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By Hemant Kumar Domain Consultant Energy Practice
By the end of this presentation you’ll learn
• • • • • • • • The importance of energy in our lives Overview of oil and gas supply chain What are hydrocarbons Where do crude oil and natural gas come from How are they produced How are petrol, diesel etc are produced How are they delivered to us Who are various players in the industry
Chapter- 1 Introduction to Energy
You check your mails on your PC and find that you’ve won a quiz contest Picture This You read about the increase in crude oil prices in the newspaper You wash your most favourite T-shirt in washing machine You store the delicious dish you cooked last night in your fridge You spend quality time with your family watching a movie “dog’s life” .
And light bulbs/tubes keep your house glowing at night .Your house is sufficiently heated to protect you from cold weather.
The electricity comes from the power plant which runs on natural gas or coal .And all that needs electricity to keep your day to day life running smoothly.
Fortunately we have various ways to do that Train for long distances Public Transport for daily commutation Our personal vehicles for outings Planes for faster long distance travel And we need roads for our vehicles to run on .And Picture This Also World is not so small and we require the means to move from one place to another.
And we need fuel for all these modes of transport. Unless of course you want to use a bicycle To build roads we need TAR which is also called COAL TAR…… .…….
And can we live without food? Thanks to cooking gas. preparing food is no more inconvenient Plastic bags are widely used to carry the vegetables and other food items Vegetables we love to eat also need fertilizer We need fertilizer to grow the food crops .
The way.. recreation. for preparing foods.To cut a long story short. comfort and safety. The all-important energy comes from various sources like Crude oil & Natural Gas Wind Water Coal Sun . needs lot of energy. travelling. we live.
Types of energy Renewable Renewable Energy is energy derived from resources that are regenerative (can be replenished in a short period of time) or for all practical purposes cannot be depleted Renewable energy accounts for about 14% of the world's energy consumption The five renewable sources used most often include hydropower (water). crude oil and natural gas are all considered fossil fuels because they formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago Nuclear Fuel Coal . Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types: fossil fuels and nuclear fuel Coal. wind. gases and solids. Crude oil & Natural Gas Biomas s Wind Geothermal Sun Water Non Renewable Nonrenewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids. solar. geothermal. and biomass.
When we talk about hydrocarbons. produced and delivered to us by oil and gas companies who engage in multiple activities which will be described in this presentation So let’s get ready to learn about oil and gas industry.Welcome to Oil and Gas industry • Now that we have understood the importance of energy in its various forms. we should know that they are found. In the next chapters we’ll try to know more about hydrocarbons which are very important source of energy and critical to our economic growth and survival. • • • Finding & producing hydrocarbons Transporting hydrocarbons Refining hydrocarbons Selling the petroleum by products . which are nonrenewable energy resources. Hydrocarbons (oil and gas). we also need to know where it comes from. contribute almost 50% of the total world energy requirement.
com Platform Producers Upstream Midstream Downstream Retail . Industry is organized into three broad categories based on the activities performed therein. They are mainly a) Upstream (Finding & producing hydrocarbons) b) Downstream (Refining hydrocarbons and producing saleable petroleum byproducts) c) Retail (Selling the byproducts to all the users who need them).Midstream.Petroleum Value Chain Picture below gives an overview of the supply chain of the oil and gas industry.adventuresinenergy. Truck Refineries Wellhead Producers Terminal/Storage/H ub Location Bulk Terminal Storage Gas Stations Platform Producers Platform Producers Source:http://www. though is not a very popular term is used to describe the transport part.
Chapter.2 Origin of Oil & Gas .
four hydrogen atoms • From now we’ll use terms hydrocarbons and oil & gas interchangeably (which is perfectly alright) . • Chemicals based on carbon and hydrogen are called as hydrocarbons • The Simplest Hydrocarbon is methane (CH4) is made up of one carbon.What Hydrocarbons are • Hydrocarbons are naturally occurring chemicals that are made up of just two elements – carbon and hydrogen.
html#How%20used . silt and mud.doe. These produce tiny droplets of hydrocarbons Source. subject the organic matter to higher temperatures and pressures. As soon as the oxygen is used up.e.Origin of Oil and Gas Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment even before the dinosaurs. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth.eia. i. Continued burial.. Over the years. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil . which cause physical and chemical changes in the organic. Hydrocarbon Formation Once the body of prehistoric animals and plants became trapped they partially decomposed using up the dissolved oxygen in the sediment.http://www. decay stops and the remaining organic matter is preserved.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/oil. the hydrocarbons." Nowadays the terms petroleum is used as a common denotation for crude oil and natural gas. the remains were covered by layers of sand.
