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drawing of the Italian microscopist Francesco Stella. It was the bee's anatomy as was revealed under the microscope, sketch published in 1625. Later, with the development of the microscopic techniques the knowledge about the insects and about the bees were also improved , with the disadvantages related to the chitinous exoskeleton, preventing proper sectioning insects embedded in paraffin. Lately they started electron microscopy examination of the various structures, with a higher resolution. They brought major improvements such as knowledge of anatomy and physiology of bees. MATERIALS AND METHODS In an initial phase, the studies aimed possibilities of including chitinous anatomical segments by using different fixing solutions in order to produce chitin lysis to facilitate cutting them.
Various fixative solutions have been used(glacial acetic acid, Carnoy fixative, trichloroacetic acid, picric acid, acetone, absolute alcohol, Bouin's fixative, etc..) with variable terms in determining the degree of chitin lysis, which proved to be inefficient,the parts included being improper to sectioning (cutting friability and lack of integrity in tissue resulting from staining). In a later stage ,they proceeded to a careful dissection ,under the microscope,of the anatomical organs of the abdominal cavity in order to dissociate the anatomical segments present at this level to prepare it for inclusion. Processing of samples was also performed under the microscope until their inclusion in paraffin. Detailed histological examination of tissue and cellular structures, captures the structural aspects at a time. This is accomplished by using substances called fixative solutions meant to suppress vital processes and preserve the tissues as well. The parts collected were fixed in formol saline, were then prepared for inclusion in paraffin and then sectioned in series in order to capture the histological structure of organs in the abdominal cavity.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The serial sections revealed the histological structure of several organs located in the abdominal cavity. This positioning of organs in sections led to their identification, facilitating their microscopic interpretation. a) venom glands (venom sac) appear obvious, bulky-looking tube. Gland lumen cross-sectional appear anfractuos and filled with secretions; b) 1 - venom gland (cross section), Col. HE, 20x Obj c) 1 - lumen of gland; 2 - epithelial layer, 3 - muscular layer.
showing a thick sarcolemma with collagen fibers and elastic fibers.anisotropic disks. Between germ cells and capsule a perigerminative space is defined. The epithelial component consists of simple columnar epithelium (prismatic) located on an evident basement membrane . The secretory epithelial cells have prismatic appearance. .prismatic cells. Mallory.lumen of gland. 2 .lumen of gland. Thus the presence of myofibrils in the sarcoplasm along the entire length of the muscle fiber (longitudinal section) lead to a distinctive sequence or alternation of clear . isotropic disks and dark . The apical pole of the secretory cells is intensely basophilic. . no vacuoles of secretion. Ob 40x 1 . Mallory. 3 . The sarcoplasm is grainy. The overall secretory cells form numerous folds in the glandular lumen that gives an anfractuos appearance . presenting specific organelles structure (myofibrils). being able to say that in these cells works a functional polarity marked with a clear distribution of organelles and secretory vacuoles . 3 . Col. 2 . The muscle component is composed of striated muscle fibers twisted in appearance. Col. Ob 40x 1 .prismatic cells. b)The ovary . showing a high pole located on the basal membrane and an apical pole filled with secretory vacuoles.Microscopic structure of this type of gland cross-sectioned reveals the presence of two histostructural components: . Their arrangement is concentrated at the periphery of the basement membrane which appears as consisting of a fine network of reticulin fibers. consisting of capsule conjunctiva located on the periphery of the organ and internally organized as individual mass of germ cells.is presented as a devolved body. Such the folds of the glandular epithelium become obvious.Muscle component. The lumen secretion of venom has an intense acidophilous look. loaded with ergastoplasma which means intense synthetic activity. Between epithelial cells appear obvious desmosomial intercellular connections and between cells and basement membrane hemidesmosomial connections. which is the histostructural substrate of muscle contraction required for evacuating the product secretion in the lumen.venom gland (cross section). Fig. The nucleus is spherical and located in the lower third of the cell showing a clear nucleolus. Fig. Vacuoles with secretions also contribute to the basophilic character at this level. 4 .The epithelial component with secretory role. in small amount.basal pole. 3 – skeletal type striated muscle fibers.venom gland (cross section). Basal cell cytoplasm is clear. 2 . due to the content draining throughout the bee’s life.apical pole. Striated muscle fibers are well shown histologically.
