Over Crowding

Poorly Sanitized Environment

Poor Hygiene

Mal nutrition

Inadequate Physical Barriers

Emotional & Physical Stressors

Chronic Diseases (DM, athero)

Medical & Surgical Treatments

Inadequate Immunization

Immuno Suppressant Drugs (corticosteroids)

Old Age

Young People

Close Contact to TB patient

offers an environ -ment for bacteria to colonize

inhibits production of antibodies

enables pathogen to gain access to the body

increased cortisol activity

impaired blood flow

depressed bone marrow production

reduces levels of:

increased exposure to pathogens

decreased level of leukocytes

impaired blood flow & nutrient delivery to systems

impaired leukocytosis

leukocytes & eosinophils

decreases Immunoglobulin binding to cell surface receptors monocytes decreased phagocytosis

inhibits interleukin synth

decreasing thymus function

immature immune systemm

impaired immune response to immunization

diminished cytotoxicity of natural killer cells

impaired release of histamines, bradykinin & prostaglandins

decreased phagocytosis

impaired activatn of B cells, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and other cells of the immune system

infected person sneezes and coughs/ transmits microorganism Droplets settle to surfaces Droplets infect cattle

Droplets remain suspend ed in the air are spread by air currents

weakened defense system person inhales the droplets increased susceptibility to infection

person ingests food

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

Bacteria is transmitted to the airways


deposition in the alveoli

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