ã.

äìíìáéÇ

è‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒ͇fl „‡ÏχÚË͇
‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇

åéëäÇÄ ÇÖóÖ 1998

é„·‚ÎÂÌËÂ.
éÉãÄÇãÖçàÖ. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................1
ÇÇÖÑÖçàÖ.................................................................................................................................................................................................5
êÄáÑÖã I. ÉêÄååÄíàäÄ. íÖåõ à èêÄÇàãÄ........................................................................................................................9
íÖåÄ 1: èéëíêéÖçàÖ èêéëíéÉé ÄçÉãàâëäéÉé èêÖÑãéÜÖçàü...................................................................................................9
ä‡Í ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ò ÙÓÏÛ·ÏË Ë Ú‡·ÎˈÂÈ............................................................................................................................................................ 10
àÁ ͇ÍËı ‰ÂÚ‡ÎÂÈ ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚, Ë ‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó ÒÎÛÊËÚ Í‡Ê‰‡fl ‰Âڇθ..................................................................................................... 11
ä‡Í ÛÁ̇ڸ, Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ËÎË ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È?..................................................................................................................................... 11
ä‡Í ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ̇ȉÂÌÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ÂÏfl?....................................................................... 13
îÓÏ˚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË, Îˈ‡ Ë ˜ËÒ·. .......................................................................................... 13
to be ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
to have .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
FUTURE (ÅÛ‰Û˘Â ‚ÂÏfl). ................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
èÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. .................................................................. 15
á‡ÍÂÔËÏ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌÌ˚È Ï‡ÚÂˇΠÔËÏÂ‡ÏË..................................................................................................................................................... 16
ä‡Í ‚˚·Ë‡Ú¸ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl...................................................................................................................................................................... 18
1. INDEFINITE. .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
2. CONTINUOUS. ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
3. PERFECT........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Perfect Present........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Perfect Past............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20
Perfect Future......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Perfect continuous (ÌÂ ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚ Passive)................................................................................................................................................... 21
Perfect Continuous Present.................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Perfect Continuous Past......................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Perfect Continuous Future..................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
èÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ. .................................................................. 22

ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 1: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ̇˜ËÈ, ‚ÎËfl˛˘Ëı ̇ ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ...............................................25
è‡‚ËÎÓ 1: èÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ...............................................................................................................27
è‡‚ËÎÓ 2: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ............................................................................................................28
è‡‚ËÎÓ 3: èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl..............................................................................................................................32
è‡‚ËÎÓ 4: åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ..........................................................................................................................33
è‡‚ËÎÓ 5: ÄÚËÍθ. ........................................................................................................................................................................34
íÖåÄ 2. èêÖÑãéÉà................................................................................................................................................................................38
ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 2: èÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë. ...................................................................................................................................................44
è‡‚ËÎÓ 6: èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. ......................................................................................................47
è‡‚ËÎÓ 7: ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl.............................................................................................................48
íÖåÄ 3. åéÑÄãúçõÖ ÉãÄÉéãõ à àï ùäÇàÇÄãÖçíõ.....................................................................................................................50
åÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ „·„ÓÎ˚. ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
ùÍ‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚.................................................................................................................................................................... 51

ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 3: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË „·„ÓÎÓ‚ shall / will / need / dare ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı. ..........................................52
è‡‚ËÎÓ 8: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı. ..................................................................................................................................54
óËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ ‰Ó·flı. ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 55
çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. ........................................................................................... 56

è‡‚ËÎÓ 9: ëÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë Ì‡˜ËÈ. ...................................................................................................56
è‡‚ËÎÓ 10: ì͇Á‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. ..................................................................................................................................58
è‡‚ËÎÓ 11: ëÎÓ‚‡ every / some / any /now. èÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚ ÌËı. ............................................................................................59
è‡‚ËÎÓ 12: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËË. .................................................................................61
è‡‚ËÎÓ 13: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ-΢Ì˚ı / ·ÂÁ΢Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ........................................................................63
è‡‚ËÎÓ 14: è‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there + to be...................................................................................................................63
àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there+to be.................................................................................................................................... 63

è‡‚ËÎÓ 15: ÇÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚Â Ë ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl.........................................................................................................65
íÖåÄ 4. ÇéèêéëàíÖãúçõÖ èêÖÑãéÜÖçàü. ....................................................................................................................................67
鷢ˠ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
ëÔˆˇθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
ÄθÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚.................................................................................................................................................................................. 72
ê‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. .................................................................................................................................................................................. 73

êÄáÑÖã II. ÉêÄååÄíàäÄ. èéëíêéÖçàÖ ëãéÜçõï ÄçÉãàâëäàï èêÖÑãéÜÖçàâ.................................74
íÖåÄ 5: èêàÑÄíéóçõÖ èêÖÑãéÜÖçàü............................................................................................................................................77
WHAT ËÎË THAT?............................................................................................................................................................................................... 79

............................................ 127 êÄáÑÖã IV................................................................................... ................................... ïÓÁflËÌ / ıÓÁflÈ͇.......................................... ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ shall..................................... ëÎÓ‚Ó that......................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................. 119 VI....................................................... ÇÔ‡‚Ó (‚΂Ó) / ÒÔ‡‚‡ (Ò΂‡) / ̇Ô‡‚Ó (̇΂Ó).... ......................... ì˜ËÚ¸Òfl / Û˜ËÚ¸ / ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸............................................................................. 117 IV........................................ 115 III............................ 135 10.................................................................................................. ëÎÓ‚Ó for.............. 93 àÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ for.....................90 éÒÓ·˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ............. 145 2 ................................................................... 141 19.................... ............ 128 3............................................................................................ ............ 126 XIII............ 95 íÖåÄ 8: èêàóÄëíàÖ / PARTICIPLE........................................................... 143 23................................................................................. fi Period)............................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ing............ É·„ÓÎ to do (did / done)..................... .................................. ................. 143 22.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................... Right.....102 íÖåÄ 10: áçÄäà èêÖèàçÄçàü / PUNCTUATION MARKS................................................. 142 20........................................................................................................................... 111 ÄÔÓÒÚÓÙ (Apostrophe).............................................. 凄‡ÁËÌ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................... been)........................................................................................ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ed................................................................. 143 21....................... To call....................................................................................................................................... .....................................................115 I..................................... ..................................................................... 122 IX................................................................................................... 118 V....................................................................................... 144 25................................................................................................87 íÖåÄ 7: àçîàçàíàÇ / INFINITIVE............................... ................................................................................................................... ëÎÓ‚Ó it.............................................................................................................. É·„ÓÎ to be (was/were........................................................................ ëÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÚ¸ / ‚̯ÌËÈ ‚ˉ / ‚Á„Îfl‰.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92 ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.............84 àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡................................. ........................................ 137 13............ 85 àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡............... ч‚‡Ú¸ / ·‡Ú¸ ‚Á‡ÈÏ˚........................................................................................................... è‰·„‡Ú¸ / Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ........................................................... .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. åÌÓ„Ó.................................................................................................... 121 VIII............................................................................................. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ will..... 126 XII.................................. ............ 131 6.................................................................................... ............ á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸(Òfl) / ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl) / Á̇ÍÓÏ˚È / Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Ó.......................................................................................................................128 1.......................... á‡Ô·ڇ / ÓÔ·ڇ (ÚÛ‰‡).. 99 ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ... ÑÛ„ÓÈ / ‰Û„Ó / another / other / the others........................................................................................... ................ 133 9................................................................................................................ 100 íÖåÄ 9: ÉÖêìçÑàâ / GERUND.................................... 122 X................. 136 11................................................ Should (ÙÓχ „·„Ó· shall)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ëÎÓ‚‡.... .................................................................. 138 14......................................... 141 18.................................................................................................. 137 12........................ ë͇Á‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸.................................................... 132 8.........97 é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ............................................................................................ 128 2...... 123 XI................ ꇷÓÚ‡.............. 114 êÄáÑÖã III................................................................ ëÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ / ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸..... 127 XIV.................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................... .............................. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................... å‡ÎÓ / ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó / ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ....................... ÑÓÏ / ‰ÓÏÓÈ / ‰Óχ............................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Would (ÙÓχ „·„Ó· will)............................................................................................................111 íӘ͇ (‡Ì„Î...................................................................................... 87 ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 6: èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl......................... ........ 140 16...................................... Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -s.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. É·„ÓÎ to have (had)............... .............................. 燘‡Î¸ÌËÍ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... çÂÒÚË / ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÓÚÌÂÒÚË / ‚ÂÒÚË /ÔË‚ÂÒÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÒÚË / ‚ÂÁÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÁÚË (ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÂ)............ ñÂ̇ /ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ / Ô·ڇ / ÒÚÓËÚ¸ / Ô·ÚËÚ¸ (Á‡ ÚÓ‚‡ / ÛÒÎÛ„‡)................................................................... 87 ëÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.......................................................................... fi Full Stop / ‡ÏÂ.......... ëÎÓ‚‡.......................................................................................................................... 130 5......................................................................................................................................................... 144 24................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................... 115 II....... ................................................................................................................................ 111 á‡ÔflÚ‡fl (Comma)....... 139 15........................................................ ëÎÓ‚Ó one............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 VII........................................................ ç‡ ÛÎˈÂ........ ëÎÓ‚‡................................................................................................................................íÖåÄ 6: ëéëãÄÉÄíÖãúçéÖ çÄäãéçÖçàÖ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 132 7................................................................................................ 91 é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.............. 140 17......................... To take........................................................................................................... ............. To get................................................................................................................................. 99 çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.......................................................................................................................... íÂÎÂÙÓÌ / Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ........................ 129 4.......................

............................. .............? ....... çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl... éÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl.................... ÜÂÌËÚ¸Òfl / ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ.................................. / í‡Í......... / èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ................................... èË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ëfl Ë ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ÌËı............................................................................... 153 43......................................................................................... 166 23........................................................................................ 160 5................................ 158 êÄáÑÖã V................................................................................................ (ÇÓÚ) á‰ÂÒ¸........................................................................... 166 25..................................26...................................... èˢ‡ / ‰‡ / ·Î˛‰Ó............ .............. Time............ åÂÒÚÓ.............................................................................. 151 38..................... ïÓÓ¯Ó (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ)................................................. ................................. èË ‡ÒÒÚ‡‚‡ÌËË........................ / àÚ‡Í........................................................................................ .... 148 31............................................................................................................................................................................ 150 37............................. .......................... ............................................................... / èÓ¯Û ÔÓ˘ÂÌËfl........ èË Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â............................ ........... çÂωÎÂÌÌÓ / ÌÂÁ‡Ï‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ / ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò / Ò‡ÁÛ........................ ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ ................... Used to / to be used to smth............. ÇÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ................ Å˚Ú¸ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ............................................... çÛ......................................... ü / äÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÚÓÊ (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ).................................................................... / ü ÔÓ·„‡˛............................................. 162 9....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó...................................................................................... 150 36........................... Will ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ shall...................... 149 33............................................... 155 47......... 164 16.................................................................. ......................................................................... ........ .......................................... 167 27..................... ä‡ÒË‚˚È ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................... 160 2........................................... ë‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚È / ÌÂÁ‡ÌflÚ˚È / ÔÛÒÚÓÈ...................... 161 7........... ................... 168 31........................................................................ First............................................................................................................................................................................... ëÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.......................................................................................................160 1......................................................... ............. Ö˘Â............................. ëÎÛ˜‡È / ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë / ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ / ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â............................................. 167 29....................................................................................... ..... ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ)....... ÇÒ / ‚Òfi............ 157 51....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 161 6.... 163 10......... 149 35... çÂÛÊÂÎË?...................................................................................... 160 4................................................. / (ÇÓÌ) í‡Ï................................... 152 40...................................................... .......................................... çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ Ù‡Á˚ / ÂÔÎËÍË......................................................... 154 44............ ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó........... ü ‰Ûχ˛......................................................................................................... óÂÏ ÏÓ„Û ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓÎÂÁÂÌ? / óÂÏ ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸? .......................................................................................... ............................................ ................................................................................................................. 166 26.............................................................................................................. 155 48.................... ........................... ó‡Ò / ˜‡Ò˚...............) ü ‚‡Ò Ì ÔÓÌflÎ / Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛.................................................... .................................. ÑÂÎÓ...................................................................................................................................... ..................................................... 166 24......................... .................................. .................................................................... ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡........................................................ Don't ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ doesn't................................................................................................................................................. äÂÏ ‚˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚÂ?...................................... ........ 167 30..................................................... àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ.... 165 18........ 153 42........................................... 146 29....... 166 22............ ÇÂÊÎË‚˚ ӷ‡˘ÂÌËfl..................... ê‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌË (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌËÂ) ÒÎÓ‚........... ..................................................................................... 145 28................................................................................... 166 21..................................... ç Á‡ ˜ÚÓ.................. 164 17....... è‡‡........................ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.......................................................................................................................................... é·‡˘ÂÌË Á‡ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÓÏ (̇ҘÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó.. á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ / ÒÍÂÔÎflÚ¸............... 145 27..................................................................................... .................. 163 14............................................................. 165 19.................................................................................................................... 171 3 .............. ç‚ÂÊÎË‚˚È ÓÚ͇Á ‚ ÙÓÏ ‚ÒÚ˜ÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡........................................................................................................................................................ ........................................... ...................................................................................................................... ..... 156 49...................................................................................................................................Í‡ÒË‚‡fl / ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌ˚È –ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθ̇fl..... 164 15.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 154 45.................................. ...................................................................................... Ç ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û / ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ / .......................................... 156 50............................... 161 8...................... 163 13.................................................................................... 158 53...................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................. èÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ(Òfl) / ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸(Òfl)........................................................ åÓÊÌÓ ‚‡Ò ÒÔÓÒËÚ¸? ........... ä‡ÚÍË ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ Ó·˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚............................................ / á̇˜ËÚ....................................... 151 39.............................................................. (àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ..................................................................................................................................................... 147 30.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163 12....................................................................................................................................... ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ Ò͇Á‡ÎË..... ç‡Ë·ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ˝ÏÓˆËÈ....... èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.. íÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊÂ........................................ Å˚Ú¸ ̇ ‰ËÂÚ / ıÛ‰ÂÚ¸... ........................................................................................................... ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓËÚ?.......................................... ......................................... ÇÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸(Òfl) / ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸(Òfl)................................................................................................................................................................................ 165 20............................................................................................... 148 32........................................................................... óÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸? / Ç ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? ........................................................................................ 157 52........................................................... 167 28................................................................................. éÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ÏÂÒÚ / Û ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó)............................................................................................. ...................................... ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë............................................................................................................................ åËÌÛÚÓ˜ÍÛ....................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................... ..... 168 33........................ / ü ÔÓÒÎÛ¯‡Î..................... 鷢ˠ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ·ÂÁ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·................................... ä‡ÚÍË ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ...................................... 155 46............... ............ ìʇÒÌÓ / ÛʇÒÌ˚È................................................................... .... 168 32.......................................................................................... / åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl........................................................ ........................ ............................................................ èÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸/ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸.................... 160 3............................. 149 34................................. 152 41...................................................................................................................... 163 11........................................... / ü Ò˜ËÚ‡˛......................................................................................................... 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................ çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ / ËÒ͇ÊÂÌÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚......... ......................... .................................................................................................................................................35.. 182 êÄáÑÖã VI.................................. 185 èÂÙËÍÒ˚. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl......... 182 ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....... 173 36..............................éëçéÇçõÖ ëèéëéÅõ éÅêÄáéÇÄçàü ëãéÇ Ç ÄçÉãàâëäéå üáõäÖ........................................................................ 184 ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ „·„ÓÎÓ‚............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 183 ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı............................................... 180 èËÏÂ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ËÒ͇ÊÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÌËÁÍÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl: ... ....................... çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ Ù‡Á˚ / ÒÎÓ‚‡ / ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl........................................ .................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................. 185 àÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍË .................................................................................. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÌËÁÍÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl. 185 ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ̇˜ËÈ............................182 ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚............................................................187 4 ........................................................................................................... ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓ„Ó (‰ÓÔÓÎÌfl˛˘Â„Ó /ÔÓflÒÌfl˛˘Â„Ó / ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚËÛ˛˘Â„Ó) ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡........................ 176 37...................................................... ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë......................................................................................................................

Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Î˛‰Ë ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛Ú ‚Ò ÔÓËÒıÓ‰fl˘Â ‚ ÊËÁÌË. ç‡Ó·ÓÓÚ.. Ú. Ä‚ÚÓ ÌËÍÓËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ì ÔÂÚẨÛÂÚ Ì‡ ÚÓ. åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Îfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı. ÔÓθÁÛÈÚÂÒ¸ ËÏË.Â. ã˛‰Ë. ë‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌ˚ Á‡ÌflÚËfl Ê·ÚÂθÌÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ Í‡Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ·ÓΠ„ÛÎflÌ˚ÏË. ü „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ Û·ÂʉÂÌ. Ä ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ Á̇ڸ. ÔÓˆÂÒÒÛ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËfl ‚ flÁ˚Í ÌÂÚ Ô‰Â·. Á‡ÍÓ̇ÏË (Ô‡‚Ë·ÏË). ÔÓËÒıÓ‰fl˘Ë ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ. Ë Á‡ÍÓÌ˚. ‡Á‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ÏË ÚÓθÍÓ ÌÓÒËÚÂÎflÏË ˝ÚÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ‚ˉËÏÓ. àÚ‡Í.) Ë ÔÓÌflÚËfl (˜ÂÒÚ¸ / ÒÓ‚ÂÒÚ¸ / . ÅÂÒÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌÌÓ ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÚÓ. ̇¯‡ ‰Ó΄‡ "‡Í‚‡ËÛÏ̇fl" ÊËÁ̸ ̇ÎÓÊË· ̇ Ì‡Ò ÓÚÔ˜‡ÚÓÍ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÌÂÔÓÎÌÓˆÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‚ ÒÏ˚ÒΠӷ˘ÂÌËfl ̇ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. çÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂθÁfl ÔÂÂ‡·‡Ú˚‚‡Ú¸. ǂ‰ÂÌËÂ. ˜ÂÏ fl ÔÓθÁÛ˛Ò¸ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó.). åÂÊ‰Û ÚÂÏ. ëÍÓθÍÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.. β‰ÂÈ ·ÎËÁÍËÏ ÔÓ ‰ÛıÛ Ë ÚÂÏ Ò‡Ï˚Ï ÔÓÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·Î„˜ËÚ¸ ‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ëı ÚÛ‰. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ ÔÓÎÌ˚Ï Ë ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. Ë ÓÚ‚ÂÚËÚ¸ ̇ ÌÂ„Ó ÍÓÓÚÍÓ Ë Ó‰ÌÓÁ̇˜ÌÓ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ÂÊÂÒÂÍÛ̉ÌÓ ÏÂÊ‰Û Î˛‰¸ÏË Ë ‚ÓÍÛ„ β‰ÂÈ. ˜ÚÓ Û Ç‡Ò ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ë Ç˚ Ì ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ì˚ Í ËÁÛ˜ÂÌ˲ flÁ˚͇ — ÔÓ‚Â¸ÚÂ. ÖÒÎË Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓ‚ÂËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓË Á̇ÌËfl. ‚ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÒڂ ӂ·‰ÂÚ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÏ flÁ˚ÍÓÏ. ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ˝ÚË ÔÓˆÂÒÒ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛Ú. Ú. ˜ÂÏ ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ë Í‡Í. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÏ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó Ó¯Ë·ÓÍ. ü Ò˜ËÚ‡˛ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ÔÓÎÛÚÓ‡-‰‚Ûı˜‡ÒÓ‚˚ Âʉ̂Ì˚ Á‡ÌflÚËfl. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘‡fl ËÁ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚‡ ÏÂÎÍËı ‰ÂÚ‡ÎÂÈ (Á‚ÛÍË / ·ÛÍ‚˚ / ÒÎÓ‚‡). ˜ÚÓ ÚÓθÍÓ Ú‡Í. ˜ÚÓ·˚. å˚ ·ÓËÏÒfl ÓÚÍ˚Ú¸ ÓÚ ‰‡Ê ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ÔËÒÚÛÔ‡fl Í ËÁÛ˜ÂÌ˲ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ÇÒ ‡Á‰ÂÎ˚ Î˯¸ ÓÚ‡Ê‡˛Ú ΢Ì˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰ ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ̇ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏÛ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Í‡Í ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó Ë Î˘ÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËflÚË ˝ÚÓÈ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚. ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ ÔÓÒÓ·Ë Ì ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÏÌÓ„ÓÓ·‡ÁËfl ÙÓÏ Ë ÔËÂÏÓ‚. ÌÂÔÂ˚‚ÌÓ ‡Á‚Ë‚‡flÒ¸ Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÒÚ‚ÛflÒ¸ ̇ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÔÛÚË. ã„ÍÓ Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊËÚ¸. ÑÓÒÚ˘¸ ÔË΢ÌÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl ‚ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡Û˜Ë‚¯ËÒ¸ ÔÓÌËχڸ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ˚. ˜ÚÓ Ï‡ÚÂˇÎ. ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È ËÁÛ˜‡˛˘ËÈ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Ò‡Ï Ì‡ÈÚË ‰Îfl Ò·fl ÔËÂÏÎÂÏÛ˛ ÏÂÚÓ‰ËÍÛ. ÇÒ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ flÁ˚ÍË Ô˯ÎË Í Ì‡Ï ËÁ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ„Ó ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó. ÏÂÊ‰Û ÌËÏË ‚ÓÁÌË͇ÎË ‚Ò ÌÓ‚˚Â Ë ÌÓ‚˚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. åÓÎ. ç ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÈÚ ·Ë˜Â‚‡Ú¸ Ò·fl Ï˚ÒÎË Ó ÚÓÏ. ·Û‰ÚÓ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚È flÁ˚Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚˚ÁÛ·ËÚ¸. Ì ÒÚÂÒÌflÈÚÂÒ¸. ùÚÓ ÏÌÓ„ÓÒÎÓÊ̇fl ÒÚÛÍÚÛ‡. Á‡ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ‚Ò Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ (ÒÚÓÎ / ÒÚÛÎ / . ÔÓ ÍÛÔˈ‡Ï.. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚Ò ÔÓÌËχ˛Ú ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡ Ë ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÛÏË‡ÂÚ ÓÚ ÒÚ˚‰‡ Á‡ Ò‚Ó ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ËÎË „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÌÂÚÓ˜ÌÓÒÚË. èËÏÂÓÏ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÎÛÊËÚ¸ ıÓÚfl ·˚ ÚÓÚ Ù‡ÍÚ.. ˜ÂÏ fl ÒÓ·Ë‡˛Ò¸ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í? ã˛·ÓÈ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚È flÁ˚Í ÌÛÊÌÓ Û˜ËÚ¸ ‚Ò˛ ÊËÁ̸. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ‚ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÚÓ„Ó. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ Ì‡ıÓ‰flÚÒfl ‚ ‡·ÓÚÂ. ùÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‰ÎËÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÛÚË ‚Ò flÁ˚ÍË ·˚ÎË Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó ÔËÏËÚË‚Ì˚ÏË Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ï‡ÎÓ ÓÚ΢‡ÎËÒ¸ ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡. ÚÓθÍÓ Á‡ÌËχflÒ¸ ̇ ͇ÍËı-ÚÓ ÍÛÒ‡ı ËÎË Ò ÂÔÂÚËÚÓÓÏ. ÔÓÌËχfl. ÔÓ‰Ò͇Á˚‚‡fl Ë Á‡‰‡‚‡fl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌË LJ¯ÂÈ ‡·ÓÚÂ. Ó·˘‡flÒ¸ Ë Ì‡ Ó‰ÌÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ Á‡·ÎÛʉÂÌËÂÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÛÚ‚Â‰Ë‚¯ÂÂÒfl ÏÌÂÌËÂ. Ô˘ÂÏ ÏÌÓ„ËÂ Ò Ó¯Ë·Í‡ÏË. Á‡ÏÂÌflfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÚÓθÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÁ ‰Û„Ó„Ó! çÓ ÌÂÚ — ÌÛÊÌÓ Â˘Â Á̇ڸ Á‡ÍÓÌ˚ ‰Û„Ó„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ë ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflÚ¸Òfl ËÏ. ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ì ÔÓÌËχÂÏ ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡. ä‡ÍÓ‚˚ ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÓÚ΢Ëfl ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÓÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó? 5 . ÏÓ„ÛÚ Î˯¸ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸ Ç‡Ï ÔÓÒËθÌÛ˛ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflflÒ¸ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï Á‡ÍÓÌ‡Ï (Ô‡‚Ë·Ï). ËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚È ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ ÍÌË„Â. ä‡Í ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓÒÚÓ Ë Î„ÍÓ Ó·˘‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.. ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ Á‡Ô‡Ò Á̇ÌËÈ — ‚Ò ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ ÒÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌÂÏ. ÌÛÊÌÓ Ì‡ÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ̇ Ó„ÓÏÌ˚È ÚÛ‰ ÔÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó Ò·fl. ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ flÁ˚Í.Â. çÓ ‡Á‚ËÚËÂ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ËÁ ÌËı ¯ÎÓ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌËË. Ë ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ˝ÚËı ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË ÒÓ Ò‚ÓËÏË. ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÎËÒ¸ ‚Ò ÌÓ‚˚Â Ë ÌÓ‚˚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ Ë ÔÓÌflÚËfl. ÌË Ó‰ËÌ Û˜Â·ÌËÍ. à ¢Â.ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË „Ó‚ÓflÚ ÛÊ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‚Ó ‚ÒÂÏ ÏËÂ. flÁ˚ÍÂ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ.Ç˚‡Ê‡˛ ËÒÍÂÌÌ˛˛ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÌÓÒÚ¸ í˚θˆÛ Ç·‰ËÏËÛ çËÍÓÎ‡Â‚Ë˜Û Á‡ Â„Ó ÌÂÓˆÂÌËÏÛ˛ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸ ‚ ‡·ÓÚ ̇‰ ÍÌË„ÓÈ. ‚·‰Â˛˘Ë flÁ˚ÍÓÏ. ÌÛÊÌÓ Í‡Ê‰Ó ‚˚Û˜ÂÌÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ËÎË ÔÓÌflÚÛ˛ Ù‡ÁÛ Á‡ÌÓÒËÚ¸ Ò· ‚ ‡ÍÚË‚. Ó·˙flÒÌflfl ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ. ˝ÚÓ „·‚Ì˚È ÚÓÏÓÁ ‚ ÌÓχθÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚÂ. ÓÍÛʇ˛˘Ë ̇Ò. Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ‡θÌ˚ı ÊËÁÌÂÌÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ‚ÓÁÌËÍÎÓ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó ˜ÂÁÏÂÌÓÈ ÛÒÚ‡ÎÓÒÚË Ë ÓÚ‚‡˘ÂÌËfl Í flÁ˚ÍÛ. ‚ÓÚ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‚Ò ̇˜ÌÛÚ ÒÏÂflÚ¸Òfl ̇‰ ÏÓËÏ ÍÓfl‚˚Ï ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂÏ Ë ÏÓËÏË Ó¯Ë·Í‡ÏË. óÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓ flÁ˚Í ‚ÓÓ·˘Â? üÁ˚Í — ˝ÚÓ Ò‰ÒÚ‚Ó. ÎÛ˜¯Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸. ë̇˜‡Î‡ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ò‡Ï˚ı Ó·˘Ëı ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ Ó flÁ˚ÍÂ Ë ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ÌËı. ü Ê ÔÓ͇ ÏÓ„Û Î˯¸ ‰‡Ú¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÓ‚. ä‡Í Û˜ËÚ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ? ÇÓÔÓÒ Ó˜Â̸ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚È.

ç‡ÔËÏÂ: ëÂȘ‡Ò ÔflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. åÂÎÓÏ ÔÓÒÚÛ˜‡ÎË ÔÓ ÒÚÓÎÛ. ÄÌ„ÎËÈÒÍÓ (10ÒÎÓ‚): v?vvvvvvvv. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ·ÂÁ „·‚Ì˚ı ˜ÎÂÌÓ‚ — ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ڇÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó. Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÓÔ‰ÂÎfl˛˘Â ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚Â: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ì ËÏÂ˛Ú ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl.èÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ ˆÂθ˛ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl β·Ó„Ó flÁ˚͇ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ë‚ÂÚ‡ÂÚ. Ä ˝ÚÓ Á̇˜ËÚ. å· ÎÂÊËÚ Ì‡ ÒÚÓÎÓÏ. àÚ‡Í. Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: 6 . ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË Ï˚ Ë ÔÓθÁÛÂÏÒfl. Ç ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÏ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ͇ʉÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó (Á‡ Ì·Óθ¯ËÏ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÂÏ) ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï Ì‡·ÓÓÏ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÎۘ˷Ҹ Ù‡Á‡ (Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ). Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡ Í‡Í ·˚ ÒˆÂÔÎfl˛ÚÒfl ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. ÂÒÎË Ú‡Ï ÌÂÚ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ? ä‡Í ‡Ì„΢‡Ì Á‡ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ? àÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓ ‡Á‚ËÚË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÏ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌËË. Ú. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl. ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: ùÚÓ (ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ) ÂÒÚ¸ (Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ) ÔflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ÒÂȘ‡Ò. èÓ͇ ̇¯Ë Ò Ç‡ÏË Ô‰ÍË ÒÓÁ‰‡‚‡ÎË Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÎË ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. Ô‰ÍË ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÍÓ̈ÂÌÚËÓ‚‡ÎË Ò‚ÓË ÛÒËÎËfl ̇ ‡Á‚ËÚËË „·„ÓÎÓ‚. å· ̇ ÒÚÓΠÌÂÚ. ÇÓ ‚ÚÓÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl ‚˚·‡Ì˚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ÊËÁ̸ — ˝ÚÓ ÌÂÔÂ˚‚ÌÓ ‰‚ËÊÂÌËÂ. ‡ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓÏ ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: åÂÎ ÎÂÊËÚ Ì‡ ÒÚÓÎÂ. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÓÌË Í‡Í ·˚ „ÛÔÔËÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ÓÍÛ„ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. Í‡Í ‚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (‚˚·Ë‡˛ Ó‰ÌÛ ÙÓÏÛ ËÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı). Ú. Ë Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ ‚ ÌÂÈ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ì ҇ÏË ÔÓ Ò·Â. ÌÓ Í‡Í Ê "ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ" ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÚÂı Ê ҇Ï˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. åÂΠ̇¯ÎË ÔÓ‰ ÒÚÓÎÓÏ. ÔÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ̇ۘËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓÌËχڸ. ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ͇ÍÓÈ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ˝ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ·ÂÂÚÒfl ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. ͇ÍÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ Ôˉ‡‚‡Ú¸ ͇ʉÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û (Í‡Í ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ). ˜ÚÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË „·‚Ì˚ı ˜ÎÂÌÓ‚ ‚˚Á‚‡Ì‡ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËÂÏ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ — ÂÒÎË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ó‰ÌÓ Ò ‰Û„ËÏ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. çÛÊÌÓ Î˯¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ „·„ÓÎ (‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ). çÓ ÔÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ "ÔÓË„‡Ú¸" ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËflÏË: åÂÎ ÎÂʇڸ ̇ ÒÚÓÎ. 1. ëıÂχÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‚Ò ‚˚¯ÂËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: v — ÔÓÒÚÓ ‚ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (·ÂÛ ËÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl / „ÓÎÓ‚˚) ? — ‰Ûχ˛. Ë ‚Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. ÚÛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚. Ç ˝ÚËı ÔËÏÂ‡ı ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˚ ÔflÚ¸ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ.Â. ê‡ÒÒÛʉ‡ÎË ÓÌË ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ Ú‡Í: Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡Ú¸ ÌË Ó‰ÌÛ ÊËÁÌÂÌÌÛ˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÔÓÒÚ˚Ï ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌËÂÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚. ‡Á„Ó‚Ó Ó flÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı ÓÚ΢Ëflı ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÂÒÚË ÚÓθÍÓ Ò Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ‡ÎËÁ‡ˆËË ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓÈ ˆÂÎË. Í‡Í ˝ÚÓ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ Ì‡ Ô‡ÍÚËÍÂ. Û˜‡ÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. 2. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÈ ‚ ‡θÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌË. åÂÎ ÛԇΠÔÓ‰ ÒÚÓÎ. ÇÚÓÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ ÓÚ΢ˠ‚˚ÚÂ͇ÂÚ ËÁ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó Ë Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÓÏ. èË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ì‡Ï ÔˉÂÚÒfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË „·‚Ì˚ ˜ÎÂÌ˚. ÒÏ˚ÒÎ (Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË) Ì ÔÓÒÚÓËÎÒfl. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl β·ÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl.Â. åÂΠ̇ÈÚË ÔÓ‰ ÒÚÓÎ. ‚ β·ÓÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ. Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚Ó ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ. ÒˆÂÔÎÂÌËfl ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Ì ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ. Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰Ûχڸ ̇‰ ÚÂÏ. í‡Í. êÛÒÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (10 ÒÎÓ‚): ?????????. åÂÎÛ ÎÂÊ‡Ú Ì‡ ÒÚÓÎ˚. ÒÎÓ‚. åÌ ÔÓ‰‡ËÎË ÍÌË„Û. á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÌËχڸ. ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó. Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛˘‡fl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ËÁ ÊËÁÌË. ч. ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÔÓÛ˜ËÎË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ „·„ÓÎÛ. èÂ‚ÓÂ. Ç ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ‰ÓÎ„Ó„Ó ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ‡Á‚ËÚËfl ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ‚ ÌÂÏ ‚˚‡·Óڇ·Ҹ ÒËÒÚÂχ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ÍÓÚÓÓÂ Ë ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ‚Ò Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ Ë ÔÓÌflÚËfl. Ò‡ÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ ÓÚ΢ËÂ. åÂÌflÚ¸Òfl ·Û‰ÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. ÍÓÚÓÓ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ·ÂÁ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. ˜ÂÏ ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ‡θÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌÂÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‡θÌÓÈ ÊËÁÌÂÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ‰Û„ÓÏ. ‚ ̇¯Ëı ÔËÏÂ‡ı Ò ÏÂÎÓÏ Ë ÒÚÓÎÓÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒÎÓ‚‡ chalk Ë table ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı ·Û‰ÛÚ ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÚ¸ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó. í‡Í. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Òӄ·ÒÛÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÌËÏ. ˜ÚÓ ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó.

ùÚÓ Á̇˜ËÚ. ïÓÚfl. — ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. Ñ·ÂÏ ÔÓ Ò·fl ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ (Ú. ıÓÚfl ÒÎÓ‚‡. ıÓÚfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ Í‡Í ·Û‰ÚÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ. ÔÓ˘‡ÌËfl. ì ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ . ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È ˜ÎÂÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ̇ Ò‚ÓÂÏ.‰. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÌÓÒËÚÂθ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Î ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ˜ÚÓ Ï‡Î˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë.ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ü ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÔÓÌflÚ̇. ç‡ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ‡Á΢ËÚ¸ ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ˜‡ÒÚË Â˜Ë ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌÓ Ë Â˘Â Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÚ΢ˠ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÓÚ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó. Ú‚Â‰Ó ÛÒÚÓfl‚¯ËÂÒfl ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË. ‚ÂÊÎË‚˚ ӷ‡˘ÂÌËfl Ë Ú.Â.. à ¢ — ˜ÂÏ ·Óθ¯Â ÒÎÓ‚‡¸ ÔÓ Ó·˙ÂÏÛ. íÂÔÂ¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸ ‚ÒÎÛı ËÎË Ì‡ ·Ûχ„Â. ÓÌË ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ì‡ ‚ÒÂı flÁ˚ÍÓ‚˚ı ÛÓ‚Ìflı. äÒÚ‡ÚË. ÌÓ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË Ï˚ Ú‡Í Ì „Ó‚ÓËÏ. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ê flÁ˚Í ËÁ-Á‡ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ ‡Á΢Ì˚ ˜‡ÒÚË Â˜Ë Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ì ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡: like — Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl („·„ÓÎ) / like — ÔÓıÓÊËÈ (ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ). ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚͇ı ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó. — ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ.ü ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. ÚËÔ‡ ͇χÌÌ˚ı.Ô. Ç ÌËı ÔÓÔÓÒÚÛ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÏÌÓ„Ë ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚ Ë ‰Û„Ë ‚‡ÊÌ˚ ҂‰ÂÌËfl. ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ‚ Ó·ÓËı flÁ˚͇ı ‰Îfl Ó‰ÌÓÈ Ë ÚÓÈ Ê ˆÂÎË.ÍÌË„‡ (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ) / book — Á‡Í‡Á˚‚‡Ú¸ Á‡‡Ì ·ËÎÂÚ. .Â. å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ Ú‡ÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ‡Á‰ÂΠ"ê‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl". ü ıÓ˜Û ÔËÚ¸. ü ÂÒÚ¸ Ê‡Ê‰Û˘ËÈ. Í‡Í ˝ÚËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÏ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Ê ˆÂθ˛ β·Ó„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. Í ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˲ ÚÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. àÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Î˯¸ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ˚ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ÓÁÌË͇˛Ú ‚ ÊËÁÌË Ì‡Ë·ÓΠ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ë ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ô‚‡ÚËÎËÒ¸ Í‡Í ·˚ ‚ ÍÎ˯Â. Ç˚‚Ó‰ ÍÓ ‚ÒÂÏÛ ‚˚¯ÂËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÏÓÊÌÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ: ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜Ì˚È ˝Ú‡Ô. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸  ÒÏ˚ÒÎ). ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ì ÛÏÂ˛Ú ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚‡flÏË ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ.. need — ÌÛʉ‡Ú¸Òfl („·„ÓÎ) / need — ÌÛʉ‡ (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ) Ë Ú. ÔÓ‰‡ÊÌ˚È — ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ). èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ fl Ò˜ËÚ‡˛. ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÏ ÏÂÒÚÂ. Ó˜Â̸ ÏÌÓ„Ë β‰Ë. Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡ÂÏ Í‡Ê‰Ó ÒÎÓ‚Ó Ë Ô‡‚ËÎÓ. ü ·ÂÛ ÍÛÒ˚. ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ. Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. —‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. Ë ÚÓ„‰‡ ÌÓχθÌ˚Ï fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ. 벉‡ ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ëfl. — ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‰Û„ÓÈ. ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ç˚ ÔÓθÁÛÂÚÂÒ¸ ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: ü ıÓÊÛ Ì‡ ÍÛÒ˚. ÏÂÒÚÓ („·„ÓÎ). ÚÂÏ ÓÌ ÍÓÏÔÂÚÂÌÚÌÂÂ Ë Ì‡‰ÂÊÌÂÂ. — ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. — ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. é· ˝ÚÓÏ ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: ëÎ˚¯ËÏ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË: Remember me to your sister. ‡ ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰‡Ú¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ì‡ ÚÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÎÂÌflÚÒfl ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ‚‚Ó‰ÌÛ˛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl. é·‡ÚËÚÂÒ¸ Í ÒÎÓ‚‡˛. çÓ ‡Á΢Ëfl ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ Ôӂ҉̂ÌÓÈ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. Ë̇˜Â Ëı ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÂÂÔÛÚ‡Ú¸ (‚‰¸ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ-ÚÓ ÌÂÚ!). ‰Îfl ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÓ„Ó ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl flÁ˚͇ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂÔË„Ó‰Ì˚. ÌÓ fl Ò˜ËÚ‡˛ Â„Ó ËÒÍβ˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï: ‡ÁÌˈ‡ ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‡θÌ˚ı ÊËÁÌÂÌÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. ËÁÛ˜‡˛˘Ë ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ flÁ˚ÍË. ç‡ıÓ‰ËÏ ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÌÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: èÂ‰‡‚‡È ÓÚ ÏÂÌfl ÔË‚ÂÚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚÂ. ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‡Á΢‡˛ÚÒfl.. ùÚÓ Ë ÂÒÚ¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË. — ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. ä‡ÍÓÈ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË? 7 . óÂÚ‚ÂÚÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ ÓÚ΢ˠ‚˚ÚÂ͇ÂÚ ËÁ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó: ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ˜‡ÒÚË Â˜Ë ‡Á΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËflÏË (ÔÓ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ — „·„ÓÎ. 4. Ú. ÔÓ‰‡Ê‡ — ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒÚÓ„Ó ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È Ë ÒÚÓ„Ó Òӷ≇ÂÏ˚È ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ùÚÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ·Óθ¯ÂÈ ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ Í ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.. ÍÓ„‰‡ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ËÁ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÛÍ·‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ LJ¯Â ‚ÓÒÔËflÚË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÔӇ̄ÎËÈÒÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. book . íÂڸ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ ÓÚÎ˘Ë Ì ҂flÁ‡ÌÓ Ò ÔÂ‚˚Ï. Ë ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ: ç‡ÔÓÏÌË ÏÂÌfl Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚÂ. ü Ëϲ . „‰Â ‰‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓÎÌ˚ ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËË Ë Ó·˙flÒÌÂÌËfl. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÓÈ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ Ú‡ÍÓ‚: ÒÚÂÏËÚÂÒ¸ ÌÂ Í ÚÓÏÛ. íÓ˜ÌÓ ÔÓ Ú‡ÍÓÏÛ Ê ÔË̈ËÔÛ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ Ë ‚ Ó·‡ÚÌÛ˛ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ. 3. ÍÓ„‰‡ „·‚Ì˚ ˜ÎÂÌ˚ ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl.

Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡.): Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û. ‡ ÔÓÒΠÌÂ„Ó — Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ. Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË „·‚Ì˚È ˜ÎÂÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ) ‚ÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ‚Ó ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÚÛ‰ÌÓ Á‡ÔÓÏË̇˛ÚÒfl. 3. ÍÓÏ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: ÍÓ„Ó? / ˜ÚÓ? / ÍÓÏÛ? / ˜ÂÏÛ? / ÍÂÏ? / ˜ÂÏ? / .. Ú‡Í Ë ·ÂÁ ÌËı. ÏÂÒÚÓ — Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. äÒÚ‡ÚË. ˜ÂÏ Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË.ëÂȘ‡Ò Ï˚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: ÏÂÒÚÓ — ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â (Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÍÚÓ? / ˜ÚÓ?). àÚ‡Í. ëıÂχÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ 1 2 3 4 é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ‚ÂÏÂÌË / ÏÂÒÚ‡ Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÒÎÓ‚ Ì ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ò Ëı ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂÏ. ùÚË. è‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌ˚ ‚Ҡ Á̇ÍË Ë ‰‡Ì˚ Ó·˙flÒÌÂÌËfl ÔÓ Ëı ÓÁ‚ۘ˂‡Ì˲. í‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÛÒ‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ. ÌÓ ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ÒÚÓ„Ó Òӷ≇ÂÏ˚È.Ë ‚ˉÂÓ͇ÒÒÂÚ˚ Ò Á‡ÔËÒflÏË ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÍÛÒÓ‚. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÓÌ ËÌÓÈ. Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÌÓ‚Û˛ ÍÌË„Û. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‰‡ÌÌÓ ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚˚‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË: ä‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸ ‰Â‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û ‚ ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍÂ. é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ò‡ÁÛ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ. ÚÓÊ ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ˚ ÛÁ̇‚‡Ú¸ Â„Ó ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ËÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚˚ۘ˂‡Ú¸ ‰‚‡Ê‰˚: ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂ Ë ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ. ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌ˚ ‰‡ÎÂÂ. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ËÎË (ÂÊÂ) ÔÓÒΠ̄Ó: Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ. ÌÓ Ë ËÌÚÓ̇ˆËfl. é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ÏÂÒÚ‡ ËÎË ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ÔÓ ıÓ‰Û ËÁÎÓÊÂÌËfl „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡ÚÂˇ·. ÏÂÒÚ‡ — „‰Â?). ÖÒÎË Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ ·Óθ¯Â„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÒÎÓ‚. å‡ÎÂ̸͇fl ‰Â‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ. ëÂȘ‡Ò ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ËϲÚÒfl Ò‡Ï˚ ‡ÁÌ˚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË: Ô·ÒÚËÌÍË. ‚ÒÚ˜‡fl ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏÓ ‰Îfl Ò·fl ÒÎÓ‚Ó. „‰Â ‰‡ÂÚÒfl Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl. Ç Î˛·ÓÏ Ó·˘ÂÏ (Ì ÒÔˆˇÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ) ‡Ì„ÎÓ-ÛÒÒÍÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÓÒΠβ·Ó„Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Í‚‡‰‡ÚÌ˚ı ÒÍӷ͇ı ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ‚‡ˇÌÚ Â„Ó ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl (Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl). çÓ ÚÛÚ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÔӉ·¯¸. ÚÓ Â„Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÔÓÒΠӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸ ‚ ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍ „ÓÓ‰ÒÍÓ„Ó ÏÓÎÓ‰ÂÊÌÓ„Ó ˆÂÌÚ‡. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ·ÛÍ‚˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ. „‰Â ·ÛÍ‚‡ ‚ β·ÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚Â Ë ‚ β·ÓÏ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó. ̇Á˚‚‡Âχfl Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËÂÈ. ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ӷ˘ÂÌËÂ Ò ÌÓÒËÚÂÎflÏË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇.Ë ÚÂÎÂÔÂ‰‡˜Ë. ÖÒÎË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÂÒÚ¸ Ë ÚÓ. ‡Û‰ËÓ. ÏÂÒÚÓ — Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ (·˚‚‡˛Ú ‡ÁÌ˚Â: Ó·‡Á‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl — ͇Í? / ͇ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ?. ÓÚ΢‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ÔÓ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡Ì˲ ÓÚ ·ÛÍ‚ Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ÚÓÏÛ ËÎË ËÌÓÏÛ Á‚ÛÍÛ. Ò‡ÏË ‡Ì„΢‡ÌÂ. ‡‰ËÓ. 4. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ë ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ Ô‡‚Ë· ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. ÚÓ ‚ ̇˜‡ÎÂ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡fl. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡: 1. Ú. ‡ ÚÓ Ë ‚Ó‚Ò Ì ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚ¸Òfl. 2. Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ‚ÒÂı ÛÒÒÍËı Ô‡‰ÂÊÂÈ. (ÍÓ„‰‡?) Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û Ï‰ÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. ä‡Í ̇ۘËÚ¸Òfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏÛ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲? ë Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó Ì‡˜‡Î‡ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÛ˛ ˜¸. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛˘Ë ̇˷ÓΠı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ ‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ·ÛÍ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı. ÚÓ„‰‡ Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌË ·ÂÁ Ô‰ÎÓ„‡. ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË: Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û Ï‰ÎÂÌÌÓ. ‚ÂÏÂÌË — ÍÓ„‰‡?. ùÚÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.åÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜Ëڇ·. óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl Á‡Û˜Ë‚‡ÌËfl ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚ ÔÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡˛.Â. ‚ ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ÑÎfl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı ÒÎÓ‚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒÔˆˇθ̇fl ÒËÒÚÂχ. ÏÂÌflÂÚ ÙÓÏÛ ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ): Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Í‡Í Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË. Ë ‰Û„ÓÂ. ‡Á΢Ì˚ ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌ˚ ÓÚÚÂÌÍË ˜Ë. („‰Â?) Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸. ü ÒÓ‚ÂÚÛ˛ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„ÓÒÎÓ‚‡ Á‡Û˜Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓ Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËË. ÑÎfl Ú‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ò‚ÓË ÓÒÓ·˚ ӷÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl. Ç ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı. (͇Í?) Ñ‚Ә͇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÍÌË„Û ‚ ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍÂ.. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌË ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ: Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó Ó·‡Á‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. çÓ ‚ ˝ÚËı Ô‡‚Ë·ı ÒÚÓθÍÓ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÈ. ‰Û„ËÂ. 8 . ÏÂÒÚÓ — ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl (Ó·ÓÁ̇˛Ú Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ Ë ÔÓÌflÚËfl.

àÚ‡Í. ‰‡Î¸¯Â Ò ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ — Ë Ì‡Ó·ÓÓÚ. íÓ„‰‡ ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÛ ÔˉÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏÓÏÛ ÍÓÂÍÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÂÂ. éÌË Ë Ì ÌÛÊÌ˚. ëÓ‰ËÌËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ.Â. ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ β·ÓÏ flÁ˚Í — ˝ÚÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ‡θÌ˚ı ÊËÁÌÂÌÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÛ˛ ̇ÏË. àÌÓ„‰‡ ˝ÚÓ Û‰‡ÂÚÒfl (ÂÒÎË Ó¯Ë·ÍË. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ˝ÚË ÒÔÓÒÓ·˚ ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚͇ı ‡ÁÌ˚Â. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ó„ÓÏÌÛ˛ ‰Óβ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ·ÂÛÚ Ì‡ Ò·fl ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl. íÂÏ˚ Ë Ô‡‚Ë·. — Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ Ç˜Â‡ ÏÓÈ Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍË Âı‡Ú¸ ËÁ åÓÒÍ‚˚. ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÁflÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ (̇Á‚‡ÌËfl Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ Ë ÔÓÌflÚËÈ). — ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ. á‡ÎÓ„ (ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ). ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Â Û ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ ‚ÓÁÌËÍÌÂÚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ú‡Í‡fl Ê ͇ÚËÌ͇. ÅÂÁ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÌÂθÁfl ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÌË Ó‰ÌÛ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÛ˛ Ù‡ÁÛ. ùÚ‡ ÚÂχ — ҇χfl ‚‡Ê̇fl ‰Îfl ÔÓÌËχÌËfl ‚ÒÂÈ ÒÚÛÍÚÛ˚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. èÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. çÓ ‚‰¸ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÚÓÊ ÂÒÚ¸ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÍÓÏÔÂÌÒËÛÂÚ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ 7 ÙÓÏÛÎ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó (‚ÒÂ„Ó Î˯¸ ÒÂϸ!). Ú. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ê ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ ÌÂÚ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â. ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÌÂθÁfl ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓ ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌ˲ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl. ÂÒÎË ıÓÚËÏ „‡ÏÓÚÌÓ Ë ÚÓÎÍÓ‚Ó ËÁ·„‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË Ï˚ÒÎË Ì‡ ˝ÚÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.Â. ëıÂχ ÙÓÏÛÎ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ‚ β·ÓÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ó‰Ì‡ ËÁ ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚Ò˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓ ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌ˲ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. ÂÒÚ¸. ‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ. ̇ÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚÓÏ ‚ flÁ˚Í fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÔÓÒÓ·˚ ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. àÁ Ô˂‰ÂÌÌ˚ı ÔËÏÂÓ‚ ‚ˉÌÓ. — ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ۘÂÌËÍË Ò‡ÏÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë =>Active Passive (ÒÚ‡‰‡ÚÂθÌ˚È) — ÍÓ„‰‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ: 9 . ч. ÔË·„‡Ú¸ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ ÛÒËÎËfl ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÌÂθÁfl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸. ëÓ‰ËÌËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ — Ë Í‡ÚËÌ͇ ·Û‰ÂÚ ËÒ͇ÊÂÌÌÓÈ. ùÚÓ "̘ÚÓ" — ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl! á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÌflÚËÂ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓÔ˚ÚÍË ÒÚÓËÚ¸ Ù‡Á˚ ̇ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‡Ì‡Îӄ˘ÌÓ Ó‰ÌÓÏÛ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ·ÂÁÂÁÛθڇÚÌ˚ — Ï˚ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÂÂÌÂÒÚË Í‡ÚËÌÍÛ (ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛) ËÁ Ò‚ÓÂÈ „ÓÎÓ‚˚ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÏ ÒÓ‰ÂÊËÚÒfl ̘ÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓÂ. Ì Á̇fl χÚÂˇ· ˝ÚÓÈ ÚÂÏ˚. å˚ ÛÊ Á̇ÂÏ. ÖÒÎË ˝Ú‡ ÚÂχ ÔÓÌflÚ̇. Active (‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚È) — ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â („·‚Ì˚È ˜ÎÂÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl) Ò‡ÏÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: ì˜ÂÌËÍË Ô˯ÛÚ ‰ËÍÚ‡ÌÚ. ıÓÚfl Ó·˙ÂÏ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÏÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚. íÂχ 1: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÔÓÒÚÓ„Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. — ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: ǘÂ‡ ÏÓË Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍË ÔËÂı‡ÎË ËÁ åÓÒÍ‚˚.ê‡Á‰ÂÎ I. Ú. óÚÓ·˚ . ˜ÚÓ ·˚· Á‡‰Ûχ̇ ̇ÏË. Á‡‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌÌ˚ ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ë ÒÓ‰ËÌËÚ¸ Ëı Ú‡Í. Ë ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÌË ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ. ·˚ÎË ÌÂÁ̇˜ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË). É‡ÏχÚË͇. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓÌflÚ¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. ËÌÓ„‰‡ — ÌÂÚ (ÔË Ó˜Â̸ „Û·˚ı ӯ˷͇ı). ËÁÛ˜‡˛˘Ë ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. ÌÓ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ Ç˜Â‡ ÏÓfl Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍË Âı‡Ú¸ åÓÒÍ‚‡. ‰ÓÔÛ˘ÂÌÌ˚ ÔË ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËË ÒÎÓ‚. Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡Ú¸ ͇ÍÛ˛-ÚÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ Í‡Í ·˚ ‚ Ô‡Â Ò ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËflÏË. ÔÓÌflÚ¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛfl Ó‰ÌÛ ËÁ ÒÂχ ÙÓÏÛÎ. ıÓÚfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Á̇˜ËÏÓÒÚË ÓÌÓ ÒËθÌÓ ÛÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÏÛ. ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ‚ ÒıÂÏÂ: 1. ËÎË ÊÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ËÁ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÓ‚ ÔÓÎۘ˷Ҹ ͇ÚËÌ͇ ÚÓ„Ó. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ËÌÓÒÚ‡Ìˆ˚. Í‡Í Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ. é̇ ̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ‚‡Ê̇ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ. ̇ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ‚Ò ‰‡Î¸ÌÂȯ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌË „‡ÏχÚËÍË. èË ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËË ÛÒÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÓÌÓ Ì‡Ï ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ê β·Ó„Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. á̇˜ËÚ. 鷢ˠÔÓÌflÚËfl. Á̇˜ËÚ. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ — ‚ÓÚ ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÔÂʉ ‚Ò„Ó. ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ˚ Á‡ÔÓÏË̇ڸ Ó„ÓÏÌÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÛÒÒÍËı ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËË. ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÌË. ˜ÚÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Í Í‡Ê‰ÓÏÛ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲. ˜Â„Ó ÌÂÚ Û ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó.

èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Î˛·ÓÈ Ù‡Á˚ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Ì‡Ï ‚ÒflÍËÈ ‡Á ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ‚˚·‡Ú¸ Ó‰ÌÛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ. Ï˚ ̇˜Ë̇ÂÏ ÔÓËÒÍ ÌÛÊÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ — ˢÂÏ Ó‰ÌÛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ËÁ ÒÂÏË. Continuous — ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. Ì ËÏÂÂÏ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÔ˚Ú‡. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ‰Îfl ̇ıÓʉÂÌËfl ÌÛÊÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‰‚ ÍÓÎÓÌ͇ ËÁ Ú‡·Îˈ˚. 2. Indefinite — ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË Í‡Í Ó·˚˜ÌÓÏ Ù‡ÍÚÂ. to have been + ~ ~ ~ ~ ing îéêåìãõ: PASSIVE 1. íÓ ÂÒÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ Ó‰ÌÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚. to be + ~ ~ ~ ~ ing 3. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË Ì‡¯Â Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. ‰‡Î¸¯Â ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÏ ÔÓËÒÍ ÚÓθÍÓ. ® ® ® ÑËÍÚ‡ÌÚ Ô˯ÂÚÒfl Û˜ÂÌË͇ÏË. to be being + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3-fl ÙÓχ) 3. ÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ú·ÛÂÚ Á‡Ú‡Ú˚ ̇ Ò·fl ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÑÎfl ˜Â„Ó ÒÎÛÊËÚ ÚÂÚ¸fl ÍÓÎÓÌ͇? 10 . to be + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3-fl ÙÓχ) 2. ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl fi Continuous. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ ÛÊ Ì 7. ÇÂÏfl (ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ). ÔÓËÒıÓ‰fl˘ÂÏ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ËÎË ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl). èÓÒÚ‡‚Ë‚ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ. ËÁ ˜ÂÚ˚Âı ÙÓÏÛÎ Active. to ~ ~ ~ ~ 2. á̇˜ËÚ. é·‡˘‡ÂÏÒfl Í í‡·ÎˈÂ: 1. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Û˛ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. — ÔÓ͇ χχ ÒÔËÚ. ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚÛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ‡ 4 ËÎË 3 ÙÓÏÛÎ˚. ACTIVE ËÎË PASSIVE? èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ҇ÏÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (Active). — ҇χ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ËÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÌÂÈ? — ҇χfi Active îÓÏÛÎ˚ Passive ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ì‡Ï Ì ÌÛÊÌ˚. Ç˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl — Ò‡Ï˚È ÒÎÓÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‚ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ‚˚flÒÌflÂÏ. Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Indefinite (1) Active Past Continuous (2) Present Perfect (3) Future Passive Perfect Continuous (4) 4 7 3 ä‡Í ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ò ÙÓÏÛ·ÏË Ë Ú‡·ÎˈÂÈ. "ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. Perfect — Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ) + ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl ‰Îfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ + ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰Îfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. ï‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. • • • • 3. ËÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÌËÏ (Passive)? éÔ‰ÂÎË‚¯ËÒ¸ ÔÓ ˝ÚÓÈ ÍÓÎÓÌÍ ڇ·Îˈ˚.2. (Continuous) — to be + ~~~~ ing. ÅÓΠÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÌflÚË ‰Îfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌÓ ÌËÊÂ. — ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ‰ËÍÚ‡ÌÚ ÔÓ‰‚Â„‡ÂÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl (Û˜ÂÌËÍË) =>Passive ï‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ). èÓ͇ Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‚ ̇¯ÂÏ ÔËÏÂ ÔÓÒÚ‡fl: å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ. Perfect Continuous —ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ï˚ ˝ÚËÏ Ì Á‡ÌËχÂÏÒfl. ç‡ıÓ‰ËÏ ‚ „ÛÔÔ Active ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ÔÓ‰ ˆËÙÓÈ 2. to have been + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3-fl ÙÓχ) 4. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ. Past — Ôӯ‰¯Â Present — ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â Future — ·Û‰Û˘Â ACTIVE 1. to have + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3-fl ÙÓχ) 4.

Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ËÎË ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È. Ì Ú‡ÚËÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl ̇ ÔÓÎÌ˚È ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. -ing ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÏ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó. ‡ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. Ú. èÓ ÏÂ ̇ÍÓÔÎÂÌËfl Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ̇‚˚ÍÓ‚ ‚ÂÏfl. ÍÓÚÓÓÂ Ë ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÚÂÚ¸ÂÈ ÍÓÎÓÌÍÂ. ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. ÔÓ͇ ‚Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ì ÒÚ‡ÌÛÚ ÔÓ˜ÚË ‡‚ÚÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË. to give ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â: Give [giv] (gave. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: to want ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â: Want [wont] ıÓÚÂÚ¸ 1-fl ÙÓχ í‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl èÂ‚Ӊ „·„ÓÎ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È. íÓ„‰‡ ̇ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ù‡Á˚ ·Û‰ÛÚ ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ÛÊ Ì ÏËÌÛÚ˚. Ë ‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó ÒÎÛÊËÚ Í‡Ê‰‡fl ‰Âڇθ.Â. Ç ˝ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Ë ‚˚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ËÁ ÔÓÎfl ÁÂÌËfl ͇ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ˚ ‰ÂÚ‡ÎË. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Ì ÒΉÛÂÚ ÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl.. ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ‚ÂÏfl Ë ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. èÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ̘ÚÓ ÔÓıÓÊ ̇ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÌËÂ. ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚Ï ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï. èÓ̇˜‡ÎÛ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ÓÚÌËχÂÚ ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. èË ÔÂÂÌÓÒ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ~~~ Á‡ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl β·˚Ï ÌÛÊÌ˚Ï ÔÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË „·„ÓÎÓÏ. ÌÓ ÓÌ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. given) ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ 11 . ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È — ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÏ Í ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ -ed. ÇÒ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË „·„ÓÎ˚ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÚÓÊ ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive. ÇÂÌÂÏÒfl Í ÙÓÏÛ·Ï. ‡ ÛÊ ÔÓÚÓÏ — ·˚ÒÚÓ. ~~~ing — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Í Î˛·ÓÏÛ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ ËÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÏ -ing ‚ ÍÓ̈Â. ‡ Á‡ÚÂÏ. ‡ Ì ÔÂ‰ „·„ÓÎÓÏ. ̇ÔËÏÂ. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚Ï. à Ú‡Í Ò Í‡Ê‰˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ. é·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË ~~~ — ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌË „·„Ó·. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ̇ÈÚË ÌÛÊÌÛ˛ ‰Îfl ͇ʉÓÈ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Infinitive.Â. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰‚‡ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍË ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·: 1.Â. ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È — ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Â„Ó ÚÂÚ¸˛ ÙÓÏÛ. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓÌflÚË Ô‡‚ËθÌÓÒÚË Ë ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓÒÚË „·„Ó· Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. ÌÓ Ì ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ Á‡ÎÓ„ Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ë Ú. „‰Â (3) — ÚÂÚ¸fl ÙÓχ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·. àÁ ͇ÍËı ‰ÂÚ‡ÎÂÈ ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚. Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ? / ˜ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ?. Á̇˜ËÚ. èË ‚‚‰ÂÌËË ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ËÒ˜ÂÁ‡ÂÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ̇ȉÂÌÌÛ˛ ̇ÏË ÔÓ ÔÂ‚˚Ï ‰‚ÛÏ ÍÓÎÓÌÍ‡Ï ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl Ë Á‡ÎÓ„.íÂÚ¸fl ÍÓÎÓÌ͇ ÒÎÛÊËÚ ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. ~~~ed(3). Ú. à ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ÓÁÌË͇ÂÚ Ê·ÌË (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÙÓÏÛ· ·Óθ¯Â Ì Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ?. ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ ÔÂ‚˚Ï ‰‚ÛÏ ÍÓÎÓÌÍ‡Ï Ú‡·Îˈ˚. ä‡Í ÛÁ̇ڸ. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ: Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ̇‰Ó Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ‰Â·ڸ ‚Ò Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. Ú. ùÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl. ‚ ÙÓÏÛΠÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÏ -ed. Ä ˝ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÌÂ̇‰ÂÊÌ˚È ÒÔÓÒÓ· ‰Îfl Ó·˘ÂÌËfl ̇ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÓÏ ÛÒÒÍËı ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ -Ú¸ / -Ú¸Òfl / -˜¸. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ÓÒÏ˚ÒÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÏÂÚÓ‰ËÍË Ëı ‡Á΢ÂÌËfl Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ì‡Ï Ú·ÛÂÚÒfl ÔӉ·ڸ ͇ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò ÒÂϸ ÙÓÏÛÎ ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ (ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Infinitive). Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÓ ̇ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ËÎË ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È? ÑÂÎÂÌË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ̇ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚Â Ë ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚ ˜ËÒÚÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ. ÂÒÎË Ù‡Á‡ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒÚÓÈ Ì‡ ‚ˉ) ÛÒÍÓËÚ¸ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ÌÓ Á‡·Û‰ÂÏ Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ·ÂÁ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl ÙÓÏÛ·ı ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓÒΉÌËÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚˚·‡ÌÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl. ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡fl.‰. äÓӘ „Ó‚Ófl. to — ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡. ùÚÓ Ë ·Û‰ÂÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. ‡ ÙÓÏ˚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ÔˉÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔÓÏË̇ڸ. Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl. ëÚÓËÚ ÔÂ‰ ͇ʉÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ. ‡ ‰ÓÎË ÒÂÍÛ̉˚. 2. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ „·„Ó·. ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ÒÓÍ‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË to ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ËÏÂÂÚ Ú‡ÍÊ Ô‰ÎÓ„. ÔÓθÁÛflÒ¸ ÚÂÚ¸ÂÈ ÍÓÎÓÌÍÓÈ. Ë ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ to Ì ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏË ÔÓÒÚÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏËË ÏÂÒÚ‡.

~ ~ ~ ed / 3-fl ÙÓχ..[. àÚ‡Í Ò Í‡Ê‰ÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ.. ÚÓ ‚ ÙÓÏÛ·ı ÛÊ ·Û‰ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ÚÓ‡fl ËÎË ÚÂÚ¸fl ÙÓÏ˚.. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ò‡ÏË Ë˘ÂÏ ÌÛÊÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ.] past ÓÚ ..Â. àÁÏÂÌË‚ ÙÓÏÛ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (be). ÍÒÚ‡ÚË. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ. àÌÓ„‰‡ ‚Ò ÚË ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ÏË: to put ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â: Put 1-fl ÙÓχ [put] (put) Í·ÒÚ¸. ‡ Ì Infinitive... ÍÓÏ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰‡Ì̇fl ÙÓÏÛ· ÓÚ΢‡Î‡Ò¸ ÓÚ ‰Û„Ëı. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ̇ÏË ‚ÚÓ‡fl ÙÓχ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ „·„Ó·: gave [geiv] past ÓÚ give — ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒ͇ڸ ‚ Òڇڸ give . ͇ʉ‡fl ÙÓÏÛ· ÛÊ ËÏÂÂÚ Ò‚ÓÈ Á‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌ˚È ‚ˉ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‚Ò ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ̉ÂÎËÏ˚. Ë Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÌËχڸ Ëı.... ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í ÔÂ‚ÓÈ (ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ) ÙÓÏÂ.. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ˝ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÎÓÒ¸.. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ï˚ Ì ̇ȉÂÏ Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒÎÓ‚‡. „‰Â ÓÌ ÂÒÚ¸: been / being) ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl Ë ÒÎÛÊËÚ Î˯¸ ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó.. Ú.. í‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl 2-fl ÙÓχ.. ÔÂ‚Ӊ 3-fl ÙÓχ „·„ÓÎ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È. ËÎË ÊÂ Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ-ÚÓ ÌÓ‚ÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˲ (ÂÒÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‰Ó·‡‚ËÚ¸). 12 . Á̇˜ËÚ. ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡fl Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl. ÌÓ ‚ÚÓ‡fl Ë ÚÂÚ¸fl ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú (Ó ‚ÚÓÓÈ ÙÓÏ — ÌËÊÂ). ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÚÂÚ¸ÂÈ ÙÓÏ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·: given [givn] . Í‡Í ‰Â·˛Ú ˝ÚÓ ÌÓÒËÚÂÎË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl ËÎË ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÓ‚Â¯‡Ú¸Òfl. èÓÎÓÊËÚ¸ 3-fl ÙÓχ ÔÂ‚Ӊ í‡Í Ï˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ ÔË ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ.. Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ Ëı Í‡Í Ó‰ÌÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó.] . ÓÚ give — ÔÂ‚Ӊ ˢÂÏ ‚ Òڇڸ give é·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ ÍÓ̈ ‡Ì„ÎÓ-ÛÒÒÍËı ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl Ú‡·Îˈ‡ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚ı (ÌÂÒڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚ı) „·„ÓÎÓ‚. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ·ÂÂÚÒfl ͇ʉ˚È ‡Á ËÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl Ë ÒÚÓ„Ó ÔËÓ·ÂÚ‡ÂÚ ‚ˉ. Ç˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ˝ÚÓ Ú‡Í: . íÂÔÂ¸ ÓÔflÚ¸ ‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÏ Ì‡¯ ÔËÏÂ: å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ. — ÒÎÓ‚Ó past ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ Òڇڸ ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ.[. ‚ ͇ʉÓÈ ÙÓÏÛΠÛÊ Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌ˚ ͇ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ÔËÁ̇ÍË ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. ËÁ ÌËı ÌÂθÁfl ‚˚·ÓÒËÚ¸ ÌË Ó‰ÌÓÈ ‰ÂÚ‡ÎË. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÙÓÏÛ·ı „·„ÓÎ˚ ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ (ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÓÒΉÌËÏË) Ë ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ (ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÂ‰ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ÏË).Â. ‚ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ÌÂθÁfl ‚‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ÌË͇ÍË ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ ‰ÂÚ‡ÎË. ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ÂÚ Â ӉË̇ÍÓ‚Ó ÌÂÔÓÌflÚÌÓÈ. ÔÂ‚Ӊ 3-fl ÙÓχ „·„ÓÎ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È.. ÓÚ . β·Ó ÒÚÛÍÚÛÌÓ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌË ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ËÎË ‚‰ÂÚ Í Â ‡ÒÔ‡‰Û (ÂÒÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚˚·ÓÒËÚ¸). ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ Ó˜Â̸ ΄ÍÓ Ë ·˚ÒÚÓ ÓÚ΢‡Ú¸  ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ‰Û„Ëı). ÇÚÓÓÈ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ (‚ ÚÂı ÙÓÏÛ·ı.2-fl ÙÓχ. Ú. çÓ ÔÓ‰Ò͇ÁÍÛ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÏ.. — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË . ÖÒÎË Ê ‰Â·ÂÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó. ÓÒڇθÌ˚ — ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ËÎË ÚÂı. ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÏ ‚ÂÏfl.. ‚ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ì‡ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ ÚÂÚ¸˛ ÔÓ Ò˜ÂÚÛ ÙÓÏÛ ËÎË ÊÂ: 1-fl ÙÓχ í‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl to send ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â: Send 1-fl ÙÓχ [send] (sent) ÔÓÒ˚·ڸ í‡ÌÒÍËÔˆËfl 2-fl ÙÓχ. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: to be ~ ~ ~ ing Active Continuous — ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë ÔÓ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÛ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÂ. íÓθÍÓ Ò‡Ï‡fl ÔÂ‚‡fl ÙÓÏÛ· ËÁ ÒÂÏË ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (˜ÚÓ. Á‡ÌËχ˛˘ËÈ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ÙÓÏÛΠ(to be ËÎË to have) ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ. èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ˝ÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. Á‡‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÂÏÛ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÛÎÂ: ~ ~ ~ ing.

ÇÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ: to be sleeping çÓ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌ̇fl ÙÓÏÛ· ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓ͇ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive. 3. ÔÓ¯Û. Îˈ‡ Ë ˜ËÒ·. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ Í Î˛·ÓÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ ÔË·‡‚ÎflÚ¸ -ing. ÎËˆÓ (fl ÔÓ¯Û. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. 燘Ë̇ÂÏ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÔÓ Ú‡·ÎˈÂ: 1. Active ËÎË Passive? fi Active 1. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Ì‡ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â Mother (·ÂÂÏ Â„Ó ËÁ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl ËÎË „ÓÎÓ‚˚). ‚ ‰Û„Ëı — to have). Ì ӷÓÁ̇˜‡fl ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ͇ÍÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ë Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ä‡Í? á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ÓÔflÚ¸ ҉·ÂÏ Ì·Óθ¯Ó ÓÚÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËÂ Ë Ó·‡ÚËÏÒfl Í ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ flÁ˚ÍÛ. ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË Ó·Î‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ. ç‡Ï ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. χχ ÒÔËÚ (‡ Ì Òԇ· ËÎË ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸) — Present. è‡‚ËÎÓ 4). Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Óڂ˜‡˛˘ËÏ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ äíé? ËÎË óíé?) ËÎË Ê ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ (ÌÓ ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Óڂ˜‡˛˘ËÏ Ì‡ Ú‡ÍÓÈ Ê ‚ÓÔÓÒ). ˜ËÒÎÓ (fl ÔÓ¯Û. åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. he (ÓÌ) Ë she (Ó̇) ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í Î˛‰flÏ (Á‡ Ì·Óθ¯ËÏ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÂÏ). ¸ ¸ ¸ îÓÏ˚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰Ûχڸ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÛÒÒÍÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË Ú˚ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ë ‚˚. 4 — ? — 2 (Continuous). Ä Ì‡Ï ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓ͇Á‡Ú¸. ˜ËÒÎÓ 1 I (fl) We (Ï˚) 2 — You (Ú˚ / ‚˚) 3 ç (ÓÌ) She (Ó̇) It (ÓÌÓ) They (ÓÌË) äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: ÚÓθÍÓ ˝ÚË ÙÓÏ˚ ΢Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ï˚ ÔÓÒËÏ). è‡ÛÁ‡ ‚ ‡·ÓÚ — Ï˚ Ì Á̇ÂÏ. ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌÓ ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ— it: ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ: ÒÚÓÎ — ÓÌ / ·ÏÔ‡ — Ó̇ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ: 13 . èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ ËÎË ÔÓÌflÚËfl. ̇Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ΢Ì˚ÏË Ë ‚˚„Îfl‰flÚ Ú‡Í: ãËˆÓ Â‰. Í‡Í Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl. Ç ÛÒÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ‚Ò „·„ÓÎ˚ ËÁÏÂÌfl˛Ú Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÚÂı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚: ‚ÂÏfl (ÔÓÒËÎ. èÓÒΠ‚ÚÓÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ̇ıÓ‰ËÏ ÌÛÊÌÛ˛ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‰Îfl ̇¯ÂÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ë ÙËÍÒËÛÂÏ ÂÂ: to be + ~ ~ ~ ing ç‡ıÓ‰ËÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ / „ÓÎÓ‚Â: sleep (slept) — „·„ÓÎ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È. Ú. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ÓÎË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. ä‡Í ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ̇ȉÂÌÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ÂÏfl? óÛÚ¸ ‚˚¯Â Ï˚ ÛÊ „Ó‚ÓËÎË Ó ÚÓÏ.ÇÒ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÏ ‚ ÒÚÓ„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË: èÓθÁÛflÒ¸ Ô‡‚ËÎÓÏ ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ‡ ‚ÓÚ ˜ËÒÎÓ Ë ÎËˆÓ — ˝ÚÓ ÔËÁ̇ÍË. 2. ‚Ò Ú Ê to be Ë to have. ÌÓ Ëı ÌÂθÁfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó.Â. ÌÓ ‰Îfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ˝ÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. ÌÓ ËÁÏÂÌfl˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÌËÏ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÂ‚˚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚. ˜ËÒÎÓ ÏÌ. á̇˜ËÚ. ‡ ‚‰¸ ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Òӄ·ÒÛÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÚÓÊ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ˝ÚË ÚË ÔËÁ͇̇. ç‡ ‚ÚÓÓÏ ÏÂÒÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. Ú˚ ÔÓÒ˯¸. 2. ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Í‡Í-ÚÓ ËÁÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl. ÙÓÏ˚ 2-„Ó Îˈ‡ ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ̠ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. ÔÓÔÓ¯Û). è‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‚ β·ÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÂÂÌÂÒÚË Í‡ÚËÌÍÛ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ËÁ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó — ˝ÚÓ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ ‚Ò„‰‡. ˜ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (‚ Ó‰ÌËı ÙÓÏÛ·ı — to be. Û Î˘Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Û„Ë ÙÓÏ˚ (ÒÏ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÓÌ ÔÓÒËÚ).

˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ËÁ ÙÓÏ˚ Infinitive ‚ Present. „·„ÓÎ to be ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â. ˜ÚÓ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ: Ac-five fi ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ҇ÏÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË). ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ÌÛÊÌÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ‚Ò ÚË ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡ ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÒÓ‚Ô‡ÎË — ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. á̇˜ËÚ. ÇÂÌÂÏÒfl ÒÌÓ‚‡ Í Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲ å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ. ‡ ‚Òfl ÓÒڇθ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËÈ: 1 2 3 I shall --- We shall --- - You will --- He will --She will --It will --- They will --- „‰Â ~~~ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì ÔÓÒÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ „·„ÓÎ. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ to ËÒ˜ÂÁ‡ÂÚ.). Continuous fi ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÚÌËχÂÚ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl (Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË).. é·‡ ˝ÚË „·„Ó· ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ‚ÒÂÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚. íÂÔÂ¸ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÓÌÓ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl Active Continuous Present. á‡ÏÂÌË‚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â Mother ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ (She). ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ ·Û‰Û˘Â ‚ÂÏfl. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÙÓχ ·Û‰Û˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÑÎfl ÚÓ„Ó. è‡ÛÁ‡ ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ‡·ÓÚ ‚ÓÁÌËÍ· ‚ ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. 14 . ̇ȉÂÏ ÙÓÏÛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be fl‰ÓÏ Ò ˝ÚËÏ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Present) — is.Â.. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘‡fl ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ÒÎÓ‚: ·Û‰Û + ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ̇fl ÙÓχ (·Û‰Û ÒÔ‡Ú¸ / ·Û‰Û ʉ‡Ú¸ / . ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ shall (‰Îfl 1-„Ó Îˈ‡) ËÎË will (‰Îfl 2-„Ó Ë 3-„Ó Îˈ‡). Present fi ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ (Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË). We shall have ~~~ ed (3). Ú. ÌÓ ‚Ò˛ (β·Û˛ Ó‰ÌÛ ËÁ ÒÂÏË) ÙÓÏÛÎÛ. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „ÓÚÓ‚Ó — is sleeping.table — if / lamp — it to be Present Past 1 I am We are 1 I was We were 2 — You are 2 — You were 3 He was She was They were It was He is 3 She is They are It is to have Past Present 1 I have We have 1 I had We had 2 — You have 2 — You had 3 He had She had They had It had He has 3 She has They have It has FUTURE (ÅÛ‰Û˘Â ‚ÂÏfl). ç‡ÔËÏÂ: ç will be ~~~ ing. ÌÛÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ „·„ÓÎ to be ÙÓÏÓÈ is. íÂÔÂ¸ Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ÙÓÏÛ· Passive Continuous fi to be being ~ ~ ~ ed (3) Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚ Future. ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ڇÍËı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ Ì‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÙÓχ Infinitive ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to (·Û‰ÂÚ ÍÛËÚ¸ fi will smoke).

Ñ·ÂÏ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ҇χ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë fi Active. ÚÓ ÓÌË ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ëÚ‡‚ËÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â (ÂÒÎË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ËÏÂÂÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. ‚˚·Ë‡ÂÏ ‚ÂÏfl (Past / Present / Future). ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ. ëÎÓ‚‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ÒÚÓ„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÏ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ. ÍÓÚÓÓ Ï˚ ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‚ÂÎË. 7. ÓÚÌËχ˛˘‡fl ‚ÂÏfl. 1. èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ËÁÏÂÌËÚ¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. Ó̇ ÒÔËÚ ıÓÓ¯Ó) Ç ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ó·˚˜ÌÓ / ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÏÓÂ. 15 . (‚Ò„‰‡. Ï˚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎËÒ¸ Ò ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ÏË ÔË̈ËÔ‡ÏË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓÒÚ˚ı ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. 6. ÍÓ„‰‡ χχ ÎÓÊËÚÒfl ÒÔ‡Ú¸.fi åÛʘË̇ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÍÛËÚ. ÓÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÓ‰‡ÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ù‡ÍÚ fi Indefinite. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ‚ ÌÛÊÌÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ‰Ûχڸ ̇‰ Ëı ‚˚·ÓÓÏ. å‡Ï‡ ÒÔËÚ ıÓÓ¯Ó. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Â ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ÇÂÒ¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ı Ó·ÒÎÛÊË‚‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ 7 ÙÓÏÛÎ. ‡·ÓÚ‡ Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÂÒ‡‚ÌËÏÓ Î„˜Â. èÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. ÚÓθÍÓ ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÔÓ ÚÂÏ ÔËÁ͇̇Ï: Á‡ÎÓ„ / ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl / ‚ÂÏfl. ‚Ò ÚË ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡ÒÚ¸: å‡Ï‡ ÒÔËÚ. ÍÓÏ Active Indefinite). èÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Û Ì‡Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Present (‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË). 4.Â. ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ù‡ÍÚ fi Indefinite. ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ 3. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ·˚· ÓÔË҇̇ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl. Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ / ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛Ú „ÛÔÔÓÈ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó). äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: Ä — ‡ÚËÍθ (·Û‰ÂÏ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ ÌËÊÂ).áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÂÒÎË ıÓÚfl ·˚ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰ÓÔÛ˘Â̇ ӯ˷͇. ‚˚·Ë‡ÂÏ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (1. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÌÂÚ. 4) — ̇ıÓ‰ËÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ. çÛÊÌÛ˛ ‰Îfl Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚˚·‡Ú¸. fi Mother is sleeping now. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í „·‚ÌÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓ ÙÓÏËÓ‚‡Ì˲ ÒÏ˚Ò· ËÁ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ.fi ïÓÓ¯ËÈ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÏÛʘË̇ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÍÛËÚ. 5. A big man is smoking now. ê‡ÒÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Á‡‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ. ËÁÏÂÌflfl ÙÓÏÛ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÙÓÏÛ·ı. àÚ‡Í. A good big man is smoking now. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ÂÏfl. ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ smoke (ÍÛËÚ¸) Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ -Â. èÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ÔÓÏÌËÏ: ì ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı ÒÎÓ‚ ÌÂÚ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. A man is smoking now. èÓ‚ÚÓËÏ ÍÓÓÚÍÓ „·‚Ì˚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ˚. 3. Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚Ó‚Ò Ì ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl. 2. 2. ÔÓ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÛ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ·˚ÎÓ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï fi Continuous.fi ÅÓθ¯ÓÈ ÏÛʘË̇ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÍÛËÚ. ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í Ú‡ÍËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï -ing ËÎË -ed ÍÓ̘̇fl - ËÒ˜ÂÁ‡ÂÚ. 2. Ú. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ smoking (smoked). fi Mother is sleeping. Ç Ì‡¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÓ‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰ÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó: now (ÒÂȘ‡Ò). 3. ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflflÒ¸ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÒÎÓ‚. éÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡: å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ. ÅÓθ¯Â ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ Ì Ú·ÛÂÚÒfl. Ä̇ÎËÁËÛÂÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: ‚˚·Ë‡ÂÏ Active ËÎË Passive. 1. ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓȉÂÚ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ flÁ˚Í Ò ËÒ͇ÊÂÌËflÏË. Ç ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ‚ ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. Ç „ÛÔÔ Active ̇ıÓ‰ËÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ ÔÓ‰ ˆËÙÓÈ 1 (Indefinite): to ~~~. èÓÒΠÁ‡‚Â¯ÂÌËfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó Ì‡Ï ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‡ÒÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ˜ÎÂÌ˚. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÛÏÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ÛÒËÎËfl ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ·˚Ú¸ ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ ̇ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó.

͇҇˛˘ËÂÒfl ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÏÂÎÍËı ‰ÂÚ‡ÎÂÈ. ÌÓ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÁÊÂ. ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËflÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı. ‡ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ. ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ì‡Ï ÔˉÂÚÒfl ‰‡Ê ‚‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ Ëı ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ÓÌÓ Ì ÒÚÓËÚ (‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË) ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. ÌÓ ˝ÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ. ÔÓÏÌËÚÂ. ̇ӷÓÓÚ.á‡ÍÂÔËÏ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌÌ˚È Ï‡ÚÂˇΠÔËÏÂ‡ÏË..fi They were seen (Passive Indefinite Past) yesterday.fi Father reads (Active Indefinite Present) papers every day. ÚÓθÍÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚ Ì ÓÌ Ò‡Ï.fi The (‡ÚËÍθ) book is being read (Passive Continuous Present) now. ÖÒÎË Ì ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. äÌË„Û ÒÂȘ‡Ò ˜ËÚ‡˛Ú. ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı. Ú. Ëı ÙÓÏ˚ ‰‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ì˚ı ÒÚ‡Ú¸flı. Ëı ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ ÛÁ̇ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÙÓÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. ‚˚„Îfl‰flÚ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó: ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ \ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı \ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏ fi several ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏË / χθ˜ËÍË \ χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ \ χθ˜Ë͇ÏË fi boys ( -s Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ) χÎÂ̸ÍËı \ χÎÂ̸ÍËÈ \ χÎÂ̸ÍÓ„Ó fi small ÔÛÒÚ¸ Ì‡Ò Ì ÒÏÛ˘‡ÂÚ. ˜ÚÓ Ëı Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÓ ÓÚ ÓÌË. ‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ (!!!) ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ..fi Mother wax sleeping (Active Continuous Past) several minutes ago.. ̇‰ ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. Ì ÚÂ·Û˛˘Ëı ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‚ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ Ô‡‚Ë·. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ÂÚ ÙÓÏÛ· Passive. çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ Ì‡Á‡‰ χχ Òԇ·.fi Father is smoking (Active Continuous Present) now. ÌÓ Ô‰ÏÂÚ.fi ç will be seen (Passive Indefinite Future) tomorrow. àÚ‡Í: çÂÒÍÓθÍËı χÎÂ̸ÍËı χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ ‚ˉÂÎË ‚˜Â‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ.fi Big boys were reading (Active Continuous Past) new books..fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ÓÔflÚ¸ ÌÂÚ. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÓÌË ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ·˚Ú¸ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ó‰ËÌ ËÎË Ó·‡ „·‚Ì˚ı ˜ÎÂ̇ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ Ë / ËÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ). Ì‡Ï ÛÊ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ.. ˜ÚÓ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ‚ ËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌÓÏ ‚˚¯Â χÚÂˇÎÂ. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. Ö„Ó Û‚Ë‰flÚ Á‡‚Ú‡. ÔÓÌËχfl. ÌÓ Ï˚ Á̇ÂÏ..fi I shall see (Active Indefinite Future) small girls together tomorrow. äÌË„Ë ÒÂȘ‡Ò ˜ËÚ‡˛Ú. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï.fi Several small boys were seen (Passive Indefinite Past) together yesterday. ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÌËÏ fi Passive. (ÏÓÊÌÓ: Yesterday .fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: 16 . ̇˜ËÈ. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ Ëı (them). ᇂÚ‡ fl Û‚ËÊÛ Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËı ‰Â‚Ó˜ÂÍ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ.Â. ÅÓθ¯Ë χθ˜ËÍË ˜ËÚ‡ÎË ÌÓ‚˚ ÍÌË„Ë. ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË „·‚Ì˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl (χθ˜ËÍË).. ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı (΢Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ) Ï˚ Á̇ÂÏ.fi The books are being read (Passive Continuous Present) now. ‡ Ì Ë̇˜Â?". ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÎÓÒ¸ ̇‰ χθ˜Ë͇ÏË. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı. çÂÒÍÓθÍËı χÎÂ̸ÍËı χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ ‚ˉÂÎË ‚˜Â‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ‚ ÌËı ‰‡˛ÚÒfl ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË Ë ÔÓflÒÌÂÌËfl. ꇷÓÚ‡fl Ò ÔËÏÂ‡ÏË. ‡ Ì ËÏË Ò‡ÏËÏË.fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó Ì Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÍÚÓ? / ˜ÚÓ?. è‡Ô‡ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ „‡ÁÂÚ˚ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË they: àı ‚ˉÂÎË ‚˜Â‡. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ԇ‰ÂÊÌ˚ı ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. èÓ˜‡˘Â Á‡‰‡‚‡ÈÚ Ò· ‚ÓÔÓÒ: "èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ú‡Í. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÎÓ‚Ó Ï‡Î¸˜ËÍÓ‚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ·ÂÁ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó.. è‡Ô‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÍÛËÚ. ‚Ò ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ Í ÒÎÓ‚Û minutes: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÛÚÂÏ ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËfl -s ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ (‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ minute fi ÏËÌÛÚ‡). å˚ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ˚. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËfl ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú.Â. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ò‡ÏË ÒÚ‡‡ÈÚÂÒ¸ ÓÚ‚ÂÚËÚ¸ ̇ Ì„Ó.) àı ‚ˉÂÎË ‚˜Â‡. Ú. together. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ‡Á΢Ì˚Ï ÛÒÒÍËÏ Ô‡‰ÂʇÏ. Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï (ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï) -s Ì ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl. ·Û‰¸Ú ӘÂ̸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚.

Ú.) ì χ¯ËÌ˚ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ó‰Ì‡ ‰‚Â¸.) ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do ÚÓÊ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï.(凯Ë̇ ËÏ·. Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ò to be. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó‰ËÌ (Active Indefinite). Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ËÏÂÚ¸ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Î˛‰Ë..‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÂÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ü ҉·˛ ˝ÚÓ Á‡‚Ú‡. done). ‚ˉËÏÓ.(凯Ë̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ . ì Ì ÂÒÚ¸ ‰ÓÏ. 17 . Í‡Í to be ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È.fi The car had three doors. ˜ÚÓ ÒÂ‰Ë Ì‡¯Ëı ÔËÏÂÓ‚ ÌÂÚ ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÙÓÏÛÎ Perfect Ë Perfect Continuous. to have fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï. ‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸. Ó·‡ÁÛ˛˘Ëı ͇ÍÛ˛-ÎË·Ó ÙÓÏÛÎÛ. éÌË Ò‰Â·˛Ú ˝ÚÓ Á‡‚Ú‡. ˝ÚÓÚ „·„ÓÎ ÚÓÊ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ËÏÂÚ¸ fi to have. ì ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ ‰ÓÏ.fi We shall be (Active Indefinite Future) students. ÌÂÊÂÎË Indefinite Ë Continuous. å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ‡ÏË. éÌ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. ÛÊ ӷ‡ÚËÎË ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ÚÓ..fi I am (Active Indefinite Present) a student. Í‡Í ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È.. ÓÌ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È.fi We did (Active Indefinite Past) it yesterday. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Í‡Í ü Ëϲ / äÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ËÏÂÂÚ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. éÌ ‰Â·ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸.fi We are (Active Indefinite Present) students. å˚ ·˚ÎË ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ‡ÏË. ü ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. å˚ ÛÊ „Ó‚ÓËÎË.fi I had (Active Indefinite Past) a house.fi I have (Active Indefinite Present) a house. ü ·˚Î ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚÓÏ. ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ.Â. ÌÓ Ë ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚: Ç ‰ÓÏ ‰‚‡ ÓÍ̇.Â.. been.(ÑÓÏ ËÏÂÂÚ . ÔÓÒΠÌÂ„Ó ÌÂÚ ·Óθ¯Â „·„ÓθÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ.fi He is (Active Indefinite Present) a student. ì ÌËı ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰ÓÏ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ì ÏÂÌfl / ì ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ÒÚ‡ÎÍË‚‡ÂÏÒfl Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÚÓ Â˘Â ·ÓΠÌÂÔË‚˚˜Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ̇Ò.fi They will do (Active Indefinite Future) it tomorrow. Í‡Í ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È. ˜ÚÓ Ò to be Ë to have — ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰ËÌ (Active Indefinite). Ú. ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl Ú‡Í ÊÂ. ÌÓ Ë ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï. ü ·Û‰Û ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚÓÏ. ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ to be ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ú‡ÍÊÂ. ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚: was / were. áÄèéåçàíÖ: „·„ÓÎ to be ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È.) Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ӉÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ.. a were — Past Indefinite ‰Îfl ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó.(äÓÏ̇ڇ ËÏÂÂÚ.. å˚ ‰Â·ÎË ˝ÚÓ ‚˜Â‡. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ̇‰ÂÎÂÌÓ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ÏË ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚflÏË. ÌÓ Ë Í‡Í ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ. ì Ì‡Ò ·˚Î ‰ÓÏ.fi I was (Active Indefinite Past) a student.fi They will have (Active Indefinite Future) a house. Òӄ·ÒÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ÔÓ ÔËÁÌ‡Í‡Ï ˜ËÒ· Ë Îˈ‡: å˚ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ˚. ÌÓ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl Ò ÌËÏ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ. „‰Â ‚ÚÓ‡fl ÙÓχ ‰ÂÎËÚÒfl Â˘Â Ì‡ ‰‚Â: was — Past Indefinite ‰Îfl ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·.. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: „·„ÓÎ to be— ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È — to do (did. Ç˚. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ·˚Ú¸ / ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl.fi She has (Active Indefinite Present) a house.fi The car will have one door. ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È — to have (had).fi The room has one window. ÌÓ ÛÊ Ì ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó‰ËÌ (Active Indefinite).fi We were (Active Indefinite Past) students. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl Ú‡ ÊÂ.. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ‰Â·ڸ: ü ‰Â·˛ ˝ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸.fi We had (Active Indefinite Past) a house. ˜ÚÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl — ˝ÚÓ Ò‡Ï˚È ÒÎÓÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‚ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏӠ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl: ÂÒÚ¸ — ÙÓχ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÓÚ ·˚Ú¸ fi to be.fi I shall be (Active Indefinite Future) a student.fi The house has two windows.fi ç does (Active Indefinite Present) it every day. ‡ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. ì ÏÂÌfl ·˚Î ‰ÓÏ.fi I do (Active Indefinite Present) it everyday. ˜ÚÓ Ó·Â ˝ÚË ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ÌÂÒÛÚ ‚ Ò· ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ Ò‡ÁÛ Í‡Í ·˚ ÔÓ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏ Ô‡‡ÏÂÚ‡Ï..fi I shall do (Active Indefinite Future) it tomorrow.) ì χ¯ËÌ˚ ·˚ÎÓ ÚË ‰‚ÂË. ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl Ú‡Í ÊÂ.

ÖÒÎË ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl — Continuous: — ч‚‡È Ò˚„‡ÂÏ ‚˜ÂÓÏ ‚ ¯‡ıχÚ˚. óÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÍÛ˛ ÊËÁ̸ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ̇ „Ó‰˚ / ÏÂÒflˆ˚ / ̉ÂÎË / ÒÛÚÍË / ˜‡Ò˚ / ÏËÌÛÚ˚ / ÒÂÍÛ̉˚. ÇÓ‰‡ ‚ ˜‡ÈÌËÍ ÍËÔËÚ. (‚ ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËË). (ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. àı ‰ÂÚÂÈ Î˛·ËÎË / β·flÚ / ÔÓβ·flÚ ‚ÒÂ. ËÎË ÍÛ„ÓÏ Ó‰ÌË ÌÂÍÛfl˘ËÂ? . èÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ fl ÒÓ‚ÂÚÛ˛ Ò Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó Ì‡˜‡Î‡ ÔËÛ˜‡Ú¸ Ò·fl Í ÚÓÏÛ. ËÁ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: ü ÍÛ˛. ë‡ÏÓÎÂÚ˚ ÎÂÚ‡˛Ú ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ (‚ÓÓ·˘Â). CONTINUOUS. ÏÓ„Û Û„ÓÒÚËÚ¸ ÒË„‡ÂÚÓÈ)fi Active Indefinite Present fi I smoke.Â.ü ÍÛ˛. ÔÓÏÓ„Ë ¯ËÚ¸ Á‡‰‡˜ÍÛ.è‡Ô‡. ÖÒÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ. Ú. ÍÌË„Û Í‡ÍÛ˛-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡˛ ËÎË ÒıÓÊÛ ‚ ÍËÌÓ. Ç ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ò Indefinite Ò͇ÁÛÂÏӠ΄ÍÓ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ Ò ÔÓÌflÚËÂÏ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â.Â. ü ıÓ‰ËÎ / ıÓÊÛ / ÔÓÈ‰Û ‚ ÍËÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ̇ ÌÂ„Ó Ú‡ÚËÎÓÒ¸ ‚ÂÏfl: à‰ÂÚ ‰Óʉ¸.fi Indefinite ü ¯Î‡ ‚ ÍËÌÓ. . îÓÏÛÎ˚ Indefinite (Active Ë Passive) ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛Ú ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ β·ÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Past / Present / Future): ü ÍÛËÎ / ÍÛ˛ / ·Û‰Û ÍÛËÚ¸. ‡ Ì ‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. Ú. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Past / Present / Future ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÚÌËχÂÚ Û ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ÍÛÒÓ˜ÂÍ ÊËÁÌË. Ä ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸. 18 . ‚ ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ Continuous 7 Perfect / Perfect Continuous. fl Á‡Ú‡˜Û ̇ ÚÓ. í‡Í ‚ÓÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ). (Ì ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ.fi Continuous ü ıӉ˷ ‚ ÍËÌÓ. Ç ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËË ÏÛʘËÌ: . (Á‡ÌflÚ.— Ú‡˜Û ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ ÊËÁÌË Ì‡ ˝ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂfi Continuous ü ÍÛ˛ (‚ÓÓ·˘Â). ‡ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ ËÎË ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚËÛÂÚ Í‡ÍÛ˛-ÎË·Ó ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛.åÓÊÂÚ ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ Û„ÓÒÚËÚ¸ ÏÂÌfl ÒË„‡ÂÚÓÈ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÏÌ Ô‰·„‡˛Ú Á‡Ú‡ÚËÚ¸ ̇ Ë„Û ‚ ¯‡ıχÚ˚.fi ÑÓχ: . éÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó.ä‡Í ‚˚·Ë‡Ú¸ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. Ú‡˜Û ‚ÂÏfl ̇ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ÓÂ)fi Active Continuous Present fi I am smoking. — àÁ‚ËÌË. óÛÚ¸ ‚˚¯Â ÛÊ ÓÚϘ‡ÎÓÒ¸. ‡ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â.. Í‡Í ‚ Past ËÎË Present. áÄèéåçàíÖ: Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ ‚ÒÂÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÇÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ˜‡˘Â ‚Ò„Ó. ü ıÓÊÛ ‚ ÍËÌÓ (‚ÓÓ·˘Â). ‚˜ÂÓÏ fl ·Û‰Û ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ. ÂÒÎË ‚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËË ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ‚ ‚ˉ ÔÓÒÚÓ„Ó ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl.ü ÍÛ˛.fi Indefinite Ç Future ‡Á΢ˠÏÂÊ‰Û Continuous Ë Indefinite Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÓ ÌÂ Ú‡Í flÍÓ. ü ÍÛ˛ (‚ÓÓ·˘Â). ǘÂÓÏ fl ·Û‰Û ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ. ËÁ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÓÌË "‚˚ÓÒÎË". Ì ‰Â·fl ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÛÔÓ ̇ Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÓ ‚ÂÏfl — Indefinite: ǘÂÓÏ fl ·Û‰Û ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ. äÒÚ‡ÚË. èÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸ ‰‚‡ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‡ÁÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. àı ‰ÂÚÂÈ Î˛·flÚ ‚Ò (‚ÓÓ·˘Â). INDEFINITE. Ë ‚ ÊËÁÌË ‚‰¸ ÚÓÊ ͇ʉ‡fl ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÂÌ̇fl ̇ÏË Ù‡Á‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ì ҇χ ÔÓ Ò·Â. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ıÓÚËÏ ·Óθ¯Â ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍÌÛÚ¸ ‚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËË. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó·‡˘‡Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÌË ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡ ÒÎÓ‚‡. ÚÓ ÓÔflÚ¸ Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl Continuous Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÚ ‡Á‚ËÚË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ÖÒÎË ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÏ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. (‰Óχ) / ü ÍÛ˛. ÚÓ ÔÓ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÛ Ú‡Í‡fl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Continuous: ü ÍÛ˛ (ÒÂȘ‡Ò). ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ ‚ÁflÚ˚ ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÎÛÊËÚ¸ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. Ì Ú·ÛÂÚ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓ„ÓÎË·Ó ÔËÁ͇̇ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË (‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ / Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ / Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓÒΠ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË). ÌÓ ‚ ‡‚ÌÓÈ ÏÂÂ Ë Ì‡ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. Ì ÓÚ΢‡flÒ¸ ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÌË Ó‰ÌÓÈ ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ: ü ÍÛ˛. 2. 1. ˜ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ ‚ÁflÚ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÚÛ‰ÌÓ ÓÚ΢ËÚ¸ Indefinite ÓÚ Continuous. ÇÓ‰‡ ÍËÔËÚ ÔË 100 °ë (‚ÓÓ·˘Â).

/ å‡Ï‡ ÔËÂÁʇÂÚ ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ. ÂÒÎË ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. ÑÎfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ò Perfect ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ·Óθ¯Ë ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ. Perfect Present. c) ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓÎË·Ó: We are going to work in the evening. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ÓÚÂÁÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ.‰. ̇ÔËÏÂ). Ä ‡Ì„΢‡Ì Ì ‚ÒflÍÓ Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχ˛Ú ‚ Past. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. / ãÂÚÓÏ ÓÌË Â‰ÛÚ Ì‡ ÏÓÂ.. èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl. ÑÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÂ. Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ Continuous: to wantfi ıÓÚÂÚ¸ to likefi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl to lovefi β·ËÚ¸ to knowfi Á̇ڸ to seefi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ Ë ‰. èÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË: ‚ÂÍ / „Ó‰ / ÏÂÒflˆ / ‰‚‡ ‰Ìfl / . ÌÓ ËÏÂÂÚ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË ËÎË ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓÒÚË: Ç Ì‡¯ÂÏ „ÓӉ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ÌÓ‚‡fl „ÓÒÚËÌˈ‡. ã˛·Ó Á‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ü ÍÛÔËÎ / Ô˯ÂÎ / ۂˉÂÎ Ë Ú. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — ÚÓθÍÓ Continuous Present: We are working in the evening. ÌÓ ÂÒÎË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ڇÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸ Ë Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÙÓÏ ·Û‰Û˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË (·Û‰ÂÏ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ / ÔÓ‰ÛÚ /ÔˉÂÚ). 19 . ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Indefinite Future ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Continuous Present. éÌ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÎ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (Ò‚‡ËÎ ÍÓÙÂ) Ë ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ Ì‡Ï: ü Ò‚‡ËÎ ÍÓÙÂ. ˜ÚÓ „‰Â-ÚÓ ‚ ÒÓÒ‰ÌÂÈ ÍÓÏ̇Ú (Á‡ ÒÚÂÌÓÈ) ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (‚‡ËÚ ÍÓÙÂ. PERFECT. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ‡Ì‡ÎÓ„Ó‚ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ë Ò‡ÏÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (c). Mother is going to come in a few days. „‰Â ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡Ô·ÌËÓ‚‡ÌÓ / Ó„Ó‚ÓÂÌÓ / ̇‚ÂÌfl͇ ÔÓËÁÓȉÂÚ. b) ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌË ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. èË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ú‡ÍËı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÔÓÔÓÒÚÛ ÌÂθÁfl Á‡ÎÓÊËÚ¸ Û͇Á‡ÌË ̇ Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÏÓ ‚ÂÏfl. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÓıÓÊËÈ ÔËÂÏ: ǘÂÓÏ Ï˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ. 3. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ Ï˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ ËÏ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl (b) ËÁ-Á‡ ‡Á‰ÂÎfl˛˘ÂÈ Ì‡Ò ÒÚÂÌ˚ fi Past Indefinite. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÔËÏÂ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Â: ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ò ÍÓÙ Ï˚ ÒÚÂ̇ íÓ Ê ҇ÏÓÂ Ë ÒÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌÂÏ. îÓχ Perfect ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏÛ ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌ˲ ‡ÒÔ‡‰‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÚË ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡: a) ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ‰Îfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇. ÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÏ Ó˜Â̸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚. íÓθÍÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl (b). They are going to go to the sea in summer. ‡ ËÌÓ„‰‡ Perfect Present — ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ Í Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ: I have bought / have come / have seen. ‚ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË to be going to do something. Mother is coming in a few days. ÌÓ ‰Îfl Ì‡Ò ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ÌÂÏ Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï (‡). They are going to the sea in summer. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÎÓÒ¸ ̇ ÚÓÏ Ê ÓÚÂÁÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. àÌÓ„‰‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Indefinite Past — ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Í‡Í ÔÓÒÚÓÈ Ù‡ÍÚ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: I bought / came / saw. ˝ÚÓ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ‰Îfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ (‡). ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. éÚ ˜Â„Ó ˝ÚÓ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ? ÇÒ ÓÔflÚ¸ Ê Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ùÚÓÚ ÒÎÛ˜‡È ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ‡Á‰ÂθÌÓ ÔÓ ‚ÂÏÂ̇Ï.Continuous ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ú‡ÍÊ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl.. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÉÓ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ‡ÁÛ¯‡˛ÚÒfl. ‚˚‡Ê‡˛˘Ë ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó ËÎË ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËÂ. è‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Ò·Â. Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÏÓÏ ‚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËË. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚.

ü ‚ˉÂΠχθ˜ËÍÓ‚ ‚˜Â‡. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ò Perfect Present Ï˚ Í‡Í ·˚ Ô˄·¯‡ÂÏ ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ / ÔËÌflÚ¸ Í Ò‚Â‰ÂÌ˲ ̇¯Â ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌË (‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÔËÏÂÂ: . Ò„ӉÌfl ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ) — ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï fi Indefinite Past. 20 . àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÛ ÙÓÏÛ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ: 4.fi The house had been built (Passive Perfect Past) before we came here (Active Indefinite Past). ‚ÓÚ ÚÂÔÂ¸ Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Á‡ ÏÂÌfl Á‡ÏÛÊ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÂÒÎË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò Á‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌ˚Ï ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ Û͇Á‡Ì ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË." á‰ÂÒ¸ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ÔÓÍÛÔÍ ‰Óχ ÌÓÒËÚ ˜ËÒÚÓ ËÌÙÓχˆËÓÌÌ˚È ı‡‡ÍÚÂ. é̇ ‚ˉ· χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔflÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÚ Ì‡Á‡‰.. ÚÓ„‰‡ ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. Perfect Past. ǘÂ‡ ë„ӉÌfl ‚ˉÂÎ Ë ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ á‡‚Ú‡ èÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË — Ó‰ËÌ ‰Â̸ (ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÚÓÚ Ê ‰Â̸. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ ‚ Perfect Past.fi She saw the boys five minutes ago. è‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ËÒÍβ˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ÓÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ) fi Perfect Present. ÖÒÎË Ï˚ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÏ. Ôˉ‡˛˘Ë ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ËÎË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ÌÂÁ‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇. 5. Ë Ó‰ÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ‰Ó ̇˜‡Î‡ ‰Û„Ó„Ó. åËÌÛÚ‡ (ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ) èÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË — Ӊ̇ ÏËÌÛÚ‡ (Ò ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ÔÓ¯ÎÓ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍÓ‚) — ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂÏ ÌÂθÁfl ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl fi Ì ‚‡ÊÌÓ fi Indefinite Past. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ (Í ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË by): ÑÓÏ ·˚Î ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ Í ÍÓÌˆÛ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó „Ó‰‡. ˜ÚÓ fl Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓÊÛ ÂÈ. ÏËÌ.). Ë Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÓËÂÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡¯Â ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËÂ Ó Í‡ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ‰Îfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇. ü ÍÛÔËÎ ‰ÓÏ. — ‚‡ÊÌÓ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌË fi Perfect Present fi I have bought a house. óÂÂÁ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. Á‡‚ÂÎ ıÓÁflÈÒÚ‚Ó .fi The house had been built (Passive Perfect Past) by the end of the last year. çÓ ÔÓÚÓÏ ÒڇΠÔÓÌÂÏÌÓ„Û Ó·ÊË‚‡Ú¸Òfl. çÓ Ó̇ ÓÚ͇Á‡Î‡ ÏÌÂ. ‰Îfl ÌÂ„Ó ˝ÚÓ Ì ‚‡ÊÌÓ fi Indefinite Past fi I bought a house.. Ôӯ·fl ̉ÂÎfl ˝Ú‡ ̉ÂÎfl ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘‡fl ̉ÂÎfl (‚ˉ· Ë ÒÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ) èÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË — ̉ÂÎfl (‚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚÒfl Ú‡ Ê ҇χfl ̉ÂÎfl.. Ó·‡ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.. Í‡Í ÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÂÚ Ì‡Á‡‰ ÊËÎ ‚ ‰Â‚ÌÂ: "ë̇˜‡Î‡ ·˚ÎÓ ÌÂ΄ÍÓ — ÓÒ ·ÂÁ Ó‰ËÚÂÎÂÈ.fi She has seen the boys this week. ˜ÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ‡Ì¸¯Â. ÚÓ ÔË ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflÂÏÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÂÏÛ. fl ÍÛÔËÎ ‰ÓÏ Ë ÓÔflÚ¸ Ó·‡ÚËÎÒfl Í Ò‚ÓÂÈ ËÁ·‡ÌÌˈÂ: ü ÍÛÔËÎ ‰ÓÏ. ÏËÌ. (ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ) ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÎË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ·˚ÎÓ ‰‚‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl.).fi I saw the boys yesterday. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‡‚ÚÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍË Á‡‚ËÒËÚ Ë ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl. ÂÒÎË Ì ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï (ÔÓÒÚÓ ËÌÙÓχˆËfl) — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ Indefinite Past. ‡ ÚÓ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Perfect Present.fi I have seen the boys today. Í‡Í Ï˚ ÔËÂı‡ÎË Ò˛‰‡.. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl 1: ü ҉·ΠÔ‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‰Â‚Û¯ÍÂ. ÏËÌÛÚ‡ (‚ˉ·) ÏËÌ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÁÊ (ÌÓ ÚÓÊ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË) — ‚ Indefinite Past: ÑÓÏ ·˚Î ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‰Ó ÚÓ„Ó. ü ‚ˉÂΠχθ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ò„ӉÌfl. ÏËÌ. å˚ ËÁÛ˜ËÏ Ëı ÔÓÁÊÂ. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ì Ëϲ ‰‡Ê ҂ÓÂ„Ó ÊËθfl.. Á‡fl‚Ë‚. ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. é̇ ‚ˉ· χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ ̇ ˝ÚÓÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ. çÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ü ÍÛÔËÎ ‰ÓÏ. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl 2: ü ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡˛ ÍÓÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó ÚÓÏ. ÇˉÂÎ ‚˜Â‡ ëÓÓ·˘‡ÂÚ Ò„ӉÌfl èÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË — Ó‰ËÌ ‰Â̸ (‚˜Â‡ ‚ˉÂÎ. Á‡‡·ÓÚ‡‚ ‰ÂÌ„. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÙÓÏ˚ Perfect Present ÔÓ‰Ò͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˜Ëfl (ÛÊ / Â˘Â Ë ‰. ˜ÚÓ Ë Ò‡ÏÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ) — ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl fi ‚‡ÊÌÓ fi Perfect Present.

˜ÚÓ Á‡‚Â¯ËÚÒfl ‡Ì¸¯Â. fl ÛÊ Û‰Û.fi ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ: The house will have been built (Passive Perfect Future) by the next month. Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÏ˚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ ÓÚÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ ÛÍÓ‡˜Ë‚‡ÌËfl ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı/„ÓÏÓÁ‰ÍËı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ Ë ‰‡Ê ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ (ÒÏ. ÌÓ ‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë (̇ۘÌ˚ı ÒÚ‡Ú¸flı/‰ÓÍ·‰‡ı Ë Ú. ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ·˚Î Û͇Á‡Ì ‚ÂÒ¸ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ÔÓÚÂ͇ÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌËfl Ó ÌÂÏ ËÎË ·˚Î Û͇Á‡Ì ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Ì‡˜‡Î‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. Ó̇ ˜‡ÒÚÓ Á‡ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ̇ Indefinite Future: ÑÓÏ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ Í ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏÛ ÏÂÒflˆÛ. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË.fi å˚ ‰‡‚ÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÛÏ˚‚‡ÂÏ Ó ÚÓÏ. 21 . it will have started (Active Perfect Future) to work by the time we get (Active Indefinite Present) home. We have been thinking about buying („ÂÛ̉ËÈ. í·ÛÂÚ Ì‡Î˘Ëfl Ò‡ÁÛ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ. 2. é·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. Perfect Continuous Present. Ë Ó‰ÌÓ Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ‰Ó ̇˜‡Î‡ ‰Û„Ó„Ó. ÌÓ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ë ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚÂ. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸: We build (Indefinite Present) the house for a month. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. ·Û‰ÂÏ ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ ÔÓÁÊÂ) a new car. ‰‡Ê ÔË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ ‰Îfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Perfect Future. ˜ÚÓ·˚: 1.fi The house will have been built (Passive Perfect Future) before we come (Active Indefinite Present) there. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ÔÓÎۘ˯¸ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÒ·ÌËÂ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇˜‡ÎÓÒ¸ ‡Ì¸¯Â. ÑÓÏ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‰Ó ÚÓ„Ó. Ó̇ ̇˜ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ Í ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ. ÌÓ Ôӂ҉̂̇fl ÛÒÚ̇fl˜¸ ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ÌÓÏ. b) ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÎË ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ·˚ÎÓ ‰‚‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ê‡Á‰ÂÎ V). ͇Í) å˚ ÒÚÓËÏ ‰ÓÏ Ò ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó „Ó‰‡. ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ó˘ÛÚËÏÓ„Ó Û˘Â·‡ ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˲ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ÒÎÛı ڇ͇fl Á‡ÏÂ̇ Ì ̇ÌÓÒËÚ Ë Ó¯Ë·ÍÓÈ Ì ҘËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl.fi By the time you receive (Active Indefinite Present) this message I shall have left (Active Perfect Future). èËÏÂ˚: (1) (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ˛ for fi ‚ Ú˜ÂÌËÂ) å˚ ÒÚÓËÏ ‰ÓÏ ‚ÓÚ ÛÊ ÏÂÒflˆ (‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ÏÂÒflˆ‡).fi If I take the pill now. ê‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÔËÏÂÌÂÌËfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ÔÓ ‚ÂÏÂ̇Ï. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚Â Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ˝ÚÓÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Ê·ÚÂθÌÓ.fi We have been building the house since last year. Í‡Í Ï˚ ÔˉÂÏ ÚÛ‰‡. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ÔˉÂÏ ‰ÓÏÓÈ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ï˚ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÂÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ÒÂı ÙÓÏÛÎ Ò ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓÈ „‡ÏχÚËÍË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ‰ÎËÎÓÒ¸ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚÒfl ÒÂȘ‡Ò ËÎË Ê ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÎÓÒ¸. ËÎË: We are building (Continuous Present) the house for a month. Ó·‡ ‚ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÚÓ„‰‡ ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ‡ ÚÓ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÁÊ — ‚ Indefinite Present: ä ÚÓÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÙÓÏÛ· „ÓÏÓÁ‰Í‡fl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË Ë ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl ·ÓΠÔÓÒÚ˚ÏË (Indefinite ËÎË Continuous). äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó. àÌÓ„‰‡ Û͇Á‡ÌË ̇ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. fi We have been building the house for a month. ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ‰ÍÓ.fi The house will be built (Passive Indefinite Future) by the next month.fi The house will have been built (Passive Perfect Future) by the end of the next year. ùÚÛ ÙÓÏÛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÚÓÊ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚ËÈ: a) ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ Í fi by ͇ÍÓÏÛ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ ‚ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ: ÑÓÏ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ Í ÍÓÌˆÛ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Â„Ó „Ó‰‡. (2) (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó since fi Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ.) ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ÒÚÓ„Ó Òӷβ‰ÂÌË ‚ÒÂı ÌÓÏ flÁ˚͇. Perfect continuous (Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚ Passive).Perfect Future. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ Ôӂ҉̂ÌÓÈ ˜Ë.Ô. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ ‚ Perfect Future. ÖÒÎË fl ÔËÏÛ Ú‡·ÎÂÚÍÛ ÒÂȘ‡Ò.

é·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ (1) ËÎË (2). Ë̇˜Â ÒÓ·¸ÂÏÒfl ̇ Ó·˚ÍÌÓ‚ÂÌÌÓ ۄ‡‰˚‚‡ÌËÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ. 2. Í‡Í ‚ Perfect Continuous Present.fi We had been building the house for a month. 22 . 3. èÂ‚ӉËÏ ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÁ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. 3-fl ÙÓχ (ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ). ‚ ‡Ï͇ı ËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ Ë ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÏ ÔÓËÒÍ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. 4. ç ÏÂÌ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÛÏÂÌË Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË. ÌÓ ÓÌË ÚÓÊ Ì ÔÓÚË‚Ó˜‡Ú Ó·˘ÂÈ ÒıÂÏ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. (1) ä ÍÓÌˆÛ „Ó‰‡ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÛÊ ‰‚‡ ÏÂÒflˆ‡. ë ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰ÂÌËfl ÙÓÏÛΠ̇˜Ë̇ÂÏ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ‚ÂÏÂÌË ·Û‰ÂÚ Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚Ò ÏÂ̸¯Â Ë ÏÂ̸¯Â. ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇˜ÌÂÚÒfl ‰Ó ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ‚ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸÒfl ‚ÔÎÓÚ¸ ‰Ó ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡. èÓ̇˜‡ÎÛ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÓËÒ͇ Ë ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ·Û‰ÂÚ ÓÚÌËχڸ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ËÎË Á‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ ÙÓÏÛ Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË „·„ÓÎÓ‚ to be ËÎË to have ̇ ÙÓÏÛ Infinitive) fi ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ. Perfect Continuous Future. ÔÂ‚ӉËÏ Â„Ó.Â. Ó̇ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl "‚ÓÒ¸ÏÓÈ". 5. Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. é·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. a Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï „·„Ó·Ï. ÍÓ„‰‡ ̇˜‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ÓÈ̇. ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇˜‡ÎÓÒ¸ ‡Ì¸¯Â ‰Û„Ó„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. Ë ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÒ¸ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÒÚ‡ÌÂÚ ÔÓ˜ÚË ‡‚ÚÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏ. Ç Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡ÒÚ¸! ÖÒÎË ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌ̇fl ËÁ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÙÓÏÛ· Ì ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÌË Ò Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÒÂÏË. ë‚ÂflÂÏ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌÌÛ˛ Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ò ÒÂϸ˛. when the war began. ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ì‡˜Ë̇ڸÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË should / would (Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÓÚ shall /will) ËÎË Í‡ÍËÏ-ÎË·Ó ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ. (2) å˚ ÒÚÓËÎË ‰ÓÏ Ò ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó „Ó‰‡. ÑÓ ÒËı ÔÓ Ï˚ Û˜ËÎËÒ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÂÂÌÓÒËÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ËÁ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. Ú. ËÎË ÔÓ ÙÓÏ‡Ï „·„ÓÎÓ‚ to be / to have ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÏ ‚ÂÏfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ¸ ËÁ ‡ÁÌÓ„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÒÎÓ‚ — ÓÚ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó (Active Indefinite Present / Past) ‰Ó ˜ÂÚ˚Âı (Active Perfect Continuous Future / Passive Perfect Future). Á‡ÚÂÏ ÔÂ‚ӉËÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ Ò Û˜ÂÚÓÏ ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. 1. Í‡Í Ï˚ ÒÚÓËÏ ‰ÓÏ. ÅÓΠÔÓÁ‰Ì ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl Indefinite Past: (1) å˚ ÛÊ ÏÂÒflˆ ÒÚÓËÎË ‰ÓÏ. Ç˚‰ÂÎflÂÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ (ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ).Â. ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌË ӷ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÔӇ̄ÎËÈÒÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË: ¸ ̇ıÓ‰ËÏ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· (~~~~~~). èË‚Ó‰ËÏ ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive (ÓÚ·‡Ò˚‚‡ÂÏ shall / will / should / would / ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ. ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â („ÛÔÔÛ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó). ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡ÂÏ ‚Ò ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÓÚ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‰Ó ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·. Ú. èÓ ÏÂ ̇ÍÓÔÎÂÌËfl ÓÔ˚Ú‡ ‡·ÓÚ˚. ¸ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚Ó„Ó ÌÓÏÂ‡ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ‚ „ÛÔÔ (1. 2. ˜ÂÚ˚ — χÍÒËχθÌÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÏ.fi We shall have been building the house for two months by the end of the year. ~~~ed (Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ). ÔÓÒΠ˜Â„Ó ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÙÓχ Infinitive — Ú‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë Ï˚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ‰‡Î ‚ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÏ Ï‡ÚÂˇÎÂ.) ̇˜Ë̇ÂÚÒfl ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ: shall / will / to be / to have . Ë ÔÓÒΠ̇˜‡Î‡ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‰Û„Ó„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚Ò ¢ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÎÓÒ¸ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ÂÏfl ËÎË Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÎÓÒ¸ (·˚ÎÓ ÔÂ‚‡ÌÓ). èÓθÁÛflÒ¸ Ô‡‚ËÎÓÏ ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ˜ÚÓ Î˛·Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ (ÍÓÏ Active Indefinite Present / Past. when the war began. ӷ·‰‡˛˘ËÏ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË: ~~~ing. ÅÓΠÔÓÁ‰Ì ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl Indefinite Present. é·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˯¸. ËÎË Ê ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÌËÏ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔÓÏÌËÏ. ‡ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ·˚Ú¸ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ — Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌÓ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ. ¸ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ „ÛÔÔ˚ Active ËÎË Passive ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÏ. 4) ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÏ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. èÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ. ÌÓ ÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl Ì ÒΉÛÂÚ. 6. çÛÊÌÓ ÔËÛ˜ËÚ¸ Ò·fl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‚Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ̇˜‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ÓÈ̇. èË "˝ÚÓÏ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ (1) ËÎË (2).fi We had been building the house since last year. (2) å˚ ÛÊ ·Û‰ÂÏ ÒÔ‡Ú¸ Ò ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ÏË Ì‡Ï. ¸ ÔÓ Ì‡ÎË˜Ë˛ ‚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÏ shall /will.Perfect Continuous Past. 3.fi We shall have been sleeping since ten o'clock when you call. ÔÓÏÌËÏ Ú‡ÍÊÂ.

b) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏËÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ (Active). c) Ù‡ÍÚ (Indefinite). 23 . fi (I) Father fi éÚˆ. Continuous. (V) å˚ ۂˉËÏ Ô‡ÔÛ Á‡‚Ú‡. (III) to ~~~ fi Active Indefinite. We shall be seen together. (II) shall see. Í Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ fi ‚ˉÂÎË.fi (I) èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ç fi éÌ. c) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ËÏÂÂÚ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Continuous). (V) è‡Ô‡ ‚˚ÍÛËÎ ·Óθ¯Û˛ ÒË„‡Û Ò„ӉÌfl. (III) to be + 3-fl ÙÓχ. (II) ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ is smoking (is — ÙÓχ Present ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be. a) ÍÛËÚ¸. We shall see father tomorrow. ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ̇‰ ÌËÏË.fi (I) Wefi å˚. fi (I) Father fi éÚˆ. a) ÍÛËÚ¸. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚Ò Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Â„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡: ÂÒÎË ˝ÚÓ 3-fl ÙÓχ „·„Ó· — Á̇˜ËÚ. (IV) Passive Indefinite. (V) ‚ˉÂÚ¸ — ۂˉflÚ. Father has smoked a big cigar today.. (V) àı ‚ˉÂÎË Ò„ӉÌfl. a) ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ smoke fi ÍÛËÚ¸. 2). (III) îÓÏÛ· to be ~~~ ing. b) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ (Active). (III) îÓÏÛ· to have ~~~ed.Â. b) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Active). ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÛÊ Á̇ÂÏ — ‚ˉÂÚ¸. c) Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ (Perfect). (IV) í‡Í‡fl ÙÓÏÛ· ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚ „ÛÔÔ Active ÔÓ‰ ˆËÙÓÈ 2. ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ ‚ÒÂı ‰Û„Ëı — Active Indefinite. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡. smoked — ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ). d) ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (~~~s) fi ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ÍÛËÚ. Father smokes big cigars. 2) Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ËÏÂÂÚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ (ÂÒÎË been — ‚ÚÓÓÈ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ËÁ ÙÓÏÛÎ Active Perfect Continuous / Passive Perfect). (V) èÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: éÌ ÍÛËÚ ·Óθ¯Û˛ ÒË„‡Û ÒÂȘ‡Ò. (IV) Passive Perfect. (II) á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‰‚‡ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡: 1) have been fi Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl been (ÂÒÎË been — 3-fl ÙÓχ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó to be). (II) has smoked (has — ÙÓχ Present ÓÚ to have. ÂÒÎË Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰Û„Ó ÒÎÓ‚Ó — 1) fi ÒÏÓÚËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸: seen — 3-fl ÙÓχ ÓÚ to see (‚ˉÂÚ¸) fi Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: have been seen fi a) b) c) d) (III) îÓÏÛ·: to have been seen. îÓÏÛ· ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ‡‚ÚÓχÚ˘ÂÒÍË.èËÏÂ˚: ç is smoking a big cigar now. They have been seen today. (II) smokes — 3. d) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ is — ÙÓχ to be ‚ Present) fi ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ÍÛËÚ — Ò‡Ï(·) / Ú‡ÚËÚ ‚ÂÏfl(‚) / ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ(„). (IV) Active Perfect.fi (I) Wefi å˚. d) Í Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ (has — Present) => ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ‚˚ÍÛËÎ.4.fi (I) They => éÌË. Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸. smoking — ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ). (III) éÚˆ ÍÛËÚ ·Óθ¯Ë ÒË„‡˚. (IV) ‚ˉÂÚ¸ — ۂˉËÏ. Ú. (II) shall be seen.

àÌÓ„‰‡. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. ˜ÚÓ ıÓ˜ÂÚ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ËÌÓÒÚ‡Ìˆ. ËÏÂ˛Ú ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ). They are friends.fi (1) é̇ ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ (ÎÂÚ ÒÚ‡‡fl). éÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‚ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ „ÓÎÓ‚Â. 6. ͇ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á‡ÏÂÌËÚ¸ ‰Û„ËÏË Ë Ú.fi (2) Ç ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏ „Ó‰Û ÂÏÛ ËÒÔÓÎÌËÚÒfl ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl. = (2) ç wanted to smoke every day.Â. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡ÂÏ ‚Ò Ô‡‚Ë· Ë ÔËÂÏ˚. ÍÓ̘ÌÓ. to drive fi ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ / driver fi ¯ÓÙÂ ‚ Ú. 8. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸Òfl ÍÓfl‚˚Ï ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˲ Ë ÚÛ‰ÌÓ‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌ˚Ï ‰Îfl ÔÓÌËχÌËfl. / ä‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸ ÓÌ'ıÓÚÂÎ ÍÛËÚ¸. 10. It was brought yesterday. ˜ÚÓ ıÓÚÂÎ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ËÌÓÒÚ‡Ìˆ..fi (2) ÖÈ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ. Í‡Í Û ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÔËÌflÚÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸ ÚÛ ËÎË ËÌÛ˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ (̇ÔËÏÂ: ü ÂÒÚ¸ (to be) ÒÚÓθÍÓ-ÚÓ ÎÂÚ. My name is Leon.fi (2) Ç ‰ÓÏ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÓÏ̇Ú. Ú. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÒΠ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ÓÔËÒ‡Ì̇fl ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÌflÚÌÓÈ Ì‡Ï.‰. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. Ó·‡˘‡ÈÚ ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ÚÓ. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È flÁ˚Í "ÊË‚ÂÚ" ÔÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï Á‡ÍÓ̇Ï. = (2) I am Leon. The girls are happy. They are talking loudly. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ — ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜Ì˚È ˝Ú‡Ô. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÎۘ˷Ҹ ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡). = (2) They will buy a new car.. ÍÚÓ(ÚÓ. Sometimes Yolanda helps Cindy to clean rooms. fi (1) ü ÂÒÚ¸ ãÂÓÌ. èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÚÂÍÒÚ: Yolanda Smith is twenty two years old.Â. è‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. Yolanda is a medical student. Every room will have several tables and one window. ‡ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ Í‡ÚËÌÍÛ (ÚÛ. It is getting dark. The liquid is very strong. fi (1) ÑÓÏ ËÏÂÂÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÓÏ̇Ú. ÔÂ‚‰ÂÌÌÓ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ. 1. ËÏÂÂÚ Ò‚ÓË ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË. They are cleaning a room now. èÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ. ˜ÚÓ) ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. 3. The girls feel well. to work fi ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ / worker fi ‡·Ó˜ËÈ. èËÏÂ˚: I want to sleep. Ç˚ıÓ‰ËÚ. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌ̇fl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË. ÚÓ. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓÚ. é˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ: ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÂÂÌÓÒ‡ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ËÁ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ‚‰ÌÓÈ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ‡Á·ËÚ Ì‡ ‰‚‡ ˝Ú‡Ô‡: ëËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‰Îfl Ò·fl. ùÚÓ Ë ·Û‰ÂÚ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ. fi (1) ä‡Ê‰‡fl ÍÓÏ̇ڇ ·Û‰ÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓÎÓ‚ Ë Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ. Ú. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl Î˯ÌËÏË. ÌÓ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË Ï˚ Ú‡Í Ì „Ó‚ÓËÏ. fi (1) åÓ ËÏfl ÂÒÚ¸ ãÂÓÌ. fi (1) ü ıÓ˜Û ÒÔ‡Ú¸. It is good.fi (1) éÌ ıÓÚÂÎ ÍÛËÚ¸ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. They will go home soon. fi (1) é̇ ËÏ· ÒÚÓÎ. íÂÔÂ¸ ‰Îfl Ì‡Ò ËÏÂ˛Ú Á̇˜ÂÌË ÚÓθÍÓ Á‡ÍÓÌ˚ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. She is twenty (years old). 2. She had a table. ÑÎfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‚ÒÂÈ Ù‡Á˚ (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰‡fl ·ÛÍ‚‡ ËÎË Á‚ÛÍ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ËÏ Ò Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ˆÂθ˛. ÌÓ ÔÂÂÌÓÒ Â ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÈ flÁ˚Í Ú·ÛÂÚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ‰Ó‡·ÓÚÍË. fi (2) åÂÌfl ÁÓ‚ÛÚ ãÂÓÌ. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: ÂÒÎË Í „·„ÓÎÛ ÔË·‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ ÍÓ̈ -Âr. 4. å˚ ÛÊ Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ..fi (1) éÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ „Ó‰.(VI) ç‡Ò ۂˉflÚ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. fi (2) ì Ì ·˚Î ÒÚÓÎ. ç will be twenty next year. ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ (‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ) flÁ˚ÍÂ.). ÌÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÈÚËÒ¸ Ë ·ÂÁ ÌËı) — ÔÓθÁÛÈÚÂÒ¸ ÚÂÏË Ê ÔËÂχÏË ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ÔӇ̄ÎËÈÒÍË: Ç ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ „Ó‰Û ÂÈ ·˚ÎÓ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ. 24 . 7. ˜ÚÓ ıÓÓ¯Ó ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ. / ü ãÂÓÌ. 2. Ç˚flÒÌflÂÏ. Cindy is a cleaner. ê‡ÒÒÛʉ‡ÂÏ ÔËÏÂÌÓ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: ÏÌ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ. fi (2) åÂÌfl ÁÓ‚ÛÚ ãÂÓÌ. Cindy has come earlier today.. 5. The house has several rooms. Cindy Fox is twenty. / ü ãÂÓÌ. à˘ÂÏ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.Â. 1. Ú.fi (2) Ç Í‡Ê‰ÓÈ ÍÓÏ̇Ú ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓ Ó‰ÌÓÏÛ ÓÍÌÛ Ë ÔÓ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÛ ÒÚÓÎÓ‚. They are using a new cleaning liquid. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚËÏ „·„ÓÎ‡Ï (to clean fi Û·Ë‡Ú¸ / cleaner fi Û·Ó˘Ëˆ‡. ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı flÁ˚͇ı ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ ÊËÁÌÂÌÌ˚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ. ‡ Ì ü Ëϲ (to have) ÒÚÓθÍÓ-ÚÓ ÎÂÚ.fi (1) éÌË ÍÛÔflÚ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. 9. ͇ÍÛ˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÓÌ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ.fi She was twenty (years old) last year.‰. ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ò ‚‡ˇÌÚÓÏ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. Ì "ÒÏÓÚËÚÒfl" ËÎË Ì "Á‚Û˜ËÚ" ‚ ‰Û„ÓÏ. ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ years old.

ÂÒÎË Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ ÔË·‡‚ËÚ¸ -1Û. at least fi ÔÓ Í‡ÈÌÂÈ ÏÂÂ. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÏÌÓ„ÓÁ̇˜Ì˚ Ë ÏÓ„ÛÚ. well fi ıÓÓ¯Ó). 25 . éÚÏÂÚËÏ Î˯¸. little fi χÎÓ. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ̇ ·ÛÍ‚Û -Û. ˜ÚÓ: èÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÙÓÏ ̇˜Ëfl ·˚‚‡˛Ú: ÔÓÒÚ˚ (soon fi ÒÍÓÓ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â. éÌË ÔÓ‰Û„Ë. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ÒÚÓËÚ „·Ò̇fl. in vain fi ̇Ô‡ÒÌÓ). log / logging Ë Ú. quite fi ‚ÔÓÎÌÂ). èÂ‚Ӊ: âÓ·̉ ëÏËÚ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ‰‚‡ „Ó‰‡. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÓÒÓ·˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ̇˜ËÈ ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌ˚ ‚ ê‡Á‰ÂΠIV. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Â ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡. ˜ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚Ï ÏÓÏÂÌÚÓÏ ÔË ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÏ. Ӊ̇ÍÓ. àÌÓ„‰‡ âÓ·̉‡ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ëËÌ‰Ë Û·Ë‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏ̇Ú˚. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl (Á‡ÍÓ̘˂¯ËÂÒfl ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË). å˚ Ì ·Û‰ÂÏ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ Â˜Ë Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ. Ç̇˜‡Î ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ó·˘Ëı ÒÎÓ‚ Ó Ì‡˜ËË ‚ÓÓ·˘Â. loudly fi „ÓÏÍÓ). ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‡Á΢Ì˚ ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË. éÌË Û·Ë‡˛Ú ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ ÒÂȘ‡Ò. simply fi ÔÓÒÚÓ. ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ÂÈÒfl ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â. ¸ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Ì˚ (at last fi ̇ÍÓ̈. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë Á‡ÍÓ̘˂¯ËÂÒfl ËÎË ÔÂ˚‚ËÒÚ˚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË ‚ÂÏÂÌË. íÂÏÌÂÂÚ. much fi ÏÌÓ„Ó. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË -t / - / -g. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÚÓ. ¸ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ (Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÒÎËflÌËÂÏ ‰‚Ûı ÒÎÓ‚: sometimes fi ËÌÓ„‰‡. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡fl ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ. the day before yesterday fi ÔÓÁ‡‚˜Â‡. ÚÓ ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË -ing Ë -ed ‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˝ÚË ·ÛÍ‚˚ Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl (stop / stopped. éÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl: yesterdayfi ‚˜Â‡. éÌË „ÓÏÍÓ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡˛Ú. slowly fi ωÎÂÌÌÓ. ë ÙÓÏÛ·ÏË Indefinite (Active / Passive) ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ̇˜Ëfl (‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl). ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ò Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‰Û„ÓÈ. Ö ÔËÌÂÒÎË ‚˜Â‡. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 1: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ̇˜ËÈ. ‚ÎËfl˛Ú ̇ ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ (ÒÏ. ëËÌ‰Ë Ô˯· Ò„ӉÌfl ‡Ì¸¯Â âÓ·̉˚. âÓ·̉‡ — ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ͇-ωËÍ (ËÎË: ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ͇ ωˈËÌÒÍÓ„Ó ÍÓÎΉʇ). yet fi ¢Â). ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ˢÂÏ early. ëËÌ‰Ë ÙÓÍ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï (ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË) Ç˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡ÂÚÂÒ¸ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÒÚÂÏËÚÂÒ¸ Í ÚÓÏÛ. ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ (Ó·‡ÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÓÚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ‰Ó·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ -lÛ ‚ ÍÓ̈Â: badly fi ÔÎÓıÓ. now fi ÒÂȘ‡Ò. ıÓÚfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Á‡ÌËχڸ Ë ËÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ.Ô. then fi ÔÓÚÓÏ). ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ˢÂÏ loud fi „ÓÏÍËÈ — loudly fi „ÓÏÍÓ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 9). ÇÌËχÚÂθÌÓ ÓÁ̇ÍÓϸÚÂÒ¸ ÒÓ ‚ÒÚÛÔËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‡Á‰ÂÎÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡fl (ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÈ). ¸ Ó·‡Á‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (loudly fi „ÓÏÍÓ. ÂÒÎË ÒÎÓ‚Ó. nowhere fi ÌË„‰Â). Ç ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Ì‡Ò ËÌÚÂÂÒÛ˛Ú Ì‡˜Ëfl ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ‚ÎËfl˛˘Ëı ̇ ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ëËÌ‰Ë ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ Û·Ó˘ËˆÂÈ. however fi Ӊ̇ÍÓ). ‚ÔÓÎÌ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ. here fi Á‰ÂÒ¸. ¸ ̇˜Ëfl ÏÂ˚ Ë ÒÚÂÔÂÌË (very fi Ó˜Â̸. ¸ ÏÂÒÚ‡ (outside fi Ò̇ÛÊË. ÏÂÌfl˛Ú ˝ÚÛ ·ÛÍ‚Û Ì‡ -i ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ͇ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË (earli+er fi earli fi early). Ë ‚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ ËÌÙÓχˆËË. at first fi Ò̇˜‡Î‡. ëÍÓÓ ÓÌË ÔÓȉÛÚ ‰ÓÏÓÈ. ͇ÍÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ Â˜Ë ÓÌÓ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl. ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ˢÂÏ get (getting fi get+t fi get). èÓÒÚ‡‡ÈÚÂÒ¸ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ ıÓÚfl ·˚ ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ ӷÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ë ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌËfl. é·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì‡˜Ëfl ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÂ‰ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ËÎË ‰Û„ËÏË Ì‡˜ËflÏË. tomorrow fi Á‡‚Ú‡. anyway fi ͇Í-ÌË·Û‰¸. ‡ ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ̇ÈÚË Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘Â ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‰Îfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Á̇˜ÂÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ë Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ. Ç Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌË íÂÏ˚ 1 ıÓ˜Û Â˘Â ‡Á ̇ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ Ç‡Ï Ó ÚÓÏ. quickly fi ·˚ÒÚÓ. ‡ ‰Û„Ë ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl — ‚ ̇˜‡Î / ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ñ‚ۯÍË ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ̇˜‡Î / ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ·˚Ú¸ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ˜‡ÒÚflÏË ˜Ë. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÓÒÓ·˚ı ÚÛ‰ÌÓÒÚÂÈ Ò ÔÓÌËχÌËÂÏ Ì‡˜Ëfl Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛Ú.). èÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Ì‡Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ ̇˜Ëfl ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇: ¸ ¸ ¸ ̇˜Ëfl ‚ÂÏÂÌË (today fi Ò„ӉÌfl. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl (ÔÂ˚‚ËÒÚ˚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË)— ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ: ̇˜Ëfl — ˜‡˘Â ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï (Active Indefinite) ËÎË ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be (Passive Indefinite). ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÓÚ‡Ê‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË. èÓÏÌËÚ ڇÍÊÂ. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ̇˜ËÂ. Ñ‚ۯÍË Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚˚.ÂÒÎË ÔË·‡‚ËÚ¸ -Âr Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ ËÎË Ì‡Â˜Ë˛. éÌË ÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÌÓ‚ÓÈ ˜ËÒÚfl˘ÂÈ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸˛. ÜˉÍÓÒÚ¸ Ó˜Â̸ ÒËθ̇fl Ë ıÓÓ¯‡fl.

the day after tomorrow fi ÔÓÒÎÂÁ‡‚Ú‡. Ú. ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò Active Perfect Present (ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ÓÁÌËͯ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÚÓ ‡ÌÂÂ Ë ‰Îfl˘ÂÂÒfl ‰Ó ÒËı ÔÓ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ. éÌË ÛÊ Ô˯ÎË?fi Have they come yet? 26 .. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı: a) ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ú·ÛÂÚ Í Ò· ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Perfect (Active / Passive). éÌ ‰ÍÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡.fi She has already been invited. àı ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú ÚÛ‰‡. (ÚÓÏÛ) ̇Á‡‰..Â. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl already: éÌË ÛÊ Ô˯ÎË. ÌÂÁ‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌ˚È ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË).. ã‡ÏÔÓÈ ÛÊ ÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl. Always fi ‚Ò„‰‡.. / We are cleaning our room already. ago fi X ‰ÌÂÈ / ÏËÌÛÚ / ÎÂÚ / ̉Âθ / . èÓÁ‡‚˜Â‡ Ëı ‚ˉÂÎË ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ.fi They always come here.. ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to have: ü ‚Ò„‰‡ ·˚· ‰ÛÓÈ.. èËÒ¸ÏÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÓÚÔ‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ÚË ‰Ìfl ̇Á‡‰. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÂ˚‚ËÒÚÓÒÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl) Ë Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ Active Indefinite ËÎË ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be ‚ Passive Indefinite: éÌË ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔËıÓ‰flÚ Ò˛‰‡. fi ‚˜Â‡ (ËÎË ÔÓ¯Î˚Ï) ÛÚÓÏ/‚˜Â‡ (ËÎË ÔÓ¯Î˚Ï) ‚˜ÂÓÏ/̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ/‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ/‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ „Ó‰Û / .fi The lamp is already being used.fi We are already cleaning our room.fi They were always invited here. àÌÓ„‰‡  Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú Ò˛‰‡. Ú‡Í Ë ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ Active Indefinite. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be ËÎË ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: å˚ ÛÊ ۷Ë‡ÂÏ Ò‚Ó˛ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ.fi They have already come. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÎË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï (Active Indefinite).... b) ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂÁ‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÎË ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ Indefinite (Active / Passive). Yet => ¢ — ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‰Îfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.. rarely fi ‰ÍÓ.fi They have already come.fi They are often invited there.fi We are already known. / She feels well already. seldom fi ‰ÍÓ. X (͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó) days / minutes / years / weeks / . She is sometimes invited here.fi The day before yesterday they were seen together. Already fi ÛÊÂ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÙÓÏÛ·ÏË Indefinite ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi I have always been a fool. Always fi ‚Ò„‰‡. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl already. ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to have: éÌË ÛÊ Ô˯ÎË. àı Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú ÚÛ‰‡ Í‡Ê‰Û˛ ̉Âβ. é̇ ÛÊ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó.fi Sometimes she comes here. àı ‚Ò„‰‡ Ô˄·¯‡ÎË Ò˛‰‡. Sometimes fi ËÌÓ„‰‡. çÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl: usually fi Ó·˚˜ÌÓ.. She comes here sometimes. Ö ÛÊ Ô˄·ÒËÎË. ËÎË Ê ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be ‚ Passive Indefinite: àÌÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡. ç‡Ò ÛÊ Á̇˛Ú. every day / minute / week / month / year / . Yet fi ÛÊ — ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‰Îfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi Sometimes she is invited here. èËÏÂ˚: éÌË ÔËÂı‡ÎË ‚˜Â‡. often fi ˜‡ÒÚÓ. last morning / evening / week / month / year / . / The lamp is being used already.fi The letter was sent three days ago.. / ç smokes already.fi She already feels well.fi ç already smokes.fi They came yesterday. c) ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ Continuous (Active / Passive). She is invited here sometimes.fi ç seldom comes here.fi They are invited there every week. fi ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸ / ÏËÌÛÚÛ / ̉Âβ / ÏÂÒflˆ / „Ó‰ / . ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í ‚ ̇˜‡Î / ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be (Passive Indefinite): éÌ ÛÊ ÍÛËÚ. She sometimes comes here.

