1. Differentiate between Quality Control and Quality Assurance. Explain the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM).

Quality Control: Quality Control activities include inspection and testing of the products or services after they are produced and just before their delivery to the customers. The inspection and testing activities are carried out to check conformity of the product with specifications / requirements. If any of the products are not in conformance with the specifications, they are quarantined / segregated and the actions as specified (repair, re grade, scrap) are initiated. Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance refers to planned and systematic production processes that provide confidence in a product's suitability for its intended purpose. It is a set of activities intended to ensure that products (goods and/or services) satisfy customer requirements in a systematic, reliable fashion. Quality assurance covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and other associated activities. This introduces the rule ” Right first time”. PDCA (Plan- Do- Check –Act) approach is the most widely used concept in Quality Assurance. Quality Assurance is about improving and stabilizing the production and associated processes to eliminate or limit the defects from occurring, while the Quality Control is about inspection and testing and preventing the defects from getting delivered to the customers. However, QA does not necessarily eliminate the requirement for Quality control in terms of inspection and testing.

Concept of Total Quality management Total Quality management is concerned with moving the focus of control outside the individual to within, the objective being to make everyone accountable for their own performance, and to get them committed to attaining quality in a highly motivated fashion. The assumptions a director or a manager must make in order to move in this direction are simply that people do not need to be coerced to perform well, and that people want to achieve, accomplish, influence activity and challenge their abilities, If there is belief in this, the TQM effort will be successful.

Pillars of Total Quality Management Total Quality Management is user driven- it cannot be imposed from outside the organization, as perhaps can a quality management standard or statistical process control. This means that the ideas for improvement must come from those with knowledge and experience of the processes, activities and tasks; this has massive implications for training and follow up. TQM is not a cost cutting or productivity improvement device in the traditional sense and it must not be used as such. Although the effects of a successful programme will certainly reduce costs and improve productivity, TQM is concerned chiefly with changing attitudes and skills so that culture of the organization becomes one of preventing failure- doing the right things, right first time, every time.

errors and damage rate to control its cost factor and improve its quality substantially. organization requires new approaches to survive. stressed upon the removal of defects which is in built cost in running any business. specific quality control measures to monitor quality on a routine basis. resulting in higher competitive advantage than before. Quality economic approach Business conditions are changing and evolving so as the economic environment. Organization need to control its defectives. Quality helps an organization to reduce wastage and come up with quality product or service at competitive price. which in turn lower the costs. Explain “quality economic approach” and “quality environmental approach”. Crosby suggested that by eliminating all the errors and reaching zero defects.provide a vibrant economy that affects in terms of taxation. it will not only reduce the cost but also satisfy the customers. organization are struggling to provide quality at lesser cost to gain competitive edge. The goal of quality system should be to avoid errors rather than to detect them. exchange rates . and overall development and growth.they refined the designs and manufacturing processes to produce high quality products at low cost. with the quality negligence. In this competitive environment. As high defective rates lead to high cost and vice versa. Lower costs is also a result of innovation in product design and process technology. There are various costs associated. general demand. in long term customer requirement can be meet by spending less. By reducing complexity and installing failure-prevention measures. The reduction of correction costs is recognized as a benefit which can be offset against the cost of the system. Now the question arises as how to reduce cost and get quality? The quality costs are the cost of not doing the right things right first time or the cost incurred because failure is possible Philip Crosby published in his book ―Quality is free‖. After initial investment made. there will be less spending on failure detection and correction. in fierce competitive market. The quality economical approach is to provide quality product or service at competitive prices while reducing wastage. as it reduces the cost of production . Quality is becoming prime priority for most of the organizations and implementing a quality system requires management commitment to develop a quality assurance program. gaining competitive advantage .Many Japanese companies adopted product innovation and process technologies . This embraces a variety of activities designed to ensure reliability in the first place. decreasing cost. Following are some of the quality economical aspects: Reduce Cost Cost is an important concern for organization. government spending.2. To survive and gain competitive advantage organizations need to work on its processing structure and improve its quality . Low cost can result from high productivity and high capacity utilization . interest rates. providing high customer satisfaction.Improvement in quality leads to improvement in productivity. High defectives increase not only the cost of production bust as well as customer perception.

