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Earth Magnetism_WH Campbell

Earth Magnetism_WH Campbell

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Sections

  • P, Molecules
  • Ions and Current
  • Vistas of Lives in the Fields
  • 2.1.2 Magnetic Rocks
  • 2.1.3 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift
  • 2.1.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration
  • 2.1.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust
  • 2.1.6 Biomagnetism
  • 2.1.7 Medicine
  • 2.1.8 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev)
  • 2.1.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology
  • Destruction in Space
  • Interference with Communication and Navigation
  • 2.1.10 Field Induction Responses
  • Earth Conductivity
  • Electric Power Systems
  • Long-Wire Communications
  • Pipeline Corrosion
  • J2.2J Tour to the Boundaries
  • 2.2.1 Establishing Significance
  • D, Statistical Sampling
  • D, Correlation
  • D, Cause and Effect
  • Double Blind
  • Modeling
  • 2.2.2 Magnetic Correlations
  • =, Weather and Climate
  • Human Responses to Magnetic Fields
  • 2.2.3 Pseudoscience, Old Wives' Tales, and Frauds
  • I, Magnetic Termites
  • P, Body Magnets
  • =, Water Improvement
  • Water Witching or Divining
  • Focusing of Lightning
  • 3,2.1 Magnetic Poles Galore
  • 3.2.2 IGRF Main Field Poles
  • 3.2.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles
  • 3.2.4 Two Eccentric Axis Poles
  • 3.2.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles
  • 3.2.6 Satellite Evidence of Poles
  • 13.31 A Space of Quiet Fields
  • 3.5.2 Solar Quiet, Sq
  • 3.5.3 Induction
  • 3.5.4 Sectors
  • Umbrella for Magnetic Storms
  • i4' 1 Disturbances in Sight
  • 4.1.1 On the Sun
  • Glamorous Display
  • Kp Index
  • Harvesting the Fields
  • 5.1.2 Modern Field Recording
  • 5.1.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems
  • =, Soda-Bottle Magnetometer
  • Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor

It is in the nature of electromagnetic (em) fields that for every changing mag-
netic field there is a corresponding changing electric field. Geomagnetic
storms always include a great portion of rapid magnetic field variations that
are seen at all latitude locations. The equivalent electric fields induced in the
ground are called Earth Currents. For those readers who are adept at electron-
ics, a simple detector of the storm-time Earth-current electric field pulsations
can be constructed (Figure 5.5) for measurements in an area that is far from
city electrical noises.

About 2 square feet (0.19 square meters) of thin lead sheeting (used in
roofing) is sufficient for a ground probe. In typical soil, two probes, separated
by about 200 feet (61 meters) or more, can sense the natural field pulsations as
voltages of about 0.1 millivolt. That is about equivalent to a 30-second mag-
netic field pulsation reaching approximately 0.05 gamma (for most locations).
Doubling the probe separation will double the sensitivity. Stout plastic-coated
copper wire is soldered to the probes and connected to a recorder. The probes
are buried approximately 1-foot (0.3 meters) deep into the ground and covered
with mud (to insure full contact to the ground probe). A steady but adjustable

Far

Reversing

Groun d Probe

Variable Resistor
...... _~ _ _ Switch

Variable
Resistor

Battery

Near

Ground Probe

Resistor

To

Recording
Meter

FIGURE 5.5 I~ The design for an Earth-current system used to measure the electric
field counterpart of storm-time geomagnetic field pulsations.

128

Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

bucking voltage from a battery is needed in the circuit to offset any steady
voltage difference that may arise between the probes. The necessary variable
resistors, switch, a small battery, amplifiers, and recorders can be purchased
at most electronics stores.

1.5.21 Scientists at Work

Geomagnetism research continues to grow with the need for information about
the composition of our Earth and a need for satellite operation in the upper at-
mosphere and space about the Earth. Let us now examine a few examples of
recent work.

5.2.1 Dipole Field Patterns

Concern about the damage to satellites that travel in the region of the South
Atlantic-South American anomaly (Figure 2.20) has led scientists to consider
various ways to depict the Earth's field in that special region. Using the 1995
IGRF field model data, one researcher compared the field patterns for two
dipole fields: the dipole centered with the Earth but tilted as with the geo-
magnetic coordinate poles (Section 3.2.3, p. 78) and the eccentric axis dipole
(Section 3.2.4, p. 80). The purpose was to see which display best illustrated
the main field patterns in the anomaly region. Comparing the results in Fig-
ure 5.6 with Figure 2.21, it is obvious that the field from the eccentric axis
poles depicts the anomaly region best.

5.2.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary

It has been established that the Earth's main field arises from currents within
the Earth's interior. This fact encourages scientists to try to model these mo-
tions from the observed surface fields, using information on the Earth's struc-
ture and the physics of electromagnetism. The models are then matched to
the well-known large Earth features such as subduction zones and mid-ocean
ridges. One such model is depicted in Figure 5.7.

5.2.3 Magnetotellurics

Surveys are made of the magnetic and electric pulsation fields whose pen-
etration into the conducting Earth depends on the frequency of the source
fields and the conducting properties of the interior region. Geophysicists use
these surveys to delineate the resistivity of the Earth's crust to depths of about
100 km (63 miles). Using special mathematical modeling of the measure-

Section 5.2 Scientists at Work

129

90 --,

60

30

"0

=

0

--I

-30

-60

-90

50000

90

-180

-120

-60

0

60

120

180

Longitude

60

30

I0
,l,a

=

0

m
_I

-30

,"56000

-60

-90

I

=

=

I

=

=

I

=

=

I

=

=

!

=

=

!

=

t

i'

-180

-120

-60

0

60

120

180

Longitude

FIGURE 5.6 I~ Top figure shows the surface field obtained from an Earth-centered,
tilted dipole. The bottom figure shows the surface field obtained from the eccentric axis
dipole. Both were computed from the 1995 IGRF model. The total field contours are in
gammas (nanoteslas). Note the better representation of the South Atlantic-South
American anomaly by the eccentric dipole. Figure from J. R. Heirtzler of GSFS/NASA.

ments taken along a fixed line on the surface, the scientists can produce a
two-dimensional (2D) profile of the substructure. Figure 5.8 illustrates the
results of one recent survey that was made for the purpose of understanding
the source of local earthquakes.