Origin of Oil and Gas Facts • Oil & gas do not occur in an underground pool but lies in the pore pace of the rocks which are also called the source rocks • The oil & gas are forced through the rock on account of three reasons •Expansion of the oil itself •Expansion of gas from above •Pressure of the encroaching water from below. What a petroleum bearing rock looks like • Oil can be found with in the depth of ranging between 2km – 9km .
A word of Caution: Don’t try it at home ☺ If it’s very difficult to do. Does it make life difficult for those looking for large deposits of oil and gas? Not exactly! . take a bucket. However a source rock as we call it will be no good on its own as oil & gas therein will leave the source rock and migrate to other areas. in its pores. Sounds simple!! Isn’t it? Except that a petroleum reservoir is more complicated in its nature and very difficult to find out. As shown in the picture below. You can imagine a sponge soaked with water or petrol. A rock will contain the hydrocarbon the same way. Try mixing them together and resulting mixture would resemble a reservoir. a can of petrol and gas. don’t worry.Origin of Oil and Gas-Do it yourself You can visualize what a rock containing crude oil & natural gas would look like.
oil and gas originate in source rock and once fully formed they start moving towards the surface through channels in the rocks surrounding the source rocks. Once their upwards movement is impeded by non permeable rocks also called trap or seal or cap rocks they tend to accumulate in the porous (containing pores) and permeable rocks also known as reservoir rocks.Petroleum System As we learnt. reservoir and cap rocks. Petroleum SystemIs a oil & gas bearing structure containing source. An oil & gas field consists of one or many such petroleum systems Petroleum System Source Rock Pore is a small open space between the rock particles Permeability is provided by the channels connecting different pores .Origin of Oil and Gas.
3 Oil & Gas Exploration & Production .Chapter.
Exploration.Finding Oil & Gas Oil & gas fields are identified using seismic data which is obtained from Seismic Surveys Seismic Data Acquisition Seismic Survey Seismic Data obtained from Seismic Survey Computer generated model of underground rocks and trapped oil&gas reserves Seismic Data processed at the Workstation .
. This positioning may be accomplished with multiple anchors.is a ship designed to carry out the drilling operations in deep water.Finding Oil & Gas To confirm the interpretations of the seismic data. Drilling is done using drilling rigs each adapted to different water depths (more than 2000 m in some cases) Jack up Rig. drilling is done which is also called as exploratory drilling.floats and retains its stabilized position by means of anchors fixed on the seabed. as opposed to other floating rigs. This allows the working platform to rest above the surface of the water. dynamic propulsion (thrusters) or a combination of these.Exploration. Used in deep waters Sea Bed Water Level Drill Ship. Used in shallow depth Jack up Rig Semisubmersible Rig Drill Ship Semi-submersible Rig. A drill ship must stay relatively stationary on location in the water for extended periods of time.is fitted with long support legs (3 0r 4) which are lowered until they rest on the sea bottom.
A drill string is composed of hollow lengths of pipe leading to the surface. Rotary drilling operates on the principle of boring a hole by continuous turning of a bit. Drill Bit . more lengths of pipe can be added at the top. which is the most important part and also is hollow and very heavy.Exploratory Drilling Once an area has been selected and the right to drill thereon has been obtained.Exploration. As the hole gets deeper. The most common method of drilling in use today is rotary drilling. The bit. is attached to the drill string. actual drilling may begin.