Organizations which are capable to satisfy the customers need and provide value to them. According to the Webster‘s dictionary creativity means. Competitive advantage denotes a firm ability to achieve market superiority .creativity and innovation help organization to think out of box and bring out new solutions to various problems. It requires a lot of resources and utilization of them to gain maximum advantage and satisfy customers need better than others. and then providing signals and warning or by detecting and recognizing the error after it has occurred and then stopping the process so that no . and other important thing is the ability of an organization to win or retain customers. and the staff morale. its image or credibility.Reduce wastage The wastage increases the cost and lead to high pricing and in the competitive scenario it is difficult for organization to survive with high cost products. Now a day‘s organizations are concentrating on breakthrough thinking and encouraging bringing out quality in every dimension through new ideas and innovations. Like Poka yoke – (mistake proofing) –a method that concentrates on elimination of mistakes to avoid wastage.‘ to produce through artistic or imaginative effort‗s and innovation means doing something new or unusual ‗together they mean doing or producing ‗something new or unusual through imaginative efforts‘ . Wastages are due to mistakes and wrong process. These are various tools to gain competitive advantage: · Creativity and innovation Creativity is essential for continuous improvement in an organization. Quality approach provides the elimination of wastage at every process. Gain Competitive advantage Quality has become a key issue for companies. · Poka Yoke (mistake proofing) This method helps to avoid common human errors.To sustain in the competitive market an organization needs to perform above average. An organization absolute goal should be gaining competitive advantage through customer satisfaction .A quality system designed on people centric approach is viable. this is simple mistake –proofing process which focuses on two aspects such as predicting and recognizing that a defect is about to occur. can gain competitive advantage over their competitors. Creativity is considered as an important tool to gain competitive advantage.

or from the technology which is being developed very quickly . · Workflow optimization · Pull production These are some of the other tools to gain competitive advantage · Kaizen · Zero defects program · Benchmarking · Business Process Re-engineering · Six sigma Face Competition: Business organizations do not want competition. Right Pricing: Price is important characteristic of product . organization needs to concentrate on the quality. and rework scrap) for providing a quality product . expectations: The quality approach emphasis on quality. customers need and want are changing.further errors can be done. Provide overall economic growth: Quality provide a vibrant economy that affects in terms of taxation. previously. Reduction of costs and wastage leads to right pricing.Business could survive and gain competitive edge by providing quality.Due to high competition. Just in Time: Toyota Motor Co. . it was considered that high quality -high price . gaining competitive advantage. interest rates. an organization needs to reduce its internal costs of (sorting.People are attracted and price conscious. making profits and satisfying customer expectations. though facing competition is inevitable for most of them. with the application of Poka Yoke method mistakes can be avoided and this helps to reduce wastage and enhance quality. exchange rates and global economic factors. as the market is changing all the time. Satisfy stakeholders. government spending. The competition depends on market in which the business operates . The concept is based on three essential elements · Optimal standardization with everything measured and under control. customers are accessible to high quality at low prices . inspection.But now. Increase Market share: In a competitive business scenario gaining maximum market share is not easy . To gain competitive advantage and gain market shares. general demand.It can be from many small or large rival business or from the rapidly changing market . reducing price and cutting cost .Organization performance depends upon their customer satisfaction. in Japan has developed this Just in Time (JIT) or lean concept to improve the quality and performance in production and manufacturing. new competitors and technologies are entering market.

leads business organizations to take serious initiative to manage environment and design mode and process to achieve eco friendly system. Management of industrial health. coal. . controlling the environment as per planning and reviewing for continuous improvement and dealing with the side effects of it. Social responsibility of business organization is to keep check on issues pertaining to environment. Tata Group of Industries is one of the examples that follows eco governance. Total quality management provides a model for business excellence by advocating on environment management as a key business process to create eco. Industrial energy management 3. Facilities and capabilities is to be developed for measuring controlling and improving all environment related activities and processes by setting up effluent testing laboratories. Pollution. hygiene and safety 4. Emission of hazardous gases are depleting the ozone layer in the atmosphere and disturbing ecological imbalance. The consequences have alarmed the society. disposal tanks and treatment plants. namely air. Generation and discharge of pollutants to the environment. and to feel them motivated and inspired to act. installation of pollution controlling equipment and instruments. and petroleum etc have given impetus to growth and now with the fast depletion of resources the crisis is approaching. hygiene of people in an around the business. the township of Jamshedpur and surrounding is model of eco governance .for environment up gradation.This group has marked eco governance for superior business performance. such as. are adding to crisis. To discharge the responsibility organizations need to accomplish “Environmental Quality policy”. water. Now organizations are aware of their environmental and social responsibility and are taking various measures to safeguard environment.friendly environment and built premises of secure environment and better working condition. Organizations need to identify areas that require attention and monitor it to discharge. Quality management concentrates on the activity that lead to environment pollution directly or indirectly and causes harm to environment and health. Management of ecology and forestry2 •Identify environment realted issues •Area need to focus to sove the issue •Meausres the action to achieve the Quality management to check environmental issues Identify environment realted issues Area need to focus to sove the issue- Meausres the action to achieve the results Following are the steps to check the environmental issues: The outcry to save environment. what is to be done. water and noise pollution that is again leading to hazardous health problem and severe consequences .Quality Environmental Approach: Industrial and economic development have led to faster depletion of natural resources. The quality environmental approach emphasis organization to take accountability to society and check environmental issues by taking various steps. forestry. Measuring. organization and various other institutions. air polluting units. Proper planning and documentation is required to manage the environment quality in the company -such as. It checks the problem and consequences of the environmental issues and concentrates on the following areas 1. how and by whom. carbon and gaseous emission. Large scale usage of natural resources is not only causing depletion but also leading to wide spread air. making employees aware of the need to control and improve environment and make them understand the management commitment . People should be trained empowered and encouraged to take initiative and come up with the innovative ideas to deal with the environmental issues and improvements. waste disposal operation etc. waste or excessive noise 2.

