above it (above Ajna-Cakra). pure Intelligence (Buddhi). Its effects are also intermediate causes of that which they themselves produce. from Repha (Ra-kara)3 originated Vahni-tattva5. to wane. then he will see above it (i. dissolution of Vayu 2 = Vayoh layasthanam. Avantara = secondary or intermediate or inclusive. although in Bhūta-suddhi and other practices it has been seen that Vāyu dissolves into Sparśa-tattva. Kāranā-vāntara-śarīra would thus mean "the intermediate sarira of the cause". All this Universe (Visva). Vyoma2 Ether. through the service of the Lotus feet of his Guru. Its effects are also intermediate cause of that which themselves produce. AvAntara = secondary or intermediate or inclusive. The Rule is "things dissolve into what they originate from. and if the upper part of Ha is removed. originated from I-kara. The primary cause is the Great Cause. 4 Siddhi of Speech. 3 is tranquil and grants boons and dispels fear. Kāranā-vāntara-śarīra = Karana = cause. The primary cause is the Great Cause. Body is so called because it wastes and fades. in all respects good. WHEN the actions of the Yogi are. 4 = Suddha-buddhi-prakasa. Ajna-cakra) the form of the Mahanada.-The good inclination for Yoga practice rendered admirable by strong and undivided application thereto." Sparsa-tattva. is pervaded by Kalika. As to Bhutasuddhi. Sarira=body. Sarira = body. Mahanada is one of its effects and a Kāranā-vāntara-śarīra as regards that which it produces and which follows it. 4 = Karanavantara-sarira.l = The "touch principle. see the same described in Author's "Introduction to TantraSastra ". Samkara defines it by saying: Etat sthanam vayoh virama-bhutam-this is the place where Vayu ceases to be. the possessor of Rasa (Rasa-vati). from Nada3 came Vayu6 which pervades all life (Sarva-Pranamaya). Taking the sakala-paramesvara to be the First Cause. tehy are thus secondary or intermediate causal bodies.Tadā vācām siddiḥ karakamalatale tasya bhūyāt sadaiva. to wane.3 From Ka-kara.l and the latter in Vyoma:"2 Vayu dissolves in Nada also. and like the plough in shape. the plough in shape. This result is obtained by serving the Guru. Body is so called because it wastes and fades. and says it is the place of dissolution of Vayu (vāyor-Laya-sthanam). . It is derived from the root SrI.1 = That is.. which is the mundane egg of Brahma. Taking the Sakala-Paramesvara to be the first cause. they are thus secondary or intermediate causal bodies. Siva is Hakara.1 The Mahanada. "Actions in all respects good" (suśīla). 3 = That is. Karana=cause. through the service of the Lotus feet of his Guru. and will ever hold in the Lotus of his hand the Siddhi of Speech.

I-kara3; Ka-kara3; Repha (Ra-kara)3; Nada3: The Bija Krim is here being formed, Kakara = Kali ; Ra-kara= Brahma as fire; Ikara= Mahamaya, Anusvara or Candra-bindu (m) is divided into two-viz., Nada, which is Visvamata, or Mother of the Universe; and Bindu, which is Duhkha-hara, or remover of pain (Bijakosa) . Alpha is for A; likewise Ka-kara is for Ka. Tlrthas4 = Places of pilgrimage where the devotees bathe. It also means sacred waters. Vahni-tattva5 = Fire. Vayu6 = Air. Void7 = Gagana or Ether. From all these8 That is, from KrIm as composed of Ka+Ra+I+m. 39. Layasthanam vāyostadupari ca mahānādarupaṁ śivārdhaṁ sirākāraṁ śantaṁ varadamabhayaṁ śuddhabuddhiprakāsaṁ Yadā yogi paśyed gurucaraņayugāmbhōjasevāsuśīlasTadā vācām siddiḥ karakamalatale tasya bhūyāt sadaiva. --39 We should therefore realize in our mind that at the time the letters of the Kim-mantra1 are merged into that which is subtle, VAyu is absorbed in Nāda. " Half of Siva" (śivārdha).-By this is meant that here Siva is in the form of Arddha-narisvara, Half is Sakti which is Nāda. Like a Plough" (sirākāra).-The word Sirā is spelt here with a short i, and in Amara-Kośa it is spelt with a long ī but it is clearly the same word, as it begins with a dental s. Cf. " Above it is Mahanāda, in form like a plough, and lustrous‖ (Isvara-Kartikeya-Sarṁvāda).2 If the text is read as "Sivākāra instead of Sirākāra," then the meaning would be that the Nāda is śiva-śaktimaya.3 Cf. Prayoga-sāra: "That Sakti which tends towards seat of Liberation4 is called male (Puṁrūpā-that is, Bindu) when, quickened by Nāda, She turns towards Siva5 (śivon-mukhi)," It is therefore that RaghavaBhatta has said that " Nāda and Bindu are the conditions under which She creates ".6 It has elsewhere been said: "She is eternal7 existing as Cit (Cinmātrā)8: when being near the Light She is desirous of change, She becomes massive (Ghaņi-bhūya) and Bindu." 1 Kim-mantra1 = Krīn, 2 (Isvara-Kartikeya-Sarṁvāda). i.e., Sammohana-Tantra. Ed., R. M. Chattopadhyaya, 3 Nāda is śiva-śaktimaya.3 = That is, its substance is Siva and Sakti, 4 Liberation4 = Nirāmaya-padōnmukhī = She who is turned to the place of Liberation: that is Sakti in the supreme state.

5 She turns towards Siva5 = Tending towards, intent on, or with face uplifted to, Siva, that is here tending to creation. That is, the first state is Cit. Nāda is the Mithah-samavāya of Sakti or Bindu, The establishment of this relation quickens Her to turn to Siva for the purpose of creation when She appears as male, or Bindu. Mithah-samvāya = Mutual agreement or obligation. 6 She creates ".6 = Tasyā eva shakter nādabindū sriṣtyupayogyarūpau (Upayoga is capacity or fitness for creation). 7 She is eternal7 = According to another reading this part would mean "She who is the Tattva". 8 (Cinmātrā)8: = She is there, existing as Cit, with whom she is completely unified. She" measures Cit "-that is, co-exists with and as Cit, and is also formative activity. The above translation is that of the text, but the verse has been quoted elsewhere as if it were Cinmātrajyotiṣah, and not Cinmātrā jyotiṣah, in which case the translation would be: "She who when near Jyotih, which is mere consciousness, becomes desirous of change, becomes massive and assumes the form of Bindu." So in the word of the honoured (Srimat) Acarya: 1" Nada becomes massive and the Bindu." Now, taking all these into consideration, the conclusion is that Sakti manifests Herself as Nada-bindu, like gold in ear-rings made of gold.2 Nada and Bindu again are one-that is the deduction. 1 Samkaracarya, 2 made of gold.2 =That is, they are both gold in the form of an ear-ring. CJ. Chandogya Up., 6. 1. 4. "Gentle One, by one lump of clay all things made up of clay are known. The variation is in the names given to it when spoken about. The clay alone is real."

40. Tadūrdhve śaṅkhinyā nivasati śikhare sūnyadeśe prakāśaṁ visargādhaḥ padmaṁ daśaśatadalaṁ pūrņacandrātiśubhraṁ Adhōvaktraṁ kāntam taruņaravikalākāntikiñjalkapuñjaṁ ḷakārādyairvarņaiḥ pravilasitavapuḥ kevalānandarūpaṁ.

Above all these, in the vacant space1 wherein is Sankhini Nadi, and below Visarga is the Lotus of a thousand petals2. This Lotus, lustrous and whiter than the full moon, has its head turned downward. It charms. Its clustered filaments are tinged with the colour of the Voung Sun. Its body is luminous with the letters beginning with A, and it is the absolute bliss.3
The Acarya enjoins that Sadhakas who wish to practise Samadhi Yoga" should before such time with every consideration and effort dissolve .all things in their order from the gross to the subtle in Cidātmā ".4 All things, both gross and subtle, which make up creation should first be meditated upon. As the knowledge thereof is necessary, they are here described in detail. presentation:
Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

1 in the vacant space1: This place is called the Supreme Ether (Parama-Vyoma) in the Svacchanda-samgraha, cited by 'Visvanatha. Parama-vyoma is the name given in the Pancaratra to the Highest Heaven or Vaikuntha, See Ahirbhudhnya, 49. 2 Lotus of a thousand petals2: The Sahasrāra is called Akula, according to the Svacchanda-samgraha, cited by Visvanatha. 3 the absolute bliss.3 : Kevalananda-rupam, i.e., Brahman Bliss. 4 Cidātmā ".4 :The Atmā considered as Cit. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The five gross elements--Prthivi0 and so forth--have been spoken of as being in the five Cakras from Muladhara to Visuddha. In the Bhumandala1 in the Mūladhara there are the following-viz., feet, sense , of smell, and Gandha-tattva,2 for this is their place. In the jala-mandala.3 similarly, are the hands, sense of taste, and Rasa-tattva.4 In the Vahni-mandala5 are the anus, the sense of sight, and Rupa-tattva.6 In the Vayumandala,7 are the penis, sense of touch, and Sparsa-tattva.8 In the Nabho-mandala9 are speech, the sense of hearing, and Sabda-tattva.10 These make fifteen tattvas. Adding these fifteen to Prthivi and so forth we get twenty gross tattvas, We next proceed to the subtle forms. In the Ajna-Cakra the subtle manas has been spoken of. Others have been spoken of in the Kankalamalini-Tantra (Ch. II) when dealing with the Ajna-Cakra: "Here constantly shines the excellent Manas, made beautiful by the presence of the Sakti Hakini, It is lustrous, and has Buddhi11 Prakrti,12 and Ahamkara13 for its adornment." From the above the presence of the three subtle forms-viz., Buddhi, Prakrti, and Ahamkara--in this place becomes clear. We must, however, know that Ahamkara is not placed in the order shown in the above quotation. We have seen that from the Mūladhara upwards the generated is below the generator; that which is dissolved is below what it is dissolved into, and we also know that the Sabda-krama is stronger than Pāta-krama.14 We must remember that Vyoma is dissolved in Ahamkara, and hence the latter is next above Vyoma. Cf. " In Ahamkara, Vyoma with sound should be dissolved, and Ahamkara again in Mahat." Ahamkara, being the place of dissolution, comes first above Vyoma Ether), and above it are Buddhi and Prakrti. The Sarada-tilaka (I. 17, 18) speaks of their connection as Janya (effect, generated, produced substance) and Janaka (cause, generator, substrate). "From the unmanifest (Avyakta) Mula-bhūta, Para-vastu15 when Vikrta originated Mahat-tattva.15 which consists of the Gunas and Antahkarana, From this (Mahat-tattva) originated Ahamkara, which is of three kinds according to its source of generation."16 By Vikrti which means change is here meant reflection or image (Prati-bimba)17 of the Para-vastu, and as such reflection it is Vikrti ; but as it is the Prakrti of Mahat-tattva, etc., it is also called Prakrti.18 Cf." Prakrti is the Paramā (Supreme) Sakti, and Vikrti is the product thereof."(Vikrtih pratibimbata--in a mirror, one is seen but the image is not oneself.) It has also been shown before that the Prakrti of the Para Brahman is but another aspect of Him (Pratibimba-svarupini). 0 Prthivi0: Earth,Water, Fire, Air, Ether. 1Bhumandala1 Region of the Earth Element, or Mūladhara-Cakra. 2 Gandha-tattva,2 Smell principle or Tanmatra. 3 jala-mandala.3 Svadhistana, which is the region of Water (jala). ,

4 Rasa-tattva.4 Principle of taste. 5 Vahni-mandala5 Manipura, which is the region of Fire (Viihni). 6 Rupa-tattva.6 Principle of sight. 7 Vayumandala,7 Anahata, which is the region of Air (Vayu). 8 Sparsa-tattva.8 Principle of touch. 9 Nabho-mandala9 Visuddha, which is the region of Ether (Nabhas). 10 Sabda-tattva.10 Principle of sound. 11 Buddhi11 See next note. Intellect, discrimination 12 Prakrti,12 See Introduction, and post, Commentary. Sakti residing in Prakrti Tattva, creates objects as separate existences. the Sāṁkhya view: according to it the state of equilibrium of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas is Prakrti, which is also called Pradhana and Avyakta. This is the Supreme (Para-vastu). 13 Ahamkara13 Egoism-self-consciousness. 14 Pāta-krama.14 That is, the actual arrangement of things as compared with the order in which they are stated. 15 Para-vastu15; Mahat-tattva.15. Mahat-tattva is a Vikrti of Prakrti, The Mūlabhūta avyakta (unmanifested root-being) corresponds with the Samkhyan Mūla-prakrti. Here, as Raghava-Bhatta says, Tattvasrsti is indicated (Comm. to Ch. I, vv . 17,18 of Sarada) , and interprets (Ch. I. vv. 17, 18) thus: Unmanifest Mūlabhūta Para-vastu may mean either the Bindu or Sabda Brahman. By Vikrta is meant readiness or proneness to create (Srstyunmukha). From this Bindu or Sabda-Brahman emanates Mahat-tattva by which is meant the Padartha Mahat: which is known as Buddhi-tattva in Saivamata, This Mahat or Buddhi-tattva consists of the three Gunas--Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. That is, it includes Manas, Buddhi, Ahaṁkāra and Citta. These four are the product (Kārya) of the Gunas as cause (Kārana), and the cause (Kārana) inheres (Upacāra) in the effect (Kārya). After quoting the words of IsanaSiva, Raghava remarks that Vamakesvara-Tantra also says that from the Unmanifest Sabda-Brahman originates Buddhi-tattva wherein Sattva Guna is manifest. He then distinguishes the Sāṁkhya view according to which the state of equilibrium of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas is Prakrti, which is also called Pradhana and Avyakta. This is the Supreme (Para-vastu), From a disturbance in the equilibrium of the Gunas arises Mahat. This Mahat consists of Gunas and is the cause of the Antahkaranas, By Gunas according to this are meant the five Tanmatras, Sabda, Sparsa, etc. According to this view also from Prakrti comes Mahat and from the latter Ahamkara. www.bhagavadgitausa.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras.htm Raghava thus shows the different ways in which the text of Sarada can be interpreted from the Sakta, Saiva and Samkhya points of view. 16 its source of generation.16 Srsti-bheda---that is, one Ahamkara is the result of the predominance of Sattva, another of Rajas, and a third of Tamas. 17 (Prati-bimba)17 That is in the sense of product. In Saiva-sakta-darsana, Mulaprakrti is itself a product of the Siva-sakti-tattva, for the Self becomes object to itself. 18 Prakrti.18 That is, as regarded from the point of view of the Para-vastu it is an effect, but regarded in relation to that which it produces it is a cause. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Supreme) Sakti, and Vikrti is the product thereof."1 1 It has also been shown before that the Prakrti of the Para Brahman is but another aspect of Him (Pratibimba-svarupini). According to Saradā-tilaka, Mahat-tattva, is the same as Buddhi.2 Isāna-Siva says: "The objective Prakrti,3 which is evolved by Sakti, is, when associated with Sattva-Guna, Buddhi-tattva. It is this Buddhi that is spoken of as Mahat in Samkhya."

Mahat-tattva consists of the Gunas and the Antah-karana, The Gunas are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The Saradā-tilaka says: "Antahkarana is the Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkara and Citta, of the Atma.4 All these are comprised in the term Mahat-tattva. Now, a question may be raised--namely, if Manas be within Mahattattva, what of that which has been said in v, 33, where Manas has been spoken of as having an independent existence? But the answer to that is, that that Manas is the product of Ahamkara, and Raghava-Bhatta quotes a text which says: "In so much as the other Manas is the one which selects and rejects (Sa-semkalpavikalpaka),"5 it is known to be the product of Tejas."6 Thus it is that, as Manas and other Tattvas in the Ajna-Cakra are placed in their order, Ahamkara and others should be known as being placed above them. In the Ajna-Cakra are Hakini, Itara-Linga, Pranava, Manas, Ahamkara, Buddhi, and Prakrti placed consecutively one above the other. No place being assigned to Candramandala, which has been spoken of before, it should be taken to be placed above all these. If it be asked, why is it not below all these? then the reply is that it has been said in the Sammohana-Tantra: "Moon (Indu) is in the forehead, and above it is Bodhini Herself." From this it would appear that Indu and Bodhini are above Ajna-Cakra, placed one above the other without anything intervening between them. Bodhini is above all the rest. 1 product thereof."1 Vikrtih pratibimbatii-in a mirror one is seen but the image is not oneself. 2 Buddhi.2 Raghava-Bhatta says that this is so according to Saiva doctrine. 3 objective Prakrti,3 Boddhavya-laksana---that is, that which can be known Jneya); the objective or manifested Prakrti. 4 Atma.4 See Introduction. 5 (Sa-semkalpa-vikalpaka),"5 As to Sa-samkalpa-vikalpa, see Introduction. 6 Tejas6 That is, Taijasa ahamkara, which is the source of the Indriyas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Sammohana-Tantra speaks of the Cause (Karanarūpa) as above Ajna-Cakra: "Indu (the Moon, here-Bindu) is in the region of the forehead, and above it is Bodhini Herself. Above Bodhini shines the excellent Nada, in form like the half (crescent) moon; above this is the lustrous Maha-nada, in shape like a plough; above this is the Kalā called Anji the beloved of Yogis. Above this last is Unmani,1" which having reached, one does not return." In the above passage, in the words "above it is Bodhini," the word " it " stands for the forehead or Ajna-Cakra. The Bhūta-suddhi-Tantra speaks of the existence of the Bindu below Bodhini: "Devi, above Bindu and Mātrārdhā is Nada, and above this, again, is Maha-nada, which is 'the place of the dissolution of Vayu." Mātrārdhā is Mātrārdhā-Sakti2. The following passage from Brhat-trl-vikrama-samhitā proves that the Ardha-mātrā means Sakti: "Lustrous like the young Sun is Aksara, which is Bindumat (Bindu itself); above it is Ardha-mātrā associated with the Gāndhārarāga3." As both the above passages point to the same thing, we must take it that Ardha-mātrā and Bodhini are identical. Bindu, Bodhini, and Nada, are but different aspects of the Bindu-maya-para-sakti, 1 Unmani,1 In this passage Ajni is Samani, The Bhūta-suddhi (see post), makes a distinction too between Ajni and Samani. These are the Avāntarasarlras of the First Cause enumerated in Laya-krama. The text quoted from the Sārada gives the Srsti-krama. 2 Mātrārdhā-Sakti2. Mātrārdhā. In the Devi Bhigavata there occurs the expression Ardhamātrā (which is a name for Nada) in I, 1, v, 55, and III, 5, v, 29, and Nllakantha defines it to mean Param padam = the supreme state, or the Brahman. The expression Ardhamatra also occurs in Candi, I, 55, in practically the same sense. Gopila Chakravarti quotes a passage which says: " Ardha-mātra is attributeless (Nirguna), and realizable by the Yogi." He quotes another passage which says: "Om--this is the three Vedas, three Lokas, and after the three Lokas, Mātrārdhā is the fourth-the Supreme Tattva," See Candl "Tvamudgithe ardhamatrasi " and Devibhāgavata, I, 5, v, 55. Sruti says: "Thou art the Ardhamatra of Pranava, Gāyatri, and Vyāhrti." Here the unity of Devi and Brahman is shown. She is Brahman united with Māya (Māya-viśita-brahmarūpini). The Nada-bindu Upanisad (v. 1) says: " A-kāra is the right wing (of Om figured as a bird), U-kara is the other (left) wing, Ma-kara the tail, and Ardhamātra the head. Sattva is its body,

and thence came Bindu.1 who is Sat. The Bindu who is above the forehead is Nadatmaka---that is.. again. Tapoloka its throat. . " Above this is Kalā. connection which is the connection of reciprocity. the Maharloka its navel. Kankala-malini: " In the pericarp of the Sahasrara. the Supreme Male in the beginning of creation makes manifest the eternal Prakrti who is the embodiment of Sat. The name of this is Unmani. Bindu and Nada and Bija are but His different aspects. This is in shape like a bent or crooked line over a letter. Unmani.2 Another text has Sivatmaka---that is. devoid of attachments3. which also has its place in this region. the Bhuvarloka its knees. bent. awry.3 This is spoken of by all who are versed in the Agamas4" . vv." Cf. is the seventeenth Kala. hence it is Kriya-Sakti. Bindu is Nadatmaka." Mālā-varna = Varnāvalī-rūpa. 2 Nadatmaka. as opposed to Niskala. the Sakti from whom came Nada. which according to Samkhya is Sāmyāvasthā of the Gunas which is Prakrti. as if qualifying Bija." See also Brahmavidya Up. 7-9. Nada is the connection between the two whereby the one acts upon the other.: Cf. in the Saiva-Tantra Kalā is Sakti (RaghavaBhatta). again. (2) Varnāvalī-rūpa. Cit and Ananda. 10. v. and Nada." etc. Sivatmaka5. placed within the circle of the moon. and Satyaloka the place between the eyebrows. in whom 6 are all the Tattvas. 4 Agamas4 See Introduction. Anji is crooked. is the union or relation of the one to the other. 6 Sat. He who is Para-Sakti-maya manifests Himself in three different ways. the attainment of which is the secret teaching of all Tantras1. again. " Para-Sakti-maya ": Para=Siva. and who is the presiding (Adhistātri) Devi of creation.. Cit and Ananda. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Sarada-tilaka says: "From the Sakala Paramesvara. emanated Nada. This has already been shown. Also elsewhere: "From the unmanifested (Avyakta) Paramesvara. I. line. or Nirguna. 3 Gāndhārarāga3 The third of the seven primary subtle tones.and Rajas and Tamas are its two feet. the Svarloka is its middle. the united Siva and Sakti. is of two kinds: (1) Nirvana-kala-rūpa which also has its place in the Sahasrara2. which seems erroneous. Bindu is the Siva aspect. 3 union or relation of the one to the other.2 Bija is Sakti. Dharma is its right eye and Adharma is its left eye. According to the Vedantists of the (MāyaVāda) . Cit." The state of Unmani is the Tattva which means the dispelling of the attachment prompted by Manas towards worldly objects. also: "By mental recitation of the Mālā-varna (rosary of letters) is Unmani the granter of Liberation (attained). Pancaratra: "Having thus seen. Above these three is Maha-nada.: Kalā=Sakti. This Sakti appeared in the beginning of creation. from Sakti. Sakala. Kalā is Avidya. which cuts the bond of attachment to the world. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------" Above it is Unmani. means united with Kala.3 Samavāya ksobhya ksobhaka-sambandha---lit. Ch.1 Sarada. who is Tripura-sundari. and Bindu has its origin from Nada. Janaloka is the heart. Cf. and Ananda. hence Siva-Sakti-maya = Bindu. Cf. emanated the Adya (first) Devi Bhagavati." 1 Paramesvara. 5 Sivatmaka5 In the Benares edition as also in Rasika Mohana Chattopadhyaya's edition of the Sarada-tilaka the text reads Sivātmaka. 'By going where 'Manasness' (Manastva) of Manas ceases to be called Unmani. Bija is Sakti as Bodhini (Bodhint-rupam). Sakti emanated. The Bhurloka is its feet." etc. in whom 6 Raghava reads: "Samasta-tattva-samghatma-spiūrtyadhisthatrirūpinim "-which means" who is the Devi presiding over or directing the evolution or manifestation of all the mass of Tattvas ".

