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By Hemant Kumar Domain Consultant Energy Practice
By the end of this presentation you’ll learn
• • • • • • • • The importance of energy in our lives Overview of oil and gas supply chain What are hydrocarbons Where do crude oil and natural gas come from How are they produced How are petrol, diesel etc are produced How are they delivered to us Who are various players in the industry
Chapter- 1 Introduction to Energy
You check your mails on your PC and find that you’ve won a quiz contest Picture This You read about the increase in crude oil prices in the newspaper You wash your most favourite T-shirt in washing machine You store the delicious dish you cooked last night in your fridge You spend quality time with your family watching a movie “dog’s life” .
And light bulbs/tubes keep your house glowing at night .Your house is sufficiently heated to protect you from cold weather.
The electricity comes from the power plant which runs on natural gas or coal .And all that needs electricity to keep your day to day life running smoothly.
And Picture This Also World is not so small and we require the means to move from one place to another. Fortunately we have various ways to do that Train for long distances Public Transport for daily commutation Our personal vehicles for outings Planes for faster long distance travel And we need roads for our vehicles to run on .
Unless of course you want to use a bicycle To build roads we need TAR which is also called COAL TAR…… .…….And we need fuel for all these modes of transport.
And can we live without food? Thanks to cooking gas. preparing food is no more inconvenient Plastic bags are widely used to carry the vegetables and other food items Vegetables we love to eat also need fertilizer We need fertilizer to grow the food crops .
travelling.. recreation. we live. for preparing foods. needs lot of energy. The way.To cut a long story short. The all-important energy comes from various sources like Crude oil & Natural Gas Wind Water Coal Sun . comfort and safety.
crude oil and natural gas are all considered fossil fuels because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago Nuclear Fuel Coal . Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types: fossil fuels and nuclear fuel Coal. geothermal. and biomass.Types of energy Renewable Renewable Energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative (can be replenished in a short period of time) or for all practical purposes cannot be depleted Renewable energy accounts for about 14% of the world's energy consumption The five renewable sources used most often include hydropower (water). solar. Crude oil & Natural Gas Biomas s Wind Geothermal Sun Water Non Renewable Nonrenewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids. gases and solids. wind.
which are nonrenewable energy resources. Hydrocarbons (oil and gas). contribute almost 50% of the total world energy requirement. When we talk about hydrocarbons. In the next chapters we’ll try to know more about hydrocarbons which are very important source of energy and critical to our economic growth and survival.Welcome to Oil and Gas industry • Now that we have understood the importance of energy in its various forms. we should know that they are found. produced and delivered to us by oil and gas companies who engage in multiple activities which will be described in this presentation So let’s get ready to learn about oil and gas industry. • • • Finding & producing hydrocarbons Transporting hydrocarbons Refining hydrocarbons Selling the petroleum by products . we also need to know where it comes from.
Truck Refineries Wellhead Producers Terminal/Storage/H ub Location Bulk Terminal Storage Gas Stations Platform Producers Platform Producers Source:http://www. They are mainly a) Upstream (Finding & producing hydrocarbons) b) Downstream (Refining hydrocarbons and producing saleable petroleum byproducts) c) Retail (Selling the byproducts to all the users who need them).adventuresinenergy.Petroleum Value Chain Picture below gives an overview of the supply chain of the oil and gas industry.com Platform Producers Upstream Midstream Downstream Retail . Industry is organized into three broad categories based on the activities performed therein.Midstream. though is not a very popular term is used to describe the transport part.
Chapter.2 Origin of Oil & Gas .
What Hydrocarbons are • Hydrocarbons are naturally occurring chemicals that are made up of just two elements – carbon and hydrogen. four hydrogen atoms • From now we’ll use terms hydrocarbons and oil & gas interchangeably (which is perfectly alright) . • Chemicals based on carbon and hydrogen are called as hydrocarbons • The Simplest Hydrocarbon is methane (CH4) is made up of one carbon.