‡ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflı — ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (˜‡˘Â) ËÎË ÔÓÒΠÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ not (ÂÊÂ). ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.) àı ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ‚ˉÂÎË Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi They have not come yet. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ̄Ó: é̇ ¢ ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.fi They still come here. Yet ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ëÎÓ‚‡¸. / ‡ÏÂ. Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (ÂÒÎË ÓÌ ÂÒÚ¸) ËÎË ÔÓÒΠÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. b) ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË „ÛÎflÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÎË ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò Indefinite (Active / Passive). åÓÈ ÓÚˆ ¢ ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â.fi They are never invited there. (‡ÏÂ. é̇ ÒˉËÚ ÌÂÔÓ‰‚ËÊÌÓ. Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó.fi She still wants to buy a new house. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı: a) ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ú·ÛÂÚ Í Ò· ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Continuous (Active / Passive).fi She is sitting still.fi I have never seen dollars. (‡ÏÂ. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌÓ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌflÂÚÒfl ̇ ‚Ò Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ‚‡ˇÌÚ) / She just came.fi She is still sitting. Á‡‚Â¯Ë‚¯Â„ÓÒfl Í ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ ˜Ë. èÂ‚˚Ï Ô‡‚ËÎÓÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ Ô‡‚ËÎÓ Ó Ú‚Â‰Ó ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÏ ÔÓfl‰Í ÒÎÓ‚. éÌË Â˘Â ÔËıÓ‰flÚ Ò˛‰‡.fi She is not sleeping yet. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — Indefinite Present (Active / Passive): í˚ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚ˉÂÎ ‰Óη˚?fi Have you ever seen dollars? Ç‡Ò ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ Ô˄·¯‡ÎË ÚÛ‰‡?fi Have you ever been invited there? í˚ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ıӉ˯¸ ‚ ÍËÌÓ?fi Do you ever go to the cinema? àı ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú ÚÛ‰‡?fi Are they ever invited there? é̇ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó?fi Does she ever feel well? Never fi ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.fi She has just come. ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı — ÔÓÒΠÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó (‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı): é̇ ¢ ÒÔËÚ. / They have not yet come. Ever fi ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ÍÓ„‰‡-ÎË·Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to be. ÇÒÔÓÏÌËÏ ÒıÂÏÛ: 1 2 27 3 4 . ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — Perfect Present (Active / Passive). / ‡ÏÂ.) / They were just seen here. ç‡Ò ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Ô˄·¯‡ÎË ÚÛ‰‡. (‡Ì„Î. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ú·ÛÂÚ Í Ò· Perfect Present (Active / Passive). Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï.fi Sit still. — ÒÏ. Still fi ¢ / ‚Ò ¢ / ÔÓ-ÔÂÊÌÂÏÛ. ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be. ‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl indefinite Past. Ì ҂flÁ‡ÌÌ˚Â Ò ÔÓÌflÚËÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë Ì ‚ÎËfl˛˘Ë ̇ ‚˚·Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl.fi She never feels well.fi They have just been seen here. ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. Just fi ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ / Í‡Í ‡Á ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl.éÌË Â˘Â Ì Ô˯ÎË. (‡Ì„Î. ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. è‡‚ËÎÓ 1: èÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. áÄèéåçàíÖ: fi already (ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ) ÛÊ fi yet (‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ) ¢ fi yet (ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ). ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to have (Perfect Present) ËÎË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï (Indefinite Past): é̇ ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ Ô˯·. å˚ ÛÊ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ Ò ˝ÚËÏ Ô‡‚ËÎÓÏ. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: é̇ ‚Ò ¢ ÒˉËÚ. àı ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú ÚÛ‰‡. c) still ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÌÂÔÓ‰‚ËÊÌÓ — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ëË‰Ë Ë Ì ¯Â‚ÂÎËÒ¸.fi My father is still in Moscow. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — Perfect Present (Active / Passive). ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.) Just ËÏÂÂÚ ‰Û„Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. é̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó. é̇ ¢ ÒÔËÚ?fi Is she still sleeping? ÌÓ: é̇ ¢ Ì ÒÔËÚ.fi She is Still sleeping.fi We have never been invited there. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — Indefinite Present (Active / Passive): ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ ‰Óη˚.

ëÔÓÒÓ· 1 å˚ Ì Áfl ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍÌÛÎË ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ Ë ÒÎÓ‚. è‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËÂÏ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚. 3. ˜ÚÓ Ô‡‚ËÎÓ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÈ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌflÂÚÒfl Ë Ì‡ ‚Ò ‰Û„Ë ÚËÔ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. 4..Â. ü ÊË‚Û ‚ „ÓÓ‰Â. Ú‡Í Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï: 1. 4. ÔÂ‰ ‚ÒÂÏË ÓÒڇθÌ˚ÏË „·„Ó·ÏË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó.). 2. íÓ ÂÒÚ¸. ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ (2).ÇÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. (4 ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl) ÄÌ„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ "ÛÒÒÍËÏË ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË": 1. Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘Ë ÒÓ·ÓÈ Â‡ÍˆË˛ ̇ Ô‰˚‰Û˘Â ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë (ü ÚÓÊÂ. 2. Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ not. Ú. Ú. ‡ ÔÓ͇ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎËÏ Ëı: ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ .é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ‚ÂÏÂÌË/ÏÂÒÚ‡  ‡ Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl Ë ÓÚÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ü ‚Ò„‰‡ ‚Ò ÌËÍÓÏÛ „Ó‚Ó˛. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ı ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ó‚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰‚‡: 1. 2. ä‡ÍÓÈ ‚ˉ! ã˛·Ó ËÁ ˝ÚËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡Í ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ë ÛÒÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ò ˜ÂÚ˚¸Ïfl ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflÏË. çË͇ÍÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡! ÑÓ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ Ï˚ Û˜ËÎËÒ¸ ÒÚÓËÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. í˚ Ì ıӉ˯¸ ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ? ç ÔÓÏÓ„‡È ÏÌÂ. / çÂÛÊÂÎË? Ë ‰. Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ nÓ / none / neither / nobody / never / nothing Ë ‰. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ÏÂÒÚ ‚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÏ (will / shall / to be /to have / to do Í ‰. ü ‚Ò„‰‡ ‚ÒÂÏ ‚Ò Ì „Ó‚Ó˛. Í‡Í Ë ÛÒÒÍËÂ. í˚ ıӉ˯¸ ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ? èÓÏÓ„Ë ÏÌÂ. Í ÚÓÏÛ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 2: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. í‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë Ï˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ ÌËÊ ÔÓ ÏÂ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡ÚÂˇ·. ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇: ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ (1).). 1) ü Ì ÊË‚Û ‚ „ÓÓ‰Â. 3. ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ú‡Í ÊÂ. ÚÓ„‰‡ Í‡Í ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‚Ò ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ·ÓΠ‡ˆËÓ̇θÌÓ. β·ÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË (Ò Ó‰ÌËÏ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂÏ) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÚÓ ÊÂ. ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ (3). / ü ÊË‚Û Ì ‚ „ÓÓ‰Â. êÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ: ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ÌËÍÓÏÛ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì „Ó‚Ó˛.Â. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÚËÔ˚ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ı („‰Â ÂÒÚ¸ „·‚ÌÓÂ Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÂ) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. Ú. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÍÓÓÚÍË Ù‡Á˚. 3. ç‡Û˜ËÏÒfl ‰Â·ڸ Ëı ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Ë ÔÓÔÛÚÌÓ Á‡ÏÂÚËÏ.Â. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ó·˘Ë ÔËÂÏ˚. ëӄ·ÒËÏÒfl. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflÏË ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl "χÒÎÓ Ï‡ÒÎflÌÓÂ". ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ‚Ò ‚ÒÂÏ „Ó‚Ó˛. ÇÒ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ (4): 1. ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ˆÂÎË ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËfl. ‚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ̄Ó. 2. ˜ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌ˚Ï ˜ÎÂÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ·˚Ú¸ ÔË‚flÁ‡Ì‡ Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÒÎÓ‚Û. è‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there+to be. ü ‚Ò„‰‡ ÌË˜Â„Ó ‚ÒÂÏ „Ó‚Ó˛. èËÏÂ˚: 28 . 4. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÔÂ‚ÓÏÛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ.

ÅÓθ¯Û˛ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ Ò„ӉÌfl Ì ۷Ë‡ÎË.)fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: „·„ÓÎ to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó (Active Indefinite) ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflı Ì Ú·ÛÂÚ Í Ò· ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: fi I have not (haven't) a car.fi (ü Ì Ëϲ χ¯ËÌ˚. 5. ǘÂ‡ Ëı Ì ‚ˉÂÎË. ÒÓÔÓ‚Óʉ‡˛˘Â ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂ Ë Ôˉ‡˛˘Â ÂÏÛ ÔÓÎÌÓÚÛ ËÎË Í‡Ú„Ó˘ÌÓÒÚ¸. 4. 15. è‡Ô‡ Ì ÔˉÂÚ Ò„ӉÌfl ‡ÌÓ. — Active Indefinite Present — ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ˝ÚÛ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ó·ÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÂÚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do — ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÙÓχ do (Present / 1- ÎËˆÓ /‰. ü Ì ÍÛ˛ ÒÂȘ‡Ò (‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ).). å‡Ï‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ì ÒÔËÚ. ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflflÒ¸ Ó·˘ÂÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ: fi Even father does not (doesn't) know it. — Active Indefinite Future fi Father will not (won't) come early today. — Active Indefinite Pastfi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ 2-˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· to come. ÏÓÊÌÓ: I'm not smoking now. ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓ‰ Û‰‡ÂÌËÂÏ. ÂÒÎË Ê ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ. 29 . — Active Indefinite Future — Future — shall (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â to do Ì ÌÛÊÂÌ)fi I shall not go home. чÊ ԇԇ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó. ü ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ÍÛ˛. — Passive Indefinite Pastfi They were not (weren't) seen yesterday. Á‡·Ë‡˛˘ËÈ Ì‡ Ò·fl ÔËÁÌ‡Í ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Past fi did). åÂÒflˆ ̇Á‡‰ ÓÌË Ì ıÓÚÂÎË ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ.fi She does not (doesn't) know you at all. ÂÒÎË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÓÎ̇fl ÙÓχ. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl: fi Not even father knows it. Ë ÓÌ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to: fi She did not (didn't) come last week. 2. ÚÓ Û‰‡ÂÌË ÒÏ¢‡ÂÚÒfl Ë ÔÂÂıÓ‰ËÚ Ì‡ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ. 11. ˜ËÒÎÓ) => I do not want to go home.fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ ‰‡Ê ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ) ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸. ùÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ì ÒÚÓËÚÒfl. (ÙÓχ am not Ì ‰ۈËÛÂÚÒfl. ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Ë‰ÚË ‰ÓÏÓÈ.1.). é̇ Ú·fl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì Á̇ÂÚ. ü Ì ÔÓÈ‰Û ‰ÓÏÓÈ. 7. ì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÔÂ‰ even. ü Ì ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. 8.fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÛÒÒÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‚ÓÓ·˘Â.) 10. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl at all u ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: fi I do not (don't) smoke at all.fi (ü Ì ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. ıÓÚfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl to do ËÎË ÙÓχ to have got: fi I do not (don't) have a car. 9. é̇ Ì ÔËıӉ˷ ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ.) — (Active Indefinite Present)fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: „·„ÓÎ to be ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó (Active Indefinite) ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflı Ì Ú·ÛÂÚ Í Ò· ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do Ë Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ: fi I am not a student. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‚ÂÏfl ÙÓÏÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·. 6. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÛ˛ (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌÛ˛) ÙÓÏÛ. 13.fi They did not (didn't) want to buy a new car a month ago.fi I am not smoking now. ÌÓ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓfl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do.fi This house is not (isn't) being built now. (‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ: I shan't go home. ÌÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ë ‰Û„‡fl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸. 12.fi I have not got (haven't got) a car.) 3. 14. ‚ ̇¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â do not ¤ don't (I don t want to go home. — Passive Perfect Presentfi The big room has not (hasn't) been cleaned today. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Active Indefinite Past (She came last week. — Active Continuous Presentfi Mother is not (isn't) sleeping now.

10. Ú‡Í ÊÂ.¤ He does not (doesn't) know anything. ‚ ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ not. ëÂȘ‡Ò ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÒÔËÚ. any — ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ì ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡). éÚˈ‡ÌËÂ. ÚÂÏ. He knows nothing. ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ˜ÎÂ̇ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚‰ÛÚ Ò·fl ·ÓΠ҂ӷӉÌÓ. Ç ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ fl ÌËÍÓ„Ó Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ. Ì ÔËÍÂÔÎÂÌ˚ Ú‚Â‰Ó Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û.fi Not even they will help you. 3. ü Ì ‚ËÊÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌË͇ÍËı χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë ‰Â‚Ó˜ÂÍ. çË Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ÌËı. ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ not. Í‡Í Ë ÓÚ ÔÓ. Ú. ÓÚ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó ‰Û„Ëı. ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÚËÔ‡ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÒÏ. ÓÚ any. éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ˜ÎÂ̇ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ Á‡ÌËχڸ ‡ÁÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ ÌÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ. Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÏÌÂ. (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË not Ë any ÒÚÓflÚ fl‰ÓÏ. èËϘ‡ÌË 1: ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Â˘Â Ó‰ËÌ (ÍÓÏ·ËÌËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚È) ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl: ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not + ÒÎÓ‚Ó any. Next time he will bring no friends. ‡ ÒÎÓ‚Ó no — Í Ô‰ÏÂÚÛ. Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸.fi Nobody is sleeping now.fi I saw nobody here last month. ÍÓÏ ‚‡Ò. Ä ÒÎÓ‚Ó never ÏÓÊÂÚ ‰‡Ê ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï (Active Indefinite) ËÎË ‚ÌÛÚË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÙÓÏÛ·ÏË).Â.fi She will never come here. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ‰Û„Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡. ü ÌËÍÓÏÛ. 11. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚Ï ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ. 6. é̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡. ÔÓÎÌÓ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂ. éÌ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì Á̇ÂÚ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‡Ì Ï˚ ÛÊ ‚˚flÒÌËÎË.fi ç knows nothing. 2.fi None / Neither of them can help me. (ëÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ ‡Á ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ·ÂÁ ‰ÛÁÂÈ.fi I have not money.fi I have told none but you about it. 4. 9. è‡‚ËÎÓ 11). ì ÏÂÌfl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. I see no boys and girls here. 4.)fi Next time he will bring no friends.Â. ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï: 30 . ˜ÚÓ ÓÌÓ ÔÓÎÌÓÂ. any ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ. чÊ ÓÌË Ì ÔÓÏÓ„ÛÚ Ú·Â. 6. / ì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍËı ‰ÂÌ„. ëÔÓÒÓ· 2 éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. Ì „Ó‚ÓËÎ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ.¤ I do not see any boys and girls here. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÓÌÓ Ì ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌflÂÚÒfl ̇ ‚Ò Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. èË ˝ÚÓÏ at all Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ not ÔË‚flÁ‡ÌÓ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. Ú.fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Perfect Present. 8. ëÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ ‡Á ÓÌ Ì Ô˂‰ÂÚ ÌË͇ÍËı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. I saw nobody here last month. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÌÂÚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·) 2. ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl. 12. ˜ÚÓ Á‡ÌËχڸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚Ï Ì‡˜ËflÏ (ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ I): 1. 5. é̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔˉÂÚ Ò˛‰‡.fi I shall clean nothing next time. ëÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ ‡Á fl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ·Û‰Û Û·Ë‡Ú¸.fi I have no money Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. é̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ‚ˉ· ‚ÓÈÌ˚.¤ I shall not clean anything next time. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó). èËÏÂ˚: 1.Â. I have no money. 7.¤ Next time he will not bring any friends.fi I see no boys and girls here. èËϘ‡ÌË 2: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÏÂ˛Ú ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ. 5. ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ò not Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÚÓ Ê ҇ÏÓÂ.16. I shall clean nothing next time. ˜ÚÓ ‰‚‡ ÍÓÏÔÓÌÂÌÚ‡ ÍÓÏ·ËÌËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ˜‡ÒÚflÏË Â˜Ë Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì‡ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı: not ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡). Ú‡Í Í‡Í ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÌÂÁ‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌ˚È ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂ̇ (Ò ÓʉÂÌËfl ‰Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ ˜Ë): fi She has never seen a war. ÌÓ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÓÌË ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ not: ¤ I do not see any boys and girls here. Ú. 3.¤ I have not any money. ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌÓÂ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚. ‚ ÌÂÏ ÛÊÂ Í‡Í ·˚ Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË ‚ÓÓ·˘Â.¤ I didn't see anybody here last month. ‡ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í ‰‡ÌÌÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÔÓ (ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ÌË͇ÍÓÈ / ÌËÒÍÓθÍÓ. / Even they (will not) won't help you.fi She never comes here.

fi çË ÚÓÚ. (ÌÛÊ̇ Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl) I like it too.fi çË Ó‰Ì‡ „ÓÎÓ‚‡ Ì ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛ·Ҹ ‚ ̇¯Û ÒÚÓÓÌÛ.fi éÌ Ó˜Â̸ ̘ÂÒÚÌ˚È ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ.fi åÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÌË ÚÓÚ. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÂÏ neither.. ÌÓ Ï˚ Ì ·˚ÎË ‰ÛÊÌ˚. ‰Îfl ÛÒËÎÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl neither: I don't like it. ÌË ‰Û„ÓÈ: ç took neither side in the argument.). ÅÂÍÍË — ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ͇ ωˈËÌÒÍÓ„Ó ÍÓÎΉʇ. ÌÓ Ó̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ıÓÓ¯ËÏ ‚‡˜ÓÏ.fi çË Ó‰ËÌ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ (ËÁ ÚÂı.fi åÌ ÚÓÊ ˝ÚÓ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.fi éÌ ‚ ‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌÓÈ ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ — ÌË ÙÛÌÚ‡ Î˯ÌÂ„Ó ‚ÂÒ‡.fi é̇ Á̇ÂÚ Ì ÏÌÓ„Ó.fi I don't like it. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÌËÊ ÔÓ ÏÂ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡ÚÂˇ·. These seats are for non-smokers only. too. ÌË ‰Û„ÓÈ. Not that he did not know that. I do not like either of the two. ì ‰Â‚Û¯ÂÍ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. nor. ÌË ‰Û„ÓÈ Ì Ô˯ÂÎ. éÌË ‚Ó‚Ò ÌË͇ÍË Ì ÔÓ‰Û„Ë. ÌË Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì̇fl.fi åÌ ˝ÚÓ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓÊÂ. (Ì ÌÛÊ̇ Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl) I don't like it. ÌË. é̇ Ì β·ËÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸...Â. Neither of the two came. ÂÒÎË ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ‰‚Ûı Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ı fi ÌË ÚÓÚ.¤ è‡Ô‡ Ì ÔˉÂÚ ÒÍÓÓ.fi åÌ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˝ÚÓ ÚÓÊÂ.fi åÌ ÚÓÊ ˝ÚÓ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. èËϘ‡ÌË 5: ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ôˉ‡ÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚Ï ˜ÎÂÌ‡Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ‚˚ÌÓÒËÚÒfl Á‡ Ô‰ÂÎ˚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: I knew her but not as a friend. : They will neither eat nor drink. ÂÒÎË ÌÛÊÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. Not a car has been sold. ÌË Í ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌÂ. ÌË ÔËÚ¸. ì ÌËı Ú‡ÍÊ ÌÂÚ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎÂÈ.fi ùÚË ÏÂÒÚ‡ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl ÌÂÍÛfl˘Ëı. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó̇ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ. She is neither beautiful nor intelligent. neither.. ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ó·‡ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÚ‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ: I like it. ÚÓ ‰Â·ÂÏ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚Ò Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. éÌË ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û˛Ú 31 .¤ é̇ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó.¤ ü Á̇ΠÂÂ.fi He ÚÓ.fi éÌË ÔÓÔÓÒËÎË Ì‡Ò Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ‚‡Ï Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. èËϘ‡ÌË 7: ÛÒÒÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÚÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı (too) ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı (either) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. Not that she works much. éÌË ÔÎÓıÓ ÒÔflÚ..fi è‡Ô‡ ÔˉÂÚ Ì ÒÍÓÓ. Ò‚Â¸Ú ҂ÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ Ò ÚÂÏ. àı ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ‚ˉÂÎË ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. She does not know much. ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‡ÒıÓʉÂÌËÈ ‚˚flÒÌËÚ Ëı Ô˘ËÌ˚ Ç˚ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ˝ÚËı ‰Â‚Û¯ÂÍ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ not ‚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: Father will not come soon..å˝Ë ÚÓÊ Ì β·ËÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸.fi He ÚÓ.fi I like it. ÔÂ‚‰fl ‚ÂÒ¸ ÚÂÍÒÚ. èËϘ‡ÌË 3: ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÎÌÓ„Ó ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈Ëfl not a + ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ: Not a head turned to see us.fi é̇ ÌË Í‡ÒË‚‡fl.fi éÌË Ì ·Û‰ÛÚ ÌË ÂÒÚ¸. either. ˜ÚÓ ÔË‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl ÌËÊÂ.. Ú.fi åÌ ÚÓÊ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. èËϘ‡ÌË 8: ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÌË.¤ çËÍÚÓ Ì ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛÎ „ÓÎÓ‚˚ ‚ ̇¯Û ÒÚÓÓÌÛ.fi ü Á̇ΠÂÂ.fi Ç ÒÔÓ ÓÌ Ì ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌËÎÒfl ÌË Í ÚÓÈ. íÖäëí Ñãü èÖêÖÇéÑÄ: ‡·ÓÚÛ Ò ÚÂÍÒÚÓÏ fl ÒÓ‚ÂÚÛ˛ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚË Ò̇˜‡Î‡ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ. èËϘ‡ÌË 4: ˜‡ÒÚËˆÛ not ÌÂθÁfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‰Îfl Ôˉ‡ÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï (Ì ÒÍÓÓ / Ì ·˚ÒÚ˚È Ë ‰. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌ Ì Á̇Π˝ÚÓ„Ó. ÅÂÍÍË Ë åÂË Ì ۷Ó˘Ëˆ˚. èËϘ‡ÌË 6: Ò ÙÓÏÓÈ Infinitive ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ˝ÚÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚: íÓ be or not to be?fi Å˚Ú¸ ËÎË Ì ·˚Ú¸? They asked us not to tell you about this. I don't like it either. ËÎË Ó‰ÌËÏ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ neither (not+either) — Ó·˚˜ÌÓ. ç is in great physical shape — not a pound overweight. ÌÓ ÌÂ Í‡Í ‰Û„‡. ˜ÚÓ Ô‰·„‡ÎËÒ¸ ̇ ÔÓ‰‡ÊÛ) Ì ·˚Î ÔÓ‰‡Ì.ç is a very dishonest man.

éÌË Ì ıÓÚflÚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸. Mary does not like to work. 3. ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸ . They have no cars either. ÍÓ„‰‡ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÓ ÙÓÏÓÈ Infinitive. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ˝ÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Ë ÍÓÚÓÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ. The girls don't smoke cigars. ˜ÂÏ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ. You do not (don't) know these girls.fi My big house is new. éÚ ÌËı Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ËÎË ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌˠ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ. 1. éÌË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ËÎË ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó Ë Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÂÈ? / ˜¸fl? / ˜¸Ë? / . ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ to ·ÂÁ „·„Ó·. They never come here.. (‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ)fi ç took his hand out of his pocket. èÓÒÚ˚ ÙÓÏ˚: I fi my We fi our You fi your 2. Ú. èÓÏÌËÏ. Ï˚ Â„Ó ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÏ.Ò·fl ÌÂıÓÓ¯Ó. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. Becky is a medical student. 3. Neither of them wants to smoke. èËϘ‡ÌË 2: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò Ó·˘ËÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ò‚ÓÈ. (1) 1. ÖÒÎË ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Û„Ë ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡.fi ç has never seen their small old car. He fi his She fi her It fi its They fi their Ç Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ë ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Í ÌÂÏÛ. They do not sleep well. They are not friends at all.fi My house is big. àı χ¯Ë̇ ·˚· ÒÚ‡‡fl. but she will never be a good doctor.fi They came into their house. She does not (doesn't) like to work.fi She took her bag. éÌË ‚Ó¯ÎË ‚ Ò‚ÓÈ ‰ÓÏ. They do not want to. I fi mine We fi ours You fi yours He fi his She fi hers It fi its They fi theirs éÚ΢ˠ‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‡·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ ÓÚ ÔÓÒÚ˚ı: ÔÓÒΠÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ‚ ÔÓÒÚÓÈ ÙÓÏ ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ. ͇ʉ˚È ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ÌÛÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÏ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ: é̇ ‚Áfl· Ò‚Ó˛ ÒÛÏÍÛ.éÌË ‚Ó¯ÎË ‚ Ëı ‰ÓÏ. ÌÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl: 32 . The girls have no / have not any money..é̇ ‚Áfl·  ÒÛÏÍÛ. éÌ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ Ëı χÎÂ̸ÍÛ˛ ÒÚ‡Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. They do not smoke at all. èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ÒÓ·ÓÈ Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ Ú‡ÍËı Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËÈ. 2.fi Their car was old.? èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ËÏÂ˛Ú ‰‚ ÙÓÏ˚: ÔÓÒÚÛ˛ (1) Ë ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÛ˛ (2). ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 3: èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. éÌË ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ÍÛflÚ. åÓÈ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ‰ÓÏ ÌÓ‚˚È. They have never been seen together. ‡ ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÒÓı‡Ìfl˛Ú: éÌ ‰ÓÒڇΠÛÍÛ ËÁ ͇χ̇. èËϘ‡ÌË 1: ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó ˜‡˘Â. åÓÈ ‰ÓÏ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ. ÚÓ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏË. (ÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ) éÌ ‰ÓÒڇΠÛÍÛ ËÁ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó Í‡χ̇. ÅÂÍÍË Ë å˝Ë ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰flÚ Ò˛‰‡.Â. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ·˚‚‡˛Ú ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ... å˚ ÛÊ Á̇ÂÏ ÙÓÏ˚ ΢Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËË. Ñ‚ۯÍË Ì ÍÛflÚ ÒË„‡˚. ‡·ÒÓβÚ̇fl ÙÓχ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ — Ó̇ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ô‰ÏÂÚ Ë ÔÓÒÚÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. ÌÓ ıÓÓ¯Ó Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚÛ. either. çË Ó‰Ì‡ ËÁ ÌËı Ì ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÍÛËÚ¸. They do not feel well. ˜ÚÓ Î˘Ì˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. come. Becky and Mary are not (aren't) cleaners.

/Ç‡Ï ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ..). Û͇Á˚‚‡fl ̇ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â. è‡‚ËÎÓ10). ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ڇ͇fl (ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘‡fl) ÙÓχ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰Ì‡: her. Ú. ÍÂÏ?/˜ÂÏ?. ‰‡ÚÂθÌ˚È. ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ΄ÍÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl. Ú‚ÓËÚÂθÌ˚È Ë Ô‰ÎÓÊÌ˚È. She fi her It fi it They fi them èËϘ‡ÌË 1: ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. Ë ‚ÓÁÌË͇ÂÚ Ê·ÌË ҉·ڸ ÔflÏÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÙÓÏ˚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÙÓÏ‡Ï ÛÒÒÍËı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı Ô‡‰Âʇı. Ó ÍÓÏ?/ Ó ˜ÂÏ? èËϘ‡ÌË 2: ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÚ‡‰‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ Á‡ÎÓ„Â (Passive).. / . ÔÓθÁÛÂÏÒfl ÔÓÒÚÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ.. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÔË ‚˚·Ó ÌÛÊÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÓËÂÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒΉÛÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓ ‚ÓÔÓÒÛ: ‰Îfl ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ˜ÂÈ?.Â. Ó‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È. ÍÓ„Ó? / ˜ÚÓ?. è‡‚ËÎÓ 4: åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ.) — ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ! áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÔӢ — Û ÌËı ÚÓÊ ÂÒÚ¸ ÙÓχ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ.. Ç Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌË ÍÓÓÚÍÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÏ „·‚Ì˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‚Ë·: ÂÒÎË ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Ï˚ ıÓÚËÏ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡. ‚ËÌËÚÂθÌ˚È. — é̇ Ëı.fi -Whose house is it / this? — It /This / That is my house..Ëı (˜ÂÈ?) Ë Ú. — ó¸fl ˝ÚÓ Ï‡¯Ë̇? — ùÚÓ Ëı χ¯Ë̇. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ. — It / This / That is theirs. — éÌË Ì‡¯Ë..fi í‚Ófl χ¯Ë̇ ÌÓ‚‡fl.. ÌÓ Ó̇ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Ò ÙÓÏÓÈ 33 ..— óÂÈ ˝ÚÓ ‰ÓÏ? — ùÚÓ ÏÓÈ ‰ÓÏ. ̇ÔËÏÂ: Ëı (ÍÓ„Ó?) . Ï˚ Ô˚Ú‡ÂÏÒfl ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (҉·ڸ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ) ÙÓÏÛ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ (Them. / Us . — They / These / Those are ours. Ú. — It / This / That is mine. ÂÒÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ Ì‡Á˚‚‡Ú¸ Ì ÒÓ·Ë‡ÂÏÒfl — ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓÈ..fi -Whose cigars are these? — They / These / Those are our cigars.. ‰Îfl ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ — ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ β·Ó„Ó ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ. ÍÓÏÛ? / ˜ÂÏÛ?../. I fi me 2. åÓfl — ÒÚ‡‡fl. é·ÓÁ̇˜‡fl ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÔÓÒÚÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ.. — éÌ ÏÓÈ. ‡ ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (̇ÔËÏÂ: àı ‚ˉÂÎË. ÍÓÏ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó.Â.fi -Whose car is it / this? — It / This /That is their car. Ӊ̇ ÙÓχ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ÔÂ‰‡ÂÚ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÛÒÒÍËı ÙÓÏ (̇ÔËÏÂ: Ú fi ÏÂÌfl / ÏÌ / ÏÌÓÈ / …). Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ô‡‰ÂÊ. ̇ ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ÌËı ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ô‰ÏÂÚ. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Û Î˘Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ÂÒÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰‚‡ Ô‡‰Âʇ: ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌ˚È Ë Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È. We fi us You fi you He fi him 3. îÓÏ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ: 1. ‡·ÒÓβÚ̇fl ÙÓχ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó: Your car is new. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: this / that / these / those — Û͇Á‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl (ÒÏ. ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË. ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ Ì ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ.‰. ÍÓÏ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: ÍÓ„Ó? /˜Â„Ó?. Á‡ÚÓ ÂÒÚ¸: ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌ˚È.. — ó¸Ë ˝ÚÓ ÒË„‡˚? — ùÚÓ Ì‡¯Ë ÒË„‡˚. ÓÌË ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔË·ÎËʇ˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ Á̇ÏÂÌ˲ Í Î˘Ì˚Ï ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏ it / they Ë. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ӷ˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. Mine is old. Ì Ëϲ˘Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó.

4. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ˚. Á‡ÏÂÌflfl ÙÓÏÛ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (̇ÔËÏÂ: àı . Ç Ì‡¯ÂÏ ‰ÓÏ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÓÏ̇Ú. ‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÓÔÛ˘ÂÌÓ Ë Î˯¸ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ. 2. but sometimes they don't understand us. ç ‚Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ. fl ÒÓ‚ÂÚÛ˛ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ËÁÏÂÌËÚ¸ (ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl Ò·fl) Â„Ó ÙÓÏÛ fi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸ (fl Ì‡‚β Ò‚Ó ËÏfl.fi My friends are good. ÌÓ Á‡ÚÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÏÂ̸¯Â ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ: fiI like my name. ÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ (ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË): a tablefi a big table fi a new big table àÌÓ„‰‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚÓËÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. ÄÚËÍθ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl. è‡‚ËÎÓ 5: ÄÚËÍθ. / . ÂÒÎË ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÂÒÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË (my house / this house) ËÎË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó no (no house). éÌË Ó˜Â̸ χÎÂ̸ÍËÂ. ÒÚÓ„Ó Òӷ≇˛ÚÒfl. 11. Ö ÓÚˆ Ì ÍÛËÚ. åÓË ‰ÛÁ¸fl ıÓÓ¯ËÂ. ̇ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠÁ‰ÂÒ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚È Á‡ÎÓ„ (Active).. ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò Ëı ÔÓÒÚÓ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. àÒıÓ‰fl ËÁ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ‚˚¯ÂËÁÎÓÊÂÌÌÓ„Ó.fi í‚Ófl ÊÂ̇ — ÏÓÎÓ‰‡fl ÊÂÌ˘Ë̇. å˚ ۂˉËÏ Ëı Ì ÒÍÓÓ. àı Ì ‚ˉÂÎË Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ò ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó „Ó‰‡. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‡ÚËÍθ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl... ç‡Ï Ì Ì‡‚flÚÒfl Â„Ó ÓÍ̇. àı ‰ÓÏ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ҇ÏË ‚ ÌËı ÔÎÓıÓ ÓËÂÌÚËÛ˛ÚÒfl (Ï˚ ‚˚‰ÂÎËÏ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‡Ï˚ ÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚Â Ë ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Â). Ö„Ó Ï‡Ï‡ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚‡.ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ — ÌÂÚ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ). 7. We shall be brought big windows next week. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó Á̇˜ÂÌË — ˝ÚÓ Í‡Í ‡Á ÚÓ.fi Them fi They . Ë ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÌË ËÏÂÎËÒ¸ ‚ ‚ˉÛ. ч Ë Ì‡ ‚ÓÒÔËflÚË ÒÏ˚Ò· ‡ÚËÍÎË ÔÓÓÈ Ì Ó͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ‚ÓÁ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. é·‡ ‚ˉ‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Í‡Í ‚ Òڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚ı (ÒÚÓ„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı) ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ı. Ó ˜ÂÏ Ò‡ÏË ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÏÂ˛Ú Î˯¸ ÒÏÛÚÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ. ÖÒÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ (ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË). fl Ì Ì‡‚β Ú‚ÓÂ) — Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ç‡ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ Ì‡Ï ÔË‚ÂÁÛÚ ·Óθ¯Ë ÓÍ̇. éÌË Ì ıÓÚÂÎË Ï˚Ú¸ Ò‚ÓÈ Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÈ ÒÚ‡˚È ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ. 5. 8. ÇÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÚÂÏ. I don't like yours. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ú‡Í ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÒflÍËı ÏÂÎÍËı ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÒÚÂÈ. 6. We don't like its windows.fi We have bought a new house. èÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Ó·˙ÂÏÛ ˝ÚÓ Ô‡‚ËÎÓ ÏÓ„ÎÓ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ Ë ÚÂÏÓÈ (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰‡Ê ˆÂÎ˚ ۘ·Ì˚ ÔÓÒÓ·Ëfl.fi äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÛÒÒÍËÈ „·„ÓÎ Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ó¯Ë·Ó˜ÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl. Ë Ò ˜ÂÏ Ì‡ÏÚÓÊ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ (ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜ÚÓÚÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú Ë ‰‡Ê ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÔÂ‚Ӊ) Á̇˜ÂÌËË. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÓ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÔÓˆÂÌÚ Î˛‰ÂÈ.. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ò‚flÁ‡Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ÌÓ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË Ì‡Ò Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛Ú. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. çÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ: 34 . Ç ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡ ̇¯‡ χχ Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸. 9. ˝ÚÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸. Ï˚ Ë ·Û‰ÂÏ Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ. ͇҇˛˘ËÂÒfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‡ÚËÍÎfl ‚ ˜Ë. ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í ÌÂÏÛ. ÔÓÒ‚fl˘ÂÌÌ˚ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌ˲ ‡ÚËÍÎfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ).fi Our house has several rooms.fi Their house is not big. ëڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚ı ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó.fi They have not been seen here since last year. ÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ ËÒÍβ˜ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. èËÏÂ˚: 1. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰‚‡ ‚ˉ‡ ‡ÚËÍÎfl: ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È Ë ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È. å˚ ÍÛÔËÎË ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. åÌ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò‚Ó ËÏfl. ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ 鷢ˠÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËfl: ÄÚËÍθ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ. 10. Ë ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: Your wife is a young woman. Í‡Í Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÈ ÒÚ‡‰‡ÚÂθÌ˚È Á‡ÎÓ„ (Passive).fi His mother will be happy.. (ÌÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó — ÌÂÚ ‡ÚËÍÎfl)fi åÓfl ÊÂ̇ ÌÂÏÓÎÓ‰‡fl. 3. They are very small. Ú‚Ó ÏÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.). ÍÓÚÓ˚Â.fi We shall not see them soon.fi Her father doesn't smoke.. „Ó‚Ófl˘Ëı ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË. / ç‡Ï fi Us fi We .. çÓ Ì‡Ï ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË Û„ÎÛ·ÎflÚ¸Òfl ‚ ‰Â·Ë ÚÓ„Ó.fi Our mother will not be sleeping at two o'clock. Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ı Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ‡ÚËÍÎfl. ·Û‰Û˜Ë ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ ‚ÒÂÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ „Ó‚ÓËÎË Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÂÏ ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó.. ÚÓ ‡ÚËÍθ ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ. My wife is not young.fi They did not want to clean their small old car.

fi ç‡ ÒÚÓΠ·˚· (͇͇fl-ÚÓ) ·ÏÔ‡. ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Òڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚ı ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚ Ò ‡ÚËÍÎflÏË.. ‡ ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡flÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ˜ËÒ·Ï. ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË Ï‡ÓÍ / ÏÓ‰ÂÎÂÈ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: a Cadillac (χ͇ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎfl) / a Kodak (χ͇ ÙÓÚÓ‡ÔÔ‡‡Ú‡) Ç ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ: 35 . ‡ Ó ‰‚Ûı ËÎË ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚ı ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÛ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ı — ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ Ò˛‰‡ Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ. (The) ÑÂÚË ÏÌ ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÎËÒ¸ Ò‡ÁÛ. ÌÂÔÓÌflÚÌ˚È ËÎË ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚È ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl: Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. ÿ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl. She is a student. ‰Û¯ÌÓ — ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ Ô‰·„‡ÂÚ: . ‚˚‰ÂÎflfl Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ (Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚) ËÁ fl‰‡ ‰Û„Ëı Ú‡ÍËı ÊÂ: ÂÒÎË ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú ӉÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ. ͇ÍÛ˛ ÍÌË„Û ÍÛÔËÎË. é·˘ËÈ ÔËÏÂ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‡ÚËÍÎÂÈ ‚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË: çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÎÂÚ Ì‡Á‡‰ fl ·˚Î ‚ (a) ‰Â‚ÌÂ. ‰‡‚ÌÓ ÔËÒÏÓÚÂÎ Ú‡Ï Ò· ÍÌË„Û..fi I saw the woman.fi ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ ‡Ì¸¯Â Ì ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎÒfl Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸˛. Ó Í‡ÍÓÏ ÓÍÌ ˉÂÚ ˜¸fi the window. Ú. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ. èÓÒΠӷÓÓÚ‡ there + to be (ÒÏ.fi ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚ ÌÓ: I haven't used such liquid before. an ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Ë ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ Ô‰·„‡ÂÚ Â„Ó ÓÚÍ˚Ú¸. Ú.fi A gentleman. — ÓÍÓÌ ÚË. Á̇ÍÓÏ˚È / ÔÓÌflÚÌ˚È ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ (Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚).. Ú‡Í Ë ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ. éÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ: ËÏÂÂÚ Ó‰ÌÛ ÙÓÏÛ the. Fox called you. (The) åÛʘË̇ ·˚Î ‚˚ÒÓÍËÈ Ë ÒÚÓÈÌ˚È. Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÏ (ÍÓÚÓ˚ı) ˜¸ ÛÊ ¯Î‡ ‡Ì ËÎË ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ. ‡ Ì ˆÂÎ˚È Í·ÒÒ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ ËÎË ‚¢ÂÒÚ‚Ó: I haven't seen such a woman. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÎÓ Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ. é‰Ì‡Ê‰˚ ‚˜ÂÓÏ ‚ ̇¯ ‰ÓÏ ‚Ó¯ÂΠ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ (‡) ÏÛʘË̇.fi I bought the book (ÚÛ Ò‡ÏÛ˛) and a magazine (ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍ ‚ÔÂ‚˚ ÒÎ˚¯ËÚ ÔÓ ÊÛ̇Î. (The) ÑÂ‚Ìfl ·˚· ·Óθ¯‡fl Ë ¯ÛÏ̇fl. ÓÌ Ì Á̇ÍÓÏ Ò Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ fi a book. èÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚‡ half (ÔÓÎÓ‚Ë̇) ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: half a bottle / half an hour / . — ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ó‰ËÌ Ô‰ÏÂÚ.Â. ͇ÍÓ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ Ô‰·„‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚÍ˚Ú¸. (The) ÑÓχ ÚÓÊ ·˚ÎË ·Óθ¯ËÂ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Í‡Í ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ. ÚÓ ‚ÒÂÏ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ. èÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚‡ what ‚ ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÌËflı ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: What a happy man! fi ä‡ÍÓÈ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚˚È ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ! èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 14) ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: There was a lamp on the table. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ì ӷ Ó‰ÌÓÏ. ÿ ÿ ÿ èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‡ÚËÍθ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi Ç‡Ï Á‚ÓÌËÎ ÌÂÍËÈ ÏËÒÚÂ îÓÍÒ.Â. èÂ‰ ËÏÂ̇ÏË Ë Ù‡ÏËÎËflÏË ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂÍËÈ / ÌÂÍÚÓ: A Mr.ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ËÏÂÂÚ ‰‚ ÙÓÏ˚: ‡ Ë an. ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÏËÒfl Ò „·ÒÌÓ„Ó Á‚Û͇ (an apple / an arm / an old house). ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ÓÍÌÓ / β·Ó ËÁ ÚÂıfi a window. ë (the) ÏÛʘËÌÓÈ ·˚ÎË (‡) χθ˜ËÍ Ë (‡) ‰Â‚Ә͇. ‡ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. ËÎË:— ü ÍÛÔËÎ ÍÌË„Û. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ·˚· ̇ ‚˜ÂÂ. Ç (the) ‰Â‚Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÓÏÓ‚.ч‚‡ÈÚ ÓÚÍÓÂÏ ÓÍÌÓ. çÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÒÚÂÈ: I am a worker. ıÓÚfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË: ˝ÚÓÚ / ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚÓÚ / ˝ÚÓÚ Ò‡Ï˚È: — ü ‚ˉÂÎ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌÛ. ˝ÚÓÚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ ÂÏÛ Ì Á̇ÍÓÏ).— í˚ ÍÛÔËÎ ÂÂ?— äÛÔËÎ ÍÌË„Û Ë ÊÛ̇Î..— ä‡ÍÛ˛ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌÛ?— íÛ Ò‡ÏÛ˛. ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÏËÒfl Ò Òӄ·ÒÌÓ„Ó Á‚Û͇ (a table / a big room / a house). ıÓÚfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË: ͇ÍÓÈ-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ / Ó‰ËÌ: — Ç‡Ï Á‚ÓÌËÎË — äÚÓ Á‚ÓÌËÎ ? — ä‡ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÏÛʘË̇. ‡ Ì ˆÂÎ˚È Í·ÒÒ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ ËÎË ‚¢ÂÒÚ‚Ó (ÚÓ„‰‡ ‡ÚËÍÎfl ÌÂÚ): What strong liquid! fi ä‡Í‡fl ÒËθ̇fl ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸! èÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚‡ such ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ.ËÎË: — ü Á‡ıÓ‰ËÎ ‚ ÍÌËÊÌ˚È Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ. ÔÓ ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÂÌÌÓÈ Ù‡Á Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸. Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl.

. the . ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÛÎˈ: Abbey Road / Gorky Street. èÂ‰ Ù‡ÏËÎËflÏË.to be in a hurry fi ÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl. ÒÚÓfl˘ËÏË ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ(Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚Òfl ÒÂϸfl ‚ ÔÓÎÌÓÏ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Â): the Browns fi Å‡ÛÌ˚ / ÒÂϸfl Å‡ÛÌÓ‚ Ç Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËflı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ ÒÛÚÓÍ: in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening (ÌÓ: at night) fi ÛÚÓÏ / ‰ÌÂÏ / ‚˜ÂÓÏ (ÌÓ˜¸˛). fi ü β·Î˛ ÔË‚Ó.. èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË Ó͇ÌÓ‚ / ÏÓÂÈ / ÂÍ: The Pacific Ocean.. èÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË.fi åÌ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ëË̉Ë. ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ ‚ÒÂÏ: the sun / the moon Ë Ú.fi чÈÚ ÏÌ ÔË‚‡ (Ó‰ÌÓ ÔË‚Ó.): The more you learn something the better you know it. ëÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. My wife is Jewish.. ë ËÏÂ̇ÏË Ë Ù‡ÏËÎËflÏË: I like Cindy. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ Ӊ Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚. èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÒÚÓÓÌ Ò‚ÂÚ‡: the West / the East / the North / the South.. èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÍÓ‡·ÎÂÈ: The Titanic. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. 36 . The Dvina. è‡‚ËÎÓ 8). to be on a diet fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ ‰ËÂÚÂ. èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÒÚ‡Ì. fi å˚ ÛÒÒÍËÂ. ̇ ‡·ÓÚ fi on the job (ÌÓ: at work) Ë ‰.. ÚÂÏ . Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó (Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ): ̇ ÛÎˈ fi in the street. fi ˜ÂÏ .. èÂ‰ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ Ô‚ÓÒıÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË: the best (ÒÏ. ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ‚¢ÂÒÚ‚: liquid / water/ .. èÂ‰ ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ÏË ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: the first (ÒÏ. Ó‰ÌÛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÓÚ ‚Ò„Ó).‰. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘ËÏË ËÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÒÎÓ‚: The United States of America (ÂÒÚ¸ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl).. (‚ÓÓ·˘Â) ÌÓ: Give me a beer. please. Ú. ÚÂÏ ÎÛ˜¯Â Á̇¯¸. èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË flÁ˚ÍÓ‚. è‡‚ËÎÓ 9). ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ‚ÂÏÂÌ „Ó‰‡: in winter / in spring / in summer / in autumn (ÌÓ: (‡ÏÂ.Â. èË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÛÒÒÍËı ÒÎÓ‚.. Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÈ Ë‰ÂÚ ˜¸) ıÓÓ¯ÂÂ.. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË ˆÂÎ˚È Í·ÒÒ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ ËÎË ‚¢ÂÒÚ‚: I like beer. Ç ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò ‰‚ÛÏfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË (the . We are Russian. ë ‡·ÒÚ‡ÍÚÌ˚ÏË ÔÓÌflÚËflÏË: love / life / time / . fi èË‚Ó (Ú‡ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÓÚ ‚Ò„Ó. ‚ ÍËÌÓ („‰Â?) fi at the cinema.. ÄÚËÍθ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË Ì‡ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚÂÈ: I am English.. éÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË „ÓÒÚËÌˈ: the Regent Hotel. The Black Sea. ‚ ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚ fi at the institute. ‚ ÍËÌÓ (ÍÛ‰‡?) fi to the cinema. ‚‡ˇÌÚ) in the fall) fi ÁËÏÓÈ / ‚ÂÒÌÓÈ / ÎÂÚÓÏ / ÓÒÂ̸˛.. The beer is good. ÂÒÎË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó language: the English language (ÌÓ: English) the Russian language (ÌÓ: Russian). èÂ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË „‡ÁÂÚ: The New York Times. a great deal of fi ÏÌÓ„Ó Ë ‰. fi åÓfl ÊÂ̇ ‚ÂÈ͇. fi óÂÏ ·Óθ¯Â ËÁÛ˜‡Â¯¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. a lot of fi ÏÌÓ„Ó. fi ü ‡Ì„΢‡ÌËÌ.

— (Ó̇ Ì ۘËÚÒfl ‚ ¯ÍÓΠ— ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ) fi Mother went to the school. at home fi ‰Óχ. to go to bed fi ÎÓÊËÚ¸Òfl ÒÔ‡Ú¸. fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ‰Â͇·¸. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë ÏÓÏÂÌÚ˚. • ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ‡˝ÓÔÓÚÓ‚: Heathrow Airport / Kennedy Airport. to go / come / arrive home fi ˉÚË / ÔËÈÚË / ÔËÂı‡Ú¸ ‰ÓÏÓÈ.. at night fi ÔÓÁ‰ÌËÏ Â˜ÂÓÏ / ÌÓ˜¸˛. to be on holiday fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ÓÚÔÛÒÍÂ. • ó‡ÒÚÓ ‚ Á‡„ÓÎӂ͇ı ÒÚ‡ÚÂÈ ‚ ÊÛ̇·ı Ë „‡ÁÂÚ‡ı. • ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË „ÓÓ‰Ó‚. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘ËÏË ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ (ÂÒÚ¸ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl). ÌÓ: å‡Ï‡ Ôӯ· ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ Ì‡ Ó‰ËÚÂθÒÍÓ ÒÓ·‡ÌËÂ. Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚Â Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ‡ÚËÍÎÂÈ. to go on foot fi ˉÚË / ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ô¯ÍÓÏ.ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÏÂÒflˆÂ‚: It is December now. • ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÒÚ‡Ì. • ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ‰ÌÂÈ Ì‰ÂÎË: It was on Monday. fi ùÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ ‚ ÔÓ̉ÂθÌËÍ. fi Our sister goes to school. ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÌËÊ ÔÓ ÏÂ ËÁÎÓÊÂÌËfl „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Ï‡ÚÂˇ·. • ë ̇Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÔËÂÏÓ‚ ÔˢË: breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper fi Á‡‚Ú‡Í / ӷ‰ / ÔÎÓÚÌ˚È ÛÊËÌ / ΄ÍËÈ ÛÊËÌ.. • 37 . • Ç ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı: at work fi ̇ ‡·ÓÚÂ. to go to school fi Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ¯ÍÓΠ/ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ: 燯‡ ÒÂÒÚ‡ Û˜ËÚÒfl ‚ ¯ÍÓΠ/ ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ.

å˚ ̇ÁÓ‚ÂÏ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚Â.. Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ.... å˚ Ê ‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÚ˚ ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl χÚÂˇ· ‡Á‰ÂÎËÏ Ëı ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ì‡ ‰‚ „ÛÔÔ˚: 1. ÇÒ ÔÓÒÚ˚ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ËÏÂ˛Ú ÔÓ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÛ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡ÁÌ˚ı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ. 38 . — ‚ ˝ÚËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ÌÂθÁfl ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÏ in. Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ. ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò ˝ÚËÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ „‰Â?: in the pocket fi ‚ ͇χÌÂ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Í ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏÂ: è‡Ô‡ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ Ì‡ Á‡‚Ó‰Â. èÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â.ÌÓ: å‡Ï‡ ۯ· ‚ ÍËÌÓ. fi I study at the institute. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Í‡Í ·˚ ÒÎËÎËÒ¸ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË.ÌÓ: åÓÈ ‰Û„ ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂ. (‚ÌÛÚË) fi .ÌÓ: éÌ ÒÂȘ‡Ò „‰Â-ÚÓ ‚ ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚÂ. (ÓÚÌÓ¯ÛÒ¸ Í ÒËÒÚÂÏ ‚ÛÁ‡) fi . Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Ë„‡˛Ú ‚‡ÊÌÛ˛ Óθ. ÚÓ ‰Îfl ÔÂ‰‡˜Ë Ëı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ Ò Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÏ. ÔÓÏÓ„‡fl ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl ‚Ó ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ. ‰Îfl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÛÊÌÓ ÓËÂÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl upon. 2. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ì ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓ„Û Ì‡.íÂχ 2. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ ‚ÌËχÌË ÔË ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË ˝ÚÓÈ ÚÂÏ˚ Ï˚ Û‰ÂÎËÏ ÔÓÒÚ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓ„‡Ï. ˜ÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ‚˚‡Ê‡˛Ú ‡ÁÌ˚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl (ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ / ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ / Ô˘ËÌÌ˚ / ˆÂ΂˚Â Ë ‰. Ú‡Í ÊÂ. ‚ ‡Ï͇ı Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÍÓÓÚÍÓÈ ÚÂÏ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ ‚Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚. ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚Â. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. in the institute. (‚ÔËÒ‡ÎÒfl ‚ ÒËÒÚÂÏÛ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ˚) fi . óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚. in the hotel.. è‡Ô‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ̇ ‰ÂÊÛÒÚ‚Â. é·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ÔÓÒÓ·Ëflı Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‰‡Ê ËÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚).. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ËÏÂ˛Ú Ó‰ÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ. at the institute. (‚ÌÛÚË) fi . ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ì ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ ‚. èÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë (Ëı ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl): on fi ̇ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚË. è‰ÎÓ„Ë ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇ ÔÓÒÚ˚ (ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ‚ÒÂ„Ó ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡) Ë ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ (ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ·ÓÎÂÂ.). Ë „‰Â Ëı ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÓÈ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ÔÓÒχÚË‚‡˛ÚÒfl. ü ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎÒfl ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ "åËÌÒÍ". — ‚ ˝ÚËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ÌÂθÁfl ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÏ on.ÌÓ: å‡Ï‡ ۯ· ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ÏË. ü Û˜ÛÒ¸ ‚ ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚÂ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡Í ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ÏË..fi ç was standing at the window.. è‰ÎÓ„Ë. at the Minsk Hotel. at fi Û / ÔË / ÓÍÓÎÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: éÌ ÒÚÓflÎ Û ÓÍ̇.fi Father works at the plant. Ú‡ÍË ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡ÔÓÏË̇ڸ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔË ‚˚·Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ Ì ÒÚÂÒÌflÈÚÂÒ¸ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÂÏ. ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò ˝ÚËÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ „‰Â?: on the table fi ̇ ÒÚÓÎÂ. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡. ˜ÚÓ Ë ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚ ÔË Ëı ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË. è‡Ô‡ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ ‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ ÒÏÂÌÛ. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ӘÂ̸ ÏÌÓ„Ó‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‚˚¯Â Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌÓ ÒΉËÚ¸ Á‡ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÂÈ: ü Û˜ÛÒ¸ ‚ ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚÂ. in fi ‚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‚ÌÛÚË. ëÎÓÊÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë.

fi é̇ „Ó‰ËÚÒfl Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÙË„ÛÓÈ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ô‰ÎÓ„ to ÏÓÊÂÚ Ë Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. Ò‚flÁ˚‚‡fl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó Á̇˜ÂÌË ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÁ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: to be tired of afraid of proud of Ë ‰. Ëϲ˘ËÏË ‚'ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÙÓÏÛ Ú‚ÓËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ (ÍÂÏ? / ˜ÂÏ?): by — ÂÒÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ ËÎË ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏÓÈ.fi éÌË Ì ÔËÌÂÒÎË Ì‡Ï ÌÓ‚Û˛ ·ÏÔÛ. ÒÚÓfl˘ËÏË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (ÍÓ„Ó? / ˜Â„Ó?). ·ÎËÁÓÍ ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Í to. for fi ‰Îfl: for me fi ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl.fi éÌ ÔÓ¯ÂÎ ÔÓ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌ˲ Í Ï‡¯ËÌÂ. towards fi ÔÓ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌ˲ Í. ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏ ÚÓÚ. from fi ÓÚ / ËÁ / Ò ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚË / Û (ÓÚ) ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó: 39 .fi Mother went to the cinema.¤ She will send him strong cigars. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË ‰‚Ûı ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÓ‚ Ò Û˜‡ÒÚËÂÏ Í‡ÍÓ„ÓÎË·Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡. ̇ ÍÓ„Ó Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. (‚ χ¯ËÌÛ) ç went towards the car.fi I often think of that. together with boys and girlsfi ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò Ï‡Î¸˜Ë͇ÏË Ë ‰Â‚Ә͇ÏË by fi Û / ÓÍÓÎÓ: by the windowfi Û ÓÍ̇.fi ü ÛÒڇΠÓÚ Ú·fl. She is proud of her body. for him fi ‰Îfl Ì„Ó. by the door fi fl‰ÓÏ Ò ‰‚Â¸˛. ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ˝ÚË Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Passive: 凯Ë̇ ·˚· ÍÛÔÎÂ̇ ÏÓËÏ ‰Û„ÓÏ. Ô‰ÎÓ„ ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ.fi I know nothing of him. with — ÂÒÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚÒfl ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ (ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛).fi She gave one dollar to me. ü ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‰Ûχ˛ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ.fi We shall not go to the institute.fi Sometimes the windows are washed with water. She will send strong cigars to him. Ú. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be. (ÌÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò‚ÂÌÛÚ¸ ‚ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ) of fi Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ.fi éÌ ÔÓ¯ÂÎ Í Ï‡¯ËÌÂ.fi é̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÂÚ ÂÏÛ ÍÂÔÍË ÒË„‡˚. I'm not sure of that. ÌÓ ÏÂÌ ÍÓÌÍÂÚËÁËÓ‚‡Ì: ç went to the car. å˚ Ì ÔÓȉÂÏ ‚ ËÌÒÚËÚÛÚ.fi The car was bought by my friend. èÎ‡Ì ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÎÒfl ‚ÒÂÈ ÒÚ‡ÌÓÈ.fi ü Ì ۂÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË.: I'm tired of you. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÍ̇ ÏÓ˛Ú ‚Ó‰ÓÈ.to => ‚ / ̇ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (ÍÛ‰‡? / ÍÓÏÛ? / Í ÍÓÏÛ?): å‡Ï‡ ۯ· ‚ ÍËÌÓ.¤ They didn't bring us a new lamp. / í˚ ÏÌ ̇‰ÓÂÎ. é̇ ‰‡Î‡ ÏÌ ӉËÌ ‰Óη. ÂÒÎË Ì‡Ó·ÓÓÚ — Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ: ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚ 1 fi ÑÂÈÒÚ‚Ë fi è‰ÏÂÚ fi to fi ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚ 2: She gave one dollar to me ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚ 1 fi ÑÂÈÒÚ‚Ë fi ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚ 2 fi è‰ÏÂÚ: She gave me one dollar. They didn't bring a new lamp to us. with / by fi Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Ú‚ÓËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ.fi éÌË Ì ·ÓflÚÒfl ̇Ò.fi The plan was being fulfilled by the whole country.Â. They are not afraid of us. ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ of: the door of my room / the car of my wife of fi Ó / Ó·: ü Ó ÌÂÏ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì Á̇˛. with fi Ò / ‚ÏÂÒÚ Ò: with mefi ÒÓ ÏÌÓÈ. ‚Ò Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ‡ÒÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍË ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: ÂÒÎË Ò̇˜‡Î‡ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ô‰ÏÂÚ.

without fi ·ÂÁ (ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó).Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: é̇ ÔËÂı‡Î‡ ËÁ åÓÒÍ‚˚. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ / ÔÓ / ‚ÓÍÛ„ / ÍÛ„ÓÏ. 40 . into fi ‚. fi ç took a cigar out of the box.fi ç took a book from the desk. near fi ‚ÓÁΠ/ fl‰ÓÏ / ÓÍÓÎÓ: near the house / near the car ÇÂÏÂÌÌ˚ è‰ÎÓ„Ë (Ëı ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl): on fi ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ‰ÌflÏË Ì‰ÂÎË: on Sunday / on Monday. ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓ ‚ÌÛÚ¸ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: é̇ ‚ӯ· (ÍÛ‰‡?) ‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. é̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ ËÁ ÍÓÏ̇Ú˚. ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl around / round: éÌ ıÓ‰ËÎ ÔÓ „ÓÓ‰Û Ô¯ÍÓÏ. after fi Á‡ / ‚ÒΉ Á‡: é̇ Ô˯· ‚ÒΉ Á‡ ÏÌÓÈ.¤ I have around ten dollars. éÌ ‚ÁflΠ͇ÍÛ˛-ÚÓ ÍÌË„Û ÒÓ ÒÚÓ·. about fi Ó / Ó·: ü ÌË˜Â„Ó Ó ÌÂÏ Ì Á̇˛..fi ç didn't want to go around that house. fi ç put the money onto the table. fi My car is in front of the house. about fi ËÏÂÂÚ ‰Û„Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl.é̇ ÔËÂı‡Î‡ ËÁ åÓÒÍ‚˚.fi I have about ten dollars. fi She came out of the room. above fi ̇‰. behind fi Á‡ / ÔÓÁ‡‰Ë.fi She came after me. out of fi ËÁ. ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓ ̇ ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚ¸ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: éÌ ÔÓÎÓÊËÎ ‰Â̸„Ë (ÍÛ‰‡?) ̇ ÒÚÓÎ..fi I know it from her.fi ç walked about the town. under fi ÔÓ‰. fi She came from Moscow. fi She came into the room. éÌ Ì ıÓÚÂΠˉÚË ‚ÓÍÛ„ ÚÓ„Ó ‰Óχ.fi She came from Moscow. onto fi ̇. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. through fi ÒÍ‚ÓÁ¸ / ˜ÂÂÁ: through the window / through the wall over fi ̇‰ (Ò‚ÂıÛ): over the window / over the roof between fi ÏÂÊ‰Û (‰‚Ûı Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ / Îˈ): between two cars / between two women among fi ÏÂÊ‰Û (ÒÂ‰Ë ÚÂı ËÎË ·ÓΠÎˈ / Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚): among students / among trees across fi ˜ÂÂÁ (ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó /Ô‰ÏÂÚ): across the room / the street / the table / .fi I took this book from him. ü ‚ÁflÎ ˝ÚÛ ÍÌË„Û Û Ì„Ó. ì ÏÂÌfl ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ‰ÓηÓ‚. ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓ ̇ÛÊÛ ËÁÌÛÚË Á‡ÏÍÌÛÚÓ„Ó ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚‡: éÌ ‰ÓÒڇΠÒË„‡Û ËÁ ÍÓÓ·ÍË. in front of fi ÔÂ‰ (‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó): åÓfl χ¯Ë̇ ÔÂ‰ ‰ÓÏÓÏ.fi I know nothing about him. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ü Á̇˛ ˝ÚÓ ÓÚ ÌÂÂ.¤ He walked around the town.