and repeated nineteen times is 969." etc. Cf. (Lalātadyaih varnaih pravilasitavapuh). says that in the Unmani stage there is no cognition of and no distinction is made between Kāla and Kalā. ending with the last letter before Ksakāra (Ksa). It is the pure and sweet mouth of Rudra. . decorate it. quoting Svacchanda-samgraha. Visarga is in the upper part of the Brahmarandhra. "Over the head of the Sankhini-Nadi "-a sight of which has been given to the disciple. " Vacant space" (Sūnya-deśa)-that is. Kankala-malini.-Above every other that has been described or spoken before. . The fifty-one letters. By this we are to understand that the second Lakāra (L) is to be left out in counting the letters of the Alphabet. Cf. With fifty-one letters repeated twenty times. and no Devatas. the place where there are no Nādis. who is free from all attachment. cannot be taken to be in the petals of the Sahasrāra2. "Next is the Vyapika-Sakti (Diffusive Energy) which people know as Āñjī. Let us then follow the text.The Bhūta-suddhi speaks of the Samani below Unmani. See introduction. shaped like a plough. If the text is read as " Lakārādyaih varņaih. Cit and Ananda). 2 Sahasrara2 Sahasrārādharā.kāraņa-kāraņam). By "Lakārādyaih" is it not meant that the letters are to be read Viloma. and says that She is Cidānanda. 1Tantras1 Visvanatha. and the cause of all causes (Sarva." This (Samani) also is an intermediate aspect (Avāntara-rūpa) of Parasakti. above Mahanada is the Vyapika Sakti. and Unmani is above all.020. Above Bindu is the Sakti Bodhini in shape like an Ardhamātrā." Here it is distinctly stated that the letter Ksa is left out. This is the order in which the seven causal forms (Karana-rūpa) are placed."-This is the purport of the Sloka. next is Nada which is the union of Siva and Sakti. 40 There is no need to go into further detail. and no cessation of continuity. We now get the following: Above Ajna-Cakra is the second Bindu-which is Siva (Siva-svarūpa). not prompted by anything in any action. the second Lakāra1 is always left out. A.e. Wishing to describe the Sahasrara he speaks of it in ten more verses. and the lustrous letters from A-kāra (A). By leaving out Ksakara we are freed of this difficulty.3 The Kaṅkālamālinī in the following passage distinctly says that it is to be read Anuloma4 "The Great Lotus Sahasāra is white and has its head downward. Vrttīnaṁ manah in the Siva-Samhita. “Above ll these” (Tadūrdhve). 3 attachments3 Sarva-samkalpa-rahitā—i. " Below Visarga is the lotus of a thousand petals. Samanī4 is over this. above this last is Samani and highest of these all is U nmani. the implication is that it is above where susumna ends.svarūpa (that is. Tadūrdhve śaṅkhinyā nivasati śikhare sūnyadeśe prakāśaṁ visargādhaḥ padmaṁ daśaśatadalaṁ pūrņacandrātiśubhraṁ Adhōvaktraṁ kāntam taruņaravikalākāntikiñjalkapuñjaṁ ḷakārādyairvarņaiḥ pravilasitavapuḥ kevalānandarūpaṁ. In counting the fifty letters.. we must leave Ksa-kāra out in counting the letters. 4 Samanī4 Visvanatha speaks of it as Samanā. " Its body is luminous with." There are other similar passages. The passages quoted are from ch.-The word Lalāta stands for the first vowel. 219. which speaks of Unmani as above Samana. there is no body. " (Meditate) in that aperture on Visarga the ever blissful and stainless. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40. v." as is done by some. crooked (Āñjī) in shape. the number is 1. next (above this) is Mahanada. V. in shape like a half (crescent) moon.

These letters go round the Sahasrara from right to left. 5 Bahu-vrīhi-samāsa5 A form of Sanskrit verbal compound. The verb Nivasati (=is. It sheds its rays in profusion..e. Within it (Sahasrara) is the full Moon. as the word padma alternatively becomes masculine in gender (vā pumsi padmam). 2Sahasrāra2 fifty-one letters cannot be arranged in the Sahasrara. There is nothing said of the colour of the letters. they are to be taken as being white on the Sahasrara petals. Therefore the correct reading is Pravilasita-vapuh. dwells) has for its nominative Padmam. Trikoņaṁ tasyāntah sphurati ca satataṁ vidyudākārarūpam tadantahūanyaṁ tatsakala-suragaņaih sevitaṃ cātiguptaṁ. The word tanu (if their reading is accepted) would be in the neuter. shines the Great Void3 which is served by all the Suras4. and is moist and cool like nectar. constantly shining like lightening. would also end with a visarga. and. h).e. 3 Viloma. The rest is clear. as the Mātrkā (letters) are white. and its adjective tanu. without the mark of the hare1. 1 Lakāra1 Vaidika Lakāra (La). Inside it (Candra-mandala). from end to beginning. which qualifies a word in the masculine gender.1 Some read Pravilasita-tanuh in place of pravilasita-vapuh.1 Daksinavarta---the opposite way to that in which the hands of a clock work. . as it ends with the Bindu (m). ksa-kārānta. therefore it cannot end with a Bindu.Akārādi-ksa-kārāntaih: This compound.. Samāste tasyāntaḥ śaśaparirahitaḥ śuddhasaṁpūrncandraḥ sphurajjyotsnājalaḥ paramarasacayasnigdhasaṁtānahāsī. 4 Anuloma4 From beginning to end. resplendent as in a clear sky. And if there is no Bindu the metre becomes defective. again. and. 1from right to left. is the Triangle2 and inside this. That cannot be. it is in the neuter gender and not masculine. if formed by Bahu-vrīhi-samāsa5 would mean that Ksakāra is left out of calculation. and say that. For in that case it would have ended with visarga (i.3 i. therefore the word Tanu. is itself masculine. 41.

Above it is the Guru. the triangle . the body of the Para-bindu (Para-bindusarīram). O Devesi. In dealing with the Sahasrāra. or Isvara. the former being called Sūnyatisūnya. 3 Great Void3 Sūnya=Bindu-that rs.That is. and Yoga. (Trikonam tasyāntah vidyudākāra-rūpam). evacuation (Nirāhara)." Samāste tasyāntaḥ śaśaparirahitaḥ śuddhasaṁpūrncandraḥ sphurajjyotsnājalaḥ paramarasacayasnigdhasaṁtānahāsī. is the Antarātmā. Above this (Tadūrdhve) last is the Devi Sankhinī. and destroys." etc.That which as a void within is. or then It is Sakala. maintains. . 1 without the mark of the hare1 The man in the moon. Within the triangle the excellent Bindu (Sūnya) shines. like lightning. in the upper portion of the space below Candra-mandala. In this aperture (Randhra) is Visarga. sexual intercourse (Vihāra). and produce a feeling of smilinggladness. and Bindu is imperishable. and then the Brahmarandhra.Tantra. Bindu means the void (Sūnya) and implies Guna also. 6th Ullāsa: "The Supreme Light is formless (Nirākara). Cf. " Inside this shines the Great Void" (Tadantah sūnyam sphurati).. "Eating (Āhāra)." 1 "Served in secret" (Sevitam cātiguptam).-The rule is. The positions of the Sun and Moon circles in the Sahasrara and of the twelve-petalled lotus with the Kāmakalā are given in the Text.e. it says: "In its pericarp. Snigdha which means moist here implies the moisture of the nectar. Above this is Mahā-vāyu.COMMENTARY He here speaks of the existence of the Candra-mandala in the pericarp of the Sahasrara. Parama-rasa (Amrta) is free from heat. or within the triangle the Sūnya which is the excellent Bindu shines. the ever blissful Brahman. In the northern Saiva and Sakta schools Sadasiva and Isvara are the Nimesa and Unmesa aspects of the experience intermediate between Siva-Tattva and Suddha-vidya.. etc. the Para-bindu. 1Guna also.. who creates. resplendent as in a clear sky (Suddha)---seen in a cloudless sky (nirmalo-daya-viśista) " Is moist and cool. 4 Suras4 i. Todala. the shining triangle is there. Hence the meaning of this compound word: Its rays are cool and moist. Trikoņaṁ tasyāntah sphurati ca satataṁ vidyudākārarūpam tadantahūanyaṁ tatsakala-suragaņaih sevitaṃ cātiguptaṁ. The Mandalas of Sūrya and Candra are also there. It is with the operating Gunas. having as its centre the abode of Brahman (Brahmapada). should be done in secret by him who knows the Dharma. --41 " Within Candra-mandala constantly shines. Devas.. The Kankala-malini speaks of the presence of Antarātmā." Hence Suras (Devas) serve or worship It in secret." 1 When it assumes the form of Bindu. 2 Triangle2 The A-ka-thādi triangle according to Visvanatha. (Parama-rasa-cāya-snigdha-santāna-hāsī).

and attainable only by great effort. read Sakalasasi-kalā-suddha-rūpa-prakāsam as qualifying the great Void within the triangle. 3 darkness of nescience3 Ajnana. It is the source of all the mass of great Bliss. COMMENTARY The sense is that the void (Sūnya) is very secret and subtle. The other Kalās are mentioned in Skanda-Purana Prabhāsa-Khanda. Here is the Deva who is known to all as Parama-Siva. In Him are united both Rasa and Virasa2 and He is the Sun which destroys the darkness of nescience3 and delusion4. It is attainable only by great effort consisting of long and incessant performance of Dhyana and like practices.Well concealed. as described later. Some. being. but the nectardropping Ama and the Nirvana-kalā are only at this stage revealed. He is the Brahman and the Atma of all beings. The Yogi in his ascent from Muladhara Chakra goes to Bindu before he reaches other Saktis for merger with Siva. 2 Rasa and Virasa2 The Bliss of liberation and that arising from the union of Siva and Sakti: vide post. the void (Antah-sūnya) along with the Amā Kalā and Nirvāna-Kalā within the triangle is realized (Prakāsam bhavati) by meditation (Dhyāna). .. however. and read 'sakala ' to mean with all the sixteen kalās and say that the Para Bindu manifests the moon with such kalās. is that subtle Bindu (Sunya) which is the chief root of liberation and which manifests the pure Nirvana-kala with Ama-Kala1. It makes manifest the purity of the sixteenth Kala of the moon along with Nirvāna-Kalā --i. after it shed all impurities. Suguptaṁ tadyatnādatiśayaparammoda-saṁtānarāśeḥ paraṁ kandaṁ sūkṣmaṁ sakalāśaśikalasuddharūpaprakāśaṁ lha sthāne devaḥ paramaśivasamākhyānasiddhaḥ prasiddhaḥ svarūpī sarvātmā rasavirasanutoऽiñānamohāndhahaṁsaḥ 42. This verse describes the ascendant course of liberation of the soul. 1 Ama-Kala1 There are seventeen Kalās (digits) of the Moon. like the ten millionth part of the end of a hair. which is Liberation.e.

The Yoginl-hrdaya says that this Kanda is the subtle Parananda-kanda-bindu-rupa. lha sthāne devaḥ paramaśivasamākhyānasiddhaḥ prasiddhaḥ svarūpī sarvātmā rasavirasanutoऽiñānamohāndhahaṁsaḥ 42. (Atiśaya-paramāmoda-samtāna-rāśi). here chief. A . The object of service is the Bindu within the triangle. When it was said that the Trikona (triangle) is within the full moon.e. 2 According to the Commentator. The term "service" as applied to a void is inappropriate. The Adhyātma Rāmāyana says: ." 2 Next he speaks of the presence of Parama-Siva in the pericarp of the Sahasrāra. Bindu is the circle O. to qualify Sūnya in the previous verse.-He who is known by the name Parama Siva. though subtle and otherwise imperceptible...2-Kha=Ātmā. Suguptaṁ tadyatnādatiśayaparammoda-saṁtānarāśeḥ param kandaṁ sūkṣmaṁ sakalāśaśikalasuddharūpaprakāśaṁ " Well concealed" (Suguptaṁ ). " ifests. but in fact there is no distinction between Jivātma and Paramātmā. the void is the Brahmapada or space within. This verse occurs in Tripurā-sāra-samuccaya. V.Kalā and Nirvana. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- lha sthāne devaḥ paramaśivasamākhyānasiddhaḥ prasiddhaḥ svarūpī sarvātmā rasavirasanutoऽiñānamohāndhahaṁsaḥ 42. principal. excellent.l-e-Para usually means supreme. " Liberation. and this is Liberation (Moksa). Furthermore.. If it be said that the void should be worshipped by reason of the presence of the Para-Bindu. "Chief root" (Param kandam. If Sugopyam be read in place of Suguptarn. 42. of the moon. etc.-By reason of its being like the ten millionth part of a hair. In the word Sasi.Kalā.-The compound word means. the repetition of it is useless. by long-continued practice of meditation (Dhyana) and so forth. " Paramasiva " 1 (Paramashiva-samākhyāna-siddha)." etc. in the previous verse we have got "served by the Suras ".l " (sakala-śaśi-kalā-suddha-rūpa-prakāśam). He is the Jivātma. The Ātmā is the Jīva.Kalā in the Trikona. the spirit. 40.Kalā. This requires consideration. The sense is that the Para-bindu. and say Sūnya means "vacant space" but that is absurd. it qualifies Kanda. " The Atma of all beings" (Sarvātmā). Kanda = Mūla. the sixteenth Kalā.-Sarva=all (beings).-This compound word is to be broken up as follows: Sakala=with the Kalā: Kalā here meaning Nirvana. then the Para-Bindu being there present there is no void. " The Brahman" (Kharūpī). ch. continuity of all the mass of great and supreme bliss. or the root of supreme Bliss in Bindu form (Visvanatha). or digit. Some read Sakala-sasi-kalā-suddha-rūpa-prakasam. Suddha=pure. " By great effort" (Yatnāt)---i. the lustre is not obscured by anything.Kalā the Kalā means Amā. then it would be qualified by Yatnāt.4 delusion4 Moha. literally. 1 Kanda means bulb or root. is seen by meditation (Dhyana) with the Amā.

Virasa is the bliss which is the product of the union of Siva and Sakti. 43 By shedding a constant and profuse stream of nectar-like essence. Br. so does He dispel nescience (Ajnāna) and delusion (Moha)."The Jivātma is merely another name. 5 That is. 4 i. As the sun dispels darkness. " The Sruti also. Or Rasa may mean the natural attachment to worldly enjoyment. 2 Cf. and Virasa detachment from it. when it says" That thou art "-Tat tvam asi. 43. (Paryāya) for the Paramātma. When by the instruction of the Acārya and the Sastras their oneness is known.-Rasa is Paramānandarasa -i. the experience of Supreme Bliss4. 1 Visvanatha says that this Siva is the Saguna-Siva.e.1 the Bhagavan2 instructs the Yati3 of pure mind in the knowledge by which he realizes the oneness of the Jivatma and the Paramatma. He is both.. 3" That thou art. then the disciple possesses Mūlavidyā concerning Jivātmā and Parammātā. -1-1. The meaning would then be: in Him is the Supreme Bliss arising from his detachment from worldly enjoyments5. He pervades all things as their Lord. Samaste sarveśaḥ sakalasukhasaṁtānalaharī parivāko haṁsaḥ parama iti niāmnā paricitaḥ.e. who is the ever-flowing and spreading current of all manner of bliss known by the name of Harnsah Parama (Paramahamsah). Sruti " Kham Brahma " Chao 4-10-5.. . " The Sun " = Hamsa. " Rasa and Virasa" (Rasa-virasamita)." See Introduction. Moksa. the Rasa in Him has become Virasa. Sudhādhārāsāraṁ niravadhi vimuñcannatitarām yateḥ svātmajñānaṁ diśati bhagavān nirmalamateḥ.' identifies the Tvam (Thou) with the Tat (That).

hence the whole word means "the silvery beams of the moon". After describing Guru as "the well-known and excellent Purusa who is ever fond2 of enjoyment with the Self (Atma-rati-priya). "By shedding a stream of nectar-like essence" (Sudhā-dhārāsāram vimuñcan). P r t (svātma-jñāna): Svam= Jivatma and Atma=Paramatma.e.. Disati = Upadisati (instructs).. Now. Sudhadhara = receptacle of sweetness. who is engrossed in. may mean "nectar of mercy. and thereby helps the worshipper to realize the oneness of the Jivatma and Paramatma. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The place for the feet of the lustrous (Tejo-rūpa) Beloved (Sakti) of the Guru is on the breast of the Guru1 and not on that of any other Purusa. This adjective proves that the qualified noun is white or transparent like the moon.." or" By unremitting and nectarlike words strong for the destruction of the darkness of delusion."-He whose mind intently rests upon the Devata of his worship. the essence of Brahma-mantra." Vimuncan should then mean " uttering". The Para-Brahman is but the effulgence of Her lotus feet. 3 Yati3 Self-controlled." and Atitaram would mean "powerful in destroying the darkness. Hence Parama-Siva and the Guru are one and the same. a stream. ignorance or delusion. etc." www. Gurus-tattva-nirūpana in Lalita-rahasya.e.htm 2 Bhagavan2 That is. as instructions regarding Taraka-brahma-mantra proceed from Him. mean" what is uttered. this may be variously translated as follows: "By shedding a constant and profuse stream of nectar resembling the silvery beam of the Moon. The meaning of Niravadhi would then be " at all times. " Yati. the Taraka-brahma-mantra.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras.1Essence1 As appears from the Commentary post. by which is meant the Moon . and Jnana1 that by which one knows-namely. 4. as He is the Guru.." "word". whose mind is unified with the object of worship. So it qualifies " Parama-Siva " in the preceding verse." By the above passage is meant that the great beauty of Her lotus feet overspreads the heart-lotus of Parama-Siva who is ParaBrahman." or " By constant repetition of the word which is nectar-like in its mercy and contains the essence of the Brahma-mantra. what flows from the Moon is Nectar. again. which is silvery." and Sare is essence "-i. which leads to a knowledge of the Paramatma. again. Shedding = Vimuncan. (verse 43 line 2) " Instructs the Yati. The above qualifying expressions imply that the qualified noun is the Guru. the Lord as the possessor of the six forms of Aisvarya." etc. 2) The Adhara (receptable) of Sudha (nectar) is Sudhadhara. 2 who is ever fond2 i.-The compound word can be made up and interpreted in four different ways: 1) Shedding a stream of nectar-like essence. . which is a quality of nectar. (Bhagavān nirmala-mater yateh svātma-jñānam diśati). yateḥ svātmajñānaṁ diśati bhagavān nirmalamateḥ. Asara is what flows therefrom. and Vijnana is the knowledge of the material world (science). hence Sudhadharasaram=nectar-like or ambrosial word. 1 Jnana1 Jnana is spiritual knowledge or wisdom. 3. Sudha. Asara may. and Dhara is a stream (continuous repetition) of the merciful word containing the essence of the Brahma-mantra. Cf. K owledge by which." it goes on to say: "His beloved is the lustrous One who may be gained with difficulty by the Brahma-vartma (Brahman road).bhagavadgitausa. COMMENTARY "Constant and profuse" (Niravadhi atitaram).

htm . how can obeisance be made to him outwardly? " That is. free from delusion). Nirvana Sakti is the Antargata(Indweller) of Nirvana KalA. (one should meditate within upon the 17th KalA.) 2Nirvana-Tantra also says 2 This passage occurs in the 3rd Patala of the Nirvana-Tantra (Rasika Mohana Chattopadhyaya's Edition. by name NirvAna which is like a crescent‖(KutilA6). and above Mahanada is Brahmarandhra." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 KutilA: See Jnanarva-Tantra XXIV.. It is the CinmAtra SvabhAvA or Pure Consciousness aspect of AmA KalA. Chattopadhyaya's Edition). the cause of all. In the Brahmarandhra is Visarga. 5 The kankāla~mālini Tantra5 This passage occurs in Patala II (p. in R. known as Nirvana-Kala. 3).O Devesi. In this Sakti it should be known that Siva who is changeless and free from illusion abides. 36. is more excellent than Ama KalA. . placed in the Mandala of Moon. 1.The Nirvana-Tantra also says 2: "In the Lotus in the head is Mahadeva---the Parama-Guru: there is in the three worlds no one. www. is the Trikona (triangle). 4 Gurus. He thinks that Kailāsa (the paradise of Siva) is there. from such union flows the nectar. Parama-Guru. who is so deserving of worship as He. who propels the soul towards (upwards to) Brahman. Having meditated on the Triangle placed below. AmA is also the Sakti (Urdhva Sakti-Rupa = Form of Sakti that moves [the soul] upwards). O Mahadevi. of which AmA KalA is the receptacle. and within it. O Devesi. it then proceeds: " Below it.bhagavadgitausa. Here constantly shines Amā Kalā which knows neither increase nor decay. by placing the undisturbed Cetas (heart or mind) here one lives in bliss to the full term of one's life (Jīva-jīvi) free from all ills. without whom Siva is Sava (a corpse. which is Eternal Peace and Bliss. AmA KalA is Creative Sakti and becomes Nirvana KalA of Pure Consciousness. meditate on His form3. AmA is the one that maintains the bodies. M. How can the Sadhaka bow to him who is in the head which is itself bowed? 3 meditate on His form3 The passage as quoted by the Commentator reads "Tadamśaṁ" (his part). NirvAna KalA = 17th KalA = Vyapini Tattva = Sakti Svarupa = VyApini Tattva. and Paramesti-Guru. is the Antaratma. which in its entirety runs thus: "In it (Sahasrara). It is the excellent Nirvana Sakti. --Woodroffe."4 i. and is in answer to the following question of the Devi: "The Deva who is in the Turiyadhama (the fourth state) is unquestionably the Paramatma . VyApinI = Expansive. effulgent as ten million suns. the Creatrix and Maintainer and Destructress . which reading is here adopted. M. 3 of R. and above the Hamsah of which we speak below. O Devesi. the 17th and 16th KalAs respectively.Guru This is in praise of Sakti." And after having spoken of the presence of different things in their order up to Maha-sankhinl. AmartAkArarUpini. O Devesi. is the Antaratma. Nirvana KalA is Vyapini3 or Sakti Svarupa and above the 16th KalA. Nirvana Sakti is Antargata (indweller) of Nirvana KalA. p. Above lt is unmanifested Nada. Ananda is the Bliss or Joy which arises from the union of Para (Bindu-Rupa Siva) and ParA (Sakti or Prakrti). and above it Vāyu. Chattopadhyaya's Edition it reads "Tadrūpaṁ" (his form)."4 This Parama Siva is outside the triangle in the pericarp. and having meditated there on the undecaying Kalā.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. The kankāla~mālini Tantra5 says: " In the pericarp of this Lotus. Guru. O Devi. and 'unable to move. The Mandalas of Sun and Moon are also there. and above it the Guru. and for such a one there is no rebirth. It is the Supreme aspect of VyApini Tattva as Vyapika. Nirvana Sakti is both Unmani1and Samani2. Above it is Devi Sankhini. Nirvana Sakti has two KalAs or Inner Force: NirvAna KalA and AmA KalA. again is the seventeenth digit. Parapara-Guru. Within Nirvana-Kala is the flery Nibodhika. if he be placed in the Lotus in the head." which includes all the four Gurus.e. which also means stainless. (Peace-Niranjana.