Depicts the Principal Scopes of Different ISO-14000 Principal Standards on Environment Management System International Standards on Environment Management System: ISO-14000 Principal Standards 1.7 Illustrative examples of TQM and environment management4 Issues 1.Proper documentation. are required for implementing and developing a quality environment system. ISO-14012: Guidelines for Environment Auditing – Qualification criteria for environment auditors 7. record keeping and data control system. ISO-14011: Guidelines for Environment Auditing – Audit procedures 6. ISO-14000: Environment Management System – General guidelines 2. ISO-14010: Guidelines for Environment Auditing – General principles of environment auditing 5. ISO-14015: Guidelines for site assessments Table 2. Control of water pollution Areas of Address Measures and Actions Control of water contamination Control of water discharge Checking possible sources of contamination Measuring water quality at identified points Preventing or minimizing contamination Designing and laying discharge lines Measuring water for polluting chemicals Deciding treatment plan and process Effluent treatment of discharged water Monitoring outgoing discharge water Water sample collection plan and analysis Reporting and conformance study Improvement plans and actions Identification of sources & processes Standardization of processes to minimize particulate generation Installation of equipment and facilities for preventing particular Effluent treatment discharge water Monitoring of water quality at different outlets 2. ISO-14001: Environment Management System – Specifications with guidance for use registration authorities and third party inspection 3. ISO-14013: Guidelines for Environment Auditing – Management of environment auditing system 8. Control of air pollution Control of particulate generation . ISO-14004: Environmental Management System – General guidance on principle systems and supporting techniques 4. ISO-14014: Guidelines for environment audit review 9.

. understanding exactly what customers want and their perceptions of value is absolutely crucial to competitive success. One study has found that customers are 5 times more likely to switch because of perceived service problems than for price concerns or product quality issues. and technical support. rapid on-time and accurate delivery. Business must focus on both continually improving both the customer benefits package and improving the quality of their internal operations. They compare the total package of products and services that a company offers with the price and the competitive offerings. satisfaction and loyalty are influenced greatly by service quality. This total package influences the perception of quality and includes the physical product and its quality dimensions. the customers will rationally select the package with the highest perceived quality.discharge to air Measuring air samples at critical points for conformance and improvement 3. the organization must deliver ever. Customers no longer buy solely on the basis of price.Customer satisfaction occurs when products and services meet or exceed customer expectation. To exceed expectations. customers would generally choose the one having the lower price. If a competitor offers the same quality package of goods and services at a lower price. lower prices require lower costs if the company is to continue to be profitable. and post –sale support such as field service. Quality Improvements in operations reduce costs. How do you measure customer satisfaction? Ans:. Thus. Explain the importance of customer satisfaction with an example. If competitors offer better choices for similar price. pre-sale support such as ease of ordering. In addition to value.improving value to its customers. Energy audit & management Source of waste: Control of waste: Energy Editing : Audit of energy usage and consumption Identification of controls and improvement points Identification of methods of control Installation of control measures Measurement of data and analysis Improvement actions and monitoring Adoption of audit system Resource deployment Audit result review and corrective actions 3. integrity and the relationships that organizations build with customers. However. warranties.