" Nowadays the terms petroleum is used as a common denotation for crude oil and natural gas. silt and mud. subject the organic matter to higher temperatures and pressures. the remains were covered by layers of sand. Over the years. Continued burial. the hydrocarbons. which cause physical and chemical changes in the organic.html#How%20used . Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil .http://www.eia.e. i. These produce tiny droplets of hydrocarbons Source.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/oil..Origin of Oil and Gas Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment even before the dinosaurs. decay stops and the remaining organic matter is preserved. Hydrocarbon Formation Once the body of prehistoric animals and plants became trapped they partially decomposed using up the dissolved oxygen in the sediment. As soon as the oxygen is used up. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth.
Origin of Oil and Gas Facts • Oil & gas do not occur in an underground pool but lies in the pore pace of the rocks which are also called the source rocks • The oil & gas are forced through the rock on account of three reasons •Expansion of the oil itself •Expansion of gas from above •Pressure of the encroaching water from below. What a petroleum bearing rock looks like • Oil can be found with in the depth of ranging between 2km – 9km .
As shown in the picture below. a can of petrol and gas. You can imagine a sponge soaked with water or petrol. don’t worry. A word of Caution: Don’t try it at home ☺ If it’s very difficult to do. However a source rock as we call it will be no good on its own as oil & gas therein will leave the source rock and migrate to other areas. Does it make life difficult for those looking for large deposits of oil and gas? Not exactly! . A rock will contain the hydrocarbon the same way. take a bucket.Origin of Oil and Gas-Do it yourself You can visualize what a rock containing crude oil & natural gas would look like. Sounds simple!! Isn’t it? Except that a petroleum reservoir is more complicated in its nature and very difficult to find out. Try mixing them together and resulting mixture would resemble a reservoir. in its pores.
reservoir and cap rocks. An oil & gas field consists of one or many such petroleum systems Petroleum System Source Rock Pore is a small open space between the rock particles Permeability is provided by the channels connecting different pores . Petroleum SystemIs a oil & gas bearing structure containing source.Origin of Oil and Gas.Petroleum System As we learnt. oil and gas originate in source rock and once fully formed they start moving towards the surface through channels in the rocks surrounding the source rocks. Once their upwards movement is impeded by non permeable rocks also called trap or seal or cap rocks they tend to accumulate in the porous (containing pores) and permeable rocks also known as reservoir rocks.
Chapter.3 Oil & Gas Exploration & Production .
Finding Oil & Gas Oil & gas fields are identified using seismic data which is obtained from Seismic Surveys Seismic Data Acquisition Seismic Survey Seismic Data obtained from Seismic Survey Computer generated model of underground rocks and trapped oil&gas reserves Seismic Data processed at the Workstation .Exploration.
as opposed to other floating rigs.is fitted with long support legs (3 0r 4) which are lowered until they rest on the sea bottom. Drilling is done using drilling rigs each adapted to different water depths (more than 2000 m in some cases) Jack up Rig.floats and retains its stabilized position by means of anchors fixed on the seabed. Used in shallow depth Jack up Rig Semisubmersible Rig Drill Ship Semi-submersible Rig.Finding Oil & Gas To confirm the interpretations of the seismic data. A drill ship must stay relatively stationary on location in the water for extended periods of time.Exploration.is a ship designed to carry out the drilling operations in deep water. Used in deep waters Sea Bed Water Level Drill Ship. dynamic propulsion (thrusters) or a combination of these. This positioning may be accomplished with multiple anchors. . drilling is done which is also called as exploratory drilling. This allows the working platform to rest above the surface of the water.
Exploratory Drilling Once an area has been selected and the right to drill thereon has been obtained. A drill string is composed of hollow lengths of pipe leading to the surface. As the hole gets deeper. The most common method of drilling in use today is rotary drilling.Exploration. is attached to the drill string. The bit. more lengths of pipe can be added at the top. which is the most important part and also is hollow and very heavy. Drill Bit . Rotary drilling operates on the principle of boring a hole by continuous turning of a bit. actual drilling may begin.