It is the Creative aspect (Anjani) of Vyapini Tattva." Also cf the Annada-kalpa-Tantra2: "Meditate on your Guru in the white Lotus of a thousand petals in the head. NirvAna Sakti or Samani in Sakti Tattva is the abode of PAsajAla (bondage). AmA is both Srstyunmukhi (looking towards creation) and Urddhva-Saktirupa (looking upwards or towards liberation. and so forth. NirvAna KalA is CinmAtra SvabhAvA or Pure Consciousness aspect of what in the creative aspect is called AmA KalA. the answer is that the Antarātma and the Hamsah are one and the same.AmA KalA = 16th KalA = Vyapika Sakti = Paratpara = Receptacle of the Nectar that flows from the union of Para (Bindurupa Siva) and ParA (Sakti). and Liberating. Guru Dhyana in Kankala-malini1: "Meditate on your Guru seated on a shining throne (Simhasana) placed on the excellent Antarātma between Nada and Bindu. NirvAna KalA is more excellent or beyond AmA KalA. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The above passage speaks of the presence of Amā-Kala. Srstyunmukhi is Adhomukhi meaning downward-turned-mouth (petals)." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj .) Ama is Creative Anjani and Adhomukhi. The Guru therefore is below them and above Antarātma." etc. if it be asked how it is that. Petals turned down before Kundali ascends. the kankala-Malini having placed the Guru over the Antaratma. within the triangle in the Candra-Mandala. the Guru is spoken of as placed above Hamsah. AmA KalA and NirvAna KalA are two aspects (creative and supreme ) of VyApini Tattva as VyApikA and Anjani. Also elsewhere: "Meditate on your' Guru. as seated on the Hamsa-pita which is Mantramaya. takes the soul to liberation upwards. Now. He is Parama-Siva seated on the Hamsa among the filaments. who is the image of Siva Himself.

Or if the two words be read together. These conflicting views lead to the conclusion that the Guru is within the triangle ill. Then in time She divides Herself in two: the one on the right is Bindu and that on the left side is Visarga. the word 'antah ' being omitted. below the pericarp of the Sahasrara and inseparable from it. 3 Paduka-pancaka-Stotra3: See notes to v. . The right and the left are respectively distinguished as male and female. This has been made clear in the Paduka-pancaka-Stotra3. line 3-4 "Who is the ever flowing. 2 Annada-kalpa-Tantra2: This quotation is not traceable in Prasannakumara Siistri's Edition of this Tantra.. Ham is the Bindu. 1 Kankala-malini1 Patala III. and Visarga is Prakrti . as it were. otherwise it would conflict with the authority of the Kankala-maliniTantra. which relates to the Sahasrara. then the meaning would be "He who is known by the name of Parama-hamsa. and Sah is Visarga. The Author himself speaks of Him as Hamsa in the forty-ninth verse. it has been said that Isvara (Lord) is there. By the expression" one's own Guru. Verse 43. as the following qualifying expressions will show." by one of the exceptional rules of Karmadhāraya-Samāsa this word having been formed. Prapañca-sara: "She whose name is Tattva is Cinmatra1: when by proximity to the Light she wishes to create2 She becomes massive (Ghanibhūya) and assumes the form of Bindu." The Mahakali-Tantra speaks clearly on the subject (PatalaI): "In the empty space3 in the Candra-Mandala4 which is within the Sahasrara. Cf. The Sarvesa (Lord of All) is the Hamsa--i. who is Parama-Siva. over which (meditate on) Him who is pure like rock crystal and dressed in pure white silken raiment. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Samaste sarveśaḥ sakalasukhasaṁtānalaharī parivāko haṁsaḥ parama iti niāmnā paricitaḥ. the pericarp of the upturned Lotus of twelve petals. Or if Hamsa and Parama be read separately as Hamsa and Parama it would mean" He who is known as Hamsa and Parama ". Āgama-kalpa-druma: He is called Parama-hamsah. The triangular Hamsa is below the middle triangle. Bindu is Purusa.. that is. in this pericarp dwells He who is the Lord of All. shows that Parama-Siva is in the triangle: "Within (or near) it (Sahasrara) is the lightning-like Triangle.On a careful consideration of the above authorities. pervading all that is moving and motionless. and so forth. 7 of the Paduka-Pancaka. an interminable chain of happiness. is the union of Prakrti and Purusa. line 3-4 " He pervades all things as their Lord "-(Samaste sarveśah)-i.." it is to be understood that Parama-Siva Himself is the Guru." Samaste sarveśaḥ sakalasukhasaṁtānalaharī parivāko haṁsaḥ parama iti niāmnā paricitaḥ.. He is." etc. and within the Triangle are the two Bindus which make the imperishable Visarga-There in the empty void is Parama Siva.e." Here the letters Ham and Sah are explicitly spoken of. Now. Cf. (Sakala-sukha-santāna-laharī-parīvāha)-i. who pervade the Universe. the identity of Hamsa with Antaratma becomes clear. Hamsah. Verse 43. are the letters Ham and Sah. He is the Mantra" Ham-Sah ". in Him becomes manifest in every possible way all kinds of imperishable and increasing happiness. adorned with a celestial gateway.e. by saying that Parama-Siva is there. From these passages it is not to be inferred that the Guru is within the triangle in the pericarp of the Sahasrara. The following passage.e. then why this repetition? But there is an object in so doing.

others again. 5 Prakrti-Purusa5 Sakti-Siva. vv. The text quoted here differs from that of the edition published by me (See ch. 4 Candra-Mandala4 = The locative is to be read Sāmīpye-saptamī---that is. and other great sages (Munis) call it the pure place of Prakrti-Purusa5. 39. is creation." or stress. Śivasthānam śaivāḥ paramapuruṣaṁ vaiṣņavagaņā lapantīti prāyo hariharapadam kecidapare.. call it the place of Hari-Hara3. III). 1 Cinmatra1 Vide ante. The Sūnya is the empty space within the Bindu. 44. 3 empty space3 = Sūnya. The Saivas call it the abode of Siva1. 41-44. the space is not in. 3 Hari-Hara3 Visnu and Siva. 1 Siva1 Siva-sthanam. 2 Purusa2 i. End Verse 43. but near. the Candra-Mandala . v. or the Goddess. 4 Devi4 Sakti.It has previously been said that this Hamsa is below Parama-Siva. COMMENTARY .e. Those who are filled with a passion for the Lotus feet of the Devi4 call it the excellent abode of the Devi. Tantrik Texts. the place of Parama-Purusa---Visnu. the Vaisnavas call it Parama Purusa2. otherwise there appears to be a contradiction. See Introduction. Vol. I. 2 create2 = Vicikīrsu---" wishes to distort herself." Here" distortion. Pabaṁ devyā devicaraņayugalāṁbhojarasikā munīndrā apyanye prakṛtipuruṣasthānamamalaṁ.

.-By this the author here means the worshippers of the "Hamsah" Mantra who call it the pure place of Prakrti-Purusa. United Visņu and Siva and not of Siva alone or Visņu alone-call it the place of Hari-Hara7. Sāktas. each worshipper calls it the place of the Devatās of his own separate worship. The above shows that. the worshippers of Siva-call it the place of Siva. in which are all the Devatas. Hamsah is the union of Prakrti and Purusa2 hence it is the place of Prakrti and Purusa. etc. are in this pericarp.e. again" (Kecid apare)-i. Idam sthānam jñātva niyatanijacitto naravaro . others who are worshippers of Hari-Hara.. 45. " The Saivas "-i. 1 Other great sages1 Muni means "knower" and whose Mind is therefore always in a state of Meditation. the place of the Parama-Purusa. and Sah is Prakrti. Verse 44 " Other great sages1" (Munīndrā apyanye). 7 Hari-Hara7 Hari-Hara-padam. or Visņu (Vishnu). in other words. "The V isņ v s6 call it Parama-Purusa "-i. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44. who has in Him all the Devatās (Sarvadevatāmaya) and others. Ham is the Purusa.As Hamsah. such as Saivas. as this Lotus is the dwelling-place of the Para Bindu. 6 V isņ v s6 Worshippers of Visnu. Śivasthānam śaivāḥ paramapuruṣaṁ vaiṣņavagaņā lapantīti prāyo hariharapadam kecidapare.. " Others. or. They do not call it either the place of Hari (Visnu) or of Siva (Hara) but the place of their united selves.e. Pabaṁ devyā devicaraņayugalāṁbhojarasikā munīndrā apyanye prakṛtipuruṣasthānamamalaṁ. it is the place of the Devatās of worship of all classes of worshippers.e. 2 Purusa2 Hamsasva prakrti-puruṣobhayarūpatvāt.

and he is not truly embodied. his accumulated (Saṁcita) Karma of merit (Punya) and demerit (Papa) is also destroyed. For the Tattva-jnanl (him who knows the truth) there is neither Punya nor Papa. 2 Wandering2 Samsāra. he possesses complete power to do all which he wishes. He is in consequence under no bondage whether in heaven (Svarga). and attains complete Liberation on the dissolution of the body. Man is bound by action which is the product of his own nature (Sva-bhāva). as there is nothing in the three worlds which binds him. in other words. then such (false) attribution is bondage and Samsara and servitude. and in the nether world (Patala) one suffers sorrow. Such an one becomes free from Samsara. or. or nether world (Pātāla). and to prevent that which is contrary to his will. His speech. is ever pure and sweet. the world of birth and rebirth to which men are impelled by their Karma. As the term also means the" air" or "ether. That most excellent of men who has controlled his mind1 and known this place is never again born in the Wandering2.. Samagrā saktiḥ syānniya mamanasastasya krtinaḥ sadā kartuṁ hartuṁ khagatirapi vāņi suvimalā." Also cf. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Bhāgavata says: "If the action which is the product of the operation of the Gunas is attributed to the self. He ever moves towards the Brahman3. The idea sought to be conveyed is that a knowledge of this place should be gained as a whole and in detail. . He is liberated though living (Jivanmukta)." the text is capable of translation as " He is able to roam the sky". By bondage is meant the Mayik bonds of virtue (Punya) and sin (Papa). whether in prose or verse. according to which Kha = Brahman. he who has controlled and concentrated the inner faculties on this place. His mind being controlled and his aim achieved. COMMENTARY In this verse he speaks of the fruit of a complete knowledge of the Sahasrara. and on earth man is subject to both Papa and Punya. which are the causes of bondage. 3 Brahman3 The interpretation of Visvanatha is here adopted. In heaven one enjoys (the fruit of) Punya. as there is nothing to bind or attract him in these worlds."1 To inhabit this body for the purpose of undergoing Papa (sin) and Punya (virtue) is bondage. Bhagavad-Gita: "O Son of Kunti.na bhūyāt saṁsāre punarapi na baddhastribhuvane.e. earth (Martya). " Who has controlled his mind" (Niyata-nija-citta)-i. 1 mind1 Citta.2 Such a one stays on earth so long only as he has not worked out what he has begun. he is released from bondage.

which is now selecting and now rejecting.. 54. this is Kallcarana's interpretation. when Papa and Punya are destroyed (lit. Vol." Cf: Bhagavad-Gita: " And so the fire of knowledge destroys all actions. is dissolved in That. 2 the fire of knowledge destroys all actions.. Sridhara-svami's Commentary on the Gita. 3 no dependence on any being. v. 2 not truly embodied." Cf: Bhagavad-Gita: " And so the fire of knowledge destroys all actions.. Samagrā saktiḥ syānniya mamanasastasya krtinaḥ sadā kartuṁ hartuṁ khagatirapi vāņi suvimalā. and none whatever in what is not done.2" IV. . is meant ability to do all he desires to do3 and counteract all harm. who is Sakti and Atma (if." The Gita (III. 5 Sruti5 The text quoted is from Hamsa Upanisad but differs slightly from the published texts of that Upanisad. Hamsah. Verse 45 Sruti5 speaks of the destruction of accumulated (Samcita) Punya and Papa: "When Manas. Idam sthānam jñātva niyatanijacitto naravaro na bhūyāt saṁsāre punarapi na baddhastribhuvane. who is Sakti and Atma (if. Sadasiva.e. nor demerit by killing a hundred Brahmanas. power which enables him to do everything. is dissolved in That."3 The Subodhini4 interprets this verse to mean that the " knower" (Tattvajnani) acquires no merit by the performance of actions nor demerit by the omission thereof. Sruti5 speaks of the destruction of accumulated (Samcita) Punya and Papa: "When Manas. to fly across the air4. burnt). which is now selecting and now rejecting. burnt). ante).2" "Complete power" (Samagrā-saktī) speech and of poetic composition. By power." 1 Sva-bhāva). Hamsah."1 Ch. 18) also says: "For him there is nothing in this world that should or should not be done. 37.' and to become possessed of great powers of 1Santa1 That is."3 Telang's Translation: "He has no interest at all in what is done. ante). is Santa. when Papa and Punya are destroyed (lit. he is not of it. VIII).The Kularnava-Tantra says: "Those who have the Brahman in the heart can acquire neither merit by performing a hundred horse sacrifices. XVIII. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45. Sacred Books of the East. i. For such an one there is no dependence on any being. is Santa1.2 Na sariri bhavati--though he has a body. 4 Subodhini4 That is. 3 ability to do all he desires to do3 Such an one may have such a power but will not wrongly exercise it. peace and quietude like the still surface of an ocean characteristic of the Supreme State. Sadasiva. nor is any interest of his dependent on any being" (p. 4 fly across the air4 Khagati. 60. or Sakti. in this world.

Here is the excellent (supreme) sixteenth Kala of the Moon. She is pure. " " constantly shining". may mean Para.46.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras." but Saṁkara reads "Nityodita. 46. She is lustrous1 and soft like ten million lightening flashes.htm 1 lustrous1 Kālīcarana reads "Vidyotitā.3 COMMENTARY Verses 41 and 42 speak of the presence of Amā-kala. Atrāste śiśūsuryasodarakalā candrasya sā sodaśī śuddhā nirajasūkşmatantuśatadhābhāgaikararūpā parā. and speaks in this verse of the distinctive features of Amā-kalā. From Her. whose source is the Brahman.bhagavadgitausa. She is the receptacle of the stream of excellent nectar which comes from the blissful union of Para and Parâ). Atrāste śiśūsuryasodarakalā candrasya sā sodaśī śuddhā nirajasūkşmatantuśatadhābhāgaikararūpā parā. Vidyyutkotisamānakomalatanūrvidyotitādhomukhī nityānandapararṁparātivigalat-pīyūşadhārādharā. according to Samkara. This difference in meaning is due to the different ways in which these words may be read. flows copiously the continuous stream of nectar2 (or. ." Parampara may mean" in a continuous course. 3 blissful union of Para and Parâ). Pasyanti. www.3 Para. Madhyama. and Para-Bindu. within the triangle in the pericarp of the Sahasrāra. and Vaikhari collectively. Para and Para are the Bindu-riipa Siva and Sakti. and is down-turned. Nirvāna-kalā. He now desires to describe them by their distinctive attributes. and resembles (in colour) the young Sun. 2 nectar2 Alternative reading of Commentator: "Nityananda-pararhparativigalat-piyiisa-dhara-dhara." or Pararn may mean Siva and Para-Sakti. She is as thin as the hundredth part of a fibre in the stalk of lotus.

of it will be as given within brackets at the end of the verse.e. " The sixteenth Kala of the Moon" (candrasya sodaśī ). stainless.e.-By this we are to understand that he is speaking of Ama-kala1.(śiśūsuryasodarakalā)-By this the redness of this Kalā is indicated. or the upward (towards the Brahman) moving Sakti. 47. as follows. the meaning. Para = Bindu-rūpa. Ananda will then mean the joy of union. -Thin like a hundredth part of the fibre in the lotus-stalk split length-wise. Parā = Prakrti." This is attributive of Ama. Sakti.Vidyyutkotisamānakomalatanūrvidyotitādhomukhī nityānandapararṁparātivigalat-pīyūşadhārādharā. Ānanda is the joy which arises from the union of the two. 46 "Excellent or supreme" (Para)-i.. Pūrņananda-paraṁparati-vigalat-pīyūṣa-dhārā-dharā. and from such union flows the nectar of which Amā-kalā is the receptacle. Nirvāṇākhyakalā parā paratparā sāste tadantargatā Keśāgrasya sahasradhā vibhajitasyaikāmśarūpā satī. Bhutānāmadhidaivataṁ bhagavati nityaprabodhodayā Candrārdhāngasamānabhaṇguravatī sarvārkatulyaprabhā .. "Flows. She is Cit-Sakti. Siva. " Pure" (śuddhā)-i." etc. 1 Ama-kala1 Visvanatha says that this Amā-kalā is Urdhva-sakti-rupa. (Ati-vigalat-pīyūṣa-dhārā-dharā). " Whose source is the Brahman" (Nityānanda-paraṁpara).-If the last two compound words be read as one long compound word. (śiśu-sūrya-sodara-kalā.. .-Nityananda=Pūrņananda=Brahman. and Paraṁ-Parā will then mean Siva and Sakti. "She resembles." etc. " Thin as the hundredth part of a fibre in the stalk of the lotus" (Nīrajasūkṣma-tantu-śatadhā-bhāgaika-rūpa). In the Prabhasa-khanda occurs the following passage: "The excellent Maya who maintains the bodies of all that have bodies..

She grants divine knowledge. She is as subtle as the thousandth part of the end of a hair.. more excellent than the excellent. 47. Nirvāṇākhyakalā parā paratparā sāste tadantargatā Keśāgrasya sahasradhā vibhajitasyaikāmśarūpā satī. he says.e. If" Parātparatarā " be accepted for ' Parā-paratarā. and known by the name of Nirvana-kalā. or knowledge of the Brahman. The Kala has already been described as the" crescent seventeenth Kalā placed within Amā. " She is as subtle . Visvanatha says. within the curve of Amā-Kalā . Vyāpinī-tattva. placed in the lap1 of Ama-kalā." " More excellent than the excellent" (Parā-paratarā). Candrārdhāngasamānabhaṇguravatī sarvārkatulyaprabhā.Adhi-daivataṁ=Hārdda-caitanyam. She grants Tattva-jnana.l and this Kalā is Hārdda-caitanyasvarūpa of all beings. and is as lustrous as the light of all the suns shining at one and the same time. of which the Amā-Kalā is one of the digits. so very subtle is She.ravatī)-like Amā-Kalā she is in shape like the crescent.e. . hair" (Keśāgrasya sahasradhā vibhajitasyaikāmśa-rūpa). this is more excellent than Amā. Bhutānāmadhidaivataṁ bhagavati nityaprabodhodayā Candrārdhāngasamānabhaṇguravatī sarvārkatulyaprabhā-47 " Inside it" (Tadantargatā)-i. not within Amā-Kalā.Verse 47 line 4 . "She grants divine knowledge" (Nitya-prabodhodayā)—i. COMMENTARY In this verse the Nirvana-kalā is described. Nirvana-Kalā is. _ " Of the shape of the crescent Moon" (Candrārdhānga-samāna-bhangu. who is the Devata who pervades all beings.' then the meaning will be that She is the most excellent. ..Inside it (Ama-Kala) is Nirvana-kala.-The Amā-Kalā is excellent. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bhutānāmadhidaivataṁ bhagavati nityaprabodhodayā. but within the Candra-Mandala. and of the shape of the crescent moon. 1 placed in the lap1 of Ama-kalā That is. Verse 47 line 3 " That Devatā who pervades all beings" (Bhūtānām adhidaivataṁ). She is the ever-existent Bhagavati.-She is equal in dimension to the thousandth part of the end of a hair.

She is extremely subtle.e. the Sakti who is Herself the heart of the Lord. " Its" (Etasyah)-i.. See Introduction. She before whom there was nothing.-Within the lap. Etasyā madhyadeśe vilasati paramāpūrvanirvāṇaśaktiḥ Kotyādityaprakāśā tribhuvanajananī koṭibhāgaikarūpā. of the Nirvana-kala. " Middle" (Madhya-deśe). Sneha -i." etc. Apūrva-i..4 Etasyā madhyadeśe vilasati paramāpūrvanirvāṇaśaktiḥ verse 48. affection. and is the life of all beings. middle of the Nirvana-kala) shines the Supreme and Primordial NirvAna-Sakti1. She contains within her the constantly flowing stream of gladness2. love.e. This adjective also implies that She is red.-Parama5i.e. line 1 " The Supreme and Primordial Nirvāna-Sakti" (Paramā-pūrva-nirvāna-śakti= paramā apūrva-nirvāna-sakti). Within its middle space (i. (Sarvārka-tulya-prabhā). She having appeared at the beginning of creation. . and is the Mother of the three worlds. and like unto the tenmillionth part of the end of a hair.. The word is derived from hṛd=heart. the Supreme Brahman as sakti. the Istadevata worshipped in the heart.e." And is lustrous. 1 Hārdda-caitanyam. Amara defines Hārdda to mean Prema. She graciously carries the knowledge of the Truth (Tattva)3 to the mind of the sages.. COMMENTARY He now speaks of the Para-Bindu. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 48. She is lustrous like ten million suns.e..-There are twelve suns (Dvādaśāditya). The Devata also exists as what is called the Hardda-kalā. That is. "When all the twelve suns are shining "-such is Her lustre. Keśāgrasyātisūkşmā niravadhi vigalapremadhārādharā sā Sarveşam jīvabhūtā munimanasi mudā tattvabhodhaṁ vahanti.