The most important customer data includes comparisons with key competitors. An effective customer satisfaction measurement system results in reliable information about customer ratings of specific product and service features and about the relationship between their ratings and the customer’s likely future market behavior. Thus it is difficult to reduce these complex relationships in to a single measure. Example: 2 Nursing unit can be considered as a customer for the Laundry division in a hospital. Customer satisfaction should not be limited to externals customers only. and coaching of employees. In a typical manufacturing situation. By examining the trends in customer satisfaction measures and linking satisfaction data to its internal processes. a company can determine the status and areas for improvement. Determining and using customer satisfaction information should be viewed as a key business process. maintainability and service attributes such as attitude. It is not easy to measure and it is influenced by customer expectations and their perceptions on quality and value. It is important to keep in mind that customer satisfaction is a psychological attitude. product performance. usability. c) Failure to measure potential and former customers d) Lack of comparison with leading competitors. Analyzing and using customer feedback: It is important to use customer feedbacks to improve a company’s products and processes. on-time delivery. Measure of customer satisfaction benefits the business through: causes of dissatisfaction and failed expectations as well as drivers of delight. exception handling. Some of the reasons are: a) Poor measurement schemes b) Failure to identify appropriate quality dimensions. and overall satisfaction measures. accountability. service time. Surveys should be designed in such a way that survey results provide appropriate information to the managers for decision making.Example: 1 Manufacturing is a customer for Purchase. Customer satisfaction measures may include product attributes such as product quality. Companies commission third parties to conduct blind surveys to determine who key competitors are and how their products and services compare. Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Customer feedback is vital to a business. The company may assign the task of developing and implementing improvements identified through customer satisfaction surveys. There are number of reasons why customer satisfaction efforts fail to produce useful results. Competitive comparisons often clarify how improvements in quality characteristics are being overlooked. manufacturing (production) give the requirements to purchase who make necessary arrangements to make available the same for manufacturing. Information from internal customers and supporters also constitute to the assessment of the organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Survey Design: The purpose of the survey needs to be identified as a first step in designing surveys. titors to support planning and better strategic initiatives. . technical support and image attributes like reliability and price. ult in improvements. Feedbacks enable the company to learn how satisfied their customers are with its products and services.

such as cycle times. number of steps. The bank‘s Kaizen events all share four characteristics:     The purpose is to take a cross-functional view of the process or work area. In a traditional Kaizen project. as they are sometimes called) are improvement events where people work only on improvement for a few days. Ans:. queuing time. The team re-organizes the value stream (on paper) or creates a "should" map that depicts how the process would need to function to solve the identified problems. The project is well-defined going in because there is not time to redefine the purpose or scope. Explain Kaizen Approach to Problem Solving. work in process. The group visits each portion of the process.") The model has been so successful that this basic approach has been adapted to other uses such as service design sessions.Kaizen Approach to Problem Solving Often it was an awareness of how hard it is for people to concentrate on improvement when they keep thinking about getting their work done. number of forms. For all these reasons. and so on. various parts of the process. rework loops. The group creates a value stream map (a picture of the "as-is" situation) that captures the basic process steps. number of steps. conducting a simulation within the operations if possible. Day 2 is spent looking at the process with new eyes. A Typical Kaizen Schedule Here is a sample agenda which the bank uses for the five days: Day 1 is an afternoon spent training participants on topics that cover basic concepts related to the goals of the project. Day 4 is used to test the solutions. work in progress (WIP) and transportation time. with an example. using estimates of reductions in travel time. up to a full week.4. queuing delays. The group quantifies the improvement if the proposed changes are implemented. To some extent it was a matter of their innate respect for the people who do the work. the people from a particular work area come together with a few experts for four or five days straight and complete most or all of a DMAIC cycle on a narrowly targeted high-priority issue. they have the opportunity to hear insights from someone who works in that area. ("We need to process loan applications faster. where. The outcome includes developing action plans for implementing solutions or trial simulations for the next day. Participants are people who are directly involved in." a tour of operations affected by the problem or situation being studied where they simulate being a work item flowing through the process. years ago the Japanese inventors of the Lean improvement systems came up with a different improvement model they called Kaizen. Example of a Bank’s Use of Kaizen A major national bank started using the five-day Kaizen approach whenever it wanted to attack process speed and efficiency problems. Participants are pulled off their jobs for several days at a time. Participants do a "unit walk. . and usually responsible for. Kaizens (or blitzes. because there is cross-functional representation. The team is cross-functional. Day 3 is designed around clarifying problems and brainstorming solutions. This could include teaching relevant Lean or Six Sigma concepts and reviewing relevant data.