The life of an oil field continues for many years years Production Production . It also means the of them would be dry holes. The life of an oil field continues for many is in place. Oil companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate companies are using the modern technologies to increase the strike rate during exploration during exploration •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further •Hydrocarbons discovered by the initial exploration wells are further confirmed by appraisal drilling i. decision is taken whether to develop the field •Following appraisal drilling. decision is taken whether to develop the field for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible for commercial extraction or stop further activities in case the producible quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. Drilling well is very costly activities especially in deep water. extraction can start. Oil ••Drilling aawell is aavery costly activities especially in deep water. The success rate also known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular known as strike rate depends on the geological history of the particular region where exploratory activities are being performed.e. studies and the eventual construction of the installations constitute the development stage of the field. On an average region where exploratory activities are being performed. These forecasts. drilling more wells in the area confirmed by appraisal drilling i. These forecasts. Once everything installations constitute the development stage of the field. drilling more wells in the area •Following appraisal drilling. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons. studies and the eventual construction of the conditions.e. For example 10% strike rate the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%. extraction can start. Once everything is in place. attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest attempting to recover the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the safest conditions. It also would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled. •Enormous thought goes into the best way of extracting the hydrocarbons. For example aa10% strike rate would mean one prospect among 10 exploratory wells drilled.Oil & Gas Production Exploration Exploration •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering •Oil companies have to drill many exploratory wells before discovering aa potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. The success rate also potential oil filed which is also called as prospect. means the 99of them would be dry holes. quantity of oil and gas do not justify the investment in development. On an average the strike rate varies between 5% to 15%.
the technique enables a significant reduction in the number of wells necessary for a given development. A large number of vertical wells would therefore be necessary to completely extract the contents of a reservoir. at least several km² and sometimes more than 100 km² A traditional well (vertical or slightly deviated) only draws oil or gas from a radius of a few tens of meters. •.Oil & Gas Production Production consists of bringing the hydrocarbons contained in the subsurface to the surface. The horizontal well has a much greater length of contact with the reservoir. such wells only cross the reservoir over the limited height of a vertical or near vertical cross section. This requires the use of a large number of wells. Question is. Thus. how many wells are required? Imagine A field spreads over a vast area. However drilling horizontal involves a lot of technical complexity and is also more costly Reservoir Small Drainage Area for Vertical Well Large Drainage Area for Horizontal Well . Moreover.
The picture below shows an offshore oil platform which takes production from 10-12 wells housed within the platform Oil Wells .Development It’s not enough to drill wells in a field to ensure production.Oil & Gas Production. safety equipments and other installations are set up. To ensure safe production from the high pressure fields.
Chapter.4 Oil & Gas Transportation .
After processing crude oil and gas are sent to the their respective destinations. hydrogen sulphide removed. refineries & gas processing units via pipelines or tankers (more about these later) . gas and water are separated and impurities like condensate. At process platform oil. sulfur.Transportation The crude oil & gas transportation begins from the wells where production from different wells is taken to a large processing platforms via small diameter (2-8 inches) pipes.
FPSO’s find their application in sub sea wells in remote and deep water fields. Sea Bed . Oil is processed and accumulated in the FPSO until there is sufficient to fill a transport tanker. In a sub sea well wells are located on the seabed as opposed to the conventional wells at the surface Oil Tanker The FPSO is usually a decommissioned oil tanker which has been stripped down and equipped with facilities to process and stabilize the crude oil and enable it to be connected to another oil tanker or transport tanker. at which point the transport tanker connects to the stern to the stern or bow of the FPSO and offloads the oil.Transportation FPSO ( Floating Production Storage Offloading) are used where it’s not possible or economically justifiable to install sea bed pipelines or expensive process platforms.
distance. Since most of crude oil & gas are found in remote places like deserts. the need to be sent to the refineries/processing units for further processing. Maritime Pipelines Truck Railways Many factors determine the choice of one mode of transport over another like cost. Broadly there are four modes of oil & gas transportation Pipeline. volume. sea or hills. Railways & Trucks. Sometimes many modes of transports are utilized to achieve this goal. However in majority of the cases Maritime (large oil tankers) and Pipelines are the most preferred means of transport. Maritime.Transportation Once the crude oil and natural gas are separated. accessibility. transportation of crude oil to its destination (refineries) is sometimes very complicated. Let’s learn a little more about them . time and availability.
has significant portions of the system above ground.24 inches in diameter) in the U. The United States has the largest network of energy pipelines – both oil and natural gas -. The oil circulates by means of pressure maintained by pumping stations located every 60 to 100 km. It’s also the most photographed pipeline as it. is extensive.000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 .Oil Transportation-Pipelines Pipelines are large diameter tubes that can transport enormous quantities of oil. Carrying capacity of a pipeline is expressed in terms of thousands barrel per day Pipeline shown in the picture is Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS).S. Due to the very nature pipelines are considered to be the safest. Pipelines are owned by the oil companies or third party operators who lease the pipelines to the oil companies.of any nation in the world.S. that connect regional markets . unlike most pipelines. The oil travels in the pipelines at speeds of around 2m/sec (7km/h). it’s one of the of the largest pipeline systems in the world. up to several tens of millions of tons per year. pipelines permit the movement of crude oil to these areas with little or no disruption to communities everywhere. Since oil is produced in areas far away from major marketplaces where population and manufacturing centers are located. The network of crude oil pipelines in the U. There are approximately 55. most efficient and economical way of transportation. 800 mile long.