¤ It is ten hours. (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: ÔÓÒΠÔflÚË) bÛ fi Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó (β·ÓÏÛ) ÏÓÏÂÌÚÛ: ç will come by ten o'clock. after ÌËÊÂ): I'll be back in five minutes. in fi Ò ‚Â͇ÏË: in the first century. at five minutes past tenfi ‚ ÔflÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÚ Ó‰ËÌ̇‰ˆ‡ÚÓ„Ó.Ò ÔÓÎÌ˚ÏË ‰‡Ú‡ÏË (ÍÓ„‰‡ ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ËÒÎÓ Ë ÏÂÒflˆ): on the first of May. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl: at that moment fi ‚ ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ. u Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ‰‚ËÊÂÌËË ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÎÍË ÔÓ Î‚ÓÈ ÔÓÎÓ‚ËÌ ˆËÙÂ·Î‡Ú‡: It is five (minutes) to ten. Å˚ÎÓ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. at fi ‚.fi éÌË ÔÓÊÂÌflÚÒfl Í ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏÛ „Ó‰Û. Ò Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÏÂÒflˆÂ‚: in May / in December..fi é̇ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ Í Â„Ó ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘ÂÌ˲.ÌÓ: at night fi ÌÓ˜¸˛ ˜ÂÂÁ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó (β·ÓÈ) ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. in the evening fi ‚˜ÂÓÏ. ÓÒÚ‡‚¯ËıÒfl ‰Ó ÚÓ„Ó ˜‡Ò‡. till (ÂÊ from . Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ: in the morning fi ÛÚÓÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ·Óθ¯‡fl ÒÚÂÎ͇ ‰‚ËÊÂÚÒfl ÔÓ Ô‡‚ÓÈ ÔÓÎÓ‚ËÌ ˆËÙÂ·Î‡Ú‡. in the afternoon fi ‰ÌÂÏ. ÌÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰ÍÓ.. ÒÎÓ‚Ó hour fi ˜‡Ò ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó o'clock.¤ é̇ ÒÔËÚ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ¯ÂÒÚË ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË from . (o'clock — ÌÂθÁfl)fi éÌË ·Û‰ÛÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ˜ÂÂÁ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡˜‡ÎÓ Ë Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: 41 . äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÒÎÓ‚Ó o'clock ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÚÓ„‰‡. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ÂÏfl ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ó‚ÌÓ ‚ ˜‡Ò‡ı: ëÂȘ‡Ò ÔflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ˜‡˘Â.. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ Future (ÒÏ.fi é̇ ÒÔËÚ ¯ÂÒÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÏËÌÛÚ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.fi éÌ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ ¯ÍÓÎÛ ˜ÂÂÁ ‰‚‡ „Ó‰‡. Ò Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ÒÂÁÓÌÓ‚: in winter / in spring.fi Å˚ÎÓ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÚ ¯ÂÒÚÓ„Ó. to) fi Ò . „‰Â ˝ÚË ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇˛ÚÒfl: She has been sleeping for six hours. Ò „Ó‰‡ÏË: in 1992. from fi Ò. Ë Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ˜‡Ò. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ‰Û„Ëı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: It is ten o'clock. She will finish / will have finished her work by his coming back.fi ü ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸ ˜ÂÂÁ ÔflÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÚ. ˜ÂÏ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. at a quarter to ninefi ·ÂÁ ˜ÂÚ‚ÂÚË ‰Â‚flÚ¸ to fi ·ÂÁ. They will marry by the next year.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ·ÂÁ ÔflÚË ‰ÂÒflÚ¸. ç will finish school in two years. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ‰‚ËÊÂÚÒfl χ·fl ÒÚÂÎ͇ ˆËÙÂ·Î‡Ú‡. for fi ‚ Ú˜ÂÌËÂ... ‰Ó.fi It was ten o'clock. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡˜‡ÎÓ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: from the first of May. They will be here in ten hours.fi éÌ ÔˉÂÚ Í ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜‡Ò‡Ï. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl past fi ÔÓÒÎÂ. Ò Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ ÒÛÚÓÍ. ÓÚ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Û¯Î‡ χ·fl ÒÚÂÎ͇: It was ten (minutes) past five..fi It is five o'clock.

fi óÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‰Âθ Ó̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ÏÛÊ. ÑÊÓÌ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎ ÏÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚÂ. çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË: according to fi Òӄ·ÒÌÓ: We are going there tomorrow according to our plan. after fi ˜ÂÂÁ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. Ï˚ ÓÚÔ‡‚ÎflÂÏÒfl ÚÛ‰‡ Á‡‚Ú‡. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ Past (Ò‡‚ÌËÚ in ‚˚¯Â): After a few weeks she got married.fi é̇ ÔˉÂÚ ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ‚ ‚ÓÒÂϸ.fi å˚ ҉·ÂÏ ˝ÚÓ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ (ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ) ‚Ó‰˚. ÚÓ Ó̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚‡ ËÏÂÚ¸ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÏÛʇ. between fi ÏÂʉÛ: ç will come between three (o'clock) and four (o'clock).fi ëӄ·ÒÌÓ Ì‡¯ÂÏÛ Ô·ÌÛ. ˜ÚÓ Ë‰ÂÚ ‚ÓÈ̇. during fi ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl (‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Û͇Á‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË): I don't want to call you during her sleep.fi é̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ê‰‡Ú¸ ‰Ó ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ç will come here after the meeting. ͇Í. she will be happy to have such a husband. since fi Ò / Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ.fi ÑÓ ÚÂı ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ÓÌË Ì ‡·ÓÚ‡ÎË. ˜ÚÓ): I am here because of the war.fi éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡˜Ë̇fl Ò ÔÓ̉ÂθÌË͇ Ë ‰Ó ÔflÚÌˈ˚.fi éÌ ÔˉÂÚ Ò˛‰‡ ÔÓÒΠÒÓ·‡ÌËfl.from 1917 till 1992.fi ü ̇ıÓÊÛÒ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó. near fi ·ÎËÁÍÓ Í: She will come near eight (o'clpck).fi éÌË Ì ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ÔÓÒΠÚÂı ˜‡ÒÓ‚. about fi ÓÍÓÎÓ / ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ: They will call us about seven (o'clock / hours). by means of fi ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ: We shall do it by means of water. due to fi ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl / ËÁ-Á‡ (ÔÓ Ô˘ËÌ ÚÓ„Ó. ç can do it Monday through Friday. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ Perfect: She has not been here since last year. before => ‰Ó / ÔÂ‰ ͇ÍËÏ-ÎË·Ó (β·˚Ï) ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ËÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ: They had not been working before three o'clock.fi óÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‰Âθ Ó̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ÏÛÊ. ˜ÚÓ): 42 . during fi ̇ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌËË ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: They clean offices during summer. over fi Ò‚˚¯Â / ·ÓÎÂÂ: ç has been waiting here over an hour.fi èÂ‰ ÚÂÏ. (̇˜‡ÎË ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ÔÓÒΠÚÂı) John had called my sister before he went to the airport. ÔÓ͇ Ó̇ ÒÔËÚ. after fi ÔÓÒΠ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (β·Ó„Ó) ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ËÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: They will not be working after three o'clock. as for / as to fi ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl: As for her.fi é̇ Ì ·˚· Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ò ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó „Ó‰‡. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ after ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ̇˜Ë later fi ÒÔÛÒÚfl: A few weeks later she got married. through fi ̇ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌËË ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚ͇ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ç can speak through hours. because of fi ËÁ-Á‡ (ÔÓ Ô˘ËÌ ÚÓ„Ó.fi éÌË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ Ì‡Ï ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ‚ ÒÂϸ / ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ÒÂϸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚ / ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ÓÍÓÎÓ ÒÂÏË.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸ Ú·Â.fi ãÂÚÓÏ / ÇÒ ÎÂÚÓ ÓÌË Û·Ë‡˛Ú ÔÓÏ¢ÂÌËfl.fi éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ˜‡Ò‡ÏË.fi éÌ Ê‰ÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ·Óθ¯Â ˜‡Ò‡. Í‡Í ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚ.fi éÌ ÔˉÂÚ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÚÂÏfl Ë ˜ÂÚ˚¸Ïfl ˜‡Ò‡ÏË.fi óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÂÂ. till / until fi ‰Ó: She will wait till / until ten (o'clock).

I am here due to his help. She asked me to come next time.fi éÌË Ì ÒÔÓÒËÎË..fi èÓÒÎÛ¯‡È ÏÂÌfl. to ask smb. Í‡Í ÓÌË Ò·fl Ôӂ‰ÛÚ).fi é̇ ÛÎ˚·ÌÛ·Ҹ ÂÏÛ. => ̇ÏÂ͇ڸ ̇ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: ç hinted at my money. / smth. fi ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó /˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Listen to me. ÌÓ: Listen. fi ËÒ͇ڸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: ç is looking for his wife. to ask smb. please. thanks to fi ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl: I bought my house thanks to your help. to look for smb. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Á‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi He ÔÓÒË Û ÌËı ‰ÂÌ„.fi ëÎÛ¯‡ÈÚÂ. çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. /smth.fi ü ÔÓ‰ÓÊ‰Û ÓÚˆ‡ Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi é̇ ̇‰ÂÂÚÒfl ̇ Ú‚Ó˛ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸ (̇ ÚÓ.fi éÌ ÏÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. fi Á‡‚ËÒÂÚ¸ ÓÚ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: Everything depends on them. ÂÒÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ÌÂÚ. Don't ask them for money. fi ʉ‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: I shall wait for father here. 43 . ÂÒÎË ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ. çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. / to ask smb. fi ÛÎ˚·‡Ú¸Òfl: She smiled at him. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi ÇÒ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ÌËı (ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó. / smth. instead of fi ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ: I shall buy a house instead of a car. => éÌ Ì‡ÏÂ͇Π̇ ÏÓË ‰Â̸„Ë (̇ ÚÓ.fi ü ÔÓ‰ÓÊ‰Û Á‰ÂÒ¸. smth. to leave for fi ÛÂı‡Ú¸ ‚: She is leaving for Moscow next week. ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡˛˘ËıÒfl Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. to hope for smb. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ë ‰‡Î smb ¤ somebody fi ÍÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ·˚Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ (‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â). ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÂÈ ÔÓÏÓʯ¸).fi ü ÍÛÔβ ‰ÓÏ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚. Í‡Í ÏÂÌfl ÁÓ‚ÛÚ. / smth. fi ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡Ú¸ (ÔÓÒËÚ¸) ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ó ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó/҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: They didn't ask me my name.fi é̇ ÛÎ˚·‡Î‡Ò¸. ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇ Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë.fi é̇ ÛÂÁʇÂÚ ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Û Ì‡ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ.fi ü ̇ıÓÊÛÒ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl Â„Ó ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë. in spite of fi ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇: I don't like him in spite of his money.fi éÌ Ë˘ÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÊÂÌÛ. fi ̇‰ÂflÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ ÎË·Ó: She hopes for your help. ÌÓ: I shall wait here. in case of fi ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: I don't want to be here in case of his coming. / smth. for smth. smth. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. to do smth.fi Å·„Ó‰‡fl Â„Ó ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë.fi é̇ ÔÓÔÓÒË· ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë Û ÏÂÌfl / ÔÓÏÓ˜¸. ˜ÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Â̸„Ë). please. fi ÔÓÒËÚ¸ Û ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: She asked me for help. to wait for smb. owing to fi ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl: Owing to his help I feel well now. fl ÒÂȘ‡Ò ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û˛ Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó. ÌÓ: She was smiling. to smile at smb. ¤ something fi ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.fi ü ÍÛÔËÎ ‰ÓÏ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë.fi é̇ ÔÓÔÓÒË· ÏÂÌfl ÔËÈÚË ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á. Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ì ÌÛÊÂÌ: to listen to smb. ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡˛˘ËıÒfl Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚ (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl). to depend on / upon smb. Ì ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘Ëı ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Ò ÛÒÒÍËÏË Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË: to hint at smth.

Ë„‡Ú¸ ̇ ÏÛÁ˚͇θÌÓÏ ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚ — Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ to play footballfi Ë„‡Ú¸ ‚ ÙÛÚ·ÓÎ. — (éÌË ÌÛʉ‡˛Ú Ú‚Ó˛ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. Ó·‡ÁÛfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÓ‚˚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ ‰ËÌˈ˚ (upstairs / downstairs / uptown / downtown / outside / knockdown Ë ‰. 44 . ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË / ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. / àÏ ÌÛÊ̇ Ú‚Ófl ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. èË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ΄ÍÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl: Come in. to follow fi ÒΉӂ‡Ú¸ Á‡: ç followed them. èÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë. ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë Ôˉ‡˛Ú „·„ÓÎÛ ‰Û„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌË ËÎË ‰ÓÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ÛÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÛԇΠ(ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÌflÚ¸Òfl Ë ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ·ÓÈ). í‡Í ‚ÓÚ. I shall answer your question.fi éÌ ÔÓÒΉӂ‡Î Á‡ ÌËÏË. ËÏÂÂÚ ‰Û„Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl (ÒÏ.ËÏÂ˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ (away / off / up Ë ‰. to answer fi Óڂ˜‡Ú¸ ̇: They didn't answer my letter. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÓ‚ (ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ ̇˜‡Î ËÎË ‚ ÍÓ̈Â. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÌÓ͉‡ÛÌ Ë ÌÓ͇ÛÚ. ËÏÂ˛Ú Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ Ë ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı. Í‡Í Ë Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to like: They need your help.fi éÌË Ê‰ÛÚ Ì‡Ò ‚ÌËÁÛ.)..fi éÌ ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÎ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ÒÏÓ„ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ·ÓÈ (‚˚·˚Î ËÁ ·Ó¸·˚ / Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl Á‡ Ô‰Â·ÏË ÒÓ‚ÌÓ‚‡ÌËÈ) åÌÓ„Ë ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË (in / on / over / . to play the pianofi Ë„‡Ú¸ ̇ ÔˇÌËÌÓ to need fi ÌÛʉ‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ (Ò ˝ÚËÏ „·„ÓÎÓÏ Û‰Ó·ÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ Ú‡Í ÊÂ. ç looked ridiculous in that get-up..): They are waiting for us downstairs. ‡ ËÏÂÌÌÓ. ÌÓ Ë ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë.fi ü Ì ÒÓÏÌ‚‡˛Ò¸ ‚ Ú‚ÓËı ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚‡ı.fi éÌË Ì ÓÚ‚ÂÚËÎË Ì‡ ÏÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ.fi éÌ ÓÒÚ‡‚ËΠχ¯ËÌÛ ‚ÓÁΠ‰Óχ. knock out fi Û‰‡ËÚ¸ Ú‡Í. Ì ÚÂ·Û˛˘Ëı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓÒΠҷfl Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë. ëÎÓ‚‡¸). Í‡Í ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ „·„ÓÎ knock (Û‰‡ËÚ¸) + ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë down (‚ÌËÁ) Ë out (̇ÛÊÛ / Á‡ Ô‰ÂÎ˚ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó). ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi àı ÒÂÒÚ‡ Ì Á‡ıÓÚ· ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌËÚ¸Òfl Í Ì‡Ï. ˝ÚË ÒÎÓ‚‡ — Ì ˜ÚÓ ËÌÓÂ. óÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ú‡ÍÓÂ? éÔ‰ÂÎÂÌË ‚˚ÚÂ͇ÂÚ ËÁ ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl: ÂÒÎË Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Ô‰‚‡fl˛Ú ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.) Ë Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚.fi ÇÓȉËÚÂ. ÚÓ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë ÒÎÂ‰Û˛Ú Á‡ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 2: èÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÌflÚËfl ÌÂÚ. ̇ÔËÏÂ: ç left his car near the house. ÏÌÓ„Ë . ç‡Á̇˜ÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚ Ë ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ó‚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÚÓÊ ‡Á΢‡ÂÚÒfl: Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó.fi ü ÓÚ‚Â˜Û Ì‡ ‚‡¯ ‚ÓÔÓÒ.fi é̇ ÛÂı‡Î‡ ËÁ åËÌÒ͇ ‚˜Â‡. ç joined the party in 1917. Í‡Í Ô‡‚ËÎÓ.)fi éÌË ÌÛʉ‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë. to play fi Ë„‡Ú¸ (‚Ó-˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ̇ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: Ë„‡Ú¸ ‚ Ë„˚ — ·ÂÁ ‡ÚËÍÎfl. to doubt fi ÒÓÏÌ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚: I don't doubt your feelings. Ô˯ÛÚÒfl ÒÎËÚÌÓ ËÎË ˜ÂÂÁ ‰ÂÙËÒ).Â.fi éÌ ‚ÒÚÛÔËÎ ‚ Ô‡Ú˲ ‚ 1917 „Ó‰Û.fi Ç˚ȉËÚÂ. Ú. ÒϯÌÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ì‡fl‰Â.çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. to join fi ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌËÚ¸Òfl Í / ‚ÒÚÛÔËÚ¸ ‚ (Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆË˛): Their sister didn't want to join us. Go out. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ò‚flÁ˚‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‚ Ëı ‚Á‡ËÏÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. ëÏ˚ÒÎ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ: knock down fi Û‰‡ËÚ¸ Ú‡Í. ÚÓ„‰‡ Í‡Í ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ô‰ÎÓ„ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ: to leave fi ÛÂı‡Ú¸ ËÁ: She left Minsk yesterday.

ç‡ÔËÏÂ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÂÒÎË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ „·„ÓÎ ÒÚÓËÚ Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ÓÏ. Come on. Come on! fi ч‚‡È! (ÔÓ·ÛʉÂÌËÂ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲): Come on... çÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ¯ËÓÍÓ ÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË: èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÏÌÓ„Ë ËÁ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÌËÊ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ ËÏÂ˛Ú Ë ‰Û„Ë (ÏÂÌ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Â) Á̇˜ÂÌËfl — ÒÏ. ‡ ‰Û„ÓÈ — Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ë ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏÛ Á‡ ÌËÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌ˲: The table was taken out in May. The table was taken in in October.fi 凯Ë̇ ‰‚Ë„‡Î‡Ò¸ (‚ÔÂ‰) ‚‚Âı ÔÓ ÒÍÎÓÌÛ. ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡˛˘ËÈÒfl Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ (ÒÚ. to get out fi ҉·ڸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ̇ÛÊÛ fi ‚˚ÈÚË / ‚˚·‡Ú¸Òfl / ‚˚Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ËÚ¸Òfl Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÏÓ„ÛÚ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Í‡Í ·˚ ‰‚‡ (‰‡Ê ӉË̇ÍÓ‚˚ı) Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ — ÌË˜Â„Ó ÒÚ‡¯ÌÓ„Ó. àÌÓ„‰‡ „·„ÓÎ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ò ‰‚ÛÏfl ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË. 2.): 45 .èË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÒËθÌÓ ËÒ͇ʇÂÚÒfl.fi Ö ÍÓÏ̇ڇ ̇ıӉ˷Ҹ ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ‰ÂÒflÚË ÏËÌÛÚ‡ı ıÓ‰¸·˚ ÓÚ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó ‚ıÓ‰‡.fi Ö Ì ËÒ͇ÎË ‚˜Â‡. ‡ Á‡ÚÂÏ ÓÔflÚ¸ ÒÔflڇΠ„Ó. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ¯ËÓÍÓ ÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÓ‚˚ÏË ÚÓθÍÓ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡Ú¸Òfl Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË. to be in / to be out fi ·˚Ú¸ / Ì ·˚Ú¸ ‰Óχ ËÎË ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ ÔÓÏ¢ÂÌËË (ÓÙËÒ /ÍÓÌÚÓ / . ÍÓÚÓ˚È ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚ¸Òfl Í "Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ" ÒÎÓ‚Û. Ë̇˜Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËÌflÚ¸ Ì‚ÂÌÓ. ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ ÓÌ(Ó‰ÓÏ). ÔÓÒÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ — ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ Ë ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ. Ë ÚÓ„‰‡ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰Ëχ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡fl.). Ç ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË ÊÂ Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ: to get up fi ҉·ڸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚‚Âı fi ‚ÒÚ‡Ú¸. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ. „‰Â Á̇˜ÂÌËfl „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË. ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‡Ê ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ë. ÔÓÏÓ„Ë ÏÌÂ.fi ëÚÓÎ ‚ÌÂÒÎË (‚ ‰ÓÏ) ‚ ÓÍÚfl·Â.fi ч‚‡È. èÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ·ÂÁ „·„Ó· ÚÓÊ ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı — ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ëı Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚÛ: Her room was about ten minutes' walk from the main entrance. ‡ Ì ̇ Ò‡Ï „·„ÓÎ. ıÓÚfl ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í „·„ÓÎÛ: ç will take the table in after lunch.fi éÌ ‚ÌÂÒÂÚ ÒÚÓÎ ‚ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓÒΠӷ‰‡. ëÎÓ‚‡¸. 95): She was not being looked for yesterday. ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓ‰ÌflÚ¸Òfl ÔÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ÎÂÒÚÌˈ‡Ï Ë ÔÓÈÚË ÏÌÓ„Ó (‚‰Óθ ÏÌÓ„Ëı) ÍÓˉÓÓ‚.. ÌÓ Ì ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ) ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl Ô‰ÎÓ„. let's go. ÔÓ¯ÎË. ‡ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÓÒÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi ü Ì Á̇˛. .Â. Ç Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò Passive. ‡ ÛÊ ÔÓÚÓÏ — Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË (~~~ out / ~~~ in / ~~~ up/ . Ç ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ Òڇڸ Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ‰‡˛ÚÒfl Á̇˜ÂÌËfl „·„Ó· ·ÂÁ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ó‚. ͇ʉ˚È ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔÓÒ‚ÓÂÏÛ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó Á̇˜ÂÌË ˝ÚÓ„Ó „·„Ó·: The car was moving on up the slope. Ç ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ı ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. up a lot of stairs and along a lot of corridors.. help me. ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó·.fi Ö„Ó Ì ÒÎÛ¯‡˛Ú. ë‡Ï˚ÏË ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË ËÁ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ‰‚‡: 1. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ ÏÓÊÂÚ'ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÔÓÒΠÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓ Ëı ÚËÔÛ: Where do you come from?fi éÚÍÛ‰‡ Ç˚ (Ó‰ÓÏ)? I don't know where he comes from. ÔË ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÂÌËË „·„Ó· Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ÓÏ ‚ÒÎÛı Û‰‡ÂÌË ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„. to get — Ò‡Ï ÔÓ Ò· ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl.fi ëÚÓÎ ‚˚ÌÂÒÎË (̇ÛÊÛ ËÁ ‰Óχ) ‚ χÂ. ç looked at his tongue in the mirror and then put it back in. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ. ÚÓ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡Â Â„Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒ͇ڸ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ˝ÚËÏ Ê ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ÓÏ.fi éÌ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂΠ̇ Ò‚ÓÈ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÁÂ͇ÎÓ.fi ч‚‡È. ç is not being listened to. àÌÓ„‰‡ ̇ ÏÂÒÚ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË (Ú. èÓÒÎÂÎÓ„Ë Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.

ÔÓÒflÚ ÔÓÈÚË Ì‡ „ËÒÚ‡ˆË˛. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÂÒÎË ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· ÒÚÓËÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ.fi éÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ (‰Óχ) ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ.fi ì ÌËı ‚ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ.fi éÌË Â˘Â Ì ‚ÂÌÛÎËÒ¸. to put smth. Ú‡Í Ë ÔÓÒΠÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (‚ ÍÓÓÚÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı): 46 .fi èÓÒÚ‡‚¸ ÌÓ‚Û˛ Ô·ÒÚËÌÍÛ. to get up fi ‚ÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸ / ÔÓ‰ÌËχڸÒfl: I get up at seven o'clock.fi ü ‚ÒÚ‡˛ ‚ ÒÂϸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. come in.fi ꇉËÓ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌÓ.fi ÖÈ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸Òfl Ò „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂÈ Í ÔÓÎÛ‰Ì˛.fi äÚÓ-ÚÓ Ì Á‡ÍÛÚËÎ Í‡Ì (Ú˜ÂÚ ‚Ó‰‡). to check out fi ÓÔ·ÚËÚ¸ Ò˜ÂÚ Ë ‚˚ÔËÒ‡Ú¸Òfl ËÁ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ˚: She will have to check out by noon. ˜ÚÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÔÓ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓÛ.fi é̇ ‚˚Íβ˜Ë· ‡‰ËÓ. to get back fi ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl: We got back (home) at ten o'clock. off fi ÒÌflÚ¸: She took off her dress. to be on / off fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï / ‚˚Íβ˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï (‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÚÂ. ç will be in in a few minutes. She turned the radio off.Is your husband in?fi í‚ÓÈ ÏÛÊ ‰Óχ? No.fi He Í·‰ËÚÂ.fi å˚ ‚ÂÌÛÎËÒ¸ (‰ÓÏÓÈ) ‚ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. Go on.¤ She took her dress off. He put on the brakes suddenly. ‚ıÓ‰Ë.fi éÌË ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÎË ‡Á„Ó‚Ó /‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ‚˚ÎÂÚ‡˛˘Ëı ÂÈÒÓÏ LH232 ‚ è‡ËÊ.fi é̇ Ì ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl (̇Á‡‰). please. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. on fi ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to put / to switch / to turn Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‚Íβ˜ËÚ¸ (‚ ÒÂÚ¸ / ‚ ‡·Ó˜Â ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ). to be on fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ÔÓ„‡ÏÏÂ: Look in the TV guide to see what is on. to be back fi ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl: They are not back yet. (= No. Put a new record on. fi èÓÒÏÓÚË ‚ ÔÓ„‡ÏÏÂ. ÚÓ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ç didn't put his gloves on. Someone has left the tap on. on fi ̇‰ÂÚ¸ / ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ / ÔÓÏÂÒÚËÚ¸: She put on a new dress.fi é̇ ̇‰Â· ÌÓ‚Ó Ô·ڸÂ.)fi çÂÚ.fi ÑÂÊËÒ¸ Á‡ Û˜ÍÛ.fi éÌ Ì ̇‰ÂÎ ÔÂ˜‡ÚÍË. Â„Ó ÌÂÚ ‰Óχ. ÚÛ·ÍÛ. I'll get him for you.fi èÓ‰ÓÎʇÈÚÂ.fi ч‚‡È. / èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ. he is out. to take smth. he is not in.fi éÌ ‚Íβ˜ËÎ Ò‚ÂÚ. please. to come back fi ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl: She will not come back. to hold on fi ‰ÂʇڸÒfl: Hold on to the handle. to hold on fi ʉ‡Ú¸ (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚ı ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡ı Ì Í·ÒÚ¸ ÚÛ·ÍÛ): Hold on. fl ÔÓÁÓ‚Û Â„Ó. to come in fi ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ¸: Come on. The TV is always on in their house.fi è‡ÒÒ‡ÊËÓ‚.fi éÌ ÂÁÍÓ Ì‡Ê‡Î Ì‡ ÚÓÏÓÁ.fi èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ. off fi ‚˚Íβ˜ËÚ¸ (ËÁ ÒÂÚË / ËÁ ‡·Ó˜Â„Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl): ç switched on the light. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. Hold on. What is on at the cinema tonight?fi ä‡ÍÓÈ ÙËÎ¸Ï Ò„ӉÌfl ‚˜ÂÓÏ ‚ ÍËÌÓÚ‡ÚÂ? to go on (+ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ) fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ (‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó): They went on talking. to check in fi ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ¸ „ËÒÚ‡ˆË˛ (̇ ‡‚ˇÂÈÒ / ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ / ÔÓ ÔË·˚ÚËË Ì‡ ‡·Ó˜Â ÏÂÒÚÓ): Passengers should check in for flight LH232 to Paris. ̇ ˝ÎÂÍÚÓ‡ÔÔ‡‡ÚÛ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚‡ on/off): The radio is on.fi é̇ ÒÌfl· Ô·ڸÂ.

. I rang her up. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl Ì·Óθ¯Ë ÒÔˆˇÎËÁËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ χ„‡ÁËÌ˚ ÔÓ ÔÓ‰‡Ê ÏflÒ‡ / ıηӷÛÎÓ˜Ì˚ı ËÁ‰ÂÎËÈ / Ó‚Ó˘ÂÈ: the butcher'sfi ÏflÒ̇fl ·‚͇... a woman's dressfi Ô·ڸ (͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ) ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚.fi ÇÍβ˜Ë Ò‚ÂÚ. ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ. on fi ÔËÏÂflÚ¸: She tried on a new dress. ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl s ÔÓÒΠ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ‡ ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡: father's carfi Ô‡ÔË̇ χ¯Ë̇.). the baker'sfi ·ÛÎӘ̇fl. ‡ ÙÓχ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ ( ÛÒÒÍË Ó‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È / ‚ËÌËÚÂθÌ˚È / . ÚÓ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓÒΠÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl: Switch it on. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÂÒÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ӷ‡ÁÛÂÚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ Ì ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ -s ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡. çÓ Î˘Ì˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ËÏÂ˛Ú ‡ÁÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ (‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ë Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰Âʇı). ÚÓ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÓÏ 1: woman — women's dressesfi Ô·ڸfl ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ. a week's restfi ̉ÂθÌ˚È ÓÚ‰˚ı éÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ Ò -s ‚ ÍÓ̈Â. ̇ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ‚ÎËflÂÚ: girls' roomfi ÍÓÏ̇ڇ ‰Â‚Ó˜ÂÍ. Ú. ëΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡.Switch on the light.): I was seen off by my friends. off fi ÔÓ‚Óʇڸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (‚ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚÛ / ̇ ‚ÓÍÁ‡Î / . my friends' carfi χ¯Ë̇ ÏÓËı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 6: èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. χÏÓÈ fi mother. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡fl Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ. father — he. ‡ ÏÂÌflÂÚ ‚Ò˛ ÙÓÏÛ (ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl — ÒÏ. ÔÂ‰‡˛˘Â Á̇˜ÂÌË β·Ó„Ó ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ. Can I try these shoes on?fi ü ÏÓ„Û ÔËÏÂËÚ¸ ˝ÚË ÚÛÙÎË? å˚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎËÒ¸ Î˯¸ Ò ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏË ËÁ ÏÌÓ„Ëı Ú˚Òfl˜ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË.¤ Switch the light on.. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÙÓÏÛ Ì ÏÂÌflÂÚ Ë Ì˘ÂÏ Ì ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. ÇÒÔÓÏÌËÏ ËÁ ÔÓȉÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‡ÌÂÂ: β·Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÏÓÊÌÓ Á‡ÏÂÌËÚ¸ ΢Ì˚Ï ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (mother — she.fi ùÚÓ ·˚Î ÔÓıÓ‰ ̇ 15 ÏËθ / 15-ÏËθÌ˚È ÔÓıÓ‰.) Ô‡‰ÂÊ Ì ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl — ÌÂÚ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËÈ. åÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â.): Have you heard today's news?fi í˚ ÒÎ˚¯‡Î Ò„ӉÌfl¯Ì˛˛ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚ¸? It was a 15 miles' journey. Ç ÙÓÏ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍË (year / month / week / day / . the greengrocer'sfi Ó‚Ó˘ÌÓÈ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰‚‡ ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÙÓÏ˚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ: 1.. çÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ (Ú‡Í ÊÂ..fi åÂÌfl ÔÓ‚ÓʇÎË ‰ÛÁ¸fl. χÏ˚ fi mother). window — it. ÂÒÎË ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ÓÏ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. boys — they. to try smth. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë Ӊۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚: That is my brother's car.fi ÇÍβ˜Ë „Ó.Â. 2.fi ùÚÓ Ï‡¯Ë̇ ÏÓÂ„Ó ·‡Ú‡.. χÏÛ fi mother. tables / windows — they / . 47 . my mother's roomfi χÏË̇ ÍÓÏ̇ڇ. table — it. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Í ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ë Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÂÈ?. ëÎÓ‚‡¸). to see smb.) Ë ‡ÒÒÚÓflÌËfl (mile / kilometre / . éÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ.fi é̇ ÔËÏÂË· ÌÓ‚Ó Ô·ڸÂ.... fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎ ÂÈ. Í‡Í Ë ÛÒÒÍÓÂ) ËÏÂÂÚ ÓÒÓ·Û˛ ÙÓÏÛ — ÙÓÏÛ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ. ten days' restfi ‰ÂÒflÚˉÌ‚Ì˚È ÓÚ‰˚ı. ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó (χχ fi mother.

‡ ‚Ò Ô‰˚‰Û˘Ë ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛Ú „Ó.fi ì ÏÂÌfl Ú‚Ófl (Ӊ̇ ËÁ Ú‚ÓËı) ÍÌË„‡. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÂÒÎË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ‰fl‰ ‰‚‡ ËÎË ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı. single (‡Ì„Î. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ ÙÓÏ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÙÛÌÍˆË˛ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl.fi ìÔ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÈ (͇ÍÓÈ?). One of the Fred's friends calls his wife at home to ask. Band fi ÓÍÂÒÚ ΄ÍÓÈ ËÎË ‰Ê‡ÁÓ‚ÓÈ ÏÛÁ˚ÍË) — ÔÓÒΉÌ ÒÎÓ‚Ó Band. ÑÊÂÍ Ë î‰ ‡·Ó˜ËÂ. Ç ÔÂÂ˚‚Â Û ÑÊÂ͇ ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl ÔÓÍÛËÚ¸ Ò‚Ó˛ ·Óθ¯Û˛ ÒË„‡Û. éÌË ‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú Ò ‚ÓÒ¸ÏË ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ÛÚ‡ ‰Ó ˜ÂÚ˚Âı ˜‡ÒÓ‚ ‚˜Â‡ / ‰Ìfl. return ticket fi ·ËÎÂÚ. her for advice.fi (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌÓ) Sergeant fi ÒÂʇÌÚ. éÌ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl Ì ӘÂ̸ ÒÍÓÓ. ê‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÂÏ˚È Ì‡ÏË ÒÎÛ˜‡È ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ of): fi The manager of the bank didn't know where the bank's money was. child — children's bedroomfi ÒԇθÌfl ‰ÂÚÂÈ àÌÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ Óf. The men are not working at the moment. ï‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ÔËÁ̇ÍË: ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÂÈ? Ë Ì‡Î˘Ë s Ò ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙÓÏ ËÎË ÔÓÒÚÓ ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ‡ ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡. ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌÌÓ ̇‰ ÒÚÓÎÓÏ / Û ÒÚÓ·.) ticket — ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ·ËÎÂÚ — ·ËÎÂÚ (͇ÍÓÈ?) fi ·ËÎÂÚ ‚ Ó‰ÌÛ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ. ‰Â̸„Ë (˜¸Ë?) fi The bank manager did not know where the bank's money was. èÂ‚Ӊ: éÍÂÒÚ ÍÎÛ·‡ Ó‰ËÌÓÍËı ÒÂ‰Âˆ ÒÂʇÌÚ‡ èÂÔÔÂ‡. Lonely fi Ó‰ËÌÓÍËÈ (ÂÒÎË ‚ „ÛÔÔ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ. å˚ Ì Á̇ÂÏ. èËÏÂ˚: table window — ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó· ÓÍÌ — ÓÍÌÓ (͇ÍÓÂ?) fi ÓÍÌÓ. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÓÌË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Í ‰Û„ËÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï.) / one way (‡ÏÂ. window table — ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ÒÚÓΠ— ÒÚÓÎ (͇ÍÓÈ?) fi ÒÚÓÎ. He will not be back very soon. åÛʘËÌ˚ ıÓÚflÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ˜ÂÏ-ÌË·Û‰¸ 48 . Í‡Í ÁÓ‚ÛÚ Ëı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. Óڂ˜‡fl ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ? Ë Ì ӷ·‰‡fl ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓ ÌË͇ÍËÏË ‚̯ÌËÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ). The friends will start their work again. ëÂȘ‡Ò ÏÛʘËÌ˚ Ì ‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú. éÌË ‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú ‚ ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËË ÔÓ ‚˚ÔÛÒÍÛ Á‡Ô‡ÒÌ˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ Í ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎflÏ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 7: ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ was). The friends want to call their shop doctor but the doctor is out. ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚È Û ÓÍ̇ / fl‰ÓÏ Ò ÓÍÌÓÏ. Ôˉ‡‚‡fl ‚ÒÂÈ ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË Á̇˜ÂÌË ӉËÌ ËÁ: Are you a friend of John's?¤ Are you John's friend?fi í˚ ‰Û„ (Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ‰ÛÁÂÈ) ÑÊÓ̇? I've got a book of yours. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓÒΉÌËÏ. éÌË Ô¸˛Ú ÍÓÙÂ Ë ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡˛Ú. Fred doesn't feel very well. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band fi (ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒÎÓ‚: Sgt. ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó· ÓÍÂÒÚ fi éÍÂÒÚ (͇ÍÓÈ?) — äÎÛ·‡ (͇ÍÓÈ ÍÎÛ·?) — Ó‰ËÌÓÍËı ÒÂ‰Âˆ (˜ÂÈ?) — ÒÂʇÌÚ‡ èÂÔÔÂ‡. The men want to help Fred with something. Jack gives Fred the medicine and helps him to get up. ÍÓÏ ‡ÚËÍÎÂÈ. During the break Jack has time to smoke his big cigar. Pepper's fi Ù‡ÏËÎËfl ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. àÌÓ„‰‡ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ËÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÚÛ‰ÌÓ‡Á΢ËÏ˚.man — men's carsfi ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎË ÏÛʘËÌ. äÓÏÔ‡ÌËfl ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl çÄäÄ. çÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ÙÛÌÍˆË˛ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl. We don't know their friends' names. Ö„Ó ‰ÛÁ¸fl ıÓÚflÚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ˆÂıÓ‚ÓÏÛ ‚‡˜Û. Club fi ÍÎÛ·. His wife is in and she gives an advice. ÌÓ ÚÓ„Ó ÌÂÚ Ì‡ ÏÂÒÚÂ. Sometimes. ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Ô¸˛Ú ÍÓÙÂ. they have a coffee break with their friends. Á̇˜ËÚ. ÓÌÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏÛ Á‡ ÌËÏ ÒÎÓ‚Û Ë ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÌËÏ). Ô˯ÛÚÒfl Ò ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ·ÛÍ‚˚). They work at the NAKA Automobile Spare Parts Company (‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı ̇Á‚‡ÌËflı / Á‡„ÓÎӂ͇ı ‚Ò ÒÎÓ‚‡. ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‰Â·ÂÏ ÒÔ‡‚‡ ̇΂Ó. (ÒÎÓ‚Ó money fi ‰Â̸„Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ.¤ I've got your book. They are drinking their coffee and talking. ‰‡˛˘ËÈ Ô‡‚Ó Ì‡ ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘ÂÌË / ·ËÎÂÚ ‚ Ó·Â ÒÚÓÓÌ˚. Sgt. „‰Â ·‡ÌÍÓ‚ÒÍË ‰Â̸„Ë (‰Â̸„Ë ·‡Ì͇). î‰ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl Ì ӘÂ̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó. ÚÓ „·‚Ì˚Ï ËÁ ÌËı fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. íÂÍÒÚ ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡: Jack and Fred are workers. éËÂÌÚËÛÂÏÒfl ÔÓ ‚ÓÔÓÒÛ: ìÔ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÈ ·‡Ì͇ Ì Á̇Î. Óڂ˜‡fl ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ?. They work from eight in the morning till four in the afternoon. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË Ò ‰ÛÁ¸flÏË ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡˛Ú ÔÂÂ˚‚. Hearts fi ÒÂ‰ˆ‡. Fred will feel well in a few minutes.

Ö„Ó ÊÂ̇ ‰Óχ. óÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ î‰ ·Û‰ÂÚ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ Ò·fl ıÓÓ¯Ó.î‰Û. é‰ËÌ ËÁ ‰ÛÁÂÈ î‰‡ Á‚ÓÌËÚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÊÂÌ ‰ÓÏÓÈ ÔÓÔÓÒËÚ¸ Û Ì ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡. ÑÛÁ¸fl ÒÌÓ‚‡ ÔËÒÚÛÔflÚ Í ‡·ÓÚÂ. ÑÊÂÍ ‰‡ÂÚ îÂ‰Û ÎÂ͇ÒÚ‚Ó Ë ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ÂÏÛ ÔÓ‰ÌflÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÌÓ„Ë. Ó̇ ‰‡ÂÚ (͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ / Ó‰ËÌ) ÒÓ‚ÂÚ. 49 .

50 . ç ӷÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. Ò shall / will. She might not come here.fi éÌ. ÂÒÎË ÔÓÒΠmust / may / might ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive).fi àı ÏÓ„ÎË ‚ˉÂÚ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚˜Â‡.fi é̇ ‰ÓÎÊ̇.fi é̇ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ÔËÈÚË. Í‡Í ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È: ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ‚ÒÂÈ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚. She may not come at all. Ú.). should ~~~ fi ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ (Ò ÓÚÚÂÌÍÓÏ ‡Á‰‡ÊÂÌËfl / ÒÓÏÌÂÌËfl ‚ ÚÓÏ.‰. Ó‰ËÌ „·„ÓÎ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‰Û„Ó„Ó (˜‡˘Â can ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ may): You can help him.Â.fi í˚ Ì ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÏÛ. 2. Ú. You ought to help me.‰. „ÛÔÔ‡ (can / could / may /might): could (Past) / can (Present) ~~~ — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍÛ˛ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ËÎË ÛÏÂÌËÂ: ç can help you.fi éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ú· ÔÓÏÓ˜¸.Â. She may / might have called. You should help them. çË Ó‰ËÌ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ ÌÂθÁfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Future.fi éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ. éÌË Î˯¸ ‚˚‡Ê‡˛Ú ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Îˈ‡ (ÏÓ„Û /‰ÓÎÊÂÌ / ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ / Ó·flÁ‡Ì Ë Ú. might (Past) / may (Present) ~~~ — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸. ÌÓ ÌÂ Í‡Í ÙËÁ˘ÂÒÍÓ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ.fi é̇ Ì Ïӄ· (Û Ì ̠·˚ÎÓ ‡Á¯ÂÌËfl) ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡. She must. They could be seen here yesterday. „ÛÔÔ‡ (must /should / ought): ÇÒ ˝ÚË „·„ÓÎ˚ ËÏÂ˛Ú Ó‰ÌÛ ÙÓÏÛ Present. ÚÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÛÊ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ: ç must have come. åÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ „·„ÓÎ˚. ç ËÏÂ˛Ú ÙÓÏ˚ Infinitive. ç ËÏÂ˛Ú ÙÓÏ˚ 3-„Ó Îˈ‡ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. They might do it.íÂχ 3. åÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ̇ ‰‚ „ÛÔÔ˚: 1. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ì ӘÂ̸ ıӘ¯¸ Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ˝ÚËÏ).fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ / ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸. ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ / ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ.Â. ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ / ˜ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ? Ë Ì ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to. ‡ Í‡Í ‡Á¯ÂÌËÂ: You may help him. Ç Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Î˛·ÓÈ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ ‚‰ÂÚ Ò·fl.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ (fl ÔÓ¯Û Ú·fl).fi í· ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ (ıÓÚfl ‚ˉÌÓ. may / might ~~~ — ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ú‡ÍÊ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚ¸: ç may come in a minute. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ ‡Á΢Ëfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ Òӷβ‰‡Ú¸Òfl. ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflı ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ Ë Ú. åÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ Ë Ëı ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚.fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ (fl ‡Á¯‡˛ Ú·Â) ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÏÛ.fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ (Ú· ‡Á¯ÂÌÓ) ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÏÛ. åÂÊ‰Û ÌËÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‡ÁÌˈ‡ ‚ ÓÚÚÂÌ͇ı: must ~~~ fi ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ (͇Ú„Ó˘ÌÓ / ·ÂÁ ‚ÓÁ‡ÊÂÌËÈ). Ú. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË ~ ~ ~ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ÒÂÈ ÙÓÏÛÎÂ. Ú.fi éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÈÚË ˜ÂÂÁ ÏËÌÛÚÛ. Ó̇ Á‚ÓÌË·.fi éÌË ÏÓ„ÎË (ËÏÂÎË ‡Á¯ÂÌËÂ) ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ. Ú. ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÓÎÊÂÌÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËÂ. Ì ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò -s ‚ ÍÓ̈Â: ç can.fi ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ / åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸. íÂ·Û˛Ú ÔÓÒΠҷfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏÛ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to (ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌË ought to ~ ~ ~). ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ). ÓÚÚÂÌÓÍ ‰ÛÊÂÒÍÓÈ ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËË / ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡): You must help her. ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ. ought to ~~~ fi ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ (ÏÂÌ ͇Ú„Ó˘ÌÓ ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò must. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‡ÁÌˈ‡ ‚ ÓÚÚÂÌ͇ı Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚÓ„Ó Òӷ≇ÂÚÒfl. You cannot (can't) help him.Â.

ÌÓ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ú‡ÍÊ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎflÚ¸Òfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‡ÏËı ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi í˚ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ÔËÈÚË Ë ‡Ì¸¯Â. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ Ò must) 51 . ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï (ÒÏ. 1. ùÍ‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ ÚÓÊ ÚÂ·Û˛Ú ÔÓÒΠҷfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏÛ Infinitive. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÛÔÂÍ ÔÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û ÚÓ„Ó.fi Past — ÌÂÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ë ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚.Â. ÙÓχ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ‚ Present ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ì‡ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ Future: I shall be able to help you tomorrow.¤ èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ê ÓÌË Ì ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ·ÓΠÒËθÌÓÈ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸˛? ùÍ‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡ÂÏ ˝ÚÓ ÔË ÔÂ‚ӉÂ: You may help him. Ú. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‰Îfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÙÓχ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ.¤ You are not able to help him.Â.Â.¤ éÌ ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡. They could be seen here yesterday. „ÛÔÔ‡: must ~ ~ ~ should ~ ~ ~ ought to ~ ~ ~ to be to ~ ~ ~ (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌË ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË Ò ‰Ó„Ó‚ÓÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸˛ / Ô·ÌÓÏ Ë Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Future) to have to ~ ~ ~ (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËÂ Ò ÓÚÚÂÌÍÓÏ ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌÌÓÒÚË.¤ She was not allowed / permitted to come here. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ‡Á΢Ëfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ҄·ÊË‚‡˛ÚÒfl (Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ü ÒÏÓ„Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡.¤ èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì Ô˯ÂÎ ‡Ì¸¯Â? ÂÒÎË Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠshould ËÎË ought. He will be able to help you tomorrow.¤ ü ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡. 2. Ú.ÂÒÎË Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠcould ËÎË might. Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË: éÌ ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚ¸.).¤ You are allowed / permitted to help him.¤ They were able to be seen here yesterday. Ú. You can't help him.fi Future — ÌÂÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Î ÔËÂı‡Ú¸ ‚˜Â‡. She might not come here. Ç Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÓÌË ‚‰ÛÚ Ò·fl Í‡Í Ó·˚˜ÌÓ. ÚÓ Ê ҇ÏÓÂ Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. row. Ë‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. I can help you tomorrow may ~~~ to be allowed to ~~~ („‰Â to allow fi ‡Á¯‡Ú¸) to be permitted to ~~~ („‰Â to permit fi ‡Á¯‡Ú¸) è‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ β·ÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Past / Present / Future) Ë ÔËÌËχڸ β·Û˛ ËÁ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı Ì‡Ï ÙÓÏ. ùÍ‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ÌÂÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÙÓÏ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚ ÌÛÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ: You could have come earlier. ÚÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÒÓʇÎÂÌË ÔÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û ÚÓ„Ó. ÓÌË Ì ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ì˚ ÔÂ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ‚Ò Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. Ú‡ÍÊ íÂχ ·): They should have used a stronger liquid. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÓ‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Passive Indefinite. Ç˚ ÛÊ ӷ‡ÚËÎË ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ÚÓ. „ÛÔÔ‡: can ~~~ fi to be able to ~~~ („‰Â able fi ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ì˚È): ç can help you.Â. They might do it. Ç ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ‚ÒÂı ·ÂÁ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÓ‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Â Ì‡Ï „·„ÓÎ˚ to be Ë to have.¤ They were permitted / allowed to do it. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰flÚ Í‡ÍËÏË-ÚÓ ÌÂÔÓÎÌÓˆÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò ÛÒÒÍËÏË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË.¤ He is able to help you. ÌÓ ÛÊ ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to. Ú.fi àÏ ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ ·˚ ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ·ÓΠÒËθÌÓÈ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸˛.

Ë̇˜Â ÓÌË Ú·fl (̇‚ÂÌfl͇ / ÚÓ˜ÌÓ) Ì ۂˉflÚ. I will help you. ÌÓ Ì ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Ë ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË ‚Ó 2-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÂ: ç shall do it. β·ÓÈ Ó‰ËÌ / ÍÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ): One must not smoke here.fi ç‡Ï Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ.Â.¤ You have to help her. ˝ÚË „·„ÓÎ˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ‚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Ê‰‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸. We don't like that house but we will go there. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ÎˈÂ: Okay.fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÂθÁfl ÍÛËÚ¸. Á̇˜ËÚ. Ç Ì‡¯Ëı χ„‡ÁË̇ı ÏÓÊÌÓ Û‚Ë‰ÂÚ¸ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı ÚÓ‚‡Ó‚. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 3: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË „·„ÓÎÓ‚ shall / will / need / dare ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı. ÙÓχ Infinitive ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠÌÂ„Ó Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to. ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ú·ÛÂÚ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ Future (shall ËÎË will ‚ÔÂ‰Ë). You must wait here. will fi ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ¯ËÏÓÒÚË / Òӄ·ÒËfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó.He shall break it. to need (ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ) fi ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ Active Indefinite ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ò -s ËÎË -ed ‚ ÍÓ̈Â. You will have to come tomorrow. Or they shall not see you. ‡ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ Ëı ÔÂ‚Ӊ. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï to do: Do I have to help them?fi ü ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ? You don't have to help them. fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û Ú·Â. Ç ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË will ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.fi ÖÏÛ Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ / éÌ ·˚Î ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ ‚˚ÈÚË. He had to go out. Does she have to stay here?fi ÖÈ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl Á‰ÂÒ¸? She does not have to stay here. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË shall ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.¤ You are to help her. One must pay one's debts.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ Ò‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ.fi ïÓÓ¯Ó. ÌÓ Ï˚ (‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ / ‡Á ÛÊ Ì‡‰Ó) ÔÓȉÂÏ ÚÛ‰‡. You must help her.ÖÈ ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl Á‰ÂÒ¸. I don't want to give him my car. Ú‡Í Ë will Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒflÚÒfl ‚ ÔÓÎÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ Ë ÔÓÔ‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ‰ Îӄ˘ÂÒÍÓ ۉ‡ÂÌËÂ.fi í˚ Ì ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ.èËÏÂ˚: You must help her. Ì fl‚Îfl˛˘ËÂÒfl Ò‡ÏË ÔÓ Ò· ڇÍÓ‚˚ÏË: shall fi ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ͇Ú„Ó˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ("̇ 100%") ӷ¢‡ÌËfl / Ô‰ÓÒÚÂÂÊÂÌËfl / Û„ÓÁ˚.fi éÌ Ò‰Â·ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ (Ì ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒfl). Ú. ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ì‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‚Ó‰ËÏÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó one (fiÓ‰ËÌ.fi Ç Ì‡¯Ëı χ„‡ÁË̇ı ÏÓÊÌÓ Û‚Ë‰ÂÚ¸ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı ÚÓ‚‡Ó‚. „‰Â ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ: á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÂθÁfl ÍÛËÚ¸. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÂÒÎË Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to be ËÎË to have / to have got ÒÚÓËÚ Infinitive Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to.fi. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÏÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl ÙÓÏÓÈ to have got: You've got to be there by ten. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl „·„ÓÎ˚.fi ÑÓÎ„Ë ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸.fi í· ÌÛÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ / ÔˉÂÚÒfl ÔËÈÚË Á‡‚Ú‡. One can see a lot of different goods in our shops.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ (·ÂÁÓ„Ó‚ÓÓ˜ÌÓ).fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ Ú‡Ï Í ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜‡Ò‡Ï. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Â (Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ) ËÒÔÓÚËÚ. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl: ÌÛʉ‡Ú¸Òfl / ËÒÔ˚Ú˚‚‡Ú¸ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ‚ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: 52 .fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ (Û Ì‡Ò Ú‡Í ÔËÌflÚÓ). èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË. . Í‡Í shall.

Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ‚Ò ˝ÚÓ Ì‡Ô‡ÒÌÓ) You needn't take their car tomorrow.fi ÖÏÛ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ÌË͇ÍËı ‰ÂÌ„.fi é̇ Ì ÓÒÏÂÎË·Ҹ Á‡ÍÛËÚ¸ Ú‡Ï. dare (ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È) fi ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ ‚ÒÂÏË ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË ‚˚¯Â ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·. îÂ‰Û ÔˉÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰Óʉ‡Ú¸.fi ǘÂ‡ ËÏ ÌÛÊ̇ ·˚· Ú‚Ófl χ¯Ë̇. You needn't come here.fi ÖÏÛ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÌ„.fi éÌ ÒÏÂÎÓ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ Î˛·Û˛ ÓÔ‡ÒÌÓÒÚ¸. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl: ÓÒÏÂÎËÚ¸Òfl / ̇·‡Ú¸Òfl ÏÛÊÂÒÚ‚‡ (ı‡·ÓÒÚË) / ÒÏÂÎÓ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸ (ÓÔ‡ÒÌÓÒÚ¸) /·ÓÒËÚ¸ ‚˚ÁÓ‚ ÍÓÏÛÎË·Ó: She didn't dare (to) smoke there. They work at a plant in the USA. éÌË Á‚ÓÌflÚ ˆÂıÓ‚ÓÏÛ ‚‡˜Û.fi í· Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ (ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË) ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡. (ÓÌ ÔÓÚ‡ÚËÚ Ëı Áfl) need (ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È) fi ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ ‚ÒÂÏË ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË ‚˚¯Â ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·. ·ÎËÁÓÍ ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Í must: Need you go yet?fi í· ÛÊ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ë‰ÚË? Need I write to him?fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ? She needn't help you. Now the men are having a coffee break with their friends.fi Ö‰‚‡ ÎË ÏÌ ÌÛÊ̇ Â„Ó ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. íÖäëí Ñãü èÖêÖÇéÑÄ: ÑÊÂÍ Ë î‰ ‡·Ó˜ËÂ. to dare / dare fi ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡Í ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ıÓÚflÚ ÊËÚ¸ ıÓÓ¯Ó. I don't need you. (ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË. àÏ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÚÛ‰ËÚ¸Òfl ËÁÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒËÎ (to work hard). ÅÂÁ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡ ‰ÓÍÚÓ‡ ÏÛʘËÌ˚ Ì ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ î‰Û. àı ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ˉÂÚ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. Ú‡Í Ë ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï. àÏ ‡Á¯‡ÂÚÒfl ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ Ú‡ÍË ÔÂÂ˚‚˚ ͇ʉ˚ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡.fi ÖÈ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ÓÒÚÓÓÊÌÓÈ.She needs your help. need not (needn't) fi Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÌÂÓ·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: You must not come here. she need only ask. ç will dare any danger. They may (are allowed/permitted to) have the 53 .fi ÖÈ ÌÛÊ̇ Ú‚Ófl ÔÓÏÓ˘¸ (Ó̇ ÌÛʉ‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë). They have to work hard because they want to live well.fi ÖÈ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ Ú·Â. She needs to be careful. ëÂȘ‡Ò Û ÏÛʘËÌ ÔÂÂ˚‚. Ú‡Í Ë ·ÂÁ ÌÂÂ). ÖÏÛ Ò„ӉÌfl Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸.fi ᇂÚ‡ ÓÚˆÛ ÔÓ̇‰Ó·ËÚÒfl Ú‚Ófl χ¯Ë̇.fi í· ÌÂθÁfl (Á‡Ô¢ÂÌÓ) ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡. They needed your car yesterday. They can be seen here every day. ÂÈ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÓÔÓÒËÚ¸. ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı / ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı / ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‰ÂÚ Ò·fl ‚ ÌËı. ç doesn't need (ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ) to be given any money. Father will need your car tomorrow. ÌÓ ‚‡˜‡ ÌÂÚ Ì‡ ÏÂÒÚ — ÂÏÛ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ‚˚ÈÚË.fi í˚ ÏÌ Ì ÌÛÊÂÌ. (ÓÌ ‚ ÌËı Ì ÌÛʉ‡ÂÚÒfl) Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ç need not (ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È) be given any money. éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl ˜ÂÂÁ ˜‡Ò. Jack and Fred are workers. If she wants anything. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓËÚ Â˜Ë need (ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È) ÚÓÊ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó: Do you need to go now?fi í· ÌÛÊÌÓ Ë‰ÚË ÒÂȘ‡Ò? I don't need to meet him. ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÂËÏÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ËÎË Ê ‚ ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÓÍ‡¯ÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÌËÂÏ: to dare (ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ) fi (ÙÓχ Infinitive ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÔÓÒΠ˝ÚÓ„Ó „·„Ó· Í‡Í Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to. ÍÓÚÓÓ Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ÒÓ‚Â¯‡Ú¸: You needn't have come. àÏ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ‡·ÓÚÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÒÚÓ„ËÈ Á‡ÔÂÚ ËÎË ‚ÓÁÏÛ˘ÂÌË ˜¸ËÏ-ÎË·Ó Ôӂ‰ÂÌËÂÏ: How dare you come here!fi ä‡Í Ú˚ Òϯ¸ Ò˛‰‡ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸! She dare not (doesn't dare) come here. ÑÛÁ¸fl ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ î‰Û. î‰ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl Ì ӘÂ̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó. Ӊ̇ÍÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚˚‚‡Ú¸ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do. îÓχ needn't Ò ÙÓÏÛÎÓÈ Active Perfect Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÓÌË Ô¸˛Ú ÍÓÙ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ‰ÛÁ¸flÏË.fi í· Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸. They want to dare us.fi He ÌÛÊÌÓ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡ ·‡Ú¸ Ëı χ¯ËÌÛ. éÌË ‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú ̇ Ó‰ÌÓÏ ËÁ Á‡‚Ó‰Ó‚ ëòÄ.fi åÌ Ì ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÒÚ˜‡Ú¸Òfl Ò ÌËÏ.fi éÌË ıÓÚflÚ ·ÓÒËÚ¸ Ì‡Ï ‚˚ÁÓ‚. (Áfl Ú˚ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·Î) Need you have paid so much?fi ê‡Á‚ Ú· ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ Ô·ÚËÚ¸ Ú‡Í ÏÌÓ„Ó? ëΉÛÂÚ ‡Á΢‡Ú¸: must not (mustn't) fi Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Á‡ÔÂÚ.fi ÖÒÎË Ó̇ Á‡ıÓ˜ÂÚ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸.fi é̇ Ì ÒÏÂÂÚ (ÂÈ ÒÚÓ„Ó ‚ÓÁ·‡ÌflÂÚÒfl) ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡. I need hardly take his help.

óËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ·˚‚‡˛Ú ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â Ë ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚Â.000 One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Twenty-four Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety a/one hundred a/one hundred and one a/one hundred and two Two hundred Two hundred and thirty-four a/one thousand a/one thousand and one Two thousand three hundred and forty-five Ten thousand 54 èÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Thirteenth Fourteenth Fifteenth Sixteenth Seventeenth Eighteenth Nineteenth Twentieth Twenty-first Twenty-second Twenty-third Twenty-fourth Thirtieth Fortieth Fiftieth Sixtieth Seventieth Eightieth Ninetieth One hundredth One hundred and first One hundred and second Two hundredth Two hundred and thirty-fourth One thousandth One thousand and first Two thousand three hundred and forty-fifth Ten thousandth .).001 2. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ÂÈ ÌÛ΂ÓÈ. Fred has to wait. Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl zero. The friends must help Fred. è‡‚ËÎÓ 8: àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı. Fred doesn't feel well. He had to go out. They have to go on working. ‡ ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ — ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ ÔË Ò˜ÂÚÂ.break every two hours.Ô. ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸). He needn't have come today. ÙÓÏ˚. The men cannot help Fred without the doctor's advice. é fi zero / nought / cipher / nil (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ò˜ÂÚ‡ ‚ ÒÔÓÚË‚Ì˚ı Ë„‡ı) / oh (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. èÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ӷ‡ÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÓÚ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÛÚÂÏ ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ -th (ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÂÏ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÔÂ‚˚ı ÚË ˆËÙ˚.000 1. äÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 102 200 234 1. He is to come back in an hour. They call their shop doctor but the doctor is not in / is out.345 10. äÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚. ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔË Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÌËË ˆËÙ ‚ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚ı ÌÓÏÂ‡ı Ë Ú.

ÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‡ÚËÍθ (‡ Ì ÒÎÓ‚Ó one). thousands of girls fi Ú˚Òfl˜Ë ‰Â‚Û¯ÂÍ èÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ (Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ Òӷ≇ÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë). four hundred and fifty-six thousand. one and a half miles fi ÔÓÎÚÓ˚ ÏËÎË 1/4 ¤ ‡ / one quarter fi ˜ÂÚ‚ÂÚ¸: a quarter to nine fi ·ÂÁ ˜ÂÚ‚ÂÚË ‰Â‚flÚ¸.700 ¤ thirty seven hundred ëÎÓ‚‡ hundred / thousand / million ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì ËÏÂ˛Ú ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·.000 ‰Ó 10. ÍÓÚÓ˚È Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠhalf: half a mile fi ÔÓÎÓ‚Ë̇ ÏËÎË. ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸Òfl ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÒÓÚÂÌ (ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë): 2.500 ¤ twenty five hundred. 1/2 fi ‡/one half fi ÔÓÎÓ‚Ë̇. ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò -s ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡: three hundred boys fi ÚËÒÚ‡ χθ˜ËÍÓ‚. a quarter of bottle fi ˜ÂÚ‚ÂÚ¸ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍË Ç ‰ÂÒflÚ˘Ì˚ı ‰Ó·flı ˆÂ·fl Ë ‰ӷ̇fl ˜‡ÒÚË ‡Á‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl ÚÓ˜ÍÓÈ. half an hour fi ÔÓΘ‡Ò‡. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ to be ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ ÙÓÏ is / are.000 / . èÓfl‰ÍÓ‚‡fl ÙÓχ ÏÌÓ„ÓÁ̇˜Ì˚ı ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌÂÏ ÒÎÓ‚Â.100.000 a/one hundred thousand One hundred thousandth a/one million . óËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÓÚ 1.23 ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl: one point two. ÂÒÎË ÒÎÓ‚Ó half ÒÚÓËÚ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï.000.789 fi one hundred and twenty-three million. Í‡ÚÌ˚ ÒÚ‡. èË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‡Áfl‰˚ ÏÌÓ„ÓÁ̇˜Ì˚ı ˜ËÒÂÎ ‡Á‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ: 1. ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Í‡Í ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ one..fi òÂÒÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÒ ‰‚‡ ‡‚ÌÓ ˜ÂÚ˚Â.eighty-ninth ) óËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ 100 / 1.. three / one point twenty-three àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ˚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· ÔÓÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Â„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ˆÂÎ˚ı ‰ËÌˈ — ‚ÒÂ. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Â ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: one and a half hours fi ÔÓÎÚÓ‡ ˜‡Ò‡. Í‡Í ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ: 0. èË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‡ËÙÏÂÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ˚ to be / to make / to equal. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: 55 . èÓÒÚ˚ ‰Ó·Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛ÚÒfl ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂÎÂ Ë ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚Ï — ‚ Á̇ÏÂ̇ÚÂÎÂ: 1/á = ‡ / one third. ‡ Ì Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ.000 åÂÊ‰Û ÒÓÚÌflÏË / Ú˚Òfl˜‡ÏË / ÏËÎÎËÓ̇ÏË Ë ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏË Á‡ ÌËÏË ‰ÂÒflÚ͇ÏË (ÂÒÎË ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÒflÚÍÓ‚. 2/3 = two thirds. Six minus two make(s) four. to equal — equals: One and / plus two is / are three.456. 3. one millionth 1.fi é‰ËÌ ÔÎ˛Ò ‰‚‡ ‡‚ÌÓ ÚË. half the distance fi ÔÓÎÓ‚Ë̇ ‡ÒÒÚÓflÌËfl ÔÓÎÚÓ‡ fi one and a half. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÂÒÎË ‚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂΠ̠‰ËÌˈ‡.1 ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl: nought / zero / oh point one ¤ .000 / 10.1 ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl: point one.‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. Ú‡Í Ë Ò ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ.000 / 100.‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ. to make — make(s).000 / 1. ÚÓ ‚ Á̇ÏÂ̇ÚÂΠӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ. 1. óËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ ‰Ó·flı.fi èflÚ¸ (ÛÏÌÓÊÂÌÌÓÂ) ̇ ‰‚‡ ‡‚ÌÓ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸. ÚÓ Â‰ËÌˈ‡ÏË) ‚ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl and: 123..000 a/one billion . Five times two equals ten.000.. ˜ÚÓ ·Óθ¯Â Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó. seven hundred and eightynine (ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚ÓÂ: .000.

1. ‡/one dozen fi ‰˛ÊË̇ (ÒÎÓ‚Ó dozen Ò ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ): two / three dozen fi ‰‚ / ÚË ‰˛ÊËÌ˚ ÌÓ: dozens of bottles fi ‰˛ÊËÌ˚ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÓÍ — ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌÓ a half dozen ¤ half a dozen fi ÔÓΉ˛ÊËÌ˚. ÑÎfl ÍÓÓÚÍËı (ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡) ÒÎÓ‚: èÓÎÓÊËÚÂθ̇fl ë‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl è‚ÓÒıӉ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ Small Smaller (the) smallest (χÎÂ̸ÍËÈ) (ÏÂ̸¯ËÈ) (Ò‡Ï˚È Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÈ /̇ËÏÂ̸¯ËÈ) 56 . Ô˘ÂÏ ÒÎÓ‚Ó year Ì ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl: on January 17..0..fi ‚ ̇˜‡Î ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú˚ı / ‚ÓÒ¸ÏˉÂÒflÚ˚ı / .. My room is (number) thirteen. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ‚ÚÓ ·Óθ¯Â ‰ÂÌ„.. nineteen ninety-two çÓÏÂ‡ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÓ‚ / ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎÂÈ Ë Ú.. ‡Ì„΢‡Ì Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡˛Ú ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ÏË ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. double bed fi ‰‚ÛıÒԇθ̇fl ÍÓ‚‡Ú¸ triple fi ÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚È / ÚÓÈÌÓÈ / ÚÂıÏÂÒÚÌ˚È. in (the) late twenties / eighties / . My room number is thirteenth. Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ. four. Ë Í‡Ê‰‡fl ÔÓÎÓ‚Ë̇ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚Ï ˜ËÒÎÓÏ: 1992 ¤ nineteen ninety-two. è‡‚ËÎÓ 9: ëÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë Ì‡˜ËÈ. èË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÔÓÎÌ˚ı (Ò Û͇Á‡ÌËÂÏ ˜ËÒ· / ÏÂÒflˆ‡ / „Ó‰‡) ‰‡Ú ˜ËÒÎÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚Ï ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï.. ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÔÓËÁÌÓÒflÚÒfl ‡Á‰ÂθÌÓ. times fi ˜ÂÚ˚Â Ë ·ÓΠ‡Á.. in (the) early twenties / eighties /.fi ‚ ÍÓ̈ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú˚ı / ‚ÓÒ¸ÏˉÂÒflÚ˚ı / . treble fi ‚ÚÓ ·Óθ¯ËÈ: ç has treble my money. „Ó‰Ó‚.1992 fi on the seventeenth of Junuary. Ç ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÈ „Ó‰‡ ‰‡Ú‡ ‰ÂÎËÚÒfl ÔÓÔÓ·Ï. once ¤ one time fi ‰ËÌÓʉ˚ / Ó‰ËÌ ‡Á. thrice (ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ÂÂ) ¤ three times fi ÚËʉ˚. twice ¤ two times fi ‰‚‡Ê‰˚ / ‚‰‚Ó ·Óθ¯Â. èË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÓÏÂÓ‚ ÒÚ‡Ìˈ / ÍÓÏÌ‡Ú ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ‡ı Ë Ó·˘ÂÊËÚËflı / ‰ÓÏÓ‚ / . „Ó‰Ó‚. Ú‡Í ÊÂ. 1.Ô. ‡ „Ó‰ — ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰‚‡ ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÒÚÂÔÂÌÂÈ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl.. ÔÓ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ˆËÙÂ: 123-45-67 fi one-two-three-four-five-six-seven èË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ò‰‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ˆËÙ ‚ ÌÓÏÂ‡ı ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚ¸ Ëı ‡Á‰ÂθÌÓ. .fi ü ÊË‚Û ‚ ÚË̇‰ˆ‡ÚÓÏ ÌÓÏÂÂ. ıÓÚfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ë ÔÓfl‰ÍÓ‚˚Â: I live in room 13. baker's dozen fi ˜ÂÚÓ‚‡ ‰˛ÊË̇. ˜ÂÏ Û ÏÂÌfl. ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Â Ë Ì‡˜Ëfl ËÏÂ˛Ú ÚË ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl: ÔÓÎÓÊËÚÂθÌÛ˛ / Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÛ˛ / Ô‚ÓÒıÓ‰ÌÛ˛..23 centimetres çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë....23 centimetre. ‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó double fi ‰‚ÓÈÌÓÈ / Ò‰‚ÓÂÌÌ˚È: 122-34-55fi one double two (two-two) three-four-double five (five-five) single fi Ó‰Ë̇Ì˚È / Ó‰ÌÓÏÂÒÚÌ˚È / ‚ Ó‰ÌÛ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ (·ËÎÂÚ): single room fi Ó‰ÌÓÏÂÒÚÌ˚È ÌÓÏÂ ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ double fi Ò‰‚ÓÂÌÌ˚È / ‰‚ÓÈÌÓÈ / ‰‚ÛıÏÂÒÚÌ˚È: double room fi ‰‚ÛıÏÂÒÚÌ˚È ÌÓÏÂ ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂ.