Random or "drive by" Kaizens. such as "How can we make information flow better?" The company takes steps to verify that the target is likely to bring important.Day 5 is when participants prepare and present their findings to the sponsor in a formal report-out session. One administrative process went from 20 minutes to 12 minutes. at best. In the many Kaizens this bank has run. This alternative Kaizen structure works well in this company because:     The company is still relying on the knowledge of the people who actually do the work. or even a subset of a work group. teams are expected only to get through the simulation and piloting of solution ideas. a Black Belt. The company starts with a narrowly defined problem or opportunity statement – often the participants may be examining how they can implement a Lean principle to their process. and establishing a control plan. Instead of having solutions up and running fullbore after five days. chosen with little forethought. Making It Work and the Results The bank makes this model work by having its internal consultants (equivalent to Master Black Belts) partner with the manager/sponsor to pick problems that are extremely high priority. Fiscal indicators have all been positive. . the goal of the event is a little more modest than a traditional Kaizen. measurable results. An Alternative Kaizen Format While consecutive days of intense work is the ideal. it has achieved results such as: Cycle-time improvements have ranged from 30 percent faster to nearly 95 percent faster. some companies have found it impossible to pull an entire work group. they and others were involved in making the changes real-time on the job. lead to local improvements. The team leader. Also. but will not contribute to significant value stream gains. Since the changes likely would affect the everyday work of the team members. measured sometimes in minutes and other times in days. One company worked around this issue by using the following structure:     The team was brought together for a brief meeting where the problem was explained and people brainstormed what they would need to know and understand in order to find solutions. This makes it much easier to justify taking people off their regular jobs. and a complaint resolution process dropped from 30 days to 8 days. The team was brought together for a day to rapidly analyze the problem and come up with complete action plans – not just ideas – for improvement. off the job for the better part of a week. may. not only for that work area but also for the business as whole. and one team member then worked offline during a period of several weeks to gather data and refine the problem definition. It is data-based decision making. One high-level project has allowed the bank to start charging for a service that previously was offered free to customers. Other projects have led to cost reductions or loss avoidance in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The internal consultant will then assist the team with full-scale implementation. New revenues are expected to total between $6 million to $9 million per year.

and the company’s own repairmen. but was unable to solve it in the United States) As a result. QA tended to gather information by auditing after the fact. shops were run by Theory Y managers. Worse. The major difference between QA and TQM is that QA was usually performed at an engineering or management level with little executive support. much of what the originators of QA developed is now included in quality planning and internal auditing. Similarly. Describe the various tasks which help to build a healthy association and partnership with the suppliers. or we might use a different method for joining parts. • Communication with vendors. • Process re-engineering. can add real value to an organization. but did not produce the transformative results that TQM did. 5. Quality Assurance Quality assurance (QA) developed in North America while TQM was developing in Japan. reducing errors. and did not reach the realization of the implications of the 1:10:100 rules as quickly as TQM did. Disrespected workers built strong unions that were very ready to strike.” By too little. if solder joints often fail in testing or too soon after delivery to the customer. as well. means that QA focused primarily on audits and defective products. which meant that it didn’t bring in rapid benefits the way that methods that focus on the earliest parts of the process can. assurance that we are using best practices and the focus on quality improvement that QA brought to the world of business. Nonetheless. QA offered many good ideas and added value. which refers to “too little” and “too late. Also. (Deming saw this problem. and workers were assumed to be slackers. rather than living with rework and scrapping. There were two reasons for this. but they were unable to convince upper management. By too late. These days. not on quality.Conclusion: Concentrating on Creativity Kaizen events are a powerful improvement tool because people are isolated from their day-to-day responsibilities and allowed to concentrate all their creativity and time on problem-solving and improvement.” QA was actively discouraged for another reason. • Evaluation of customer satisfaction and customer service information. Nonetheless. Engineers and some managers saw its value. For example. In spite of these limitations. teams have been consolidated and terms confused. If your output is somebody input. This is where we find better ways to do the work. when supported and sustained. so that knowing QA groups that do QC and QC groups that do QA. QA experts saw that many quality problems happened when there was an unclear definition of requirements across departments. will have quality problems. we might design the product to have fewer parts so that there are fewer solder joints. QA focused on production the ratio of 10 in the 1:10:100 rules more than on planning and requirements definition. The assembly line focused on productivity and efficiency. QA. • Communication across departments. service companies. people working on QA were told to “quit talking and get back to work. and then redesign it to have fewer failure points. It means that QA had too little clout. and used that to identify problems. where there is more to be gained. . Also. the quiet voice of the QA engineers and managers who saw a better way a way of cooperative improvement was lost. QC only had information from inside the factory. we should be sure to include processes of communication. QA focused on solving quality problems. Henry Ford’s methods were unchallenged in North America. QA gathered information from customers. bringing internal and vendor engineers and managers together to resolve quality problems across the supply chain were a part of QA. This is where we examine failure points of the product. Companies which use Kaizens have found they generate energy among those who work in the area being improved. and produce immediate gains in productivity and quality. In this environment of conflict. Until the difficult economic times of the 1970s. but they never talk to one another. QA does offer some distinct and useful ideas: • Product re-engineering. when productivity demands increased.