130

Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.7 I~ This Earth-interior horizontal fluid velocity at the core-mantle boundary
(CMB) was computed for the year 2000 from the nondipole components of the most
recent IGRE Shading (scale to the right in 10 -3 cm/sec) represents the motion speed and
the direction is given by the arrows. Continental outlines indicate the compared Earth
crust locations. Figure from J. Quinn of USGS.

5.2.4 Polar Sector Currents

The reaction of our magnetosphere to the arrival of solar wind depends on
the wind's particle composition and speed, as well as the direction of its ac-
companying magnetic fields. An interaction of a solar wind field toward (T)
and away (A) from the Sun (see Section 3.5.4, p. 94) with the downstream
magnetospheric tail boundary causes a change in the 24-hr component phase
(Figure 3.20) of the vertical field component at the polar regions. Using a
chain of observatories, it was possible to establish the equivalent polar iono-
spheric current system behavior (Figure 5.9) in the polar regions at low activ-
ity times. The researchers have found that the appearance time of the major
polar current vortex shifts regularly with the toward and away sectors.

5.2.5 Dst Storm Index

Scientists are concerned with the local accuracy of the representation of geo-
magnetic storms by the Dst index. Using records from a 1990 longitude
line of stations through central Australia (from Darwin to Port Augusta) to-
gether with the permanent observatories near the four corners of that coun-
try, the differences between the Australian recorded fields and the index were

Section 5.2 Scientists at Work

131

FIGURE 5.8 I~ This cross section is a two-dimensional model of transverse magnetic
mode magnetotelluric (MT) data from a profile across the Olympic Peninsula of western
Washington state. MT soundings were obtained at the numbered locations. The west end
of the profile is near the coastline and the east end terminates on the west side of Puget
Sound at Bremerton. The main focus of this MT profile was the study of the thick mafic
rocks, which occur here and which have been found in other MT studies to have
resistivities of 150-2000 ohm-meters. The release of tectonic stresses within the mafic
rocks gives rise to numerous small earthquakes (shown by black dots) that are
concentrated in the mafic rocks at depths of 10-20 km. More conductive rocks of less than
100 ohm-meters in the cross section are related to Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary
rocks. Intermediate values of resistivity may be related to some of the mafic rocks and to
interfingered mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks. Figure from Dal Stanley of USGS.

determined (Figure 5.10). The storm fields throughout that country were quite
similar in appearance; thus, they were not due to local anomalies. There were
often large local storm field differences from the index.

5.2.6 Pulsations

The curious and beautiful (to scientists) resonances that appear as pulsations
in the field are continually studied to establish what exact particle and field

conditions in space are responsible for their generation. Both the Pi and Pc

geomagnetic pulsations (Section 4.1.6, p. 119) occur at magnetospherically
disturbed times; let us look at one way these fields are analyzed and how
similar they appear at conjugate locations.

When rapid variations of the geomagnetic field are studied, it is typical

to carry out a spectral analysis. That means the data are investigated for the
intensity of field at different periods (or frequencies) of the oscillations. Fig-
ure 5.11 shows the simultaneous appearance of a spectral analysis of pulsa-

tions that arrive at conjugate (opposite ends of an Earth field line) high-latitude

stations. In this figure, the vertical axis represents frequency in cycles per sec-

132

Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

TOWARD

12

AWAY
12

14 ~

~

10

',,\

45_" 6

18

6

22

2

0

FIGURE 5.9 9 The view looking down on the Northern Hemisphere geomagnetic pole
shows the quiet-time field variations (in local time) as if they came from ionospheric
currents. There is a shift in position of this polar current system vortex depending on
whether the field attending the wind of plasma from the Sun is directed toward (T) or
away (A) from the Sun as it arrives at the magnetosphere. Note the difference in position
of the vortex center of approximately 2.5 hours in local time for the two conditions. These
polar fields are responding to the interaction of the solar wind with the tail region of the

magnetosphere.

ond; the horizontal axis represents the time in hours, and darkening represents
the amplitude (natural signal strength) of the pulsations at each frequency.

15.3[ Track and Field Records

Most middle-size and large countries of the world operate permanent observa-
tories where measurements of magnetic field changes are preserved in digital
(electronic number storage) or analog (amplitude-time recording) form. To-
day, there are about 100 major magnetic observatories worldwide that share
information (Figure 5.12).
Special calibration techniques verify the record accuracy before distribu-
tion. By international agreement, duplicate records are archived at six World
Data Centers, so that scientists and students can use the global magnetic in-
formation for field modeling, chart preparation, and solar-terrestrial distur-
bance investigation. Approximately 70 world observatories cooperate in an
advanced observatory system called INTERMAGNET, which uses satellites
for relaying 1-minute digitized magnetic field values in "real-time" (delayed
by less than I hr) to several special, globally distributed collection points.

Section 5.3 Track and Field Records

133

150

9 .

"~"

~

OAR

E

GNA DYW CTA

==E100 ~-

~

TCK

|

~

LRM MTD CNB

=

50

2

i

.......

,

......

!

.......

,,

,,,

,,

.......

|

.......

|

.......

i

.......

0

10

7O

50

20

30

40

50

60

Hours from start of storm day

-50 E
E

t~

O~

-100 ~
(/)
l::l

-150

80

FIGURE 5.10 I~ For a geomagnetic storm recorded at nine magnetic field
observatories, consisting of five along a longitude line through central Australia from
Darwin to Port Augusta and four standard observatories near the corners of the country
(see station code letters at the upper right of the figure), field differences were determined.
These differences represent the H field components (from which the Sq quiet fields were
removed) minus the Dst index values (adjusted for the observatory latitude with the
division by the cosine of that latitude). Note the similarity of the overlaid station values
and their significant amplitudes with respect to the Dst (plotted below the group).