These forecasts. studies and the eventual construction of the installations constitute the development stage of the field. The success rate also potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. For example 10% strike rate the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%.e. On an average region where exploratory activities are being performed. extraction can start.Oil & Gas Production Exploration Exploration •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering aa potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. Oil companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate during exploration during exploration •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further confirmed by appraisal drilling i. quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. It also would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled. decision is taken whether to develop the field for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. The success rate also known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular region where exploratory activities are being performed.e. attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest conditions. On an average the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%. drilling more wells in the area •Following appraisal drilling. The life of an oil field continues for many years years Production Production . decision is taken whether to develop the field •Following appraisal drilling. These forecasts. The life of an oil field continues for many is in place. For example aa10% strike rate would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled. means the 99of them would be dry holes. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons. drilling more wells in the area confirmed by appraisal drilling i. It also means the of them would be dry holes. extraction can start. Once everything is in place. studies and the eventual construction of the conditions. Oil ••Drilling aawell is aavery costly activities especially in deep water. Drilling well is very costly activities especially in deep water. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons. Once everything installations constitute the development stage of the field.
This requires the use of a large number of wells. However drilling horizontal involves a lot of technical complexity and is also more costly Reservoir Small Drainage Area for Vertical Well Large Drainage Area for Horizontal Well . at least several km² and sometimes more than 100 km² A traditional well (vertical or slightly deviated) only draws oil or gas from a radius of a few tens of meters. Moreover. such wells only cross the reservoir over the limited height of a vertical or near vertical cross section. Thus. how many wells are required? Imagine A field spreads over a vast area. •.Oil & Gas Production Production consists of bringing the hydrocarbons contained in the subsurface to the surface. Question is. A large number of vertical wells would therefore be necessary to completely extract the contents of a reservoir. The horizontal well has a much greater length of contact with the reservoir. the technique enables a significant reduction in the number of wells necessary for a given development.
Development It’s not enough to drill wells in a field to ensure production. The picture below shows an offshore oil platform which takes production from 10-12 wells housed within the platform Oil Wells . safety equipments and other installations are set up. To ensure safe production from the high pressure fields.Oil & Gas Production.
Chapter.4 Oil & Gas Transportation .
At process platform oil.Transportation The crude oil & gas transportation begins from the wells where production from different wells is taken to a large processing platforms via small diameter (2-8 inches) pipes. hydrogen sulphide removed. sulfur. gas and water are separated and impurities like condensate. After processing crude oil and gas are sent to the their respective destinations. refineries & gas processing units via pipelines or tankers (more about these later) .
FPSO’s find their application in sub sea wells in remote and deep water fields. Sea Bed .Transportation FPSO ( Floating Production Storage Offloading) are used where it’s not possible or economically justifiable to install sea bed pipelines or expensive process platforms. In a sub sea well wells are located on the seabed as opposed to the conventional wells at the surface Oil Tanker The FPSO is usually a decommissioned oil tanker which has been stripped down and equipped with facilities to process and stabilize the crude oil and enable it to be connected to another oil tanker or transport tanker. at which point the transport tanker connects to the stern to the stern or bow of the FPSO and offloads the oil. Oil is processed and accumulated in the FPSO until there is sufficient to fill a transport tanker.
However in majority of the cases Maritime (large oil tankers) and Pipelines are the most preferred means of transport. time and availability. distance.Transportation Once the crude oil and natural gas are separated. Maritime Pipelines Truck Railways Many factors determine the choice of one mode of transport over another like cost. volume. Let’s learn a little more about them . accessibility. Railways & Trucks. the need to be sent to the refineries/processing units for further processing. sea or hills. Broadly there are four modes of oil & gas transportation Pipeline. Since most of crude oil & gas are found in remote places like deserts. Maritime. transportation of crude oil to its destination (refineries) is sometimes very complicated. Sometimes many modes of transports are utilized to achieve this goal.
it’s one of the of the largest pipeline systems in the world. Due to the very nature pipelines are considered to be the safest. unlike most pipelines.S. that connect regional markets . Since oil is produced in areas far away from major marketplaces where population and manufacturing centers are located. The oil travels in the pipelines at speeds of around 2m/sec (7km/h).S. There are approximately 55.000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 . The network of crude oil pipelines in the U. is extensive.Oil Transportation-Pipelines Pipelines are large diameter tubes that can transport enormous quantities of oil. 800 mile long. has significant portions of the system above ground. most efficient and economical way of transportation. pipelines permit the movement of crude oil to these areas with little or no disruption to communities everywhere. It’s also the most photographed pipeline as it. Carrying capacity of a pipeline is expressed in terms of thousands barrel per day Pipeline shown in the picture is Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). The oil circulates by means of pressure maintained by pumping stations located every 60 to 100 km. up to several tens of millions of tons per year. Pipelines are owned by the oil companies or third party operators who lease the pipelines to the oil companies.of any nation in the world. The United States has the largest network of energy pipelines – both oil and natural gas -.24 inches in diameter) in the U.