the cost of poor quality is the cost of lost opportunities for sales revenue. This is because of high level of personal interactions with the customers. Work measurement indicates how much of time an employee spends on various quality related activities. the internal failure costs in service organizations tend to be much lower for service organizations compared to manufacturing organizations. cost of poor quality is defined with a focus on the cost of key activities or processes. In some cases. Generally. there may not be any opportunity to correct the errors before delivery. either for buying better raw materials or machines or by hiring expensive skills. The standard cost is the cost incurred in an ideal situation or by following the best practice. Feigenbaum. the external failure costs like warranty and field support are less relevant compared to manufacturing. Personnel costs account for up to 60 to 75% of the total costs. Hence. quality planning. the costs related to that had already become external failure costs. The same is the case with the appraisal costs. Internal failure costs might not be as evident in services as in manufacturing. expenses. Quality costs are primarily product – oriented. Quality Costs in Service organizations: In manufacturing. Further more. the people have the perception that higher quality involves higher costs.ASSIGNMENT. Ans:. it had not attempted to categorize the costs related to quality. In some cases. Process related costs like customer service and complaints handling are critical in addition to lost customers. The quality cost for a particular activity can be calculated by multiplying the employee costs with the proportion of the time spent for that activity. Since there is a high level of customer contact during service delivery. where as in service industry it is personnel (labour) oriented. Explain the concept of “Cost of Quality” with examples. The best practice can be either . work flow planning and work automation in order to be successful in reducing the external failure costs and also to achieve customer satisfaction and retention. In this case. Differentiate between external failure cost and internal failure cost. while cost accounting had evolved to categorize the financial transactions in to revenues. By the time error has been detected. Work measurement and sampling techniques are extensively used to gather quality cost information in service organizations. Management is well served if the Quality related costs are segregated and reported so that the data can be evaluated to understand the impact of investments on quality related activities and focus better on the quality improvement activities to reduce the overall costs and enhance the profitability. This was first described by Armand V.The concept of cost of Quality (COQ) has emerged in 1950s. In this case the cost of poor quality is computed as the difference between the actual cost and the standard cost. In services. The nature of Quality costs differs from services and manufacturing organizations. The service organizations must spend a lot of money in prevention activities (prevention costs) such as employee training. The concept of Quality Costs is a means to quantify the total cost of Quality related efforts and deficiencies.Set 2 1. overheads. the cost of quality (poor service) can be calculated based on customer satisfaction data and customer retention / loyalty data.

QFD is made up of four different phases that depend on each other. process and production of a QFD study. 1989]. the accounting of quality costs for services difficult because of the intangible nature of the output. the measurable objectives are used to produce the high level design. [Group 2. This approach addresses the cost of inefficient processes. The group sessions need a good facilitator to complete the QFD successfully. Each section in HOQ is called ‗room‘. Figure 1. In general. the customer voice is used to produce the measurable objectives. The main focus of attention in QFD is the House of Quality (HOQ) in group sessions. He/she should coordinate the planning.from within the organization or from an out side organization. . Write a note on Quality function Deployment. Parts Deployment. 2. The House Of Quality The HOQ is the kernel of QFD. QFD and software development life cycle [Betts. the high level design is used to produce the methods and tools. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a Requirements Engineering approach that focuses on quality. Process and Control Planning. It is a structured and systematic representation of a product or process development. Then in the fourth phase the methods and tools are used to produce the procedures. In the first phase. It was originated in Japan in the manufacturing industry. i.e. design. and Production Planning. It is a matrix that consists of sub matrices that are related to one another. Then in the third phase. they use group sessions to build the House of Quatity. Then in the second phase. 2002] All four phases follow the same procedure. iterations: Product Planning. It is a means of producing technical requirements from the customer requirements in the production and development of a product.

3. 2.Figure 2." It represents the "what's" of the system. Technical requirements: This section lists how the company will meet the customer requirements. Customer requirements: As you can see from Figure 2. Affinity diagrams and Tree diagrams are used to structure the requirements. This is the "HOWS" of the system. It Provides customers‘ views on existing products. it is on the left side of the HOQ. the five sections of the House of Quality were identified and described in detail: 1. It focuses on negative relationships in the design. 5. This matrix uses questionnaires to elicit information. Planning Matrix: It is on the right side of the HOQ matrix. 2002] In the QFD class presentation [Group 2. It uses the prioritization matrix. This information includes:    Top-level solution-independent metrics Product/service requirements Product/service features or capabilities 4. This information is collected by QFD design team and structured using Affinity diagrams and Tree diagrams. This section documents the "voice of customer. House Of Qualitiy. Roof: This is the Correlation matrix. Relationship Matrix: It occupies the middle portion of the HOQ digram which is the largest portion. 2002]. It shows how well customer requirements are addressed by product features. . It represents the Customer Competitive Assessment. It shows how the HOWs conflict with one another This section focuses on design improvement. [Group 2. It represents the engineering characteristics or voice of the company.

