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nursing history (world and philippine setting), definition of nursing, nursing programs, roles of a nurse, scope of nursing practice and prefessional crimes

nursing history (world and philippine setting), definition of nursing, nursing programs, roles of a nurse, scope of nursing practice and prefessional crimes

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Published by jaggermeister20
this is a reviewer about nursing history, both world and philippine setting. Also included are topics about definition of nursing, roles of a nurse, nursing programs, scope of nursing practice, and professional crimes.
this is a reviewer about nursing history, both world and philippine setting. Also included are topics about definition of nursing, roles of a nurse, nursing programs, scope of nursing practice, and professional crimes.

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Published by: jaggermeister20 on Feb 08, 2009
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Master’s Degree
Master’s Degree

1.5 – 2-year program
1.5 – 2-year program
Encourage the development of graduate study in nursing
Encourage the development of graduate study in nursing
Major emphasis was to be research and specialization for
Major emphasis was to be research and specialization for
teaching and administration

teaching and administration
Provide specialized knowledge and skills that enable nurses to
Provide specialized knowledge and skills that enable nurses to
assume advanced roles in practice, education, administration,

assume advanced roles in practice, education, administration,
and research.

and research.
MAN / MSN
MAN / MSN

Doctoral Program
Doctoral Program

PhD, DNS, ND
PhD, DNS, ND
Further prepares the nurse for advanced clinical practice,
Further prepares the nurse for advanced clinical practice,
administration, education, and research.

administration, education, and research.
Content and approach vary among doctoral programs.
Content and approach vary among doctoral programs.
All emphasized research
All emphasized research
No specific time
No specific time

EXTERNAL DEGREE

EXTERNAL DEGREE

External Degree
External Degree

Offers credit for expertise gained
Offers credit for expertise gained
outside formal classroom setting

outside formal classroom setting
Seminars
Seminars
post- grad courses
post- grad courses
No specific time
No specific time
Short courses
Short courses

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Caregiver
Caregiver
Communicator
Communicator
Teacher
Teacher
Client Advocate
Client Advocate
Counselor
Counselor
Change Agent
Change Agent
Leader
Leader
Manager
Manager
Case Manager
Case Manager
Research Consumer
Research Consumer
Role Model
Role Model
Administrator
Administrator
Expanded Career Roles
Expanded Career Roles

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Caregiver
Caregiver

Primary goal
Primary goal
TYPES OF CARE:
TYPES OF CARE:

Full Care

Full Care for completely dependent patient
for completely dependent patient

Partial Care
Partial Care for partially dependent patient
for partially dependent patient

Supportive-Educative care
Supportive-Educative care to assist clients in attaining
to assist clients in attaining
their highest possible level of health and wellness; for

their highest possible level of health and wellness; for
learnings

learnings

Communicator
Communicator

Integral to all nursing roles
Integral to all nursing roles
Nurses communicate with the client, support persons,
Nurses communicate with the client, support persons,
other health professionals, and people in the community

other health professionals, and people in the community
Nurses identify client problems and then communicate
Nurses identify client problems and then communicate
these verbally or in writing to other members of the

these verbally or in writing to other members of the
health team

health team

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Teacher
Teacher

Nurses help clients learn about their health and the health care
Nurses help clients learn about their health and the health care
procedure they need to perform to restore or maintain their

procedure they need to perform to restore or maintain their
health.

health.

Nurses assesses the client’s learning needs and readiness to
Nurses assesses the client’s learning needs and readiness to
learn, sets specific learning goals in conjunction with the client,

learn, sets specific learning goals in conjunction with the client,
enacts teaching strategies, and measures learning.

enacts teaching strategies, and measures learning.
Nurses also teaches unlicensed assistive personnel to whom
Nurses also teaches unlicensed assistive personnel to whom
they delegate care, and they share their expertise with other

they delegate care, and they share their expertise with other
nurses and health professionals.

nurses and health professionals.

Client Advocate
Client Advocate

Acts to protect the client
Acts to protect the client
Nurse may represent the client’s needs and wishes to other
Nurse may represent the client’s needs and wishes to other
health professionals, such as relaying the client’s wishes for

health professionals, such as relaying the client’s wishes for
information to the physician.

information to the physician.
Nurses assist clients in exercising their rights and help them
Nurses assist clients in exercising their rights and help them
speak up for themselves

speak up for themselves

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Counselor
Counselor

Helping a client recognize and cope with stressful psychologic
Helping a client recognize and cope with stressful psychologic
or social problems, to develop improved interpersonal

or social problems, to develop improved interpersonal
relationships, and to promote personal growth.

relationships, and to promote personal growth.
Involves providing emotional, intellectual and psychologic
Involves providing emotional, intellectual and psychologic
support.

support.
Nurses counsel primarily healthy individuals with normal
Nurses counsel primarily healthy individuals with normal
adjustment difficulties and focuses on helping the person

adjustment difficulties and focuses on helping the person
develop new attitudes, feelings, behaviors by encouraging the

develop new attitudes, feelings, behaviors by encouraging the
client to look at alternative behaviors, recognizing the choices,

client to look at alternative behaviors, recognizing the choices,
and develop sense of control.

and develop sense of control.