"Placed within Nirvana (Kalā) is the fiery (Vahni-rūpa) Nibodhika. and Netherworld. "She contains within her the constantly flowing stream of gladness" (Niravadhi-vigalat-prema-dhārā-dharā). She is the origin of the Universe which comprises Svarga. the non-distinction between Siva and Sive. and Patala and the like. Cf. all future time is in Her control.e. According to Visvanatha the locative indicates proximity and means near the middle but slightly above it.-Prema is the tenderness of mind produced by feeling of gladness."4 By "Her" is meant the Sakti who is in the Para-bindu. Cf. " O Devl. " Mother of the three worlds" (Tri-bhuvana-janani)-i. and becomes knowing3 when it touches the Earth. within the crescent. and which flows incessantly.-As She is like the tenmillionth part of the end of a hair. above it is the supreme Nirvana-Sakti. post. like unto the ten-millionth part of the end of a hair" (Keśāgrasya-koţi-bhāgaika-rūpatiśukşmā).e.e. Visvanatha says it means "She who measures futurity (Para = Uttara-kāla) "-that is. Martya.2 Heaven. 5 Parama5 This word has been defined by Samkara to mean "She who is as great as the Para or Supreme".4 That is. who is both Siva and Sakti .1NirvAna-Sakti1 This is.. the Samanapada or Samani Sakti. 2 flowing stream of gladness2 Prema. 3 knowledge of the Truth (Tattva)3 This word " Tattva " has by Visvanatha been said to be Sivabhedajnanam-i. She is extremely subtle. animated being is but a part of Her. She holds within Her the stream of excellent nectar which has its origin in the blissful union of Siva and Sakti. Verse 48 line 4 " Shines" (Vilasati parama)1 i." Is the life of all beings " (Sarveśāṁ jīva-bhūta)-i. and over Nibodhika5. 1 Parama--She who is co-existent or of equal degree with the Supreme(Para) or she who knows the Supreme.e. who is the cause of all and is possessed of the lustre of ten million suns. 4 Within the lap.. verse 48 line 2 Keśāgrasyātisūkşmā niravadhi vigalapremadhārādharā sā verse 48 line 3 Sarveşam jīvabhūtā munimanasi mudā tattvabhodhaṁ vahanti.2 "She is extremely subtle. which is Nada-rūpa6. . Earth. Nirvana-Sakti is situated below Nirvana-kala.. that is. This state is not free from the multitude of bonds (Pasajala). as sparks fly forth from a flame. . 2 the like. so does the Parabindu (as Jiva) issue from Her (Nirvāṇa-Sakti). This is as applied to Maya. See notes. according to Visvanatha. dwells resplendent. and from Her emanates the Jiva.. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Etasyā madhyadeśe vilasati paramāpūrvanirvāṇaśaktiḥ Verse 48 line 1 Kotyādityaprakāśā tribhuvanajananī koṭibhāgaikarūpā. who is unmanifested Nada7.

action ceases (see note to v. 4 the Earth. The Text quoted is from Nirvana-tantra I. and Fire. "The Bindu-rūpa ParaBrahma in the Sahasrāra. The creation of Jiva is here spoken of. "Beautified by the three Mandalas within the triangle in the pericarp. Cit and Ānanda do Brahman. Raghava-bhatta says: "Nāda exists in three states. 3 (Avyakta-nada)3 Tamo-gunādhikyena kevala-dhvanyātmako'vyakta-nādah. This word may either be equal to Nir+añjana (i.3 knowing3 Samjñāyuktah. and no "this" and" that". 45). Cf. Some read Nirvikalpa. because it burns up all actions. insomuch as it has been said that Nirvana Sakti is above the fiery (Vahni-rūpa) Nibodhika. and Fire6 and their activities are Jnāna. It is one of the aspects of the Brahman. Asti bhati priyam rfipam nama cetyamsa-pancakam. is Fire. When the result of action is realized. in which there are no (Nir) specific distinctions (Vikalpa). when Rajo-guna is more dominant. it is merely sound unmanifest (Avyakta-nada)3 in the nature of Dhvani.. We shall show that the Nirvana-Sakti is in the form of Parabindu (Para-bindu-rūpā). 6 Nada-rūpa6 That is Sakti.. which begins." Nibodhikā is a phase of Avyakta-nada (Avyakta-nādātmikā). 4 the letters4 Raja ādhikyena kiṁcidvarṇa-baddha-nyāsātmakah. 7 unmanifested Nada Avyakta-nada-unmanifested sound.. i. The sense appears to be that the letters exist anyhow together in massive undifferentiated form. This has been said in the Sarada. Icchā is the Moon."4 Yadā bhūmau patati tadā sam ñāyukto bhavati." By three Mandalas are meant the Mandalas of Sun. when the Sattvaguna preponderates. 5 Nibodhika5 See Introduction. there is sound in which there is somewhat of a placing of the letters4. It may also mean' becomes endowed with a name '. again. are respectively the Sun. Iccha. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------It is in Her that there is the Brahman1 who is the changeless Siva2. This has been clearly stated in the Kularnava-Tantra. or of unconditioned. Bodhini and Bindu. stainless) or Nih--añjana (unaffected by pleasure or pain. consciousness. the Moon. and Kriya. because Icchā is the precursor of creation and is eternal. and is fire-like. it is here that Kundali-Sakti enjoys with Paramatma. 40. the Moon. 2 Siva2 Nirvikara. Jiva-consciousness. and Kriya the Sun. and Nibodhika. Name and form characterize the world as Sat." and ends. and note to v. 6 Fire6 Tatash cha nāda-bindu-nibodhikā arkendu-vahni-rūpah. When Tamo-guna is dominant. 1 Brahman1 Nirañjana." Hence Nada. unmoved). Jnana. Adyam trayam Brahma-rupam jagadrupam tato dvayam. Moon. 5 Bindu5 Sattvadhikyena bindu-rūpah.e. and Fire. Jñāna is Fire. Iccha the Moon. as Nada. Nirvikalpa is also the last stage of Samadhi. in the ParaBrahma-dhyana. Therefore.e. the wise should conclude that NirvānaSakti is placed above the Mandalas of the Sun. The Moon contains the . Bindu. particularly the portion dealing with Nada. Nada assumes the form of Bindu5.

because like the Sun it makes everything visible. The following verse which occurs in PadmaPurana (Uttara-Khanda. Ganesas. (2) Bindu. COMMENTARY He speaks of the Para-Brahma-sthāna (place of Para-Brahma) in the Void within Nirvana-Sakti. and known by the name of Nityananda. Sauras. or the place of Liberation. and is pure knowledge itself3. Some call it the Brahman. 49. Moon. 1 Siva1 Siva-padam or state of Siva. Cf. It is replete with every form of bliss2. (3) Nibodhikā. Visvanatha says. Vaisnavas and Saktas. Unless there is striving there cannot be realization and manifestation.Amā-kalā. Wise men describe it as the abode of Visnu. ch. It is then said Unmanyante Para-sivah. attainable only by Yogis." As one Sun makes manifest all the Lokas " (Gītā). Icchā. Tasyā madhyātarāle śivapadamamalaṁ śāśvataṁ yogigamyaṁ Nityānandābhidhānam sakalasukhamayaṁ śuddhabhodhasvarūpaṁ. Kriyā. But see Introduction. " Saivas. Sun. which knows neither increase nor decay. Kecidbrahmābhidhānaṁ padmiti sudhiyo vaişṇavaṁ tallapanti Keciddhaṁsakhyametatkimapi sukṛitno mokşamātma-prabodhaṁ Within her is the everlasting place called the abode of Siva1." . v. It is the body of Siva (Siva-tanu}. Jñana. all verily come to me like rain water to the ocean. Māmeva prāpnuvantī hi varsāṁbhah sāgaraṁ yathā. This. Kriyā is the Sun. Fire. 43) puts the idea in a more popular form. The Text will be made clearer if an arrangement be made in the following groups: (I) Nada. time nor space. is the Unmani state of Sakti where there is neither Kāla nor Kalā. which is free from Maya. It says: Saivāh Saurāsh ca Gāneśāh Vaişnavas śākti-pūjakāh. and righteous men4 speak of it as the ineffable place of knowledge of the Atma. 78. others call it the Hamsa.

.e. where one is liberated from Māyā by which one is surrounded. and Fire.e. It is so called because it is here that the universe finds its rest. and is within the triangle in the pericarp of the Lotus of a thousand petals.-On account of its extreme subtlety. She is Moon. She has surrounded Herself by Māyā. "Place of the knowledge of the Ātmā" (Ātmā -prabodham). the empty space within the Bindu. the Vedāntists (Vaidāntikas) call it. " Ineffable" (Kimapi)-i. and the like. wonder-inspiring.e..2 bliss2 Sakala-sukhamayam.e. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49. " Free from Maya" (Amalaṁ)-i. as Kula is Sakti. "Liberation. feet.-This is the place of the Brahman. Now be good enough to mark the following: the Para-bindu which is Prakrti and Purusa is surrounded3 by Maya.-The place where the Ātmā is seen or realized. Sun. Tasyā madhyātarāle śivapadamamalaṁ śāśvataṁ yogigamyaṁ verse 49 line 1 Nityānandābhidhānam sakalasukhamayaṁ śuddhabhodhasvarūpaṁ. called by those who know the Tattva. When casting off (Utsŗjya) the covering (Bandhana) of .. "Attainable only by Yogis " (Yogi-gaṁyam).e. So it has been said: "In the Satya-Ioka is the formless and lustrous One. within Nirvana1 Sakti in Her form of Param Bindu. free the impurity of Maya. 3 pure knowledge itself3 Suddha-bodha-svarūpaṁ www. Visvanatha reads here Parama-kulapadarn. "Called "-i..e. who is known as Akula. and is like a grain of gram.. " Some call it "-i.. or the abode of the Supreme Siva.e.. i.bhagavadgitausa.htm 4 men4 Sukŗtinah. is attainable by Yogis by pure jñāna2 only. devoid of hands. " Abode of Siva" (Siva-padaṁ). which he interprets as Param Akula-padaṁ.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras." (Mokşa)-i. it is beyond the scope of word and mind. verse 49 line 2 Kecidbrahmābhidhānaṁ padmiti sudhiyo vaişṇavaṁ tallapanti verse 49 line 3 Keciddhaṁsakhyametatkimapi sukṛitno mokşamātma-prabodhaṁ verse 49 line 4 "Within Her" (Tasyāh madhyāntarale) i.

" 8 This shows that the Bindu is Saguna-Brahman. maintain. The space within is Siva Himself and Bindu3 is Parama-kundali. so associated with Prakrti) He is Saguna." This Bindu is. whose nature it is to create. Cf. all-embracing (Mahā-pūrna) and united with the primordial Sakti as in the form of a grain of gram1 is Brahmā. 3 Prakrti and Purusa is surrounded3 Maya.purusatmaka-para. and destroy. as it is said: Mokse dhir jnanam anyatra vijnanam shilpa-sastrayoh. and by some.prakrti. That is. which is more minute than the tenmillionth part of the end of a hair. S Sakti5 Śiva-Śakti-vighāgena. " The attributeless Bindu is without doubt the Cause (of the attainment) of Siddhis. others call Him Brahma Purusa. 21.Māyā. . By division or separation is not meant that Siva is really divided or separated from Sakti-for the two are ever one and the same-but that Sakti.e. other forms of knowledge. . and the other sources of knowledge united with Pradhana. Also if. bindu. He is called Visnu : by others. and the Sastras being Vijnana. the outer circle of the Para-bindu). is according to the author.bandhana-cchadita.. which under its outward sheath contains two undivided halves. 1 grain of gram1 Canaka. the Brahma-Male.4 then on the division or separation of Siva and Sakti5 arises creative ideation. the subject knows itself as object. The space within.e. again. and She possesses the three Gunas. neither darkness nor any other light. Some say that the Deva who is one. such as fine arts. 6 creative ideation."6 The word" Satya-Ioka " in the above passage means Sahasrāra." Also: "The circumference (Vŗtta) is the Kundalini-Sakti." 6 The Sarada7 says: "The eternal Siva should be known both as Nirguna (attributeless) and Saguna (possessed of attributes). Some Paurānikas call Him Mahā.4 By Unmukhi is meant that She becomes intent on creation. He is called the Deva Rudra. O Beloved Maheśāni is both Siva and Sakti4." There was neither day nor night. She becomes of two-fold aspect (Dvidhā bhitvā) and Unmukhi. neither the firmament nor the earth. We should know that Saguna-Brahman is in reality but one. Isvara. there was That. He is Nirguna when (considered as) dissociated from the workings of Prakrti."6 Sŗṣţi-kalpanā. 4 Unmukhi..Visnu. XXIV. 3 Bindu3 That is. who exists latently as one with the Brahman in dissolution. 2 Within it2 Apparently NirvAna-kalA." The luminous empty space within the Nirvāna-Sakti (i. but when Sakala (i. Cf. appears to issue from It on creation as the manifested universe. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Nirañjana). stainless 1 Nirvana1 Visvanatha says Samana. again. There is no need to go into further details. The knowledge which gains Moksa (Liberation) is called Jnana. though He is called by different names according to the inclinations of men.5 imperceptible to hearing. according to some. ' 4 Sakti4 Jñānarṇava-Tantra. 2 jñāna2 Spiritual knowledge." Within it2 is Para-bindu. the Cause of All. the circumference as opposed to the inner space. the abode of Brahman (Brahma-pada).

Tha united with 1 Kalā 1 That is. The Nirvana-Tantra speaks of the Guru as worshipping the Para Bindu-rupa-Sakti. changes into Visargah. In the lap of this Kala is the Nirvana-Kala. also red and with the mouth downward turned. also. and in front of the object of worship. Cf. and as being close to Her and in the act of worshipping Her. On its pericarp is Hamsah. The fifty letters of the Alphabet from A to La. the triangle A-Ka-Tha3 is in the pericarp of the Sahasrara. and is subtle like the ten-millionth part of the end of a hair. In its middle is Ama-kala. 6 Pradhana. Hamsah which is Purusa and Prakrti thus shows itself in the form of three Bindus. Below Nirvana-Kala is the Fire called Nibodhika which is a form of Avyakta-nada. 4 apex of the triangle is Ha-kara4 Viz. Over the latter is placed Brahmarandhra. 2 Avyakta-nada. v." 8 And. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SUMMARY OF VERSES 41 TO 49 Above (the end) of the Suṣumnā-Nadi is the Lotus of a thousand petals. of the colour of the rising sun. In this region is the downward-turned sixteenth Kala (AmA KalA). Hamsa who is both Pum3 and Prakrti shines by His own effulgence. She is as subtle as the thousandth part of the Lotus fibre. which is as fine as the hundredth part of the lotus-fibre. Ham representing the" Male" Bindu. Amā-kalā. 7 Sarada7 Ch. and with māyā Saguna. and the vacant space within Nirvana-Sakti is Para-brahman. it is white and has its head downward turned. and above it is the Guru who is Parama-Siva Himself. possessing the effulgence of ten million suns. the Saktānanda-taraṇginī (Ch. place Sa-kāra over the Bindu. The letter Sa.2 Above it (Nibodhika). and above it Mahasankhini. who is Light (Tejas) and exists in the form of Hamsah (Hamsa-rupa). But this cannot be right. who is beyond mind and speech and is Saccidananda. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ha-La-Ksa1 Within it. XXIV. and within Her is Para-Sakti. It has been said: "Within the Mandala of the moon in the white Lotus of a thousand petals shines like lightning the triangle A-Ka.5 Pradhānikam Brahma-pumān. Above the Guru are the Sūrya-and CandraMandalas.level lower than." 6 Kālikā-Purāṇa. and Visarga (who is also there) is Prakrti. and never at a higher level than. so. the letters arranged in the form of the triangle referred to in v. Tejas becomes Tejah. thus. literally" standing Sa. I. That Hamsah is Jiva.2 Within Her is Bindu who is the Nirañjana-Purusa.2 Avyakta-nadatmaka-nibodhikiākhya-vahni. in the form Sa. which is both Siva and Sakti.5 Brahma-Male. At its three corners are three Bindus: the lower Bindu at the apex of the triangle is Ha-kara4 and is male (Purusa}." Those who follow this view. and in Her lap is NirvanaSakti. 4 of Paduka-panchaka. I) says of the Devi that Maha-māyā without māyā is Nirguna. in shape like the crescent moon who discharges a stream of nectar. The worshipper should always sit at a . According to the view expressed in the fifth chapter of the Agamakalpa-druma and other works. Rajas Rajah. 5 Sa 5 That is. 8 Saguna. In the Mandala of the Moon is' the lightning-like triangle within which is the sixteenth Kalā 1 of the Moon. its filaments are red. placed below Visarga. and is Cidātmikā. and behind the object of worship. Nirvana5: " Meditate upon the Niranjana Devi . 3 the triangle A-Ka-Tha3 That is. The Sakti of this ParaBindu is the Nirvana-Sakti. is Para Bindu. with its mouth downward turned. The Devi is Matrkamayi.. and of a red colour. and place the Guru above Visarga4 and Bindu which together make Hamsah. or more strictly Sa without the vowel. and the two Bindus at the corners constitute the Visarga in the form Sa 5 and represent Prakrti. which are also white. and within Nirvanakala. go round and round its thousand petals twenty times. 125. Within the Bindu is the void (Sūnya) which is the Brahma-pada (place of the Brahman)." or Visarga. subtle like the thousandth part of the end of a hair. and above them Mahā·vāyu. is the excellent (Para) Bindu (Sunya).

in Hakāra with Bindu (Ham) is Brahma and. (This is the end of seventh section) 1 Ha-La-Ksa1 These Varnas are inside the triangle A-Ka-Tha. 7 Ham and Sah7 In the Jñānārnava Tantra (I.2 . the two Bindus of Visarga (Sah) are Hari and Myself. those here adopted. The Lalita refers to it as being the place or origin of all those Mantras which bestow all desired objects (Cintita).1 learns from the mouth of his Guru the process which opens the way to the discovery of the great Liberation. O Mahesvara. By reason of this inseparable connection men in this world speak of Hari-Hara. definition of Maya-Sakti in Tattvai Samdoha 14. or add to. moreover. for from Sa Visarga comes. the mouth of which is closed. Ch." The Mahakali Tantra. 13) it is said: . He whose whole being is immersed in the Brahman then rouses the Devi by Hurh-kara. described in the Rudra-yāmala and Brahmānda-Purāna. v. Niyama. and the like. and is therefore invisible. Hūṁkāreṇaiva devīm yamaniyamasamabhyāsaśīlaḥ suśīlo Jñātva śrīṇāthavaktrāt-kramamiti ca mahāmokşavartmaprakāśaṁ Brahmadvārasya madye viracavati sa tāṁ śuddhabuddhisvabhāvo Bhitvā talliṅgarūpam pavanadahanayorākrameṇaiva guptaṁ. It is to be understood that if there be any texts which differ from.. 2 Cidātmikā. 6 Cintāmani-gŗha6 The room made of Cintāmani stone which grants all desires. HE whose nature is purified by the practice of Yama. then they must be taken to refer to different methods and opinions. and by means of the Air and Fire (within him) places Her within the Brahmadvara. 4 Visarga4 Lit. Pārvati. X." THE KUNDALINI 50.Tantra.2 Of the nature of Cit. 3 Pum3 The Male. 5 Nirvana5 Nirvana. pierces the centre of the Linga. and on your Guru as being near Her and worshipping Her.within the Satyaloka in the Cintāmani-gŗha6 as placed on the jewelled throne or lion-seat (Simhasana). Purusa. Generator of Visarga. Cf. speaks explicitly of the presence of the Guru over the two letters Ham and Sah7.

in other words. which are helpful in Yoga practice.COMMENTARY Having described the Cakras ending with the Sahasrara. Niyama. and by uttering the Kūrca presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 1 the like. " He whose nature is purified" (Suṣila)-i. which consists of contracting the heart.1 See Introduction. rousing Kundalini by the power of the air and fire. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50. he rouses Kundalini. but which practically must be learned of the Guru. and the like which interfere with Yoga. line 3 Bhitvā talliṅgarūpam pavanadahanayorākrameṇaiva guptaṁ. however. Jñātva śrīṇāthavaktrāt-kramamiti ca mahāmokşavartmaprakāśaṁ --Verse 50. citing Goraksa Samhita.e. (Yama-niyama-sama-bhyāsaśila).. line 2 Brahmadvārasya madye viracavati sa tāṁ śuddhabuddhisvabhāvo --Verse 50. 2 Brahmadvara. such as controlling the inner air. and other passions. he now wishes to speak of the union of Kundalini. a man by reason of merit and good fortune acquired in a previous birth. attacking Her with air and fire. But the Sadhaka has by practice to destroy such inclinations as lust. Hūṁkāreṇaiva devīm yamaniyamasamabhyāsaśīlaḥ suśīlo --Verse 50. This must be well understood. steadiness of mind. and so forth4 and having learned it from the mouth of his Guru. -It must be observed that it is not merely by the practice of Yama and Niyama that perfection in the preliminary Yoga practices 1 is attained. line 1 Jñātva śrīṇāthavaktrāt-kramamiti ca mahāmokşavartmaprakāśaṁ --Verse 50. then he is capable of real Yoga without the preliminary practices. or. lust. 4 so forth4 The Commentator Sarnkara.2 That is. for those whose minds are disturbed by lust and other propensities. Practicing Yama and the like is necessary. says that air makes the fire go upwards. and the fire awakens Kundalini and She also goes upwards. and cultivate others. --Verse 50. is free from anger. and by his nature. If. the man who regularly practices Yama and so forth. however. generally described in the Introduction. It is because of this that in verse 54 the Author has used the word" Yamādyaih " in the plural. and has trained himself. The sense conveyed by this verse is that the man who has attained success in Yoga learns from his Guru the process. anger. line 2 . line 4 " Hum" and piercing the mouth of the Svayambhu-Linga places Kundalini within Brahmadvara. within the mouth of the Nādi Citrinl. " By practicing Yama. and preliminary to that he refers to the mode of rousing Kundalini3." etc. 3 Kundalini3 In the Yoga-process known as Satcakrabheda. within Citriņi-Nadi. and so forth.