Panamax and Handysize.80.Mid size vessels used for short to medium hauls(carrying capacity.4% of the world tanker fleet . Within the industry. The six categories of vessels are: ULCCs and VLCCs (Ultra and very large crude oil container) – Largest vessels used for long hauls(carrying capacity.Small size vessels used for short hauls (carrying capacity.000 dwt).000 to 200.000 dwt) • • • The seaborne crude oil transportation business is highly fragmented and is generally provided by two types of operators: independent ship owners and captive fleets of privately and state owned oil companies. The oil tanker fleet in divided into six major categories. based on their carrying capacity.4% of the tanker capacity.000 to 80.000 dwt and greater) Suezmax and Aframax.10. and the top ten owners account for 26. These two are most commonly used. independent owners account for approximately 80.200. In order to benefit from economies of scale companies typically charter the largest possible vessel that can be accommodated in their arrival and discharge ports.Oil Transportation-Maritime Maritime transport involves transporting crude oil through large oil tankers.
Unlike oil. That would cost … 600 times too much! The most usual method of transportation is therefore by gas pipelines. for the same quantity of energy. it occupies a volume 600 times greater than that of oil.Gas Transportation Overall. Therefore. there is no question of chartering vessels to transport gas in its gaseous state. This means that. liquefied natural gas) is used Source.com/content/oil-gas/distribution/supply-storage-gas. The compressed gas circulates at high speed in a gas pipeline.http://www. the gas is in a gaseous state at normal pressures and temperatures. But in detail. a method of maritime transport based on the liquefaction of the gas (LNG. Overland or underwater transport by gas pipeline is preferred. In certain cases where the construction of gas pipelines is technically impossible or too expensive.html . things are quite different. These gas pipelines are not visible: for reasons of safety and security they are buried underground. the problems of transport and of storage of gas are the same as for oil. production and consumption points are far apart and gas has to be taken from one to the other. with the aid of compression plants positioned at regular intervals along the network.planete-energies.
Depending on the country. They are committed to holding stocks of petroleum products (crude and finished products) equivalent to 3 months of import quantities.Crude Oil Storage • • • At the marine terminal. the strategic stocks are managed by state or private organizations (or both) • Storage tanks at a marine terminal Storage tank . the developed countries have realized for a long time now the strategic importance of oil. the cargo of crude oil is discharged through pipelines to storage tanks in the refinery Storage tanks come in varying size (more than 500.000 litres) and can often be buried underground due to safety and security reasons In addition. These commitments have been incumbent on members of the European Union since 1968.
There are two ways to store the natural gas.Gas Storage • Due to reasons such as seasonal fluctuation or supply-demand change. Underground reservoirs offer enormous storage capacities to the extent of billions of m³. so that injection of the gas is not too expensive in energy terms.html .http://www. Only drawback is that such ideal sites are not numerous and in most of the cases liquefaction of gas to convert it into LNG is the only option Ariel view of a LNG plant • Source. in LNG form in large tanks & underground reservoirs. and there is no need to refrigerate the gas to liquefy it as in LNG.com/content/oil-gas/distribution/supply-storage-gas. All one need is a suitable geological site which must must possess good reservoir and cap rock conditions and be located at a sufficiently shallow depth (around 500m). storage of gas is essential.planete-energies.
200 miles of rocky beach. vessel occurred when the Exxon Valdez oil tanker emptied 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound off the coast of Alaska in 1989. 100 airplanes & $1.000 boats. • Oil Spill Pipeline Leak The largest oil spill involving a U. Most dangerous are oil spills which pose enormous threat to the environment Same precautions go for storage also as enormous quantities of oil transported are not used immediately.2 billion to clean up the spill.000 workers. . 10. Storage facilities ensuring total safety and security must therefore be planned for petroleum products. security and respect for the environment. killing hundreds of thousands of birds and marine animals and soiling more than 1. everything must be done to avoid pollution. not only accidental oil spills but also the deliberate discharging of polluting products such as the residue from tank and bilge cleaning. the main issues are those of safety. It took company four summers. At sea.S. 1.Transportation & Storage-Safety Aspects • Whether oil is transported from production sites to the refineries by maritime or pipeline methods. On land the state of oil pipelines must be continually kept under surveillance and worn equipment replaced.
