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The First Data on Bee Anatomy Has a Considerable Experienc1

The First Data on Bee Anatomy Has a Considerable Experienc1

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Published by: naropada on Jan 04, 2013
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03/22/2014

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The first data on bee anatomy has a considerable experience, one of the works on this topic being the

drawing of the Italian microscopist Francesco Stella. It was the bee's anatomy as was revealed under the microscope, sketch published in 1625. Later, with the development of the microscopic techniques the knowledge about the insects and about the bees were also improved , with the disadvantages related to the chitinous exoskeleton, preventing proper sectioning insects embedded in paraffin. Lately they started electron microscopy examination of the various structures, with a higher resolution. They brought major improvements such as knowledge of anatomy and physiology of bees. MATERIALS AND METHODS In an initial phase, the studies aimed possibilities of including chitinous anatomical segments by using different fixing solutions in order to produce chitin lysis to facilitate cutting them.

Various fixative solutions have been used(glacial acetic acid, Carnoy fixative, trichloroacetic acid, picric acid, acetone, absolute alcohol, Bouin's fixative, etc..) with variable terms in determining the degree of chitin lysis, which proved to be inefficient,the parts included being improper to sectioning (cutting friability and lack of integrity in tissue resulting from staining). In a later stage ,they proceeded to a careful dissection ,under the microscope,of the anatomical organs of the abdominal cavity in order to dissociate the anatomical segments present at this level to prepare it for inclusion. Processing of samples was also performed under the microscope until their inclusion in paraffin. Detailed histological examination of tissue and cellular structures, captures the structural aspects at a time. This is accomplished by using substances called fixative solutions meant to suppress vital processes and preserve the tissues as well. The parts collected were fixed in formol saline, were then prepared for inclusion in paraffin and then sectioned in series in order to capture the histological structure of organs in the abdominal cavity.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The serial sections revealed the histological structure of several organs located in the abdominal cavity. This positioning of organs in sections led to their identification, facilitating their microscopic interpretation. a) venom glands (venom sac) appear obvious, bulky-looking tube. Gland lumen cross-sectional appear anfractuos and filled with secretions; b) 1 - venom gland (cross section), Col. HE, 20x Obj c) 1 - lumen of gland; 2 - epithelial layer, 3 - muscular layer.

lumen of gland. loaded with ergastoplasma which means intense synthetic activity. 3 . showing a high pole located on the basal membrane and an apical pole filled with secretory vacuoles. no vacuoles of secretion.venom gland (cross section). Thus the presence of myofibrils in the sarcoplasm along the entire length of the muscle fiber (longitudinal section) lead to a distinctive sequence or alternation of clear .basal pole. which is the histostructural substrate of muscle contraction required for evacuating the product secretion in the lumen. Their arrangement is concentrated at the periphery of the basement membrane which appears as consisting of a fine network of reticulin fibers. The overall secretory cells form numerous folds in the glandular lumen that gives an anfractuos appearance . The apical pole of the secretory cells is intensely basophilic. Between germ cells and capsule a perigerminative space is defined.prismatic cells. consisting of capsule conjunctiva located on the periphery of the organ and internally organized as individual mass of germ cells. Basal cell cytoplasm is clear.Microscopic structure of this type of gland cross-sectioned reveals the presence of two histostructural components: .lumen of gland. isotropic disks and dark .prismatic cells. Col.Muscle component. Vacuoles with secretions also contribute to the basophilic character at this level. 2 .is presented as a devolved body. b)The ovary . Ob 40x 1 . showing a thick sarcolemma with collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Mallory. Fig. . .venom gland (cross section).anisotropic disks. Col. presenting specific organelles structure (myofibrils).The epithelial component with secretory role. in small amount. The epithelial component consists of simple columnar epithelium (prismatic) located on an evident basement membrane . Fig.apical pole. 3 . being able to say that in these cells works a functional polarity marked with a clear distribution of organelles and secretory vacuoles . The nucleus is spherical and located in the lower third of the cell showing a clear nucleolus. 3 – skeletal type striated muscle fibers. due to the content draining throughout the bee’s life. Ob 40x 1 . 4 . The lumen secretion of venom has an intense acidophilous look. The secretory epithelial cells have prismatic appearance. Striated muscle fibers are well shown histologically. The muscle component is composed of striated muscle fibers twisted in appearance. Between epithelial cells appear obvious desmosomial intercellular connections and between cells and basement membrane hemidesmosomial connections. 2 . 2 . Mallory. The sarcoplasm is grainy. Such the folds of the glandular epithelium become obvious.