Bhitvā talliṅgarūpam pavanadahanayorākrameṇaiva guptaṁ. See Introduction. p. The Āgama-kalpa-druma in a subsequent passage says: "Raising and again raising the Sakti with the Atmā from the abode of Brahmā2 the excellent Sādhaka should (and so forth). order. having drawn the Jīvātmā by the Pranava. and renders the passage as "He whose power is due to the purity of the Buddhi ".-Steps. This compound word may also mean' He whose being (Bhava) by reason of the purity of his mind (Suddha-buddhi) is immersed in the Spirit (Sva=Atma). line 1 "Rouses the Devi by Hūm-kāra " (Hūm-kāreņaiva Devīm). --Verse 50.) 2 śuddha-buddhisvabhāva 2 Samkara reads prabhava. which is of the shape of the flame of a lamp. and Visvanatha citing GautamīyaTantra (See post. should by the recitation of the Haṁsa Mantra be brought from the heart to the Mūlādhara.-Suddha-buddhi means the Brahman. let the Sadhaka move Prana and Gandha4 with Kuṅḍalinī by the aid of the ' So' ham ‘ Mantra. from the above texts.-The Agama-kalpa-druma says: "Then having mentally recited Hamsa. line 3 " Whose whole being is immersed in the Brahman" (śuddha-buddhisvabhāva 2) ."1 It therefore follows that in moving Kuṅḍalinī the Hamsa-Mantra should be uttered. and make the Devi enter the Svadhistāna." The wise should." The Kaņkala-malini says: " O daughter of the King of Mountains. The Kālī-Kulāmrta has: •• Having led Jīva from the heart by the Haṁsa-Mantra to the Mūla Lotus3. the man who has distinguished himself by his success in Yoga practices.. " He" (Sah)-i. following this. and then Kuṅḍalinī should be roused by the Kūrcabija alone. and not from ten million Sastras. gently contract the anus. " Which opens the way to the discovery of the great Liberation" (Mahamoksa-vartma-prakāśa)--By this is meant the 'process' by which the entrance into the channel of the Nādi Citrinl is opened out. understand that the Jīvātmā should be brought from the heart by the aid of either the Pranava or Haṁsa Mantra. and he whose Svabhava (own being) is in Him.-The process cannot be learnt without the instructions of the Guru. the intention appears to be that the Jīvātmā.e." 1 Yoga practices 1 Anga-yoga."From the mouth of his Guru" (Sri-nātha-vaktrāt). line 4 . The Author of the Lalita-rahasya. Brahmadvārasya madye viracavati sa tāṁ śuddhabuddhisvabhāvo --Verse 50. and then moved along with Kuṅḍalinī. Hence it has been said: "It can be learnt from the Guru alone. But from the fact that the part is to be contracted after the Haṁsa-Mantra is recited. and having roused the Paradevatā Kuṅḍalinī by Hūṁ-kāra." " Process" (Krama). says that in moving Kuṅḍalinī the Mantra" Hūṁ Harṁsah " should be employed. The' discovery' (Prakāśa) is made of this by making one's way through it. 123. 'Way of Liberation ' (Moksa-vartma) is the way through the channel within Citrini)." This shows that She should be led away along with Atmā or Jivātmā. Hūṁkāreṇaiva devīm yamaniyamasamabhyāsaśīlaḥ suśīlo --Verse 50.

5 and he should control the base of the throat and other parts of the body. having mentally recited the Harṁsa Mantra.. the anus should be gently contracted. This may be a mis-script for Mulāmbuja. In the Mūlādhāra Lotus is a very beautiful triangle. the mode of rousing the Kuṅḍalinī is described in detail thus: "Having seated oneself in the 1gently contract the anus." etc. 2 Brahmā2 Brahma is in Mūlādhāra. 4Gandha4 i. .5 or may be read as an adverb qualifying . I now speak of its processes. let the wise one lead Her to Bhānu (the Sun) at the summit of the Meru (i. the Sadhaka should contract the chest (lit. (Guptam). above Him (Kāma) and surrounding Svayambhu-Linga. In the Agama-kalpa-druma. As the result of excitation by the Kāmāgni and the action of the Kūrca-mantra on Her.e." "Then the Serpent8 who is sleeping on the Linga in the Mūlādhāra and who is stung by the heat of the fire." 1way. Having fully awakened Her. Let the Jiva thus controlled be led by the concealed passage. One should then repeatedly raise the air by the same way. 6 closed. the two hands should be placed in the lap. Prthivi." "Move the air into the Nadi according to the rules of Kumbhaka (retention of breath) and the method shown by the Guru."3 The Bhūta-suddhi4 also says: "O Siva.." places" and then the word would mean " imperceptibly". Thereafter. O Paramesvarl.-This word may be read either as an adjective qualifying Linga. heart). should be awakened in the Linga at the mouth of the Yoni and by the heat (of her desire) be led forcibly upwards9. by means of the air (Pavana).5 On the top of the Liṅga is Nāda-bindu--i.. 2 Kāma2 The Kama-vayu. the Sahasrāra). is Kundalinl-Sakti. by Asvinī-mudrā..e." The mouth of which is closed.6 and then suddenly opening the door by means of a key-like motion (Kuñcikā)7 and (the fire of desire) should be kindled. or Air of Kama. THE SIX CENTRES AND THE SERPENT POWER Padmāsana posture."1 śanair ākuñcayed gudaṁ--that is.1Tena vartmanā--that by which Kundalinl is to go." Also cj.e. Inside it is Kāma2 (lustrous) like ten million young suns. and by the upward breath make all the Lotuses turn their heads upwards. and mean unmanifested by reason of its mouth being closed.1. 3 Mūla Lotus3 Mukhāmbhuja. letting his breath remain there. and having raised it let him pierce the Cakra. Candra-Bindu. She is seized with desire for Para-Haṁsa. Pañcama-sākhā. The mouth is the Bindu which Kuṅḍalinī pierces.

one of the names of Kundalinl. and cannot be traced in the only published edition of the Tantra. It seems to contain passages from various texts to illustrate the process of Bhūta-śuddhi. 4 Kama4 Kāma-vāyu. again having raised the air. 6 the body. a term used on the material plane to denote sexual union. and Kundalini gets heated (excited) thereby. He should next fill the interior of his body with air and hold it in by Kumbhaka2 and contract the heart3 By so doing the escape of the upward breath is stopped. but is similar to certain passages in the Hathayogapradīpikā which deal with Bhūta-śuddhi. . let him give the Kama4 within the triangle in the pericarp of the Muladhara Lotus a turn from the left to the right (Vāmāvartena) . 4 Bhūta-suddhi4 This passage is obscure. and She is impelled by the fire of Kāma towards the Paraṁ Haṁsa in the Sahasrāra. 8 Serpent8 Nāginī. Now pay attention to the procedure established by a careful consideration of the above textI. by Jālaṁdhara-Bandha. however. See Introduction.: The Yogi should sit in the proper posture and place his two hands with palms upwards in his lap and. etc. the chest and the anus. 9 upwards9 That is. then.3 Para-Haṁsa.5 He thus closes the passage of the upward breath. by so doing the fire of Kama there is kindled. He should then pierce the mouth of the Svayambhu-Linga. steady his mind (Citta) by the Khechari Mudra. lead Her who desires union5 with Parama-Siva. I. he should contract the anus and stop the downward air (Apana).e. textI The passages in quotation marks are here cited from different books: on Hathayoga. and through its aperture with the aid of the" Hūṁ " Bija. 5 there. Then. within the mouth of the Citrini-Nadi. 2 Kumbhaka2 Retention of breath in Prāņāyāma. 3 heart3 Hrdayaṁ akūñcayet---that is.6 That is. The Commentator has. This is the clear sense of texts.. passion is excited in Her. more clearly described the process in his own words. thus closing the passage of the upward and downward airs. 5 union5 Sāma-rasya. the Trikona in the Muladhara which surrounds the Svayambhu-Linga. 7 (Kuñcikā)7 That is. when he feels that the air within him from the belly to the throat is tending downward through the channels in the Nadis. the motion of the Kāma-vāyu spoken of post."3 Param Haṁsābhilāsinī---i.

the Universal Soul or Spirit. Bāņa. Caitanya: consciousness . Svayambhu. and. 2 Itara2 In the Mūlādhāra. COMMENTARY Now he speaks of the mode of the Union of Kuņḍalinī (with Siva). who is Supreme Bliss3 Itself. having reached all the lotuses which are known as the Brahma-nadi lotuses. Brahmākhyāyāḥ sirāyāḥ sakalasarasijaṁ prāpya dedīpyate Tanmokşākhyānandarūpam ghaṭayati sahasā sūkşmatālakşaṇena.51. and who is in His Bindu form in the pericarp of the Sahasrara. The meaning of this verse. 1 Suddha-sattva1 A form of embodied Caitanya. She approaches Siva.. is that the Devi Kuņḍalinī pierces the three Liṅgas--viz. in brief. Bhitvā lingatrayaṁ tatparamarasaśive sūkşmadhāmṇi pradīpe Sā devī śuddhasattvā taḍidiva vilasattanturūpasvarūpā. Then. fine like the lotus fibre. Thereafter in Her subtle state. She brings to the Sadhaka the Bliss of eternal Liberation4 when that is least expected. the Supreme Bliss and of a sudden produces the bliss of Liberation. and Itara2 and by so doing makes a passage for Herself. when in Her subtle form. THE Devi who is Suddha-sattva1 pierces the three Lingas. and Ājña-Cakras respectively. Anāhata. soul . See Commentary. intelligence . sensation . . spirit. lustrous like lightning and fine like the lotus fibre. •• Pierces" (Bheda) means making a passage through that which is obstructed. and when she reaches the lotuses in (or appertaining to) the Nādī called Brahma. shines therein in the fullness of Her lustre. She goes to the gleaming flamelike Siva.Nādī She shines in the fullness of Her lustre in these lotuses. post.

(Ati = surpassing) Caitanya: Consciousness. She acquires the beauty characteristic of each and bewitches Maheśāna5. By this we are to understand that the six Cakras and five Sivas are included. Brahma and the rest--in the 5 Cakras. " The Devi goes to Brahman (Niskala)4 after having pierced the Śivas placed in the six Cakras.. By Brahmanādī is meant Citriņī. The Sāktānanda-tarangiņī speaks of "Her who goes along the Channel of Brahman2 having pierced the fourteen knots3.-The three Liṅgās already described. Bhitvā lingatrayaṁ tatparamarasaśive sūkşmadhāmṇi pradīpe --Verse 51 line 1 Sā devī śuddhasattvā taḍidiva vilasattanturūpasvarūpā. Tattad-rūpena belonging to forms. She pierces all these. and Paśyantī. --Verse 51 line 2 Brahmākhyāyāḥ sirāyāḥ sakalasarasijaṁ prāpya dedīpyate --Verse 51 line 3 Tanmokşākhyānandarūpam ghaṭayati sahasā sūkşmatālakşaṇena. It has been said that7 "The first state (Bhāva) is Vaikharl. 1 Caitanya pervading the body1 Śarīrāvacchinna-Caitanya. She reaches the Eternal One (Sāśvata). Para. 4 Liberation4 Mokśākhyānandarūpaṁ=Nityānandarūpa-muktiṁ. Suddha-sattva. --Verse 51 line 4 " Śuddha-sattvā.e in the forms Vaikharī. between the eyebrows is the Pasyanti state. 3 Lingas. and having attained union (in the Sahasrāra) with Niṣkala (Brahman) She is satisfied. piercing the three Lingas in the Cakras in each of Her different forms6 (Tattadrūpena). as He is bewitched by Parā.. and having there repeatedly enjoyed Him who is filled with joy. Tatta(d) = belonging to. ." The meaning of the above quotation is that the four soundproducing (Śabdotpādikā) Śaktis-viz. The Lotuses are the six Lotuses which are strung upon Citriņī. and the 5 Sivas-viz. which altogether make fourteen knots (Granthi). 6 Cakras. and Visuddha-sattva are the five different degrees of Caitanya pervading the body1. the channel within Citrini is called Brahmanāḍī and Brahma-randhra." The Māyā-Tantra says: "The Devi goes along the Śakti-mārga. As She reaches each of the different Cakras.3 Supreme Bliss3 Paramarasa-Paramānanda." The Svatantra-Tantra speaks of the distinctive features of Liṅga and Śiva. 2 Brahman2 Brahma-randhra. Parama-sattva. and Vaikhari--are identical with Kuṇḍalinī (Kuṇḍalinyabheda-rūpā). and the Para state is in the Bindu8. Madhyamā. and Madhyama is placed in the heart. Pasyanti. Ati-sattva. " The three Lingas " (Liṅga-trayaṁ). He is said to be transpierced (Bhinna). 51. Madhyama."-Sattva." Tattadrūpena —i. Suddha-sattva is therefore the fourth [Turiya) stage. 3 knots3 That is.

and by their meditation on Sakti4. let the Sadhaka carry along with Her the Lotuses which are on the Citrini. She unites. The process described is Kundlini-Yoga. 8 (Nāla)3 That is. What is. 6 Her different forms6 That is. . and thus identifies himself with Kundalini. "The Devi should be led by the Hamsa-Mantra to the Sahasrara through the points of union of the six Cakras (with the Nadi along the road of Susurnna. The gleam is the Hamsa. The Devi by dissolving Kundalini in the Para-Bindu effects the Liberation of some Sadhakas through their meditation upon the identity of Siva and Atma in the Bindu. and in other cases by the meditation of the Sadhaka on the bliss of union in the Bindu of Siva and Sakti. the Śiva in the particular Cakra. 2 Let him2 As the Sadhaka. and which have their origin in the mud of blood and fat.1 Lotuses grow in the mud.1 Let him2 enter the channel (Nāla)3 on the left.htm . She then similarly bewitches Bāna-Liṅga in the heart as Madhyama. which is the luminous energy (Tejas) of the Para Bindu. and these Lotuses grow in the blood and fat of the body. from below. who has taken the Jivatma from the heart to the Mūlādhāra. Paśyantī in Svadhiṣṭhāna. and Itara. in Her passage along the Nāḍī. 1 fat. here described is Layakrama. I I. Bhūta-śuddhi. Madhymā in Anāhatā and Vaikharī in the mouth." Bhitvā lingatrayaṁ tatparamarasaśive sūkşmadhāmṇi pradīpe --Verse 51 line 1 "Gleaming flame-like" (Sūkṣma-dhāmnī-pradīpe). 7 that7 See Commentary on v. or. the Nādi. We now describe how the joy of Liberation is brought about. in its aspect as Nirvana-Sakti (Nirvāṇa-śaktyātmaka). She does so in the case of others by a similar process.Liṅga between the eyebrows as Pasyanti.bhagavadgitausa. it is he who enters. Also if. again. 5 Maheśāna5 That is. The Method of Cakra-bheda is thus described: "O Paramesvart. Para is in Mūlādhāra. and then when she reaches Para-Bindu She attains the stage of Parā (Parābhāva}. ante. this is done by the concentration of thought on the Parama-Puruṣa." www. 8 Bindu8 According to v.4 Brahman (Niskala)4 The supreme or Nirguna-Brahman. In other cases.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. as it is called in the Tippani of Sarnkara. Hence at the time when Kuṇḍālinī starts to go to Sahasrara She in Her form of Vaikhari bewitches Svayaṁbhū-Liṅga. I I. She along with Jiva should be led as the rider guides a trained mare by the reins. with each of the Lingas in that form of Hers which is appropriate to such union. The Parama-Śiva shines with it. After having thus pierced the six Cakras. however. and in this way Cakrabheda (piercing the Cakra) is effected.

.4 Sakti4 Saktyātmaka-cintana..... ..................................." and She is Parā. 9 passion9 Madālasa-vapuh...... By" knowledge of Sakti " is meant the Knowledge that Sakti is inseparate from Siva................." Tat tvam asi (That thou art).. 4 union of male and female........ According to others (i. 2 Yoga2 Saktyatmaka.. the lovely woman of beauteous body8... whose limbs are listless by reason of Her great passion9... XXV........ By" bliss of union (Samarasya) of Siva and Sakti " is meant the sense of enjoyment arising from the union of male and female.... 3 union of Siva and Sakti is Yoga.... and others again..." By Purāṇa-Puruṣa the Puruṣa in Sāmkhya-Darśana is meant......... who is united with Cidānanda6 on Nada...... beautiful thighs.... or it may mean meditation on the union of Siva and Sakti............. 1........ of which sexual union is the material type....... 8 beauteous body8 Vāmoru--lit. white like pure crystal. Having spoken of Samadhi....... declare that the bliss of union of Siva and Sakti is Yoga................."3 Sāmarasyātmakaṁ jñānam.... Bimba-rūpa-nidāna qualifies Para-Śiva or Cidānanda..... Saivas) it is the experience of the identity of Siva and Atma.. the part being selected as an example of the whole.... he then deals with the different kinds of Yoga in Dhyana... The Agama-vādis proclaim that Yoga2 is the knowledge (Jñāna) relating to Sakti.................. Otherwise men say that the knowledge of the Purāna-Purusa is Yoga...... 5 knowledge5 jñāna -cakśuh.................."3 By" union of Jiva and Atma " is meant Samadhi. By " union of Jiva and Atma " is meant the realization of the identity of the individual with the supreme spirit as indicated in the Mahavakya . 2 of Sarada-Tilaka. The Māyā-Tantra says1: "Those who are learned in Yoga say that it is the union of Jiva and Atma............ vv.. Tantrāntara says that Sāma-rasya is the Dhyāna of a Kulayogī............." By Kalā in the above is meant Kundalinl.. Cidānanda is the Bindu-rūpa Śiva or Para-Śiva....... 7 Bimba-rūpanidāna7 A variant reading is Bindu-rūpa-nidāna the First Cause in the Bindu form.e............... 6 Cidānanda6 Cidānanda is Consciousness-Bliss............... In other words...............jñāna............. By Yoga is meant that by which oneness is attained with the Paramatma.. He is the Mahadeva.... ........ the Vaisnava understand by it..... the Prakrti-vādīs.......... and is the effulgent First Cause (Bimba-rūpanidāna7).. Narayana (collective humanity).................... 4 Strīpumyogāt yat saukhyaṁ sāmarasyaṁ prakīṛtam....... 1 Māyā-Tantra says1 These verses also occur in Ch........ ....... the bliss of Union of Siva and Sakti...................... 4 The Bṛhat-Śrīkrama speaks of the manner in which this is to be meditated upon: "They with the eye of knowledge5 see the stainless Kalā...

. Kundalini.. is the great Deva Sadasiva.O Paramesvari..." " Having brought them together and meditated upon Their union3. A garland of a thousand lotuses resting on His neck adorns His body.. the body of the Sadhaka considered as Devata....... This tree contains all the five" elements..... I of the Anandalahari. long-armed6 and of enchanting beauty.. there issues nectar.. on it is a beautiful bed adorned with various kinds of cloth and Mandara flowers... and O Devesi.. It is free from sorrow and divinely beautiful with trees which always bear and are adorned by flowers and fruits.... who is like the purest crystal... 6 long-armed6 Associated with the idea of strength... the Supreme Siva..... white.. 7 corpse-like7 Siva without Sakti is Sava (corpse): Devi-bhagavatam.... adorned with all kinds of gems..... meditate thus on His Gross Body (Sthula-vapuh). and scented with many kinds of scents.............. .. and a chain of gems goes round His neck...... 5 The Kalpa Tree5 A celestial wishing-tree which grants all fruit. then wakes up and kisses the lotus-mouth of Siva.. She by the same way should be brought back to the Kula cavity2. black....... where..... 4 Deha-devata4 That is.... The Kalpa Tree5 adds to its beauty..." The Gandharva-mālikā speaks of a different process: "The Sahasrara is the beautiful and auspicious place of SadaSiva... This nectar issuing from .. Having meditated on the Kalpa Tree in this manner... corpse-like7 Deva within the Lotus who is void of all action.." Also: "Meditate upon the Devi-Kundalini who encircles the Svayambhu-Linga. and His body is Sabda-Brahma (Sabda-Brahma-maya).. He has eight arms and three eyes like the petals of the lotus.It has also been said elsewhere: " Having united Kundali with the Sūnya-rūpa1 Para-Siva... green....... Lead the Devi. O lotus-eyed One..... then meditate upon the jewelled altar below it...... On His two feet He wears twinkling toe-ornaments..... who is excited by Her desire. O Paramesvarl.......... And then place there the beautiful Kundalini.... Meditate upon Sadasiva.... and of variegated colour...." and is possessed of the three Gunas.. O Devi... red... It is laden with beautiful unfading flowers which are yellow.. O Beloved.......... who is gladdened by the scent of Her lotus-like mouth......... Sūnya means " the void" or space within the Bindu --the Siva who is That..' let the Deha-devata4 be satisfied with the nectar which flows from such a union. The four Vedas are its four branches.. and v...... He is ever gracious and smiling... 1 Sūnya-rūpa1 Sūnya-rūpa.... with the aid of the Hamsa-Mantra to the Sahasrara... It is there that Mahadeva constantly stays.... ante... In His ears are ear-rings..... 2 Kula cavity2 Kula-gahvara: the Muladhara... He is the quiescent. and having caused the Devi so united to drink the excellent nectar from their union..... 3 union3 Samarasya : u..... O Beauteous One...... She then enjoys Sadasiva but a very little while when immediately....