Three World Data Centers are particularly active in collecting geomag-
netic data from the observatories in Figure 5.12 and in providing convenient
methods for user access to the archives"

9 In the United States- World Data Center A, NGDC/NOAA, mailstop
EGC2, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328, USA; tel: 1-
303-297-6761; fax: 1-303-497-6513; e-mail: info@ngdc.noaa.gov

9 In Russia: World Data Center B, Academy of Sciences of Russia,
Molodezhnaya 3, Moscow 117 296, RUSSIA; tel" 7-095-930-1762 or
-5619, fax: 7-095-930-5509

9 In Japan: World Data Center C2, Data Analysis Center for Geomag-
netism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto Uni-
versity, Kyoto 606-8502, JAPAN; tel: 81-75-753-3929, fax" 81-75-722-
7884.

134

Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

FIGURE 5.11 I~ The field pulsation similarity at the conjugate high-latitude
observatories of Baie St. Paul, Quebec, Canada, and Eights Station, Antarctica. Spectral
displays for Pc pulsations (dark regions of limited frequency content) are illustrated.
Local background noise appears as full vertical grey lines. Calibration harmonics near
1130 at Quebec appear on the record. The frequency scale is given to the left in cycles per
second (Hz). The horizontal axis shows midnight to midday hours (0 to 13) at 75 ~ West
Meridian Time.

15.41 Space Weather Disturbance Scales

In an effort to tie the geophysical measurements of the solar-terrestrial en-
vironment to the possible disturbance levels that could impact the livelihood
of people on Earth, the NOAA Space Environment Center has recently de-
vised three tables of five severity categories. These tables separate geomag-

netic field effects, energetic particle damage, and ionospheric radiowave dis-

turbances into three independent groups dividing the minor to extreme activity

into five categories. These scales (Tables 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3) are used in provid-

ing the public forecasting and warning notices of global interest.

15.51 Information Kiosk

For those who would like to explore recent geomagnetic records and indices,

there are several websites on the Internet that you can browse:

Section 5.5 Information Kiosk

135

FIGURE 5.12 I~ Major geomagnetic observatories are distributed throughout the world.
Each has a three-letter code name for identification. Most observatories share their
magnetic records by contributing copies to the World Data Centers located in those
nations willing to fund their operations. Figure provided by the Geomagnetism Section,
USGS.

9 Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Kyoto University, Japan: http://
swdcd b. kugi. kyoto-u, ac.jp

9 Geomagnetism Group British Geological Survey, UK: http://ub.nmh.

ac.uk

9 Geomagnetism Section U.S. Geological Survey, USA: http://geomag.

usgs.gov

9 Geophysical Institute University of Alaska, USA: http://maxwell.gi.
alaska.edu

9 National Geophysical Data Center NOAA, USA: http://www.ngdc.
noaa.gov--select Solid Earth Geophys/magnetics

Several geostationary satellites, at a distance of about 6 Re over fixed lo-
cations of the Earth, and a special solar observer satellite (about 235 Re away
in the Earth-Sun line, where various gravitational and centrifugal forces on

TABLE 5.1 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Geomagnetic Storms

t~

Category

Effect a

Scale Descriptor

Physical
measure b

Average frequency
(1 cycle = 11 years) c

G5 Extreme

G4

Severe

G3

Strong

G2 Moderate

G1

Minor

Power systems: grid systems can collapse and transformers experience damage.
Spacecraft operations extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink/downlink and
tracking satellites.
Other systems: pipeline currents reach hundreds of amps, HF (high frequency) radio propagation
impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation degraded for days, low-frequency
radio navigation out for hours, and the aurora seen as low as the equator
Power systems: possible voltage stability problems, portions of grids collapse and protective
devices trip.
Spacecraft operations: experience surface charging and tracking problems, orientation problems
need corrections.
Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures, HF radio propagation sporadic,
satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and the
aurora seen as low as the tropics.
Power systems: voltage corrections required, false alarms triggered on protection devices, and
high "gas-in-oil" transformer readings likely.
Spacecraft operations: surface charging on satellite components, increased drag on satellite, and
orientation problems need corrections.
Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems, HF radio
intermittent, and the aurora seen as low as mid-latitudes.
Power systems: high-latitude power systems affected.
Spacecraft operations: corrective actions required by ground control; changes in drag affect orbit
predictions
Other systems: HF radio propagation fades at higher latitudes, and the auroraseen as low as 50 degrees.
Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations.
Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations
Other systems: the aurora seen at high latitudes (60 degrees); migratory animals begin to be affected.

gp=9

Kp=8,

including
a9-

rp=7

rp=6

rp=5

4 per cycle
(4 days per cycle)

100 per cycle

(60 days per cycle)

200 per cycle
(130 days per cycle)

600 per cycle
(360 days per cycle)

1700 per cycle
(900 days per cycle)

"o

o

t.,rl

"I"

<
r

ct~

~r

a Some or all of these effects are possible.
bgp values (may change to use other measures, such as DST, as basis) determined every 3 hours.
CNumber of storm events when Kp level was met (number of storm days).

"11

,m~

m

Q.
W

TABLE 5.2 I~

Category

Scale Descriptor

NOAA Space Weather Scale: Solar Radiation Storms

Effect a

Physical
measure b

Average frequency
(1 cycle = 11 years) c

$5

Extreme

$4

Severe

$3

Strong

$2 Moderate

$1

Minor

Biological: unavoidable high radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA (extra-vehicular activity);
high radiation levels to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately
100 chest x-rays).
Satellite operations loss of some satellites, memory impacts cause loss of control, serious noise
in image data, star-trackers unable to locate sources; permanent damage to solar panels.
Other systems: No HF (high frequency) communications possible in the polar regions, and
position errors make navigation operations extremely difficult.
Biological: unavoidable radiation hazard to astronauts on EVA; elevated radiation exposure
to passengers and crew in commercial jets at high latitudes (approximately 10 chest x-rays).
Satellite operations: memory device problems, noise on imaging systems, star-trackers cause
orientation problems, and solar panels degraded.
Other systems: blackout of HF radio communications through the polar cap and increased
navigation errors over several days.