Change Agent
Change Agent

Assisting others to make modifications in their own behavior.
Assisting others to make modifications in their own behavior.
Nurses also often act to make changes in a system if it is not
Nurses also often act to make changes in a system if it is not
helping client return to health.

helping client return to health.

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Leader
Leader

Influences others to work together to accomplish a
Influences others to work together to accomplish a
specific goal.

specific goal.
Can be employed at different levels: individual client,
Can be employed at different levels: individual client,
family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community

family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community

Case Manager
Case Manager

Work with the multidisciplinary health care team to
Work with the multidisciplinary health care team to
measure the effectiveness of the case management plan

measure the effectiveness of the case management plan
and to monitor outcomes.

and to monitor outcomes.
Works with primary or staff nurses to oversee the care of
Works with primary or staff nurses to oversee the care of
a specific caseload.

a specific caseload.
Primary nurse or provides some level of direct care to
Primary nurse or provides some level of direct care to
the client and family

the client and family
Helps ensure that care is oriented to the client, while
Helps ensure that care is oriented to the client, while
controlling costs.

controlling costs.

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Research Consumer
Research Consumer

Often use research to improve client care
Often use research to improve client care
Have some awareness of the process and language of
Have some awareness of the process and language of
research

research
Be sensitive to issues related to protecting the rights of
Be sensitive to issues related to protecting the rights of
human subjects

human subjects
Participate in the identification of significant
Participate in the identification of significant
researchable problems

researchable problems
Be a discriminating consumer of research findings
Be a discriminating consumer of research findings

Role Model
Role Model

Has good physical appearance
Has good physical appearance
Practices proper hygiene
Practices proper hygiene
Practices healthy lifestyle
Practices healthy lifestyle

ROLES OF A NURSE

ROLES OF A NURSE

Administrator
Administrator

Assumes middle management position
Assumes middle management position
Connects the patient to other services of the
Connects the patient to other services of the
hospital

hospital

Expanded Career Roles
Expanded Career Roles

Nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist,
Nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist,
nurse midwife, nurse educator, nurse

nurse midwife, nurse educator, nurse
researcher, and nurse anesthetist

researcher, and nurse anesthetist
All of which allow greater independence and
All of which allow greater independence and
autonomy.

autonomy.

SCOPE OF NURSING

SCOPE OF NURSING
PRACTICE

PRACTICE

FOUR AREAS:
FOUR AREAS:

Promoting Health and Wellness
Promoting Health and Wellness

Preventing Illness
Preventing Illness

Restoring Health
Restoring Health

Care of the Dying
Care of the Dying

SCOPE OF NURSING

SCOPE OF NURSING
PRACTICE

PRACTICE

PROMOTING HEALTH AND WELLNESS
PROMOTING HEALTH AND WELLNESS

Wellness – state of well-being. Engaging in
Wellness – state of well-being. Engaging in
attitudes and behavior that enhance the

attitudes and behavior that enhance the
quality of life and maximize personal potential

quality of life and maximize personal potential
For both healthy and ill.
For both healthy and ill.
Involve individual and community activities to
Involve individual and community activities to
enhance healthy lifestyle, such as improving

enhance healthy lifestyle, such as improving
nutrition and physical fitness, preventing drug

nutrition and physical fitness, preventing drug
and alcohol misuse, restricting smoking, and

and alcohol misuse, restricting smoking, and
preventing accidents and injury in the home

preventing accidents and injury in the home
and workplace.

and workplace.

SCOPE OF NURSING

SCOPE OF NURSING
PRACTICE

PRACTICE

PREVENTING ILLNESS
PREVENTING ILLNESS

The goal is to maintain optimal health
The goal is to maintain optimal health
by preventing diseases

by preventing diseases
Nursing activities includes
Nursing activities includes
immunizations, prenatal and infant care,

immunizations, prenatal and infant care,
and prevention of sexually transmitted

and prevention of sexually transmitted
disease.

disease.