5 Oil Refining .Chapter.
Let’s learn more about the refining and refineries… . sulphuric or acid products which are very corrosive for metals That is why the crude oils must be purified and transformed into products having an almost constant composition. These transformations are carried out in refineries.Refining Crude Oil Why do we need to refine the crude oil? Why can’t we build engines that run on crude oil? We need to refine the crude oil because • Crude oil is an unstable mixture of several hydrocarbons in varying quantities according to the density of the products • There is not one type of crude oil but a multitude of different crudes • Different crudes contain dissolved gases. well adapted to their use.
Kerosene. Fuel oil. A typical refinery costs billions of dollars to build and millions more to maintain A refinery runs twenty-four hours a day. Typical refinery products are LPG. 365 days a year and requires a large number of employees to run. Lubricating oil. a refinery takes crude oil and turns it into gasoline and hundreds of other useful products. Workers ride bicycles to move from place to place inside the complex. Just as a paper mill turns lumber into paper. Gasoline. A refinery can occupy as much land as several hundred football fields.Introduction to Petroleum Refinery A refinery is a factory. Asphalt and Tar . Diesel. Paraffin wax.
which then are selectively reconfigured into new products. Moreover crude oil can be categorized under •Light •Heavy (Asphaltic) •Sweet (Non-sulfurous-less than 1% of sulfur) •Sour (Sulfurous-more than 1% of sulfur)) Crude oil processing consists of two parts Primary Processing.Output is raw (primary) products Secondary Processing. refining breaks crude oil down into its various components.What does refining actually do? Essentially. All refineries perform four basic steps: a) Separation (Distillation). relative solubility.Output is commercial products which are used by us Crude Oil Primary Processing Raw Products Secondary Processing Commercial Products Separation Conversion . b) Conversion (Cracking) and c) Reforming d) Blending & Treatment Crude oil contains many components which differ in boiling points.
gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/refinery. The lightest fractions.doe.http://www. the liquids and vapors separate into components or fractions according to weight and boiling point.) Source. including gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG).eia. Distillation causes separation of breaking up of crude oil into various petrochemicals Inside the towers. called gas oils. vaporize and rise to the top of the tower. (Heavier liquids. separate lower down. where they condense back to liquids. including kerosene and diesel oil distillates. stay in the middle.html . Medium weight liquids.Primary Processing-Separation Primary processing involves distillation at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum. while the heaviest fractions with the highest boiling points settle at the bottom.
Primary Processing-Separation AS we learnt that distillation is done using two methods a) Atmospheric distillation b) Vacuum Distillation Atmospheric distillation Vacuum distillation .
skinny towers that loom above other refinery structures. a light.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/refinery. bullet-shaped reactors and a network of furnaces.eia. A cracking unit consists of one or more tall. relatively low-value fraction. This transformation takes place during conversion stage. into high-octane gasoline components. Alkylation’s. horizontal vessels and tall. The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to "crack" heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones. makes gasoline components by combining some of the gaseous byproducts of cracking. Reforming uses heat. heat exchangers and other vessels. takes place in a series of large. Conversion is directed towards maximum gasoline production Cracking unit Cracking is not the only form of conversion. which essentially is cracking in reverse. instead of splitting molecules. The process. moderate pressure and catalysts to turn naphtha. We’ll learn more about these processes Source. thick-walled. Other refinery processes.Secondary Processing-Conversion Primary products require further adjustment of chemical composition in order to become suitable for sale or petrochemical processing.html .http://www. for example. rearrange them to add value.doe.
In delayed coking the heated charge (typically residuum from atmospheric distillation towers) is transferred to large coke drums which provide the long residence time needed to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion. oil is cracked in the presence of a finely divided catalyst which is maintained in an aerated or fluidized state by the oil vapors. wherein heavier feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products. DELAYED COKING .Secondary Processing-Conversion Some of the conversion processes are shown below VISBREAKING A mild form of thermal cracking. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING HYDROCRACKING Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. significantly lowers the viscosity of heavy crude-oil residue without affecting the boiling point range.