000 dwt).000 to 80. Within the industry. Panamax and Handysize.4% of the world tanker fleet .000 dwt) • • • The seaborne crude oil transportation business is highly fragmented and is generally provided by two types of operators: independent ship owners and captive fleets of privately and state owned oil companies.Oil Transportation-Maritime Maritime transport involves transporting crude oil through large oil tankers.10.200.000 to 200. based on their carrying capacity.4% of the tanker capacity.80. In order to benefit from economies of scale companies typically charter the largest possible vessel that can be accommodated in their arrival and discharge ports. and the top ten owners account for 26.000 dwt and greater) Suezmax and Aframax. independent owners account for approximately 80. The six categories of vessels are: ULCCs and VLCCs (Ultra and very large crude oil container) – Largest vessels used for long hauls(carrying capacity. These two are most commonly used.Mid size vessels used for short to medium hauls(carrying capacity.Small size vessels used for short hauls (carrying capacity. The oil tanker fleet in divided into six major categories.
In certain cases where the construction of gas pipelines is technically impossible or too expensive. the problems of transport and of storage of gas are the same as for oil. with the aid of compression plants positioned at regular intervals along the network. production and consumption points are far apart and gas has to be taken from one to the other. The compressed gas circulates at high speed in a gas pipeline. a method of maritime transport based on the liquefaction of the gas (LNG. there is no question of chartering vessels to transport gas in its gaseous state. for the same quantity of energy.com/content/oil-gas/distribution/supply-storage-gas.Gas Transportation Overall.planete-energies. things are quite different. it occupies a volume 600 times greater than that of oil.http://www. But in detail. Unlike oil. the gas is in a gaseous state at normal pressures and temperatures. liquefied natural gas) is used Source. Therefore. This means that. That would cost … 600 times too much! The most usual method of transportation is therefore by gas pipelines. These gas pipelines are not visible: for reasons of safety and security they are buried underground. Overland or underwater transport by gas pipeline is preferred.html .
the developed countries have realized for a long time now the strategic importance of oil. the strategic stocks are managed by state or private organizations (or both) • Storage tanks at a marine terminal Storage tank . These commitments have been incumbent on members of the European Union since 1968.000 litres) and can often be buried underground due to safety and security reasons In addition. the cargo of crude oil is discharged through pipelines to storage tanks in the refinery Storage tanks come in varying size (more than 500.Crude Oil Storage • • • At the marine terminal. They are committed to holding stocks of petroleum products (crude and finished products) equivalent to 3 months of import quantities. Depending on the country.
All one need is a suitable geological site which must must possess good reservoir and cap rock conditions and be located at a sufficiently shallow depth (around 500m).html .planete-energies. storage of gas is essential. in LNG form in large tanks & underground reservoirs. There are two ways to store the natural gas. and there is no need to refrigerate the gas to liquefy it as in LNG. Only drawback is that such ideal sites are not numerous and in most of the cases liquefaction of gas to convert it into LNG is the only option Ariel view of a LNG plant • Source.http://www. Underground reservoirs offer enormous storage capacities to the extent of billions of m³. so that injection of the gas is not too expensive in energy terms.com/content/oil-gas/distribution/supply-storage-gas.Gas Storage • Due to reasons such as seasonal fluctuation or supply-demand change.
100 airplanes & $1. . the main issues are those of safety. not only accidental oil spills but also the deliberate discharging of polluting products such as the residue from tank and bilge cleaning. killing hundreds of thousands of birds and marine animals and soiling more than 1.000 workers.Transportation & Storage-Safety Aspects • Whether oil is transported from production sites to the refineries by maritime or pipeline methods.2 billion to clean up the spill. security and respect for the environment. vessel occurred when the Exxon Valdez oil tanker emptied 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound off the coast of Alaska in 1989. 1. • Oil Spill Pipeline Leak The largest oil spill involving a U. At sea. Storage facilities ensuring total safety and security must therefore be planned for petroleum products. It took company four summers. On land the state of oil pipelines must be continually kept under surveillance and worn equipment replaced. everything must be done to avoid pollution. Most dangerous are oil spills which pose enormous threat to the environment Same precautions go for storage also as enormous quantities of oil transported are not used immediately. 10.S.200 miles of rocky beach.000 boats.
