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The steel sheds is to give an intro into the materials used in all steel buildings and the common names of some of the members used. It will also lead on to other pages which go into more detail on specific items.
Sketch of a medium sized steel framed building showing the main components.
9.Portal Frame. supported on wire safety mesh. maybe just one in a small garden shed. Steel sheds . Portal frames are the basic item in all steel sheds of a certain size. 8. 3. Portal column.A detail of a warehouse type building to illustrate some of the terms used. equal angle section roof plane bracing. What happens is the structural engineer will specify the amount that the structural bolts shall be tightened to. a guy goes around with a torque wrench and tightens them up to the correct setting. When the steelwork is erected. MS flat Overlap joint of two "Z" girts Outrigger supporting last fascia purlin. Apologies once again for the crap photo. 4. 2. High tensile structural bolts connecting all members. 10. equal angle section "Z" section wall girt Cleat for girt. 7. 1. and then marks them off to show that it has been done. or huge things weighing in at many tonnes in industrial buildings. Portal Arch Or Just Portal. 6. if you could see this shot in high resolution. Universal beam "I" section Strut tie. MS angle. Insulation blanket. 5. pipe section Vertical wall bracing. . you would be able to see that all the bolts have a marking pen cross on them. but I have to keep the file size down for people with slower connections. double sided foil. You will see them. 11. Universal column "I" section Portal rafter.
They would also have a rigid connection to each other where they cross. with hold down bolts set into the wet concrete. Braces Steel Sheds -Wall brace consisting on a mild steel flat with a welded on turn-buckle for tensioning (and plumbing the portals). Rods or straps tensioned with turn-buckles. This is normal in larger type steel sheds. and the floor slab poured. There are many different ways of providing support and hold down for steel work. so I will go into it in more depth. The braces I that I have drawn in the sketch above are stiff members that can work in compression and tension. On lighter construction the bracing could take the form of flat straps screwed to the tops of the purlins (speed brace etc.Footings Footing are an integral part of the whole structure. What I have drawn here are cylindrical pier footings. Typically called cross braces. .). Straps and rods only work in tension. With the slab poured than the rest of the building is finished with a good surface to work on. • • • • • The portals keep the building rigid in a direction parallel to the portals. not just the steel framed buildings we are t we are talking about here. Bracing is a basic element of modern construction and is essential in all buildings. The main structural steelwork would then be erected. In this case the footings are drilled by machine and filled with concrete. Check out the menu on the right. To keep the building rigid in the direction at right angles to the portals we add braces. Other designs may have single ones at one end of the building and single ones at the other going in the opposite direction.
to carry the wall girts and to frame around the door. that are carrying more load. Check out the menu on the right for updates to this section. The photo above shows this. you wouldn't believe how many different types there are.Again there is a fair bit to be said about braces. the end frames consist of single "C" purlins. while the main portal frames are made from double purlins. In this case the roof surface is braced with flat straps fixed to the underside of the steel purlins. The designer in this case has added a collar tie across the top of the portal rafters. spanning the whole width. and as such they are carrying less load and many times can be made lighter. so I will go into them in more detail.Lightweight kit type prefabricated shed using double "C" section steel purlins as the portal members. Steel sheds . . For this reason the designer has chosen to place the roof bracing between the true portals (the second bay from the end). Looking at the sketch above you will see that the end walls have extra columns. This means because of the extra support then the end frames are not true portals.
On small residential jobs they are quite often site welded into position. not the least is making your own. There are quite a few points to think about regarding purlins and girts. you should know me by now. The shapes are the same. the names change depending on whether they are on the roof or the walls. Girts are horizontal members that are fixed to the vertical faces of the frames to support the The bridging pieces shown here are at mid span. Check out the menu on the right for my steel bridging page here. As the name suggests they act as struts when under compression loads and as ties when under tension. Not so. • • • Purlins are horizontal members fixed to the frame that support the roof sheeting.Sketch showing the layout of the steel purlins on the roof. The purlin and girts are made out of the same standard cold rolled sections. Steel Purlins And Girts Steel sheds . or doing without them entirely. . There are a few options. The girts to the end walls and braces etc not shown for clarity. usually 'C" or "Z" sections. so once again I have done a separate page on these brilliant items. They stiffen the purlins and stop them twisting out of shape under load. and as the jobs get larger they use bolted connections. and steel girts to the side wall.Strut Ties Strut ties join/separate the portal frames at the top. You would think that the humble bridging pieces would only take a paragraph to describe.
When I was a young journeyman I used to work for a company that made large laminated timber portal frames for churches. the end frames have additional columns added to them to support the outside wall members. It has to be fixed down rigidly. That is attached solidly to it's foundations. • • • • • • Porta is word from Latin that basically means door. which were called portal arches. the columns and the beams have to be sufficiently strong enough in themselves to resist sideways forces. It was used to refer to a gate in a Roman City. From this is derived the word Portal which in Architecture can be defined as "an impressive or monumental entrance". sufficient rigidity. Sketch of a laminated timber portal arch. "A structural framework consisting of a beam supported by two columns to which it is connected with sufficient rigidity to hold unchanged the original angles between the intersecting members". so depending on circumstances and cost the engineer might decide to make these lighter than the other true portals that are spanning the full width. The words to take note of here are. One other thing is needed for a portal frame to be stable along it's length. Portal Frame. In the photo below. which has spread to many modern languages. Another definition of portal is the structural engineer's version. These extra columns make the end frames not strictly portal frames as the columns help to share the load. .. To stop the building leaning over or racking in the width. Portal Arch Or Just Portal. which is what we are interested in here. and the connecting joints holding them together should also be able to resist those forces.
A detail of this building is on the steel sheds intro page . workshop fabricated and grit blasted and coated with zinc silicate.Industrial Type Portal Frames An industrial building under construction. The frames shown here are made out of heavy sections.
. Portal column consisting of two "C" section purlins bolted together The joints have a 10mm MS steel plate sandwiched between the "C" sections Portal rafter consisting of two "C" section purlins bolted together Fly brace. 7. without the use of a cleat welded to the rafter is not a recommended way of doing it. 6. Portal Frames A light weight frame detail using a stiffener at the column/rafter connection know as a knee brace. flat galv. 3. Kit Type. The purlin to rafter bolted connection. Stiffens the rafter Knee brace consisting of two "C" section purlins bolted together "Z" section purlin bolted direct (no cleat)through the bottom flange to the portal rafter "C" section girt bolted direct (no cleat)through the flange to the portal column Manufacturers seem to be tying to outdo each other by bringing out cheaper and cheaper version of this type of this construction. 4. 5.Light Weight. showing the top/collar tie connection. 2. these kits have almost no welded parts in there fabrication. The only parts that are welded in the above shed are the column / baseplate joint. Another detail of this building is on the steel sheds intro page. 1. Used mainly for rural storage sheds and cheap garages. strap bolted to rafter and roof purlins.
0 RHS portal frames. . The site welded joints at the column/rafter connections have the same RHS size gussets to stiffen the connection. Just about as basic as you can get. a simple carport consisting of two 125 x 75 x 5.A Simple RHS Type Portal Framed Carport A simple portal frame carport. Strut ties out of the same RHS material give stiffness the other way.
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