2 Para-Devata2 Kundalini. The wise and excellent Yogi rapt in ecstasy1. causing the absorption into . presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 1 lac1 Red which is the colour of lac. should lead Kula-Kundali along with jiva to Her Lord the Para-siva in the abode of Liberation within the pure Lotus and meditate upon Her who grants all desires as the Caitanya-rupa-Bhagavati2. he should make all things absorb into Her. taking with Her Jiva. and is liberated from the bondage of this world. he who practices this Yoga day by day is freed from decay and death. who then.their union is of the colour of lac1. 52. COMMENTARY Having spoken of the Dhyana-Yoga of Kundalinl. Having thus satisfied the Devatas in the six Cakras with that ambrosial stream. is also that of the Rajoguna." Other similar processes should be looked for in other Tantras. and devoted to the Lotus feet of his Guru. The substance of this verse is that the wise (Sudhi) and excellent Yogi (Yogindra) intent on the attainment of Samadhi should first of all lead Her who has been roused. O Devesi should the Para-Devata2 be satisfied. the wise one should by the same way bring Her back to Muladhara. reaches the Brahmadvara. Nītvā tāṁ kulakuṇḍalīṁ layavaśājjīvena sārdhaṁ sudhīr mokṣe dhāmani śuddhapadmasadane śaive pare svāmini. The mind should in this process of going and coming be dissolved there3. Dhyāyediṣṭaphalapradāṁ bhagavatīṁ caitanyarūpāṁ parāṁ Yogīndro gurupādapadmayugalālambī samādhau yataḥ. O Parvatl. he now speaks of the Samadhi-Yoga of Kundalini. With this nectar. 3 dissolved there3 In the Sivasthanam. When he thus leads Kula-Kundalini.

.. and post... and Fire8.. without a second (Advaya)...... She should be meditated upon as the Ista-devata who grants good fruit... the worshipper realizes his identity with the Omkara... Vide Introduction... 5 Om5 Cidātmāhaṁ nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-sadavayaḥ .. ParaBindu..... By "I am Vasudeva" (Vasudevo'ham) the Vaisnavas are alluded to (vide ante...... Param-bindu-svarupam)........... 44.... by reason of his full and all-pervading Knowledge.. ... Let him (the Sadhaka) rest in the fullness of his Illumination like a deep and motionless ocean... We thus see that the worshipper of any particular Devata should realize that Kundalini is one with the object of his worship..." 1 Cidatma1The Brahman as Cit.. 2 Suddha-caitanya-rupa2 Pure Cit........ 2 Caitanya-rupa-Bhagavati2 The Devi who is the Cit in all bodies.. Samkaracarya..... who is embodied by all the Mantras of different worshippers........ 1 ecstasy1 Samadhi........... I am Supreme Bliss wherein is all bliss and Vasudeva's very self. and realize: ' I am Cidatma.. enlightened (Buddha).Herself of everything as She moves along...... The Revered Preceptor (Srimat-Acarya)3 has said: "The wise one should absorb the Karana4 Ma-kara into the Cidatma. I am eternal. he absorbs it into its witness6 Let not the mind (Citta) be distracted when it is absorbed into Cidatma.... i... and having dissolved the Citta he remains unmoved.. for instance..... When She who is the Istadevata and the giver of all good fruits is led up to Her Lord and is united with Him. the Para-Bindu.. He thus realizes the identity of Jiva and Atma..... 4 Karana4 That is... He should there (in the Sahasrara) dissolve the Para-Bindu in the Cidatma1 which is in the void within the Bindu.. Moon.... and has been united with Him........... When She has been led to Her Lord Siva.......... the Para Bindu... It is the Karana or Cause of all.. By Karana is here meant Para-Bindu. In Pranava worship. being conscious within himself that "I am He" (So’ham)... in other forms of worship he realizes his identity with Kundalini.... Commentary....... pure (Suddha)." " Ma-kara7: This is said for those who are Sadhakas of the Pranava. I am—Om5 Having realized that the mind (Citta) is the discriminator...... 2 Pure Cit... and should meditate upon Her (Kundalini) as Suddha-caitanya-rupa2...... the Bindu is Ma-kara.... vv... 49)......e.... She should be meditated upon as the Supreme (Parā...... 3 (Srimat-Acarya)3 That is..... I am That which alone is (Sat).......... liberated (Mukta)........ The Tantrantara says: "The King among Yogis becomes full of Brahma-bliss by making his mind the abode of the great void which is set in the light of the Sun...

-.. let him lead the Woman........ who is .... he who constantly and with undivided attention practises it..This qualifies Pure Lotus (Suddha-padma1).-The Kulārṇava-Tantra (ix....Verse 52 Line 2 Dhyāyediṣṭaphalapradāṁ bhagavatīṁ caitanyarūpāṁ parāṁ -.... Nītvā tāṁ kulakuṇḍalīṁ layavaśājjīvena sārdhaṁ sudhīr --Verse 52 Line 1 mokṣe dhāmani śuddhapadmasadane śaive pare svāmini.--Below is shown the process of absorption: "O Deveśī..... in the region of the Sahasrara..-. which is.. "Rapt in ecstasy" (Samādhau yataḥ...-The Jivatma which is the Hamsa.........." Pataiijali defines" Yoga to be the control of the modifications (or functions) of Citta (Yogas-citta-vrtti-nirodhah)................ It is here that Liberation is attained." Also elsewhere: "The Munis declare that the constant realization of the identity of the Jivatma with the Paramatma is Samadhi... Having fixed Jiva there with the utterance of the Pranava. The Sadhaka should therefore seek shelter at his feet.. one of the eight limbs (Anga) of Yoga4.. 8 light of the Sun. there should also Brahma and then Kāmadeva be contemplated.. should be brought to the Muladhara from its place in the heart........ of which it is said Atma sākṣi ceta kevalo nirguṇaśca...... and then led along with Kundalini.)-i....).......... 7 Ma-kara7 The Bindu is the Ma-kara....... See v.. 6 witness6 That is.. --Verse 52 Line 4 "Lead Kundali along with Jiva" (Jīvena sārdham nitvā). "Abode of Liberation" (Mokṣe dhāmani)..... .... Nītvā tāṁ kulakuṇḍalīṁ layavaśājjīvena sārdhaṁ sudhīr --Verse 52 Line 1 " When he leads Kula-Kundalini he should make all things absorb into her" (Laya-vasāt-nitvā5)...... Moon... in form like the tapering flame of a light.........Verse 52 Line 3 Yogīndro gurupādapadmayugalālambī samādhau yataḥ....-This qualifies Yogindra (excellent yogi).... The Author means that Siddhi can only be attained by the instructions of the Guru.. " Devoted to the two Lotus feet of his Guru" (Guru-pāda-padma-yugalālambī)........ the Laṁ-kāra6 should next be meditated upon in the Triangle..........e............. 4 of the Pādukāpancake.. and which is the Void Itself3. 52.......... and Fire8 That is....... " Rapt (Yatāh.Paramānanda-saṁdoho'ham vāsudevo'haṁ om iti......... 9) defines Samadhi thus: "Samadhi is that kind of contemplation2 a in which there is neither' here' nor' not here' which is illumination and is still like the ocean..... the Atmā.................

.......longing for the satisfaction of Her passion7..." And also: "In its (Svadhisthana) pericarp should Varuna and Hari4 be meditated upon........htm .....com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras. O Beauteous One........ 1 Suddha-padma1 Samkara reads it as Sukla-padma.. white lotus.... 4 Yoga4 This is from Sarada-Tilaka.... and Rupa. 7 Her passion7 Visarga-nāśa-kāminī.. and Rupa......... O Thou who purifiest. into Anahata... and there..." Also: "Then. O Daughter of the Mountain King. who is the destroyer of all.... 5 Laya-vasāt-nitvā5 Visvanatha reads it as Naya-vaśāt.. and absorb all these and Rasa (taste) into Rupa (Sight). the Bindu in Sahasrāra. as being in company with the Sakti Lakini and beautiful to behold. O Great Queen. O beloved of my life.." www....... Kundalinj... 3 Void Itself3 Svarūpa-sūnya... should be placed in Sparśa (Touch)........... Let him there also meditate on Vayu9 as united with Rakini and touch (Tvākindriya or Sparsa)... And.... Kundalini................ and thereafter lead Jivatma..." And again: "O thou of beautiful hips6 (Susroni}......" And again: "Let him meditate in its8 pericarp on Vayu..." O Queen of the Devas. Ch. 8 Her husband8 That is.... O Queen of the Ganas1.. 2 contemplation2 Dhyana. and Kundalini into Svadhisthana with the Mantra So'ham........... XXV.... and the Sadhaka should lead Prāṇa2 Gandha3." to the place of Her husband8.... should be moved into Manipura... in its7 pericarp the Sadhaka should meditate upon Fire.. and Rasa. and then Jiva. and Sparsa.. let him think of Ghrāṇa (Prthivl) and meditate on the adorable Sakti Dākinī... the Jivatma should be drawn (from the heart) with the Pranava (Mantra). who dwells in the region of Jiva......... let him next meditate on the lustrous sense of vision. which is made beauteous by the presence of the Bana-Linga... O Mother.. O Daughter of the Mountain......... O Sive. after meditating on Rākinī5 all these and Gandha (smell) should be absorbed into Rasa (taste). and also on Rudra..bhagavadgitausa. as also on the Yoni-mandala.. . Kundalini.... the blessed Prthivi should be absorbed into Gandha.. Jiva. Kundalini.... O Great Queen............. 26. should be placed in the Visuddha.. all these should be led into Prthivi..... v........... 6 Laṁ-kāra6 Bija of Pṛthivī... and Jivatma. and then.. And......

Kundalini.... in Ether....... of Anāhata-padma.. The Bija Lam... Jivatma.... 4 Hari4 i. 2 Prāṇa2 Sic in text: Quaere Ghrāṇa or Prāna in sense of Haṁsa....e......... Brahma............... one who has a beautiful figure. 6 i beautiful hips6.... and place Jiva Kundalinl.. 9 Vayu9 Vayu here is Iśa the Lord of Air... by Visarga is meant the agitation caused by an excess of Kāma (desire). 5 Rākinī5 Purāṇkariṇī-one of her names. according to the teaching of some..... Dakini-Sakti.... O Daughter of the Mountain... of Maṇipura-padma..... O Daughter of the Mountain. in the Ajiia-Cakra.. " Visarganāsakāmiṇī". the part being selected for the whole..... of whom Gaṇeśa is the Lord..... in the Ajna-Cakra.. and Gandhatattva...e.. and place Jiva Kundalinl....... 7 in its7 " Its "-i...... "Place of her husband" (Patyau pade): This is the Bindu.... and Sabda.." The above passages are from Kankalamalini-Tantra.. (Vak) ..........." The above passages are from Kankalamalini-Tantra.. Visnu... let him...... Kamadeva. and having placed Speech (Vak) .. from which the commencement is made.............e... The bringing of Jiva by the Hamsa-Mantra is..And again: "Let him meditate in its10 pericarp on the Ethereal region11 and on Siva accompanied by Sakinl... Sadhaka should lead Her there.. .... and the sense of smell (Ghrāṇendriya)--all these are absorbed into Prthivi. the Siva in the Lotus of a thousand petals. Leading of Jiva with the use of the Pranava is a variant practice.. 10 in its10 Viśuddha-padma.. are drawn upward by the .. and Sabda...... 1 Ganas1 Attendant (Upadevatā) on Siva. 11 region11 Akāśa.... place all these and Spada in Sabda (Sound). .. " Triangle" in the above is the Triangle in the Muladhara..... Gandha-Tanmātra....... Lam-kara should be meditated upon as within this Triangle......e.. 3 Gandha3 i.... in Ether. and Hearing (Srotra)......... and Hearing (Srotra).. The compound word means She who is striving to satisfy Her desire (Kāma)............ let him. 8 in its8 " Its "-i.... place all these and Spada in Sabda (Sound)........e.... and Prthivi is absorbed into the Gandha-tattva..

into the unmanifest (Avyakta). takes place............. Cause (Karana)... This is the process to be applied right through. should be dissolved in a reversed order (Vilomena) into the Primordial Cause (Adi-kārana)--the Para-Bindu... Cj.....takes place in the aforesaid manner.. and Prakrti again into Para-Bindu.. and brought into the Svadhisthana by the So'harn Mantra.. and so forth.. Mahat.... In the Ajna-Cakra the dissolution of Ahamkara. the sense of Vision (Cakśurindriya)....... and Ahamkara into Mahat-tattva. the feet and the sense of Smell (Ghranendriya) and all pertaining to Prthivi are dissolved in the place of Prthivi as they inhere in Prthivi. 40 and Commentary under it... ..:" It should be attentively considered and practiced that the gross is absorbed into the subtle....." 1 Visnu1 Visnu is specified by this particular Tantra... In the region of Fire (Vahni-sthana) are dissolved the anus.... each dissolving into its own immediate cause.. 2 subtle2 Vide. are dissolved in the region of Water...... beginning with Prthivl and ending with Anahata1 . into AjnaCakra. v...... who is known by the name of Hiranya-garbha... In the place of Akasa are dissolved the sense of Speech (Vak) and hearing (Śrotrendriya) and all that pertains to Akasa (Ether). that being so. of all the Sakti........ and all that pertains to Water..... should be absorbed into Suksma-prakrti.. Thus the Brahman alone remains... and all that pertains to Fire... In this connection the Acarya has laid down the rule that the gross should be dissolved into the subtle2................ supreme (Para)........ The letters of the alphabet should then be absorbed in the reverse order (Viloma)......... and Ananda.......Pranava.. Mahat......" That is. Sabda-tattva should be absorbed into Aharnkara which is there.. and the latter with Sabda into Mahat...... the sense of Taste (Rasanendriya).." "Bodhini " and so forth... beginning with Ksa-kara and ending with Akara. and all into Cidatma.... the sense of Touch (Tvākindriya). The absorption of all things. . Let the Sadhaka think attentively that all things beginning with Prthivi are absorbed into Visnu1 the Cause who is Sat... which have been shown above to be causal bodies (Karana Sarira)... Cit.... by which is meant the Cause in the form of Para-Bindu.. which is all Saktis (Sarva-Sakti). and Mahat-tattva into Suksma-prakrti.... Similarly. .. and that Prakrti should be absorbed into Para... and Sabda-tattva. and Mahat again. Sūkṣmaprakrti..... Kundalini... The Mantra-tantra-prakasa says: " Let Vyoma (Ether) be absorbed into Ahamkara......... whose name is Hiranya-garbha. the hands.. but it may be any other Devata who is the Ista-devata of the Sadhaka.... In the region of Air (Vāyusthāna) the genitals.... and all that pertains to Vayu.............. After leading Jiva.... are dissolved.. By "all things" it is meant that "'Bindu.........

." "Bindu is said to be the Male.... is dissolved into Sa...." We have seen that each dissolves into its own immediate cause. and below are Moon and Fire. This should be very carefully done.. 6 Viṣṇu-vaktra6 Pum-Bindu........... Dissolve Kalā in Nāda............... The Visvasāra-Tantra says: "The petals of the Lotuses are the letters of the Alphabet...... Visnu-vaktra should be dissolved into Guru-vaktra1 Let the excellent Sadhaka then realize that all the letters are dissolved in Parama-Siva. and Sakti into Cidātma........ . having thus made his determination (Samkalpa).. which is the Supreme (Kevala)... 2 dissolve2 Samharet.... beginning with A6....9 and dissolve Brahma in the Lotus of six petals which contains the letters Ba to La...... and which is called Svadhisthana..........e.. Continued on next page...... 1 Anahata1 This seems an error.. 3 Nyāsa-sthāna3 The places where the Varnas have been placed in Matrkli-Nyasa... and this into Unmanī.. and dissolve Bindu into Kalā... should dissolve2 the letters of the Alphabet in the Nyāsa-sthāna3 The dissolution of Ksa is in La......... and Visarga is Prakrti2... 5 Nādānta5 i.. See Introduction... and this latter into Sakti. "The Surya-Bindu is called the Face.... 4 Also4 Here is shown the Anuloma process..... and go to prove that it is the" mouth of Visnu " (Visnu-vaktra) where dissolution should take place. and Parātma into Kāla-tattva.. all the six Cakras are dissolved........ and La in Ha... The following from Kesavacarya3 also leads to the same conclusion: "Lead Her (Unmani) into the Male.....The process is thus described: "The Sadhaka. v... the Vyapika-Sakti in Unmani and Unrnani in Samani4 and Samani in Visnu-vaktra..... The Sammohana-Tantra7 describes the dissolution8 of the Lotuses and the petals thus: "Dissolve the letters from Va to Sa of the petals in Brahma.... which is the Bindu........ lead Bindu into Parātma. and Sa into ṣa.... and thus it goes on till A is reached.. and dissolve Nāda in Nādānta5..." By Visnu-vaktra is meant Pum-Bindu. that which is beyond Nada.... and effulgent..." Also4: "Dissolve the two letters into Bindu.... . post." All these authorities imply the same thing... The two letters are Ha and Kṣa........ Ha.. again... for the last Mahabhuta Akasa is dissolved in Visuddha.... the tranquil (Sānta)... Nadanta is therefore dissolved in Vyapika-Sakti......... When the letters have been thus dissolved.......... and Unmanī into Viṣṇu-vaktra6 ......... as the petals of the Lotuses consist of letters5....

Then the Lotus itself is dissolved into Bindu. 3 Kesavacarya3 Also called Kesava-Bharati---a great Vaisnava teacher who initiated Śrī-Caitanya the greatest among latter-day Vaisnavas.. v.... And ending with: " The wise one should then dissolve it (Visuddha) in the (Lotus of) two petals which contains the two letters Ha and Ksa. Itara-Linga.. .. into Para-Bindu....... Sarada.1 Guru-vaktra1 That is........... 129-134... 6 A6 Ādivarṇātmakaṁ patraṁ padmanām pārikīrtitaṁ... the mouth of the Supreme Bindu (cited from Sarada-Tilaka....... Ch.. The passage cited also occurs in Sarada-Tilaka......... 2 Prakrti2 Cf. 123..." 1 We thus see that the four letters in the Muladhara are dissolved therein and Muladhara is dissolved in Svadhisthana.. 5 letters5 Padma-dalnāṁ varṇa-mayatvāt.... 76.... V...." And so forth.................. and proceeding in this way as already shown everything is dissolved.. and therefore after the dissolution into Prakrti these also are dissolved into Para-Bindu........... all that it contains in its pericarp--Hākinī. Ch.. 7 Sammohana-Tantra7 Ch... 8 dissolution8 Vilaya.. and dissolve Bindu into Kalā.. the letters Ha and Ksa which are there are also dissolved at this place. Do this as the Guru directs..... and dissolve the two letters which are in the latter lotus into Bindu.... the Bindu of the Ajna-Cakra is dissolved into Kundalini.. and Kularnava..... 4 Samani4 Sic.. When the Ajna-Cakra is dissolved...... l34-l3!1).Kalāvilāsa.......... Bindu into Bodhini..9 That is.. IV....... Proceeding in this way till the Ajna-Cakra is reached.. 201.. vv....... and Kāma.... V. I... into Samnyasa or the path of Renunciation.. Ch..... XII. Also cf....... Pranava---are unable to exist without support.... Ch..... XXV.... Also Nitya-ṣoḍaśikā........ Sarada. This is in conflict with other texts....... according to which Unmani is above Samani. vv.. 1dissolve Bindu into Kalā.." 1 That is... 51.. Muladhara where Brahma or Kamalāsana is..... .. IV.. 9 Brahma.....

COMMENTARY He now speaks of what should be done after all the different kinds of Yoga described have been understood. . like the rest of his erotic Imagery.53. and returns from there where shines Eternal and Transcendent Bliss2 in all its glory along the path of Kula. Lākṣābhaṁ paramāmṛtaṁ paraśivātpītvā Punaḥ kuṇḍalī Nityānandamahodayāt kulapathānmūle viśetsundarī. 2 Transcendent Bliss2 Brahman is Eternity and Bliss.3 The Channel in the Citrini-nādl.3 and again enters the Muladhara. Dākinī and others. The meaning of this verse is that the beautiful Kundali drinks the excellent nectar issuing from ParaSiva. and with the excellent nectar produced from the bliss of such union with Para-Siva make offering (Tarpana) to Kundalini. with that stream of celestial nectar which is in the vessel4 of Brahmanda. and having emerged from the place of Eternal and Transcendental Bliss She passes along the path of Kula and re-enters Muladhara. which is symbolic. Red IS the colour of the Rajo-Guna. THE beautiful Kundali drinks the excellent red1 nectar issuing from Para-Siva. 3 path of Kula. The' Yogi. after having understood the different matters mentioned (Tat-tad-dhyānā-nantaram). 5 inseparate union5 Sāmarasya. should think of the inseparate union5 of Siva and Sakti. Taddivyāmṛtadhārayā sthiramatiḥ saṁtarpayeddaivataṁ Yogī yogaparaṁparāviditayā brahmāṇḍabhāṇḍasthitaṁ. the knowledge whereof he has gained through the tradition of the Gurus. 1 red1 Samkara says it is so coloured because it is mixed with the menstrual fluid. 4 the vessel4 The vessel is Kundalini. The Yogi who has gained steadiness of mind makes offering (Tarpana) to the Ista-devata and to the Devatas in the six centres (Cakra).

................. where the Brahman is clearly realized....................... Madras: Ganesh and Co.......e........ Wave of Bliss Hymn." This describes the return of Kuṇḍalī to Her own place... so does She when returning to the Muladhara....Verse 53 line 1 Nityānandamahodayāt kulapathānmūle viśetsundarī.. returns from the place where eternal and transcendental Bliss is enjoyed---i. into the various things She had previously absorbed into Herself when going upward........ Sir John.... the channel in Citrini. Lākṣābhaṁ paramāmṛtaṁ paraśivātpītvā Punaḥ kuṇḍalī... " From there where shines Eternal and Transcendent Bliss" (Nityānandamahodayāt)--that is She. by A.... 3 Rasa3 Rasa: sap.. Avalon.-The path of Brahman.-She has to be brought back in the same way as She was led upward.. 2 Thy snake-like coil and sleep. who is Bliss. The Revered Great Preceptor says: "Kundālinī 1Thou sprinklest all things with the stream of Nectar which flows from the tips of Thy two feet.......... . Her passage was Laya-krama4 and Her return Srstikrama5 Hence it has been said: " Kuṇḍalī......" etc.........Verse 53 line 4 " Path of Kula" (kulapathā). and as Thou returneth to Thy own place Thou vivifiest and makest visible all things that were aforetime invisible.. Kundalī drinks the nectar with which Tarpana is made to her. Wave of Bliss. Kuharini would then be She whose abode is a cavity-the cavity of the Muladhara....Verse 53 line 2 Taddivyāmṛtadhārayā sthiramatiḥ saṁtarpayeddaivataṁ .. It follows. As She returns She infuses Rasa....... attributed to Samkaracarya..... 53.6 the Queen of the Suras... She re-vitalizes them.. She makes them all visible and manifest.......... As She passed through the different Linga and Cakras in their order (Cakra-bheda-kramena) when going upward................. that She is made to drink.... The nectar is red like the colour of lac......" 2 "As Thou returnest Thou vivifiest and makest visible. and on reaching Thy abode Thou dost resume Thy snake-like coil and sleep... Arthur and Woodroffe.7 goes back in the same way to the Adhara8 Lotus.." a translation....." 1 Kundālinī 1 Kuhara is a cavity... and by the infusion of Rasa3......... " Again enters Mūlādhāra " (mūle viśet)................Verse 53 line 3 Yogī yogaparaṁparāviditayā brahmāṇḍabhāṇḍasthitaṁ...." 2 Cited from the celebrated Anandalahari-Stotra.... sap of life-that is.. See" Wave of Bliss..... Avalon.... 1961..... therefore. The following authority says: "Having effected their union and having made (Her drink).......... ..