5 Oil Refining .Chapter.
Let’s learn more about the refining and refineries… . well adapted to their use. sulphuric or acid products which are very corrosive for metals That is why the crude oils must be purified and transformed into products having an almost constant composition. These transformations are carried out in refineries.Refining Crude Oil Why do we need to refine the crude oil? Why can’t we build engines that run on crude oil? We need to refine the crude oil because • Crude oil is an unstable mixture of several hydrocarbons in varying quantities according to the density of the products • There is not one type of crude oil but a multitude of different crudes • Different crudes contain dissolved gases.
Kerosene. Paraffin wax. Typical refinery products are LPG. Fuel oil. Workers ride bicycles to move from place to place inside the complex. a refinery takes crude oil and turns it into gasoline and hundreds of other useful products. Gasoline. Asphalt and Tar . Just as a paper mill turns lumber into paper. 365 days a year and requires a large number of employees to run. A refinery can occupy as much land as several hundred football fields. Lubricating oil. Diesel. A typical refinery costs billions of dollars to build and millions more to maintain A refinery runs twenty-four hours a day.Introduction to Petroleum Refinery A refinery is a factory.
Output is commercial products which are used by us Crude Oil Primary Processing Raw Products Secondary Processing Commercial Products Separation Conversion .What does refining actually do? Essentially.Output is raw (primary) products Secondary Processing. which then are selectively reconfigured into new products. b) Conversion (Cracking) and c) Reforming d) Blending & Treatment Crude oil contains many components which differ in boiling points. All refineries perform four basic steps: a) Separation (Distillation). refining breaks crude oil down into its various components. relative solubility. Moreover crude oil can be categorized under •Light •Heavy (Asphaltic) •Sweet (Non-sulfurous-less than 1% of sulfur) •Sour (Sulfurous-more than 1% of sulfur)) Crude oil processing consists of two parts Primary Processing.
while the heaviest fractions with the highest boiling points settle at the bottom.html . Medium weight liquids. stay in the middle.) Source. (Heavier liquids.http://www.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/refinery. where they condense back to liquids. including kerosene and diesel oil distillates. separate lower down. including gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). the liquids and vapors separate into components or fractions according to weight and boiling point. Distillation causes separation of breaking up of crude oil into various petrochemicals Inside the towers. The lightest fractions.eia. called gas oils. vaporize and rise to the top of the tower.Primary Processing-Separation Primary processing involves distillation at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum.doe.
Primary Processing-Separation AS we learnt that distillation is done using two methods a) Atmospheric distillation b) Vacuum Distillation Atmospheric distillation Vacuum distillation .
into high-octane gasoline components. skinny towers that loom above other refinery structures. which essentially is cracking in reverse. rearrange them to add value. instead of splitting molecules. Reforming uses heat. relatively low-value fraction. A cracking unit consists of one or more tall.http://www. moderate pressure and catalysts to turn naphtha. Alkylation’s. makes gasoline components by combining some of the gaseous byproducts of cracking. Other refinery processes. horizontal vessels and tall. takes place in a series of large. bullet-shaped reactors and a network of furnaces. This transformation takes place during conversion stage.html .doe.eia. Conversion is directed towards maximum gasoline production Cracking unit Cracking is not the only form of conversion. thick-walled. The process.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/refinery. We’ll learn more about these processes Source. for example. a light.Secondary Processing-Conversion Primary products require further adjustment of chemical composition in order to become suitable for sale or petrochemical processing. The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to "crack" heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones. heat exchangers and other vessels.
DELAYED COKING . In delayed coking the heated charge (typically residuum from atmospheric distillation towers) is transferred to large coke drums which provide the long residence time needed to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion.Secondary Processing-Conversion Some of the conversion processes are shown below VISBREAKING A mild form of thermal cracking. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING HYDROCRACKING Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. oil is cracked in the presence of a finely divided catalyst which is maintained in an aerated or fluidized state by the oil vapors. significantly lowers the viscosity of heavy crude-oil residue without affecting the boiling point range. wherein heavier feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products.