Biological: radiation hazard avoidance recommended for astronauts on EVA; passengers and crew
in commerical jets at high latitudes receive low-level radiation (approximately 1 chest x-ray).
Satellite operations: likely single-event upsets, noise in imaging systems, permanent damage to
exposed components/detectors, and decrease of solar panel currents.
Other systems: degraded HF radio propagation through the polar cap and navigation position errors.
Biological: none.
Satellite operations: infrequent single-event upsets.
Other systems: small effects on HF propagation through the polar cap and navigation at the
polar cap impacted.
Biological: none.
Satellite operations: none.
Other systems: minor impacts on HF radio in the polar regions.

10 5

104

103

102

10

Fewer than i per cycle

3 per cycle

10 per cycle

25 per cycle

50 per cycle

8'
3

m

m,

o

..~

o
w

a Some or all of these effects are possible.

bFlux level of > 10 MeV particles (ions). Flux levels are 5 min averages. Flux in particles: s-lster-lcm -2.
CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days; these events can last more than one day).

_..t

",4

TABLE 5.3 I~ NOAA Space Weather Scale: Radio Blackouts

_...t

Category

Effect a

Scale Descriptor

Physical
measure b

Average frequency
(1 cycle = 11 years) c

R5

Extreme

R4

Severe

R3

Strong

R2 Moderate

R1

Minor

HF Radio: Complete HF (high frequency) radio blackout on the entire sunlit side of the Earth

lasting for a number of hours. No HF radio contact with mariners or en route aviators.
Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals used by maritime and general aviation systems
experience outages on the sunlit side of the Earth for many hours, causing loss in positioning.
Increased satellite navigation errors in positioning for several hours on the sunlit side of Earth,
which may spread into the night side.

HF Radio: HF radio communication blackout for one to two hours on most ofthe sunlit side

of Earth. HF radio contact lost during this time for mariners and en route aviators
Navigation: Outages of low-frequency navigation signals cause increased error in positioning for
mariners and general aviators for one to two hours. Minor disruptions of satellite navigation
possible on the sunlit side of Earth.

HF Radio: Wide area blackout of HF radio communication signals, loss of radio contact for mariners

and en route aviators for about an hour on sunlit side of Earth.
Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for about an hour, affecting maritime
and general aviation positioning.

HF Radio: Limited blackout of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side, loss of radio contact

for tens of minutes for mariners and en route aviators.
Navigation: Degradation of low-frequency navigation signals for tens of minutes affecting maritime
and general aviation positioning.

HF Radio: Weak or minor degradation of HF radio communication signals on sunlit side, occasional

loss of radio contact for mariners and en route aviators.
Navigation: Low-frequency navigation signals degraded for brief intervals affecting maritime
and general aviation positioning.

X20
(2 x 10 -3)

X10
( 10 -3)

X1
( 10 -4)

M5

(5 • lO -5)

M1

(10 -5 )

Less than 1 per cycle

8 per cycle

(8 days per cycle)

175 per cycle

(140 days per cycle)

350 per cycle
(300 days per cycle)

2000 per cycle

(950 days per cycle)

O

"(3

,.-i.

t'D
O'1

-r

<
tD
ta

m,

~r

a Some or all of these effects are possible.
bGOES X-ray peak brightness by class and by flux (flux, measured in the 0.1--0.8 nm range, in Wm-2).
CNumber of events when flux level was met (number of storm days).

-rl

r
o.

Section 5.6 Directions for Further Travel

139

the satellite are appropriately balanced) collect particle, magnetic field, and
radiation information to monitor the space environment. Such data, together
with measurements from solar and magnetic observatories, are used by Space
Environment Forecast Centers around the world to warn nations of the solar-
terrestrial storms that impact modern life.
Information about the recent (and past) disturbances in the space environ-
ment between the Sun and the Earth can be explored atthe following websites:

9 Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, USA: http://www.pfrr.

alaska.eOu/--~pfrr/AURORA/INDEX.HTML; also http://www.doc3.
gi.alaska.edu

9

Goddard Space Fright Center, NASA, USA: http://sohowww.nascom.
nasa.gov/gallery/LASCO; also http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry;
also http://www.spaceweather.com; also http://www-spof.gsfc.
nasa.gov/Education/Intro.html

9 IPS Radio and Space Services, Sydney, Australia: http://www.ips.gov.

all

9 Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, USA: http://uvisun.msfc.nasa.
gov/UVI/current_image.html

9 Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division NGDC/NOAA, USA: http://www.
ngdc. noaa. g ov/$tp/stp, html

9 Space Environment Center, NOAA, USA: http://www.sec.noaa.gov

Crustal magnetic anomaly maps and global charts of the latest field models
can be obtained from:

9 Map and Book Sales, U.S. Geological Survey, Mailstop 306, Box 25286
Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA; fax: 1-303-202-4693;
e-mail: info.services @ usgs.gov

15.61

Directions for Further Travel

For readers who desire a more detailed presentation of the field of geomag-
netism and related phenomena I have listed below (with comments) several
recommended books, in the order of their original publication date.

9 W. Gilbert, De Magnete, 1600, English translation in 1893 by P.E Mat-
telay, republication by Dover Publications, New York, 368 pp., 1958.
Dover should be complimented for reproducing this historical gem as a
paperback, with copies of all the original Gilbert diagrams.

140

Chapter 5 Harvesting the Fields

9 S. Chapman and J. Bartels, Geomagnetism, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, 2 vols., 1050 pp., 1940. This classic, first modern textbook
about the Earth's fields is still valuable for its historical information,
detailed references, and thorough description of analytical methods. It
was last republished in 1951.

9 S. Matsushita and W.H. Campbell, eds., Physics of Geomagnetic Phe-
nomena, Academic Press, New York, 2 vols., 1398 pp., 1967. Numer-
ous specialists contributed to this excellent coverage of the subject at
the beginning of the space age. The fundamentals of magnetism are
beautifully explained by the best authorities of the time.