SCOPE OF NURSING

SCOPE OF NURSING
PRACTICE

PRACTICE

RESTORING HEALTH
RESTORING HEALTH

Focuses on the ill client
Focuses on the ill client
Extends from early detection of disease to helping the
Extends from early detection of disease to helping the
client during the recovery period

client during the recovery period
NURSING ACTIVITIES:
NURSING ACTIVITIES:

Providing direct care to the ill person: administering
Providing direct care to the ill person: administering
medications, baths, and specific procedures and treatments

medications, baths, and specific procedures and treatments
Providing diagnostic and assessment procedures:
Providing diagnostic and assessment procedures:
measuring BP and examining feces for occult blood

measuring BP and examining feces for occult blood
Consulting with other health care professionals about
Consulting with other health care professionals about
client’s problems

client’s problems
Teaching clients about recovery activities: exercise that will
Teaching clients about recovery activities: exercise that will
accelerate recovery after a stroke

accelerate recovery after a stroke
Rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level
Rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level
following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical

following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical
addiction

addiction

SCOPE OF NURSING

SCOPE OF NURSING
PRACTICE

PRACTICE

CARE OF THE DYING
CARE OF THE DYING

Involves comforting and caring for people of all
Involves comforting and caring for people of all
ages who are dying

ages who are dying
Includes helping clients live as comfortable as
Includes helping clients live as comfortable as
possible until death and helping support

possible until death and helping support
persons cope with death.

persons cope with death.
Work in homes, hospitals, and extended care
Work in homes, hospitals, and extended care
facilities

facilities
Hospices are specifically designed for this
Hospices are specifically designed for this
purpose.

purpose.

BIOETHICAL ISSUES IN

BIOETHICAL ISSUES IN
NURSING

NURSING

““DO NOT RESUSCITATE” ORDER (DNR)
DO NOT RESUSCITATE” ORDER (DNR)

Physician may order “no code” or “do not resuscitate” for
Physician may order “no code” or “do not resuscitate” for
client who are in stage of terminal, irreversible illness, or

client who are in stage of terminal, irreversible illness, or
expected death. DNR order that no effort be made to

expected death. DNR order that no effort be made to
resuscitate the client in the event of respiratory or cardiac

resuscitate the client in the event of respiratory or cardiac
arrest.

arrest.

ABORTION
ABORTION

Termination of pregnancy before the fetus reaches the stage of
Termination of pregnancy before the fetus reaches the stage of
viability.

viability.

EUTHANASIA
EUTHANASIA

““mercy killing” The act of painlessly putting to death persons
mercy killing” The act of painlessly putting to death persons
suffering from incurable or distressing disease.

suffering from incurable or distressing disease.

HUMAN CLONING
HUMAN CLONING

Human reproduction / replication
Human reproduction / replication

SEX TRANSPLANT
SEX TRANSPLANT

Sex change
Sex change

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

•CRIME – act committed in violation of Public Law
CRIME – act committed in violation of Public Law
and punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment

and punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment

•FELONY – serious in nature (ex. Murder)
FELONY – serious in nature (ex. Murder)

•MISDEMEANOR – less serious in nature (ex.
MISDEMEANOR – less serious in nature (ex.
Negligence)

Negligence)

•MANSLAUGHTER – 2
MANSLAUGHTER – 2nd

nd

degree crime; unintentional

degree crime; unintentional

•TORT – civil wrong against a person
TORT – civil wrong against a person

•TYPES:
TYPES:

•Intentional
Intentional
•unintentional
unintentional

Types of Law

Private / Civil

Public Law

Contract Law

Torts

Criminal Law

Felony

Misdemeanor

Unintentional

Intentional

Negligence/
Malpractice

Failure to
meet
standard of
care

Must be present

Duty
Breach of Duty
Foreseeability
Causation
Harm/Injury
Damage

Assault / Battery

False Imprisonment

Invasion of Privacy

Defamation

Libel

Slander

Common Elements

Willful Action

Intended to
bring about
consequences

Causation

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

NEGLIGENCE
NEGLIGENCE

The doing of that thing, which a reasonably
The doing of that thing, which a reasonably
prudent person would not have done, or the

prudent person would not have done, or the
failure to do that thing which a reasonably

failure to do that thing which a reasonably
prudent person would have done, in like or

prudent person would have done, in like or
similar circumstance.

similar circumstance.
Act of omission or commission
Act of omission or commission

THEORIES OF NEGLIGENCE:
THEORIES OF NEGLIGENCE:

Respondeat Superior
Respondeat Superior
– let the superior answer ; let
– let the superior answer ; let
the principal answer for the acts of his agent

the principal answer for the acts of his agent

Res Ipsa Loquitur
Res Ipsa Loquitur
– the thing speaks for itself; talks
– the thing speaks for itself; talks
about the evidence; you cannot deny the negligence

about the evidence; you cannot deny the negligence
because of the presence of evidence.

because of the presence of evidence.