................... It means that the knowledge is gained from instructions (in Yoga practice) handed down traditionally through the succession of Gurus. It is for this reason that the Author says in v......... Kundalini is the Bhāṇḍa as She is the Source (Yoni) of all.. and then having done Tarpaṇa to the Devatas in the six Cakras.....4 aya-krama4 See v.... for Mudra=Ananda-dāyinī..Bhāṇḍa -sthitarn)........6 Mudrā-kārā-s-rhar is Ananda-rūpiṇī.. be led back from Paramatma and each placed in its respective position... Here the different Devas in the Cakras........3 The vessel or support (Bhāṇḍa) on which the Brahmanda (Universe) rests is Kundalinl........ It has been said: "O Devesi.-This qualifies "Stream of Nectar"........Verse 53 line 4 " Knowledge whereof he has gained through the tradition of the Gurus" (Yoga-paramparā-viditayā). She recreates or revives as She returns to her own abode. ....... with this nectar should offering (Tarpana) be made to the Para-devata.. " Which is in the vessel of Brahmāṇda" (Brahmanda.... and runs in a stream from the Brahma-randhra to the Muladhara. ...... By Daivatam4 ' is meant the Istadevata and Dakini and others in the six Cakras....Verse 53 line 3 " Stream of celestial nectar" (Divyāmṛtadhārā)---This is the excellent nectar which... 3 that" the Brahma-dvara which shines in Her mouth is the entrance to the place sprinkled by ambrosia....7Sura =Deva..................... in their order......" Taddivyāmṛtadhārayā sthiramatiḥ saṁtarpayeddaivataṁ ... 8 Adhara8 Lotus i... ..." Yogī yogaparaṁparāviditayā brahmāṇḍabhāṇḍasthitaṁ..... 2 union2 Samarasya... as has already been shown.............. 6 Bliss.." She is then particularly described: "She is lustrous when first She goes.... etc...... and She is ambrosial1 when She returns.... The Bhūta-śuddhi-prakaraṇa has the following: "Let the Tattvas Prthivi..." and so forth..... is produced by the union2 of Siva and Sakti..... as also Jiva and Kundalini.... Muladhara. 1 ambrosial1 Because ambrosia (Amrta) gives life. just as She" destroys" or absorbs all things on Her upward progress... 5 Srsti-krama5 That is...e............ 52 and next note..... -This qualifies Amrta (nectar)... 7 Suras.... Mudra is derived from Mud = ānanda (bliss)+Rāti=dadati (gives): Mudra therefore means that which gives bliss....

---Verse 54 line 2 Samśare na hi janyate na hi kadā saṁkṣīyate saṁkṣaye ---Verse 54 line 3 nityānandaparaṁparāpramuditaḥ śāntaḥ satāmagraṇīḥ. offering is made to the Devatas of the Amrta which Kundali has drunk. and the Devatas are in 'that. The offering is then made with that stream of nectar to the Devatas who are in the Universe.4 he becomes full of peace and foremost among all Yogis. 54. The Brahmanda is compared to a Bhanda. according to Kallcarana. ---Verse 54 line 4 .3 Visvanatha reads this as an adjective qualifying Daivatam. Jñātvaitatkramamuttamaṁ yatamanā yogi yamādyair-yutaḥ śrīdīkṣāgurupādapadmayuglāmodaprvāhodayāt.1 learnt this excellent method from the two Lotus Feet of the auspicious Diksa-guru. Or. and this seems more in consonance with the text. 4Daivatam4 Daivatam is the collective form of Devatas. 54. is never born again in this world (Samsara). Samśare na hi janyate na hi kadā saṁkṣīyate saṁkṣaye nityānandaparaṁparāpramuditaḥ śāntaḥ satāmagraṇīḥ. THE Yogi who has after practice of Yama.2 which are the source of uninterrupted joy. For him there is no dissolution even at the time of Final Dissolution3 Gladdened by constant realization of that which is the source of Eternal Bliss. Jñātvaitatkramamuttamaṁ yatamanā yogi yamādyair-yutaḥ ---Verse 54 line 1 śrīdīkṣāgurupādapadmayuglāmodaprvāhodayāt. Niyama.3 Amrta (nectar). and whose mind (Manas) is controlled.5 COMMENTARY He here speaks of the good to be gained by knowing the method of Yoga practice. and the like.

.... Bliss such as this comes from the Lotus feet of the Guru............... 5 all Yogis.... "of the Good"............ ---Verse 54 line 4 " Gladdened by constant realization of that which is the source of Eternal Bliss" (Nityānanda-pararṁparā-pramudita)i........ .1 See Introduction....... Amoda pravaha therefore means Nityananda. he is counted to be foremost among the good who are the Yogis.......... -Amoda means joy or bliss...... The Diksa-guru is here spoken of as he is the first to initiate.... or "Eternal Bliss". V)... 2 Diksa-guru....... 1 like............. XII...... ...... "Foremost among the good" (Satām agraiṇiḥ)... so does the disciple desirous of knowledge (Jnana) go from one Guru to another1....5 Satām--lit..)-i...." nityānandaparaṁparāpramuditaḥ śāntaḥ satāmagraṇīḥ........ 3 Final Dissolution3 Saṁkṣaya = Pralaya....................... of Niruttara-Tantra..4 Nityānanda = Brahman. which are the source of uninterrupted joy" (Sri-dīkśā-guru-pādapadma-yugalā-moda-pravāhodayāt).." From the lotus feet of his auspicious Diksa-guru. who is united with the Stream of Eternal Bliss. XIII... and by Pravaha is meant uninterrupted and continuous connection.. It has therefore been said: " As a bee desirous of honey goes from one flower to another... 1 go from one Guru to another1...." This is from Ch.....e... which also lead to knowledge of Yoga practice...... and also by reason of his pre-eminence........ This verse also occurs in Kularnava (Tantrik Texts........e. Ch..... 132....2 The Guru who has given him initiation... But in his absence refuge may be sought with other Gurus. Vol............. 4 Eternal Bliss....

reads this work which is the supreme source of the knowledge of Liberation. 55.Yosdhīte niśi saṁdhyayorathe divā yogī svabhāvasthito mokṣajñānanidānametadamalaṁ śuddhaṁ ca guptaṁ paraṁ. engrossed in his own true spiritual being. Click here to go to Kundalini Power Footstool is euphemism for the five sacred elements in Sahasrara listed above.com/Sat-Chakra-Nirupana-Kundalini Chakras.e. with heart unperturbed and concentrated mind. www. composed by Srl-Pūrnanandayati. COMMENTARY He here speaks of the good to be gained by the study of the verses relating to the six Cakras.bhagavadgitausa. ---Verse 55 Line 4 " Heart unperturbed" (Svabhāva-sthitah). he who by practice of Yoga has steadied and concentrated his mind on the inner spirit (Antarātma). then of a very surety his mind 1 dances at the Feet of his Ista-devata.htm Here ends the Eighth Section of the Explanation of the Verses descriptive of the Six Cakras. Śrīmacchrīgurupādapadmayugalālambī yatāntarmanāstasyavaśyamabhīṣṭadaivatapade ceto narīnṛtyate. IF the Yogi who is devoted to the Lotus Feet of his Guru.55. forming part of the Sritattva-cintamaṇī.. "Concentrated mind" (Yatāntarmanāh)-i. . and which is faultless.Yosdhīte niśi saṁdhyayorathe divā yogī svabhāvasthito---Verse 55 Line 1 mokṣajñānanidānametadamalaṁ śuddhaṁ ca guptaṁ paraṁ.-i. ---Verse 55 Line 2 Śrīmacchrīgurupādapadmayugalālambī yatāntarmanā.---Verse 55 Line 3 stasyavaśyamabhīṣṭadaivatapade ceto narīnṛtyate. The rest is clear. One should meditate on and worship this five-fold stool to attain liberation from the sea of Samsara (cycle of birth. 1 mind 1 Cetas or Citta. and most secret..e. pure. death and rebirth).

(3) Nāda-Bindu. Paduka Pancaka (Panchaka Paduka = five fold footrest) is meditation of five elements in Sahasrara Chakra: 12-petalled Lotus. Or they may be counted thus: (I) The Lotus (i. (2) the triangle A-Ka-Tha in its pericarp (3) the region of the Nāda.. The five of these are: (1) The (twelve-petalled) Lotus.e. Pādukā means a footstool (Pada-rakṣanā-dhāra)." Sanskrit letters are sacred. about seven miles from Gauhati. and Triangle on the Manipitha. (5) the Haṁsa-which is above it and taken collectively form the triangular Kāma-kalā. Assam.PUrnAnanda a Brahmana of Kasyappa Gotra wrote Sat-Chakra-Nirupana in 1526 CE ( SAka year 1448) and achieved Siddhi in VasisthAsrama. India. Hamsa. twelve-petalled). and inseparable from. (2) the triangle (A-KaTha). AKa-Tha Triangle. (4) the Mani-pītha Maṇḍala. This work is part of Sri-Tattva-Cintamani. Bindu. and which is adorned by the channel of Kuṇḍalī2. Nada-Bindu-Mani-Pitha. (4) the Haṁsa below. and (5) the triangle on the Mani-pītha. and Mani-pītha in it. COMMENTARY . the pericarp of the Lotus in which is the Brahma-randhra. He wrote many other Tantrik works. they are arranged in a triagular fashion I ADORE the wonderful White Lotus of twelve letters1 which is within the womb (Udare) of.

.....l But that cannot be........." By saying so He expresses the necessity that all worshippers (Upāsakas) of the Mantras revealed by Him should adore this wonderful twelve-petalled Lotus..... the Liberator of the three Worlds... first of all describes the place of the Guru.... v..... Sadasiva.. which is in the pericarp of the Lotus of twelve letters. The twelve letters...... The lotus rests on the upper end of Citrini.... The lotus of twelve letters is in the pericarp (of the Sahasrara). destroys all demerit4............ Kalicarana by his Ţīkā called Amala (Stainless) makes patent its beauty....... which are within the triangle A-Ka-Tha....... post...... 5 Gurudhyana-Yoga5 Yoga with the Supreme known as the Guru.......... " Dvādaśārṇa" is made up by .... The petals of the lotus are not independent of the letters thereon. composed by Him of Five Faces3..... Ātmanepada.. yūm... kha. 2 That is..." known as Nilakantha.. See as to the five faces the citation from the LingarcanaTantra. sa........ presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 1 Dvadaśārna---that is.. they are Sa.. pain and penalty. being desirous of speaking of Gurudhyana-Yoga5 in the form of a hymn (Stotra).. and Ksa.... THE FIVEFOLD FOOTSTOOL (PADUKA-PANCAKA) The meaning of this verse in brief is this: I adore the twelve-petalled Lotus which is within the pericarp of the Sahasrara.. ha..... " I do adore or worship... Some say that by Dvādaśārṇa is meant the twelfth vowel. ra. and which is adorned by the letters Ha.. 7.. If it were so...... are the twelve letters which make the Gurumantra. "Lotus of twelve letters" (Dvādaśarṇa-sarasīruha)-i..... the Lotus which contains twelve letters....... ma... which is the Vāgbhava-bija......... The Mantra substance of this Pītha is the Guru-mantra in the form of Vāg-bhava-bīja3 There would therefore be a repetition of the same Mantra4.. the authority quoted below would be tautologous: "(Meditate on) your Guru who is Siva as being on the lustrous (Hamsapītha........-It excites our wonder by reason of its being pervaded by the lustre (Tejas) of Brahman....... ksa.. .. va. twelve petals.... according to those learned in the Tantras. and for other reasons... la..The hymn Paduka-pancaka. 3 Faces3 Siva. He thus shows the necessity of His worship.... phrem. He says..... " Wonderful" (Adbhuta). the Citrini-Nadl... 4 demerit4 Aghas-sin and sorrow. the substance of which is Mantra---Mantra-maya).e.... The verb Bhaje is First Person Singular. There is also a concealed sixth face........ La. near the region of the Moon2 in the pericarp.." The above passage speaks of the Mantramaya-pītha... emphasizing that Siva Himself adores or worships. " like the color caused by deadly poison...... ha...........

....... it is connected with the Sahasrara in such a way that the one cannot be thought of without thinking of the other.......... That is. " Inseparable from" (Nitya-lagnaṁ) -That is. and above it is Brahma-randhra........ and above it is the Guru.............. 6....... presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 1 Vāg-bhava-bija.. and so the number of petals becomes clearly twelve.......... and the filaments of which are of the color of the rising sun. thus speaks of the place of the Brahma-randhra: "In its (Sahasrara) pericarp. by the Commentator (reading the locative as Sāmīpye saptamī. locative case indicative of Proximity)..... presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj .. 5 Guru-Gita says5 This verse is quoted in full under v....Bahuvrīhi-Samāsa---that in which there are Dvādaśa (twelve) Arṇas (letters)... 2 Moon2 Candra-mandala............ within it (Tanmadhye)..... The Vāgbhava-Bīja Aim is the Guru-Bīja also. as each petal contains one letter.... thus making twelve... The interior of the Lotus contains its pericarp but the text does not mean the interior of the triangle in the pericarp..." Here the statement. 4 Mantra4.. and there has been nothing said as to where they are placed..... within its womb.." wherein the Guru should be meditated. the thousand-petalled lotus in which is the Brahmarandhra.... O Devesi.... that is.... post.. i........ The word Udara here means " interior" or " centre". and which is adorned by all the letters of the alphabet.. is explicit.........That is.." Some say that by Udara (belly or interior) is meant within the triangle in the pericarp. as petals) the Lotus. " Which is within the womb of and inseparable from the pericarp of the Lotus in which is the Brahmarandhra" (Brahmarandhra-sarasīruhodara).. in describing the Lotus of a thousand petals...... within its pericarp (Tat-karṇīkāyāṁ}..... because' the triangle is not here mentioned..... which has its head turned downward.....l i........ is Antaratma... but the Guru-Gita says5 that "the letters Ham and Sa surround (that is... That is not right. This lotus has therefore twelve petals... This leads us to the conclusion that the letters Ham and Sah are repeated six times.... The Syārnā-saparyā quotes the following explicitly: "The Lotus of twelve petals (or Letters) is within the pericarp of the white Lotus of a thousand petals... This is a fit subject of consideration for the wise.. It is true that the letters are not here specified. the Sahasrara... The Kankala-Malini............. 3 Vāg-bhava-bīja3 Aim .....e.... which are the twelve letters.. if we understand that the body of both the Pīṭha and the petals is Aiṁ.......... .. Bija of Sarasvatī-Aim..e... above him is the Surya Mandala and Candra Mandala and Maha-vayu.. within the pericarp. that is to say..

The passage begins. That is. These three lines or Saktis emanate from the three Bindus......... (See Kāmakalāvilāsa.................. and Citrinl adorns and is adorned by this Lotus..... The Yamala speaks of the identity of Kama-kala with this abode..... and Ksa.....e. Jyeṣṭā...e. As a Lotus rests on its stalk... are lines of the triangle.. COMMENTARY The Guru should be meditated upon as in the triangle A-Ka-Tha within the pericarp of the Lotus before-mentioned. Citrini is the tube (stalk)... and Tha.) 4 says4 Tribinduh sā trimūrtih sā triśaktih sā sanātanī.... Here She is Kāma-kalā triangular in form." and proceeding says4 " She is the three Bindus.....3 Kāma-kalā is the abode of Sakti... 2 Maṇḍala2 i. 1 lines1 A-Ka-Thādi-i........ " The abode of Sakti" (Abalālayaṁ).. and the letters Ha.. as it were............. He now wishes to describe the triangle so that an adequate conception of it may be formed. Vāmā.." Adorned by the channel of Kundali" (Kuṇḍalī-vivara-kānda-rnaṇḍitaṁ).............. the diagram where the Divinity is summoned and worshipped.... through which the passage runs.. and the three Saktis.. which are visible in each of its corners. La. 3 Bindus...................3 Bindu-trayāṅkurabhūtā---that is.......... He next speaks of the attributes of Abalalaya (abode of Śakti)... presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj ........ give it the character of a Maṇḍala2.............. Ka to Ta and Tha to Sa. Ka..-The Vivara (Channel) is that by which Kuṇḍalinī goes to Siva in the Sahasrara. She is the threefold Manifestation..-By Abalā is meant Sakti.. and Raudri........ Kāma-kalā is composed of the three Saktis spoken of (Triśakti-rūpā)... I ADORE the Abode of Sakti in the place where the two pericarps come together. It is formed by the lines1 A...... they have the three Bindus as their sprouting shoot.... She is everlasting. These letters placed as three lines form the three sides of the triangle............... The Citrini contains within it this passage or channel........ so does the twelve-petalled Lotus rest on Citrini and is made beautiful by its stalk. "I now speak of Kāma-kalā... She is the three Saktis........ the lines formed by the letters A to Ah.. .

.... The sixteen vowels beginning with A form the line Vāmā. the sixteen letters beginning with Ka form the line Jyeṣṭā."1 ... the line of Rajas is on the left....3 Kālī Ūrdhvāmnāya: "The Tri-bindu4 is the Supreme Tattva.. The letters Tha to Sa make the line of Siva." " The letters Ha... surround the Yoni-Mandala....... and embodies within itself Brahma..... and Tha " (Kḷpta-rekhaṁ a-ka-thādirekhayā)...... 2 apex........ i......... and Ksa... in dealing with Kāma-kalā. This triangle should be so drawn that if one were to walk round it would always be on one's left... Bindu appears in the form of letters by germinating as a sprout..... The three lines emanate from the three Bindus... and Tamas....e........ the three Bindus considered as one and also separately.. The Brhat Srī-krama.. ....... The Śāktānanda-taraṅgiṇī says: "Write the triangle A-Ka-Tha so that walking outside it is always on one's left." The place where the two pericarps come together" (Kandalita-Karṇikāpuṭe). and the line of Tamas is on one's right....... The drawing is made in the direction which is the reverse to that of the hands of a watch... it should be remembered... says: "From the Bindu as the sprouting root (Aṅkura) She has assumed the form of letters1... and that is why other authorities are quoted..... Tantra-Jīvana: "The lines Rajas. 4 Tri-bindu4 'i.......... and Ksa.. in the inner corners of the aforesaid triangle.. Ka.. Here its significance is merely that the pericarp of one (the twelve-petalled lotus) is included within that of the other (Sahasrara)........--Kaṇdala ordinarily means a quarrel in which one attacks the other with words... and Siva (Brahmavisnu-sivatmakam). the place where the triangle is "formed by the lines A...........3 Vāmāvartena vilikhet............ Sattva." Also:" Above is the line of Sattva.In its corners--i.....e.. The triangle composed of the letters has emanated from the Bindu. which are visible in its corners.. The letters Ha........ The Abode of Sakti is formed by these three lines......... which are visible there..... the Universe is evolved from Bindu....2 The triangle... La.." Also:" The letters A to Visarga make the line Brahma which is the line of Prajapati ." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj 1 letters1 Varṇāvayava-rūpiṇī..e.... and the sixteen letters beginning with Tha form the line Raudri... Visnu. One cannot form an adequate conception (Dhyāna) of this triangle without knowing it in all its particulars....... The letters are sprouts from Bindu: that is.. 3 one's left. has its apex downward.. La.... give it the character of a Mandala" (Koṇa-Iakṣita-halakṣa-maṇḍali-bhāva-lakṣyaṁ)......... give the place the character of a Mandala... Place (Puṭa)..2 the right and the left.. the letters Ka to Ta make the most supreme (Parātparā) line of Visnu....... The three corners of the triangle are at the apex..

The pale red1 glory of the gems in this altar shames the brilliance of the lightning flash. Some interpret this to mean that the maṇḍala maṇipīṭha is composed of Nāda and Bindu. or Nāda and Bindu and Maṇipīṭha-maṇḍalam -i. as it ought to be. The Svatantra-Tantra says: "The lines A-Ka-Tha surround the letters Ha. Its substance is Cit." If this be interpreted to mean. It is needless to discuss the matter at greater length. and Bindu.. are respectively Fire. He therefore describes the jewelled altar [Maṇipīṭha}.. in my Mind (Manasi). on the left and right of the Yoni or the right and left of the spectator.By a careful consideration of the above authorities. and the pale red glory whereby the Maṇipīṭha shames the lustre of the lightning flash is neither red nor white. and Bindu is red. and on Nada and Bindu as within the triangle aforespoken. then Nāda being the Moon is white. The Saradā-Tilaka says: "This Bindu is Siva and Sakti. i.e. that Bindu is Para-Sakti-maya."1 That is. "In my heart" (Hrdi). IN my heart I meditate on the Jewelled Altar (Manipitha). Kṣa within the triangle. Nāda is white. Nada.e. La." It therefore places the letters Ha. But that cannot be. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj " On the Jewelled Altar and on Nāda and Bindu" (Nāda-bindu-maṇipīṭha-maṇḍalam). and Bīja. Moon and Sun. all these three. Nāda. its divisions are called Bindu. the conclusion is irresistible that the letters A-Ka-Tha go in the direction abovementioned. and Bindu being the Sun is red. 1 one's right. . COMMENTARY The place of the Guru is on the jewelled altar within the triangle.2 and divides itself into three different parts. Pūrnananda also speaks3 of Nāda as being white like Baladeva etc. La and Kṣa. and Bīja.-The compound word may be formed in two ways: Mani-pītha-mandalam along with Nāda and Bindu (Nāda -bindubhyam saha).