Ú‡Í Ë Ì‡˜ËÂÏ. This is my eldest son. ÒÎÓ‚‡. ëÎÓ‚Ó most Ò ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ (a most) Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸˛ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl. ÔÓθÁÛÂÏÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ small (ÒÏ. ç‡ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚË Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌËfl Ì ‚ÎËfl˛Ú. ‚˚¯Â large). ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ë ·ÓÎÂÂ. ËÏÂ˛Ú -„ / -est ‚ ÍÓ̈Â. ÚÓ -Û ÔÂÂıÓ‰ËÚ ‚-i: easy fi easier fi (the) easiest. ˝ÚÓ Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÚ Á‚Û˜‡ÌËfl —ÂÒÎË Í‡Í‡fl-ÚÓ ÙÓχ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl ̇ ÒÎÛı ÎÛ˜¯Â ‰Û„ÓÈ. easilyfi ΄ÍÓ fi more easily fi ΄˜Â fi (the) most easily fi ΄˜Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÑÎfl ÔÂ‰‡˜Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÏÂÌÂÂ Ë ÏÂ̸¯Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó / ̇ËÏÂÌ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ less Ë least: beautiful fi less beautiful fi ÏÂÌ Í‡ÒË‚˚È fi (the) least beautiful fi ̇ËÏÂÌ Í‡ÒË‚˚È èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ËÌÓ„‰‡ Ó‰ÌÓÒÎÓÊÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ó·‡ÁÛ˛Ú ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ more / less ËÎË most / least. early fi earlier fi (the) earliest c) ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË -er u -est ÍÓ̘̇fl - ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl: (ÒÏ. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ÒÚÂÔÂÌÂÈ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË: a) ÍÓ̘̇fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl Ò Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÈ Í‡ÚÍÓÈ „·ÒÌÓÈ Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl: big fi bigger fi (the) biggest b) ÂÒÎË ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ -Û ÒÚÓËÚ Òӄ·Ò̇fl ·ÛÍ‚‡. Ë Ì‡Ó·ÓÓÚ. îÓÏ˚ ÒÚÂÔÂÌÂÈ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë Ì‡˜ËÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ӷ‡ÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ì ÔÓ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ: èÓÎÓÊËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ Good (ıÓÓ¯ËÈ) Well (ıÓÓ¯Ó) Bad (ÔÎÓıÓÈ) Badly (ÔÎÓıÓ) Many (ÏÌÓ„Ó) Much (ÏÌÓ„Ó) Little (χÎÓ) Far (‰‡ÎÂÍËÈ) Far (‰‡ÎÂÍÓ) Old (ÒÚ‡˚È) ë‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ è‚ÓÒıӉ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ Better (ÎÛ˜¯Â) Worse (ıÛÊÂ) More (·Óθ¯Â / ·ÓÎÂÂ) Less (ÏÂÌ / ÏÂ̸¯Â) (the) best (Ò‡Ï˚È ÎÛ˜¯ËÈ/ ÎÛ˜¯Â ‚Ò„Ó) (the) worst (Ò‡Ï˚È ÔÎÓıÓÈ/ ıÛÊ ‚Ò„Ó) (the) most (·Óθ¯Â ‚Ò„Ó/ ̇˷ÓÎÂÂ) (the) least (ÏÂ̸¯Â ‚Ò„Ó/ ̇ËÏÂÌÂÂ) (the) farthest (Ò‡Ï˚È Farther / Further ‰‡ÎÂÍËÈ) (·ÓΠ‰‡ÎÂÍËÈ / ‰‡Î¸¯Â) (the) furthest (‰‡Î¸¯Â ‚Ò„Ó) Elder(ÒÚ‡¯Â) (the) eldest(Ò‡Ï˚È ÒÚ‡¯ËÈ) èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÒÎÓ‚Ó little ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï.fi ùÚÓ ÏÓÈ ÒÚ‡¯ËÈ Ò˚Ì. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Ó·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‰Û„Ó ÍÓÓÚÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‚ÔÂ‰Ë: beautiful fi Í‡ÒË‚˚È fi more beautiful fi ·ÓΠÍ‡ÒË‚˚È fi (the) most beautiful fi Ò‡Ï˚È Í‡ÒË‚˚È. ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í Ì‡˜Ë χÎÓ. ˜ÂÏ crisp — crisper — (the) crispest. ÍÓ„‰‡ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ‚‰ÂÚ ˜¸ Ó ˜ÎÂ̇ı Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂϸË: My father is elder than my mother. ‚ ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl Ó·‡ÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÔÓÒÓ·Û 1: old fi older fi (the) oldest. 2. ÑÎfl ‰ÎËÌÌ˚ı (ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ËÎË ·ÓΠÒÎÓ„Ó‚) ÒÎÓ‚: ç ËÏÂÂÚ ÒÏ˚Ò· ¢ ·Óθ¯Â Û‰ÎËÌflÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. ‡ ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ӘÂ̸: a most beautiful girlfi Ó˜Â̸ Í‡ÒË‚‡fl ‰Â‚ۯ͇ 57 . ÂÒÎË ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl ÓÚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÈ. ÂÂ Ë ÒÚ‡‚flÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: crisp — more crisp — (the) most crisp Á‚Û˜ËÚ ÎÛ˜¯Â.fi åÓÈ ÓÚˆ ÒÚ‡¯Â χÚÂË. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÙÓÏ˚ elder / eldest ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ˜‡˘Â.è‡‚ËÎÓ ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ë„ÌÓËÛÂÚÒfl.Large (·Óθ¯ÓÈ) Larger (·Óθ¯ËÈ) (the) largest (Ò‡Ï˚È ·Óθ¯ÓÈ /̇˷Óθ¯ËÈ) èËϘ‡ÌËfl: Ò Ô‚ÓÒıÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸˛ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ. ‚˚¯Â).

fi ùÚË ÒË„‡˚ ÍÂÔ˜Â.. Í‡Í (Ë) / Ú‡Í (ÊÂ) ... ÇÓ ‚ÚÓÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl Í‡Í ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ). ‚ÚÓÓ as ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl.. ÂÒÎË ÌÂÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: ç is the best. ç came earlier than them / they did.. Í‡Í (Ë): She is as beautiful as my mother. èË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËË Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË not so .fi ÅÓθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó ËÁ ÌËı Ì ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔËÈÚË. Í‡Í ÏÓfl χχ.....fi ì ÏÂÌfl ‚ ‰‚‡ ‡Á‡ ÏÂ̸¯Â ‰ÂÌ„ ( ˜ÂÏ Û Ú·fl}. ˜ÚÓ ·ÎËÊÂ Í „Ó‚Ófl˘ÂÏÛ ÔÓ ÏÂÒÚÛ Ë ‚ÂÏÂÌË this fi ˝ÚÓÚ / ˝Ú‡ / ˝ÚÓ: this table fi ˝ÚÓÚ ÒÚÓÎ... ÚÂÏ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 10: ì͇Á‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl.fi Ö„Ó Ï‡¯Ë̇ ‡Á‡ ‚ ÚË ·Óθ¯Â (ÏÓÂÈ). ˜ÚÓ ‰‡Î¸¯Â ÓÚ „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó ÔÓ ÏÂÒÚÛ Ë ‚ÂÏÂÌË that fi ÚÓÚ / Ú‡ / ÚÓ: that table fi ÚÓÚ ÒÚÓÎ.. His car is about three times as big (as my car). ÂÒÎË ‰Û„ÓÈ Ó·˙ÂÍÚ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl Ì ÛÔÓÏË̇ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË: My sister is twice as beautiful (as yours).fi åÌÓ„ËÏ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. ˜ÂÏ ÓÌË ÌÓ: I know him better than her. as Ò ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. éÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ‡ÚËÍθ ÒÓı‡ÌflÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÙÓÏÓÈ Ô‚ÓÒıÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ‰‡ÊÂ.. ëÎÓ‚Ó half ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ‚‰‚Ó ÏÂ̸¯Â: This liquid is half as strong (as that one). as fi Ú‡ÍÓÈ (ÊÂ) . êÛÒÒÍËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ˜ÂÏ. 58 . as fi Ì ڇÍÓÈ . These cigars are stronger than those ones.fi é̇ ˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ·Óθ¯Â.. You are taller than me / I am... ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó one ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Á‡ÏÂÌËÚÂÎfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ: My car is bigger than their one / theirs. Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÒÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ): She reads more than him / he does. ˜ÂÏ Ó̇.fi ü Ì ڇ͇fl Í‡ÒË‚‡fl. ͇Í: I am not so beautiful as her / she is. ì͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú ̇: • ÚÓ.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ËÁ·Âʇڸ ÔÓ‚ÚÓÂÌËfl Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó Ë ÚÓ„Ó Ê ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. èË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËË Ò ÏÌÓ„ÓÍ‡ÚÌ˚Ï ˝ÙÙÂÍÚÓÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË as .fi éÌ Ò‡Ï˚È ÎÛ˜¯ËÈ. àÌÓ„‰‡ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÒËÎËÚ¸ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚.fi óÂÏ ÒÍÓÂÈ Ú˚ ҉·¯¸ ˝ÚÓ. ÚÂÏ ·Óθ¯Â ÔÓÎۘ˯¸. this Sunday fi ‚ ˝ÚÓ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸ these fi ˝ÚË: these windows fi ˝ÚË ÓÍ̇. èË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËË Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó„Ó Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË as .ëÎÓ‚Ó most ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÔÂ‰ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ(˜‡ÒÚÓ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ of) Ë ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÏÌÓ„Ë / ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Ó: Most people like this.fi åÓÈ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ ·Óθ¯Â. ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í the + Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸..fi í˚ ‚˚¯Â ÓÒÚÓÏ. ÚÂÏ ÎÛ˜¯Â. I have half as much money (as you have).fi åÓfl ÒÂÒÚ‡ ‚ ‰‚‡ ‡Á‡ Í‡Ò˂ (Ú‚ÓÂÈ). Most of them will not be able to come. Í‡Í Ó̇. ÑÎfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó than fi ˜ÂÏ.fi ü Á̇˛ Â„Ó ÎÛ˜¯Â. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ËÏÂÌËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ.: The sooner you do it the better. these days fi ̇ ‰Ìflı / ‚ ˝ÚË ‰ÌË • ÚÓ.fi é̇ ڇ͇fl Ê Í‡ÒË‚‡fl. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ..fi éÌ Ô˯ÂÎ ‡Ì¸¯Â. ˜ÂÏ ÚÂ. The faster you come the more you will get.fi óÂÏ ·˚ÒÚ Ú˚ Ôˉ¯¸. (‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ)fi ü Á̇˛ Â„Ó ÎÛ˜¯Â. ˜‡˘Â ‰Û„Ëı ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl much (̇ÏÌÓ„Ó): much more / less beautifulfi ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó ·ÓΠ/ ÏÂÌ Í‡ÒË‚˚È. ˜ÂÏ fl... the + Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸.fi ùÚ‡ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸ ‚‰‚Ó Ò··Â (ÚÓÈ). I know him better than she does. ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ. ˜ÂÏ Ëı. ˜ÂÏ ÂÂ.

˜ÂÏ this. èÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í: every fi ‚ÒflÍËÈ / ͇ʉ˚È. èÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚ ÌËı. some fi ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ / ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚È / ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ / ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó. You can go everywhere in this country. a those — ˜ÂÏ these. everywhere fi ‚ÂÁ‰Â (‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı) / ÍÛ‰‡ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ (‚Ó ‚Ò ÏÂÒÚ‡): You are welcome everywhere. Ó·‡ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ˚. ˜ÚÓ ÍÛËÚ ÏÓÈ ÓÚˆ) Ó˜Â̸ ÍÂÔÍËÂ. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ Î˛‰ÂÈ. body fi ÍÓÔÛÒ / ÚÂÎÓ / ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ó‰Û¯Â‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ. ì Ú‚ÓÂ„Ó ÓÚˆ‡ ÒË„‡˚ ‚‰‚Ó Ò··ÂÈ. ì͇Á‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ: This is your table. I want to become a somebody in our city. My father's cigars are very strong.fi ùÚÓÚ ÒÚÓΠ̇¯.fi í˚ ‚ÂÁ‰Â Ê·ÌÌ˚È „ÓÒÚ¸. Ò ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‚‡ÊÌ˚È / Á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡˛˘ËÈ Û‚‡ÊÂÌËfl ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ: That must be someone from my sister. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë that ·ÓΠÔÓÔÛÎflÌÓ. everything fi ‚Òfi (ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÂ): Everything is clear to me. 3) ¤ 1). Í‡Í ‚Ó î‡ÌˆËË. Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Á‡ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛Ú ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. è‡‚ËÎÓ 11: ëÎÓ‚‡ every / some / any /now.That (table) is mine.Â. Ú. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ ÌÂÊË‚˚ ӷ˙ÂÍÚ˚.fi ëË„‡˚ ÏÓÂ„Ó ÓÚˆ‡ (Ú ÒË„‡˚. 2.fi ü ıÓ˜Û ‰Ó·ËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ̇¯ÂÏ „ÓÓ‰Â.fi Ç ˝ÚÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ì Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÂÁ‰ËÚ¸ / ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ÍÛ‰‡ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ. where fi ÍÛ‰‡ / „‰Â. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌË ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓ.Â.fi ÇÒ ÒÔflÚ. somebody / someone fi ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ (͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ). èÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚Â: everybody / everyone fi ‚Ò (͇ʉ˚È ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ).fi äÎËÏ‡Ú Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÊÂ.that Sunday fi ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸ those fi ÚÂ: those windows fi Ú ÓÍ̇. ÑÎfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ı ÓÚ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‚˚¯Â ÒÎÓ‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ˜ÂÚ˚ ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÓ‚‡: 1. Those are our tables. something fi ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ / ÍÓÂ-˜ÚÓ: 59 .fi ùÚÓ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÚÂ·Û˛Ú Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ 3-ÂÏ Îˈ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·: Everybody / Everyone is sleeping. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ËÁ·Âʇڸ ÔÓ‚ÚÓ‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÎË ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ of: The climate here is like that of France. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÎË ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÌÂÚ ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ·ÎËÊ — ‰‡Î¸¯Â: This table is yours. I know everything.fi åÌ ‚Ò flÒÌÓ / ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ. 4. Ón fi Ó‰ËÌ / ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ó‰Û¯Â‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ. That table is ours.fi ùÚÓÚ ÒÚÓÎ Ú‚ÓÈ. ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ this Ë these. éÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡·Î˛‰‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.fi ÇÒ Á̇˛Ú Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. íÓÚ (ÒÚÓÎ) ÏÓÈ. Those of your father are half as strong. Ç Ó·‡ÚÌÛ˛ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ (this ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ that / these ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ those) Á‡ÏÂÌÛ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ÌÂθÁfl. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Everyone / Everybody knows that. 3. any fi ͇ÍÓÈ-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ / β·ÓÈ. ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸. ÔÓ fi ÌË͇ÍÓÈ / ÌËÒÍÓθÍÓ. åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl that / these / those ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‰Îfl Á‡ÏÂÌ˚ Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ Î˛‰ÂÈ. That is my table.fi ü ‚Ò Á̇˛. ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ÓÚ ÏÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚ˚. those days fi ‚ Ú ‰ÌË ëÎÓ‚‡ that Ë those (ÂÊÂ) ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ˝ÚÓÚ / ˝Ú‡ / ˝ÚÓ Ë ˝ÚË. Ú. thing fi Ô‰ÏÂÚ / ‚¢¸ / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÂ.

/ smth.. some — ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.fi éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ „‰Â-ÚÓ ÔÓ·ÎËÁÓÒÚË..fi çËÍÚÓ Ì ÏÓ„ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸...fi ùÚÓÚ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌËÍÚÓ.fi ÑÎfl ÏÂÌfl ÓÌË Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú. ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓ Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚Û ˜ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Û Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚. nobody Ò ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ ËÎË ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÌË͘ÂÏÌ˚È / Ì Á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡˛˘ËÈ Û‚‡ÊÂÌËfl ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ (β‰Ë): That man is a nobody. somewhere fi „‰Â-ÚÓ / ÍÛ‰‡-ÚÓ: ç must be somewhere near here.fi éÌ ·ËÁÌÂÒÏÂÌ. ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ: — Have you any books in your room? — Yes. I have no books in my room. ËÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ó‰Â: ç is a businessman or something. nothing fi ÌË˜Â„Ó / Ì˘ÚÓ / ̘„Ó: I can see nothing here. . / çÂÚ. anybody / anyone fi ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ÍÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Did anybody see him?fi äÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚ˉÂΠ„Ó? anything fi ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Has anything unusual happened here?fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÌÂÓ·˚˜ÌÓÂ? anywhere fi „‰Â-ÌË·Û‰¸ / ÍÛ‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸: Are they anywhere in the town?fi éÌË „‰Â-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚ „ÓÓ‰Â? Do you want to go anywhere?fi í˚ ıӘ¯¸ ÔÓÈÚË ÍÛ‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸? nobody / no one fi ÌËÍÚÓ: No one / Nobody knows his address. I can find that book nowhere. ̇ÔËÏÂ: to have nothing to do with smb. ÒÎÓ‚Ó any Ë ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ .fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ ·ÂÒÔ·ÚÌÓ. ËÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ó‰Â. I have nothing to do with this. Nobody / No one could help me.fi åÓʯ¸ ‚ÁflÚ¸ β·Û˛ Û˜ÍÛ.fi ü ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓÏ Ӊ ·ËÁÌÂÒÏÂÌ..fi ü Ì Ëϲ Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl..fi ü Á̇˛ Ó Ú· ÍÓÂ-˜ÚÓ. for nothing fi ·ÂÒÔ·ÚÌÓ / ·ÂÁÂÁÛθڇÚÌÓ: You may have it for nothing..Something has happened here.fi ü ̇‰Â˛Ò¸. nÓ—‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı (ÚÓ Ê ҇ÏÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Ë Í ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚Ï ÙÓχÏ).β·ÓÈ: You may take any pen. Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ù‡Á˚) fi .fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ Â„Ó ‡‰ÂÒ. Û ÏÂÌfl ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÂÒÚ¸ ͇ÍËÂÚÓ ÍÌË„Ë (ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌË„). She went somewhere.fi åÌ ÌÂÍÛ‰‡ ÔÓÈÚË. or something (‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÂ. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: 1. / ë ÏÌÂÌËÂÏ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ Ì ҘËÚ‡˛ÚÒfl. Û ÏÂÌfl ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍËı ÍÌË„.. ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÚËÔ‡ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: — ì Ú·fl ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÂÒÚ¸ ͇ÍËÂ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÍÌË„Ë (ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÍÌË„)? — ч. Ë ÓÌÓ Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ Òӷ≇ÂÚÒfl. ËÚ‡Í.fi Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ó·˘Â„Ó Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó. They are nobodies for me. / ü Ò˜ËÚ‡˛ Ëı ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌË͘ÂÏÌ˚ÏË Î˛‰¸ÏË. I have some books in my room. Ú˚ Ì Ëϯ¸ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ó·˘Â„Ó Ò ˝ÚËÏ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ.fi ùÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÍÓ ÏÌ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. They had nothing to eat.fi ÇÒ ÏÓË ÛÒËÎËfl ·˚ÎË Ì‡Ô‡ÒÌ˚. ëÎÓ‚‡¸) ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. Anyone can help you. any ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı.fi í· ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÍÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ (β·ÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ). something of . ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ëı ÔÓÎÌÓ„Ó ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl Ï˚ ÔÓθÁÛÂÏÒfl ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ÙÓχÏË. ÌÓ ˝ÚÓ Î˯¸ Ó·˘Â ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. All my efforts were for nothing. 60 . fi ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÚËÔ‡ / ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓÏ Ó‰Â: I'm something of a businessman.fi àÏ ÌÂ˜Â„Ó ·˚ÎÓ ÂÒÚ¸. nowhere fi ÌË„‰Â / ÌËÍÛ‰‡ / Ì„‰Â / ÌÂÍÛ‰‡: I have nowhere to go. I know something about you. Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: I hope you have nothing to do with that man. This has nothing to do with me.fi ü ÌË„‰Â Ì ÏÓ„Û Ì‡ÈÚË ˝ÚÛ ÍÌË„Û. nothing fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ¯ËÓÍÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓÏ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÈ (ÒÏ.fi é̇ ÍÛ‰‡-ÚÓ Û¯Î‡. . / No.fi ü ÌË˜Â„Ó Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ‚ËÊÛ.

fi é̇ ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ͇ÍËÂ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÊÛ̇Î˚.fi é̇ ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÔÓÁ‚‡Ú¸ ¢ ÍÓ„Ó-ÌË·Û‰¸ Ú· ̇ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. èÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÔÓ·ÛʉÂÌËÂ Í ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˲ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl / ÔÓÒ¸·Û / ÔË͇Á‡ÌË / ÒÓ‚ÂÚ / Á‡Ô¢ÂÌËÂ. Have you any potatoes?fi ì ‚‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ͇Úӯ͇? èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ̇Á‚‡ÌËfl Ó‚Ó˘ÂÈ / fl„Ó‰ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ(ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ËÁ ·Óθ¯Ó„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓ ‚ÁflÚ˚ı Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚): carrotsfi ÏÓÍÓ‚¸. Did you see anything else?fi í˚ ‚ˉÂÎ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ¢Â? Nobody else could come. 3. Have you seen any costume like this before?fi Ç˚ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÂʉ ‚ˉÂÎË (͇ÍÓÈ-ÌË·Û‰¸) ÍÓÒÚ˛Ï. Nothing can save her now. This is someone else's bag. a carrotfi (Ӊ̇) ÏÓÍÓ‚Ë̇. Ç ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌÌÓ ̇ÏË Ô‡‚ËÎÓ ‚Ó¯ÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Ó·˘Ë ‰Îfl ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ ÙÓÏ˚.fi ü ÌËÍÓ„Ó Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ‚ËÊÛ. ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸? ÒÎÓ‚‡.fi í˚ ÌË„‰Â Ì ÒÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓ͇Á‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÓ. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ı ÓÚ some / any ËÎË ·Óθ¯Â — ÔÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚. ˜ÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠÌËı: She wants to ask somebody else to help you. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ Ë ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‰‡Ê ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: Somebody has lost his car keys. 7. è‡‚ËÎÓ 12: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËË.fi é̇ ÍÛ‰‡-ÚÓ ÛÂı‡Î‡.fi ùÚÓ ˜¸fl-ÚÓ ÒÛÏ͇. ÒÎÓ‚Ó some ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó / Ì·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó. Ë Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ëı ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸: Give me some water. peasfi „ÓÓ¯ÂÍ. ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ̇Á‚‡ÌËË ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ô‡‚Ë·. She went someplace. ˜ÚÓ ‰Â̸„Ë ÂÒÚ¸) Can you give me any money?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ‰‡Ú¸ ÏÌ ıÓÚ¸ ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‰ÂÌ„? („Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰ÂÌ„) ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı some Ë any ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ˚: 2. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ. 6. ‡ ‡fi (Ӊ̇) „ÓÓ¯Ë̇.ç will be allowed to say anything. strawberriesfi a strawberryfi (Ӊ̇) fl„Ó‰‡ ÍÎÛ·ÌË͇. ÍÎÛ·ÌËÍË 4. ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚Â Ò ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡ÏË body Ë one ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. ëÎÓ‚‡¸.¤ You should try this thing somewhere else. You will not be able to show it anywhere. 8. ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ËÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚Â: This is someone's bag.fi äÚÓ-ÚÓ ÔÓÚÂflÎ Íβ˜Ë ÓÚ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó elsewhere. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË ‚¢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ËÎË ˆÂÎ˚È Í·ÒÒ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Û „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó ·Óθ¯Â Û‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‚ ̇΢ËË ÚÓ„Ó.fi ü ÏÓ„Û ÔÓ͇Á‡Ú¸ ‚‡Ï Í‡Ê‰Û˛ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ.fi íÂÔÂ¸  ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÔ‡ÒÚË. ‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ where ËÌÓ„‰‡ Á‡ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ̇ lacÂ: You Ò‡Ô go everyplace in this country. Ó ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ any: Can you give me some money?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ‰‡Ú¸ ÏÌ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„? („Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ Á̇ÂÚ.fi éÌ ÒÏÓÊÂÚ / ÂÏÛ ‡Á¯‡Ú Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ‚ÒÂ. You should try this thing somewhere else. Have you got any / some?fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌ˚ ‰Â̸„Ë. ÒÎÓ‚Ó any Ë ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ not: I cannot see anyone here. She wants to see some magazines. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘Â ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Ò somewhere else: You should try this thing elsewhere.fi Ç ˝ÚÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ì Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ Âı‡Ú¸ ÍÛ‰‡ ıӘ¯¸. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ı ÓÚ no).fi ë‚ÓÂ„Ó Û ÌÂ„Ó ÌË˜Â„Ó (ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË) ÌÂÚ.fi ùÚÓ ˜¸fl-ÚÓ Â˘Â (Ì ÏÓfl) ÒÛÏ͇. ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÓÚ ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ (ÍÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ where) Ò‡ÏË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú Îˈ‡ ËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚.fi Ñ‡È ÏÌ ‚Ó‰˚. I'll find you anywhere. 5. ˜ÚÓ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÓÚ every) ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ else (ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ¢ ÔÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚. ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË.fi ÅÓθ¯Â ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓ„ ÔËÈÚË. 61 . I need money. some Ë any ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡˛Ú ÚÓθÍÓ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ˆÂÎÓ„Ó. ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ë ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏË: I can show you every room.fi òÂÎ ·˚ Ú˚ ¢ ÍÛ‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ËÒÔ˚Ú˚‚‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÛ ¯ÚÛÍÛ. ÂÒÎË ÓÌË ÒÚÓflÚ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ else. ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚È ˝ÚÓÏÛ? ç has no property of his own.fi ü Ì‡È‰Û Ú·fl ‚ÂÁ‰Â (‚ β·ÓÏ ÏÂÒÚÂ). ‚Ò ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰Ì˚ ÙÓÏ˚ (ÍÓÏ ÚÂı. ˜ÚÓ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì ÓÚ‡Ê‡ÂÚ ‚ÒÂı ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚÂÈ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÓ‚ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚˚‚‡Ú¸ ‰Û„Ë ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl — ÒÏ.

Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰‡Ê ÔÂ‰ „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be: Don't help him. down fi ÔÓ‰‚ÂÒÚË / ‡ÒÒÚÓËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó. alone fi ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‚ ÔÓÍÓ / Ì ÔËÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸. Ë‰Ë ‰ÓÏÓÈ. Ú˚ … Let them ~~~ … fi èÛÒÚ¸ ÓÌË / èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ ËÏ … Let me help you. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÏÂÊ‰Û ÙÓÏÓÈ Don't Ë ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ: Don't you worry about that.fi èÛÒÚ¸ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ú‡Í.fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚÂ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to let. ìÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl „·„ÓÎÓÏ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. / ç ÔËÒÚ‡‚‡ÈÚÂ Í ÌÂÈ.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ·‰ÌÓ? ÑÎfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÒ¸·˚ / ÔË͇Á‡ÌËfl Ò ÓÚÚÂÌÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ to let Ò ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ËÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. fi ÓÚÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ / ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‰Âʇڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. will you? / . to let smth. know fi ‰‡Ú¸ Á̇ڸ / ÒÓÓ·˘ËÚ¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. 62 ..fi He Ë‰Ë ‰ÓÏÓÈ.fi He ÔÓÏÓ„‡È ÂÏÛ. Go home. ÑÎfl ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó ÛÒËÎÂÌËfl ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂÏ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â you..fi í‚Ó Ô·ڸ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÂÂ.. ÑÎfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÒ¸·˚ ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl .. Let us / Lets tak more loudly. in fi ‚¯ËÚ¸ / Á‡ÛÁËÚ¸ (Ó‰ÂʉÛ). / He ‡Á¯‡È ËÏ ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸.fi ч‚‡ÈÚ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ „ÓϘÂ. Don't go home. won't you?: Help me. go fi ÓÚÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ / ÓÒ‚Ó·Ó‰ËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó: Let me know when . to let smth. ÌÓ ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë: to let smb. out fi ‚˚ÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ / ҉·ڸ ҂ӷӉ̠(Ó‰ÂʉÛ). èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â you Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl. Let her alone. won't you?fi èËıÓ‰Ë Á‡‚Ú‡.fi éÒÚ‡‚¸Ú Â ‚ ÔÓÍÓÂ. in/out fi ‚ÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ / ‚˚ÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó. Don't let go of the handle. fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û ‚‡Ï.fi He ÔÓ‰‚Ó‰Ë ÏÓËı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. fi í˚. to let smb.. to let smb. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to: Let me ~~~ … fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ ÏÌ / ч‚‡ÈÚ fl … Let him/her/it ~~~ … fi èÛÒÚ¸ ÓÌ / Ó̇ / ÓÌÓ … Let us / Let's ~~~ … fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚÂ Ì‡Ï / ч‚‡ÈÚ (Ï˚) … Let you ~~~ … fi ч‚‡È. Don't be sleeping.åÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡Í ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. / . please. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌ˚ ‚˚¯Â. Ú‡Í Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË.. ÍÓ„‰‡ . „‰Â Â„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÓÚ ÚÂı. ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡flÒ¸ ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ: (You) Help me! fi èÓÏÓ„Ë ÏÌÂ! (You) Go home! fi à‰Ë ‰ÓÏÓÈ! ' èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ˆÂθ˛ Ôˉ‡ÌËfl ÓÚÚÂÌ͇ „Û·ÓÒÚË Ó·‡˘ÂÌ˲: You. éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï to do Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ not. please.fi He ÓÚÔÛÒÍ‡È ÛÍÓflÚÍÛ. to let smb. Don't be a fool.. Don't let that girl in. ıÓÓ¯Ó? Come tomorrow. ÔÓÏÓ„Ë ÏÌÂ. Let it be. will you?fi à‰Ë ‰ÓÏÓÈ. to let smb.fi He ‚ÔÛÒÍ‡È ˝ÚÛ ‰Â‚˜ÓÌÍÛ.fi He ·Û‰¸ ‰Û‡ÍÓÏ.fi He ÓÚÔÛÒÍ‡È Ëı.. Don't let my friends down.fi He ÒÔË.fi He ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. to let go of smth. go home.... Don't let them go...fi чÈÚ ÏÌ Á̇ڸ. Your dress needs to be let out.

ÉÓ‚ÓflÚ. to be ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÙÓχı): There (to) be Is Infinitive Are Was Indefinite Were will be have been Perfect has been had been will have been ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı „·„ÓÎ to be (‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë „·„ÓÎ˚.fi It is six o'clock.fi It will be late tomorrow.fi One must not smoke here.fi There is a key in his pocket. ê‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÂÏ˚ ̇ÏË ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í‡Í ‡Á Í Ú‡ÍÓÏÛ ÚËÔÛ.fi — éÌ Û Ú·fl ‚ ͇χÌÂ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì‡Î˘Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ Ô‰ÏÂÚ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Â. (ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ëı. Ç ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ one (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ) Ë they: á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÂθÁfl ÍÛËÚ¸. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there+to be. è‡‚ËÎÓ 14: è‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there + to be.¤ ÑÎfl ‚‡Ò Ò„ӉÌfl ·˚Î ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚È Á‚ÓÌÓÍ.fi They don't say that in Russian. (‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. ÓÌ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl Ì ÒÍÓÓ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Í‡Í Ì‡Î˘Ë ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡: Ç‡Ï Ò„ӉÌfl Á‚ÓÌËÎË. ÌÓ Â„Ó ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í ·˚ ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl / Ó˘Û˘‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË). çÓ Ï˚ ÔÓÏÌËÏ. Ç Ì‡¯Â ‚ÂÏfl ÏÓÊÌÓ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ‚ÒÂ. èÓ-ÛÒÒÍË Ú‡Í Ì „Ó‚ÓflÚ. b) äÓ„‰‡ ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ — ÒÏ. ‡ Ì ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ) — ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ Ó·ÓÓÚfi There are many boys and girls in the room.è‡‚ËÎÓ 13: èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ-΢Ì˚ı / ·ÂÁ΢Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÅÂÁ΢Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Ì ҂flÁ‡ÌÓ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ ÌË Ò Í‡ÍËÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ. ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇ ‰‚ „ÛÔÔ˚: a) äÓ„‰‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË „Ó‚ÓËÚÒfl. ÌËÊÂ) fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï Ë Òӄ·ÒÛÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ᇂÚ‡ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÓ.fi It was very dark. ‡ Ì ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó: Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÏÌÓ„Ó Ï‡Î¸˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë ‰Â‚Ó˜ÂÍ. ‡ Ì ‚ ‰Û„ÓÏ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Â) — Ó·ÓÓÚ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÏfi The boys and girls are in the room. å‡Î¸˜ËÍË Ë ‰Â‚Ó˜ÍË ‡ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. ê‡Ì Ï˚ ÛÊ „Ó‚ÓËÎË Ó ÚÓÏ. çÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓ-΢Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ÌÂÚ. Å˚ÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÚÂÏÌÓ.fi One can say anything nowadays. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÂÒÚ¸ ÏÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ëËÚÛ‡ˆËË. Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰‡Ê Ì ۄ‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl). îÓÏ˚.ÌÓ: ì ÌÂ„Ó ‚ ͇χÌ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ Íβ˜. „‰Â ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: Ó·ÓÓÚ there+to be ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ „‰Â? — ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇ ËÌÚÂÂÒÛÂÚ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó it: ëÂȘ‡Ò ¯ÂÒÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ‡ Ì Ô‰ÏÂÚ: — ɉ ÏÓÈ Íβ˜?fi — Where is my key? — It is in your pocket. 63 . àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there+to be.fi They say that he will not come back soon. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÌËχڸ Ó·ÓÓÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË (ÒÎÓ‚Ó there ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl. Ë ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ËÏÂÌÌÓ Ô‰ÏÂÚ.

¤ ÖÒÚ¸ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚ˉÂÚ¸ ‚‡Ò (ÒÂȘ‡Ò). Ú‡Í Ë ÙÓÏ˚ Perfect.Â.fi í‡Ï Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ / é͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸. Ì Ëϲ˘ÂÈ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ‚ ͇χÌ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ·˚Ú¸ ͇ÍËÂ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‰Â̸„Ë. ‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â — ÔÓÒΠthere: 64 . There has been no / There has not been any rain this week.fi Ç ÏÓÂÏ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎË ÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ ‚¢Ë. There can be no going back. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Òӄ·ÒÛ˛ÚÒfl (ÏÂÌfl˛Ú ÙÓÏÛ) ̇Á‚‡ÌÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚.¤ ÑÎfl ‚‡Ò Ò„ӉÌfl ·˚Î ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚È Á‚ÓÌÓÍ. „‰Â ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Â„Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸. to come fi ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÔËÂÁʇڸ.¤ ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠·˚ÎÓ ‰Óʉfl.fi Ç‡Ï Ò„ӉÌfl Á‚ÓÌËÎË. to happen fi ÒÎÛ˜‡Ú¸Òfl. There is someone to see you (now). ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı (ÒÏ. ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÂÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú) Ë Ì Ëϲ˘Ë Û͇Á‡ÌËfl ̇ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó: ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú (ÂÒÚ¸) ‡ÁÌ˚ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎË. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ (ÌÓ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ) Û͇Á‡ÌË ̇ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: There has been a telephone call for you today.fi ç‡ ˝ÚÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠·˚ÎÓ ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ‰Óʉfl.fi ä‡ÊÂÚÒfl / èÓ-‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ. There seems / appears (to be) only one window in that house. Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there + to be ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.fi àÁ-Á‡ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÏÓ„ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ò͇̉‡Î. ËÌÓ„‰‡ „·„ÓÎÛ to be ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡ to seem / to appear ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Í‡Á‡Ú¸Òfl. èÓ·ÎÂχ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÚÓÏ. There should have been more than ten people there. There was no rain last week. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÓÏ Î˯¸ Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ. There could have been a big scandal because of that. ˜ÚÓ Ú‡Ï ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰ÌÓ ÓÍÌÓ. There was not any / There was no rain last week.fi ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠¯ÂÎ ‰Óʉ¸. „‰Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ˚ Indefinite „·„Ó· to be ) ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Í‡Í ÙÓÏ˚ Indefinite. There comes our bus.fi í‡Ï ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚Ú¸ ·Óθ¯Â ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â (‚ ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ ‡). ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡Î‡ ̇΢ˠ„·„Ó· ·˚Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË Í‡Í Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚ ‚ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ Ó·ÂÒÔ˜˂‡Ú¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË „·„Ó· to be.fi ÇÓÚ Ë‰ÂÚ Ì‡¯ ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒ. ä ‚‡Ï Ô˯ÎË.ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠¯ÂÎ ‰Óʉ¸. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÓÍÓÌ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ì‡Ï ÔˉÂÚÒfl Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ÛÁ̇‚‡Ú¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl.¤ ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠·˚ÎÓ ‰Óʉfl. Ú. There turned out (to be) only one window there. èÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ there+to be: ëıÂχ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl 1 2 There to be (Ӊ̇ ËÁ ÙÓÏ) 3 4 èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚ ÏÂÒÚ‡ / ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË) èËϘ‡ÌËfl: there ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ ҘËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ‚‚Ó‰ÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÏ there (ÌÓ ÛÊ Ëϲ˘Â ÔÂ‚Ӊ) ¢ ‡Á ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: í‡Ï ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÍÓÏ̇Ú. íÂχ 4) Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ „·„ÓÎ to be ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ. There happened strange things in my house. a to be ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive.fi ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ̠·˚ÎÓ ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ‰Óʉfl.fi ä ‚‡Ï Ô˯ÎË.¤ ÖÒÚ¸ (ÒÂȘ‡Ò) ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚ˉÂÚ¸ ‚‡Ò (‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl Ò ‚‡ÏË). to turn out fi Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl Ë ‰.fi ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‡ÁÌ˚ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎË. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ò‡Ï to be ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ì ӷflÁflÚÂθÌÓ: There seem / appear (to be) many windows in that house.fi There are many different rooms there. éÚÏÂÚËÏ.fi -ä‡ÊÂÚÒfl / èÓ-‚ˉËÏÓÏÛ. ÂÒÎË ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Ú‡Ï.fi é· ÓÚÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËË Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Ë ˜Ë. ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ „·„Ó· to be ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë „·„ÓÎ˚: to exist fi ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸. „·„ÓÎ to be ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ò ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ÏË „·„Ó·ÏË: There must be some money in his pocket.fi There are different cars. to remain fi ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl. to appear fi ÔÓfl‚ÎflÚ¸Òfl There exist different cars..

Are there tables in the room?fi Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÚÓÎ˚?
ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Í‡ÚÍËı ÓÚ‚ÂÚÓ‚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚Ó there ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó:
Are there tables in the room? — Yes, there are.
ÂÒÎË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó any, ÚÓ ‚ Í‡ÚÍÓÏ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ̇ ÌÂ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl some, ‡ ‚ Í‡ÚÍÓÏ
ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ — not any ËÎË none:
Are there any tables in the room?fi Yes, there are some. / No, there are not any.¤ No, there are none.
‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ nÓ ËÎË not any:
There are no tables in the room.¤ There are not any tables in the room.fi Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ÌÂÚ ÌË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÚÓ· /
ÌË͇ÍËı ÒÚÓÎÓ‚.
èËÏÂ˚:
1. óÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÎÂÚ ‚ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒÚ‡Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ Ó˜Â̸ ÏÌÓ„Ó Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚˚ı β‰ÂÈ.fi There will be very many happy
people in our country in several years.

äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ:
ÛÒÒÍÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó Ó˜Â̸ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‰‚ÛÏfl ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ÏË:
1.

2.

ÂÒÎË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ (Ó˜Â̸ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ) ËÎË Ì‡Â˜Ë˛ (Ó˜Â̸‡ÌÓ), ÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó very,
ÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó / ̇˜Ëfl:
ç has a very big house.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó b‰ÓÏ.
ç gets up very early.fi éÌ ‚ÒÚ‡ÂÚ Ó˜Â̸ ‡ÌÓ.
ÂÒÎË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌ˲ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË very much Ë Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ
ÔÓÒΠӷÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡, ̇ ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ:
Thank you very much.fi é˜Â̸ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÂÌ ‚‡Ï (·Óθ¯Ó ÒÔ‡ÒË·Ó).
I want to help you very much.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â.
2. Ç ˝ÚÓÈ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍ ÂÒÚ¸ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÔË‚‡.fi There is some beer in that bottle.
3. ç‡ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠÔ˯ÎÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ ÓÚ Ï‡Ï˚.fi There was a letter from mother last week.
4. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ ÌË ‡ÁÛ Ì ¯ÂÎ ÒÌ„.fi There has been no snow this month.¤ There has not been any snow this
month.
5. ᇂÚ‡ Ú‡Ï Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ÌÓ‚˚ı χθ˜ËÍÓ‚.fi There will not be new boys there tomorrow.
6. ÑÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ‚˚ıÓ‰.fi There must be a way out.
7. ì Ì‡Ò Ò„ӉÌfl Ò ÛÚ‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÈ.fi There have been many visitors here since the morning, (Í‡Í Ì‡˜‡ÎË
ˉÚË, Ú‡Í Ë Ë‰ÛÚ Ò Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó ÛÚ‡)
8. ë ÛÚ‡ / ìÚÓÏ Û Ì‡Ò ·˚ÎÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÈ.fi There were many visitors here in the morning, (ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÛÊÂ
Ì ÛÚÓ, ‰Û„ÓÈ ÓÚÂÁÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË)
9. ç‡ ˝ÚÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ.fi There can be a letter from him this week.
10. ᇠ‰‚Â¸˛ ÌËÍÓ„Ó ÌÂÚ.fi There is no one behind the door.¤ There is not anyone behind the door.
11. (çË͇ÍËı) è˂‰ÂÌËÈ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ.fi There exist no ghosts.¤ There don't exist any ghosts.
12. ç‡ ‚ÒÚÂ˜Û Ò ÌËÏË ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ì ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl.fi There remains no time to meet them.¤ There doesn't remain any
time to meet them.

è‡‚ËÎÓ 15: ÇÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚Â Ë ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl.
Ç˚¯Â Ï˚ ÛÊ „Ó‚ÓËÎË Ó ÚÓÏ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò‚ÓÈ, ÍÓÚÓÓ ‚ ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó
‡ÒÔ‡‰‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ. íÓ Ê ҇ÏÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ Ë ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Ò·fl — ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ
ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚, ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚˚·Ë‡Ú¸ Ó‰ËÌ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â:
Myself
Ourselves
Yourself
Yourselves
Himself
Themselves
Herself
Itself
ÇÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ò „·„Ó·ÏË ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌÓÒÚË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ò·fl;
Á‡ÌËχ˛Ú ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠÒ͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó:
ü Ò‡Ï Ò· Ì Ì‡‚Î˛Ò¸.fi I don't like myself.
èÓÒÏÓÚË Ì‡ Ò·fl.fi Look at yourself.
ÄÌ„ÎËÈÒÍË ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÓÍÓ̘‡Ì˲ -Òfl (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌÓ Ò·fl) ÛÒÒÍËı ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚ı
„·„ÓÎÓ‚ (ÛÏ˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ·ËÚ¸Òfl / Ӊ‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ...):
65

éÌË Ó͇Á‡ÎËÒ¸ (̇¯ÎË Ò·fl) ‚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ.fi They found themselves in a big room.
(í˚) ì„Ó˘‡ÈÒfl.fi Help yourself.
ü ÔÓ‡ÌËÎÒfl.fi I've hurt myself. É·„ÓÎ˚, Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ò ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚Ï
Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ (to wash / to shave / to dress Ë ‰.), ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ·ÂÁ ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ:
é̇ ÛÏ˚·Ҹ.fi She washed (herself).
å˚ Ò ÅÓ·ÓÏ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÏÒfl Í ˝ÍÁ‡ÏÂÌÛ.fi Bob and I are preparing (ourselves) for the examination. (Ó·‡ÚËÚÂ
‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó — Òڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ: ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò̇˜‡Î‡
ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ, ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏ — fl; ˜ËÒÎÓ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÂ)
å˚ Ò Ô‡ÔÓÈ Ó‰Â‚‡ÎËÒ¸, ÍÓ„‰‡ Ô˯· χχ.fi Father and I were dressing (ourselves) when mother came.
ìÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú Ò ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ, ÌÓ ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ‰Îfl ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË
Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Îˈ ËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚, Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ı Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ, .fl‚ÎflflÒ¸ Ò‚ÓÂÓ·‡ÁÌ˚Ï ÔËÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ Í ÌËÏ; ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈Â
Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÎË ÔÓÒΠӷÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Îˈ Ë Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚, Í ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl; ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Ò‡Ï /
Ò‡ÏË / Ò‡Ï ÔÓ Ò· /:
éÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò‡Ï ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ.fi ç can do it himself. / He himself can do it.
éÌË Ò‡ÏË ‚˚ÌÂÒÎË ÒÚÓÎ˚.fi They took the tables out themselves. / They themselves took out the tables.
ùÚ‡ ÍÌË„‡ ҇χ ÔÓ Ò· ӘÂ̸ ËÌÚÂÂÒ̇fl.fi The book itself is very interesting.
ü ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Î Ò Ò‡ÏËÏ ÔÂÁˉÂÌÚÓÏ.fi I spoke to the President himself.
Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ˚ Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË:
ùÚË ÔÓ‰‡ÍË ‰Îfl Ú·fl Ë Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚ˚.fi The gifts are for your sister and yourself (= and you).
çËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÎÛ˜¯Â Ì‡Ò Ò‡ÏËı.fi No one knows it better than ourselves (= than us / than we do).
Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÙÓχ oneself, ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ì Û͇Á‡ÌÌÓ„Ó
ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Îˈ‡; ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ÙÓÏÓÈ Infinitive:
íÛ‰ÌÓ ÛÏ˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ó˜Â̸ „Ófl˜ÂÈ ‚Ó‰ÓÈ.fi It is difficult to wash (oneself) with a very hot water.
çÂθÁfl ÊËÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó Ò·fl.fi One should not live for oneself alone.
èÂ‰ ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ô‰ÎÓ„ by. í‡Í‡fl ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈Ëfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ, ˜ÚÓ ÍÚÓÎË·Ó Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Ó‰ËÌ (·ÂÁ ÔÓÒÚÓÓÌÌËı), ËÎË ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ (·ÂÁ ÔÓÒÚÓÓÌÌÂÈ
ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë). Ç ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÔÂ‰ Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ by ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó all ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ:
åÓÈ ¯ÂÙ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ó‰ËÌ (Û ÌÂ„Ó ‚ ͇·ËÌÂÚ ÌÂÚ ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÈ).fi My boss is (all) by himself now.
Ö ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÎË ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ó‰ÌÛ.fi She was left (all) by herself.
éÌ ÔÓÒÚÓËÎ ‰ÓÏ Ò‡Ï / Ò‚ÓËÏË Û͇ÏË.fi ç built the house (all) by himself.

66

íÂχ 4. ÇÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.
Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‡Á΢‡˛Ú 4 ÚËÔ‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚:
1.
2.
3.
4.

é·˘ËÂ.
ëÔˆˇθÌ˚Â.
ÄθÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚Â.
ê‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚Â.
ÇÒ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˲ ÓÚ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ, Ú.Â. Û ÌËı
ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚, ËÎË ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Í‡ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ ‰ÂÚ‡ÎË.
ÇÒ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚ ӷ‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ Ï˚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÏ ÒıÂχÏË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ Ë
ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Á‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚË ÓÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË.
èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ó·˘ËÈ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ:
a)
b)
c)
d)

ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÏ ÚËÔ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡;
‚ÒÔÓÏË̇ÂÏ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Û˛ ‚˚·‡ÌÌÓÏÛ ÚËÔÛ ÒıÂÏÛ;
‡Ì‡ÎËÁËÛÂÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË, Ú.Â. ‚˚·Ë‡ÂÏ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó;
‡ÒÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÏ ‚Ò ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÒıÂÏÂ.

鷢ˠ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚.
íÂ·Û˛Ú ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ ч (Yes) ËÎË çÂÚ (No), ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ Á‡‰‡˛ÚÒfl ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÛ Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ÔÓ‰Ú‚ÂʉÂÌË ËÎË
ÓÚˈ‡ÌË ‚˚Ò͇Á‡ÌÌÓÈ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ï˚ÒÎË:
í˚ Ôˉ¯¸ Á‡‚Ú‡?fi ч, ÔˉÛ. / çÂÚ, Ì ÔˉÛ.
éÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ Ó·˘ËÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡ÚÍËÏ ËÎË ÔÓÎÌ˚Ï:
í˚ Ôˉ¯¸ Á‡‚Ú‡?fi ч, ÔˉÛ. ü ÔË‰Û Á‡‚Ú‡.
ä‡ÚÍËÈ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ÚÓÊ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒıÂÏÂ. ÉÛÔÔÛ Ó·˘Ëı ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ Â˘Â Ì‡ ‰‚Â:
1.
2.

‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ „·„Ó·ÏË to be ËÎË to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ı ‚
Present ËÎË Past (Future ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í 2));
‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÒÓ·ÓÈ Î˛·ÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ.
1. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: to be / to have ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ (ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ Present Ë Past)
ëıÂχ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡:
1
2
To be
èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ
to have
(ÌÛÊ̇fl ÙÓχ)

(‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï
ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ/ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË

3

4

5

...

...

...?

(Í‡Í ‚
ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ
Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË)

Are you a worker?fi í˚ ‡·Ó˜ËÈ?
Have you a car?fi ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ χ¯Ë̇?
ëıÂχ Í‡ÚÍÓ„Ó ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡:

ìÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ:

éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ:

1

2

3
to be

Yes,

ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ,
Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘ÂÂ
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ

1

2

3

No,

ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ,
Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘ÂÂ
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ

To be --- +not
to have (ÌÛÊ̇fl
ÙÓχ)

to have (ÌÛÊ̇fl
ÙÓχ)

í˚ ‡·Ó˜ËÈ?fi Are you a worker? — Yes, I am. / No, I am not.
ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ χ¯Ë̇?fi Have you a car? — Yes, I have. / No, I haven't.
í‚Ófl χڸ Á‰ÂÒ¸?fi Is your mother here? — Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
ì ÌÂ„Ó ÂÒÚ¸ ‰ÛÁ¸fl?fi Has he any friends? — No, he has not. / Yes, he has.
67

éÌË ·˚ÎË Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚˜Â‡?fi Were they here yesterday? — Yes, they were. / No, they were not.
ì Ëı ‰ÛÁÂÈ ·˚ÎË Í‡ÍËÂ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÍÌË„Ë?fi Had their friends any books? — Yes, they had. / No, they hadn't.

èËϘ‡ÌËfl:

‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë „·„ÓÎ to have ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ got (to have got) ËÎË ÒÓ
‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï to do; Ó·‡ ˝ÚË ÒÎÛ˜‡fl ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í 2);
ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ ӷÓÓÚ‡ there + to be ÒÎÓ‚Ó there ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ, ‡ ‚ Í‡ÚÍËı
ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı — ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ 2:
ç‡ ÒÚÓΠÂÒÚ¸ ͇͇fl-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÍÌË„‡?fi Is there a book on the table? — Yes, there is. / No, there is not (isn't).
2. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: β·ÓÂ, ÍÓÏ 1)
ëıÂχ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡:
1
ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚
È „·„ÓÎ

2

3

4

5

ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ

ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó
È „·„ÓÎ

...

...?

(‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò
ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï
ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ/ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË

(Í‡Í ‚
ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓ
Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË)

ëıÂχ Í‡ÚÍÓ„Ó ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡:
1
ìÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ:

Yes,
1

éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ:

No,

2
ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ,
Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘ÂÂ
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ
2
ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ,
Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘ÂÂ
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ

3
‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ
(Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÚÓÚ ÊÂ, ˜ÚÓ Ë
‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒÂ)
3
‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ
(Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÚÓÚ ÊÂ, ˜ÚÓ Ë
‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒÂ) + not

èËϘ‡ÌË :
‚ Í‡ÚÍËı ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı ÏÂÊ‰Û ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ, Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘ËÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ, Ë ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸
̇˜ËÂ:
— Do you like her? — Yes, I sometimes do.fi — é̇ Ú· Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl? — ч, ËÌÓ„‰‡.
— Will he call us tonight? — Yes, he probably will.fi — éÌ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ Ì‡Ï Ò„ӉÌfl ‚˜ÂÓÏ? — ч, ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ,
ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ.
— Does your father meet you after lessons? — No, he never does.fi — éÚˆ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚ Ú·fl ÔÓÒΠÛÓÍÓ‚? —
çÂÚ, ÌËÍÓ„‰‡.

äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË:
̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‡Ï˚È ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ËÎË ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ:
Do you like my room?fi í· Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÏÓfl ÍÓÏ̇ڇ?
Can your father help me?fi í‚ÓÈ ÓÚˆ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÏÌÂ?
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË:
And will your vary beautiful sister come tomorrow?fi Ä Ú‚Ófl Ó˜Â̸ Í‡ÒË‚‡fl ÒÂÒÚ˘͇ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡‚Ú‡?
Were any new facts found there?fi Å˚ÎË ÎË Ú‡Ï Ó·Ì‡ÛÊÂÌ˚ ͇ÍËÂ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‰Û„Ë هÍÚ˚?
Has the film about new materials been shown yet?fi îËÎ¸Ï Ó ÌÓ‚˚ı χÚÂˇ·ı ÛÊ ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÎË?
̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚Ò ÓÒÚ‡‚¯ËÂÒfl ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„ÓÎ˚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚:
Has this child been sleeping here long?fi ùÚÓÚ ·ÂÌÓÍ ‰ÓÎ„Ó ÒÔËÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸?
Have they been shown our office yet?fi àÏ ÛÊ ÔÓ͇Á‡ÎË Ì‡¯ ÓÙËÒ?
‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÚËˆÛ not ÔÓÒÎÂ
ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ڇÍË ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ê‡Á‚ ...? / çÂÛÊÂÎË ...?):
Did you not call him?fi ê‡Á‚ / çÂÛÊÂÎË Ú˚ Ì Á‚ÓÌËÎ ÂÏÛ?
ÌÓ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ÓÙˈˇθÌÓ Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰ÍÓ, ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl
ÙÓχ;
ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl (‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ˜¸) ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ not ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò‡ÁÛ
ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·:
68

they didn't. í˚ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚ˉÂÎ ‰Óʉ¸?fi Have you ever seen the rain? — Yes. she isn't. I haven't. Ì ÏÓ„Û. I never have. 8.. Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. ÌÓ Ì ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÂÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË çÂÛÊÂÎË . / No. Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.fi çÂÚ. it has.fi ч. Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.fi Did you read this book? ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ çÂÚ Í‡Í ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ. ‡ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚È — No: ê‡Á‚ Ú· Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÏÓÈ ‰ÓÏ?fi Don't you like my house? — Yes.Didn't you call him? Haven't they been shown our office yet? ÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÙÓÏ ӷ˘Â„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂÏ..fi ч. it won't. I can. ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ‚Ò„‰‡ ̇˜Ë̇ÂÚÒfl Yes. it certainly will. í‚Ófl χχ ÒÔËÚ?fi Is your mother sleeping? — Yes. 5. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ı ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂÏ: ê‡Á‚ Ú· Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÏÓÈ ‰ÓÏ? — çÂÚ. àı ‰ÛÁ¸fl ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË Ò˛‰‡ ÔÓ¯Î˚È ‡Á?fi Did their friends come here last time? — Yes. — No. / No. ÏÓ„Û. it hasn't. ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 1. I don't. 69 . èÓ˜Ú‡ ÛÊ Ô˯·?fi Has the post come yet? — Yes. í˚ ıÓÓ¯Ó Ò·fl ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û¯¸?fi Do you feel well? — Yes. / No.?. 3. ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ there + to be ‚ Future ÒıÂχ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: 1 2 3 4 5 ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â (‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ / Will There Be ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ / ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË) Will there be a new film next week?fi ç‡ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÈ Ì‰ÂΠ·Û‰ÂÚ ÌÓ‚˚È ÙËθÏ? Will there be many people at the concert?fi ç‡ ÍÓ̈ÂÚ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó Ì‡Ó‰Û? ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Active Indefinite ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È to do (Present / Past) ËÎË will (Future). I do.)¤ will not) 6.? /ê‡Á‚ . I can't.fi çÂÚ. I don't. ‚‡ˇÌÚ) í˚ ˜ËڇΠ˝ÚÛ ÍÌË„Û? — ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚‡fl. / çÂÚ. she is. LJ¯ ‰ÓÏ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl?fi Is your house being built? — Yes. 4. ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ·ÂÁ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl: í˚ Ì ˜ËڇΠ˝ÚÛ ÍÌË„Û?¤ (‡Ì„Î. a got — ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·: Have you got some money?fi ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„? Has she got anything against me?fi é̇ ËÏÂÂÚ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÓÚË‚ ÏÂÌfl? ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ̇˜ËÈ ‚ÂÏÂÌË — ÒÏ. / No. / No. èËÏÂ˚ Ó·˘Ëı ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚: 1. / No.. áÄèéåçàíÖ: Ó·˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓ‚˚¯‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ËÌÚÓ̇ˆËÂÈ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. a ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to (ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÙÛÌ͈ËË Á‡·Ë‡ÂÚ Ì‡ Ò·fl ÔÓfl‚Ë‚¯ËÈÒfl ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ): Did you go there alone?fi í˚ ÂÁ‰ËÎ ÚÛ‰‡ Ó‰ËÌ? Does she ever call you?fi é̇ Á‚ÓÌËÚ Ú· ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸? Will they take us with them?fi éÌË ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÛÚ Ì‡Ò Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ? ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ „Îa„aÎa to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: Did you have to help them yesterday?fi í· Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ ‚˜Â‡? Does she have to wait here?fi ÖÈ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ê‰‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸? ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÚÓflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: Do you have any money?fi ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‰ÂÌ„? Did you have a good rest?fi Ç˚ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÎË? ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ò ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÂÏ to have got „·„ÓÎ to have ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ. çÂÛÊÂÎË Ú˚ Ì ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÈ?fi Can't you help her? — Yes. 7. I have. ùÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓÒÚÓflÚ ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ?fi Will that house be built next month? — Yes. it isn't. / No. 2. they did. / No. it is. / No.. I do. (won't (‡Á„.

‰‡Î ˉÛÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ Ë ‚Ò ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡.): ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒË„‡ (ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏÓÂ) ‚˚ÍÛËÎË?fi How many cigars have been smoked? ÇÓÔÓÒ˚. Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ ˜ÎÂÌÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ. 70 . ÇÓÔÓÒ˚ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ËÎË Í Â„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: There are books on the table. ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ËÎË Í Â„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲ (ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û / ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï). 2. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. 12. / No. Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ.fi Who likes to play? — Children. / No.fi ç‡ ÒÚÓΠÎÂÊ‡Ú ÍÌË„Ë. Ì „Ó‚Ó˛. I don't. there wasn't. Ç ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‰‚‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚‡: who? fi ÍÚÓ? what? fi ˜ÚÓ? ëıÂχ: 1 2 3 4 who … .fi What is there on the table? — Books.fi çÂÚ. Have you any money?fi Yes. I have not. / No. Ú. ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Í Î˛·˚Ï ‰Û„ËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË... I do.. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÓı‡ÌflÂÚÒfl ÔflÏÓÈ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. which — ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Í‡ÍÓÈ ËÁ ‰‡ÌÌÓ„Ó fl‰‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚? / ÍÓÚÓ˚È ËÁ?: ä‡ÍË ÍÌË„Ë (‚ÓÓ·˘Â) ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Â?fi What books are interesting? ä‡ÍË ÍÌË„Ë (ËÁ ÚÂı. ? Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ what äÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ Ú· ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÛ ‡·ÓÚÛ?fi Who helps you to do this work? ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÙÓÏ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· (Í‡Í ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ): äÚÓ Î˛·ËÚ Ë„‡Ú¸? — ÑÂÚË.? ó¸Ë ‰ÂÚË ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË?fi Whose children came? èËϘ‡ÌËfl: what ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Í‡ÍÓÈ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â?. / No. I do..fi ч. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ̇΢ˠÔ‰ÏÂÚ‡ ‚ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Â. there was.. ÒÚÓflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ there + to be: óÚÓ (ÎÂÊËÚ) ̇ ÒÚÓÎÂ? — äÌË„Ë. ëÔˆˇθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. / No. ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Â̸„Ë?fi Have you got any money? — Yes.Â. 11.. Ë there ÏÂÌfl˛ÚÒfl ÏÂÒÚ‡ÏË ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ. I do. Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ËÎË Â„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl. . ùÚÛ „ÛÔÔÛ ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ Â˘Â Ì‡ ‰‚Â: 1. I don't. ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÓÒ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸: ‰Óχ /ÒÚÓÎ˚ / ͇‡Ì‰‡¯Ë /. 10. ê‡Á‚ ‚˚ Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ ÔÓ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË?fi Don't you speak English? — Yes.): ëÍÓθÍÓ ÊˉÍÓÒÚË (ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏÓÂ) ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎË?fi How much liquid was used? how many fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? (ÚÓ„Ó. Û͇Á˚‚‡˛˘ËÏ..9. í˚ Ó·flÁ‡Ì ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ÓÚˆÛ?fi Do you have to help your father? — Yes. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ) ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Â?fi Which books are interesting? how much fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? (ÚÓ„Ó.¤ Do you have any money?fi Yes. 1. „Ó‚Ó˛... I have not. ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. I don't. / No. 燘Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ. I have. Ç ‚ÓÔÓÒÂ Í ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡: whose? fi ˜ÂÈ? what? fi ͇ÍÓÈ? which? fi ÍÓÚÓ˚È? how much / how many? fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? ëıÂχ: 1 2 3 ÇÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ 4 5 .. ˜ÚÓ ÌÂθÁfl ÒÓÒ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸: ‚Ó‰‡/‚ÓÁ‰Ûı/. Ç ˝ÚÓÈ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍ ·˚· ‚Ó‰‡?fi Was there any water in that bottle? — Yes. I have.

fi ä‡ÍË ÍÌË„Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Â? — ÇÓÌ ÚÂ.fi äÚÓ ÛÏÂÂÚ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸? — ü (Ûϲ). ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡: what? fi ˜ÚÓ? / ͇ÍÓÈ? who? fi ÍÚÓ? whom? fi ÍÓ„Ó? / ÍÓÏÛ? (˝ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÚ ËÁ ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËfl ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. ‡ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÙÓÏ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to: Why did you go there alone?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÂÁ‰ËÎ ÚÛ‰‡ Ó‰ËÌ? ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ „·„Ó· to have ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: Why does she have to wait here?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ó̇ ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ʉ‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸? ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ò ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËÂÏ to have got „·„ÓÎ to have ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·.fi ó¸Ë ‰ÂÚË ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË? — 燯Ëı ‰ÛÁÂÈ.fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ÊˉÍÓÒÚË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎË? — é‰ÌÛ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍÛ. How many cigars have been smoked? — About twenty. ÑÎfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ Í Î˛·˚Ï ‰Û„ËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒË„‡ ‚˚ÍÛËÎË? — éÍÓÎÓ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡ÚË. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ: Who likes to play? — Children (do).fi óÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ‚‡Ï ‚ ‚‡¯ÂÈ ‡·ÓÚÂ?. How much liquid was used? — One / A bottle. ÇÓÔÓÒ˚ Í Î˛·˚Ï ‰Û„ËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ÍÓÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó Ë ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl Í ÌÂÏÛ. Who can cook? — I can. ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË: When will your very beautiful sister come?fi äÓ„‰‡ ÔˉÂÚ Ú‚Ófl Í‡Ò‡‚ˈ‡-ÒÂÒÚ˘͇? ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚Ò ÓÒÚ‡‚¯ËÂÒfl ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„ÓÎ˚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚: How long has this child been sleeping here?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ / ä‡Í ‰ÓÎ„Ó ˝ÚÓÚ ·ÂÌÓÍ ÒÔËÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸? ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Active Indefinite ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl to do (Present / Past) ËÎË will (Future). ÌÓ‚˚Â. What books are interesting? — These books (are). What helps you in your work? — My good sense of humour (does). ˜ÚÓ ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˲ ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ Ó·˘Â„Ó ÚÂÏ. a got — ̇ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó: Why has she got something against me?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ó̇ ËÏÂÂÚ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÔÓÚË‚ ÏÂÌfl? 71 .fi äÚÓ Î˛·ËÚ Ë„‡Ú¸? — ÑÂÚË.fi ä‡ÍË ÍÌË„Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Â? — ùÚË. 2. Whose children came? — Our friends' children (did).éÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ˝ÚÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚ ‰‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ Í‡ÚÍÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ Ë ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ËÁ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó (Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ËÎË ·ÂÁ ÌËı) + ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÈ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÈ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÙÓÏÛΠ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È / ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ. Ç Í‡ÚÍÓÏ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚Ó-Á‡ÏÂÌËÚÂθ one ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó: ä‡ÍÓÈ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ Ú‚ÓÈ?fi Which car is yours? — That one. Ë ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ Â„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËË ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl who?) whose? fi ˜ÂÈ? which? fi ÍÓÚÓ˚È? / ͇ÍÓÈ? when? fi ÍÓ„‰‡? where? fi „‰Â? / ÍÛ‰‡? why? fi ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ? / Á‡˜ÂÏ? how? fi ͇Í? / ͇ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ? how many? fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? (ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏÓ„Ó) how much? fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? (ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏÓ„Ó) how long? fi ÒÍÓθÍÓ? (Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË) ëıÂχ: 1 2 3 4 5 ÇÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂÎ¸Ì èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ é·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ÒÎÓ‚Ó ˚È „·„ÓΠ „·„ÓÎ ‚ÂÏÂÌË / ÏÂÒÚ‡ äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË: ËÁ ÒıÂÏ˚ ‚ˉÌÓ.— óÛ‚ÒÚ‚Ó ˛ÏÓ‡. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó.fi ÇÓÌ ÚÓÚ.fi ëËθÌ˚È (ÏÛʘË̇). ä‡ÍÓÈ ÏÛʘË̇ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚‡Ï ÔÓÏÓ˜¸?fi What man can help you? — A strong one. Which books are interesting? — Those new books (are).