1997. encouraging equal opportunities. Normally. external examining is a standards auditing procedure. In some cases. then programme-level assessments are useful tools to see to what extent such initiatives have been taken on board. four possibilities. Targets: This the final section of House of Quality matrix. audits check whether procedures are in place. in the context of quality in higher education. such as the quality audits of Finnish polytechnics undertaken by the Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council (HEEC. Audits might establish the existence of procedures or may attempt to audit their effectiveness. There are then. which usually requires an institution to specify its internal quality-monitoring procedures. integrity or standards of provision and outcomes. internal institutional audit.6. Audit may aim to ensure compliance to policy objectives or system-wide practices. It summarizes the conclusions of the planning matrix. It includes three parts:    Technical priorities (relative importance of each technical requirement) Competitive benchmarks (relative position of the existing product) Targets (engineering target values to be met by the new product design) 3. 13–14). In a sense. there is a distinction between an external and internal audit (the former by an external agency) and between an institutional audit and a sub-institutional audit. explanatory context Audit and institutional audit tend to be used interchangeably. audit is specifically targeted at improvement plans and processes. pp. List the general guidelines for carrying out a quality assurance audit. the approach to audit undertaken by the National Agency was to focus on the stated improvement agendas of institutions and explore the efficacy of improvement projects and the approach appears to have aided the development of quality awareness and quality work in the institutions (Askling. 1998). external institutional audit. if policy is focused on specific issues such as encouraging problem-based learning. codes of practice or tradition (Harvey. 1997). Audit may be to ensure conformance with regulations or procedures specified by an external body. However. the development of employability skills. What is meant by Quality Audit? Explain the importance of Quality Audit. However. developing inclusive curricula. Audits do not usually attempt to evaluate the institution as such. auditing standards. just to ensure that the institution has clearlydefined internal quality monitoring procedures linked to effective action. Audit Audit. is a process for checking that procedures are in place to assure quality. or specifically be about. Often an audit team (usually of peers) will receive documentation and visit the institution to establish the effectiveness of the stated processes via panel discussion augmented by informal conversations and observation. this is probably most effectively done at the institutional level. . including identification of responsibilities and intra-institutional communication and co-ordination of practices. 2002. For the majority of policy objectives. external subinstitutional audit and internal sub-institutional audit. Audit tends also to be shorthand for quality audit. Such processes will usually be circumscribed by established national or international protocols. In Sweden. although it might also include. such as regulations relating to examination of students.

it was not meant to imply that a university‘s teaching and learning activities are comparable with a company‘s balance sheet. by several countries. in various forms. or that they are susceptible to similar forms of analysis. Vice-Chancellor of the University of London and chairman of the CVCP‘s Academic Standards Group and of the Management Board of the Academic Audit Unit between 1990 and 1992. 1999. First. the starting point for an academic audit was. The essay shall finish with some concluding remarks. This section will be followed with an introduction to systems theory and contingency theory and how they can reconcile the dissimilarities and incompatibilities between the approaches. partly in order to distinguish academic audit from other kinds of peer reviews exercises. rather than from a conviction that a given set of procedures or an approach must be right. and partly to hint at the intended methodology that would characterize this form of external academic review. including New Zealand. of its activities associated whit teaching and learning. and the sampling of a wide range of activity and evidence. It focuses on how these approaches are similar and compatible and looks at their differences and incompatibilities. such as the scrutiny of an institution‘s documented procedures and practice. the essay shall explain the nature of the ―Classical‖ and ―Human Relations‖ approaches to management. an institution‘s stated aims and objectives and its stated means of assuring the quality. irrespective of the institutional context or an institution‘s declared aims and objectives 4.Although higher education quality audit is an approach adopted.137). The essay is structured as follows. p. This essay compares and contrasts the ―Classical‖ and ―Human Relations‖ approaches to management. Then.137). Sweden. in particular. 2001)1[1] it was initiated in the UK and is a term designed to focus on procedures rather than quality per se. The analogy with financial audit was known to be far from perfect. The 'Classical' management functions appeared at the turn of the century (Carroll and Gillan. CLASSICAL V. Australia. Webb sets out the historical genesis and intent: The term ‗audit‘ was suggested by Professor Stewart Sutherland. It then explores how systems theory and contingency theory can reconcile the incompatibilities between the approaches. Academic audit would seek to borrow and adapt some techniques from financial audit. to establish and test the robustness and effectiveness of academic quality assurance. and remains. the extermination of these in operation through detailed inquiries and discussions with staff (and students). needs and contribution of the employee.1984). classical theory's emphasis is the good of the organisation and the work. HUMAN RELATIONS Management emerged as a field of study over 100 years ago (Holt. The 'Human Relations' viewpoint came about in the 1920's and 30's (Holt. Finland Norway and the USA (Spanghel. Classical Management Classical management is a result of the early attempts to formalize principles for a growing number of . p. it will explore their similarities and dissimilarities. This approach has enjoined audit teams to bring an open. Indeed. non-prescriptive perspective to each institutional audit and to review arrangements for quality assurance agnostically. How is the „human relations theory‟ different from „classical theory‟? Human relations theory focuses on the value. 1999.