9 R.H. Eather, Majestic Lights, the Aurora in Science, History, and the
Arts, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 323 pp., 1980.
A delightful book that attracts both the nonscientist and the special-
ist readers with its broad historical coverage, auroral descriptions, and
beautiful illustrations.

9 W.D. Parkinson, Introduction to Geomagnetism, Scottish Academic
Press Ltd., Edinburgh, 433 pp., 1983. A fine, compact yet complete,
graduate-student-level textbook of geomagnetism. Although the space
magnetism presentation is inadequate, the author provides an excellent
exposition of the basic mathematics necessary for all geomagnetic field
studies.

9 J.D.A. Piper, Paleomagnetism and the Continental Crust, Open Univer-
sity Press, Milton Keynes Pub., 434 pp., 1987. Don't let the older date
discourage your selection of this wonderfully written book on paleo-
magnetism.

9 J.A. Jacobs, ed., Geomagnetism, 4 vols., Academic Press, New York,
2545 pp., 1987-1991. The best (but most expensive) comprehensive
textbook on all aspects of geomagnetism with all subtopics contributed
by reliable research specialists.

9 W.D. Stacy, Physics of the Earth, Brisbane Brookfield Press, Brisbane,
513 pp., 1992. Although our subject is only a small part of this book,
to properly understand geomagnetism a student needs to appreciate the
physics of our Earth environment (presented so well in this book).

9 J.D. Livingston, Driving Force, the Natural Magic of Magnets, Har-
vard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 311 pp., 1996. An
up-to-date, beautifully written, thorough review of the technology, ap-
plication, and history of magnets.

Section 5.6 Directions for Further Travel

141

9 R.T. Merill, M.W. McElhinny, and EL. McFadden, The Magnetic Field
of the Earth: Paleomagnetism, the Core, and the Deep Mantle, Aca-
demic Press, San Diego, 531 pp., 1996. Written by well-respected re-
searchers, this detailed book covers the sources and applications of the
Earth's internal field.

9 W.H. Campbell, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge, 304 pp., 1997. My own compact but compre-
hensive textbook, with many illustrations, for students and researchers
who are entering the study of geomagnetic fields and have some capa-
bility with mathematical equations.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Index

Activity

index, 60, 106
values, 118
Addresses, 133-139
AE (Auroral Electrojet) index, 115, 116
Aeromagnetism, 37
charts, 39
map, 148
oil discovery, 82
surveys, 38
Agonic line, 4
Airport magnetometer, 25
Alaskan north-slope oil fields, 38
Analysis epoch, 75
Ap (Equivalent Daily Amplitude) index, 117
Apollo space craft, 46
Archaeomagnetism, 35, 39
Archeological formations, 39
Archimedes spiral, 101
angle, 102
Archives, 133
Asteroid, 39
Atmosphere

lower, 20, 45
temperature, 56
upper, 8, 17, 21, 40

Atomic

number, 18
weight, 18

Atoms, 18-19
Auroral

displays, 20
electrojet current, 90, 109, 110
oval, 84, 109
zone, 17, 106, 109, 113
magnetic observatories, 116

Aurora, 17, 22

Australis (Southern Lights), 17, 105
bombarding particles, 90
Borealis (Northern Lights), 105
high-latitude, 84
pulsating, 119

Baie St. Paul, Qu6bec, 134
Bar magnet, 14, 15, 70, 123, 125
Bartels, Julius, 8
Bermuda Triangle, 65
Big Dipper, 2
Biomagnetism, 41-42
correlations, 59
Blakemore, R., 42
Body magnets, 61-63
Books, 139-141
Bowshock, 102
Bremerton, Washington State, 131
Bryce Canyon, 34
Byrd Station, Antarctica, 113, 120

143

144

Index

Chapman, Sydney, 7, 10, 59
Charts, 26

aeromagnetic, 39
ancient field behavior, 35
magnetotelluric, 38
navigation, 26

Chu Yu, 2
Climate, 55

ecliptic plane and, 88
sunspot connection, 57
CMB (Core-mantle boundary), 70, 130
CME (Coronal Mass Ejection), 101
Columbus, Christopher, 3
Communications, 48
long-wire, 51
radiowave, 90
Compass, 3, 4, 29, 122
airport runway declination, 29
Chinese, 2
declination and, 26
lodestone, 3
magnetic island and, 66
main field and, 23
origin, 2
variation in geomagnetic storms, 48

Conductivity, 18

comparative (air, water, copper), 21
corrosion and, 53
Earth, 40, 50-51, 111
electrical, 94
geological features, 82
ionosphere, 89, 92, 109
Conjugate positions, 111
Continental drift, 35-37
Cook, Captain James, 66
Core-mantle boundary (CMB), 70, 130
Corona, 99
Coronal

holes, 56, 98
mass ejection (CME), 101

Correlation

cause and effect, 54
coefficient, 54
double blind, 55
modeling, 55
Corrosion in pipeline, 52
Cosmic (galactic) rays, 88
Cosmic Noise Absorption, 111

Cross-tail (neutral sheet) current, 103, 108
Crust, 23, 36-38, 70
magnetism, 23, 36--41
resistivity, 50

Cryogenic

cooling, 124
electromagnets, 44
magnetometers, 123
temperatures, 44
Curie (point) temperature, 31, 32, 34, 70
Current, 9, 13, 20-23
direct, 14
Earth, 15
induction, 25
right-hand rule, 21
secondary, 25
source and induced, 94

Darwin, Australia, 130
De Magnete, 6, 139
Declination, 4, 8, 26, 27, 60, 70
Tucson, Arizona, 27
Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF),
75, 77

Dip

angle, 11, 34
equator, 17, 92, 93, 115
ionosphere, 90

pole

eccentric axis, 75, 81
locally-measured, 82, 84

Dipole, 6

eccentric axis, 80
field

alignment, 32
bar magnet, 70
distorted, 69
strength, 72, 79
field pattern, 6
magnet