ÌË ‰Û„ÓÂ. óÂÏ Ú˚ Á‡ÌËχ¯¸Òfl (ÒÂȘ‡Ò)?fi What are you doing? 3. ëÍÓθÍÓ ÎÂÚ ·˚ÎÓ ‚‡¯ÂÏÛ ÓÚˆÛ?fi How old was your father? 8. 72 .‚ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‡ÌÂÂ Ë Ì ÛÍ·‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ˛˘ËÈÒfl ‰Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡ Â˜Ë ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË) 22. åÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ Á‡‰‡Ì˚ Í Î˛·ÓÏÛ ˜ÎÂÌÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ëÍÓθÍÓ Ë‰ÂÚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ ‰Ó 縲-âÓ͇?fi How long does ç take a letter to get to New-York? 20. óÚÓ Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÍÛÔËÚ¸?fi What do you have to buy? 17. ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: "ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ˝ÚÓ ÓÚÌËÏÂÚ Û Ú·fl ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÛ ‡·ÓÚÛ?" — Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ÙÓÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ Ë Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ ÂÂ) 19. ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡Ï ÎÂÚ?fi How old are you? (Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ëÍÓθÍÓ ÎÂÚ ‚‡¯ÂÏÛ Ò˚ÌÛ?fi How old is your son? 7. äÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ Ô˯·?fi When did she come? (ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ when ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Perfect Present. ë ÍÂÏ Ú˚ ÔÓȉ¯¸ ‚ ÍËÌÓ (Á‡‚Ú‡)?fi Who will you go to the cinema with (tomorrow)? / With whom will you go to the cinema (tomorrow)? 9.fi — Ç˚ ÍÛËÚ ËÎË ÌÂÚ? — äÛ˛.ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ‚˚¯Â ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ì ÔÂ‰‡˛Ú ‚ÒÂı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ ÛÒÒÍËı ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ (ÓÚÍÛ‰‡? / Ò ÍÂÏ? Ì ‰. ä‡Í‡fl Ò„ӉÌfl ÔÓ„Ó‰‡?fi What is / What's the weather like today? (Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. äÓÚÓ˚È ˜‡Ò?fi What time is it? / What is the time? / Have you got the right time? (Òڇ̉‡ÚÌ˚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË) 24. ɉ ‚˚ ÊË‚ÂÚÂ?fi Where do you live? 5. äÚÓ ‚˚ (ÔÓ ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÒÚË)?fi What are you? 10.). ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒıÂÏ˚ Ó·ÓËı ÚËÔÓ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÓÒÚ‡˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËÈ: — Do you smoke or not? — I do. ӷ·‰‡˛˘Ëı ̇·ÓÓÏ Ó·˘ÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚. ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl. Í ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl: What drinks do they prefer?fi ä‡ÍË ̇ÔËÚÍË ÓÌË Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡˛Ú? Which book do you want?fi ä‡ÍÛ˛ ÍÌË„Û (ËÁ ÚÂı. äÂÏ ·˚Î ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ Ú‚ÓÈ ‰ÓÏ?fi Who was your house built by? / By whom was your house built? 14. / Neither. óÚÓ ÏÌ ‰Â·ڸ?fi What must I do? / What should I do? / What shall I do? 16. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÏ˚È ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Ó„ fi ËÎË ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚‚Ó‰ËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í ‚ Ó·˘ËÂ. / ç ÍÛ˛. è‰ÔÓ·„‡˛Ú ‚˚·Ó Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ ‰‚Ûı Îˈ / Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ / ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ / ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚ / ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: "ç‡ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓıÓʇ ÔÓ„Ó‰‡ Ò„ӉÌfl?" — ڇ͇fl ÙÓχ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ÒÏÓ„ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï?fi Why couldn't you help us? 4. äÓ„‰‡ Ê ÏÌ ‡Á¯‡Ú ۂˉÂÚ¸Òfl Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ?fi When shall I be allowed to see you? 23. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‰ -ÚÓ·ÓÈ) Ú˚ ıӘ¯¸? èËÏÂ˚ ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ı ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚: 1. ä‡Í Ú‡Ï ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚?fi What are the women like there? 27. ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ú· ÔÓ̇‰Ó·ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ˝ÚÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚?fi How long will it take you to do this work? (Òڇ̉‡ÚÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÍÓÚÓ˚ Á‡ÌËχ˛Ú ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (ÌÓ ÔÂ‰ Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÔË Â„Ó Ì‡Î˘ËË) ËÎË ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î (̇ÏÌÓ„Ó ÂÊÂ): éÚÍÛ‰‡ ‚˚?fi Where are you from? ÒÎÓ‚‡ what? / which? ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Í‡ÍÓÈ? ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË. / I'm not sleeping. Ú. — Are you sleeping or reading? — I'm reading. ä‡ÍÓ ‚Ó î‡ÌˆËË ‚ËÌÓ?fi What is the wine like in France? ÄθÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ëÍÓθÍÓ Û Ú·fl ‰ÂÌ„?fi How much money have you got? / How much money have you? / How much money do you have? 12. / ü Ì ÒÔβ. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ı. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl Ò˛‰‡?fi How long did it take you to come here? 21. äÛ‰‡ Ëı ÓÚÔ‡‚flÚ?fi Where will they be sent? 18. ä‡ÍË ÒË„‡˚ Ú˚ β·Ë¯¸ ÍÛËÚ¸?fi What cigars do you like to smoke? 15.Í. / I do not. Ç˚·Ó. ᇘÂÏ / ÑÎfl ˜Â„Ó Ú˚ ÍÛÔËÎ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ?fi What have you bought this house for? / Why did you buy this house? 25.fi — í˚ ÒÔ˯¸ ËÎË ˜Ëڇ¯¸? — ü ˜ËÚ‡˛. ëÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÓηÓ‚ Ú˚ ÂÏÛ Á‡Ô·ÚËÎ?fi How many dollars did you pay him? 13. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ to be) 6. óÂÏ ‚˚ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÂÒ¸? / äÂÏ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚÂ?fi What do you do? 2. äÚÓ ‚˚ (Í‡Í ‚‡Ò ÁÓ‚ÛÚ)?fi Who are you? 11. / çË ÚÓ. ëÍÓθÍÓ Ú· ÔÓ̇‰Ó·ËÎÓÒ¸ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÙÓÏ Ô‰·„‡ÂÚ ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ËÁ ̇·Ó‡ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ó‰ËÌ ÔËÁÌ‡Í ‰Îfl Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl) 26.

haven't you?fi í˚ Ô˯ÂÎ Ó‰ËÌ. ëÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÛÒÒÍËÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏ. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ë ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ: ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË + ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? ê‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ‡Á·ËÚ¸ ̇ ‰‚ „ÛÔÔ˚: 1. they won't. did they?fi åÓË ‰ÛÁ¸fl Ì ӷflÁ‡Ì˚ ·˚ÎË ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ. I am a beautiful girl. Ç ÔÂ‚ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ + not ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â You are a student.fi çÂÚ. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? They were sleeping. / No.fi — é̇ Û˜ËÚÒfl ËÎË ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ? — çË ÚÓ. aren't I? / am I not? — Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ!fi ü Í‡ÒË‚‡fl ‰Â‚ۯ͇. ëıÂχ: 1 2 2 3 åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ.— Is she a student or a worker? — Neither.fi çÂÚ. I am. is there? — Yes. won't she? — Yes. ÖÒÎË ‡Î¸ÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? ç‡ ‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÏÓÊÌÓ ‰‡Ú¸ Í‡ÚÍËÈ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ. / Neither (of us does). Ì Ô‡‚‰‡ ÎË? lam a good boy. / ч. / No. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? You have come alone. is there?fi Ç ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍ ÌÂÚ ‚Ó‰˚. won't she? / will she not?fi é̇ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡‚Ú‡. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? You are not sleeping. aren't I / am I not? — Yes. ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â There is not any / no water in the bottle. there isn't. / No. Ô˂‰ÂÌ˚ ‚ ê‡Á‰ÂΠV. ÌË ‰Û„ÓÂ. she will. aren't you? / (ÂÊÂ: are you not?)fi í˚ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. Ç ÔÂ‚ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. am I not? / aren't I?fi ü ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Ô‡Â̸. ÂÒÚ¸ ‚Ó‰‡. weren't they? / were they not?fi éÌË ÒÔ‡ÎË. ëıÂχ: 1 3 ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. There is not any water in the bottle. 73 . you are. She will come tomorrow. are you?fi í˚ Ì ÒÔ˯¸. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? I am a beautiful girl. Ë Ó·‡ ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl Ò ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ: Do you or does your brother smoke these cigars?fi Ç˚ ËÎË ‚‡¯ ·‡Ú ÍÛËÚ ˝ÚË ÒË„‡˚? (ÏÓÊÌÓ: Who smokes these cigars: you or your brother? (— ̇ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ‰‡ÂÚÒfl Í‡ÚÍËÈ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ: My brother does. ÚÓ ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÒıÂÏÂ. éÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È / Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Â Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? My friends didn't have to do it. aren't you? — Yes. they will. / No. / ч. 1. When will you come: tomorrow or the day after tomorrow?fi äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ Ôˉ¯¸: Á‡‚Ú‡ ËÎË ÔÓÒÎÂÁ‡‚Ú‡? ÖÒÎË ‡Î¸ÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ. Ë ËÏÂ˛Ú ÒıÓÊË ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl. „‰Â ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ìÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È / Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Â Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÏÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? / Ì Ô‡‚‰‡ ÎË?. she won't. / No. Ì Ô‡‚‰‡ ÎË? 2. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. will they?fi éÌË Ì ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘ËÈ ÔÓ ÒıÂÏÂ Ò Í‡ÚÍËÏ ÓÚ‚ÂÚÓÏ Í Ó·˘ÂÏÛ ‚ÓÔÓÒÛ: You are a student. ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ. „‰Â ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. They won't be able to help us. cannot / can't he?fi í‚ÓÈ ‰Û„ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. / I do. you are not. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚. Ì ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ. ‡ ‚˚·Ó Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡: ó¸Ë ‰ÂÚË Ò‰Â·ÎË ˝ÚÓ: ̇¯Ë ËÎË Ëı?fi Whose children did it: ours or theirs? ä‡ÍË ÍÌË„Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÂÂ: ˝ÚË ËÎË ÚÂ?fi Which books are more interesting: these ones or those ones? ê‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? She will come tomorrow. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? They won't be able to help us. haven't they?fi LJ¯Ëı ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚÓ‚ ‚ˉÂÎË ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. ÌÂÚ ‚Ó‰˚. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? Your students have been seen together. I am not. 2. will they? — Yes. there is. ÚÓ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ‰‚‡. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? Your friend can help us.

ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛˘Ë ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. í‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ì fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˲. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ì ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ·ÂÁ „·‚Ì˚ı. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Ú‡ÍËı.fi I love her. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÍÛËÎ ·Óθ¯Û˛ ÒË„‡Û. ӷ·‰‡fl Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ÏË „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË. ÔÓ‰˜ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Ó·˘ËÏ Ô‡‚ËÎ‡Ï ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÔÓÒÚ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÔÓÒÚ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÒÓ˜ËÌÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‡Á‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ËÎË ÚÓ˜ÍÓÈ Ò Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ: ü ÂÏÛ ÔÓÏÓ„. Ú. Ç ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ó·Â ˜‡ÒÚË Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ÒÓ·ÓÈ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚ ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡ ÔÓÒÚ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. í‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓÊÌÓÒÓ˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË: ü  β·Î˛. Á‡‚ËÒfl˘ËÏ ÓÚ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÔÓ‰˜ËÌfl˛˘ËÏÒfl ÂÏÛ. ·Û‰Û˜Ë Ó·˙‰ËÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË ‚ Ó‰ÌÓ. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ÏË ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË. ÚÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÒÚÓËÚ¸Òfl ÔÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Ï Ì‡Ï Á‡ÍÓ̇Ï: Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ì‡Î˘Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. Ú. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‰‚‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ı Ë. ÍÓÚÓ˚Â. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÌflÚ¸. ‚Ò ‡‚ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰Ì‡ ËÁ ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ Ë Ú. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‰‚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËÂÏ ‰‚Ûı ËÎË ·ÓΠ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ.fi I love mother but I don't help her. and fi ÌÓ. Ì ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflflÒ¸ ‰Û„ÓÈ. Ë ÌË͇ÍËı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛Ú. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ï˚ Ë ·Û‰ÂÏ ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ ÌËÊÂ. ÚÓ„‰‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚ Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‰‚‡Ê‰˚. Ó‰ÌÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl „·‚Ì˚Ï. ÒÓ‰ËÌflÂÏ˚ı ͇ÍËÏ-ÎË·Ó ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌË Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl Ó‰ÌÓÓ‰Ì˚ÏË Ë. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ˜¸ ˉÂÚ „·‚Ì˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. but fi Ӊ̇ÍÓ / Ë ‚Ò ÊÂ. and pushed the door. b) é‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ÏË ÔÓ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. ıÓÚfl Ë fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡‚ËÒËÏ˚ÏË ÓÚ „·‚Ì˚ı.Â. Ï˚ ÛÊ „ÓÚÓ‚˚ ‚ ÔË̈ËÔÂ Í ÚÓÏÛ. É‡ÏχÚË͇. é̇ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚Ë·Ҹ. å˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎË ÌÓ‚Û˛ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸. ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ ÂÈ. ÓÌ ·˚Î Ó˜Â̸ ‡‰. ‰‚‡ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ӉÌÓ„Ó: ü β·Î˛ χÏÛ.fi We saw a man who was smoking a big cigar. or fi Ë ‚Ò Ê still àÌÓ„‰‡ ÒÓ˛Á Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÓÓ·˘Â. ‡ ‰Û„Ó (‰Û„ËÂ) — ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï Ë. fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÂ: fi a / Ë. c) ê‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. Á‡Í˚· „·Á‡ Ë ÚÓÎÍÌÛ· ‰‚Â¸. ÌÓ ˝ÚÓ (Ó̇) Ì ÔÓÏÓ„ÎÓ.fi ç opened the door and saw us. çÓ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı flÁ˚͇ı ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚ¸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Á‡‚ËÒËÏ˚Ï ÔÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: å˚ ۂˉÂÎË ÏÛʘËÌÛ. èÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. closed her eyes. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‡ÁÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í Ó‰ÌÓÏÛ „·‚ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÏÂÚÛ. fi ËÎË. í‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ‡ÁÌ˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ. ÌÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛˘ËÏËÒfl ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ÏË. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚Íβ˜‡˛Ú ‚ Ò·fl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ. and she doesn't love me.fi I helped him. í‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë Ë ·Û‰ÛÚ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ Ì‡¯Â„Ó ‰‡Î¸ÌÂÈ¯Â„Ó ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl.Â. ‡ Ó̇ ÏÂÌfl Ì β·ËÚ. he was very glad. ÑÓ ÒËı ÔÓ Ï˚ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÎË Î˯¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÔÓÒÚ˚ı ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Î˯¸ ̇ۘËÚ¸Òfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌflÚ¸ Ëı Í „·‚Ì˚Ï ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÏË ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ Ô‡‚Ë·ÏË. LJÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÓÏ. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ËÏÒfl Í ÔÓÒÚÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲. Òӄ·ÒÛ˛ÚÒfl Ò Ó‰ÌËÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ̇Á˚‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË.fi She stopped.ê‡Á‰ÂÎ II. 74 . ÒÔÓÒÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔÓ‰˜ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Ó·˘ËÏ Ô‡‚Ë·Ï. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌfl˛˘ËÏËÒfl Ó‰ÌËÏ Ë ÚÂÏ Ê Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓ Ë ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ˜‡ÒÚË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ú. however nevertheless fi ÚÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ/ Ӊ̇ÍÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÚÓËÚ¸ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. éÌË ÔÓÒÚÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌfl˛Ú ËÌÙÓχˆË˛. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Í‡Ê‰‡fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ. Ä ‡Á Ú‡Í. ÌÓ ‚ ‡ÁÌÓÈ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓÒÚË: ü β·Î˛ „Ó. ‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎfl˛ÚÒfl: éÌ ÓÚÍ˚Î ‰‚Â¸ Ë Û‚Ë‰ÂΠ̇Ò. ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘Û˛Òfl ‚ „·‚Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.Â.fi I love him and I don't love you.fi We used a new liquid but it didn't help. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÏËÒfl ‰Îfl ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl ‰‚Ûı (ËÎË ·ÓÎÂÂ) ÔÓÒÚ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÒÓ˜ËÌÂÌÌÓÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ÓÌË ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í „ÛÔÔ ÔÓÒÚ˚ı. ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÔÓ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË: 1) ë ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ „·‚Ì˚ı Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. àÌÓ„‰‡ ˜¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ë‰ÚË Ó· Ó‰ÌÓÏ Ë ÚÓÏ Ê Ô‰ÏÂÚÂ Ë Ó· Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚ÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË. ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ Ú‡ÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‚‡ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚ı ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ı. ‡ Ì Ú·fl.‰. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸: a) é‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ÏË ÔÓ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË.

ùÚÓ Á̇˜ËÚ. ‡ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ (Gerund) Ë Ô˘‡ÒÚË (Participle) Ó·‡ÁÛ˛Ú Ò‚ÓË ÙÓÏ˚ ÓÚ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı Ì‡Ï ÙÓÏÛÎ. éÌË ÓÚÍ·‰˚‚‡˛Ú ÔËÌflÚË ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ¯ÂÌËfl ‰Ó ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘Â„Ó ÒÎÛ˜‡fl. Ô˘‡ÒÚ˲ Ë ÒÎÓÊÌ˚Ï ÙÓÏ‡Ï ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡. Indefinite / Continuous / Perfect / P. Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË Ì‡¯ÂÈ äÓÏËÒÒËË ‚‡¯ËÏ äÓÏËÚÂÚÓÏ.2) ë ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÌÂ΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ „·„Ó·. ̇ ÏÓÈ ‚Á„Îfl‰. ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl. ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ëı Ӊ̇ Á‡ ‰Û„ÓÈ: ÇÌËχÚÂθÌÓ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏË‚¯ËÒ¸ Ò Ï‡ÚÂˇ·ÏË. ÑÓ ÒËı ÔÓ Ï˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Ò Active Indefinite Infinitive: I can help you. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÙÓÏÛÎ Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÔÓÚÂflÎË Ò‚Ó ҇ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ Ë ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í Â‰ËÌÓ ˆÂÎÓ ‚ ÒÓ‚ÓÍÛÔÌÓÒÚË Ò ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÏË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. = LJ¯ äÓÏËÚÂÚ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËΠ̇¯ÂÈ äÓÏËÒÒËË Ï‡ÚÂˇÎ˚. óÎÂÌ˚ ̇¯ÂÈ äÓÏËÒÒËË Ô˯ÎË Í Â‰ËÌÓ‰Û¯ÌÓÏÛ ÏÌÂÌ˲. ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ‡·ÒÛ‰Ì˚Â. Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ÙÓÏÛ·ı. ˜ÚÓ Â˘Â ‡Á ÔÓ‰Ú‚Âʉ‡ÂÚ Ù‡ÍÚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË Î˛·Ó„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (·Û‰¸ ÓÌÓ „·‚Ì˚Ï ËÎË ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï) Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ËÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ËÁ Ù‡ÍÚ‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËfl ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ Ë Ì Ô˚Ú‡Ú¸Òfl ‚˚ÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ͇ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ËÂ. „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Ë Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂ. ë ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ (ÙÓχ Infinitive) Ï˚ ÛÊ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚. ÌÓ ÓÔflÚ¸ Ê ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ë Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ. ÌÓ ÛÊÂ Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË (Active / Passive. Ë „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ ËÁۘ˂ Ëı. ˜ÚÓ. 75 . ÌÓ ‰Îfl Ì‡Ò ˝ÚË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë Ì Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ËÌÚÂÂÒ‡. Ë̇˜Â „Ó‚Ófl. ÇÒ ÒÂϸ ÙÓÏÛÎ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ËÒıÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÔÓÁˈËË ÚÓÊ fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ÏË. ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ˆÂÎÂÒÓÓ·‡ÁÌÓ ÓÚÎÓÊËÚ¸ ÔËÌflÚË ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ¯ÂÌËfl ÔÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚‡ÏË Ï‡ÚÂË‡Î‡Ï ‰Ó ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘Â„Ó ÒÎÛ˜‡fl.). à ¢ ӉËÌ. Ç ÒÚÛÍÚÛÂ Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÓÔÓ·„‡˛˘ËÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÔË̈ËÔ˚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÔÓÒÚ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ò Ó‰ÌËÏ („·‚Ì˚Ï) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ. çÂ΢Ì˚ ÙÓÏ˚ „·„Ó· Ì ӷ·‰‡˛Ú ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ‚ÂÏÂÌË.C. Perfect (Active / Passive) Ë Perfect Continuous ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛ÚÒfl ÙÓχÏË è˘‡ÒÚËfl I (~ ~ ~ ing ) Ë è˘‡ÒÚËfl II (~ ~ ~ ed / 3-fl ÙÓχ). å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Ô˘‡ÒÚËÈ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓÈ flÁ˚ÍÓ‚ÓÈ Â‰ËÌˈ˚. ˜ÚÓ. ÌÓ ÓÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·Î‡‰‡Ú¸ Ë ‰Û„ËÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË: They can be seen. — Active Continuous Infinitive ÑÓ·‡‚ËÏ ‚Ó ‚Ò Ô˂‰ÂÌÌ˚ ÔËÏÂ˚ ÔËÁÌ‡Í ‚ÂÏÂÌË (‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Present) Ë ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÏ Ú Ê ҇Ï˚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ ËÁ íÂÏ˚ 1. She wants to help him. ÂÒÎË ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·ÓÈÚËÒ¸ Ë ·ÂÁ ÌËı?" èÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl. åÌÓ„Ë Á‡‰‡˛Ú ‚ÓÔÓÒ: "ᇘÂÏ ÔËÏÂÌflÚ¸ "‚Ò ˝ÚË „ÂÛ̉ËË". å˚ ‚ÌÓ‚¸ ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡ÂÏÒfl Í ‚ÓÔÓÒÛ Ó ÙÓÏÛ·ı ÔÓÚÓÏÛ. ˜ËÒ·. ÙÓχ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl β·Ó„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰ÓÎÊ̇ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÒÂÏË ÙÓÏÛÎ. — Passive Indefinite Infinitive She must be sleeping. éÌË Ì Ó͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú ¯‡˛˘Â„Ó ‚ÎËflÌËfl ̇ Ó·ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍÛ ‚ „ËÓÌ ‚ ˆÂÎÓÏ. ä ÌÂ΢Ì˚Ï ÙÓÏ‡Ï „·„Ó· ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl: ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚. Ë ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË Ò ˝ÚËÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. èÓÚÓÏ ÓÌË Ëı „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ ËÁÛ˜ËÎË. ˜ÚÓ Î˛·Ó ҇ÏÓ ÒÎÓÊÌÓ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÏ ËÚÓ„Â ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ ‚ˉ ӷ˚˜Ì˚ı ÔÓÒÚ˚ı Ù‡Á. ÒÛ‰fl ÔÓ ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËflÏ ÏÌÓ„Ëı β‰ÂÈ. ÓÌË ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í „ÂÛÌ‰Ë˛. óÎÂÌ˚ ̇¯ÂÈ äÓÏËÒÒËË ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌÓ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎËÒ¸ Ò ÌËÏË. Ç ÙÓÏÛ·ı Indefinite (Passive). ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÔÓ‰ÌËχÂÏ˚ ‚‡ÏË ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ì Ó͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú ¯‡˛˘Â„Ó ‚ÎËflÌËfl ̇ Ó·ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍÛ ‚ „ËÓÌ ‚ ˆÂÎÓÏ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡fl Î˯¸ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ËÎË ‚ıÓ‰fl ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ó‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Ì˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ. Í‡Í Í ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ì‰ÓÒÚÛÔÌÓÏÛ ‰Îfl ÔÓÌËχÌËfl. Ç˚ ÔÓ‰ÌËχÂÚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. Îˈ‡. àÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÚÓÊ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó (ÔÓÒΠÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı Ë ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Û„Ëı ÙÓÏ „·„ÓÎÓ‚). Continuous (Active / Passive). ‡ ‚Ò ‰Û„Ë ӷÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Î˯¸ Ó·‡ÁÛ˛Ú Ò‚ÓË ÙÓÏ˚ ÓÚ ˝ÚËı ÙÓÏÛÎ. ÌÓ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓÎÂÁÌ˚ÏË ÔË ¯ÂÌËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ ‚ Ó·ÓÁËÏÓÏ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ. ùÚË ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓÎÂÁÌ˚ÏË ÔË ¯ÂÌËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ ‚ Ó·ÓÁËÏÓÏ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ. ËÁÛ˜‡˛˘Ëı ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. éÌË ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. ˜ÎÂÌ˚ ̇¯ÂÈ äÓÏËÒÒËË Ô˯ÎË Í Â‰ËÌÓ‰Û¯ÌÓÏÛ ÏÌÂÌ˲ Ó ÚÓÏ. Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ.

èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË "åÛÊËÍ. ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ — ÔflÚ¸-‰ÂÒflÚ¸)... ÌÓ ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÏ ÔÓ‡ÁÌÓÏÛ. ÌÓ ÓÌ Ë Ì‡ÏÌÓ„Ó ÔËÏËÚË‚Ì — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Í‡Í ‡Á Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó ÚÓÏ.‰." Í ÛÓ‚Ì˛ "àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. ËÒıÓ‰fl ËÁ Ó·ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍË (Û ÔË‚ÌÓ„Ó Î‡¸Í‡/‚ Ó˜ÂÂ‰Ë Á‡ ‰ÂÙˈËÚÌ˚Ï ÚÓ‚‡ÓÏ / ̇ ÓÙˈˇθÌÓÏ ÔËÂÏÂ Ë Ú. Ä ÚÂÔÂ¸ ÔÓÔÓ·ÛÂÏ Ë‰ÚË ÓÚ ÛÓ‚Ìfl "åÛÊËÍ.. Á‡˜ÂÏ ÌÛÊÌ˚ "‚Ò ˝ÚË „ÂÛ̉ËË".íÓ ÊÂ Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í — ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ÔÂ‚ÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚÂ. ‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ë ‚Ó ‚ÚÓÓÏ. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ‚˚·Ë‡ÂÚ Â„Ó.. 76 .) Ë Ò‚ÓËı ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚÂÈ. ÇÚÓÓÈ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ Ì‡ÏÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ˘Â. Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ÎË Ç˚ ̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ Î˛·ÂÁÌ˚.". ëÔÓÒÓ· ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó. . ‰‡È Á‡ÍÛËÚ¸! " Ë "àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. Ä ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‰‡Ê Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Û Í‡Ê‰Ó„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ‡ÁÌ˚ (ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ‰Îfl Ó·˘ÂÌËfl ı‚‡Ú‡ÂÚ ÔÓfl‰Í‡ ÚÂıÒÓÚ ÒÎÓ‚. . ˜ÚÓ·˚ Û„ÓÒÚËÚ¸ ÏÂÌfl ÒË„‡ÂÚÓÈ?" Ï˚ ÔÓÌËχÂÏ Ó‰ÌÓ Ë ÚÓ ÊÂ.

ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ‰Îfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ËÎË Í ‰Û„ÓÏÛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲: that fi ˜ÚÓ / ˜ÚÓ·˚. „Ó‚ÓË· ÎË Ó̇ Ò ÌËÏ. since fi Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË ÔË ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‰Û„ÓÈ. ˜ÚÓ whether ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÂ‰ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ. ÂÒÎË Ó‰ÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓÒÚÓ ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ ‰Û„ËÏ — Indefinite Past: é̇ Ô˯· ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. after fi ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. 77 . ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ıÓÓ¯‡fl ‰Â‚ۯ͇.fi ü Ì Á̇˛. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθ. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ / Ú‡Í Í‡Í Û ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. ıÓ˜ÂÚÒfl ÎË ÏÌ ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ÌËÊÂ. Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÚËÔÓ‚: Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ë / Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ / ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ / ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ / Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â. ͇Í. ÌÓ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Á‡‰ÛÏ˚‚‡ÂÏÒfl. ÍÛËÚ ÎË ÓÌ. If fi ÂÒÎË: ÖÒÎË Ú˚ Ôˉ¯¸. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ Ô˯·. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ „·‚ÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Perfect: éÚ ÌÂ„Ó Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÔËÒÂÏ Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ. ÔÓ‰‡Á‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl ̇: Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÏÂÒÚ‡ / ‚ÂÏÂÌË / Ô˘ËÌ˚ / ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl / ˆÂÎË / Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl / Ó·‡Á‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl / ÒΉÒÚ‚Ëfl / Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÛÒÚÛÔÍË.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ú·Â.fi There have been no letters from him since he left. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Perfect Past. ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚ ÌÂÁ‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌ˚È ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓÍ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Á̇ڸ Î˯¸ ÓÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ Ëı ÚËÔ˚. before fi ÔÂ‰ ÚÂÏ. I don't know whether / if I want to do it or not. Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÓ˛ÁÓ‚.fi I don't know if / whether he smokes. ‰Â·ڸ ÎË ÏÌ ˝ÚÓ.íÂχ 5: èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ͇ÍÓÈ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÚËÔ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË) Ë Ì ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Á‡ ‡ÏÍË ÛÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‡‚ËÎ. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÒÓ˛Á˚. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â.fi I like you because you are a good girl. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. ‚ Ò‚Ó˛ Ó˜Â‰¸.fi ü Ì Á̇˛. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÒÓ˛Á˚ if / whether Ó˜Â̸ ·ÎËÁÍË ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. å˚ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎËÎË ‚Ò ÚËÔ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. — Does he smoke? Nobody can tell you whether / if she spoke to him. Í‡Í ÓÌ ÛÂı‡Î. Í‡Í fl Û¯ÂÎ. ÂÒÎË ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌË ӉÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰Û„ÓÏÛ. because fi ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ: í˚ ÏÌ Ì‡‚˯¸Òfl. ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛˘Ëı ˝ÚË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Â Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲ (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ï˚ Á‡ÔÓÒÚÓ ÒÚÓËÏ ÒÎÓÊÌÓ-ÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. Ú‡Í ÊÂ. if / whether fi ÎË: ü Ì Á̇˛.fi I know (that) he is a good driver.fi I'll help you if you come. ÌÓ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ: ü Á̇˛.fi I can't buy this house since I have no money. since fi ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ / Ú‡Í Í‡Í: ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ. ̇ÔÓÏË̇˛˘Ëı ÔÓ ÙÓÏ ӷ˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ (Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ‡ÁÌËˆÛ ‚ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚): I don't know if / whether he smokes. a if — Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ: I don't know whether to do it or not. Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ. ͇Í. Ï˚ ÔÓ¯ÎË ·ÂÁ ÌËı. when fi ÍÓ„‰‡: åÂÌfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ.fi I was out when she came.fi She came after I had left / after I left.. as fi Í‡Í / Ú‡Í Í‡Í: í‡Í Í‡Í ÓÌË ·˚ÎË Á‡ÌflÚ˚.fi As they were busy. ͇Í. we went without them. ÌÓ ÔÛÒÚ¸ Ì‡Ò Ì ÒÏÛ˘‡ÂÚ Ú‡ÍÓ ·Óθ¯Ó Ëı ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó — ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÏ ÏÂÊ‰Û ˝ÚËÏË ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË. fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û Ú·Â. Did she speak to him?fi é̇ „Ó‚ÓË· Ò ÌËÏ? / ÉÓ‚ÓË· ÎË Ó̇ Ò ÌËÏ? ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÓÚ΢ËÂÏ. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl.

Â..fi It happened as I was cleaning the room. provided (that) / on condition (that) fi ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË. what will you do? as fi ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. so .fi Wait here till / until I come back. lest fi ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÌÂ: ü ·ÓflÎÒfl. that / so that / in order (that) fi ˜ÚÓ·˚ / ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. Í‡Í / ÍÓ„‰‡ / ÔÓ ÏÂ ÚÓ„Ó.fi She had left / She left before I came.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. than fi ˜ÂÏ: ü Á̇˛  ÎÛ˜¯Â. ÂÒÎË Ó‰ÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÔÓÒÚÓ ÒΉÛÂÚ Á‡ ‰Û„ËÏ — Indefinite Past: é̇ ۯ· ÔÂ‰ ÚÂÏ.fi It smells as though someone has been smoking in here. not so . ·Û‰ÚÓ Ì ‚˚ÒÔ‡ÎÒfl. till / until fi ‰Ó ÚÂı ÔÓ. éÌ „Ó‚ÓËÚ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË. that fi Ú‡Í / ̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ . Í‡Í Ú˚ β·Ë¯¸ „Ó. ˜ÚÓ·˚: éÌ ÔÓÔÓÒËÎ Û ÏÂÌfl ‰ÂÌ„ ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Perfect Past. ˜ÚÓ: éÌ ·˚Π̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ: éÌ Û‰ÂÚ. so that we had to leave...fi This book is not so interesting as I expected.fi The more you smoke the less I like you.fi ç speaks English as if / as though he were / was an Englishman. ‚ ÚÂÚ¸ÂÏ ÔËÏÂ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÌÂ‡θ̇fl. as fi ÌÂ Ú‡Í / Ú‡ÍÓÈ . as fi Ú‡Í (ÊÂ) / Ú‡ÍÓÈ (ÊÂ). ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌ ÏÂÌfl Ì ۂˉÂÎ (˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Û‚Ë‰ËÚ ÏÂÌfl). ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ‰Â·ڸ?fi Supposing (that) I give you some money. Í‡Í (Ë): éÌ Ì β·ËÚ Ú·fl Ú‡Í. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Ï Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ ʉ‡Ú¸.. the fi ˜ÂÏ . though / although fi ıÓÚfl: ü ÔÓÏÓ„Û Ú·Â..fi He doesn't love you as much as you love him. as . á‰ÂÒ¸ Ú‡ÍÓÈ Á‡Ô‡ı.fi ç left while I was smoking. fl ‰‡Ï Ú· ‰ÂÌ„.ÂÒÎË ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌË ӉÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‰Û„ÓÏÛ. Ú.fi ç will leave unless you help him. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ: Ü‰Ë Á‰ÂÒ¸. as soon as fi Í‡Í ÚÓθÍÓ: 78 . so that fi Ú‡Í ˜ÚÓ: éÌ Ì Á‡ıÓÚÂÎ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸. ÚÂÏ ÏÂ̸¯Â Ì‡‚˯¸Òfl ÏÌÂ.. íÂχ 6. ˜ÚÓ: é̇ ÔˉÂÚ ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË. unless fi ÂÒÎË ÌÂ. ͇Í: ùÚ‡ ÍÌË„‡ Ì ڇ͇fl ËÌÚÂÂÒ̇fl. ͇Í: ùÚÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ.fi She will come provided / on condition (that) you help her...fi I was afraid lest he see me. Ú‡Í ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Ï Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ ÛÈÚË..fi ç asked me for some money in order (that) / so that he could buy a new car. Í‡Í fl Ô˯ÂÎ..fi I know her better than you (do). Ú. ÚÂÏ. ıÓÚfl fl Ë Á‡ÌflÚ. the . while fi ÔÓ͇ / ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ͇Í: èÓ͇ fl ÍÛËÎ.. ÔÓ͇ fl Ì ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸..fi ç didn't want to help us.. as though / as if fi Í‡Í ÂÒÎË ·˚ / Í‡Í ·Û‰ÚÓ: í˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸ Ú‡Í.. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ / ̇˜Ëfl ‚ Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË: óÂÏ ·Óθ¯Â Ú˚ ÍÛ˯¸.fi I'll help you though / although I am busy. Í‡Í fl ÓÊˉ‡Î. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÔÓÏÓʯ¸ ÂÈ. Í‡Í ·Û‰ÚÓ ÓÌ ‡Ì„΢‡ÌËÌ.fi ç was so tired that we had to wait. ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ Ì ‚˚ÒÔ‡ÎÒfl Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÍÛËÚ. ÔÓ͇ (ÌÂ).. supposing (that) fi ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÏ / Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊËÏ (˜ÚÓ): ÑÓÔÛÒÚËÏ (˜ÚÓ). ÂÒÎË Ú˚ Ì ÔÓÏÓʯ¸ ÂÏÛ.fi You look as if you haven't slept.Â. ÓÌ Û¯ÂÎ. ÍÓ„‰‡ fl Û·Ë‡Î ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ. ·Û‰ÚÓ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ÍÛËÚ. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ‚ ÔÂ‚˚ı ‰‚Ûı ÔËÏÂ‡ı ÓÔËÒ‡Ì˚ ‡θÌ˚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ̇ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠ̠‡Ì„΢‡ÌËÌ — ÒÏ. ˜ÂÏ Ú˚ (Á̇¯¸).

Í‡Í ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÌË ‚ÂÌÛÚÒfl.fi Don't smoke in the room as / so long as I am here. ÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓ„ ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓÒΠÒ͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: åÓÎÓ‰‡fl ‰Â‚ۯ͇. éÒڇθÌ˚ ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˲ ÓÚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ — Ó·˚˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: ÒÓ˛Á that ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl. Ó˜Â̸ ÍÂÔ͇fl. ÓÚ‰ÂÎË‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÓÚ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó. about whom I want to tell you.fi I'll call you as soon as they come back. äÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ‚ÂÌÛÎÒfl?fi When did he come back? å˚ Á̇ÂÏ. ü Á̇˛. — Who helped him? (‚ÓÔÓÒ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ) He doesn't tell us when they will come.fi The boy. is very strong.fi The house. è‰ÎÓ„Ë ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ whom ËÎË which. ÚÓ ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÙÓχ whom. I am smoking now. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ‚‡Ï — ÏÓÈ Ò˚Ì. in case (that) fi ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë which / that ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇˛ÚÒfl: The cigar. ÌÓ Ë fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ˜ÎÂ̇ÏË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË ÔˉÛÚ. — äÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË ÔˉÛÚ! Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰ÂÌË ÙÓÏ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÏÂÊ‰Û Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ò ÒÓ˛ÁÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ÏË Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ËÎË Í Â„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ˲. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ Ï˚ ÊË‚ÂÏ.¤ The young girl. — äÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„ ÂÏÛ? éÌ Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ Ì‡Ï. ÚÓ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl what. ÌÓ Ò ÚÂÏ Ê Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ) ÑÓÏ. ÂÒÎË ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ Ì ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl.fi I don't know who helped him.¤ The house.fi You may buy a car as / so long as Ûou can drive. ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÈÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ‰ Û‰‡ÂÌËÂÏ. ÖÒÎË ÒÎÓ‚Ó who ̇‰Ó ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ. is new. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ì Ôˉ¯¸. in which we live. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ûϯ¸ ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸. ÌÓ ÂÒÎË Ò‡ÏË ˝ÚË ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú.fi I was not sleeping when he came back. is my son. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ fl ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÍÛ˛. is very strong. doesn't live here. Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÈ fl ıÓ˜Û ‚‡Ï ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Ú¸. Á‚ÓÌË ÏÌÂ. ÂÒÎË ÓÌ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸. (about Í‡Í ·˚ Ô‚‡˘‡ÂÚÒfl ËÁ Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ Í whom ‚ ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„ Í „·„ÓÎÛ to tell. ÌÓ‚˚È. ó‡ÒÚÓ ‰Îfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ËÎË Í ‰Û„ÓÏÛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÏÛ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÓ˛ÁÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ (ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË). Ì ÍÛË Á‰ÂÒ¸. — that: ü Á̇˛. ëË„‡‡. — When will they come? (‚ÓÔÓÒ ÌÂ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ) ü Ì Òԇ·. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ıӘ¯¸. is very strong. ÂÒÎË: Ç ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. — óÚÓ Ú˚ ıӘ¯¸? —(what)fi I know what you want. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÂÒÎË. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÏ ÔÓ ÙÓÏ ӷ˚˜Ì˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ. ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ Ú‡Ï Á‡ÌËχÂÚÒfl (˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ú‡Ï ‰Â·ÂÚ). doesn't live here. ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌ Ì ÍÛËÚ. I want to tell you about. Í‡Í Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ: 79 . ˜ÚÓ: èÓ͇ fl ̇ıÓÊÛÒ¸ ‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. ÊË‚ÂÚ Ì Á‰ÂÒ¸. that I am smoking now.fi I can say why he doesn't smoke.ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú·Â. — ıııı — (that) fi I know (that) you won't come. WHAT ËÎË THAT? àÌÓ„‰‡ ÔË ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ ˜ÚÓ ‚ÓÁÌË͇˛Ú Á‡ÚÛ‰ÌÂÌËfl ‚ ‚˚·Ó ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚ‡ ÒÓ˛Á‡.fi The young girl. ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‰‡Ê ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ: ü Ì Á̇˛.fi We know what he is doing there. óÂÏ ÓÌ Ú‡Ï Á‡ÌËχÂÚÒfl?fi What is he doing there! ü ÏÓ„Û Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌ Ì ÍÛËÚ?fi Why doesn't he smoke? êÛÒÒÍË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÒÎÓ‚ who (‰Îfl Ӊۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚) ËÎË which (‰Îfl ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚): å‡Î¸˜ËÍ.fi In case (that) he can't help you. is new. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ڇÍÓ„Ó ÚËÔ‡ ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË: ü Ì Á̇˛. who helps you. í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ χ¯ËÌÛ ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ‚ÂÌÛÎÒfl. ÍÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„ ÂÏÛ. ‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÒıÂÏÂ: I don't know who helped him. àÌÓ„‰‡ which ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl ̇ that: The cigar. ÍÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„ ÂÏÛ. as / so long as fi ÔÓ͇ / ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË. we live in.fi The cigar. which I am smoking now. call me. éÌË Ì ÔÓÒÚÓ ÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛Ú Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ.

fi Were they here now. 80 . ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÎË.fi Should she come. I'll help you. Ï˚ ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ˜‡˘Â ·˚‚‡Ú¸ Û ‚‡Ò. ˜Â„Ó ÓÌ ıÓ˜ÂÚ.fi She says (that) she doesn't know what he wants. ‡ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ — Í‡Í Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ: í˚ Ì Á̇¯¸. ÅÓΠÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌ˚ ‚ ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËË Í íÂÏ 6. if / whether they will be able to buy a new house here. he won't be able to meet you. I'll follow you. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘ËÏË ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË (Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË ËÎË ·ÂÁ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚) ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. (˜ÚÓ) Ú˚ Ì Ôˉ¯¸. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Future: äÛ‰‡ ·˚ Ú˚ ÌË ÔÓ¯ÂÎ. however fi Í‡Í ·˚ ÌË. ÌÓ ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ì Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ‚˚¯Â ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ˜ÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. ‚ ÌËı ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Future: ü Ì Á̇˛ (˜ÚÓ?). ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ËÎË Í ‰Û„ËÏ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË that / it / whether ËÎË ÒÓ˛ÁÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û ÂÈ.Â. ÒÎÓ‚Ó what ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl: é̇ „Ó‚ÓËÚ.fi Whatever you do.ü Á̇˛. ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú if / whether: ü Ì Á̇˛. I'll send you the money. äÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÈ ÏÛÊ ÍÛÔËÚ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. Ú. ÖÒÎË ÓÌË Ì‡Ï ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ. Future Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ‚ÂÏÂÌË. á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ·Û‰Û˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Present). whichever fi ͇ÍÓÈ ·˚ ÌË. é‰ÌËÏ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‚‡ÊÌ˚ı ÏÓÏÂÌÚÓ‚ ‚ ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÓ ÔÓÌflÚËÂ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ. ü Ì Á̇˛ (˜ÚÓ?). whenever fi ÍÓ„‰‡ ·˚ ÌË. ÍÓÏ whom / whose Ë why Ó·‡ÁÛ˛Ú ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ -ever fi ·˚ ÌË: whatever fi ˜ÚÓ ·˚ ÌË. ÚÓ „·‚ÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒıÂÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡.fi Should they call us. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚È ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜‡È ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Î˯¸ Í Û͇Á‡ÌÌ˚Ï ‚ ÌÂÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏ. ÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸ Ú·fl.fi We shall bring new books if your friends invite us.Â.fi I don't know. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ should ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı Îˈ ËÎË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË were / had / could: ÖÒÎË Ó̇ ÔˉÂÚ. I'll help her. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÖÒÎË ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÙÓχ Ó·˘Â„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡.fi When my husband buys a new car. (Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÍÓ„‰‡? / ‰Ó ͇ÍËı ÔÓ?) Ë ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl (ÔË Í‡ÍÓÏ ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË? / ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â?). they would help us. fl ·Û‰Û ÒΉӂ‡Ú¸ Á‡ ÚÓ·ÓÈ. fl ‚˚¯Î˛ Ú· ‰Â̸„Ë. we'll be able to visit you more often. I followed him. Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ÔˉÂÚ ÎË ÓÌ. Í‡Í ëéÉãÄëéÇÄçàÖ ÇêÖåÖç. fl ·Û‰Û Ú· ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸. whoever fi ÍÚÓ ·˚ ÌË. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ó·‡ÚÌ˚È ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ (Ú. ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ ÎË ÓÌË ÍÛÔËÚ¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÔÓ Ó·˘ËÏ Ô‡‚Ë·Ï. ùÚÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl ÍÓ ‚ÒÂÏ ÙÓÏÛ·Ï: ä‡Í ÚÓθÍÓ Ú˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˯¸.fi As soon as you call me. ÖÒÎË ÓÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸. ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌË ·˚ÎË ÒÂȘ‡Ò Á‰ÂÒ¸. ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ?fi Do you know why he is sleeping now? èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÒÔËÚ?fi Why is he sleeping now? ÇÒ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. fl ‰‡Ï Ú· Á̇ڸ.fi Wherever he went. ÇÓÔÓÒ: Will they be able to buy a new house here? ÖÒÎË ‚Ò ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÓ ‚ ÙÓÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚Ï (Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ?).fi I don't know when he will come. fl ÒΉӂ‡Î Á‡ ÌËÏ.fi Wherever you go. äÛ‰‡ ·˚ ÓÌ ÌË ÔÓ¯ÂÎ.fi I don't know if he will come. ÂÒÎË Ú‚ÓË ‰ÛÁ¸fl Ô˄·ÒflÚ Ì‡Ò. I'll let you know. wherever fi „‰Â ·˚ ÌË ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÚÓÊ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ: óÚÓ ·˚ Ú˚ ÌË ‰Â·Î.fi If he is sleeping. å˚ ÔËÌÂÒÂÏ ÌÓ‚˚ ÍÌË„Ë. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó). ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÒÓ˛Á˚ if / when. ÓÌË ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ̇Ï.

ç‡Ï ÒÓÓ·˘ËÎË. (Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. ÔÓÒΠ˜Â„Ó ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÌÛÊ̇fl ÙÓχ Infinitive (‚Òfl ÙÓÏÛ·) ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to (should (would) help / should (would) be sleeping / should (would) have helped Ë Ú. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ Ò˛‰‡. ˜ÚÓ ‡Ì¸¯Â ÓÌË Ì „Ó‚ÓËÎË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË.fi We were informed that they hadn't spoken Russian before. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˝ÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸.(Ó·‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎË Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ).‰. ÍÓ„‰‡ Í Ó‰ÌÓÏÛ „·‚ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲. Ô˘ÂÏ ÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÛÊÂ Ë Ì ·˚Ú¸ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲. ‡ ÔÓ‰Ò˜ËڇΠÔÓÁÊÂ) We were told that nobody knew when she would come. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÔËÂÁʇ·. ˜ÚÓ.? Perhaps they would not stop until he did. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ÔÂ‚˚Ï. ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ — Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl) 81 .fi ç‡Ï Ò͇Á‡ÎË. (‚ „·‚ÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Past. ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‚‡ (ËÎË ·Óθ¯Â) Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ò ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌËÂÏ (Ú. ç‡Ï ÒÓÓ·˘ËÎË. ü Á̇Î. Ú. Where does she come from?fi éÚÍÛ‰‡ Ó̇ (ËÁ ͇ÍËı ÏÂÒÚ / „‰Â  ÒÂϸfl)? Nobody knows where she is from. a will — ‚ would.. ÚÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ β·Ó ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ÂÏfl. É·‚ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‚ Present: ü Á̇˛.fi . ü Á̇˛. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ·Û‰ÛÚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË.Â. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Past. ÔÓ͇ Ì ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ÓÌ. ÓÌË ÔÓÂı‡ÎË ÔË·ÎËÁËÚÂθÌÓ ÔflÚ̇‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÏËθ (ÍÓ„‰‡?). Ó‰ÌÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔÓ‰˜ËÌflÂÚÒfl ‰Û„ÓÏÛ). ÚÓ ·Óθ¯Â ÛÊ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ) — Òӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ÂÏÂÌfi I knew (that) he had come here. ÌËÊÂ)fi I knew (that) he comes here. ÚÓθÍÓ ÚÓ. (Ó·‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎË Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ) — Òӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ÂÏÂÌfi I knew (that) he came here. (ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ ‡Ì¸¯Â. Á̇˜ËÚ ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÏ (ÔÓ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ) ÚÓÊ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ Past. ÚÓ Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÚÓÊ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ ÙÓÏ Past. ÓÌË Ì ÔÂÍ‡ÚflÚ Ò‚ÓËı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ‰Ó ÚÂı ÔÓ.fi We were informed that they would speak Russian. ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. ü Á̇Î. ÂÒÎË Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Past).fi I know (that) he will come tomorrow.Â. ˜ÚÓ). ÔÓÂı‡ÎË ‡Ì¸¯Â. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ Ò˛‰‡. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡. ˜ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸.fi We were informed that they didn't speak Russian. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡‚Ú‡. Ò ÍÂÏ Ó̇ ÔËıӉ˷.? . (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ ‚˜Â‡. ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ Ó̇. ÖÒÎË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓ ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌflÂÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÒÓ˛ÁÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ.— Òӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ÂÏÂÌfi I knew (that) he came here. É·‚ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‚ Past (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏ ·ÓΠڢ‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË): ü Á̇Î. ü Á̇Î. ˜ÂÏ Ò͇Á‡ÎË. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ Ò˛‰‡... ÌÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ·Û‰Û˘Â ‚ÂÏfl (Future) — äÄä Åõíú? ÑÎfl Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÙÓχ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ÖÒÎË Ê Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ (Present) ËÎË ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ (Future) ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Perfect Past. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÚÂı / ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ıÓÚfl ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÒÓ˛ÁÌÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û (‡Ì‡Îӄ˘ÌÓ ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÏÛ ‚ÓÔÓÒÛ): Who(m) did she ÒÓm with?fi ë ÍÂÏ Ó̇ ÔËıӉ˷? ç didn't notice whom she came with.. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ì „Ó‚ÓflÚ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË.fi I know (that) he often comes here. ÓÒڇθÌ˚ — ‚ Indefinite Past: ç estimated that they had gone approximately fifteen miles when it happened. ÖÒÎË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ‚ÒÂÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ú·ÛÂÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ.): ü Á̇Î.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. ͇ʉÓ ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÎÓ ÔÓÁÊ ‰Û„Ó„Ó.fi éÌ Ì Á‡ÏÂÚËÎ. ÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓ„ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠÒ͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó (ËÎË ÔÂ‰ Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË).fi I know (that) he came yesterday. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÔˉÂÚ. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó — ‚ ÙÓÏ Indefinite Past: óÚÓ Ê ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ? èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌË Ì ÔÂÂÒÚ‡ÎË ÔÂÒΉӂ‡Ú¸ „Ó? ÇÂÓflÚÌÓ. é̇ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÂÂıÓ‰ÓÏ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· shall ‚ ÙÓÏÛ should.fi èÓ Â„Ó ÏÌÂÌ˲ (ÔÓÁÊ ÓÌ ÔÓ‰Ò˜ËÚ‡Î.(ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ ‡Ì¸¯Â Ë ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÂÚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ÒÂȘ‡Ò) — ÌÂÚ Òӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ÂÏÂÌ (ÒÏ. ÚÓ ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï would. ç‡Ò ÔÓËÌÙÓÏËÓ‚‡ÎË.Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ô‡‚ËÎÓ (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ڇÍÓ„Ó Ô‡‚Ë· ÌÂÚ). ü Á̇Î.fi I knew (that) he would come here. ü Á̇˛. ̇Á˚‚‡Âχfl FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST fi ÅìÑìôÖÖ Ç èêéòÖÑòÖå. (ÔËÂÁʇ· ‡Ì¸¯Â. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡. We were told that nobody knew when she had come. è‡‚ËÎÓ Òӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ÂÏÂÌ Òӷ≇ÂÚÒfl Ë ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. Ë ÒÂ‰Ë ÌËı ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Future. ÍÓ„‰‡ Á̇Î. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ Ò˛‰‡.fi ç‡Ï Ò͇Á‡ÎË.

/¤ We have come here so that we might help you. ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.. ‰Û„Ó — ‚ Indefinite Past: We were told that nobody had known when she came. ˜ÚÓ ÂÈ Ì Ò͇ÊÛÚ. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÛÒÒÍËÏ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï ˆÂÎË.) êÛÒÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ËÏÂÌÌÓ / ÚÓθÍÓ / Í‡Í ‡Á ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ.é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÚÂı/ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË./¤ The cigar was so strong that no one could smoke it. ÚÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÙÓÏ Future-in-the-Past. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ‚ÚÓÓ„Ó — ‚ Past Indefinite: éÌ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î. ˜ÚÓ ÍÛÂÌË ‚‰ÌÓ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl. äÓÒ‚ÂÌ̇fl ˜¸.fi ùÚÓ Ô·ڸ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Í‡ÒË‚ÓÂ.fi The cigar was too strong to smoke. Ë ÒÚÓËÚÒfl ÔÓ ÚÂÏ Ê Ô‡‚Ë·Ï. Á‡˜ÂÏ ÓÌ ÔÓ‰ÂÚ ÚÛ‰‡. ˜ÚÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂ‚˚Ï) ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Perfect Past. ëӄ·ÒÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ÂÏÂÌ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ó·˘ÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ı Ù‡ÍÚÓ‚. ‡ ËÌÓ„‰‡ Ë ‰Îfl Ӊۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı Îˈ): ëıÂχ: It is / was / will be .fi We have come here to help you. ‡ ÚÓθÍÓ Ëı ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËÂ. They were able to put aside enough money to buy a new house. 82 .. (Ò͇Á‡ÎË ÔÓÁÊÂ.fi ç didn't know what time the train usually starts. ˜ÚÓ·˚  ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÍÛËÚ¸.Â. (Ì Û͇Á‡ÌÓ ÍÓÏÛ — to say) éÌ Ò͇Á‡Î Ì‡Ï (ÍÓÏÛ). Ç Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. (ÛÊ ‚ÂÌÛÎÒfl)fi ç hoped that they wouldn't tell her why he had gone there. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ÚÂ͇ÂÚ ËÁ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl) ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÏË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂ‰‡˛ÚÒfl Ì ÔÓ‰ÎËÌÌ˚ ˜¸Ë-ÚÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡ (Ôflχfl ˜¸). Á‡˜ÂÏ ÓÌ ÂÁ‰ËÎ ÚÛ‰‡. That dress is beautiful enough to be bought. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ì ·Û‰ÛÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸. ÌÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓÈ „ÓÏÓÁ‰ÍÓÒÚË ÔÓÒΉÌËı ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‰Îfl ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚: å˚ Ô˯ÎË Ò˛‰‡.. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÔÓȉÂÚ ÚÛ‰‡. Í‡Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓÂ. Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓÁÊ ‰Û„Ëı. ‚Ó ÒÍÓθÍÓ ÓÚÔ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÔÓÂÁ‰. ËÎË ÊÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.fi ç told us (= ç said to us) (that) he wouldn't go there. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÔËÂÁʇ·. ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‚‡ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ‚ Future Ò ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌËÂÏ. that / who .fi ç hoped that they wouldn't tell her why he went there. ÚÓÊ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚ ÒÓ·ÓÈ Ì ˜ÚÓ ËÌÓÂ. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ó·˚˜Ì˚ı / „ÛÎflÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ. íÂχ 7. Ó·‡ÁÛ˛˘Ëı Ú‡Í Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚È ìëàãàíÖãúçõâ éÅéêéí. — ÒÏ. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ‰‚‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı „·„Ó·: to say (ÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏÛ. ËÌÓ„‰‡ Ò ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ in order: óÚÓ·˚ Á̇ڸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ıÓÓ¯Ó.. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Past. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÈÚË Á‡‚Ú‡. ëË„‡‡ ·˚· ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÍÂÔÍÓÈ. ÔÓËÒıӉ˂¯Ëı Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ÂÈ Ì Ò͇ÊÛÚ. éÌ Ì Á̇Î. ˜ÂÏ ÔËÂÁʇ· Ë Ì Á̇Π— Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl) ÖÒÎË Í Ó‰ÌÓÏÛ „·‚ÌÓÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲. ‚˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ Û˜ËÚ¸ Â„Ó Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸. Â„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸.fi ç felt that they wouldn't be sleeping when he came back. ëÚÓflÚÒfl Ú‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÔÓ ÒıÂÏÂ Ë ÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË who(m) (‰Îfl Ӊۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚) Ë that (‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı ÓÒڇθÌ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚..fi íÓ know English well you must learn it every day. : ü ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÂÏÛ. ÍÓ„‰‡ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏÛ — Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ to) Ë to tell (ÚÓθÍÓ ÍÓ„‰‡ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏÛ Ë ·ÂÁ Ô‰ÎÓ„‡): éÌ Ò͇Á‡Î. êÛÒÒÍË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ˆÂÎË (Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Á‡˜ÂÏ? / ‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó? / Ò Í‡ÍÓÈ ˆÂθ˛?) Ë ÒΉÒÚ‚Ëfl (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÚÓ„Ó. (¤ In order to know .fi éÌË ÒÏÓ„ÎË ÒÍÓÔËÚ¸ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‰ÂÌ„.fi It is he whom I want to help. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÒΉÒÚ‚Ëfl Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ì‡Î˘Ë too fi ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ / enough fi ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔÂ‰ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ: The cigar was too strong to smoke.. éÌ Ì‡‰ÂflÎÒfl.fi We knew (that) smoking is bad for health.fi ç said (that) he wouldn't be able to come tomorrow. ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇Î. éÌ Ì‡‰ÂflÎÒfl. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ˛Ú ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ: å˚ Á̇ÎË. Ú. ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Ëı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ (ÚÓ.fi ç‡Ï Ò͇Á‡ÎË.

fi The man.éÌË ÔËÂı‡ÎË Í Ì‡Ï ÚÓθÍÓ ÚÓ„‰‡. Ú· ÌÂθÁfl ·Û‰ÂÚ ÍÛËÚ¸. é̇ Ò͇Á‡Î‡. ÖÒÎË ‡‰ËÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚Íβ˜ÂÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ‚˚Íβ˜ËÎË ‡‰ËÓ.fi You won't be allowed / permitted to smoke when the doctor comes.fi It was not until they bought a new car that they came to visit us. ‰‡È Á̇ڸ ÏÌÂ. 3. 10.fi In case we are late you may start by yourselves.fi You may stay here unless you want to help us. ÂÒÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Ì ıӘ¯¸ Ì‡Ï ÔÓÏÓ˜¸.fi ç ordered only coffee which he didn't touch.fi I can't tell you when the doctor will come. 6. ä‡Í ‡Á Á‡‚Ú‡ ÓÌ Ë ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl. ÔÓ͇ Ú˚ Ì ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˯¸ ÏÌÂ. å˚ ʉÂÏ Ú·fl Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ. ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ ‰ÓÏ ıÓÚËÏ ÊËÚ¸. ÖÒÎË ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ Ì ÔËÚÓÌÛÎÒfl. 8. who came late. 13. 7. 12.30?fi Were you not told that we should be waiting for you at the station from 10 till 10. turned to us.fi The more I read the less I understand. ü ·Û‰Û ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ͇ÍÛ˛-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÍÌË„Û ‰Ó ÚÂı ÔÓ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÍÛÔËÎË ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. Ç ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. ÂÒÎË Ï˚ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÂÏ. óÂÏ ·Óθ¯Â fl ˜ËÚ‡˛. 4. ê‡Á‚ Ú· Ì Ò͇Á‡ÎË.fi If anyone calls. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔˉÂÚ ‚‡˜. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ Ê‰‡Ú¸ ‚‡Ò ̇ ‚ÓÍÁ‡ÎÂ Ò 10 ‰Ó 10. ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛÎÒfl Í Ì‡Ï. ·Û‰ÛÚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌ˚ ‚ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÏ Ï‡ÚÂˇÎ ÌËÊÂ.30? 2. ‚˚Íβ˜Ë „Ó. ÚÂÏ ÏÂ̸¯Â ÔÓÌËχ˛. Í‡Í ÓÌË Û¯ÎË. 5. 83 . å˚ ¢ Ì Á̇ÂÏ. ͇҇˛˘ËÂÒfl ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. 14.fi She said that we should turn off the radio if it was on. turn it off.fi I shall be reading a book until you call me. èËÏÂ˚: 1. ÂÒÎË ÓÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸.fi If the radio is on. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‰Û„Ë ÏÓÏÂÌÚ˚. let me know. éÌ Á‡Í‡Á‡Î Î˯¸ ÍÓÙÂ. 11. 9. í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl Á‰ÂÒ¸. äÓ„‰‡ ÔˉÂÚ ‚‡˜. ÏÓÊÂÚ ̇˜Ë̇ڸ ·ÂÁ ̇Ò. åÛʘË̇.fi We have been waiting for you here since they left. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Î.fi We don't know yet what house we want to live in.fi It will be tomorrow that he will come back. ü Ì ÏÓ„Û Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ú·Â.

Á̇˜ËÚ ‡Ì„΢‡Ì ͇ÍËÏ-ÚÓ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ Ì‡ıÓ‰flÚ ‡Á΢Ëfl ‚ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ should ‰Îfl 1-„Ó Îˈ‡ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ê·ÌËfl / ̇ÏÂÂÌËfl. a to give — Í‡Í Î˛·ÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ: b (Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to).Â. 2. ë ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‚ˉ‡ ÌÛÊÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ Ë ÒΉÛÂÚ Ì‡˜Ë̇ڸ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ β·ÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı Îˈ. îÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ̇ ‰‚‡ ‚ˉ‡: ‚ˉ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó Ë ·Û‰Û˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. „‰Â to be — Ò‡Ï Á‡ Ò·fl. ëÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌË ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ. Û Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ~~~ed. (‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ËÎË ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË). Ú. (‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. were / was gave could be could give might be might give should be should give should be should give would be would would give (Indefinite Past). ‰Îfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ·ÂÁ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ 1-ÓÏ Îˈ (Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì˚ ÓÚ shall — Ì ÔÛÚ‡Ú¸ Ò should ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚Ï!). Û ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚ı — 2-fl ÙÓχ. Ó͇Á‡‚¯Â„ÓÒfl Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ‚ˉ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË Ôӯ‰¯Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ˜ÚÓ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÌÂ Í‡Í ‡θÌ˚È Ù‡ÍÚ. ÌÓ ‚ÓÚ ÔË ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ Ì‡˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚. Ú. äÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËÈ: β·Û˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ ÚÓθÍÓ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ. ‚˚‚Ó‰ Ә‚ˉÂÌ: ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËË Ò ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ Ï˚ Ó·Ó·˘‡ÂÏ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ‰Ó Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó-‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ — ÌÂÚ ÌË˜Â„Ó ÔÓ˘Â. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰Û˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰‚Â„‡Ú¸ ‡Ì‡ÎËÁÛ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚Ó 2-Ï ËÎË 3-Ï ÎˈÂ. ùÚÓ Ë ÂÒÚ¸ Ò‡Ï˚È „·‚Ì˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ÔË ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËË ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl — ̇ۘËÚ¸Òfl ‡Ì‡ÎËÁËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ Ú‡Í. ˜ÂÏ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ β·Û˛ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ ‚ ‚ˉ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ ·˚ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË. îÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡. ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â ‚ÂÏfl (Present). ˜ÚÓ Ë ÓÚ‡Ê‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Û˛ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ. ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÛÔÛ˘Â̇): had been Perfect Past had given 84 . ‚Íβ˜‡fl 3- ÎˈÓ. ÙÓÏÛ were ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ë ‰Îfl ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘‡fl ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ: „·„ÓÎ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË + ·˚: ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ / ÛÁ̇Π·˚ / ʉ‡Î ·˚ Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ. Í‡Í ˝ÚÓ ‰Â·˛Ú ‡Ì„΢‡ÌÂ. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ‚ „·‚ÌÓÏ Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÓÚ΢‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡. give ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ. îÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡. ÌÓ ‡Á ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ.íÂχ 6: ëÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ. Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰Ì‡ ÙÓχ. ‡ Í‡Í Ì˜ÚÓ Ê·ÂÏÓ / ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ / Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡ÂÏÓÂ Ë Ú. 1. Ï˚ ‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ ÙÓÏ˚ „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ Ô‡‡ı.Ô.Â.

Ç ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ú‡ÍÊ should ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı Îˈ. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ËÏÂ˛Ú ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ·ÂÁ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl.fi Å˚ÎÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ. ç might be very helpful. àÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Í‡Í ‚ ÔÓÒÚ˚ı. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl 1-„Ó Îˈ‡. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ËıÒfl Í Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏÛ ËÎË ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡ ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡ / Ê·ÌËfl / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë Ú. í‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ̇˜Ë̇˛ÚÒfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflÏË: it is / was / will be important fi ‚‡ÊÌÓ / ·˚ÎÓ ‚‡ÊÌÓ / ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚‡ÊÌÓ. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to.fi í· ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ ·ÓΠÓÒÏÓÚËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. It is likely that he should meet you at the airport. it is necessary fi ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó̇ ÔÓÏӄ· ̇Ï. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÓÒڇθÌ˚ı Îˈ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ ·ÂÁ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÌÂ‡θÌ˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ.Â.fi LJÊÌÓ. ÑÎfl ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˛Á that.fi Ü·ÚÂθÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ / Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ˜ÂÏ?. ÑÎfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˛Á that. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë would ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ should ‰Îfl 1-„Ó Îˈ‡ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂËÒÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ê·ÌËfl / ̇ÏÂÂÌËfl. You could do it later. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be ‚ Past / Present / Future.fi 燯 Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÒÓÒÚÓflÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ë ËÁ ‰‚Ûı „·„ÓÎÓ‚): I should / (would like¤ I'd like) to see your house. ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ ‚‡Ò ‚ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚÛ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ÒÂÏ ‡·Ó˜ËÏ ‰‡‚‡ÎË ÏÓÎÓÍÓ. Would you go there with us?fi í˚ ÔÓ¯ÂÎ ·˚ Ò Ì‡ÏË ÚÛ‰‡? You should be more careful. it is likely fi ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ / ÒÍÓÂÈ ‚ÒÂ„Ó It is important(that) you be / should be here tomorrow at 5.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ‚‡¯ ‰ÓÏ. It will be desirable that she should come alone. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó̇ Ô˯· Ӊ̇. It was necessary that she help us. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to.fi éÌ.fi í˚ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÁÊÂ. Ú. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÌÂθÁfl ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ: Our proposal was that all workers be given / should be given milk. Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÙÓÏÓÈ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl. it is possible fi ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ ·˚ÎË Á‰ÂÒ¸ Á‡‚Ú‡ ‚ ÔflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ú‡ÍÊ should ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı Îˈ. 85 . àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡.Ô. it is desirable fi Ê·ÚÂθÌÓ. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ËÏÂ˛Ú ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ.fi éÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓÎÂÁÂÌ.Â. èÓÒÚ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (‚ ÔÓÒÚ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ˚. Ú.could have been could have given might have been might have given should have been should have given ought to have been ought to have given should have been should have given would have been would have given ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl.. it is probable fi ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ. Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÙÓÏÓÈ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl. Ç ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÔÓÊ·ÌËfl / ̇ÔÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÙÓÏ˚: Success attend you!fi ч ÒÓÔÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ú· ÛÒÔÂı! May you be happy!fi ÅÛ‰¸ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚! That he were here!fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸! Long live the President!fi ч Á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔÂÁˉÂÌÚ! ëÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ‡Á΢‡Ú¸Òfl): èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ë Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ?. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be ‚ Past / Present / Future.

fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚. to wish fi Ê·ڸ Ë ‰. Ú. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÙÓχ would ~ ~ ~ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Î˯¸ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. to order fi ÔË͇Á‡Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎË ·ÓΠÒËθÌÛ˛ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸. ËÎË ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ lest fi ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÌÂ.fi åÌ ıÓ˜ÂÚÒfl.fi éÌË ÔÓÚ·ӂ‡ÎË. to suggest fi Ô‰·„‡Ú¸. ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË so that / in order that fi ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. lest Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚ ‚ Ò· ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ Ì Âı‡Î Ú‡Í ·˚ÒÚÓ.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ / ü Ê·˛. ˜ÚÓ·˚. ÍÓ„‰‡ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ıÓ˜ÂÚ. I like you. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ Infinitive ·ÂÁ to ËÎË should / might. ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl Ì ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÎÒfl. (ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â „·„ÓÎ to wish ÒÚÓËÚ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ò ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ I. to demand fi Ú·ӂ‡Ú¸. „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ Í‡Í ·˚ ʇÎÛÂÚÒfl ̇ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Û˛ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. whenever fi ÍÓ„‰‡ ·˚ ÌË. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â: a) ˆÂÎË — Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ò Í‡ÍÓÈ ˆÂθ˛?. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÌ„ ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÎÒfl. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÒÏÓ„ ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl Á‡‚Ú‡. I wish they gave / would give me more money. ç can't invite her even if he like / would like to. even if fi ‰‡Ê ÂÒÎË ·˚. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚Â. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘‡fl Ò Indefinite Past ËÎË ÙÓχ Ò would.fi 燯 ÒÓ‚ÂÚ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÓÏ. Whatever you might do to me. Their suggestion will be that we should use a stronger liquid.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û. They demanded that the car should be cleaned / be cleaned / was cleaned. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÙÓÏÓÈ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl. 86 . ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÓ „·„Ó·ÏË: to recommend fi ÂÍÓÏẨӂ‡Ú¸. whatever / whoever fi ˜ÚÓ ·˚ ÌË / ÍÚÓ ·˚ ÌË Ë ‰. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌË ‰‡ÎË ÏÌ ·Óθ¯Â ‰ÂÌ„.fi óÚÓ ·˚ Ú˚ ÏÌ ÌË Ò‰Â·Î. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ËÁÏÂÌËÎÓÒ¸. She won't come though she would like to (come) very much. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ χ¯ËÌ ۷‡ÎË. What do you suggest we do / did / should do?fi à ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ô‰·„‡Â¯¸ Ì‡Ï ‰Â·ڸ? I wish (that) you could come back tomorrow. ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‡ÁÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ËÏÂ˛Ú ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ.fi í· ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ÓÌ ·˚ Ú· Ì ÔÓÏÓ„.fi чÊ ÂÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸. You have to be careful lest you make / might / should make a mistake.fi å˚ ̇Òڇ˂‡ÂÏ Ì‡ ÚÓÏ. / ü ıÓ˜Û. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ҉·ڸ ӯ˷ÍË. ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÔÓÒΉÌ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ.~ ~ ~.fi åÌ ıÓ˜ÂÚÒfl.fi àı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to ËÎË Indefinite Past. I wish you wouldn't / didn't drive so fast. he wouldn't help you. Ú˚ ÏÌ Ì‡‚˯¸Òfl. ˜ÚÓ·˚ (Ú˚ ÏÓ„) ‚Ò ҉·ڸ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ Âı‡Î Ú‡Í ·˚ÒÚÓ. ÑÎfl ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ˛Á that. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÙÓχ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ÔÓÒΠ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ì ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ·˚Ú¸ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ: Give me your money so that I should / would not be worried. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌÓ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ) Wish she were / was there tomorrow. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÒÂȘ‡Ò.Our advice is that you shouldn't smoke. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎË ÂÏÛ.fi é̇ Ì ÔˉÂÚ. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ should ‰Îfl ‚ÒÂı Îˈ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó̇ ·˚· Ú‡Ï Á‡‚Ú‡.Â. èÓÒΠ„·„Ó· to wish ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÙÓχ. ‰‡Ê ÂÒÎË ·˚ ÂÏÛ Ë ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ˝ÚÓ.fi éÌ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ ÂÂ. I wish it would stop / stopped snowing. ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· to wish: We insist that you call / called / should call him. (I) Wish you were here now. to insist fi ̇Òڇ˂‡Ú¸.fi í· ÒΉÛÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÙÓÏ˚ might / should / would ~ ~ ~. ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË: (even) though / although fi (‰‡ÊÂ) ıÓÚfl. ıÓÚfl ÂÈ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚.fi éÚ‰‡È ÏÌ ҂ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚. ËÎË ÍÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ÓÈ Ò‰Â·Π˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. Even if he were / was here. b) ÛÒÚÛÔÍË — Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇ ˜ÚÓ?. You have to be careful in order that you might do everything correctly. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ Ì ÍÛËÎ. to propose fi Ô‰·„‡Ú¸.