Reforming rearranges Naptha hydrocarbons into Gasoline molecules CATALYTIC REFORMING Catalytic reforming is an important process used to convert low-octane naphthas into highoctane gasoline blending components called reformates. Hydrocarbons in the Naptha (another petroleum byproduct) stream have roughly the same number of carbon atoms as those in gasoline. For example. . but their structure is generally more complex.Reforming Reforming is another process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil.
Impurities like Sulfur are also removed to make Gasoline as clean as possible CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING Catalytic hydrotreating is a hydrogenation process used to remove about 90% of contaminants such as nitrogen.Blending & Treatment The finishing touches occur during the final treatment. and metals from liquid petroleum fractions. Among the variables that determine the blend are octane level. oxygen. To make gasoline. sulfur. refinery technicians carefully combine a variety of streams from the processing units. vapor pressure ratings and special considerations. such as whether the gasoline will be used at high altitudes. .
Some More About Refinery To Summarize every barrel of crude holds remarkable potential.html#How%20used . the same barrel can be processed to yield more heating oil in winter.doe. it gets bigger after it is popped. Wax Fuel Oil Power Station Tar (bitumen ) for roads If you are still wondering how much of what is produced here is a general breakup of the quantity of petroleum products produced in a refinery.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/oil.eia. It provides the building blocks for countless products we depend on every day. Source. However the product mix can be changed as needed. Bottled Gas Petrol Other Products Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Chemical Works Heavy Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Jet Fuel Diesel Fuel & Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Don’t be surprised to know that a barrel of crude oil after refining will provide slightly more than 1 barrel of petroleum products. This gain from processing the crude oil is similar to what happens to popcorn. However that would also mean something else will be produced less. For example. You can see below that petroleum in its more refined form contribute heavily to the modern economy.http://www.
Some More About Refinery
Types of refinery
•Topping – CDU •Hydroskimming – CDU + Reformer •Cracking – CDU + Cracker •Coking – CDU + Cracker + Coker
Some of the refineries we may not have heard of
•Haldia Refinery (IOC) 116,000 bpd •Panipat Refinery (IOC), 240,000 bpd •Digboi Refinery(IOC), 13,000 bpd •Gujrat Refinery(IOC), 68,000 bpd •Barauni Refinery (IOC), 116,000 bpd •Guwahati Refinery (IOC), 20,000 bpd •Mathura Refinery (IOC), 156,000 bpd •Bongaigaon Refinery(BRPL), 48,000 bpd •Manali Refinery (CPCL), 185,000 bpd •Jamnagar Refinery (RIL), 660,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (HPCL), 107,000 bpd •Vizag Refinery (HPCL), 150,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (BPCL), 135,000 bpd •Kochi Refinery, 146,000 bpd •Numaligarh Refinery (NRL), 58,000 bpd •Mangalore Refinery (MRPL), 190,000 bpd
World's Largest Refineries
•Paraguana Refining, Venezuela - 940,000 bpd •SK Corporation, South Korea - 817,000 bpd •Reliance I, India - 661,000 bpd •GS Caltex, South Korea - 650,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Singapore - 605,000 bpd •Reliance II, India (proposed) - 580,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baytown, USA - 557,000 bpd •S-Oil, South Korea - 520,000 bpd •Hovensa LLC, Virgin Islands - 495,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baton Rouge, USA - 493,500 bpd •Shell Eastern, Singapore - 458,000 bpd
Chapter- 6 Oil Distribution
Each one of us is a user of petroleum products. Between the refinery, where heating oil, diesel, petrol and gas are produced, and the end user, there is a distribution network that is responsible for getting these products to their final destination. Making available to each person the right product, at the right time, at the right place and at the lowest cost and in optimum conditions of safety and security, is the objective of petroleum logistics.