Earth as, 11
main field, 70
moment, 6, 15
Disturbed field, 108
Double-blind test, 55, 63
Drift

contintental, 35-37
magnetic field pattern, 84

Index

145

magnetic pole, 79
non-dipole field vs. dipole field, 79
particle, 88
Dst (Disturbance Storm-Time) index, 115-
117, 130-131

Dynamo, 7, 90-92
current, 92, 111, 114
models, 70
theory, 70

Earth

current, 127
probe, 127-128
dipole field strength, 79
lower mantle, 70, 71
outer core, 70, 71
Earthquake, 41, 54
prediction, 66-67
signals, 70
source, 129
Eccentric axis

dip pole, 75, 81
dipole, 84, 87, 128
dipole poles, 75, 80, 81
field representation, 84
Ecliptic plane, 87, 101
Eights Station, Antarctica, 134
Electric

charge, 3, 7, 18
current, 7, 13, 18, 21, 26, 47, 48
and magnetic fields, 44
in wire, 22
field, 9, 37
power lines, 50
power plant, 7
transmission lines, 23

Electrical

conductivity, 40, 94
conductor, 50
systems in satellites, 46
Electrically neutral
atom, 18
molecule, 19

Electrojet

auroral, 90, 110
equatorial, 90
Electromagnet, 14, 21, 44
use in maglev, 44

Electromagnetic field, 50, 127
Electrons, 18

atomic number and, 18
aurora and, 21, 81
current in a wire, 21
field-aligned luminosity and, 22
ionization and, 20, 89, 90
sharing of, 19, 20
solar, 102
upper atmosphere and, 92, 104

Elements, 18
Elevation angle
of North Star, 28
Eleven-year solar cycle, 55
Energetic particle events, 84, 134
Epoch, 77

analysis, 75

Equatorial

electrojet, 90
region, 17

Equivalent

polar currents, 130
storm currents, 109
Ethesian winds, 56
Exploration (global), 3, 28
External field, 23, 50, 76, 84

Fairbanks, Alaska, 112
Faraday, Michael, 7, 9, 25
Ferrous

atoms, 32
clay, 34

Field

in space, 9, 13, 22
induction responses, 50-53
mapping, 37
reversal, 36, 37
Field-aligned current, 22, 85, 102-104, 109,
111, 115
Filaments, 98, 99
Flares, 98
Fluxgate magnetometer, 123
Forbush effect, 88
Force of magnetic field, 3, 13, 44
Fort Yukon, Alaska, 114
Franklin, Benjamin, 61
Frequency

of ion collisions, 90

146

Inclex

Frequency (cont.)
of oscillation, 12, 94
of pulsations, 134

Galactic cosmic rays, 88
Galaxy 4 satellite, 46
Gamma (y), 15
Ganymede main field, 71
Gauss

Carl Friedreich, 7, 9, 75, 121
coefficients, 75-77
field units, 16
Geologic exploration, 37
Geomagnetic

coordinate poles, 75, 78-80, 128
coordinate system, 78, 79
North Pole, 73, 95
poles, 72-86, 132
pulsation, 16, 40, 114, 119, 131
storms, 8, 16, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 57,
97-120, 134
GPS and, 49
main phase, 107
recovery phase, 107
satellites and, 49
Geomagnetism, 5, 11
first textbook on, 8
Geostationary satellites, 138
Gilbert, William, 5, 73
Global Positioning System (GPS), 28, 49
Grand Teton National Park, 64
Great Earth Magnet, 6
Great Whale River (GHW), Canada, 113
Greenwich, England, 29

Halley, Edmund, 7, 8
Health magnets, 62
Heliospheric boundary, 86
High latitudes, 17
Hubble Space Telescope, 47
Human response to magnetic fields, 58, 61
Humbolt, Baron Alexander von, 123
Hyderabad, India, 60

IAGA (International Association of Geomag-
netism and Aeronomy), 74

Igneous rock, 32

IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference
Field), 74, 128, 130
field models, 75, 79
main field poles, 74, 77-80
multipoles, 78, 80
table, 76

geomagnetic coordinates and, 78
2000 coefficient values, 77
IMAGE spacecraft, 44
Indices, 66, 115-119
spherical harmonic, 76
Induction, 25, 94
field responses, 50
Infrasonic pressure waves, 58, 114
Intergalactic fields, 86
INTERMAGNET, 132
Internal field, 50
Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), 102
Ionosphere, 47, 48, 84, 89, 90
dip equator, 89
electron density, 89

Ionospheric

conductivity, 92, 109
current, 84, 90, 92-94, 110, 111, 115,
130
auroral, 115
equatorial, 92
high latitude, 115
lunar quiet-day, 92

Ions, 18, 20-23, 89
solar wind, 108

Jackson Lake, Wyoming, 64
Joule heating, 111
Jupiter main field, 71

Kp (Planetary Magnetic Disturbance) index,
116

Land survey, 40
Latitude, 11

from North Star, 28
geomagnetic coordinates, 72
GPS and, 49
high, 48, 50, 58
low, 52
mid, 16
regions (zones), 17

moex

147

Lightning

focusing of, 64
Loadstone (lodestone), 3
Locally measured dip poles, 82-84
Longitude, 4

clocks and, 29
geomagnetic coordinates, 72
GPS and, 49
ship's, 28
Lower mantle, 71, 94
Lunar quiet-day ionospheric current, 92

Maglev, 44
Magnesia (Macedonia region), 2
Magnet, 2

body "health" magnet, 61-63
Earth's main field, 6, 23, 70
field effect of, 13
north pole, 3
polarities, 44
simple bar, 14, 15
south pole, 3

Magnetic

charts, 26
declination, 26
dipole, 78, 84
axis, 111
fields, 42, 71
positions, 78
dipole moment, 6
domains, 30
microscopic, 31
randomly oriented, 32
realignment, 32

field

human response to, 58

Island, 66
levitation, 44
mountain, 5, 23
permeability, 13
poles, 3

Eccentric axis dipole, 81
Geomagnetic coordinate, 79
IGRF, 77
locally measured, 75
movement of, 35
positions of, 72
types of, 72