Taylor. It provides a number of requirements which an organization needs to fulfil if it is to achieve customer satisfaction through consistent products and services which meet customer expectations. ISO 9000 is a generic name given to a family of quality management standards including: ISO 9000:2005. A guidance document.Guidelines for performance improvements and continual improvement. 9001. Taylor is viewed as one of the chief contributors to the scientific branch of classical management (Bartol et al. Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925) and Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1915) are seen as two of the forefathers of classical management (Parker and Ritson. ISO 9001:2008 Quality management systems – Requirements is intended for use in any organization regardless of size. or are mandated by their government. . other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector. ISO is from the Greek word ISOS meaning "equal" ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards.professional managers (Jeliniek. administrative and bureaucratic (Bartol et al. having been set up by industry associations. (ISO 9004:2000 has further guidelines for improvement) This is the only implementation for which third-party auditors may grant certification. Many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries. Note that the previous members of the ISO 9000 series. not used for certification purposes. ISO is a it is a network of 156 national standards bodies. 2006). based in Geneva. type or product (including service). Covers the basics of what quality management systems are and also contains the core language of the ISO 9000 series of standards. 1995). Classical management is comprised of three directions to management: scientific. the approval standard. Parker and Lewis. 2006). 2005). Switzerland. The scientific management school of thought reflected an engineer's ideology of work (Parker and Lewis. Write a note on the ISO 9000 series of Quality Standards and Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Business Performance Excellence. has 5 main sections:      Quality Management System Management Responsibility Resource Management Product Realization Measurement Analysis and Improvement ISO 9004:2000 Quality management systems . ISO is a non-governmental organisation that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. This standard very specifically states that it is not intended as a guide to implementation. ISO 9001:2008. • Scientific management is the focus on the scientific study of work methods to improve worker efficiency. It includes a requirement for the continual improvement of the Quality Management System. while working as chief engineer for Midvale Steel 6. 9002 and 9003. 2005. but important reference document to understand terms and vocabulary related to quality management systems. Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary. 1995). have all been integrated into 9001.

and identify their strengths and opportunities for improvement. health care. education. The Baldrige National Quality Program and the associated award were established by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act of 1987 (Public Law 100–107). As of 2010. an agency of the U.[1] The award promotes awareness of performance excellence as an increasingly important element in competitiveness. demonstrates efficient and effective operations. and provides a way of engaging and responding to customers and other stakeholders. service. Department of Commerce.iso. 91 organizations had received the award. To receive a Baldrige Award. The program and award were named for Malcolm Baldrige. Some standards in the 10. an organization must have a role-model organizational management system that ensures continuous improvement in delivering products and/or services. and nonprofit sectors for performance excellence. capabilities. education.S.S. are available for free from the Baldrige Program:  Criteria for Performance Excellence . It is administered by the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program.000 range are considered part of the 9000 group. It also promotes the sharing of successful performance strategies and the benefits derived from using these strategies. from 1981 until Baldrige‘s 1987 death in a rodeo accident. health care. strategic focus on overall organizational quality—called performance excellence. In 2010. In addition. and results facilitating communication and sharing of information on best practices among U. competitiveness by    improving organizational performance practices. the Criteria help strengthen U. The award is not given for specific products or services Criteria for Performance Excellence The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence serve two main purposes: (1) to identify Baldrige Award recipients that will serve as role models for other organizations and (2) to help organizations assess their improvement efforts.org for details. The Baldrige Award is the only formal recognition of the performance excellence of both public and private U. who served as United States Secretary of Commerce during the Reagan administration. organizations in the business. organizations of all types serving as a tool for understanding and managing performance and for guiding planning and opportunities for learning The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence provide organizations with an integrated approach to performance management that results in    delivery of ever-improving value to customers and stakeholders. which is based at and managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. many of them not even carrying "ISO 900x" numbers. Up to 18 awards may be given annually across six eligibility categories—manufacturing. the program's name was changed to the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program to reflect the evolution of the field of quality from a focus on product. organizations given by the President of the United States. and nonprofit.S. small business.There are many more standards in the ISO 9001 series.S. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award recognizes U. service.S. which are revised every two years. contributing to organizational sustainability improved organizational effectiveness and capabilities organizational and personal learning The following three sector-specific versions of the Criteria. diagnose their overall performance management system. see http://www. and customer quality to a broader.

  Education Criteria for Performance Excellence Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence .

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