Am overview of petroleum distribution network
Other advantage of having depots is smoothening demand-supply imbalance caused by increased demand or disruption in supply. Petroleum depots are used as intermediate storage to serve a particular region. Ariel View of Petroleum Depots Source.000 m3. on average between 10. In absence of any intermediary storage centres.html . Depot capacities are very variable. and aviation fuel A petroleum depot consists of 10 to 30 steel tanks. river/canal barges. Each depot has 3 to 12 loading bays for the road tankers that will deliver the products to different consumers. That’s where strategic stocks also come into picture The petroleum products are taken from the refineries to the depots by bulk transport methods: pipelines.Oil Logistics. petrol and diesel. The principal products stored are heating oil.000 and 300. The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain. to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing.http://www.planete-energies. it would require large numbers of road tankers covering enormous distances everyday to meet the consumption needs. from the refinery to the end user. A tank can be as large as 60 000 m3.com/content/oil-gas/logistics-supply. boats.Petroleum Depots Taking the petroleum products directly from the refinery to the customer is a complicated task. as well as special diesel fuels used by farmers and fishermen. trains of tanker wagons.
Let’s know more about these filling/gas station. From petroleum depots. large numbers of road tankers deliver fuel to filling stations and heating oil and gas to individuals and to companies. industrial plants. by river and canal barges or even by pipelines carrying finished products. are supplied directly from the refineries by rail (tanker wagons). the distribution network involves intermediate stages. For the other consumers like us.adventuresinenergy. The major users. Refinery Delivering fuel to the consumers Road Tankers Depots Hypermarket Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Source:http://www.Oil Logistics-Delivering to the End User Last step in petroleum supply chain is delivering the finished products to all the users who need them.com .
In Japanese English. And finally in Indian English. biodiesel. it is called a "gasoline stand".“ Elsewhere in the English-speaking world the form "petrol station" or "petrol pump" are used. where petrol is known as "gas" or "gasoline. Some stations carry specialty fuels such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG). hydrogen.Oil Logistics-Gas Station Filling station. the term service station ("servo") describes any petrol station. . fueling station. The term "gas station" is mostly used in the United States and Canada. In Australia. ethanol. The most common fuels sold are gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. it's called a Petrol Pump or petrol bunk. compressed natural gas (CNG). gas station or petrol station is a facility which sells fuel and lubricants for motor vehicles. or kerosene.
from the refinery to the end user.phmsa.gov/comm/PetroleumPipelineSystems.Gas Logistics The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain.htm .dot. to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing. Source.http://primis.
18% to refining costs& profits. Figure shows the various components of price of a gallon (3. As you can see.Prices and Taxes Did you know that the price that you pay at the pump is a lot higher than the cost price of the products? Why this difference? It results from the fiscal policy in the consumer country. Price of petroleum products vary from country to country as tax rates are different. For example in Europe taxes on petroleum products are as high as 70% as a result of which a litre of petrol would be costlier in Europe than in US .78 litre) at a petrol pump in US in 2004. 12% of what you paid went to distribution & marketing. 23% to federal and state taxes and 47% to crude oil.
Source. Please go through the following picture to have a quick recap of what you have learnt so far.phmsa. you should have the understanding of the supply chain in Oil and Gas industry.Overall Oil & Gas Industry Supply Chain Till this point.gov/comm/PetroleumPipelineSystems.htm .http://primis.dot.
A quick Recap before we move to the last section We learnt so far • The importance of energy in our lives • Overview of oil and gas supply chain • What are hydrocarbons • Where do crude oil and natural gas come from • How are they produced • How are petrol. diesel etc are produced • How are they delivered to us .
7 Oil & Gas Producers .Chapter.
Oil & Gas Companies There are numerous actors in the world of oil and gas. which take over oil fields near the end of their useful lives.Maurel et Prom in France. the largest gas producer in the world •National agencies & government departments with responsibility for energy matters (For example DOE (Department of Energy) in the United States the DOE •International organization. A myriad of companies. Example. •International Oil Companies. manage oil production and defend national interests in the hydrocarbon sector. The best-known are. drilling. such as OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). •Companies specializing in gas distribution. which. • Companies operating in the oil sector as suppliers of services to oil companies. or develop fields that have been abandoned by the major companies. are also generally categorized as majors or supermajors. supplying oil companies with personnel and equipment that the latter do not own or employ themselves. production equipment ). Transocean Sedco Forex These companies are involved in specific technical areas (geophysical surveying and analysis. Examples include Exxon Mobil. •Small independent oil companies. For example French Oil Institute •Independent consultants and other organizations or individuals who offer consultancy & design services and technical audits to the oil companies . •Research institutes. the largest in terms of proven reserves and production. BP. But they are not the only ones. Halliburton. organizations and consultants all play a part in the “hydrocarbon universe” •National companies. depth imaging. which are often training centers too. in many countries. mainly for exploration and production. Among the best known: Schlumberger.Goservices. such as Gazprom. of course. Total and Chevron/Texaco. Example Suadi Aramco. the major oil companies and OPEC. OAPEC (the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) or the IEA (the International Energy Agency). Shell.