Resonance Imaging (MRI), 43
rocks, 30-35
storms, see Geomagnetic storms
orbital predictions and, 45
particles and, 46
satellites and, 44
termites, 60-61
Magnetite, 2, 30

and lodestone (lodestone), 3
crystals, 42
in animal brains, 42
Curie point, 70
Magnetometer, 93
airport, 25
coils, 43
cryogenic, 123
fluxgate, 123
medical uses, 58
proton, 123
quake-site, 41
rubidium, 123
satellite, 31
SQUID, 124
variometer, 123
Magnetopause, 102
Magnetosheath, 102
Magnetosphere, 30, 69
alignment with solar wind, 118
currents in, 103
heating of, 111
magnetic storms and, 46
satellites and, 44
seasonal differences, 111
solar wind path within, 102
sunward boundary, 87, 102
tail of, 87
Magnetospheric

boundary, 106, 107, 114
currents, 115
envelope, 102
field

and charged particles, 88
Van Allen belts, 87, 88
field measurements, 30
field-aligned current, 104
outer boundary, 87
tail, 88
tail boundary, 87, 95, 102, 130

148

Index

Magnetospheric (cont.)
tail current, 115
Magnetotail, 108
Magnetotellurics (MT), 128-129
charts, 38
data, 131
method, 38
Main field, 6, 12, 17, 23
alignment, 32
at poles, 17
changing source, 69
conducting atmospheric ions, 23
dip angle, 11, 34
extension into space, 22, 69
Ganymede, 71
Jupiter, 71
mapping, 30
Mars, 71
Mercury, 71
Moon, 71
Neptune, 71
reversal of, 35
satellites and, 47
Saturn, 71
size of, 16
solid magnet and, 70
Uranus, 71
Venus, 71
Main phase, 107

Natural magnetic noise, 38
Navigation

homing pigeon, 42
satellites, 26, 30, 49
ships, 26-29
Neptune main field, 71
Neutrons, 18, 19
Nitrogen

emissions, 120
molecule, 21
NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 43
Non-dipole field, 79, 81
North

Pole, 3, 4
geographic, 4
geomagnetic, 73
magnetic, 4
Star, 2, 3, 5, 28, 29
Northern auroral zone, 117
Northern Lights, 17, 20, 105
Novaya Zemlya, Russia, 113, 114
Nuclear

explosion (Novaya Zemlya), 113, 114
magnetic resonance (NMR), 43
spin alignment, 43

Nucleus, 18

hydrogen atom, 123
quantum-mechanical modeling of, 18

Maricourt, Pierre de (aka Padres Peregrinus), Observatories, 40, 75, 106
3
Mars main field, 71
Maunder, E.W., 98
Maxwell, James Clerk, 7, 10
Medicine, 42-43
Mercury main field, 71
Mesa Verde, 57
Mesmer, Franz Anton, 61
Metamorphic rock, 34
Mid latitude, 88, 89, 92, 115
Milky Way Galaxy, 88
Molecules, 19-20
Moon main field, 71
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), 43
MT (magnetotelluric) data, 131
Multipole, 78-80

Nanoteslas (nT), 15, 129

auroral and polar regions, 109
auroral zone, 116
Australian, 130
chain of, 130
daytime field variations, 92
global network, 84
high latitude, 134
INTERMAGNET, 132
low latitude, 108
magnetic, 57, 88, 106
major worldwide, 132, 138
northern hemisphere, 110
northern high-latitude, 115

Oceanic

bottom dating, 36
plates, 36
troughs, 36
waves, 23

Index

149

Octupole, 78
Olympic Peninsula, Washington State, 131
Oscillation period, 12, 16, 50, 123
square of, and main field strength, 123

Outer core, 23, 71
current loop, 70
region of Earth, 70
Ozone layer, 88

Paleomagnetician, 32, 34
Paleomagnetism, 11, 16, 32, 70, 140, 141
dynamo theory, 70
internal currents, 79
Paramour ship, 7
Parkinson's vectors, 82
Partial ring currents, 103

magnetic drift, 79
magnetic north, 74
magnetic south, 83
north geomagnetic, 95, 132
Port Augusta, Australia, 130
Power lines, 50
Prehistoric fields, 35-37
Pressure waves, 58, 111
atmospheric, 114
explosive, 114
sonic, 114
subsonic, 111
Prominences, 98, 99
Proton, 18, 42, 102
magnetometer, 123
precession, 43
Peregrinus, Padres (aka Pierre de Maricourt), Pseudo-logarithmic change, 117
3
Periods of oscillation, 12
Permeability, 13
Phase, 12
Pi and Pc pulsations, 119
Piezomagnetic effect, 41
Pipelines, 23, 52
corrosion, 52, 53
grounding, 52
Placebo effect, 63
Plages, 98
Plasma, 99
Plato, 2
Polar, 17

apparent magnetic locations, 35
auroral oval, 84
cap, 17

observatory, 95
explorers, 84
field description, 69
latitudes, 48
regions, 16, 46, 57, 80, 84, 94
auroral field, 109
effects of current, 114
field, 95, 102
sector currents, 130

Poles, 72-86

chart location of, 11
magnetic, 3, 11, 72, 73
IGRF field, 77
search expeditions, 81

Pseudoscience, 60, 67
Pulsations (geomagnetic), 40, 112, 114, 119,
131

Quadrupole, 78, 80
Quake-site magnetometer, 41
Quantum mechanical modeling, 18
Quebec blackout, 51
Queen Elizabeth Islands, 74
Quiet-day variations (Sq), 92

Radiation belts (Van Allen), 85, 87, 88, 108
Radiowaves, 48, 90, 112, 134
Recovery phase, 107
of Dst index, 116
Remanent magnetization, 32-34
Reversal of field, 36, 37, 72
RF electromagnetic signal, 43
Right-hand rule, 21
Ring current, 70, 108
partial, 103, 106, 108, 111
Ross, James Clark, 73
Rubidium magnetometer, 123