Hydrocarbons in the Naptha (another petroleum byproduct) stream have roughly the same number of carbon atoms as those in gasoline. . Reforming rearranges Naptha hydrocarbons into Gasoline molecules CATALYTIC REFORMING Catalytic reforming is an important process used to convert low-octane naphthas into highoctane gasoline blending components called reformates. For example. but their structure is generally more complex.Reforming Reforming is another process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil.
To make gasoline. . and metals from liquid petroleum fractions. oxygen.Blending & Treatment The finishing touches occur during the final treatment. refinery technicians carefully combine a variety of streams from the processing units. Among the variables that determine the blend are octane level. such as whether the gasoline will be used at high altitudes. Impurities like Sulfur are also removed to make Gasoline as clean as possible CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING Catalytic hydrotreating is a hydrogenation process used to remove about 90% of contaminants such as nitrogen. vapor pressure ratings and special considerations. sulfur.
However that would also mean something else will be produced less. it gets bigger after it is popped. For example. This gain from processing the crude oil is similar to what happens to popcorn.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/non-renewable/oil. Bottled Gas Petrol Other Products Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Chemical Works Heavy Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Jet Fuel Diesel Fuel & Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Don’t be surprised to know that a barrel of crude oil after refining will provide slightly more than 1 barrel of petroleum products.Some More About Refinery To Summarize every barrel of crude holds remarkable potential.html#How%20used . You can see below that petroleum in its more refined form contribute heavily to the modern economy. Source.doe.http://www. However the product mix can be changed as needed. the same barrel can be processed to yield more heating oil in winter. Wax Fuel Oil Power Station Tar (bitumen ) for roads If you are still wondering how much of what is produced here is a general breakup of the quantity of petroleum products produced in a refinery.eia. It provides the building blocks for countless products we depend on every day.
Some More About Refinery
Types of refinery
•Topping – CDU •Hydroskimming – CDU + Reformer •Cracking – CDU + Cracker •Coking – CDU + Cracker + Coker
Some of the refineries we may not have heard of
•Haldia Refinery (IOC) 116,000 bpd •Panipat Refinery (IOC), 240,000 bpd •Digboi Refinery(IOC), 13,000 bpd •Gujrat Refinery(IOC), 68,000 bpd •Barauni Refinery (IOC), 116,000 bpd •Guwahati Refinery (IOC), 20,000 bpd •Mathura Refinery (IOC), 156,000 bpd •Bongaigaon Refinery(BRPL), 48,000 bpd •Manali Refinery (CPCL), 185,000 bpd •Jamnagar Refinery (RIL), 660,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (HPCL), 107,000 bpd •Vizag Refinery (HPCL), 150,000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (BPCL), 135,000 bpd •Kochi Refinery, 146,000 bpd •Numaligarh Refinery (NRL), 58,000 bpd •Mangalore Refinery (MRPL), 190,000 bpd
World's Largest Refineries
•Paraguana Refining, Venezuela - 940,000 bpd •SK Corporation, South Korea - 817,000 bpd •Reliance I, India - 661,000 bpd •GS Caltex, South Korea - 650,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Singapore - 605,000 bpd •Reliance II, India (proposed) - 580,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baytown, USA - 557,000 bpd •S-Oil, South Korea - 520,000 bpd •Hovensa LLC, Virgin Islands - 495,000 bpd •Exxon Mobil, Baton Rouge, USA - 493,500 bpd •Shell Eastern, Singapore - 458,000 bpd
Chapter- 6 Oil Distribution
Each one of us is a user of petroleum products. Between the refinery, where heating oil, diesel, petrol and gas are produced, and the end user, there is a distribution network that is responsible for getting these products to their final destination. Making available to each person the right product, at the right time, at the right place and at the lowest cost and in optimum conditions of safety and security, is the objective of petroleum logistics.
