This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
COPING WITH QUALITY ISSUES IN IT INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN
Group Muhammad Aatif Saif Khan Muhammad Bakhsh Sial
Fa-2011/M. Sc. EM/018 Fa-2011/M.Sc. EM/053
Pakistan’s IT industry’s tremendous promise is marred by plethora of issues including but not limited to product, process and quality at the core level and soft issues like employee satisfaction and management competence concerns. According to PSEB, out of approximately 1500 registered companies, only 110 ISO 9001, 23 CMMI and 11 ISO 27001 certified companies It demands faculties to evaluating key areas that need continuous and continual improvements for reducing losses incurred due to poor requirements capturing, reactive approach to the inherent risks in project management, poor coding quality directly impacting the employee satisfaction and management anxiety through application of technology management.
Muhammad Bakhsh Sial Aatif Saif Aatif Saif • Data analysis • Deductions from Findings • Conclusion Col. Muhammad Bakhsh Sial .SCHEME OF PRESENTATION • Introduction • Technology Management & Quality • Factors considered Col.
TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT & QUALITY • Theories Analyzed • Determinism versus Constructivism • Time line of Invention to Mass Adoption • TDS of technology .
social construction of technology (SCOT). the ERP implementers have miserably failed in changing the mind-sets and attaining desired “Customer Satisfaction”. 1985). any one of them has only led to poor quality standards adherence in the software development. despite. includes the approaches known as social shaping of technology. 1999. 1986). 1987. and systems approach among others (Mackenzie & Wajcman. Hughes. • Few believe that wheel of technology drives the growth of social norms in the industry. "social constructivism" perspective. failing to adopt. • The experiences and results of different people have been varying in the IT industry. best adopted technological tools. however. . • Very few people really understand the impact of both approaches in the local IT industry and resultantly.THEORIES ANALYZED • The technology determinism perspective considers the relationship of society towards technological change as an adaptation dictated by the potential of the technology (Staudenmaier. Pinch & Bijker. On the contrary.
Pakistani youth made full use of pirated software and in a short period laid hands over development tools. . Pakistanis entered the domain with a flash and soon their acumen and skills were acknowledged across globe.TIME LINE OF INVENTION TO MASS ADOPTION • Pakistan is comparatively late entrant in adoption of information technology. However. Pakistan entered in the IT industry with introduction of degree level courses offered in the universities. • Due to lesser control & checks over licensed software use at personal / individual level. • The earliest intervention of IT came in the form of banking and air ticketing systems. in early 90s.
TECHNOLOGY DELIVERY SYSTEM TDS .
AATIF SAIF .
FACTORS OF QUALITY GROWTH IN IT • Processes • Software Development methodologies • Requirements Gathering • TQM in Software Development • Employee Satisfaction • Role of Management .
PROCESSES • Recipe for quality software resides in the maturity of processes & embracing standards at organizational level • Well defined and truly implemented processes result in conformance to specifications & customer satisfaction • On the contrary. nonexistence of QMS. management oversight and lack of business acumen lead to utter disaster in terms of reputation & business . poorly defined processes.
• Few prefer adopting classical waterfall model but more aggressive organisations have moved towards agile development cycle (employing selforganizing. . cross-functional teams).SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES • Software industry has gone through meteoric changes and many models of software development life cycle (SDLC) have emerged in last three decades.
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES Constructivism & Determinism Marriage of Convenience .
REQUIREMENTS GATHERING Fundamental objective is listening to “Voice of the Customer” and translating them into “Voice of the Engineer emanating into conformance to customer requirements” It shall happen through qualified business analysts (BAs) having sound domain knowledge under a “Functional Lead” & in close consultation with Technical Lead Unfortunately. . in Pakistan. companies try to save on resource cost by employing software developers for requirements gathering. It results into half-backed and partially captured requirements since technical resources seldom correctly translate functional requirements into technical specifications.
Software firms pay less attention to quality assurance as it is frequently the first area that is cut back when deadlines are missed (Miller. and Walters were the first to study the concept of software quality in terms of quality factors and quality criteria.TQM IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT McCall. It has redefined the quality as “Everyone’s Business” Software companies planning to implement TQM must have critical mass of employees embracing the TQM philosophy and methods before jumping onto the . Richards. TQM concept represents a fundamental change in the definition and treatment of quality in product development. 2007).
salary & other employee benefits.EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION Employee satisfaction is often linked to career advancement opportunities. positive work environment. Due to lack of measures at government level. challenging nature of work. training / educational opportunities and many more factors. flexibility in work schedule / telecommuting. IT industry has shrunk in last few years resulting into cut-downs in employee salaries .
scope and quality of software. • Project management decisions are often tricky precisely because they involve tradeoffs based on fuzzy or incomplete knowledge. N. and empowerment during the software development life cycle. through welldefined processes. Charette. bad project management decisions. 2005) . Furthermore.ROLE OF MANAGEMENT • Management has a principal role in ensuring time. team work. such as hiring too few programmers or picking the wrong type of contract can put an organization in poor position” (Robert. cost.