Satellite

alignment, 30
communication signals, 48
damage, 44, 46, 47, 128
drag, 45
dysfunction, 48
electrical noise, 31

150

Index

Satellite (cont.)
evidence of poles, 84
failure, 44
Galaxy 4 and telephone pagers, 46
geostationary, 138
global positioning system (GPS), 26,
49
magnetometer, 31
measurement of drift, 37
memory upset, 46
navigation and, 49
Northern auroral oval picture, 86
orientation by field, 30
power supply, 46
radiowave-signal transmitter, 49
Saturn main field, 71
Sea-floor spreading, 36
Sector effect, 94-95, 132
Secular variation (SV), 77
Sedimentary rock, 33, 34, 131
Seismologists, Chinese earthquake predic-
tion, 66

Si Nan, 2
SI units, 16
Soda-bottle magnetometer, 125, 126
Solar

corona, 99
coronal holes, 56, 98
cycle, 55, 57
disturbances, 97, 98
eclipse, 93
elevation angle, 92
field polarity, 56, 99
flares, 98
panels, 30, 46
plasma, 101
prominences, 98
quiet (Sq), 69, 92
radiation, 55
rotation, 101
sectors, 94, 95, 132
variations (Sq), 69, 92
wind, 87, 88, 95, 99, 101, 102
burst IMF, 102
direction, 107
disturbance, 107
field, 130
ions, 108

magnetic field, 118
Solar-terrestrial activity, 88, 114, 118, 119,
125

Source

of magnetic fields, 9, 13, 22
of main field, 69
South Atlantic/South America anomaly, 46,
47, 85, 88, 128, 129
South Magnetic Pole, 6, 70, 82, 83
Southern Cross, 28
Southern Lights (Aurora Australis), 105
Space Environment Forecast Center, 139
Space Weather Disturbance Scales, 134
Spectral analysis, 131
Spherical harmonic
analysis (SHA), 75, 80
functions, 76
Sq (Solar quiet-day) variations, 92
vortices, 93
SQUID magnetometer, 124
Stand-off position, 102, 107
Statistical significance, 54
Steady field, 12, 16, 17
Storm

explanations, 108-111
fingerprints, 106--107
geomagnetic, 16, 44--46, 48--50, 52,
53, 57, 97-119
Quebec blackout, 51
solar-terrestrial activity, 59
Strength of magnetic field, 1, 3, 6, 13-15,
39, 77
Sun, 45, 60, 97-101, 130
cycle, 55
ecliptic plane, 87
elevation angle, 92
magnetic field, 44
maximum elevation, 28
navigation by, 29
plasma, 132
solar wind (see Solar wind), 87
surface rotation, 101
visible light from, 88
Sunspot, 55, 56
activity, 57
cycles

drought and, 57
eleven-year, 55

Index

151

number (R), 60, 97, 102
maximum, 55, 59, 118
minimum, 56, 57
region temperature, 55
Supersonic jet airplanes
storm-time radiation risk, 46
SV (Secular Variation), 77

Tail

currents, 106-108
field, 95
lobes, 107
Tectonomagnetic effect, 40
Telephone, 48, 51
lines, 52
pager, 46
Tesla unit, 15
Thermosphere, 111
heating, 106
pressure waves, 106
Thule, Greenland, 84, 95
Tomographic analysis, 43
Toward and Away sectors, 102, 130
Tree-ring dating, 57
Tucson, Arizona, 27

Units

gamma (y), 15
Gauss, 16
magnetic field, 15
nanotesla, 15

UoSat-2 satellite, 46
Upper mantle, 50, 94
Uranus main field, 71
Ursa Major (Big Dipper), 2

Van Allen radiation belts, 87, 88, 108
Variation field, 12
Variometer, 123
Venus main field, 71
Vostok Station, Antarctica, 84

Water

divining/witching, 63-64

Weather, 55-58
space, 44, 134
Westward drift, 5, 35
World Data Centers, 132, 133, 138

X-rays, 93

Yucatan peninsula crater, 39

Zone

auroral, 17
equatorial, 17
high latitudes, 17
low latitudes, 17
mid (middle) latitudes, 17
polar caps, 17

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

PLATE 1 I~ The many important features of the Sun. Illustration from NASA.

PLATE 2 I~ Six successive NASA photos of particle ejection from the Sun's corona. A
black disk blocks the Sun's bright image. These solar particles and fields cause magnet-
ic storms upon their arrival at the Earth.

PLATE 3 I~ The Earth's dipole
field in space is compressed by
the wind from the Sun and is
dragged far from the Earth into a
downwind tail. A passing cloud of
particles ejected from a solar dis-
turbance is also shown. Figure
from SEC/NOAA.

PLATE 4 ~ Auroras arise as solar disturbance particles, guided by the Earth's field,
enter our atmosphere. This northern auroral oval is centered near the pole location of the
Earth's eccentric-axis dipole field. Figure from NASA.

PLATE 5 I~ In this view of an aurora above the Yukon River at Circle,
Alaska, note the near-vertical striations indicating the Earth's field that guides
the bombarding auroral particles. Photo by Dick Hutchinson (Web site
http://www.ptialaska.net/Nhutch/aurora.html).

PLATE 6 I~ Geomagnetic storms create problems in the operation of modem
technological systems at the Earth's surface and in space. Figure from L. J.
Lanzerotti, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies.

PLATE 7 I~ Aeromagnetic map of USA crustal magnetic anomalies (local fields after
main and quiet variation fields removed) used in identifying geologic formations and
in the search for mineral deposits. Rainbow colors indicate different crustal field
levels. Data from NGDC/NOAA "Geophysics of North America" CD-ROM plotted by
D. Hastings.

PLATE 8 I~ Scientists have found that the Earth's main dipole field is
formed by a westward current flowing in the liquid outer core of the Earth,
organized by the Earth's spin, and generated by a gravitational accretion
process at the core-mantle boundary.

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