Some Statistics on Oil Majors Look at the graphs below to find out how the five majors compare with the other top companies in the world Profit (Million $) Revenue (Million $) Believe it or not. . but Shell’s daily production is enough to meet India’s daily Energy consumption.
Venezuela.The Institutions and Other Organization OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) •Was founded in 1960 by Iraq. At the beginning. at regular or extraordinary conferences. These quotas are adjusted. But since 2004. Kuwait. OPEC has virtually lost its ability to control prices. in favor of the former. Venezuela. Algeria. the main objective of this organization was to redress the split of income between the oil producing countries and the oil companies. Iraq.Nigeria and Indonesia . As a result. Qatar. Saudi Arabia. to take account of the state of the world economy and its requirements. Kuwait and Iran. Libya. Iran. have become very limited. This system has allowed OPEC to fix a range for oil prices and thus to maintain price stability. the United Arab Emirates (UAE). (what is called excess capacity). which have tended to soar in the recent times •Eleven members of OPEC are Saudi Arabia. OPEC production has been working at almost full capacity and the possibilities of increasing production further. •OPEC works on the principle of limiting oil production by means of the allocation of quotas (authorized maximum quantities) to each of its members according to their reserves.
In a completely new and unexpected step. governments of the member countries have undertaken to implement joint measures to deal with emergency situations concerning petroleum supplies. and also plays a more and more important role in the protection of the environment. both to the OPEC offensive when petroleum prices rocketed at the end of 1973. The IEA keeps a sharp eye on the evolution of oil markets. the IEA seeks to establish common ground and compromise solutions between signatories and non-signatories (the United States and Australia) of the protocol. It was created in 1974. It is an intergovernmental organization for the co-ordination of energy polices. With regards to the Kyoto protocol. as a reaction. at the initiative of the United States.The Institutions and Other Organization The International Energy Agency (IEA) • IEA unlike OPEC is an association of consumer countries. economic growth and environmental protection. The IEA works towards security of energy supplies. the IEA made a report public on the 28 th of April 2005. They have also undertaken to pool information. all of which are industrialized countries and major hydrocarbon consumers. In addition. in which it recommended consumer countries to take preparatory steps to limit their oil consumption. The IEA is an autonomous unit within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the OECD). • • • . and to the use of oil as an economic arm by Arab countries. In 2005. it had 26 members.
Chapter.8 Production & Consumption Pattern .
Reserves Middle East (Saudi Arabia. Iraq.507 million barrels per day. Nigeria and rest of world.147. Kuwait. Libya. UAE) boasts of 60% of total world oil reserves followed by Venezuela.World Oil and Gas Review . Iran. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 were 1. Million Barrels as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. Russia.
Russia. Japan. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 84. Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. Germany and India.Consumption US is way ahead of the pack when it comes to oil consumption followed by China.5 million barrels per day.World Oil and Gas Review .
Production Saudi Arabia claims the maximum contribution to the world oil production followed by Russia. Iran. Mexico and China.World Oil and Gas Review .7 million barrels per day Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. US. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 83.
Production and Reserves Comparison Snapshot .Consumption.
com/content/oil-gas/logistics-supply/depots.html A cross section of an oil tank Back .http://www.planete-energies.
An inside view of a petrol pump/station Back .
eia.html • http://www.adventuresinenergy.html • http://www.com/content/oil-gas.html .doe.com/oil.com/intera ctive/all_5000.howstuffworks.com/oildrilling.html • http://science.You can visit these sites for more learning • http://www.gov/basics/petroleum_ basics.planeteenergies.gravmag.html • http://www.
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