.................... Here the idea is that the pale red lustre of the gems in the Pitha shames the uninterrupted brilliance of the reddish-yellow (Pingala) lightning flash... It is of a pale red colour inasmuch as the Manipitha is covered all over with gems. and above it (Antaratma) meditate on the resplendent throne2 between Nada and Bindu.. The solution is that Nāda is below........... The meaning given by us is therefore correct... 35...... the King's seat....... and on this throne (meditate) upon the eternal Guru. 3 speaks3 V...-The Cinmaya or Jñānamaya body.. 4 vowel4 The Bīja of Sarasvati or Vāgbhava-Bīja is Aiṁ.... Unless the words in the text.. and his Bija is also white. To be " paṭu " is to be able to fully do one's work.... " Its substance is Cit" (Cinmayaṁ vapuḥ).." But that is wrong.. "in the lotus of a thousand petals... which is the Gurumantra..... their substance is pure Cit not in association with Maya.1 red1 Pāṭala...Tantra: " Meditate on the excellent Antaratma1 in the (region of the) Lotus of a thousand petals........ Now. and Mani-pitha in between the two -thus should one meditate.... to attribute to it a pale red lustre would be incongruous.. Bindu and Mani-pitha is Cinmaya or Jnana-maya....2 Para-Śakti-maya=Śiva-Śakti-maya........ The body of Nada...... white like a mountain of silver..... lightning wants to display itself. ṣaṭ-cakra-nirūpaṇa... 2 throne2 Simhāsana---lit....... the seat of the honoured one....... lion seat........... This has been clearly shown in the Gurudhyana in Kankala-malini. lustrous (red) like the young Sun..." Now........ that Haṁsa is in the twelve-petalled lotus. 1 Antaratma1 This Antaratma is Haṁsa..... and Bindu above." be read Sāmīpye saptamī.. 3 Jnana-maya. the view here expressed differs from that adopted by Kalicarana..This qualifies Mani-pitha-mandalam...3 Others interpret it to mean "I meditate on the Cinmaya body of the twelfth vowel4 the Bija of Sarasvatl............ The Brhat-śrī-krama also says: "There was the imperishable Bindu... Ai is the twelfth 'vowel.. ..........." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj " The pale red glory of the gems in this altar shames the brilliance of lightning" (Paṭu-taḍit-kaḍārima-sparddhamānamaṇipāṭala-prabhaṁ). as one is white and the other red.3 That is...... they can never be the pale red gem...... The Guru is white.............. ante... 2 Bindu is Siva and Sakti...... .....

..... I think with mind : undisturbed.. 1Haṁsa...................... above Mani-pitha.e...1 which is the allpowerful Great Light in which the Universe is absorbed....... I meditate on the three lines......-That is. above the place of Mani-pitha and also on the glory of the Mani-pitha itself illumined as it is by the light of the three lines of Fire and others.. The verb" I meditate" occurs once in this verse....... presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj The meaning of this verse is..2 COMMENTARY On Haṁsa-pīṭha... " I intently meditate" (Vyāmṛsāmi)...... the Parama-haṁsa which is both Prakṛti and Puruṣa...... ..................... I also meditate on the primordial Haṁsa............. beginning with the line of Fire.... the union of Ham and Saḥ... is the place of the Guru........................." 3 Haṁsa3 i...................... " Above it" (Ūrdhvam asya)-that is. beginning with the line of Fire.. " Light which devours the Universe. 2 Great Light in which the Universe is absorbed. between Nada and Bindu.... which is heightened by the lustre of those lines..... whereby the Haṁsa is formed...... .. which is within the triangle on Mani.... shortly this: I meditate on the primordial Haṁsa3..pīṭha.I INTENTLY meditate on the three lines above it (Manipitha).. and on the brilliance of Manipitha..................2 Lit. and governs three nouns in the objective case.1 That is.... excluding all subjects likely to interfere with my thoughts. He now wishes to describe Haṁsa and the triangle in order that a clear conception of these two may be gained...

. where the Sūkṣma-dhyāna of Kundalinī is given. by which the word Ādi." The three lines beginning with the line of Fire" (Huta-bhuk-śikhātrayaṁ). And the Sun spoken of here stands for the twelve suns (Aditya) which rise to burn the world at dissolution (Pralaya). in the void.. emanates from Vahni Bindu in the South......)..... which comes in between two words is dropped. This is Citkalā Parā and the line of Fire... and Brahma....... Again turning left3 She returns to the place of sprouting... which is called the Line Vāmā. in describing the Sahasrara....... clearly showing that the place of the Guru is within this triangle...-E.. 4 the Śṛṅgāta.. "By the union of Iccha and Jñāna... and reaches Vahni Bindu: this is the Line Raudri. 3 left3 Reading vakrībhūtā punar vāme for vyaktībhūya punar vāme.... the Sovereign Mistress.. more subtle than the A-Ka-Tha triangle.. " Within it is the excellent lightning-like triangle. Visnu and Sambhu are the three lines....... Within it.. Adi means "and others".. The Brhat-Srl-krama says: " She whose form is letters is coiled up in the Bindu and comes out thereof as a sprouting seed from the South..... Saṁkaracārya also has shown this Clearly in his Anandalahari... 21. The same passage is quoted elsewhere reading yāmyāt (from the south) in place of yasmāt.. and the Line of Moon emanates from Candra-Bindu in the North-East Corner... is Siva..-W. This.. Parama-Siva.... Visarga is the two Bindus....... quotes an authority which is here cited.....-This compound word is made up according to the rule known as śāka-pārthiva......" The Prema-yoga-tarangini. is Tripura....... and is therefore associated with Brahma.. This line is the line of Jyeṣṭha........ The Line of Sun emanates from Sūrya Bindu in the North-West Corner... and goes towards the NorthWest Corner: this is the line Jyeṣṭha...... 2 From there2 Yasmāt is according to the reading given in the original.. From there2 She goes to the Isana corner (N. She who thus goes is the Sakti Varna..."5 i." The passage above quoted shows that the Kāma-kalā is a subtle form of Kundalinī. at the upper angles of the (down-turned) triangle..... Moon is associated with Visnu.. Within the triangle are two imperishable Bindus in the form of Visarga.."5 1 Line of Fire1 Here Fire is the origin of life..........).................. The triangle which is formed by the three lines uniting the three Bindus is Kāma-kalā (Kāma-kalā-rūpaṁ}.. 5 Parama..” 4 According to another reading.. The Author of the Lalita-rahasya also speaks of the Guru as seated on Visarga........ She is Raudri.. Ānandalahari........... v...” 4 ( Srngata means Triangle) presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj The Mahesvari-samhita says: "Sūrya.... and goes to the North-East Corner.. Cj... Candra and Vahni are the three Bindus. ..e.. O Paramesvarl.. Candra and Surya.. known by the name of Parama..... to the N... The Sakti which has thus gone to the Isana corner then goes in a straight line (that is........ who by Her Union with Iccha and Nada makes the Śṛṅgāta.. Raudrl makes the Śṛṅgāta..... The Line of Fire1.............

Tavāyur mama niśvāsah---Prapañcasāra-Tantra. The world is pervaded by this Haṁsa. . 2 Huta-bhuk -śikhā-sakham 2 Huta-bhuk-śikhā-sakha---the friend of the flame of Fire. Apparently the sense is that the three Bindus. here means very powerful." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj Some interpret" Asya Ūrdhvam" to mean" above Mani-pītha. The Kankala-malini speaks of the Mani-pītha as above Hamsa and between Nada and Bindu." and the roots "Cid." and "Dīp. which literally means very high." "Hlād. By Ādi (first) is implied the Parama-haṁsa. If this reading were accepted. Ch." 3 1 the union of1 i. But if Huta-bhuk-sikha-trayam be read as qualifying Haṁsa. This also shows the impossibility of the reading adopted by some-namely. then the difficulty may be removed. is above.-Literally interpreted it would mean the union of1 the primordial Ham and Saḥ. which resembles the flame of a lamp.-" Bhaks " and "Ghas" mean the same thing. The root "Ghas" means "to devour. The outgoing breath (Niśvāsa) Haṁ of the Supreme is the duration of the life of Brahma the Creator (cf. Then the meaning would be: "Below Mani-pītha is Haṁsa... The interpretation mentioned is in great conflict with the view of Kankala-malini. 3 Hamsa. which is also known as Antaratma. This is the beginning and end of creation." as given above. The union of the two makes Haṁsah. which is between Nada and Bindu. In Agama-kalpadruma-pancasakha it is said: "Haṁkāra is Bindu. however. Huta-bhuk -śikhā-sakham 2 in place of Huta- bhuk-śikhā-trayam." This is wrong. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- " Which is the all-powerful Great Light in which the Universe is absorbed . and in this sense the Harṁsa is both above and below Mani-pītha. 'The interpretation" I meditate on the union of." all mean" to shine ". be understood in the following sense." and say that the verse means: " I meditate on the union of the two who constitute the primordial Harṁsa above Mani-pītha."On the primordial Hamsa" (Ādi-hamsayor-yugam)." 3 Tasya parīṇatasya. I) and Saḥ is the indrawing breath by which creation returns to Prakrti. The Great Light (Mahoccit) which is the Devourer (Ghasmara) of the Universe: By that is meant that It is all-powerful (Utkaṭa). but that the triangle which they collectively form. Bindu is Purusa. The Harnsa here is the combination of Prakrti and Purusa. Haṁsa is the union of Pum (Male) and Prakrti (Female). may. or Haṁsa are below. then the words Ūrdhvam asya (above it) have no meaning. We have seen that the Kankala-malini speaks of the Haṁsa as below the Mani-pītha. (Viśva-ghasmara-mahoccidotkatam). Ham and Saḥ.e. and Visarga is Prakrti. and Visarga is Saḥ. So how can these be below Hamsa? This is impossible. By this is meant Vāyu (air). As there is no Vāyu in this region. and above it is the triangular Kāma-kalā which is formed by the Hamsa. Utkaṭa. or the Kāma-kalā.. and not the Jivatma. therefore Vāyu cannot be above the triangle or above Mani-pītha.

As the beams of the Moon counteract heat.e. in short.. and of which the ruby-coloured nectar is the honey.. so does devotion to the Feet of the Guru overcome sorrow and suffering. The excellent nectar which is of the colour of lac is the honey of the Lotus Feet of the Guru. Kuṅkuma means red. they are cool as the nectar-like beams of the Moon. Some read" Jhari " for" Parī". contemplates upon the Lotus Feet of the Guru.e. in the triangle on the Maṇi-pīṭha. COMMENTARY Having described the place where the two Lotus Feet of the Guru should be meditated upon. is: "The mind there. " There" (Tatra)-i. the meaning would then be: "from which flows like honey the ruby-coloured nectar." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj " Of which the ruby-coloured nectar is the honey" (Kuṅkumāsava-parīmarandayoḥ). in this and the following verse. the colour of lac. within the triangle on the Maṇi-pīṭha.-This qualifies" the lotuses". he now speaks of the (Sādhaka's) union therewith by meditation (Dhyāna) on them. These two Feet are cool like the nectar of the Moon. The sense is that by devout concentration on the feet of the Guru all success is attained . and are the place of all auspiciousness." "Cool like the nectar of the Moon" (Indu-makaranda-śītalam--i. "Place of all auspiciousness" (Maṅgalāspadam)--It is the place where one gets all one desires.THE mind there contemplates the two Lotuses which are the Feet of the Guru. The meaning of this verse.

-That is." By meditating first on the fivefold footstool. 43 of the Sat-cakra- . and comparison is made with them. they have the clear lustre of lotuses growing in a lake of nectar. By meditating on the Feet of the Guru as resting on this stool all sins are destroyed. COMMENTARY He says here: "I adore the two Lotus Feet of the Guru. Pumananda has said the same thing in v. As the 'removal of sins is effected by meditation on the fivefold footstool.the toe-nails are like so many beautifully shining moons. the feet of the Guru possess the red colour of newly opened leaves.-That is.I ADORE in my head the two Lotus Feet of the Guru. it is the cause which effects such removal. " Their nails resemble the moon shining in all her glory" (Nakha-samulIasat-candrakaṁ)--. sin is removed. pādukā-niyamitagha-kolāhalaṁ). Their nails resemble the moon shining in all her glory. the Maṇi-pītha-maṇḍala which is the footstool -removes all the multitude of sins." By adoration here meditation is meant.That is. They are red like young leaves. all the multitude of sins are removed by devotion to the jewelled footstool which serves as the resting place of His Feet. The leaves of the Mango and Kenduka1 tree when newly opened are of a red colour. Or it may be interpreted thus: "The footstool which is studded with gems-that is. resting on the footstool already described in my head. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj " They are like young leaves" (Sphurat-kisalayāruṇṁ). " The jewelled footstool on which they rest removes all sin " (Niṣaktamaṇi." Or it may be thus interpreted: "The five footstools with which are inseparably connected the gems (by which are meant the Cintarnani-like feet of the Guru) destroy all the multitude of sins. Theirs is the beautiful lustre of lotuses growing in a lake of nectar. He means to say that the excellent nectar drops constantly from the Lotus Feet of the Guru. The jewelled footstool on which they rest removes all sin. " Theirs is the beautiful lustre of lotuses growing in a lake of nectar" (Parāmrta-sarovarodita-saroja-sadrociṣaṁ). and then on the feet of the Guru as resting thereon.

.......... Mantrarna devata prokta devata guru-rupini. vv...' Śrī-Pārvati said: ' The head of the ..... a question may be raised as to whether it is in the pericarp of the twelve-petalled lotus below................nirūpanam... seated on the Hamsa-pitha which is composed of Mantras.. the Avantara-karana-sariras.. Although He manifests in all in varying degrees.." etc.... marked out by the letters Ha... and His Lotus hands are lifted up to grant boons and to dispel fear..... and which drops nectar on the Sakti of the Guru in the other Lotus.. all the letters of the Alphabet are on its petals...... or in that of the Sahasrara above..........." presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj The Puraścarana-rasollāsa (Ch......) ... The excellent nectar is the lake on which the Feet show like lotuses........4 Svacchandam atmecchaya = By His own will He is free...... ............... Tantik Texts." Yamala: "The Lotus of a thousand petals is like a canopy2. The Kankala-Malini says: "Meditate on the excellent Antaratma in the Lotus1 of a thousand petals.. La and Ksa.. and (on the throne) meditate constantly upon your own Guru. Vol V........" Gurugtta: " In your own Guru meditate on the Supreme Guru as having two arms in the Lotus whose petals have the letters Haṁ and Sah and as surrounded by all the causes3 of the universe. who is like a Mountain of Silver.. 1 Kenduka1 Diospyros glutinosa. Its filaments are of the colour of the rising sun..... XVII.. He is without and beyond the Universe..... In the pericarp of the Sahasrara is Candra Mandala. The word Guru signifies many beneficent qualities......." The above and similar passages indicate that the place of the Guru is in the pericarp of the Lotus of twelve petals..." cf.... VII) has the following dialogue: " Sri Mahadeva said: ‘There in the pericarp of the wonderful everlasting Lotus of a thousand petals meditate always on your own Guru.. Ch..... and below the pericarp is the lustrous lotus of twelve petals which contains the triangle A-Ka-Tha. in the head...... His cool beauty is like that of the full moon...4 From Him emanates the Light of Liberation.......... See Sat-cakra-nirupana...." The Syama-saparya quotes the following: "The Lotus Sahasrara downward turned..... He is the visible embodiment of the letters of the word5 Guru..... 39 4 no limitations.. (See Kularnava.. Meditate there on your Guru who is Siva.... The Yamala says: 2 " (Meditate on your Guru) in the Lotus of a thousand petals..... On His will there are no limitations. and drops red nectar... It has been said that the place of the Guru is between the pericarps of the two Lotuses afore-mentioned.. 3 causes3 i.....e. 5 letters of the word5 Guru.. and on the shining throne which is between Nada and Bindu... is white... Now... To solve this the following passages are quoted: Brhat-Srikrama : "Then meditate upon the Lotus which with its head downward is above all....... it is above all.. 2 canopy2 Which is an emblem of supremacy....

2 The Yamala says: 2 The Commentator does not say from which of the different Yamalas he has quoted this and the passage in the first group. This bliss is Svabhāva. and is the place of spontaneous bliss. the bliss springs up itself. then say. 4 pericarp is always turned upward. and which is decorated with all the letters of the Alphabet. ' The Bala-vilasa Tantra has the following: " Śri-Dakṣiṇāmūrti said: • As you awake in the morning meditate on your Guru in the White Lotus of a thousand petals. O Lord. The great Lotus Sahasrara has a thousand petals. and is the abode of Sadā-Śiva and is full of eternal bliss.4 and united with Kundalini is always in the form of a triangle. apparently. It is full of all kinds of delightful fragrance.3 Sahajānanda-that is.3 The head of this Lotus is always downward. the head of which great Lotus is downward turned. but the pericarp is always turned upward.Great Lotus of a thousand petals. The triangle is A-Ka-Tha. is always downward turned.4 That is. O Beloved. 1 Antaratma in the Lotus1 Or in the region of the lotus of a thousand petals. how can the Guru constantly dwell there?' Śrī -Mahadeva said: ‘Well hast thou asked. Now listen whilst I speak to Thee. O Deva. if we regard that portion of the pericarp which is attached to the lotus as its head. . 3 spontaneous bliss.

" . As there are two distinct methods. and there is the Guru's place. how does the Guru stay when its head is turned downwards?' Śrī-Dakṣṇamūrti said: 'The CandraMandala in the pericarp of the Lotus of a thousand petals is turned upward.' " These and similar passages speak of the place of the Guru as in the pericarp of the Lotus of a thousand petals. which is decked by the letters Ha.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Within it is the triangle known by the name of A-Ka-Tha.' ŚriDevī said: 'O Lord. as also Mantras and usages. and not otherwise. He of the smiling countenance is on the Hamsapītha. one should follow the instruction of the Guru and adopt one of the two in his Sādhana (Anuṣṭāna). For it has been laid down in the Kularnava-Tantra (Ch. XI): "Beloved Vedas and Tantras handed down to us by tradition. the Hamsa is there. become fruitful if communicated to us by the Guru.l which is in the region of the Candra-Mandala within it (the Sahasrara). La and Ksa.

twelve-petalled). (4) the Haṁsa below. and (5) the triangle on the Mani-pītha.e.1 the Hamsapītha. The five of these are: (1) The (twelve-petalled) Lotus. By (the recitation and hearing of) it is attained that good which is gained by (the recitation and hearing of) all the hymns in praise of Siva. (4) the Mani-pītha Maṇḍala. and Mani-pītha in it. Or they may be counted thus: (I) The Lotus (i. . Bindu.Pādukā means a footstool (Pada-rakṣanā-dhāra). Such fruit is only attainable by great labour in the Wandering (Saṁsāra). COMMENTARY He now speaks of the good gained by reciting and listening to this Stotra. (2) the triangle (A-Ka-Tha). " Hymn of praise of the fivefold Footstool" (Pādukā-pañcakastotram).l Kamakala. (2) the triangle A-Ka-Tha in its pericarp (3) the region of the Nāda.. (3) Nāda-Bindu. THIS hymn of praise of the Fivefold Footstool was uttered by Him of Five Faces.

called Tamasa. including the verse which speaks of the benefit to be gained by listening to it." Vinirgata means uttered (lit. By the fruit of this is meant the benefit gained by reciting or listening to all these Mantras. back) is Sadyo-jāta. from which emanates (and in this sense forms part of it) the lower A-Ka-Tha triangle (for this Varna-maya).-By Prapañca is meant this Saṁsāra (Wandering or World). This hymn. "By it is attained that good" (ṣaḍāmnāya-phala-prāptam). the three Bindus and the triangle (Kāma-kalā) which they form are treated as one.e. Nīla-kaṇṭa.. This is what is gained through this hymn. they make (Kāma-kalā). In the first classification.. It is difficult of attainment (Durlabha)." The Six Faces are the five given above and a sixth concealed one which is below.-This literally means: "by it is obtained the fruit of what has been spoken by the Six Mouths. presentation: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj " Uttered by Him of Five Faces" (Pañca-vaktrād vinirgatam). .(5) the Haṁsa---which is above it and taken collectively form the triangular Kāma-kalā. Stotra is a hymn of praise. as also in the meditation (Dhyāna) there given.. as it is the result of rnanifold merit acquired by the practice of laborious endeavour (Tapas) in previous births. the Haṁsa and the triangle which they form are taken separately. There remains then to be considered the position of Haṁsa and the Kāma-kalā which they form. The word means the secret emissary of Death. and which is shown by Māyā. with Bindu above and Nada below. all the hymns of praise to Siva. on the North (i. written by śrī-Kalīcārana on the Pādukā-pañcakaStotra. "It is attainable by great labour in this Wandering" (Prapañce cātidurlabhaṁ). (Stainless). and practicing the appropriate Sādhana. and placed above the Mani-pītha.The Five faces of Siva as given in the Liṅgārcana Tantra are: "On the West 1 (i. is one of seven verses.. Both are one and the same. on the South (right) is Aghora. The poison churned out of the ocean and drunk by Siva.e. 1 the West 1 The direction one faces is the East. 4. and the second the triangle. come out)-that is." 1 These two accounts appear to agree as to the position of the following in the order stated-viz.. left) is Vāma-deva. In the second classification. thus: " The lower face. uttered by these Five Faces. 2 Kāla-kūṭa2. Īśāna should be known as being in the middle. apparently with a view to gain accordance with the Kaṅkāla-mālinī-Tantra cited under v. comprising the Universe from all effects up to Brahma. This is alluded to in ṣaḍvaktra-nyāsa in the Siva. the first being the three Bindus. twelve-petalled Lotus with A-Ka-Tha triangle in which are Mani-pītha. and on the East (front) is Tat-purusa. End of the Commentary (Tippani of the Name of Amalā. the first being placed below and the other above Mani-pītha." I ṣaḍāmnāya is what has been spoken by these Faces-that is. They should thus be meditated upon in a devout spirit.Tantra thus: "Om Haṁ Hrīṁ Auṁ Hrīṁ Tāmasāya Svāha ". is of the colour caused by the deadly poison Kāla-kūṭa2.