DATA ANALYSIS .
• Quantitative analysis would be perform in order to measure the quality issues of IT industry of Pakistan. .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • Software houses in Islamabad were approached based on convenient sampling technique for seeking their inputs. • Employee satisfaction effects on software quality. • We could gathering information related to: • Issues in software quality practices. • Role of Project management on software quality.
University of Ottawa. Survey Share .QUESTIONERS • Questions include mostly structured questions from past research papers and software metrics. measurement related books whose references are given at the end of paper • Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering. • Employee satisfaction surveys. 2nd (2002) • Effectiveness and relevance of software documentation by Andrew Forward.
14 2.35 2.SOFTWARE QUALITY PROCESSES Separate department for software quality Separate Department for software quality 32% Software Methodologies frequencies stacked bar chart Mean Spiral Incremental Rolling Wave Waterfall Agile None 1.13 2.86 2.09 2.03 Median 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mode 1 1 1 1 1 1 Legion 1 Never To some 2 extent 3 Not sure 4 Mostly 5 Always No separate departme nt 68% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Functional Performance Reliability Usability Strongly disagree disagree neither agree or disagree agree Strongly agree Importance of difference requirement frequency .
PROJECT MANAGEMENT Does not have Project Manageme nt Education 43% Manager with management related education Has Project managemen t education 57% .
EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION Supervision/management Less travel Employee benefits Salary Why employee Strongly disagree chose to stay with disagree current employers neither agree or disagree agree Strongly agree Challenging work Career advancement opportunities 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Promoted diversity Opportunities for… Never Not sure Employee rating different aspect about current job Training/educatio… Appropriate… Positive work… 0% 50% 100% To some extent Mostly Always .
COL. BAKSH .
DEDUCTIONS FROM ANALYSIS .
no organisation in totality has grasped the concept of TQM or QA. • Resultantly. • The near absence of quality in software development results in faulty product • Tight financial position leading to use of developers as quality control staff • Lack of realization on part of management .QUALITY IS NOT GIVEN ITS DUE PLACE • Respondents approached were clueless about theories of technology management.
LACK OF TRAININGS • Training of any sort is lacking • Employees have to learn themselves mostly • Large software houses are more likely to provide trainings to their employees • Sense of complacency results in lack of touch with emerging trends and knowledge domains .
lost time leading to failed projects • Large organizations are more likely to address this aspect than small organizations .ABSENCE OF RIGHT MAN FOR THE RIGHT JOB • Software developers are additionally employed in the roles of business analysts and QA staff. • Not hiring and employing the qualified and experienced staff ultimately results in budgetary overshoot.
WORK ENVIRONMENT & RESOURCE ACCESS • Employees satisfaction about resources available is attributed to:• Flexibility in work schedule • Desk based needs .an IT person only needs a machine. internet and loads of work .
LACK OF DIVERSITY • Male : Female ratio indicates lesser preference for women folk due to cultural issues • Male are considered for employment because of their flexibility for travelling and late sitting option. .
• Employees also notified that they are not compensated often for their extra work in terms of overtime. . the employees were found satisfied about pay structure and timely disbursal.SALARY ISSUES • Dissatisfaction of employees in small – medium software houses is linked to salary structures and delayed salaries payments. • However. in companies with bigger portfolio and running concerns.
“ (Linus Pauling) .Q&A "The best way to have a good idea is to have lots of ideas.
if those involved in business of IT industry are well versed with domain of technology management and willing to apply them . It can only be attained. improving quality of the product leading to customer satisfaction.CONCLUSION Pakistan’s IT industry has to make their grounds through focused and continual efforts for improving quality throughout life of a software development life cycle. The culture of total quality management would help in reducing costs. thus increased returns on investment.
WHY SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ? The problem is complexity Many sources. . but size is key: UNIX contains 4 million lines of code Windows 2000 contains 108 lines of code Software engineering is about managing this complexity.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.