Am overview of petroleum distribution network
on average between 10. river/canal barges. it would require large numbers of road tankers covering enormous distances everyday to meet the consumption needs. A tank can be as large as 60 000 m3.Petroleum Depots Taking the petroleum products directly from the refinery to the customer is a complicated task. In absence of any intermediary storage centres. Depot capacities are very variable. The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain.html .com/content/oil-gas/logistics-supply. as well as special diesel fuels used by farmers and fishermen.000 and 300. boats.000 m3.Oil Logistics. trains of tanker wagons. That’s where strategic stocks also come into picture The petroleum products are taken from the refineries to the depots by bulk transport methods: pipelines.http://www. Ariel View of Petroleum Depots Source. Other advantage of having depots is smoothening demand-supply imbalance caused by increased demand or disruption in supply. to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing. Each depot has 3 to 12 loading bays for the road tankers that will deliver the products to different consumers.planete-energies. Petroleum depots are used as intermediate storage to serve a particular region. from the refinery to the end user. and aviation fuel A petroleum depot consists of 10 to 30 steel tanks. petrol and diesel. The principal products stored are heating oil.
are supplied directly from the refineries by rail (tanker wagons). Refinery Delivering fuel to the consumers Road Tankers Depots Hypermarket Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Petrol Pumps Source:http://www. large numbers of road tankers deliver fuel to filling stations and heating oil and gas to individuals and to companies. the distribution network involves intermediate stages. From petroleum depots. The major users. by river and canal barges or even by pipelines carrying finished products.adventuresinenergy.com . industrial plants. For the other consumers like us.Oil Logistics-Delivering to the End User Last step in petroleum supply chain is delivering the finished products to all the users who need them. Let’s know more about these filling/gas station.
where petrol is known as "gas" or "gasoline. biodiesel. In Australia. The term "gas station" is mostly used in the United States and Canada. or kerosene.“ Elsewhere in the English-speaking world the form "petrol station" or "petrol pump" are used. gas station or petrol station is a facility which sells fuel and lubricants for motor vehicles. fueling station. In Japanese English. Some stations carry specialty fuels such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG). it is called a "gasoline stand". it's called a Petrol Pump or petrol bunk.Oil Logistics-Gas Station Filling station. And finally in Indian English. The most common fuels sold are gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. . hydrogen. ethanol. the term service station ("servo") describes any petrol station. compressed natural gas (CNG).
to guarantee the maintenance of product quality and the absence of contamination by mixing.Gas Logistics The products are regularly inspected throughout the whole distribution chain.htm .gov/comm/PetroleumPipelineSystems. from the refinery to the end user.dot.http://primis.phmsa. Source.
Figure shows the various components of price of a gallon (3.78 litre) at a petrol pump in US in 2004.Prices and Taxes Did you know that the price that you pay at the pump is a lot higher than the cost price of the products? Why this difference? It results from the fiscal policy in the consumer country. 23% to federal and state taxes and 47% to crude oil. Price of petroleum products vary from country to country as tax rates are different. 18% to refining costs& profits. 12% of what you paid went to distribution & marketing. As you can see. For example in Europe taxes on petroleum products are as high as 70% as a result of which a litre of petrol would be costlier in Europe than in US .
Source. you should have the understanding of the supply chain in Oil and Gas industry. Please go through the following picture to have a quick recap of what you have learnt so far.http://primis.Overall Oil & Gas Industry Supply Chain Till this point.dot.gov/comm/PetroleumPipelineSystems.phmsa.htm .
A quick Recap before we move to the last section We learnt so far • The importance of energy in our lives • Overview of oil and gas supply chain • What are hydrocarbons • Where do crude oil and natural gas come from • How are they produced • How are petrol. diesel etc are produced • How are they delivered to us .
7 Oil & Gas Producers .Chapter.
in many countries. organizations and consultants all play a part in the “hydrocarbon universe” •National companies. The best-known are. mainly for exploration and production. or develop fields that have been abandoned by the major companies. Halliburton. •International Oil Companies. Example Suadi Aramco. of course. Total and Chevron/Texaco. manage oil production and defend national interests in the hydrocarbon sector. the largest gas producer in the world •National agencies & government departments with responsibility for energy matters (For example DOE (Department of Energy) in the United States the DOE •International organization. •Companies specializing in gas distribution. •Small independent oil companies. OAPEC (the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) or the IEA (the International Energy Agency). Example. supplying oil companies with personnel and equipment that the latter do not own or employ themselves. drilling. A myriad of companies.Maurel et Prom in France. such as OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). Transocean Sedco Forex These companies are involved in specific technical areas (geophysical surveying and analysis. depth imaging. • Companies operating in the oil sector as suppliers of services to oil companies. Examples include Exxon Mobil.Goservices. are also generally categorized as majors or supermajors. which take over oil fields near the end of their useful lives. Among the best known: Schlumberger. Shell. For example French Oil Institute •Independent consultants and other organizations or individuals who offer consultancy & design services and technical audits to the oil companies .Oil & Gas Companies There are numerous actors in the world of oil and gas. BP. which are often training centers too. production equipment ). But they are not the only ones. such as Gazprom. the largest in terms of proven reserves and production. •Research institutes. which. the major oil companies and OPEC.