Force Majeure
Force Majeure
– irresistible or superior force. It is a
– irresistible or superior force. It is a
fact or accident which human prudence can neither

fact or accident which human prudence can neither
foresee nor prevent

foresee nor prevent

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

MALPRACTICE
MALPRACTICE

Any professional misconduct, or any unreasonable lack
Any professional misconduct, or any unreasonable lack
of skill, or fidelity in the performance of the professional

of skill, or fidelity in the performance of the professional
or fiduciary duties.

or fiduciary duties.
For Nurses, Malpractice refers to the failure to follow a
For Nurses, Malpractice refers to the failure to follow a
reasonable professional standard of care, thereby,

reasonable professional standard of care, thereby,
resulting to injury of patient

resulting to injury of patient

ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE/MALPRACTICE:
ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE/MALPRACTICE:

Duty
Duty
Breach of Duty
Breach of Duty
Foreseeability
Foreseeability
Causation
Causation
Harm/Injury
Harm/Injury
Damage
Damage

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

INVASION OF PRIVACY
INVASION OF PRIVACY

Violation on the right of an individual to
Violation on the right of an individual to
withhold herself and her life from public

withhold herself and her life from public
scrutiny. Violation on the right to remain alone

scrutiny. Violation on the right to remain alone
and the right to keep information.

and the right to keep information.

FRAUD
FRAUD

False presentation of some facts with the
False presentation of some facts with the
intention that will be acted upon by another

intention that will be acted upon by another
person.

person.
Willful misrepresentation
Willful misrepresentation

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

DEFAMATION
DEFAMATION

Derogatory remarks about a person
Derogatory remarks about a person
Making false statements about a person that
Making false statements about a person that
can result to the injury of his reputation

can result to the injury of his reputation

KINDS OF DEFAMATION:
KINDS OF DEFAMATION:
Slander – oral defamation
Slander – oral defamation
Libel – written defamation
Libel – written defamation

ASSAULT
ASSAULT

Attempt or threat or to touch another person
Attempt or threat or to touch another person
unjustifiably

unjustifiably

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

PROFESSIONAL CRIMES

BATTERY
BATTERY

Assault that is carried out
Assault that is carried out
Willful touching of a person (without consent) that may
Willful touching of a person (without consent) that may
or may not cause harm

or may not cause harm
Performing procedures without consent
Performing procedures without consent

INCOMPETENCE
INCOMPETENCE

Lack of knowledge or skills
Lack of knowledge or skills

FALSE IMPRISONMENT
FALSE IMPRISONMENT

Prevention of movement without consent
Prevention of movement without consent
Unlawful restraint or detention of another person against
Unlawful restraint or detention of another person against
his or her wishes

his or her wishes

CONSENT

CONSENT

KINDS OF CONSENT:
KINDS OF CONSENT:

Informed Consent
Informed Consent
Implied Consent
Implied Consent

INFORMED CONSENT
INFORMED CONSENT

Agreement by the client to accept a course of treatment or a
Agreement by the client to accept a course of treatment or a
procedure after complete information, including the risk of

procedure after complete information, including the risk of
treatment and facts relating to it, has been provided by the

treatment and facts relating to it, has been provided by the
physician

physician

ELEMENTS OF INFORMED CONSENT:
ELEMENTS OF INFORMED CONSENT:

Consent must be given voluntarily
Consent must be given voluntarily
Consent must be given by an individual with the capacity,
Consent must be given by an individual with the capacity,
competence, and understanding.

competence, and understanding.
The client must be given enough information to be the ultimate
The client must be given enough information to be the ultimate
decision maker.

decision maker.

CONSENT

CONSENT

NURSE’S RESPONSIBILITY
NURSE’S RESPONSIBILITY

Witnessing the exchange between the client and the
Witnessing the exchange between the client and the
physician.

physician.
Establish that the client really did understand, that is, was
Establish that the client really did understand, that is, was
really informed

really informed
Witnessing the client’s signature
Witnessing the client’s signature

PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT ALLOWED TO PROVIDE
PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT ALLOWED TO PROVIDE
CONSENT:

CONSENT:

Minors – below 18 years old; except for married and
Minors – below 18 years old; except for married and
already a parent

already a parent
Mentally ill
Mentally ill
Unconscious or injured in such a way that they are unable
Unconscious or injured in such a way that they are unable
to give consent.

to give consent.

IMPLIED CONSENT
IMPLIED CONSENT

In a life threatening situations and consent can not be
In a life threatening situations and consent can not be
obtained from the client or relatives, the law generally

obtained from the client or relatives, the law generally
agrees that consent is assumed.

agrees that consent is assumed.

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