2 .fungal infestation in inter skin glands. Histopathological appearance is shown in Figure 6. 6 . Col. e) . at the glandular epithelial cells appear subcuticular free hyphae penetrating the cells. 2 .cuticle.germ cells. 3 . c)Inter -skin epithelial glands .appears as a tubular organ showing peripheral muscle layer and the internal lumen area . 2 . Heterogeneity of hypertrophied glandular cells (trofocite and oenocite) is exemplified by a strong protein synthesis as evidenced by the large number of nucleoli at the nuclear level. Ob 40x 1 . 3 . arranged concentrically around the atrophied ovary (Fig. Mallory. 7 glandular epithelium is hypertrophied with a layout similar to epithelial cells at different heights in pseudostratified epithelium. 20x Obj 1 .hyphae. Cubic form germ cells with a spherical nucleus centrally located in the mass of germ cells appear surrounded by stroma separating ovarioles between them.Fig. histopathological observations in the glands in the subcuticular tergite III.germ cells.fungal infestation in inter skin glands.cuticle. Fig. Col. d) Haemolymphatic tank .epithelial cells. The gland lumen is also a heterogeneous cell population composed of muscle fibers and a monomorphic cell population consisting of spherical cells with chromatically intense eccentric nucleus similar in shape and microscopic structure to hematocites. Col.highly acidophilous.cuticle. Fig. Detailed examination (Ob 40x) shows an evident capsule consisting of collagen fibers arranged in beams. Thus at level of the glandular cell nucleus it was observed a strong basophilia impregnated by the secretory vacuoles and 4-5 nucleoli at the apical pole . 5 . 40x Obj 1 . 4 . In fig. Fig. Col. cell increase under unusual layout is due to numerical cell hypertrophy. show there is a strong fungal infestation of fungus hyphae through. 20x Obj 1 .Ovary. HE. HE.Ovar. consist of haemolymphatic proteins and a cell population consisting of hematocites. 2 . HE. 3 – perigerminative space. 5). The cells are arranged at different heights without the basal pole on the cuticular basal memebrane pole (assuming that this epithelium is pseudostratified being excluded). Also hyphae is observed either free in the lumen as well as penetrating secretory epithelial cells.hemocites. where. 7 .in some sections.cuticle.hyphae.
3 . Sounds like a storage tank and processing honey to be removed later by the concerted action of the muscle layer.intestine (longitudinal section). i) High waist epithelial cells have a nucleus with an obvious nucleolus. 2 . 4 .muscular layer. 2 .muscle cells. 10 . 3 .intestinal cells.haemolymph. Col. 2 . Col. 20x Obj 1 . 40x Obj. 10). 10x Obj 1 .intestine (longitudinal section).1 .epithelial cells.s g) e) The goiter (honey stomach) . HE.lumen.muscle. 3 . Col.lumen. HE. 12 . 40x Obj 1 .apical pole. Fig.highly developed than other hollow organs.the exquisite muscle layer consists of an orderly succession of muscle fibers arranged longitudinally . while the peripheral muscular structure is much finer.Intestine (longitudinal section). Fig. with role in secreting some products needed for honey maturation produced for regurgitation. HE. not so intense in activity in terms of protein synthesis. 11 .muscular layer. The epithelium is evident with higher cellularity compared to honey stomach. e)The intestine . . Fig. 8 -.epithelial cells. Fig.has a totally different histological architecture than honey stomach. HE. Highlighting arrangement and intercellular relationships in the epithelium is shown by Figure 13 in which intestinal cells have a uniform arrangement on the basal membrane. 20x lens examination observed similar characteristics to honey stomach cells in terms of changes in the apical pole plasma. HE.epithelial cells. 20x Obj 1 .basal pole. Plasma changes appear obvious on the apical pole and also an intensely colored area which may be similar to “ corrugated plate "with a role of increasing power reabsorption at this level.lumen. which presents particular external peripheral muscle structure composed of muscle fibers arranged in two concentric layers of longitudinal and transverse layout. 13 .f) Fig. 3 .Goiter (honey stomach). It can be said that there are basal cells (with regenerative role) and proper intestinal cells . Col. h) To internal lumen epithelial cells are disposed at different heights showing apical plasmalemma changes in appearance of cytoplasmic veils (Fig.Muscle fibers 2 . 2 .is a big hollow section. Haemolymphatic tank Col.
Histostructural characterization and early identification of abdominal hollow organs. probably in the process of activation of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms in the haemolymph. 4. 2. In the future it is intended to increase the accuracy of the characterization and identification of abdominal organs in working bee by enzymatic and histochemical research. These organs are the main sections in correlation with hemo-lymphatic compartment.. bacterial. As will be identifying histological bodies will be able to make correlations with various pathological conditions (Deficiency.. parasitic. in conjunction with topographic arrangement have been made. etc. responsible.. . 3.CONCLUSIONS 1.) present in bee populations and relevant in terms of histopathological examination.
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