show there is a strong fungal infestation of fungus hyphae through. histopathological observations in the glands in the subcuticular tergite III.fungal infestation in inter skin glands. In fig.Ovary. Fig.hemocites.cuticle. Col. 7 glandular epithelium is hypertrophied with a layout similar to epithelial cells at different heights in pseudostratified epithelium. 2 . e) .cuticle.highly acidophilous. Col.germ cells. Detailed examination (Ob 40x) shows an evident capsule consisting of collagen fibers arranged in beams. Cubic form germ cells with a spherical nucleus centrally located in the mass of germ cells appear surrounded by stroma separating ovarioles between them. cell increase under unusual layout is due to numerical cell hypertrophy. at the glandular epithelial cells appear subcuticular free hyphae penetrating the cells. Col. where. Histopathological appearance is shown in Figure 6. 6 .epithelial cells. 3 – perigerminative space. Ob 40x 1 . c)Inter -skin epithelial glands . consist of haemolymphatic proteins and a cell population consisting of hematocites. Heterogeneity of hypertrophied glandular cells (trofocite and oenocite) is exemplified by a strong protein synthesis as evidenced by the large number of nucleoli at the nuclear level.hyphae.germ cells. arranged concentrically around the atrophied ovary (Fig. 2 .Fig. HE.hyphae. Mallory. 3 . HE. The cells are arranged at different heights without the basal pole on the cuticular basal memebrane pole (assuming that this epithelium is pseudostratified being excluded). HE. The gland lumen is also a heterogeneous cell population composed of muscle fibers and a monomorphic cell population consisting of spherical cells with chromatically intense eccentric nucleus similar in shape and microscopic structure to hematocites.fungal infestation in inter skin glands. 3 .cuticle. 2 . Fig. 20x Obj 1 . 40x Obj 1 . 4 .appears as a tubular organ showing peripheral muscle layer and the internal lumen area . 5 .Ovar. Also hyphae is observed either free in the lumen as well as penetrating secretory epithelial cells. 20x Obj 1 . 7 .in some sections. 5). Col. d) Haemolymphatic tank . Fig. 2 .cuticle. Thus at level of the glandular cell nucleus it was observed a strong basophilia impregnated by the secretory vacuoles and 4-5 nucleoli at the apical pole .

4 . while the peripheral muscular structure is much finer. 12 . e)The intestine .muscular layer. The epithelium is evident with higher cellularity compared to honey stomach.epithelial cells. 10x Obj 1 . 8 -. 2 .Intestine (longitudinal section).intestinal cells. h) To internal lumen epithelial cells are disposed at different heights showing apical plasmalemma changes in appearance of cytoplasmic veils (Fig.muscle cells. 2 . 10). Highlighting arrangement and intercellular relationships in the epithelium is shown by Figure 13 in which intestinal cells have a uniform arrangement on the basal membrane.intestine (longitudinal section). Fig. 20x Obj 1 .is a big hollow section. Col.muscle.lumen. Haemolymphatic tank Col. which presents particular external peripheral muscle structure composed of muscle fibers arranged in two concentric layers of longitudinal and transverse layout. 2 . 11 . 3 .highly developed than other hollow organs.intestine (longitudinal section).lumen. 3 .epithelial cells. 13 .Muscle fibers 2 . Fig.1 . Fig. i) High waist epithelial cells have a nucleus with an obvious nucleolus. Fig.apical pole. 3 .epithelial cells. not so intense in activity in terms of protein synthesis. Col. .lumen. HE.muscular layer. HE. Col. Sounds like a storage tank and processing honey to be removed later by the concerted action of the muscle layer.s g) e) The goiter (honey stomach) . 40x Obj.haemolymph. Plasma changes appear obvious on the apical pole and also an intensely colored area which may be similar to “ corrugated plate "with a role of increasing power reabsorption at this level. HE. It can be said that there are basal cells (with regenerative role) and proper intestinal cells . 20x Obj 1 .basal pole. HE.has a totally different histological architecture than honey stomach. 40x Obj 1 . 2 . 20x lens examination observed similar characteristics to honey stomach cells in terms of changes in the apical pole plasma.Goiter (honey stomach).the exquisite muscle layer consists of an orderly succession of muscle fibers arranged longitudinally . HE. Col. with role in secreting some products needed for honey maturation produced for regurgitation. 10 .f) Fig. 3 .

) present in bee populations and relevant in terms of histopathological examination.CONCLUSIONS 1. As will be identifying histological bodies will be able to make correlations with various pathological conditions (Deficiency. bacterial. responsible. 3.. . 4. etc. In the future it is intended to increase the accuracy of the characterization and identification of abdominal organs in working bee by enzymatic and histochemical research. 2. parasitic... Histostructural characterization and early identification of abdominal hollow organs. probably in the process of activation of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms in the haemolymph. These organs are the main sections in correlation with hemo-lymphatic compartment. in conjunction with topographic arrangement have been made.

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