but Shell’s daily production is enough to meet India’s daily Energy consumption. .Some Statistics on Oil Majors Look at the graphs below to find out how the five majors compare with the other top companies in the world Profit (Million $) Revenue (Million $) Believe it or not.
Qatar. have become very limited. •OPEC works on the principle of limiting oil production by means of the allocation of quotas (authorized maximum quantities) to each of its members according to their reserves.Nigeria and Indonesia . at regular or extraordinary conferences. As a result. These quotas are adjusted. Iraq. Venezuela. But since 2004. in favor of the former. the main objective of this organization was to redress the split of income between the oil producing countries and the oil companies. Saudi Arabia. (what is called excess capacity). Iran. Venezuela. to take account of the state of the world economy and its requirements. OPEC has virtually lost its ability to control prices. Kuwait and Iran. At the beginning. Algeria. Kuwait. the United Arab Emirates (UAE).The Institutions and Other Organization OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) •Was founded in 1960 by Iraq. OPEC production has been working at almost full capacity and the possibilities of increasing production further. which have tended to soar in the recent times •Eleven members of OPEC are Saudi Arabia. Libya. This system has allowed OPEC to fix a range for oil prices and thus to maintain price stability.
The IEA works towards security of energy supplies. With regards to the Kyoto protocol. In 2005. in which it recommended consumer countries to take preparatory steps to limit their oil consumption. The IEA keeps a sharp eye on the evolution of oil markets. It was created in 1974. The IEA is an autonomous unit within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the OECD). In addition. governments of the member countries have undertaken to implement joint measures to deal with emergency situations concerning petroleum supplies. the IEA seeks to establish common ground and compromise solutions between signatories and non-signatories (the United States and Australia) of the protocol.The Institutions and Other Organization The International Energy Agency (IEA) • IEA unlike OPEC is an association of consumer countries. It is an intergovernmental organization for the co-ordination of energy polices. both to the OPEC offensive when petroleum prices rocketed at the end of 1973. the IEA made a report public on the 28 th of April 2005. economic growth and environmental protection. and also plays a more and more important role in the protection of the environment. all of which are industrialized countries and major hydrocarbon consumers. as a reaction. it had 26 members. at the initiative of the United States. and to the use of oil as an economic arm by Arab countries. They have also undertaken to pool information. • • • . In a completely new and unexpected step.
8 Production & Consumption Pattern .Chapter.
Libya.World Oil and Gas Review . Million Barrels as on 1st Jan 2007 Source. Russia. Iraq. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 were 1. Iran. UAE) boasts of 60% of total world oil reserves followed by Venezuela.507 million barrels per day. Kuwait.Reserves Middle East (Saudi Arabia.147. Nigeria and rest of world.
Japan. Germany and India. Russia.5 million barrels per day. Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source.World Oil and Gas Review . Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 84.Consumption US is way ahead of the pack when it comes to oil consumption followed by China.
US. Iran.7 million barrels per day Thousand Barrels per Day as on 1st Jan 2007 Source.Production Saudi Arabia claims the maximum contribution to the world oil production followed by Russia. Mexico and China. Total world oil consumption as of 1st Jan 2007 was 83.World Oil and Gas Review .
Consumption. Production and Reserves Comparison Snapshot .
planete-energies.html A cross section of an oil tank Back .http://www.com/content/oil-gas/logistics-supply/depots.
An inside view of a petrol pump/station Back .
gravmag.html .com/content/oil-gas.adventuresinenergy.html • http://www.You can visit these sites for more learning • http://www.html • http://science.com/oil.eia.planeteenergies.com/intera ctive/all_5000.html • http://www.com/oildrilling.html • http://www.doe.gov/basics/petroleum_ basics.howstuffworks.