(̇ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠÓÌ Ì ÊÂÌËÎÒfl) Why are you looking at me as if you had not seen me for years?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÒÏÓÚ˯¸ ̇ ÏÂÌfl Ú‡Í. we shall wait.fi Should he be sleeping. ÅÂÁ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl — ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ.fi If he comes to take us. ÓÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ. ÇÒfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ Ô˯ÂÎ Á‡ ̇ÏË. ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÙÓÏÂ. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Í‡Í‡fl-ÚÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Â„Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ‚ÒÂ-Ú‡ÍË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ / ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl. 1. we'll be able to go to the cinema.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚ˉ / éÌ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ Ú‡Í. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚Â.3. I wish I had invited you. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl: ç looks as if he had got married. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÏÓ„ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓËÁÓÈÚË / Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï / ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ Ì ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl. ÇÒÂ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú 3 ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ: 1. ·Û‰ÚÓ ÊÂÌËÎÒfl. (‡θÌÓ) èË ˝ÚÓÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Future. Ï˚ ÔÓ‰ÓʉÂÏ. Ï˚ ÔÓ‰ÓʉÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ fl Ì Ô˯ÂÎ ‡Ì¸¯Â. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó — ‚ Present (íÂχ 5): ÖÒÎË ÓÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl Ú‡Ï. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó — ‚ ÙÓÏÂ.fi àÏ ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ (·˚) ÔËÈÚË ‡Ì¸¯Â (ÌÓ ÓÌË Ì Ô˯ÎË ‡Ì¸¯Â). ·Û‰ÚÓ ·˚ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì Á̇ÂÚ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. Ë Ï˚ ÔÓȉÂÏ ‚ ÍËÌÓ)fi If he came to take us. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘ÂÈ ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ÒÎÓ‚: 5. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡ ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÒÓʇÎÂÌËfl / ‰ÓÒ‡‰˚ / ‚ÓÁÏÛ˘ÂÌËfl / ÛÔÂ͇ ÔÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û ÚÓ„Ó. àÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ Ò ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË.fi éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Î (·˚) Ú· ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ (ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÏÓ„).fi éÌ ‚‰ÂÚ Ò·fl Ú‡Í. They ought to have come earlier. ·Û‰ÚÓ ÒÚÓ ÎÂÚ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ? ÑÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂ Í íÂÏ 6: èˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl. ëÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. he could do it. I wish I had come earlier.fi If he is sleeping.fi ܇θ. Ï˚ ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÓÈÚË ‚ ÍËÌÓ. Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Indefinite Past. (¢ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÈÚË. (‡θÌÓ) èˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ Ó·‡ÚÌ˚È ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚ (íÂχ 5): ÖÒÎË ÓÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÒÔ‡Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ fl Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎ ‚‡Ò. Ó·‡Á‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ë Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËfl — Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡Í? / ͇ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ?. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl χÎÓ‚ÂÓflÚÌ˚Ï. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı. we could go to the cinema. àÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Í‡Í ‚ ÔÓÒÚ˚ı. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‡θÌÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÏ˚Ï ÔË Í‡ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË: ÖÒÎË ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡ ̇ÏË. àÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 1-„Ó ‚ˉ‡ — ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. Í‡Í ÂÒÎË ·˚ Ó̇ ·˚· Û·Ó˘ËˆÂÈ. I wish you had not been there.fi ܇θ. we shall wait. èÓÒÚ˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Oh God! You might have been killed!fi ÅÓÊ ÏÓÈ! í·fl ‚‰¸ ÏÓ„ÎË (·˚) Û·ËÚ¸! ç should have helped you.fi ܇θ. ç behaves as though he knew nothing about it. If he was / were here. ‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇˜Ë̇ÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Ê‡Î¸: 4. ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË as if / as though fi Í‡Í ÂÒÎË ·˚ / ·Û‰ÚÓ ·˚: She is cleaning the room as if / as though she were / was a cleaner. (‡ ‚‰Û„ ¢ ÔˉÂÚ?) 87 . ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘ÂÈ Ò Indefinite Past.fi é̇ Û·Ë‡ÂÚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ Ú‡Í. Ï˚ ÒÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÔÓÈÚË ‚ ÍËÌÓ. àÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡. ÔÂʉ ˜ÂÏ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸  ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ — ÓÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Á‡‚ËÒËÚ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ÙÓÏ˚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓÏ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ to wish. èË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ú‡ÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ Ï˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚ÏË Ë Ú˘‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔӇ̇ÎËÁËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸.

çÓ Ó‰ÌËÏË ÌÂ΢Ì˚ÏË ÙÓχÏË ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı ÚÓÊ Ì ӷÓÈÚËÒ¸. ÖÒÎË ·˚ Ú˚ ÂÏÛ Ì ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌË·. ‚ 3. Í‡Í Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.fi I'd like to see these shoes. 10.fi I wish the rain would stop / stopped for a moment. Ï˚ ÒÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÔÓÈÚË ‚ ÍËÌÓ. é̇ ÔÓʇη. 13..fi I wish you might have come earlier. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰Óʉ¸ ̇ ÏËÌÛÚÍÛ ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÎÒfl. ü ·˚ ‚Ò ‰Îfl ÌÂ„Ó Ò‰Â··.fi å˚ ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÌÛÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Â„Ó Ì ·˚ÎÓ Á‰ÂÒ¸) We could have bought this house if we had had money. ÇÒfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: If he had come to take us. Ë Ï˚ ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ‰ÓÏ) ç wouldn't lend me any money if I asked him. ‡ ÚÂÔÂ¸ Â„Ó ÔÓ‰‡ÎË ÍÓÏÛ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ) èˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ Ó·‡ÚÌ˚È ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚: Had he been here. èˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ Ó·‡ÚÌ˚È ÔÓfl‰ÓÍ ÒÎÓ‚: Were he here. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ ͇ʉÓÏ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Á‡ Ò‡ÏËÏ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÏ Ë Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ Â„Ó ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl ‡Á‚ËÚËfl ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ÓÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ.. ‰Â̸„Ë Â˘Â ÔÓfl‚flÚÒfl. ‡ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒÚ˚Ï. 3. ‡ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó — ‚ β·ÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÙÓÏ 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÏÓÎÓÊ ̇ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ.fi If you were my husband. èËÏÂ˚: 1. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÏÂ˛Ú Ó‰ÌÓ ·Óθ¯Ó ÔÂËÏÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÔÂ‰ ÔÓÒΉÌËÏË: ÒÓÍ‡˘‡˛Ú Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ.fi You could have done it without anyone's help. we could have gone to the cinema. (‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ Í‡Í ‡Î¸ÚÂ̇ÚË‚Ì˚È ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔËÏÂÌÂÌ˲ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ.) 14. ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ÌÂ΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ „·„Ó· ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË Ì ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ÒÎÓÊÌÓÔÓ‰˜ËÌÂÌÌ˚Ï. àÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl 2-„Ó ‚ˉ‡ — ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. (Ï˚ ÛÊ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ. ÓÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ. you wouldn't buy me flowers every day. ÓÌ ·˚ Ì ‚ÂÌÛÎÒfl.fi I should do anything for him (ÏÓÊÌÓ: I would do anything for him).fi It is very important that they should not forget to bring the books. 7. 12.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸. 6.fi She wished she had been twenty years younger. 4. í˚ Ì ÔÓÍÛԇΠ·˚ ÏÌ ˆ‚ÂÚ˚ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. would you have called me? 8. „ÓÏÓÁ‰ÍË ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË. çÂ΢Ì˚ ÙÓÏ˚ „·„Ó· (ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ / Ô˘‡ÒÚË / „ÂÛ̉ËÈ). 11. (ÏÓÊÌÓ: I wish you had been allowed / permitted to come earlier. ÌÓ ‚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË ˝ÚË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‡ÁÌ˚Â: If he had been here. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ 2. (ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸. ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ë‰Â‡Î¸Ì˚Ï ‚‡ˇÌÚÓÏ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏ·ËÌËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÌÂ΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ „·„Ó· Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÂÒÎË ·˚ fl ÓÒÚ‡ÎÒfl ‚ „ÓÓ‰Â Â˘Â Ì‡ Ó‰ËÌ ‰Â̸?fi Would you call me if I stayed in the town for one more day? (ÏÓ„Û ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl) ÌÓ (Ì ÓÒÚ‡ÎÒfl): Would you have called me if I had stayed in the town for one more day?/¤ Had I stayed . óÚÓ·˚ Ì Á‡·˚Ú¸ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ. å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ‡‰˚.We could buy this house if we had money.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ Ô˯ÂÎ Á‡ ̇ÏË. ÂÒÎË ·˚ fl ÔÓÔÓÒËÎ. (Ò‡ÌÒ ÛÊ ̇˜‡ÎÒfl — ̇ ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËÎ¸Ï Ï˚ ÔÓÔ‡ÒÚ¸ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÏ) ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ Ò Perfect Past.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸. ÂÒÎË ·˚ ·˚Î ÏÓËÏ ÏÛÊÂÏ.fi I wish I was / were with them now. ܇θ. í˚ ·˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌË· ÏÌÂ. he could have done it. 9.fi å˚ ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ. Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ËÏ Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸. åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÌËÏË ÒÂȘ‡Ò. í˚ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ Ë ·ÂÁ ˜¸ÂÈ-ÎË·Ó ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë. åÌ ӘÂ̸ ıÓ˜ÂÚÒfl.Â. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı / ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌË Ì Á‡·˚ÎË ÔËÌÂÒÚË ÍÌË„Ë. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÌÛÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Û Ì‡Ò Ì ·˚ÎÓ ‰ÂÌ„. é˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ. Ú. he could do it.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi We shall be glad if they buy a new house.fi éÌ Ì ӉÓÎÊËÎ ·˚ ÏÌ ‰ÂÌ„.. ÂÒÎË ÓÌË ÍÛÔflÚ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. ËÁ·‡‚Îflfl ÓÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ‚˚ÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ‰ÎËÌÌ˚Â.fi ç wouldn't have come back if you hadn't called him. Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÏÌÂ?fi Could you help me? 2. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÛÊ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÏÓ (ÏÓÏÂÌÚ ‰Îfl Â„Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ÛÔÛ˘ÂÌ). ÓÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ. ÂÒÎË ·˚ Û Ì‡Ò ·˚ÎË ‰Â̸„Ë. 6. åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ˝ÚË ÚÛÙÎË. ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‰Îfl ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰Ì‡ ÙÓχ).fi You must learn English every day lest you forget / might / should forget it. ˜ÚÓ ‚‡Ï Ì ‡Á¯ËÎË ÔËÈÚË ‡Ì¸¯Â. 88 . 5. he could have done it. ÂÒÎË ·˚ Û Ì‡Ò ·˚ÎË ‰Â̸„Ë.

6. 2. ÍÓ„‰‡ ۂˉÂÎ. ü ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÒfl ÒÓÎ̈Û. ‚˚„ÎflÌÛ‚¯ÂÏÛ ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚. fl ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÒfl. Ë fl ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÒfl. not to have been ~~~ed (3) 89 . ü ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÒfl ÒÓÎ̈Û. ‚˚„ÎflÌÛ‚¯ÂÏÛ ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚. Ç˚„ÎflÌÛ‚¯Â ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚ ÒÓÎ̈ ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÓ ÏÂÌfl. 3. 4. 5. ÍÓÚÓÓ ‚˚„ÎflÌÛÎÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚. ˜ÚÓ ÒÓÎ̈ ‚˚„ÎflÌÛÎÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚. é˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ: ÔË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ÌÂ΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ „·„Ó· Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ not ÔÓÒΉÌflfl ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÛÊ Ì ÔÓÒΠÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·. ëÓÎ̈Û. ëÓÎ̈ ‚˚„ÎflÌÛÎÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ӷ·ÍÓ‚.èËÏÂ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÓ-ÛÒÒÍË (‚ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ı): 1. ü ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ-ÚÓ Ó·‡‰Ó‚‡ÎÒfl. ÌÓ ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë ‚ÒÂÈ ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË: not to be ~~~ing.

éÌ Ô˯ÂÎ Ò˛‰‡ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ̇¯ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.fi Ö Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÎË ÔÓ‚ÚÓËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓÈ ‡ÒÒ͇Á.fi é̇ Ô‰ÔӘ· ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ËÏ.fi ãÛ˜¯Â ·˚ Ú˚ ÔÓÏÓ„ ÂÈ. ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· let: Let me help you. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒΉÛÂÚ Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. é˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ: „·‚Ì˚Ï ÓÚ΢ËÂÏ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ÓÚ ÛÒÒÍÓÈ ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. What makes you say that?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ú‡Í „Ó‚Ó˯¸? èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· to make ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ (Passive) ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to: ß ß ß I was made to help him. ÍÓÏ ought: I can help you.íÂχ 7: àÌÙËÌËÚË‚ / Infinitive. To have been ~ ~ ~ed(3) Passive Perfect Infinitive 4. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ï˚ Ì ·Û‰ÂÏ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi ü ‡‰. Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛Ú ÌË͇ÍËı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ: ü ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â. ÌËÊÂ).. Ë Ú. ÔÓÒΠ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ would / had rather fi Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÂÎ ·˚ / had better fi ÎÛ˜¯Â ·˚ Ë ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Û„Ëı: She would rather help them.fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚÂ.fi éÌ Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÎ ÏÂÌfl ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ. ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· to make ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ (Active): ç made me help him.‰. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú·Â. ÔÓÎÛ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚Ò Ú Ê ÙÓÏÛÎ˚.fi ü ‡‰ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â. You had better help her. fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û ‚‡Ï. 2. You must help him. 3. ÔÓÒΠÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓÏ Ó·ÓÓÚ (ÒÏ. èËÁ̇ÍÓÏ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ̇΢ˠ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to ÔÂ‰ ÙÓÏÓÈ „·„Ó·. ÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ‚ÚÓ˚Ï ˜‡ÒÚËˆÛ to ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸: I want to come and (to) see your new house.fi I went to help you.fi åÂÌfl Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÎË ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ. ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ shall / will / should / would ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. I am glad to help you. Ú. to be ~ ~ ~ed(3) 2. ç ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ àÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ β·ÓÈ ËÁ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ.Â. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ to ÔÂ‰ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: ß ß ß ß ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂı ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. 2. ÚÓθÍÓ ·ÂÁ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÂÏÂÌË (ÙÓÏÛ· Passive Continuous Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡): 1. ˜ÚÓ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ‡ÒÔ‡‰‡ÂÚÒfl Â˘Â Ì‡ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ. Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ͇ʉÓÈ ËÁ ÌËı: Active 1.fi ü ıÓ˜Û ÔËÂı‡Ú¸ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ Ú‚ÓÈ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. ÂÒÎË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‰‚‡ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË and ËÎË or. ‚ ͇ʉÓÈ ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Á‡Íβ˜ÂÌÓ ÔÓÌflÚË Á‡ÎÓ„‡ (Active / Passive) Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (Indefinite / Continuous / Perfect / Perfect Continuous). ç ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ 3. She was made to repeat the story. 4. ÇÓ ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ Ë ÙÛÌ͈ËË ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ Ó·ÓËı flÁ˚͇ı ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú Ë. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. I am glad to be helping you. to ~ ~ ~ to be ~ ~ ~ing to have ~ ~ ~ed (3) to have been ~ ~ ~ing Active Active Indefinite Infinitive Active Continuous Infinitive Active Perfect Infinitive Active Perfect Continuous Infinitive Passive Passive Indefinite Infinitive 1. ÌÓ: You ought to help us. 90 .fi ç came here to see our new house. àÌÙËÌËÚË‚ (ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ̇fl ÙÓχ „·„Ó·) ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ Ë Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ / ҉·ڸ?.

I am glad to have been helped. ÍÓ„‰‡ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÒΉÛÂÚ Ò‡ÁÛ Á‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ. I am glad to be helping you. Â„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸ (ÓÌ ÔË„Ó‰ÂÌ ‰Îfl ÔÓÍÛÔÍË). I am glad to have been helping you. ÍÓÚÓÚÓÓ Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚ÓÔÂÍË Ì‡‰Âʉ (ÔÓÒΠto hope) / ÓÊˉ‡Ì˲ (ÔÓÒΠto expect) / ̇ÏÂÂÌ˲ (ÔÓÒΠto intend) / Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌ˲ (ÔÓÒΠto mean). 3. b) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï.3.fi é̇ ̇‰Âfl·Ҹ. c) ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ÙÓÏ Perfect Infinitive ÔÓÒΠÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi ü Ô‰ÔÓ·„‡Î Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ Ëı (ÌÓ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÔÓϯ‡ÎÓ ÏÌ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ).fi ü ‡‰. I am glad to have been helping you. They intended to have come earlier. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú·Â.fi ü ̇‰ÂflÎÒfl.fi éÌË ÒÓ·Ë‡ÎËÒ¸ / ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡ÎË ÔËÈÚË ‡Ì¸¯Â (ÌÓ Ì ÒÏÓ„ÎË). ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‡Á΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÓÚÚÂÌÍË: a) Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯Ë‚¯ÂÂÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: I am glad to have helped you. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú· (‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ‰Ó ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ÏÓÏÂÌÚ‡). ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË.fi ü ‡‰. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„ÛÚ (ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË). ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË: (In order) To be there on time we must hurry. åÌÓ„ËÂ. Ç˚¯Â Ï˚ ÛÊ ÛÔÓÏË̇ÎË Ó ÚÓÏ. Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ÙÛÌÍˆË˛ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl.fi ü ‡‰ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â. (‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ ‰Û„‡ Ì ËÏÂ˛Ú Á̇˜ÂÌËfl) ç is a good friend to be invited. ˜ÚÓ ÂÈ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ (ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎË). ÓÌ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ‚Ò ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛Ú ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó Ë ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ Indefinite Past: I hoped to have been helped. I meant to have invited them. Â„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ (Á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‚ÌÓÒËÚ¸ ‚ ‰ÂÍ·‡ˆË˛? This is a good house to be bought. îÓÏ˚ Indefinite Infinitive (Active / Passive).fi ü ÔËÌÂÒ Ú· ‚Ó‰Û (͇ÍÛ˛?). Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: 1.fi éÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Ô‡Â̸.fi ü ‡‰. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛Ú. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„ Ú·Â.fi ü ÔÓÔÓÒËÎ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ‰Û„‡ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÏÌÂ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚. I am glad to have helped you. Á‡ÌËχ˛˘ËÈ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl. ÍÓ„‰‡ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ?.fi ü ‡‰. I brought you some water to drink. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„ Ú·Â. I am glad to help you. ç was too tired to help us. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: I asked my friend to help me. I am glad to be helped.fi ü ‡‰. îÓÏ˚ Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) Ë Active Perfect Continuous Infinitive Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi ü ‡‰. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌÓ„Ë ÙÛÌ͈ËË ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ Ë ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ó·Î‡‰‡˛Ú ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ÏË ËÎË ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË: 1. 7. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï.fi óÚÓ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ Ú‡Ï ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl. Have you got anything to declare?fi (‚ÓÔÓÒ Ú‡ÏÓÊÂÌÌË͇) ì ‚‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ (͇ÍÓÂ?). éÒÓ·˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú· (‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË). Ç ÙÛÌ͈ËË Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ˆÂÎË ËÎË ÒΉÒÚ‚Ëfl. Ú‡Í Ë ÙÓÏÛ Passive Indefinite Infinitive (ÂÒÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ËÎË ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ ËÁ-Á‡ ̇΢Ëfl Û ÌÂ„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚): 91 . Ç ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl.fi ùÚÓ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‰ÓÏ. Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÔËÚ¸ (˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚  ÔËÎ). 4. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË. I am glad to have been helped.fi ü ÍÛÔËÎ Ú· ‚Ó‰˚ ÔÓÔËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Â„Ó Ô˄·ÒËÎË).fi ü ‡‰. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi ü ‡‰. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛Ú. ÍÓÚÓÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ËÎË ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ÔÓÚÓÏÛ. ÔÓËÒıÓ‰fl˘Â ӉÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ. Passive 1.fi ü ‡‰. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ Active Continuous Infinitive Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. I am glad to be helped. Ç ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌÌ˚ı ̇ÏË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Í‡Í ÙÓÏÛ Active Indefinite Infinitive (ÂÒÎË ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó Ì‡Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡): I bought you some water to drink. 2. 1. She expected to have been called. Ì‡Ï Ì‡‰Ó ÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl. ÌÓ Ì ‚ÒÂ.fi éÌ ·˚Î ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ.

I know this big car to be very good.) We know that house to have been built this year.fi ü ‚ˉÂÎ.fi å˚ ӷ̇ÛÊËÎË.fi éÌ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î.. é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: „·„ÓÎ˚ to see Ë to hear ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ÁÂÌËÂÏ / ÒÎÛıÓÏ. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú·fl Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÎË.fi å˚ ÛÒÎ˚¯‡ÎË. I felt him smoke. ‚ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ó·ÓÓÚ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl: I see that you read this book. Â„Ó ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸.fi ü ÔÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î. ˜ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ ·Óθ¯‡fl χ¯Ë̇ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯‡fl.fi å˚ Á̇ÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓÒÚÓËÎË ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û.fi éÌ Ô˯ÂÎ ÔÂ‚˚Ï. ÌÓ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to: ç felt them to come back soon. He is always the first to be invited.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. ˜ÚÓ ‚ÂÌÛÎËÒ¸ ̇¯Ë ‰ÛÁ¸fl. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË (ÔÓ „ÛÔÔ‡Ï): ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËÂ: to see fi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / to hear fi ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ / to feel fi ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ / to watch fi ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸ / to observe fi ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸ / to notice fi Á‡ÏÂÚËÚ¸ — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ˜‡ÒÚˈ‡ to ÔÂ‰ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: I saw him take a pen out of his pocket. ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚ÏË Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ÏË. Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ „‰Â ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÎËˆÓ ËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÎ. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ ˜ËÚ‡ÎË ˝ÚÛ ÍÌË„Û. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ó·ÓÓÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl. I want you to be remembered. àÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÓÒÓ·˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ. . ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÓ‚Â¯‡˛Ú Ò‡ÏË (Active) ËÎË ÔÓ‰‚Â„‡˛ÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲ (Passive). 8. èË ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ 2 (ËÁ ÒıÂÏ˚) ÏÓÊÂÚ ‚˚‡Ê‡Ú¸Òfl „·„Ó·ÏË. (= éÌË Ò˜ËÚ‡˛Ú Â„Ó ıÓÓ¯ËÏ ‚Ó‰ËÚÂÎÂÏ.fi éÌ ÛȉÂÚ ÔÓÒΉÌËÏ.fi ü ÔÓ·„‡˛. / the last fi ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ. Ç ˝ÚÓÈ Ê ÙÛÌ͈ËË ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ë ÔÓÒΠÒÎÓ‚ the first fi ÔÂ‚˚È / the second fi ‚ÚÓÓÈ / . I believe them not to be sleeping now. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ì ÒÔflÚ. We found the liquid to be very strong. You can't expect to learn a foreign language in a week..fi Ö„Ó ‚Ò„‰‡ Ô˄·¯‡˛Ú ÔÂ‚˚Ï..fi ùÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ. ÇÒ ӷÓÓÚ˚ ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÒıÂχÏ. ëıÂχ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚Ï ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ: 1 2 3 4 5 ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ / èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ . Í‡Í / ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ‰ÓÒڇΠÛ˜ÍÛ ËÁ ͇χ̇.fi ü Á̇˛. ˜ÚÓ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚È flÁ˚Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ Á‡ ̉Âβ. ÏÌÂÌË / ÒÛʉÂÌËÂ: to think fi ‰Ûχڸ / to know fi Á̇ڸ / to believe fi ‚ÂËÚ¸ (Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ / ÔÓ·„‡Ú¸) / to declare fi Á‡fl‚ÎflÚ¸ / to suppose fi ÔÓ·„‡Ú¸ / to understand fi ÔÓÌËχڸ / to assume fi ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ / to consider fi Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ / to find fi ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / to expect fi ÓÊˉ‡Ú¸ / to prove fi Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl Ë ‰. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: 92 . ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ú‡ÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ò ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ ˜ÚÓ / ˜ÚÓ·˚ / ͇Í.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. É·„ÓÎ to feel ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌË ҘËÚ‡Ú¸ / ÔÓ·„‡Ú¸. We heard that you were ill last week. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÒÍÓÓ ‚ÂÌÛÚÒfl. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ ·˚ÎË ·ÓθÌ˚ ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθ.fi å˚ ÒÎ˚¯‡ÎË (Á̇ÂÏ). We heard our friends come back. ‚ÂÏfl ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Á‡‚ËÒËÚ ÓÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË „·„Ó· to be ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: ç was the first to come. ‡ 4 — Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: I want you to remember.This is a good house to be bought.: They think him to be a good driver. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı 3 (ËÁ ÒıÂÏ˚) ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. èË ˝ÚÓÏ Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÓÌ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl „·„ÓÎÓÏ-Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï.fi éÌË ‰Ûχ˛Ú (Ò˜ËÚ‡˛Ú). ç will be the last to leave.fi ü ‚ËÊÛ (Á̇˛). ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÍÛËÚ.fi He ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡È ̇ ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ ÊˉÍÓÒÚ¸ ÒËθÌÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛˘‡fl..

She asked me to buy some bread. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ÔË͇Á‡ÌË / ‡Á¯ÂÌË / ÔÓÒ¸·Û. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ·˚· Ó·‡˘Â̇ ÔÓÒ¸·‡)fi éÌË ÔÓÔÓÒËÎË. 93 . (ÌÂÚ Û͇Á‡ÌËfl ̇ ÎˈÓ. (ÌÂÚ Û͇Á‡ÌËfl ̇ ÎˈÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ·˚Î ‰‡Ì ÌÂωÎÂÌÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. fi ó‡˘Â ÔÓÒ¸·‡ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÎÓ‚Ó there ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó/ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ: Their teacher considers there to be nothing difficult in that task. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚È „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÎˈÓ. Active Infinitive ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ‡ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ — Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. „‰Â ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Ò‚flÁ‡Ì Ò ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. I don't want there to be any misunderstanding. .fi ü ÔÓÔÓÒËÎ Â„Ó ÔÓÏÓ˜¸. Ê·ÌËÂ: to want fi ıÓÚÂÚ¸ / to wish fi Ê·ڸ / to desire fi Ê·ڸ / I should / I would (I'd) like fi ÏÌ ·˚ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ They want us to come back on Sunday. ËÎË ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ.¤ Ö„Ó Á̇˛Ú Í‡Í ıÓÓ¯Â„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇. ëıÂχ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ò ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚Ï ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ: 1 2 3 4 èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Passive) ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ .. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ÏÌÂÌË / ÒÛʉÂÌË / Ê·ÌËÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡‚Ú‡. ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ ·˚ÎÓ ‰‡ÌÓ ‡Á¯ÂÌËÂ) They asked for the answer to be given immediately. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì˜ÂÒÚÌ˚È. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ. Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌflÂÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË ˜ÚÓ ËÎË Í‡Í: He is known to be a good man.ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to consider / to declare / to prove /to find ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Passive Infinitive: She allowed the car to be taken away. Ú‡ÍÓ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ì fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ Ë Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ: I requested him to help. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓÎÌÓ ‚Á‡ËÏÓÔÓÌËχÌËÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ χ¯ËÌÛ Û·‡ÎË Ò ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔËÌÂÒÎË Â˘Â Ó‰ÌÛ ·ÛÚ˚ÎÍÛ ‚Ë̇. ̇ ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ÔË͇Á‡ÌË / ‡Á¯ÂÌË / ÔÓÒ¸·‡: I requested him to help.¤ ì ÌÂ„Ó ÂÔÛÚ‡ˆËfl ıÓÓ¯Â„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇.fi àÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á‡‰‡ÌËË ÌÂÚ ÌË˜Â„Ó ÒÎÓÊÌÓ„Ó. I'd like you to call me in the morning. She was said to be ill at the moment.fi ÉÓ‚ÓËÎË. She allowed us to smoke in the room.fi é̇ ‡Á¯Ë·. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl „·‚Ì˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. We found him (to be) dishonest. ç ordered one more bottle of wine to be brought. a good manfi ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍfi àÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ.fi åÌ ·˚ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸. — is known.fi éÌË Ó·˙fl‚ËÎË Â„Ó Ôӷ‰ËÚÂÎÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÚÓÚ ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Ó̇ ·˚· ÌÂÁ‰ÓÓ‚‡. ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ: He considers her (to be) a beautiful girl. We request for the money to be trasferred before the end of the month. to befi ·˚Ú¸. Ì Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË..¤ éÌ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ Í‡Í ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. ̇ ÍÓÚÓÓ ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÓ ÔË͇Á‡ÌË / ‡Á¯ÂÌË / ÔÓÒ¸·‡. ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ó·ÓÓÚ there+to be.fi àÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ.fi é̇ ÔÓÔÓÒË· ÏÂÌfl ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ıη‡. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰Â̸„Ë ·˚ÎË ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌ˚ ‰Ó ÍÓ̈‡ ÏÂÒflˆ‡. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ‚ÂÌÛÎËÒ¸ ‚ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸Â.fi àı Û˜ËÚÂθ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ.fi éÌË Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ Â Í‡ÒË‚ÓÈ ‰Â‚Û¯ÍÓÈ. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ: ç is known to come tomorrow. ÔË͇Á‡ÌË / ‡Á¯ÂÌË / ÔÓÒ¸·Û: to allow fi ‡Á¯‡Ú¸ / to permit fi ‡Á¯‡Ú¸ / to ask for fi ÔÓÒËÚ¸ / to order fi ÔË͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ / to command fi ÔË͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ / to request for fi Ó·‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl Ò ÔÓÒ¸·ÓÈ — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Passive Infinitive: She allowed the car to be taken away.fi éÌË ıÓÚflÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎ ÏÌ ÛÚÓÏ. They declared him (to be) the winner. (˜ÚÓ) hefi ÓÌ. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi å˚ ӷ̇ÛÊËÎË. ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ„Ó.fi éÌ ÔË͇Á‡Î. ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. ç‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÔÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË: Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ÔÂ‚ӉËÏ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ 2 (ËÁ ÒıÂÏ˚) ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÏ Â„Ó ‚ ‚ˉ ӉÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ò ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi é̇ ‡Á¯Ë· Ì‡Ï ÍÛËÚ¸ ‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÊ Active Infinitive. ÂÒÎË ÎˈÓ.

‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be: to be likely fi ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ / to be unlikely fi ̇‚fl‰ ÎË. They told us to wait here. There appeared to be nobody who could help them. í‡Í‡fl ÙÓχ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ë ÔÓÒÚ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ: ¤ é̇.fi ÉÓ‚ÓËÎË. äÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ „Ó‚ÓËÎË ‚ ̇˜‡Î ˝ÚÓÈ íÂÏ˚ Ó ÚÓÏ.fi ÖÏÛ Ò͇Á‡ÎË ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ χÚÂË. ç is said to have bought a new car. They are supposed to come later.fi èÓ·„‡˛Ú. ÒÓÏÌËÚÂθÌÓ / to be sure fi ÌÂÒÓÏÌÂÌÌÓ / to be certain fi ̇‚ÂÌfl͇. ˜ÚÓ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ Ë ÙÛÌ͈ËË ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ Ó·ÓËı flÁ˚͇ı ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú Ë ÔÓÚÓÏÛ Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡˛Ú ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ.fi é̇ Ó͇Á‡Î‡Ò¸ Í‡ÒË‚ÓÈ..fi Ç˚flÒÌËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Î ÓÌ. ÌÂÒÓÏÌÂÌÌÓ. ÒÚÓfl˘ËÏ ÔÓÒΠÔ‰ÎÓ„‡ for: That was for him to find out. ·ÎËÁÍËÈ ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ Í to say.fi é͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸.fi é͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸. ͇ÊÂÚÒfl. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ... ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ.fi éÌ. Do you happen to know her name?fi Ç˚. 94 .fi éÌË Ò͇Á‡ÎË Ì‡Ï Ê‰‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸.. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÔˉÛÚ Ó˜Â̸ ÒÍÓÓ.fi ä‡ÊÂÚÒfl. Ì Á̇Âڠ ËÏÂÌË? èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ò ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ „ÛÔÔÓÈ „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ӷÓÓÚ‡ there+to be. àÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ for. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: „·„ÓÎ to tell.·ÂÁÛÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: They are unlikely to come very soon. í‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ‚ÒÚ˜‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ̇˷ÓΠ˜‡ÒÚÓ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ë ÒÓÓ·˘ÂÌË / ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ: to say fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / to report fi ÒÓÓ·˘‡Ú¸ / to suppose fi ÔÓ·„‡Ú¸ / to announce fi Ó·˙fl‚ÎflÚ¸ Ë ‰. çÓ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ç proved to be a doctor. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ËÏ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÏÓ„. ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ËÎË Í Â„Ó ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌ˲: She is going to do that tomorrow. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ. Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ é·ÓÓÚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı Ë ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ „·„Ó· ËÎË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. ÿ „·„ÓÎ˚-ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl. Á̇ÂÚ ÌÓÏÂ  ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì ‚‡˜.ÇÒ „·„ÓÎ˚. for + ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË + ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ . Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı „·„ÓÎ to be ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚ Ë ·ÂÁ Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ there+to be: ÿ The task proved (to be) more difficult than we had thought. ˜ÂÏ Ï˚ ‰ÛχÎË. Ó̇ Á̇ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇. ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÎËˆÛ ËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚÛ.fi ᇉ‡˜‡ Ó͇Á‡Î‡Ò¸ ·ÓΠÒÎÓÊÌÓÈ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ (‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ) ‚‡˜. Ì fl‚Îfl˛˘ÂÏÛÒfl ÌË ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ÑÎfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl Í‡Í ‡Á Ú‡ÍËı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ for.fi é̇ ÒÓ·Ë‡ÂÚÒfl Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl ˝ÚËÏ Á‡‚Ú‡. ë‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ç was said to help his mother. Ì ӷ‡ÁÛÂÚ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡: ç was told to help his mother. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ ‚˚‡Ê‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi é͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ (‚ÓÔÂÍË ÓÊˉ‡ÌËflÏ). ëıÂχ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ . ÌÓ ‚ ÙÓÏ Passive. Ï˚ ËÏÂÎË ‚ ‚Ë‰Û ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë.¤ é͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸.fi ä‡ÊÂÚÒfl. ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ë Ò ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ Ó̇ Í‡ÒË‚‡fl. „‰Â „·„ÓÎ to be ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl: There seems (to be) no doubt about it. ÓÌ ÍÛÔËÎ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ËÎË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ. Á̇ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÒÓÏÌÂÌËfl. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡˛˘Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó. She appeared to be beautiful.¤ 燂fl‰ ÎË ÓÌË ÔˉÛÚ Ó˜Â̸ ÒÍÓÓ. ÌË ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËÂÏ Í ÌÂÏÛ. ë ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚Ï ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ë ‰Û„Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡ (ÔÓ „ÛÔÔ‡Ï): ÿ „·„ÓÎ˚. . ç turned out not to be a doctor. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ Ï‡ÚÂË. ÍÓÚÓÓ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ ÎˈÓÏ / Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÔˉÛÚ ÔÓÁÊÂ.fi ëÓÏÌËÚÂθÌÓ. éÌ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl Ì ‚‡˜ÓÏ. ç is sure to know her telephone number.fi ÉÓ‚ÓflÚ. ÌÓ ÒÚÓfl˘Ë ‚ ÙÓÏ Active: to seem fi ͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl / to happen fi ÒÎÛ˜‡Ú¸Òfl / to appear / to prove / to turn out fi Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ: She seems to know this man.

ÓÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Û˜ËÚÂθ. their husbands. ëÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸ Ú‡Í. 3. The best thing for you to do is to leave. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ëı Ô˄·ÒËÎË ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ÏÛʸflÏË. (ä Ò˜‡ÒÚ¸˛. ÏÛÊÂÈ Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎË) — The women wished that they would be invited together with their husbands. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ÜÂÌ˘ËÌ˚ ıÓÚÂÎË. The claims should be forwarded by a registered letter. (Ô˄·¯‡ÎË ‡Ì¸¯Â. è‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.fi é̇ ·˚ ÓÚ‰‡Î‡ ‚ÒÂ.fi ç came here to help us. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÏÓfl χχ ÒÏӄ· ÔÓÈÚË. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚Ï ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Í‡Í ·˚ ‰‚‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı (Ó‰ÌÓ — ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. ‰Û„Ó — Ò ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ).fi — The women wished to be invited together with their husbands. éÌË ıÓÚÂÎË. the text to be written in English. éÌ Ô˯ÂÎ Ò˛‰‡ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï.fi I happened not to have money with me. ÔÓ-‚‡¯ÂÏÛ.) ì ÏÂÌfl Ì Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‰ÂÌ„. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï ÔÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. éÌË ıÓÚÂÎË. ü ‡‰. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓÊ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ.fi All his friends supposed him not to have any / to have no money.¤ It is necessary that you should wait behind the door.fi You will have to wait behind the door. (Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl) — The women wished that they had been invited together with their husbands. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ó·ÓÓÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ÓÚ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ.fi They wanted that someone showed us their new house.fi I'm glad to see you. 6. (ä ÌÂÒ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ.¤ All his friends supposed that he did not have any / had no money. 95 . ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÓ͇Á‡Î Ì‡Ï Ëı ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. 8. ÔÓ͇ Ó̇ Á‡„Ó‚ÓËÚ. çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. 10. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚÌ˚ ‡ÒıÓ‰˚ Ë ÓÔ·ÚÛ ÒÚ‡ıÓ‚ÍË ·ÂÂÚ Ì‡ Ò·fl Ä„ÂÌÚ. ùÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯‡fl ÍÌË„‡. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl Í ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Û. éÌË ıÓÚÂÎË ÔÓ͇Á‡Ú¸ Ì‡Ï Ò‚ÓÈ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. the Agent to pay the cost of transportation and insurance. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ۂˉÂÎË Ëı ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. ÇÒÂ Â„Ó ‰ÛÁ¸fl Ò˜ËÚ‡ÎË.¤ It is known that he doesn't smoke. 7. (ıÓÚÂÎË ‡Ì¸¯Â.fi I'm glad that I see you. fl ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÚÂÔÂ¸ ‰Â·ڸ?fi What am I supposed to do now?¤ What do you think I have to do now? 12. 9. ÉÓ‚ÓflÚ.fi That is a very good book for you to read. ÚÓθÍÓ ·˚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ì ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô˄·ÒËÎË ‚ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ) 5.fi It so happened that I had no money with me. Ô˘ÂÏ ÚÂÍÒÚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.¤ They say that he is a good teacher. ó‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ̇ۘÌÓÈ / ÍÓÏÏÂ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ / ˛ˉ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÂ. ü ‡‰ Ú·fl ‚ˉÂÚ¸. (Ô˄·¯‡ÎË ‡Ì¸¯Â. ˜ÚÓ ‚ËÊÛ Ú·fl.fi They wanted us to be shown their new house.fi They wanted that we saw their new house.fi í· ÎÛ˜¯Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÛÂı‡Ú¸.fi èÂÚÂÌÁËË ‚˚Ò˚·˛ÚÒfl Á‡Í‡ÁÌ˚Ï ÔËÒ¸ÏÓÏ.fi éÌ ÓÚÓ¯ÂÎ ‚ ÒÚÓÓÌÛ.) ì ÏÂÌfl Ì Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‰ÂÌ„.fi ç is known not to smoke. 4. ç stepped aside for my mother to pass. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÓÌ ÒÚÓËÚ: The Seller undertakes to replace defective goods free of charge within the minimum possible time. (Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl) — The women wished to have been invited together with their husbands.fi éÌ Ê‰‡Î.fi ç is said to be a good teacher. Ç‡Ï ÔˉÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰Óʉ‡Ú¸ Á‡ ‰‚Â¸˛. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl Í ÎËˆÛ / Ô‰ÏÂÚÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì‡Ï ÔÓ͇Á‡ÎË Ëı ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. ‡ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. àÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ. ÏÛÊÂÈ Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎË) — The women wished that they were invited together with .fi èÓ‰‡‚ˆ Ó·flÁÛÂÚÒfl Á‡ÏÂÌËÚ¸ ÔÓ‚ÂʉÂÌÌ˚ ËÁ‰ÂÎËfl ·ÂÒÔ·ÚÌÓ ‚ ÏËÌËχθÌ˚È ÒÓÍ. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Ë.fi I did not happen to have money with me. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ Ú· ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸. èËÏÂ˚: Ò‡‚ÌËÚ ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ 1. ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛˘ËÏÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÎË Ô˘ÂÏ.ç waited for her to speak.¤ He came here in order he could help us. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ. à ˜ÚÓ.¤ This is a very good book that you must read.fi They wanted to show us their new house.¤ They wanted us to see their new house. ˜ÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‰ÂÌ„. She would have given anything for this not to have happened. 2. 11. ˜ÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì ÍÛËÚ. éÌË ıÓÚÂÎË. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ˜ÚÓ Û ÌÂ„Ó ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„.

ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇Î. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ.fi Nobody seemed to know what had happened. 14. 96 . ä‡Á‡ÎÓÒ¸.¤ It seemed that nobody knew what had happened. ü ıÓ˜Û.13. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ ·Óθ¯Â Ì Á‚ÓÌËÎË Ò˛‰‡.fi I want you not to call here any more.¤ I don't want you to call here any more.¤ I wish that you should not call here any more.

Ì ‚ÎËfl˛˘Ë ̇ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÓÚ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰flÚ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl. Ô˘‡ÒÚË ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡ (Ú. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÓÌË Î˯¸ ‚ıÓ‰flÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ÙÓÏ è˘‡ÒÚËfl I. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: ÙÓÏ˚ Indefinite (Active / Passive) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ‚ ‚ˉ ӉÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡. éÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔËÁÌ‡Í ‚ÂÏÂÌË.fi ÅÛ‰Û˜Ë Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚Ï ‰‡‚Ì˚Ï-‰‡‚ÌÓ.Â. ÓÌË Ì ÔÓËÁÌÂÒÎË ÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡. àÌÓ„‰‡ Ô˘‡ÒÚË ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.Â.fi éÌ ÒˉÂÎ Û ÓÍ̇.fi éÊˉ‡fl  ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡. ˜ÚÓ ‰Â·ڸ. ÍÓ„‰‡ Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ -ed. Ú. ӷ·‰‡˛˘‡fl Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË „·„Ó· Ë Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ë Ì‡˜Ëfl. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Á‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ). è˘‡ÒÚË I ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÙÓχı. è˘‡ÒÚË II ÔÓ ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ËÏÒfl ‚ ÌÂÏ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏ ÔËÁÌ‡Í‡Ï ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ¢ ͇Í: Ô˘‡ÒÚË Ôӯ‰¯Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Past). ÓÌË Ì Á̇ÎË. the letter looked very old. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï: Waiting for her answer they didn't say a word. ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.Â. Having been written long ago. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡fl ‚ ÌËı ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Û˛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÙÓÏ ̇ è˘‡ÒÚË I (Participle I) Ë è˘‡ÒÚË II (Participle II). ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÒÚ‡˚Ï. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÓÚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ (‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ — 3-fl ÙÓχ). Ë ‚ ÙÓÏ Active Indefinite: 97 . è˘‡ÒÚË — ÌÂ΢̇fl ÙÓχ „·„Ó·. Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÂ Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ. ÙÓÏ˚ Perfect (Active / Passive) — ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌÓ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ? Ë ÒÎÛÊËÚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ: smoking manfi ÍÛfl˘ËÈ ÏÛʘË̇ àÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. è˘‡ÒÚËfl II ‰ÂÎflÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÙÓÏÂ Â˘Â Ì‡ ‰‚ „ÛÔÔ˚: a) ÙÓÏ˚.fi ç‡ÔËÒ‡‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ. Ç Í‡Ê‰ÓÈ ÙÓÏ è˘‡ÒÚËfl I Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌ˚ ÛÊ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Â Ì‡Ï ÔËÁ̇ÍË ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË: Á‡ÎÓ„ Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ˜ËÚ‡fl ÍÌË„Û.. they didn't know what to do.fi éÒÚ‡‚¯ËÒ¸ Ó‰ÌË (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: ·Û‰Û˜Ë ÓÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË). Ô˘‡ÒÚË ÒÚ‡‰‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á‡ÎÓ„‡ (Passive). Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÌÂÁ‡ÍÓ̘ÂÌÌÓ / ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ˛˘ÂÂÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ).íÂχ 8: è˘‡ÒÚË / Participle. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. ÍÓÚÓÓÂ Í‡Í ·˚ ÒÓÔÓ‚Óʉ‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. — ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÓÌÓ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ ͇Í? / ÍÓ„‰‡? / ÔÓ Í‡ÍÓÈ Ô˘ËÌÂ? / ÔË Í‡ÍËı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı? / ÔË Í‡ÍÓÏ ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË? Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ ‰ÂÂÔ˘‡ÒÚ˲: ç was sitting by the window reading a book. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. è˘‡ÒÚË I Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive -ing. ÓÌ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËΠ̇Ï. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÏÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ Ô˘‡ÒÚËÈ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÓÔÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ Ë ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ? èËϘ‡ÌËfl: Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl. è˘‡ÒÚËfl II ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ. b) ÙÓÏ˚. -ing ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Í ÔÂ‚ÓÏÛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ. Being left alone. Having written the letter. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ ÙÓÏÛÎ‡Ï Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: Indefinite Active ~ ~ ~ ing Passive being ~ ~ ~ ed(3) Perfect having ~ ~ ~ having been ~ ~ ~ ~ ed(3) ~ ed(3) é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÙÓÏ˚ Continuous. èÓ ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ËÏÒfl ‚ ÌÂÏ „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏ ÔËÁÌ‡Í‡Ï è˘‡ÒÚË I ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÚ¸ ¢ ͇Í: Ô˘‡ÒÚË ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË (Present) / Ô˘‡ÒÚË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á‡ÎÓ„‡ (Active) / Ô˘‡ÒÚË ÌÂÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ˉ‡ (Ú. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÓÚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl Ë ‰‚ËÊÂÌËfl: to see fi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / to hear fi ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ / to come fi ÔËÈÚË / to arrive fi ÔË·˚Ú¸ / to take fi ‚ÁflÚ¸ / to turn fi ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl Ë ‰. he called us.

̇ ˜ÚÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Being afraid of strangers. Ë ÍÓÚÓ˚ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÒÓÔÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ˝ıÓÏ Á‚Û˜‡˘Ë (ÒÂȘ‡Ò) ‚ ÏÓÂÈ „ÓÎÓ‚Â. ÙÓχ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡.. ÔËÌÂÒÂÌÌÛ˛ ‚˜Â‡?¤ í˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ÍÌË„Û. ˜ÚÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ Ò‡Ï ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: smoking man fi ÍÛfl˘ËÈ ÏÛʘË̇. Ó̇ ÔÓÒÚÓ Òˉ· Ë Ô·͇· (ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ?).fi ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Á‡·Û‰Û  ÒÎÓ‚‡.Hearing his voice she ran to meet him.¤ í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï ÔË ˜ÚÂÌËË ÍÌË„. ˝ÚË Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË: ¤ When / While my sister was a student. Ú‡Í Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË: The man sitting at the table is a very good doctor. Á‚ÓÌË· ‚‡Ï ÔÓÁ‡‚˜Â‡.¤ í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘ÂÂ Ò ÏÓÏÂÌÚÓÏ ˜Ë. They will leave. ÍÓ„‰‡ ˜Ëڇ¯¸ ÍÌË„Ë. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ʉÂÚ Ú·fl.fi ÅÛ‰Û˜Ë ÌÒ ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï.fi àÒÔ˚Ú˚‚‡fl ÒÚ‡ı ÔÂ‰ ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚ÏË Î˛‰¸ÏË. unless stopped. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÒˉËÚ Á‡ ÒÚÓÎÓÏ. Will you read the book brought yesterday?fi í˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ÍÌË„Û.fi ìÒÎ˚¯‡‚ Â„Ó „ÓÎÓÒ. reading boy fi ˜ËÚ‡˛˘ËÈ Ï‡Î¸˜ËÍ è˘‡ÒÚË II ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂÏ Ôӯ‰¯Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ.. Ó̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ ËÁ ÍÓÏ̇Ú˚. Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl ‚ ÙÓÏ Active Indefinite ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ú‡ÍÊ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. the children didn't go with them. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ÔËÌÂÒÎË ‚˜Â‡? èÂ‰ è˘‡ÒÚËflÏË I / II. ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡. ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡‚¯‡flÒfl ‰Îfl Ï˚Ú¸fl ÓÍÓÌ. a) è˘‡ÒÚË I ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂÏ Ì‡ÒÚÓfl˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ë ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ. When / While in Stockholm. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı Ô˘ËÌÛ ÚÓ„Ó. ‰ÂÚË Ì ÔÓ¯ÎË Ò ÌËÏË (ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ?).. she was just sitting and crying. ÍÓ„‰‡ ·˚· ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚÍÓÈ. èÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ-‡ÁÌÓÏÛ: While reading books you must be attentive. Turning slowly she wen out of the room. Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï. ÂÒÎË Â„Ó ÔËÚ¸ Ì·Óθ¯ËÏË ‰ÓÁ‡ÏË.fi ü Ì Á̇˛ ‰Â‚Û¯ÍÛ.fi ÜÂÌ˘Ë̇. Ú‡Í Ë ÔÓÒΠÌÂ„Ó — b). ·˚· Ó˜Â̸ ÒËθÌÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛˘‡fl. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÓÌË ÏÓ„ÛÚ Á‡ÌËχڸ ÏÂÒÚÓ Í‡Í ÔÂ‰ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ — ‡). ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó. Any good wine if drunk by little portions is very useful for health. ÍÓ„‰‡ ·˚Î ‚ ëÚÓÍ„ÓθÏÂ. ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.Â.fi ÜˉÍÓÒÚ¸. I learned much about Sweden.¤ ã˛·Ó ıÓӯ ‚ËÌÓ ÔË ÛÔÓÚ·ÎÂÌËË Ì·Óθ¯ËÏË ‰ÓÁ‡ÏË Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓÎÂÁÌÓ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl. ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÎË ‰Îfl Ï˚Ú¸fl ÓÍÓÌ. Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‚‡˜.fi ã˛·Ó ıÓӯ ‚ËÌÓ. ¤ When / While I was in Stockholm.fi óËÚ‡fl ÍÌË„Ë. Ú. ÓÌË ÛȉÛÚ. ÓÔËÒ‡ÌË ˝ÚËı Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ: 98 . ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÒÚÓËÚ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ: The woman waiting in the car called you the day before yesterday.fi ü ÛÁ̇ΠÏÌÓ„Ó ÌÓ‚Ó„Ó Ó ò‚ˆËË (ÍÓ„‰‡?). è˘‡ÒÚËfl I / II. ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡˛˘Ë Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ Ë Óڂ˜‡˛˘Ë ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ?. „‰Â ˜‡ÒÚ¸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ÍÓ„‰‡?: My sister took part in many expeditions when / while a student. ÓÊˉ‡˛˘Û˛ Ú·fl.¤ ü Ì Á̇˛ ‰Â‚Û¯ÍÛ.fi åÓfl ÒÂÒÚ‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡Á ıӉ˷ ‚ ÔÓıÓ‰˚ (ÍÓ„‰‡?). I don't know the girl waiting for you. ·˚· Ó˜Â̸ ÒËθÌÓ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛˘‡fl. Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‚‡˜.¤ ÜˉÍÓÒÚ¸.. The liquid used to clean the windows was very strong. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: when / while ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ÙÓÏ˚ being ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. I'll never forget her words sounding in my head like an echo. Ê‰Û˘‡fl (ÒÂȘ‡Ò) ‚ χ¯ËÌÂ. the invited people fi Ô˄·¯ÂÌÌ˚ β‰Ë b) è˘‡ÒÚËfl I / II ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Í‡Í Ô˘‡ÒÚËflÏË Ò ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË Á̇˜ÂÌËflÏË.¤ óÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. Not being able to help us. ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ÒÓ˛Á˚ when / while / if / unless / though ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÔflÏÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË.fi ÖÒÎË Ëı Ì ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸. Òˉfl˘ËÈ Á‡ ÒÚÓÎÓÏ.fi óÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. Ó̇ ÔÓ·Âʇ· ‚ÒÚ˜‡Ú¸ „Ó. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÎÓÒ¸ ̇‰ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ: a written letter fi ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ.fi å‰ÎÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛ‚¯ËÒ¸. ÙÓχ being (·ÂÁ when / while) ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓÎÂÁÌÓ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl.

.fi ü ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Î χ¯ËÌÛ. çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. èÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to have Ë to get ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ËÏÂÚ¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ˚ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ë‡‚ÌËÚÂ Ò ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Ì˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ: ç saw his father smoke. (Ò‡Ï) I can't get my watch repaired. 3. é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. ËÏÂfl ‚ ‚ˉÛ.. ë‡‚ÌËÚÂ: I have built a new house. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθ̇fl ˜ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ÙÓÏ˚ „·„Ó· to have ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚÓflÚÒfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: Did you have your hair cut?fi í˚ ҉·· ÒÚËÊÍÛ? Where did you have your car repaired?fi ɉ Ú˚ ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Î Ò‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ? I didn't have the house built. (҇χ) I have my car repaired.¤ As she was not able to / could not help us.fi éÌ ‚ˉÂÎ. ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. ‡ ÙÓχ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II — ÂÁÛÎ¸Ú‡Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ Ê ӷÓÓÚ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í Ù‡ÍÚ): ç saw his father smoking.. ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡ ÏÂÒÚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ÒÚÓËÚ Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂ: 1 2 3 4 5 ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ / èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ è˘‡ÒÚË . Í‡Í Â„Ó ÓÚˆ ÍÛËÎ. ëıÂχ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô˘‡ÒÚÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÒÓ ÒıÂÏÓÈ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡. é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚: to hear fi ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ / to feel fi ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ / to see fi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / to watch fi ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û (Ì Ûϲ) ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ò‚ÓË ˜‡Ò˚. ÇÒ ӷÓÓÚ˚ ÒÚÓflÚÒfl ÔÓ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï ÒıÂχÏ. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓ Ì ҇ÏËÏ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ.fi å˚ ıÓÚËÏ./ ÔÓ Â„Ó Á‡Í‡ÁÛ ÍÂÏ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ËÏ: I have a new house built.¤ Because the children were afraid of strangers..fi ü ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓ„Û ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ˜‡Ò˚. (Ëı ÌË„‰Â Ì ·ÂÛÚ ‚ ÂÏÓÌÚ) I can't repair my watch.fi éÌ Ò˜ËÚ‡Î. Ô‡‰ÂÊ „‰Â ÙÓχ è˘‡ÒÚËfl I Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í ÔÓˆÂÒÒ. é·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.fi é̇ ÔÓ‰ÂÁ‡Î‡ ‚ÓÎÓÒ˚. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ΂ÎÂÌ (ÛÊÂ) Ò Ì². / The children didn't go with them because they were afraid of strangers.. ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡ ÏÂÒÚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ÒÚÓËÚ è˘‡ÒÚË I (è˘‡ÒÚË II Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚÂ): 1 2 3 4 èÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ë͇ÁÛÂÏÓ è˘‡ÒÚË I (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Passive) . (Ò‡Ï / Ò‚ÓËÏË Û͇ÏË) She had her hair cut. ç considered himself engaged to her. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ÎË Í‡Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÒÚÂÂ.fi éÌ ‚ˉÂÎ. 99 . 2.fi é̇ ҉·· ÒÚËÊÍÛ. è˘‡ÒÚËfl I / II ‚ıÓ‰flÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÓÒÓ·˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËÈ.fi ü ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Î χ¯ËÌÛ. . they didn't go with them. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÎ ‰Îfl Ì‡Ò ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ÓÈ). ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / to notice fi Á‡ÏÂÚËÚ¸ / to find fi ӷ̇ÛÊËÚ¸ / to consider fi Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸.. Why don't you have your hair waved?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ҉·¯¸ Ò· Á‡‚Ë‚ÍÛ? îÓÏ˚ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‚ ‡Ì‡Îӄ˘ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ú‡ÍÊ ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to wish fi Ê·ڸ / to want fi ıÓÚÂÚ¸: We want / wish it done as fast as possible. (‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ï˚ ˜‡ÒÚÓ „Ó‚ÓËÏ Ú‡Í. (ÌÓ Ì ҇χ. ÔÓ·„‡Ú¸/ to like fi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl / to dislike fi Ì Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ë ‰. ëıÂχ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô˘‡ÒÚÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÒÓ ÒıÂÏÓÈ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡. ̇Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚ÏË Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ÏË Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÚË Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚ı Ó·ÓÓÚ‡: 1. ‡ ‚ Ô‡ËÍχıÂÒÍÓÈ) She has cut her hair. she was . ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.fi ü Ú‡Í Ë Ì ÔÓÒÚÓËÎ ‰ÓÏ. ÌÓ ‰Îfl Ì„Ó. — (Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ — Active Perfect Present)fi ü ÔÓÒÚÓËÎ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.fi ü ÔÓÒÚÓËÎ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.. ˜ÚÓ Â„Ó ÓÚˆ ÍÛËÚ. (Ì ҇Ï) I have repaired my car.

fi å˚ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÎËÒ¸ Ó·‡ÚÌÓ ‰ÓÏÓÈ. she switched on the light. Money permitting. Ë Ï˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÎË ˜ÚÂÌËÂ.fi ᇠÌËÏË Ì‡·Î˛‰‡ÎË ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. her hands being on the table. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ / ‡ / Ë „·Á‡ Â„Ó ·˚ÎË Á‡Í˚Ú˚. She was alone in the house. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Ë. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı Ò ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚Ï Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Í‡Í ·˚ ‰‚‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı (Ó‰ÌÓ — ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. with his eyes closed. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl Í Ô˘‡ÒÚ˲. ‚ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ÓÚ‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl frankly speaking fi ˜ÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl / generally speaking fi ‚ÓÓ·˘Â „Ó‚Ófl / strictly speaking fi ÒÚÓ„Ó „Ó‚Ófl. they went home. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ‰Û„Ó — Ò Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂÏ). he will buy that house. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. I found him waiting. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂÏ. Ì‡Ï ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÔÓÏÓÊÂÚ. ÌÓ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl: Lunch (being) over. Ç Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ó·ÓÓÚ ÏÓÊÂÚ Á‡ÌËχڸ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÍÛflÚ. she called me.fi éÌ ÒˉÂÎ ÌÂÔÓ‰‚ËÊÌÓ. Ó̇ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌË· ÏÌÂ. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÙÓχ è˘‡ÒÚËfl I. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ ÓÚ „·„ÓÎÓ‚ to permit fi ‡Á¯ËÚ¸ / to fail fi ÔÓ‚‡ÎËÚ¸Òfl. ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl: ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl.fi ÇˉÂÎË. ÓÌË ÔÓ¯ÎË ‰ÓÏÓÈ. ӷ̇ÛÊË‚‡Ú¸ / to observe fi ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸ Ë ‰.fi í‡Í Í‡Í ·˚ÎÓ ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÓ.fi ÖÒÎË Û ÌÂ„Ó ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‰ÂÌ„. She was reading a book. Ì fl‚Îfl˛˘ËÂÒfl ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚Ï Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚Ï Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ. ÌÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘Ë ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‚‚Ó‰ÌÛ˛ ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÍÓ ‚ÒÂÏÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌ˲: 100 . ëÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÏ ÔÓÒΠÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ëı „·„ÓÎÓ‚: to see fi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / to hear fi ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ / to feel fi ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ / to watch fi ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸ / to find fi ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸. ÒÓÔÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚: ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ó·ÓÓÚ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ì‡˜Ë̇ڸÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ with Ë ÔÂ‚ӉËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ ËÎË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï.„‰Â ÙÓχ è˘‡ÒÚËfl I Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í ÔÓˆÂÒÒ (ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ Ê ӷÓÓÚ ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í Ù‡ÍÚ): They were seen smoking.fi é̇ ·˚· ‚ ‰ÓÏ Ӊ̇.fi éÌË ÔÓ¯ÎË ‰ÓÏÓÈ ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. no one will help us. Ë ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ÂÈ ÌÂÍÓÏÛ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸.fi Ö„Ó Ì‡¯ÎË ÒÔfl˘ËÏ. we went on reading. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï ÔÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓÊ ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚Ï Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ê‰‡Î ÏÂÌfl. ç was sitting still. ÔÓÒΠÒ͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ËÎË ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË). Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ÌÂÛ‰‡˜Ì˚Ï Time permitting. ä‡ÈÌ ‰ÍÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë Ë ‰Ó‚ÓθÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ — ‚ ̇ۘÌÓÈ / ÍÓÏÏÂ˜ÂÒÍÓÈ / ˛ˉ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÂ. êÛÍË Â ÎÂʇÎË Ì‡ ÒÚÓÎÂ. there being too many people inside the restaurant.fi äÓ„‰‡ ‚˜ÂËÌ͇ Á‡ÍÓ̘Ë·Ҹ. çÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ.fi é·Â‰ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÎÒfl. Í‡Í ÓÌË ÍÛËÎË. Í‡Í Ò‰Â·ÎË ‚Ò˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ. (Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ‚ ÙÓÏ Ô˘‡ÒÚËfl „·„Ó· to be ËÁ Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ there + to be) We went back home.fi ÖÒÎË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ ‚ÂÏfl. Ô˘ËÌ˚: It being pretty late. with his wife (being) upstairs. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ‚ ÂÒÚÓ‡Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó Ì‡Ó‰Û.fi ÇˉÂÎË. ‚ Ó·ÓÓÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl.fi é̇ ˜Ëڇ· ÍÌË„Û. Ó̇ ‚Íβ˜Ë· Ò‚ÂÚ. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÓÚ „·„Ó· to be. ‡ ÊÂ̇ Â„Ó ·˚· ̇‚ÂıÛ. they went home. (Ó·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: with ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë being )fi ü ӷ̇ÛÊËÎ. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÏÂÊ‰Û Ó·ÓÓÚÓÏ Ë ÓÒڇθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl. and there being no one to help her. They were seen to smoke.: ç was found sleeping. Your attempt failing. ÓÌ ÍÛÔËÚ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌflÂÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ / ‡ Ë ‰.fi ÖÒÎË Ú‚Ófl ÔÓÔ˚Ú͇ Ó͇ÊÂÚÒfl ÌÂÛ‰‡˜ÌÓÈ. we shall see you off. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË Ë„‡ÎË ‚ ͇Ú˚. Ç ·Óθ¯ËÌÒÚ‚Â ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË ‚ÂÏÂÌË: The party being over. Ï˚ ÔÓ‚Ó‰ËÏ Ú·fl. They were watched playing cards. The work having been done.

because I was shocked by her beauty. Though being written in pencil.¤ I couldn't sleep that night.fi After I had smoked one more cigar I decided to leave. Shocked by her beauty. ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏ ÔÓ͇Á‡ÎË ‚‡˜Û.fi I couldn't sleep that night.fi éÌË ÔËÒÂÎË Ì‡ ÔÓ‚‡ÎÂÌÌÓ ‰Â‚Ó.fi Ç ÚÛ ÌÓ˜¸ fl Ì ÏÓ„ ÛÒÌÛÚ¸. I noticed her smoking in the garden. 3. Having smoked one more cigar. He went out and he was seen walking in the park.Frankly speaking. she was shown to the doctor. 9.fi She loved all these boys and girls who were singing.fi éÌ ‚˚¯ÂÎ ËÁ ‰Óχ.fi ç went out.fi ïÓÚfl ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ Ë Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌÓ Í‡‡Ì‰‡¯ÓÏ. Â„Ó Î„ÍÓ ‡ÁÓ·‡Ú¸. Reading this newspaper you will be laughing.¤ He is a man who is loved by everyone. 6. 11.1 saw my wife coming out of the house.fi ÖÈ Á‡‰‡ÎË ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚.fi ü ۂˉÂÎ Ò‚Ó˛ ÊÂÌÛ.fi The letter is easy to make out though it is written in pencil. ÔÓÚflÒÂÌÌ˚È Â Í‡ÒÓÚÓÈ. ‚˚ıÓ‰fl˘Û˛ ËÁ ‰Óχ. fl ¯ËÎ ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸. and they saw that he was walking in the park. Í‡Í ÓÌ ·Ó‰ËÚ ÔÓ Ô‡ÍÛ. 101 . ˜ÚÓ Â„Ó ‚Ò β·flÚ.fi Ç˚ÍÛË‚ ¢ ӉÌÛ ÒË„‡Û.fi After she had been asked a lot of questions they showed her to the doctor. They sat down on a fallen tree. He is a man loved by everyone.fi éÌ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. Ú˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ÒÏÂflÚ¸Òfl. 2. 10. 7. 8. èËÏÂ˚: Ò‡‚ÌËÚ ‚‡ˇÌÚ˚ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌ˚ı ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ Ô˘‡ÒÚËÈ Ë Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ: 1.fi ç is such a man that everyone loves him.fi I noticed that she was smoking in the garden. Having been asked a lot of questions.fi I saw my wife who was coming out of the house. 5. because her beauty was a shock for me. which had fallen.fi óËÚ‡fl ˝ÚÛ „‡ÁÂÚÛ.fi é̇ β·Ë· ‚ÒÂı ˝ÚËı ÔÓ˛˘Ëı χθ˜ËÍÓ‚ Ë ‰Â‚Ó˜ÂÍ. the letter is easy to make out. Í‡Í Ó̇ ÍÛË· ‚ Ò‡‰Û. 4.fi ü Á‡ÏÂÚËÎ.fi You will be laughing when you are reading this newspaper. ÏÌ Ì ӘÂ̸ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Ú‚Ófl ÊÂ̇. She loved all these singing boys and girls.fi óÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl. I don't like your wife very much.fi They sat down on a tree. Ë ‚ˉÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ. I couldn't sleep that night. I decided to leave.

ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ.‰. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl Í ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏÛ). / éÌ Á‚ÓÌËÎ ÏÌ ÔÂ‰ ÚÂÏ.fi é̇ β·ËÚ Ô·‚‡Ú¸. / óËÚ‡Ú¸ ¢ Ì ̇˜‡ÎË.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎ ËÏ. éÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÔËÁÌ‡Í ‚ÂÏÂÌË.fi óÚÂÌË ¢ Ì ̇˜‡ÎÓÒ¸. Ç Í‡Ê‰ÓÈ ÙÓÏ „ÂÛ̉Ëfl Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌ˚ ÛÊ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Â Ì‡Ï ÔËÁ̇ÍË ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË: Á‡ÎÓ„ Ë ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜Ë‚ ̇Á‚‡ÌË ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï (smoking fi ÍÛÂÌË / singing fi ÔÂÌË . loving ÓÚ love (β·ËÚ¸) — ̇Á‚‡ÌË ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡fi "β·ÎÂÌËÂ". ‰‡Î¸¯Â Ò‚ÓÂÈ „ÓÎÓ‚˚. Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÂ Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂÏ. I called them to say about my having arrived. 3. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï (ÔÓÒΠÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ — ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. / ÇÂÒ¸ „ÓÓ‰ Á̇Î..fi éÌ Ì‡Òڇ˂‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÚÓÏ.íÂχ 9: ÉÂÛ̉ËÈ / Gerund. ÉÂÛ̉ËË Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ -ing Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive Ë ËÏÂÂÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÙÓÏ. ÌÓ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó — ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ „·„Ó· ËÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï: Reading has not begun yet. ê‡Á‰ÂÎ III. àÒıÓ‰fl ËÁ ˝ÚÓ„Ó.fi èÓÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚ˚ ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í: 1. (‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Â): Ö„Ó Î˛·ÎÂÌË (ÍÓ„Ó? /˜Â„Ó?) ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ ·˚ÎÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ ‚ÒÂÏÛ „ÓÓ‰Û. ÔÓθÁÛflÒ¸ Á̇ÌËÂÏ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚ (ÒÏ. ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ë Ò‡ÁÛ Á‡ „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ. Walking is good for health.).fi ïÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ô¯ÍÓÏ ÔÓÎÂÁÌÓ ‰Îfl' Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl. èÓÒÚ‡fl ÙÓχ „ÂÛ̉Ëfl (Active Indefinite Gerund) ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‡ÁÌ˚ÏË ÒÔÓÒÓ·‡ÏË. "‰Îfl Ò·fl". èÓÒΠ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Î˯¸ ÔÓÒÚÓËÚ¸ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÂ‚‰ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË Ò ÌÓχÏË ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇. ä‡Í ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı? Ç˚¯Â Ï˚ ÛÊ ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ̇ ÚÓÏ. / é Â„Ó ÒÚ‡ÒÚË Í ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ‡Ï Á̇Π‚ÂÒ¸ „ÓÓ‰. ëÎÓ‚‡. Í‡Í ÛÂı‡Ú¸. fl Ô‰·„‡˛ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ: ̇ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜ÌÓÏ ˝Ú‡Ô ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ ÌÂÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÙÓÏ˚ ÒÎÓ‚ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡ (smiling fi ÛÎ˚·‡ÌË / eating fi ‰ÂÌËÂ Ë Ú. ÉÂÛ̉ËÈ — ˝ÚÓ ÌÂ΢̇fl ÙÓχ „·„Ó·. ç‡ÔËÏÂ: His loving women was known to the whole town. ç insists on our coming back. She likes swimming. ËÎË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. (ÔË ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓÏ ÔÂ‚Ӊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â.fi å˚ ‚Ó¯ÎË ‚ ‰ÓÏ Ú‡Í. ˜ÚÓ loving ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ËÏÂÌÌÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ.. ˝Ú‡Ô ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚Ì˚Ï. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÔÓ Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÙÓÏ‡Ï Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó Ë ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘Ëı Ò ÙÓχÏË è˘‡ÒÚËfl I: Active Passive Indefinite ~ ~ ~ ing being ~ ~ ~ ed(3) Perfect having ~ ~ ~ ed(3) having been ~ ~ ~ ed(3) é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÙÓÏ˚ Continuous. ıÓÚfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ (of) ÔÓÒΠ„ÂÛ̉Ëfl Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl). í‡ÍÓ„Ó ÔÓÌflÚËfl ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ. Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. ‚˚flÒÌflÂÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ̇ Ì ÒÏÓÚflÚ. ÙÓÏ˚ Perfect (Active / Passive) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÓÔ‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ: ÙÓÏ˚ Indefinite (Active / Passive) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ÉÂÛ̉ËÈ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ Í‡Í Ì‡Á‚‡ÌË ÔÓˆÂÒÒ‡ Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚Ò„‰‡ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (˜ÚÓ? / Ò ˜ÂÏ? / ÓÚ ˜Â„Ó? / ̇ ˜ÂÏ? / ‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó? / . Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÂ‚ÂÒÚË „ÂÛ̉ËË Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ. ӷ·‰‡˛˘‡fl Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË „·„Ó· Ë Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (˝ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸.). ˜ÚÓ fl ÔËÂı‡Î.). 102 . ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚËÎËÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÂÊÛÚÓ˜Ì˚È. ÌÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÓÌflÚÂÌ. ‡ Ì Ô˘‡ÒÚË ËÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ Â˘Â. ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ.Ë Ú. -ing ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Í ÔÂ‚ÓÏÛ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ „·„ÓÎÛ. ç called me before leaving. Ì ÔÓÔÛÒ͇fl Ëı. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ·‡·ÌËÍ. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Ò Ì Á‡ÏÂÚËÎË. ÌÓ Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ Ì‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ëfl ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ÂÈ ÙÓÏ˚. èÓθÁÛflÒ¸ Ú‡ÍËÏ ÔËÂÏÓÏ. Without having been seen we entered the house. Ì ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ÂÂÒfl ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ ÌË Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. She doesn't like being looked at. ÓÍÓ̘‡ÚÂθÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡: Ö„Ó Î˛·Ó‚¸ / ÒÚ‡ÒÚ¸ Í ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ‡Ï ·˚· ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇ ‚ÒÂÏÛ „ÓÓ‰Û. 4. 2.fi é̇ Ì β·ËÚ. / ÖÈ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô·‚‡ÌËÂ. Ï˚ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÏ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂÔË„Ó‰ÌÓ ‰Îfl ÌÓχθÌÓ„Ó ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ.fi äÛÂÌË (ÂÒÚ¸) ‚‰ÌÓ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl.‰. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ó ÚÓÏ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï: Smoking is bad for health.fi éÌ Á‚ÓÌËÎ ÏÌ ÔÂ‰ ÓÚ˙ÂÁ‰ÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‡Á΢‡Ú¸ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÙÓÏ˚ „ÂÛ̉Ëfl Ë è˘‡ÒÚËfl I). Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ing). / ïÓ‰¸·‡ ÔÓÎÂÁ̇ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl.

é‰ÌÓÈ ËÁ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓÒÚÂÈ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. Í‡Í Ï˚ ‚Ó¯ÎË ‚ ‰ÓÏ. ÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÙÓχ Indefinite Gerund: After his coming back she locked the door.fi ì‚ˉ‚ ÏÂÌfl. Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. ÌË ·˚Ú¸ Ô˄·¯ÂÌÌ˚Ï.. Û͇Á˚‚‡fl ̇ ̇Á̇˜ÂÌË (‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó?) Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡. can / cannot afford fi ÏÓ˜¸ / Ì ÏÓ˜¸ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ¸ (Ò·Â). (‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Û‰Ó·Ì ӷÓÁ̇˜ËÚ¸ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï „·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl) /¤ å˚ ‚Ó¯ÎË ‚ ‰ÓÏ ÌÂÁ‡Ï˜ÂÌÌ˚ÏË. ÓÌ Û·‡Î ÛÍÛ ÒÓ ÒÚÓ·. ˜ÚÓ Ï‡Ï‡ ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸Â. ˜ÚÓ (‡Ì¸¯Â) ̇ÔË҇Π˝ÚÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ. ˜ÚÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ó˜Â̸ ·ÎËÁÓÍ Í ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚Û. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·‚ÌÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË ÚÓ. ÚÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ê‡ÒÒÏÓÚËÏ Ú‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ÔÓ „ÛÔÔ‡Ï: ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚. The car needed painting. èÓÒΠÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ (to want fi ıÓÚÂÚ¸ / to need fi ÌÛʉ‡Ú¸Òfl / to require fi Ú·ӂ‡Ú¸ / to deserve fi Á‡ÒÎÛÊË‚‡Ú¸. to hate fi ÌÂ̇‚ˉÂÚ¸.: Do you mind my smoking here?fi Ç˚ Ì ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡ÂÚ ÔÓÚË‚ ÚÓ„Ó.ëÎÓÊÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÓ˜ÚË ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË.fi ç‡¯Ë ‰ÂÚË ıÓÚflÚ. ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ ÔÓ‰‡Ì.fi 凯ËÌÛ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ Í‡ÒËÚ¸ (ÌÛʉ‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ ÔÓÍ‡ÒÍÂ). fishing-boat fi ˚·‡ˆÍ‡fl ÎӉ͇ Ë ‰. ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓ ̇ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ: Our children want washing. ÂÒÎË fl Á‡ÍÛ˛ Á‰ÂÒ¸? I didn't know anything about mother's coming back on Sunday. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÔÓÒΠ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl to be worth fi ÒÚÓËÚ¸) ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÙÓχ Active Indefinite Gerund.. ‡ ËÌÓ„‰‡ — ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÚÓθÍÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ ËÎË Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. ç liked neither inviting people nor being invited. ÍÓÚÓÓ Á‡‚Â¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ‡Ì¸¯Â)fi íÂÔÂ¸ ÓÌ ÒÓʇÎÂÎ. to cease fi ÔÂÍ‡˘‡Ú¸ / ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸. — (being seen (Passive) — "‚ˉÂÌËÂ".fi àÏ Ì ÒÚÓËÎÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸.fi éÌ Ì β·ËÎ ÌË Ò‡Ï Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒΉÛÂÚ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Û˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸ ÔËÁ̇ÍË. / ÖÏÛ Ì Ì‡‚ËÎÓÒ¸ Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸ β‰ÂÈ Ò‡ÏÓÏÛ.fi èÓÒÎÂ Â„Ó ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘ÂÌËfl Ó̇ Á‡Í˚· ‰‚Â¸ ̇ Íβ˜. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌ˚Ï ˝ÚËÏ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï. to like fi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl. without being seen fi "·ÂÁ ‚ˉÂÌËfl" — Ì‡Ò ÌÂ. í‡ÍË ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ÔÂ‚ӉflÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË. ÉÂÛ̉ËÈ ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı.Ô. ÖÒÎË ÔÂ‰ „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ ÒÚÓËÚ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ËÎË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ (ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ). Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚Ó ‚ÚÓÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: dining-room fi ÒÚÓÎÓ‚‡fl (ÍÓÏ̇ڇ ‰Îfl ˜Â„Ó?). èË Ì‡Î˘ËË ÔÂ‰ „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ó‚ after / on / upon Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. writing-paper fi ÔËÒ˜‡fl ·Ûχ„‡ / ·Ûχ„‡ ‰Îfl ÔËҸχ. to fear fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl. ıÓÚfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ì ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚.. ÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl ÍÛËÎ Á‰ÂÒ¸? / . Ï˚ Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡ÂÏ ÔË ÔÂÂ‚Ó‰Â Ò ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó Ì‡ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ. to intend fi ̇ÏÂ‚‡Ú¸Òfl. ˜ÚÓ Ë Ú. to forget fi Á‡·˚‚‡Ú¸ / Á‡·˚Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ëı ÔÓÏ˚ÎË. Ë ÍÓ„‰‡ Ô˄·¯‡ÎË Â„Ó — ÚÓÊ Ì Ì‡‚ËÎÓÒ¸. ̇Ô‡‚ÎÂÌÌÓ ̇ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÂ. ‚ˉÂÎË)fi çËÍÚÓ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ.fi ü ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÁÌ‡Î Ó ÚÓÏ. — (having written (Perfect) — "̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂ". They were not worth helping. We heard of the house being sold. We entered the house without being seen.fi å˚ ÒÎ˚¯‡ÎË Ó ÚÓÏ. ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÏÓ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓÏ. Á‡ÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ÚÛ ËÎË ËÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ: ç regretted now having written this letter. Ú‡Í Ë „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: to begin fi ̇˜Ë̇ڸ / ̇˜‡Ú¸. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Í‡Í ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚. to continue fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ / ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ /ÚÂÏ. 103 . ‡ ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÌÂÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌ̇fl ÙÓχ „·„Ó·. On / Upon seeing me he took his hand off the table.

q ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ — Ó‰ÌÓ‡ÁÓ‚Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: Don't forget to lock the door. I prefer staying at home.fi éÌË Ì‡˜‡ÎË ÍÛËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ fl ÔÓÈ‰Û ÚÛ‰‡. / I am afraid of calling him. 104 . ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: They stopped to smoke.fi He Á‡·Û‰¸ Á‡Í˚Ú¸ ‰‚Â¸ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ.fi éÌË ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸ (.fi éÌ ·ÓËÚÒfl.fi ë‡ÏÓÎÂÚ Ì‡˜‡Î ÒÌËʇڸÒfl. q „ÂÛ̉ËÈ — ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ˜ÚÓ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ: ç fears my going there. to propose fi Ô‰·„‡Ú¸ / ‰Â·ڸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ.fi é̇ Ì Á‡·˚· (ÔÓÏÌË·) ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÒÔ˘ÍË.fi ü Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡˛ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Óχ. q „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ Ó ÚÓÏ. ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be. to be careful (in) fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌ˚Ï / ÓÒÚÓÓÊÌ˚Ï Ë ‰Û„Ë (ÒÏ.fi ÖÈ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸. She likes reading / to read.˜ÚÓ·˚) ÔÓÍÛËÚ¸. ‡ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÂÌfl˛ÚÒfl: to be afraid (of): I am afraid to call him. ˝ÚË Ê ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËflÏË Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË / ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË).to dislike fi Ì Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl.fi ü (Ò‡Ï) ·Ó˛Ò¸ ˉÚË ÚÛ‰‡. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to forget Ë to prefer „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ „ÛÎflÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: Don't forget locking the door. to prefer fi Ô‰ÔÓ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ / Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÂÒÚ¸. to be amused (at) fi ÔÓÁ‡·‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl. q ÔÓÒΠcan / cannot afford ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ò·Â: I cannot afford to see him again.fi ü Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÂÎ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Óχ.fi éÌË ÌÂ̇‚ˉflÚ ‡·ÓÚÛ. to start fi ̇˜Ë̇ڸ / ̇˜‡Ú¸.fi éÌË ÔÂÂÒÚ‡ÎË ÍÛËÚ¸. to neglect fi ÔÂÌ·„‡Ú¸ / Ì ӷ‡˘‡Ú¸ ‚ÌËχÌËfl. What do you intend doing / to do?fi óÂÏ Ú˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl? They hate working / to work. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ (ÂÒÎË Á‡ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÂÏ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„) ËÎË „ÂÛ̉ËÈ (ÂÒÎË Á‡ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÂÏ ÒÚÓËÚ Ô‰ÎÓ„): q to be afraid (of) fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl / ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÔÛ„‡ÌÌ˚Ï. q ÔÓÒΠto remember ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ / Ì Á‡·˚Ú¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ: She remembered to buy matches.fi é̇ Ô‰ÎÓÊË· ÛÈÚË ˜ÂÂÁ ˜‡Ò.fi é̇ ÔÓÏÌË·.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ¸ Ò· ÒÌÓ‚‡ ۂˉÂÚ¸ „Ó.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÚ¸. to stop fi ÔÂÍ‡˘‡Ú¸ / ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ / ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl: They began smoking / to smoke. to be annoyed (at) fi ·˚Ú¸ ‡Á‰‡ÊÂÌÌ˚Ï / ‡Á‰ÓÒ‡‰Ó‚‡ÌÌ˚Ï. to remember fi ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. q ÔÓÒΠto fear ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ò‡Ï: I fear to go there. q ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl.fi ü ·Ó˛Ò¸ ÂÏÛ Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸. I preferred to stay at home.fi He Á‡·˚‚‡È Á‡Í˚‚‡Ú¸ ‰‚Â¸ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ. ꘸ Ó· ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËË „ÂÛ̉Ëfl ËÎË ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚‡ ‚ ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ˉÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ. She proposed leaving / to leave in an hour. to be astonished (at/by) fi ۉ˂ËÚ¸Òfl / ·˚Ú¸ ۉ˂ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï. ÌËÊÂ). q ÔÓÒΠto stop „ÂÛ̉ËÈ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: They stopped smoking. to be ashamed (of) fi ÒÚ˚‰ËÚ¸Òfl. q „ÂÛ̉ËÈ — ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ: We couldn't afford their seeing him again. ˜ÚÓ Í‡ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ·˚ÎÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ: She remembered buying matches. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÍÛԇ· ÒÔ˘ÍË. The plane started going / to go down. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌË ÒÌÓ‚‡ ۂˉÂÎËÒ¸ Ò ÌËÏ.

to be ashamed (of): They were ashamed to be late. ç was amused at / by that story.fi é̇ ·˚· ‡Á‰‡ÊÂ̇ (ÌÂ‚Ì˘‡Î‡) ËÁ-Á‡ ‰ÂÚÂÈ. I'm keen on her.¤ We are certain about / of their helping us. * to be furious (about / over) fi ‡ÁÓÁÎËÚ¸Òfl / ‡Á„Ì‚‡Ú¸Òfl: He was furious to see me with her.fi éÌ Â˘Â Ì ÓÔ‰ÂÎËÎÒfl ̇ҘÂÚ ÚÓ˜ÌÓÈ ‰‡Ú˚.fi é̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰Ó‚Óθ̇. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÂÏ ÂÂ Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓȉÂÚ ÚÛ‰‡ Ò Ì‡ÏË.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ÚÓÏ.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ‚ˉÂÎ Ëı ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ.fi é̇ ·˚· ÔÓÎ̇ ¯ËÏÓÒÚË Ì ‰‡Ú¸ Ò·fl ‚ ӷˉÛ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌ˚ı (*). ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. I am keen on their buying a new house.fi ü Ú‚Â‰Ó ¯ËÎ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ò ÌËÏË. ‡ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ — Í ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ˜ÎÂÌÛ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. / She was annoyed at not being called. You must be careful about / of these things. ˜ÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl ڇ͇fl ıÓÓ¯‡fl χ¯Ë̇. She was annoyed at / with children. / I am fortunate in having such a good car.Don't be afraid of me.fi åÂÌfl Ì ۉ˂Ë· ˝Ú‡ ËÌÙÓχˆËfl. to be amused (at): He was amused to see them together.fi He ·ÓÈÒfl ÏÂÌfl. I was not astonished at / by the information. / He was amused at seeing them together. / They were ashamed of being late. ÔÓÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì‡Ï. They were determined on / upon proving her innocence.fi Ö„Ó ÔÓÁ‡·‡‚ËÎ ˝ÚÓÚ ‡ÒÒ͇Á.fi å˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ˚ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÒÌÓ‚‡ ‚ËÊÛ Â„Ó.fi ü ·˚Πۉ˂ÎÂÌ.fi àÏ ·˚ÎÓ ÒÚ˚‰ÌÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó. ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ. She will be content with our present.fi å˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ˚.fi é̇ ÌÂ‚Ì˘‡Î‡ ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó.fi ÖÈ Ì ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡‰ÓÒÚË ÚÓ.fi éÌË Ú‚Â‰Ó ¯ËÎË ‰Ó͇Á‡Ú¸  ̂ËÌÓ‚ÌÓÒÚ¸. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ: They are certain to help us. to be astonished (at): I was astonished to see him again.fi ÖÈ Ì ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡‰ÓÒÚË ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ̇Ï. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÎË.fi éÌ ‡Á„Ì‚‡ÎÒfl ̇ ÏÂÌfl. 105 .fi éÌ ‡Á„Ì‚‡ÎÒfl ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó. ç is not determined on the date as yet.fi éÌË.fi Ö„Ó Á‡·‡‚ÎflÎÓ ÚÓ. ‰Â·fl ˝ÚÓ.fi é̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰Ó‚Óθ̇. to be careful (in): You must be careful to do this. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ô˯ÎË ÔÓÁ‰ÌÓ. She won't be happy about our leaving. We are certain of / about this.fi åÌ ÔÓ‚ÂÁÎÓ. / I was astonished at seeing him again. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÔÓÏÓ„ÛÚ Ì‡Ï. to be fortunate (in) fi ÔÓ‚ÂÁÚË (Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl): I am fortunate to have such a good car. ç was furious about / over their coming late.fi éχ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰Ó‚Óθ̇ ̇¯ËÏ ÔÓ‰‡ÍÓÏ.¤ She will be content with our taking her there. to be annoyed (at): She was annoyed not to be called. ˜ÚÓ ÂÈ Ì Á‚ÓÌËÎË. * to be certain (about / of) fi ·˚Ú¸ Û‚ÂÂÌÌ˚Ï é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. ÌÂÒÓÏÌÂÌÌÓ.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ÓÒÚÓÓÊÂÌ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌË ÍÛÔËÎË ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ÌÂÈ. They were ashamed of themselves.fi àÏ ·˚ÎÓ ÒÚ˚‰ÌÓ Á‡ Ò‡ÏËı Ò·fl. / You must be careful in doing this. ç was furious with me. She was determined in defending herself. * to be content (with) fi ·˚Ú¸ ‰Ó‚ÓθÌ˚Ï: She will be content to go there with us. to be determined (in / on / upon) fi Ú‚Â‰Ó ¯ËÚ¸ / ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓÎÌ˚Ï ¯ËÏÓÒÚË: I'm determined to speak to them.fi éÌ ‡Á„Ì‚‡ÎÒfl. Is she happy with her life?fi é̇ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚‡? * to be keen (on) fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚Ï: I am keen to buy a new house.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ÓÒÚÓÓÊÂÌ Ò ˝ÚËÏË ‚¢‡ÏË. ۂˉ‚ ÏÂÌfl Ò ÌÂÈ. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ÛÂÁʇÂÏ. * to be happy (about) fi ·˚Ú¸ Ò˜‡ÒÚÎË‚˚Ï / ‡‰Ó‚‡Ú¸Òfl: She won't be happy to help us.

˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ì‡‚ÂÒÚËÎË ÏÂÌfl.fi í˚ ·˚Î Ô‡‚.fi í˚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl ÌÂÔ‡‚.fi ü „ÓÊÛÒ¸ ÚÂÏ.fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl ÍÛËÚ¸. Are you sure of being invited?fi í˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ.fi éÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÒÔ‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ò ˝ÚËÏ. / í˚ ωÎÂÌÌÓ ‡„ËÛ¯¸.fi å˚ Á‡ Ú·fl.fi í‚ÓÈ ÏÛÊ ‚‰ÂÚ Ò·fl ˝„ÓËÒÚ˘ÌÓ ÔÓ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲ Í Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚÂ.fi å˚ ̇ÒÚÓÂÌ˚ ÛÂı‡Ú¸.to be proud (of) fi „Ó‰ËÚ¸Òfl: I am proud to help you. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ô˄·¯ÂÌ˚? Are you sure about this?fi í˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ? Are you sure of success?fi í˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ ‚ ÛÒÔÂıÂ? to be surprised (at) fi ·˚Ú¸ ۉ˂ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï: She was surprised to see me. (ıÓ˜Û ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ / ÒÔÓÒËÚ¸) I am sorry to have interrupted you.fi éÌ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔˉÂÚ. (ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ) I am sorry for being late. ˜ÚÓ Ó·Ì‡ÛÊËÎ Ëı ‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. / We are set for leaving.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. You were right about this. She is scared of coming here. She was surprised at the news.fi ü ·˚Î ÚÓÌÛÚ ÚÂÏ. to be set fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚Ï (against fi ÔÓÚË‚ / for fi Á‡): We are set to leave.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ˉËÚ ÏÂÌfl.fi é̇ ·˚· ۉ˂ÎÂ̇. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ.fi í˚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl Ô‡‚ ̇ҘÂÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó.fi é̇ ·˚· ÚÓÌÛÚ‡ ÏÓËÏË ÒÎÂÁ‡ÏË. Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ / ̇‚ÂÌfl͇: ç is sure to come.fi ü ·˚Î ÚÓÌÛÚ ÚÂÏ. * to be touched (at — ÂÒÎË Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ /by — ÂÒÎË Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ ÎˈÂ) fi ·˚Ú¸ ÚÓÌÛÚ˚Ï / ÔÓÌËÍÌÛÚ¸Òfl ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÓÏ: I was touched to find them in the room.fi éÌ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ Ò‡ÏÓ̇‰ÂflÌ. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ·ËÎ ‚‡Ò. I'm sorry about this.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. Don't be scared of me. / àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ.fi He ÔÛ„‡ÈÒfl ÏÂÌfl. We are set for you.ÂÒÎË Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ ÎˈÂ) fi Ó͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl / ·˚Ú¸ Ô‡‚˚Ï: You were right to stay at home. I was touched by their visiting me. to be slow (at / in) fi ·˚Ú¸ ωÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï / ωÎËÚ¸ (Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl): You are slow to react. / You were right in staying at home. / I was touched at finding them in the room.fi éÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ Û͇ÏË. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÛÂÁʇڸ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰Ûχڸ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. I am proud of you. to be selfish (in) fi ·˚Ú¸ ˝„ÓËÒÚ˘Ì˚Ï / Ò‡ÏÓ̇‰ÂflÌÌ˚Ï: He is too selfish to think of that. 106 . / You were wrong in staying at home. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ·˂‡˛ ‚‡Ò. Your husband is selfish in his behaviour towards his sister. ç is quick about it.fi é̇ ·˚· ۉ˂ÎÂ̇ ˝ÚÓÈ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚ¸˛. ˜ÚÓ ÓÒÚ‡ÎÒfl ‰Óχ. You were right about their staying at home. * to be sure (of — ÂÒÎË Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ / about — ÂÒÎË Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ ÎˈÂ) fi ·˚Ú¸ Û‚ÂÂÌÌ˚Ï. to be sorry (for) fi ËÁ‚ËÌflÚ¸Òfl: I am sorry to interrupt you. / ü Û‚ÂÂÌ. fl ÔÂ·¸˛ ‚‡Ò.fi éÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÔÓÌËχÂÚ / Òı‚‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚ ÌÓ‚˚ Ô‡‚Ë·. to be scared (of) fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl / ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÔÛ„‡ÌÌ˚Ï: She is scared to smoke.fi ü „ÓÊÛÒ¸ ÚÓ·ÓÈ.fi í˚ ˝„ÓËÒÚ˘ÂÌ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÒÚÂÏÎÂÌËË Í ‚·ÒÚË.fi ì Ú·fl ÔÎÓı‡fl ‡͈Ëfl.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. ç is quick with his hands. * to be wrong (in — ÂÒÎË Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ / about — ÂÒÎË Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ ÎˈÂ) fi ӯ˷‡Ú¸Òfl (ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ to be right in / about): You were wrong to stay at home. * to be right (in — ÂÒÎË Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ / about . / I am proud of helping you.fi í˚ ·˚Î Ô‡‚ — ÓÌË ÓÒÚ‡ÎËÒ¸ ‰Óχ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Î. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú·Â.¤ You are slow at / in reacting.fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl ÔËÂÁʇڸ Ò˛‰‡. We are set against leaving. She was touched by my tears. / He is quick at understanding new rules. ˜ÚÓ Ú‡Í ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸. to be quick (at) fi ·˚Ú¸ ·˚ÒÚ˚Ï: He is quick to understand new rules.fi å˚ ÔÓÚË‚ Ì„Ó.fi å˚ ̇ÒÚÓÂÌ˚ ÔÓÚË‚ ÚÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ Ô˄·¯ÂÌ? Are you sure about their being invited?fi í˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ. We are set against him. / She was surprised at seeing me. ˜ÚÓ ÓÒÚ‡ÎÒfl ‰Óχ. You are selfish in striving for power.

fi ïÓÓ¯Ó ÒÌÓ‚‡ ·˚Ú¸ ‰Óχ.fi Ö Ì ËÌÚÂÂÒÛÂÚ ÔÓÎËÚË͇. fi èËflÚÌÓ Ò ‚‡ÏË ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl. to be fond of fi Ó˜Â̸ Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl.fi — óÚÓ Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ (ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸)? — ëÓ ÏÌÓÈ ‚Ò ‚ ÔÓfl‰Í / ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸. to be grateful (for) fi ·˚Ú¸ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡Ì˚Ï: He was grateful to be invited. ˜ÚÓ·˚) ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸ Ëı? She Is fond of playing tennis. to be capable of fi ·˚Ú¸ ÒÔÓÒÓ·Ì˚Ï (̇). ·˚Ú¸ ÛÏÂÎ˚Ï (Ò „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ): It is good to be back at home. ˜ÚÓ Ó̇ ÒÌÓ‚‡ Á‰ÂÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ Ô˯ÎË. ˜ÚÓ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Î. I'm busy in looking for new ideas.fi í˚ ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl¯¸ ÏÌ ۉӂÓθÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi éÌ ÔˉÂÚ ‚ Ì„Ӊӂ‡ÌË ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: to be aware of fi Á̇ڸ / ·˚Ú¸ Ó҂‰ÓÏÎÂÌÌ˚Ï.fi ü Á‡ÌflÚ ÔÓËÒÍÓÏ ÌÓ‚˚ı ˉÂÈ. 107 . ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ÛÂÁʇ˛Ú Ú‡Í ÒÍÓÓ.fi é̇ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î‡ / ÔÓÌËχ·.fi ùÚÓÚ Ï‡Ú˜ ÒÚÓËÎÓ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸. ç is good at / in languages. to be good (at) fi ıÓÓ¯Ó (Ò ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ). Are you displeased at / about / by their not having helped us?fi Ç‡Ï ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓ ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó.fi í· ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÛÁ̇ڸ. to be sensible of fi ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ / ÔÓÌËχڸ. to be busy in fi ·˚Ú¸ Á‡ÌflÚ˚Ï (‚). to be severe in fi ·˚Ú¸ ÒÚÓ„ËÏ / ÒÛÓ‚˚Ï. Are you capable of stopping them?fi í˚ ÒÔÓÒÓ·ÂÌ (̇ ÚÓ. She was sensible of having made an awkward mistake.fi éÌ ·˚Î ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÂÌ Á‡ ÚÓ. to be guilty of fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ËÌÓ‚‡Ú˚Ï (‚). ˜ÚÓ ‰ÓÔÛÒÚË· ÓÔÎÓ¯ÌÓÒÚ¸. ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be. ç was grateful to me for my help.fi ÖÏÛ ıÓÓ¯Ó ‰‡ÂÚÒfl ËÁÛ˜ÂÌË flÁ˚ÍÓ‚.fi ü Ì ‚ËÌÓ‚‡Ú ‚ ÚÓÏ. I'm pleased at / about / by your coming. Don't be too severe in judging his behaviour.fi éÌ ·˚Î ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÂÌ ÏÌ Á‡ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸.fi éÌË Á̇˛Ú Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ Â„Ó Ô˄·ÒËÎË. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ì ÔÓÏÓ„ÎË Ì‡Ï? I am pleased with you. / He was grateful for being invited. to be indignant at fi Ì„Ӊӂ‡Ú¸. I am not guilty of being late. That match was worth seeing. I am not godd at driving.You were wrong about their staying at home.fi í˚ Ó͇Á‡ÎÒfl ÌÂÔ‡‚ — ÓÌË Ì ÓÒÚ‡ÎËÒ¸ ‰Óχ. ç will be indignant at their leaving so soon.fi åÌ ÔËflÚÌÓ. to burst out fi ‡Á‡ÁËÚ¸Òfl. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ÊË‚ÂÏ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. to deny fi ÓÚˈ‡Ú¸.fi ÖÈ Ó˜Â̸ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Ë„‡Ú¸ ‚ ÚÂÌÌËÒ. — What's wrong with you? — Nothing is wrong with me.fi He ÒÛ‰Ë Â„Ó (Ôӂ‰ÂÌËÂ) ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÒÚÓ„Ó. Are you interested in buying a new house?fi í˚ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ÔÓÍÛÔÍ ÌÓ‚Ó„Ó ‰Óχ? She is not interested in politics. to be worth fi ÒÚÓËÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó Ò‰Â·ڸ: They are aware of our living together. * to be pleased (displeased) at / about / by fi ·˚Ú¸ ÔËflÚÌ˚Ï (ÌÂÔËflÚÌ˚Ï): I am pleased to meet you. ·˚Ú¸ Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚Ï (Ò „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ): You will be interested to know that she is here again. ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚. to be interested (in) fi ·˚Ú¸ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚Ï (Ò ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ).fi ü ÔÎÓıÓ ‚ÓÊÛ Ï‡¯ËÌÛ. ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: to avoid fi ËÁ·Â„‡Ú¸ / ËÁ·Âʇڸ.

. She kept (on) driving. ˜ÚÓ ıӉ˷ ÚÛ‰‡. to succeed in fi ‰Ó·ËÚ¸Òfl ÛÒÔÂı‡ ‚ (‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl). 108 . to rely on / upon fi ÔÓÎÓÊËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÚÓ... cannot help fi Ì ۉÂʇڸÒfl ÓÚ .. to finish fi Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡Ú¸ / Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ¸..fi é̇ ÓÚˈ‡Î‡. ˜ÚÓ . to prevent from fi Û‰Âʇڸ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó.fi éÌ ËÁ·Â„‡Î ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ̇ ̇Ò.. fl Ì ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡˛.. ÂÒÚ¸ ÔÓ ‚˜Â‡Ï.fi ç‡Ï Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ˝ÚËÏ. to go on fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ / ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸.. She couldn't help smiling.. Excuse my being late. They postponed / put off leaving because of the weather.fi äÛËÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi èÓ¯Û ËÁ‚ËÌËÚ¸ ÏÂÌfl Á‡ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÌËÂ. to postpone fi ÓÚÎÓÊËÚ¸ / ÔÂÂÌÂÒÚË Ì‡ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÓÍ. to mind fi ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Ú¸ (‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÌËflı). to feel like fi ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl / ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ Ò· Ê·ÌË ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ..to enjoy fi ̇Ò·ʉ‡Ú¸Òfl / ̇Ò·‰ËÚ¸Òfl. Do you mind my helping you?fi Ç˚ Ì ÔÓÚË‚.... ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ „·„ÓÎ˚ Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌÓÏ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„‡ÏË ËÎË ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. to fancy fi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl / Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò· (‚ ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÌËflı). ˜ÚÓ·˚ . to keep (on) fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ.. to thank for fi ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ Á‡ ÚÓ.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ . to look like fi ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ (Ó ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ÓÏ).fi é̇ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ· Âı‡Ú¸.fi éÌ ÔÂÂÒÚ‡Î. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ..fi í˚ ÔÓÎۘ˯¸ Û‰Ó‚ÓθÒÚ‚Ë ÓÚ ˝ÚÓÈ ÒË„‡˚. to insist on fi ̇Òڇ˂‡Ú¸ ̇ ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ . Go on reading. We don't fancy doing it.. to excuse fi ËÁ‚ËÌflÚ¸ / ËÁ‚ËÌËÚ¸... ˜ÚÓ·˚ ... They burst out laughing. ÂÒÎË fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û ‚‡Ï? I don't mind your smoking here. to put off fi ÓÚÎÓÊËÚ¸ / ÔÂÂÌÂÒÚË Ì‡ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÓÍ. ˜ÚÓ ... You will enjoy smoking this cigar.fi èÓ‰ÓÎÊ‡È ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸.. / Ì ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÚ¸.. She denied going there.fi é̇ Ì Ïӄ· Ò‰Âʇڸ ÛÎ˚·ÍÛ.. to persist in fi ÛÔÓÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó.: ç avoided looking at us.. ˜ÚÓ / ˜ÚÓ·˚ ... ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÓθÍÓ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: to accuse of fi Ó·‚ËÌflÚ¸ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ÔÓ‰ÂÏ ÚÛ‰‡! When will you finish working?fi äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ Á‡ÍÓ̘˯¸ ‡·ÓÚÛ? ç gave up eating in the evening.fi éÌË ÓÚÎÓÊËÎË ÓÚ˙ÂÁ‰ ËÁ-Á‡ ÔÓ„Ó‰˚. to approve of fi Ó‰Ó·flÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ . ..fi éÌË ‡Á‡ÁËÎËÒ¸ ÒÏÂıÓÏ. to complain of fi ʇÎÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ÚÓ.. to give up fi ÔÂÍ‡˘‡Ú¸ / ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸.. ˜ÚÓ . to agree to fi Òӄ·ÒËÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÚÓ. Just fancy coming there!fi íÓθÍÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚¸ Ò·Â.. to object to fi ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Ú¸ ÔÓÚË‚ ÚÓ„Ó. to speak of fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó ÚÓÏ. to depend on / upon fi Á‡‚ËÒÂÚ¸ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó..

Father approves of my learning English. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ï˚ ÔÓÊÂÌËÎËÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚). ÔÓÒΠÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÚÓÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: after / on / upon fi ÔÓÒΠ(ÚÓ„Ó. She looks forward to visiting Paris. ˜ÚÓ).fi éÌ Ì ÛÔÛÒÚËÚ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÌÓ‚˚ı ÍÌË„. ˜ÚÓ). Everything will depend on / upon their coming on time. Don't you like the idea of inviting him to our house?fi ê‡Á‚ Ú· Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˉÂfl Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚). in fi ‚ (͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó Á‡ÌflÚËÈ).fi é̇ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ʇÎÛÂÚÒfl ̇ ÚÓ. against fi ÔÓÚË‚ (ÚÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ). You may rely on / upon my coming back. I can't speak of our having been seen there.fi ü ıÓ˜Û Ôӷ·„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ Ú·fl Á‡ ÚÓ. apart / aside from fi ÔÓÏËÏÓ / ÍÓÏ (ÚÓ„Ó.fi éÌË Ó·‚ËÌfl˛Ú ÏÂÌfl ‚ ÚÓÏ.fi ü ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ fl Û˜Û ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í. ˜ÚÓ) / ËÁ-Á‡ (ÚÓ„Ó. Don't prevent me from buying this house. (not) to like the idea of fi (ÌÂ) Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl (Ó· ˉ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ): They accuse me of helping you. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡Ò ‚ˉÂÎË Ú‡Ï. ç‡Ë·ÓΠÛÔÓÚ·ËÚÂθÌ˚ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Ë Ô‰ÎÓÊÌ˚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl. ç succeeded in learning those rules.fi ü ‚ÒÂ‡‚ÌÓ ÍÛÔβ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ.to think of fi ‰Ûχڸ Ó ÚÓÏ.fi (èÓıÓÊÂ. ͇Í).fi é̇ Ì Òӄ·ÒË·Ҹ ̇ ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ).fi éÚˆ Ó‰Ó·flÂÚ ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÔËÌÂÒ ˝ÚÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ.fi é̇ Ò ÌÂÚÂÔÂÌËÂÏ Ê‰ÂÚ. for the purpose of / with the object of / with a view to / with the view of (ÓÙˈˇθÌ˚Â) fi Ò ˆÂθ˛ (ÚÓ„Ó. to give up the idea of fi ÓÚ͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ÓÚ Á‡ÚÂË Ò‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. I often think of your leaving. before fi ÔÂ‰ (ÚÂÏ. for the sake of fi ‡‰Ë (ÚÓ„Ó. by fi ÔÛÚÂÏ / ÔË ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl ۯ· ÓÚ Ì„Ó? ç persisted in asking questions. besides fi ÍÓÏÂ. She looks like leaving.fi éÌË ÓÚ͇Á‡ÎËÒ¸ ÓÚ Ë‰ÂË ÔÓ‰‡Ú¸ Ò‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. How can you suspect me of loving her?fi ä‡Í Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓ‰ÓÁ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÂÌfl ‚ ÚÓÏ. instead of fi ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ (ÚÓ„Ó. ÏÓʯ¸ ̇ ÏÂÌfl ÔÓÎÓÊËÚ¸Òfl.fi ÇÒ ·Û‰ÂÚ Á‡‚ËÒÂÚ¸ ÓÚ ÚÓ„Ó. She never complains of being poor. of fi Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ó‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ.. I feel like sleeping. to look forward to fi Ò ÌÂÚÂÔÂÌËÂÏ Ê‰‡Ú¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. Do they object to my leaving him?fi éÌË ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡˛Ú ÔÓÚË‚ ÚÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ·˚). Ì ÓÚ„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡È ÏÂÌfl.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ / ˜ÚÓ·˚ .fi ÖÏÛ Û‰‡ÎÓÒ¸ / éÌ ÒÛÏÂÎ ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ Ú Ô‡‚Ë·. from fi ËÁ / ÓÚ. They insist on our getting married.. ÔˉÛÚ ÎË ÓÌË ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl.fi (èÓıÓÊÂ. ˜ÚÓ fl ÔÓÏÓ„‡˛ Ú·Â. ˜ÚÓ ·Â‰Ì‡fl. owing to fi ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl (ÚÓÏÛ.fi éÌ ÛÔÓÌÓ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇΠÁ‡‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚.fi ü ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‰Ûχ˛ Ó Ú‚ÓÂÏ ÓÚ˙ÂÁ‰Â. ÂÒÎË. ˜ÚÓ fl β·Î˛ ÂÂ? I want to thank you for bringing this letter. for fear of fi ËÁ-Á‡ ÓÔ‡ÒÂÌËfl (.fi éÌË Ì‡Òڇ˂‡˛Ú ̇ ÚÓÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÂı‡Ú¸ ‚ è‡ËÊ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ Â„Ó ‚ ̇¯ ‰ÓÏ? ç won't miss the opportunity of buying several new books. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔËÈÚË Ò˛‰‡. She didn't agree to coming here. ˜ÚÓ) é̇ ÒÓ·‡Î‡Ò¸ ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸. subject to (ÓÙˈˇθÌÓÂ) fi ‚ (ÚÓÏ) ÒÎÛ˜‡Â.) åÂÌfl ÍÎÓÌËÚ ÍÓ ÒÌÛ. ͇Í). They gave up the idea of selling their car. ˜ÚÓ·˚). because of fi ËÁ-Á‡ / ÔÓ Ô˘ËÌ (ÚÓ„Ó. 109 . to miss the opportunity -of fi ÛÔÛÒÚËÚ¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.

besides being far too long.fi ÑËÍÓ‡ÒÚÛ˘Ë ÙÛÍÚ˚ ÒÔ‡ÒÎË Ì‡Ò ÓÚ „ÓÎÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÒÏÂÚË. the dress doesn't suit me. She argues for the sake of arguing.fi å˚ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÎË Ì‡ Ò‡ÏÓÎÂÚ ËÁ-Á‡ ÚÓ„Ó. Let's do something instead of lying here in bed. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÔÓËÚ¸. ç drank two cups of tea before leaving.fi å˚ ÔÂ‰‡ÔË Ç‡¯ Á‡ÔÓÒ Ì‡ ̇¯ Á‡‚Ó‰ Ò ˆÂθ˛ ‚˚flÒÌËÚ¸. The play was badly acted.fi ÄÍÚÂ˚ Ë„‡ÎË ÔÎÓıÓ. 110 . This offer is subject to our being able to obtain an export licence. Wild fruit kept us from dying of starvation. ÓÌÓ Â˘Â Ë Ì ˉÂÚ ÏÌÂ. ˜ÚÓ Ô·ڸ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ Ï‡ÎÓ.fi èÂ‰ ÛıÓ‰ÓÏ ÓÌ ‚˚ÔËÎ ‰‚ ˜‡¯ÍË ˜‡fl.fi éÌ ÓÚÒÚ‡ÂÚ ÓÚ ‰Û„Ëı ‚ ˜ÚÂÌËË.fi í˚ Ì ÏÓʯ¸ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ·ÂÁ ˜¸ÂÈ-ÎË·Ó / ÔÓÒÚÓÓÌÌÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë.fi å˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ÔËÌflÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÚÓθÍÓ ÔË ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl ̇ÏË ÎˈÂÌÁËË Ì‡ ˝ÍÒÔÓÚ.fi ìÔÓÌÓ ‡·ÓÚ‡fl.fi ч‚‡È ÎÛ˜¯Â Á‡ÈÏÂÏÒfl ͇ÍËÏ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‰ÂÎÓÏ. We spoke in whispers for fear of waking the baby.fi ü ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì Ò͇Á‡Î Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ. ‡ ҇χ Ô¸ÂÒ‡ ·˚· ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ‡ÒÚflÌÛÚÓÈ. ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÎË ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ÌÂÒÚË ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ÍÓÌÒÚÛÍˆË˛ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡Ì͇ Òӄ·ÒÌÓ Ç‡¯ÂÈ ÒÔˆËÙË͇ˆËË. We have forwarded your inquiry to our plant for the purposes of / with the object of / with a view to / with the view of finding out whether the machine can be altered according to your specification. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÔ‡ÎË ‚ ÔÓ·ÍÛ Ì‡ ‰ÓÓ„Â. Because of / Owing to his wife's being there. I said nothing about it. ÓÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‰‚Ë„‡ÎÒfl ÔÓ ÒÎÛÊ·Â. Í‡Í ÓÔ‡ÒÌÓ ÔËÚ¸ Á‡ ÛÎÂÏ.fi éÌË ÔÓ„ÓÎÓÒÓ‚‡ÎË ÔÓÚË‚ ÔËÌflÚËfl / Á‡ ÔËÌflÚË ˝ÚÓ„Ó Ô·̇.fi äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó. Let this accident be an object lesson in the dangers of drinking and driving. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ‡Á·Û‰ËÚ¸ ·ÂÌ͇. ˜ÚÓ Ú‡Ï ·˚· Â„Ó ÊÂ̇.fi å˚ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÎË ¯ÂÔÓÚÓÏ. Apart / Aside from being too small.fi é̇ ÒÔÓËÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ‡‰Ë ÚÓ„Ó. without fi ·ÂÁ. ˜ÂÏ ‚‡ÎflÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÍÓ‚‡ÚË.through fi ËÁ-Á‡ / ÔÓ Ô˘ËÌ (ÚÓ„Ó. ˜ÚÓ). By working hard he gained rapid promotion. You can't do this without being helped. They voted against / for accepting the plan. We missed the plane through being held up on the way. He's behind the others in reading.fi èÛÒÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë ÒÚ‡ÌÂÚ Ì‡„Îfl‰Ì˚Ï ÛÓÍÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó.

11. ë‡Ï˚Ï ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Ï Ë. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ ÙÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ÚËÂ.0001 /.): She told him everything when he went downstairs.45 12. Ӊ̇ÍÓ. ÒÎÓ‚‡ı. ÒÍÓ·ÍË. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛ÚÒfl Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ú Ê ҇Ï˚ Á̇ÍË ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ÒÔÛÒÚËÎÒfl ‚ÌËÁ.fi éÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Í ‰ÂÒflÚË ÛÚ‡.fi éÌ ·˚Î Ú‡Ï.m. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌÌÓÈ ÚÓ˜ÍÓÈ.fi LJÊÌÓ.fi 燯 ÒÓ‚ÂÚ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÓÏ. We insist that you call him immediately. àÏÂÌÌÓ ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ò ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ Ì‡·Î˛‰‡ÂÚÒfl ̇˷Óθ¯Â ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚ Ë ËÏÔÓ‚ËÁ‡ˆËÈ.75 / ∑15. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ˜ËÚ‡ÚÂθ ÏÓ„ ̇ËÎÛ˜¯ËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÔÓÌflÚ¸ ̇ÏÂÂÌËfl ‡‚ÚÓ‡ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡.50 13. ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ÔÓÒ¸·˚: Would you please call him as soon as possible. ÚӘ͇ Ò Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ. U. Nov. ‰ÂÙËÒ.m.485 / 0. NATO ¤ North Atlantic Treaty Organization ÂÒÎË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‡··‚ˇÚÛÓÈ. ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚È Ë ‚ÓÒÍÎˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚È Á̇ÍË.¤ United Kingdom èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ÚӘ͇ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ú‡Í Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ‡ÍÓÌËχı. Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: ç was there. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. Ëϲ˘Â„Ó. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ χÏÂ. Ò‡Ï˚Ï ÚÛ‰Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl Á̇ÍÓÏ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl Í‡Í ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ.fi é̇ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡ ÂÏÛ ‚ÒÂ. ç‡Ë·ÓΠı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ÔËÒ¸ÏÂÌÌÓÈ ˜Ë: ¸ 1.íÂχ 10: á̇ÍË ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl / Punctuation marks.45 a.¤ Professor. ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ËÁ ̇˜‡Î¸Ì˚ı ·ÛÍ‚ ‰Û„Ëı ÒÎÓ‚ ËÎË ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ ÒÎÓ‚: UNESCO ¤ United Nations Educational.5 per cent / 11. Ç Ó·ÓËı flÁ˚͇ı ‡ÒÒÚ‡Ìӂ͇ Á̇ÍÓ‚ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ „ÛÎËÛÂÚÒfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË Ô‡‚Ë·ÏË. ˜ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ô‡‚Ë· ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇˛Ú ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÈ Ë ÚÓÈ Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ‡Á΢Ì˚ı Á̇ÍÓ‚ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl. Ú. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸ Á‡‚Ú‡. Our advice is that you should not smoke.fi å˚ ̇Òڇ˂‡ÂÏ Ì‡ ÚÓÏ. He saw everything.¤ November.fi åÌ Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ¸ Ò‚Ó˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓ‡Ì¸¯Â. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ Ê ÚӘ͇ ÒÎÛÊËÚ Ë ‰Îfl Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌËfl ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: ç will be here by 10 a. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ·Óθ¯Ëı Ë ÏÂ̸¯Ëı ‰ÂÌÂÊÌ˚ı ‰ËÌˈ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚: $10. ¸ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Â.Â. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚Ò„‰‡ ÓÚ‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ÓÚ „·‚ÌÓ„Ó. ‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í — Ì ‚Ò„‰‡. ç ÓÚ‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ: Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ë / Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚ / ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚Â: It is important that you should be here tomorrow.: 6:45 a. éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚Ï ÓÚ΢ËÂÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò ÛÒÒÍËÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓ. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl. Scientific.fi èÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ Ì ÍÛËÎË. I had to finish my work earlier to help mother. Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚÂ. fi Period). ˜ÚÓ Ë ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ: ÚӘ͇. The police will take your car away if you park it here. ÂÒÎË Ú˚ ÔËÔ‡ÍÛ¯¸Òfl Á‰ÂÒ¸. 9. é·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‡··‚ˇÚÛ˚ (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡): Prof. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ‰ÂÒflÚ˘Ì˚ÏË Á͇̇ÏË ‚ ˜ËÒÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı (˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl point): 54. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÓÒΠ„·‚ÌÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl (Ò‡‚ÌËÚ ÌËÊ — 4. ÏÌÓ„ÓÚÓ˜ËÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎË ÂÏÛ ÌÂωÎÂÌÌÓ. and Cultural Organization.) á‡ÔflÚ‡fl (Comma).K. éÌ ‚Ò ‚ˉÂÎ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl Ó·‡˘ÂÌËfl: 111 . íӘ͇ (‡Ì„Î. ÒΉӂ‡ÚÂθÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ‚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ó·ÛÒÎÓ‚ÎË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ˝ۉˈËÂÈ ‡‚ÚÓ‡. ıÓÓ¯‡fl ÔÛÌÍÚÛ‡ˆËfl — ˝ÚÓ ÛÏÂÌË ҉·ڸ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó ‚ ÌÛÊÌÓÏ ÏÂÒÚÂ.m. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ‚ÂÏÂÌË ‰Îfl ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ˜‡ÒÓ‚ Ë ÏËÌÛÚ: 6. fi Full Stop / ‡ÏÂ. 10. 1.fi èÓÎˈËfl Á‡·ÂÂÚ Ú‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. ÂÏÛ Í‡Í ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÍÓÂÈ. Â„Ó ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌ˚Ï ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËÂÏ Ë ÚÓÎÍÓ‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. (‡ÏÂ. ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ.

ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ‰‡ÎË. íÓ help mother.fi ÇÓ‰ËÚÂθ. which lasted two weeks.fi ÖÒÎË Ú˚ ÓÒÚ‡‚˯¸ χ¯ËÌÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸. Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ê ÌËÍÓ„Ó ÌÂÚ.) as the death dance whirled toward its climax. ÛÚ‚Âʉ‡Î. But mother. insisted that he knew me. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚÓ‚ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌËfl: Red.fi í˚ ÔÓ‰Ú‚Â‰Ë¯¸ ˝ÚÓ. pink. ÊÂÎÚ˚ÏË Ë ·ÂÎ˚ÏË ˆ‚ÂÚ‡ÏË.fi åÛʘË̇. you should come to visit me. ç eats. Û ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÛÏÂ ÏÛÊ. ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò ۯÎË Ì‡ ÚÂÌÌËÒÌ˚È ÍÓÚ. ‰ÎË‚¯‡flÒfl ‰‚ Ì‰ÂÎË. When in doubt. I'd like the menu. who helped me that morning.fi ‚‰Ó‚‡ — ˝ÚÓ ÊÂÌ˘Ë̇. who was very young. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ë Ó·ÓÓÚÓ‚. Ó̇ ÒÓÓ·˘Ë· ÂÏÛ Ó ÚÓÏ.fi éÙˈˇÌÚ. A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.) and white flowers filled the vases. she told him everybody had gone to the tennis court. Ó̇ Ò‡ÁÛ Ê ÓÚÔ‡‚Ë·Ҹ ‚ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚ. insisted that he knew me. Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï fl ıÓÚÂÎ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl.fi çÓ Ï‡Ï‡. Ó·Ó¯ÂÎ ‚ÓÍÛ„ ÒÚÓ·. has just been sold.fi ÇÓ‰ËÚÂθ. Á‡ÍÓ̘Ë·Ҹ. — ÔÓflÒÌÂÌË — Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË Ì ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÏ fi Ñ‚ۯ͇. leaned down(. is now over. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ‰Û„ ̇ ‰Û„‡. é·‡ÚËÚ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ: ‚ ‰‡ÌÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl ÔÂ‰ and ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl. ÌÓ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ.) and I shall help you with the money. — ç‚ÂÌÓ! — Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθ̇fl ËÌÙÓχˆËfl Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÊÂ̇ ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚ ÂÏÛ.fi ùÚÓ Ú‡ (҇χfl) ÊÂÌ˘Ë̇. ÔÓÎˈËfl Á‡·ÂÂÚ Â Á‡ ̇Û¯ÂÌË Ô‡‚ËÎ Ô‡ÍÓ‚ÍË. Ô¸ÂÚ Ë „Ó‚ÓËÚ. I had to finish my work earlier. ÔËÂÁÊ‡È ÍÓ ÏÌÂ. They turned back to look at each other. please. ÏÌ Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÚ¸ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓ‡Ì¸¯Â. she immediately went to the airport.) and talks too much. The house. whose husband has been dead for three years. If you park your car here.fi éÌË Ó·ÂÌÛÎËÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ Á̇ÂÚ ÏÂÌfl. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ÓÌ ‚β·ËÎÒfl. ‰‡Ì˚È ÒÎÛ˜‡È ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚ Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ëı ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚. yellow(. there is no one here. ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ÂÈ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÛ˛ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏ: The driver. ‡ fl ÔÓÏÓ„Û Ú· ÌÛÊÌÓÈ ÒÛÏÏÓÈ.) and kissed her lightly on the cheek.fi óÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ χÚÂË. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl (Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ) ÏÂÊ‰Û ‰‚ÛÏfl „·‚Ì˚ÏË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflÏË.Waiter. ÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÒÓ˛Á‡ÏË and / as / but / ÓÚ Ë ‰. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. / The driver. ̇ÍÎÓÌËÎÒfl Ë ÌÂÊÌÓ ÔÓˆÂÎÓ‚‡Î  ‚ ˘ÂÍÛ. ÓÁÓ‚˚ÏË.fi èÓÁ‚ÓÌË‚ ë˝ÏÛ. Ë Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò ‰‚Ûı ÒÚÓÓÌ: The driver who was very young. Ë ÒÌÓ‚‡ ÂÈ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û Ô˯· ÒÚ‡‡fl Ï˚Òθ — ‡ Á̇ÂÚ ÎË ˝ÚÓÚ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ó ÚÓÏ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Ó‰ÌËÏ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ÒÚÓ„Ëı Ô‡‚ËÎ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ÔÛÌÍÚÛ‡ˆËË fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ô‡‚ËÎÓ. 16. ÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ÔÂ‰ „·‚Ì˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂÏ: When he went downstairs. ÛÂı‡Î ‚ ÓÚÔÛÒÍ. ÔËÌÂÒËÚ ÏÂÌ˛. and again she wondered if this man knew he was being cuckolded. 14. 15. Á‡Ô¢‡˛˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ („ÛÔÔÓÈ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó) Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï. the police will take it away. 112 .fi éÌ ‚ÒÚ‡Î. ÔÛÒÚÓ‚‡‚¯ËÈ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË „Ó‰‡. Ó˜Â̸ ÏÓÎÓ‰ÓÈ Ô‡Â̸. ‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÔÓflÒÌÂÌË — Á‡ÔflÚ˚ Ì ÌÛÊÌ˚ è‡‚ËθÌÓ: The driver who helped me that morning insisted that he knew me. insisted that he knew me. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÔÓÏÓ„ ÏÌ ‚ ÚÓ ÛÚÓ.fi äÓ„‰‡ ÒÓÏÌ‚‡Â¯¸Òfl. ÍÓ„‰‡ Á‡ÔflÚÛ˛ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθ̇fl ËÌÙÓχˆËfl. ̇Òڇ˂‡Î ̇ ÚÓÏ. The crowd sat stupefied (. Û ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÏÛÊ ÛÏÂ ÚË „Ó‰‡ ̇Á‡‰.Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl): She is the woman. ç rose.fi ÑÓÏ. went around the desk. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl β·ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. — ç‚ÂÌÓ! — ÌÂÚ ‚ÚÓÓÈ Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ The driver. ÓÒÚ‡‚Ë· Â„Ó ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ì‰Âθ. ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ÂÈ ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÛ˛ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ Ó ‰ÓÔÓÎÌÂÌËË (ÌÓ: ÂÒÎË Ú‡Í‡fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ËÏÂÂÚ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ÔÓflÒÌÂÌËfl ËÎË ÛÚÓ˜ÌÂÌËfl. ÂÒÎË ÔÂ‚Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‰ÎËÌÌÓÂ: You will confirm it(. ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. The man whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.fi LJÁ˚ ·˚ÎË Ì‡ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚ Í‡ÒÌ˚ÏË. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë Ë ÔÓÒΠβ·ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. — ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθ̇fl ËÌÙÓχˆËfl — ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË fi ᇷ‡ÒÚӂ͇ ̇ ÍÓ‚Ó‚ÓÈ Ù‡·ËÍÂ.fi äÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ ÒÔÛÒÚËÎÒfl ‚ÌËÁ. The strike at the carpet factory. ‡ ڇ̈ ÒÏÂÚË ·Â¯ÂÌ˚Ï ‚ËıÂÏ ÔË·ÎËʇÎÒfl Í Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÍÛθÏË̇ˆËË. which has been empty for a year. drinks(.fi éÌ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÂÒÚ. 18. éÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ˝ÚÓÚ ÔËÂÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl. 17. The girl with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks. who was very young insisted that he knew me.fi íÓÎÔ‡ Òˉ· Á‡‚ÓÓÊÂÌ̇fl. ˜ÚÓ Á̇ÂÚ ÏÂÌfl. Having called Sam.

ıÓÚ¸ ÛÊÂ Ë ·ÂÁ Ó„Ìfl. the crowd surged forward. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? She was here yesterday. ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÔËÎ ÏÌÓ„Ó.19.fi éÌ ÚÓÊ (Í‡Í Ú˚ / fl / ÍÚÓ-ÎË·Ó) ·˚Î ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌÂ. 20.fi çÛ ˜ÚÓ Ê. ̇ Â„Ó ÔÛÚË ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÎËÒ¸ Ë ‰Û„Ë ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚. ÂÒÎË ÓÌÓ ‚˚ÒÚÛÔ‡ÂÚ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÓ˛Á‡ (ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌflÂÏ˚ ˝ÚËÏ ÒÓ˛ÁÓÏ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ó˜Â̸ ‰ÍÓ ÒÚÓflÚ ‚ÔÂÂ‰Ë „·‚ÌÓ„Ó): I asked her to stay. They would like to stay in this town. I could tell much about this man. ÚÓÎÔ‡ ıÎ˚ÌÛ· ‚ÔÂ‰. I like this.fi ä‡ÍËÏ-ÚÓ ÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚Ï Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÒÂÍÒ Ë ÔÓÎËÚË͇ ‰Îfl ÌÂ„Ó ‚Ò„‰‡ ·˚ÎË ÌÂ‡Á‰ÂÎËÏ˚. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò Ó·ÂËı ÒÚÓÓÌ Î˛·Ó„Ó ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡. was still very hot. either. he was a deceptive-looking man. of course.fi é‰Ì‡ÍÓ. 21. — Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ for. ‡Á‡ÚÌ˚ ˄˚ — ʇ‰Ì˚Ï.000. ÓıÓÚ‡-— ˝ÌÂ„˘Ì˚Ï. half of which he gave to his sister. At forty-two.fi ü ÔÓÔÓÒËΠ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl. where their son was born. In thirteen months. gambling. „‰Â Ó‰ËÎÒfl.Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓÂ Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ÚÓÊ (Í‡Í ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ ‰Û„ÓÈ): ë‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ç has been to London. hunting. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi óÂÂÁ ÚË̇‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÏÂÒflˆÂ‚ ÓÌ ‡ÁÓ¯ÂÎÒfl Ò ÌËÏË ‚ÒÂÏË. been other women along the way. Yesterday I met John. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ÏÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÂÈ ÍÓ˜ÚÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. although it had been put out.fi ê˚·‡Î͇ ‰Â·ÂÚ ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ÒÔÓÍÓÈÌ˚Ï. a greedy man. ç has not been to London either.fi éÌ ÚÓÊ (Í‡Í Ú˚ / fl / ÍÚÓ-ÎË·Ó) Ì ·˚Î ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌÂ. Û ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÛÍ‡ÎË Ô‡ÒÔÓÚ? àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÔÛ˘ÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ÚÂÍÒÚ ÒÎÓ‚: Fishing forms a quiet man.fi éÌ Ó‰ËÎÒfl 14 ˲Ìfl 1940 „Ó‰‡. ÓÌ Ó‰ÂÎÒfl ‚ Ò‚ÓÈ Ó·˚˜Ì˚È ÍÓÒÚ˛Ï. college students have begun to demonstrate again. (·ÂÁ Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ÒÎÓ‚Ó college ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÓÚÌÂÒÚË Í ÒÎÓ‚Û calm)fi èÓÒΠÔÂËÓ‰‡ Á‡Ú˯¸fl ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ˚ ÒÌÓ‚‡ ̇˜‡ÎË ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÏÓÌÒÚ‡ˆËË. 22.fi çÓÏ‡Ï ‚˚Ë„‡Î 10000 ‰ÓηÓ‚. 1977. wasn't she?fi é̇ ·˚· Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚˜Â‡. 1940. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË too (‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı) Ë either (‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı). ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚ¸ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl ÒÏ˚Ò· Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: As the police car pulled up. After the coffee and three cigarettes. ÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ‚ ̇˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë Ò··Ó Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ Ò ÓÒڇθÌÓÈ Â„Ó ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛: In the summer of 1984. It happened in May. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‰‡Ú‡ı ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ˜ËÒ· Ë ÏÂÒflˆ‡ ÓÚ „Ó‰‡: ç was born June 14. (·ÂÁ Á‡ÔflÚÓÈ ÏÓÊÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ ·˚ ÔÓ‰Ûχڸ. ÏÌ ÚÓÊ ÌÛÊÌ˚ ‰Â̸„Ë. ç has been to London too. ͇ÍÓÈ ÓÌ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ? There had.fi ü ÏÓ„ ·˚ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Ú¸ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÂ. ÂÒÎË ÓÌË ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í „ÛÔÔ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â . For some reason. ÔÂ˚‚‡˛˘Â„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: The fire.fi Ç˚ÔË‚ ÍÓÙÂ Ë ‚˚ÍÛË‚ ÚË ÒË„‡ÂÚ˚. ˜ÚÓ ÊÂÌËÚÒfl. — Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ç has not been to London. 25.fi Ç ÔÓËÒ͇ı ÁÓÎÓÚ‡ ÏÓÈ Ô‡‰Â‰ ‚˚Ò‡‰ËÎÒfl ‚ ÄÏÂËÍÂ. After a period of calm.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ „ÓÓ‰. I don't want to go back to the town where I was born.fi Ç ãÓ̉ÓÌ (Í‡Í Ë ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â / ‚ è‡ËÊ / „‰Â-ÎË·Ó) ÓÌ ÚÓÊ ·˚Î. 23. Peter. By the way. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? They haven't come today. ˜ÚÓ Ï‡¯Ë̇ ‚ÂÁ‡Î‡Ò¸ ‚ ÚÓÎÔÛ)fi äÓ„‰‡ ÔÓÎˈÂÈÒ͇fl χ¯Ë̇ ÔË·ÎËÁË·Ҹ. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‡Áfl‰Ó‚ ‚ ·Óθ¯Ëı ˜ËÒ·ı: 113 . ó‡ÒÚÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ÓÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË.fi Ç ãÓ̉ÓÌ (Í‡Í Ë ‚ åÓÒÍ‚Â / ‚ è‡ËÊ / „‰Â-ÎË·Ó) ÓÌ ÚÓÊ Ì ·˚Î.fi ä‡ÏËÌ. Can't you see. Norman won $10. didn't you?fi í˚ ‚ˉÂÎ ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËθÏ. However.fi äÒÚ‡ÚË. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓÒΠ‚‚Ó‰Ì˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ ËÎË ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl Ëı ÓÚ ÓÒڇθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Well. 27. ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ fl ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÎÒfl Ò ÌËÏ ‡Ì¸¯Â. 24. he dressed in what he always dressed in.fi ǘÂ‡ fl ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎ ÑÊÓ̇. sex and politics for him had always gone hand in hand. In search of gold. for I had met him before. What was the name of the girl whose passport was stolen?fi ä‡Í Á‚‡ÎË ‰Â‚Û¯ÍÛ. who told me he was getting married. have they?fi éÌË Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË Ò„ӉÌfl. 28. I also need money. ÏÌ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. too. an eager man.fi ùÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸ ‚ χ 1977 „Ó‰‡. he had parted with all of them. many trees died. ˜ÚÓ ÂÏÛ ÒÓÓÍ ‰‚‡ „Ó‰‡. Ë ÓÌ Ò͇Á‡Î ÏÌÂ.fi éÌË ıÓÚÂÎË ·˚ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ „ÓӉ — Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ó‰ËÎÒfl Ëı Ò˚Ì. my great-grandfather landed in America. how big he is?fi ê‡Á‚ Ú˚ Ì ‚ˉ˯¸. for I had something to tell her. ÔÓÎÓ‚ËÌÛ ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÓÌ ÓÚ‰‡Î ÒÂÒÚÂ. ·˚Î Â˘Â Ó˜Â̸ „Ófl˜ËÏ.fi äÓ̘ÌÓ. 26. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ‚ ‡Á‰ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı: You saw this film. èËÚÂ.fi ãÂÚÓÏ 1984 „Ó‰‡ ÔÓ„Ë·ÎÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‰Â‚¸Â‚.fi íÛ‰ÌÓ ·˚ÎÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ Ò Û‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸˛. nobody drank much.

ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ s ÔË Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· ÓÚ ·ÛÍ‚. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -s. 10462 ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÔÓflÒÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ ÓÚ ÔflÏÓÈ ˜Ë... ‚˚‰ÂÎflfl Ù‡ÏËÎ˲ ‡‰ÂÒ‡Ú‡ / ̇Á‚‡ÌË Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË / ‡ÈÓÌ / „ÓÓ‰ / ¯Ú‡Ú (ÓÍÛ„) / ÒÚ‡ÌÛ (ÏÂÊ‰Û ÌÓÏÂÓÏ ‰Óχ Ë Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ ÛÎˈ˚ Á‡ÔflÚ‡fl Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl): Stephen P. R. è‡‚Ë· ‡ÒÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍË ‚ÒÂı ÓÒڇθÌ˚ı Á̇ÍÓ‚ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl (. ˜ÚÓ ‚ „Ó‰ Ú‡ÚËÚ ˜ÛÚ¸ ·Óθ¯Â Ú˚Òfl˜Ë ‰ÓηÓ‚.Ltd. ç‡ÂrÂ.) Dear Sir: I have received your letter. ‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ͇‚˚˜Í‡ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛ÚÒfl Ò‰‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ÏË Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË.Y... 31. ç once estimated that he was living slightly more than $1. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ Ó·˘ÂÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ (ÚÓ„‰‡ ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ·ÂÁ s): mother's hat. ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚È Ù‰Â‡Î¸Ì˚Ï Ô‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ Ì‡ ÚÓÚ „Ó‰. "I don't know.680. 2141 Starling Avenue. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ s ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ.— semicolon / : — colon / ( ) — parentheses / [] — square brackets / — — dash / .000 a year. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ÙÓχı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÔÛ˘ÂÌÌ˚ı ·ÛÍ‚ ËÎË ˆËÙ: I'm ¤ I am.. '87 ¤ 1987 34. Bronx. the princess's [prin'sesiz] smile. "No".29. (‡ÏÂ. she said.fi éÌ Í‡Í-ÚÓ ÔÓ‰Ò˜ËÚ‡Î. 114 . men's gloves. 30. 32." He said. ÄÔÓÒÚÓÙ (Apostrophe). "He was well".— hyphen / ? — question mark / ! — exclamation mark ) Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË Ì˘ÂÏ Ì ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÓÚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı Ô‡‚ËÎ ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. Johnson. students' books èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÔË Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËË ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ ÓÚ ËÏÂÌ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı.fi ü Ì ‡Á΢‡˛ ‚ Â„Ó Â˜Ë ·ÛÍ‚Û "Î". ‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ — ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË. ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÎ 4680 ‰ÓηÓ‚. / Yours truly. ÓÚ‰ÂÎflfl ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ë ÓÚ Ù‡ÏËÎËË Ë ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚË (ÏÂÊ‰Û ÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍËı Á̇ÍÓ‚ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl): Yours faithfully. N. ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Ó·‡ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡: King Charles's crown / King Charles' crown 33. VIP's / VIPs. I have received your letter. ABCDCo-..fi éÙˈˇθÌ˚È ÛÓ‚Â̸ ÌˢÂÚ˚. 1. ˜ËÒÂÎ ËÎË ‡··‚ˇÚÛ (Ò ˜ËÒ·ÏË Ë Á‡„·‚Ì˚ÏË ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË ‡ÔÓÒÚÓÙ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl): In the 1980's /the 1980s.. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‰ÂÎÓ‚ÓÈ ÍÓÂÒÔÓ̉Â̈ËË ÔÓÒΠÁ‡Íβ˜ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ı Ù‡Á. Johnson President ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‡‰ÂÒ ̇ ÍÓÌ‚ÂÚ ËÎË ‚ ‚ÂıÌÂÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ÔËҸχ (̇‰ ÚÂÍÒÚÓÏ). ÍÓÏ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı. ÂÒÎË ÌÂÚ ‰Û„Ëı Á̇ÍÓ‚ ÔÂÔË̇ÌËfl: "How was he?" dark asked. she said. "not much. he's ¤ he is / has. The federal government's official poverty line that year was $4." èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ͇‚˚˜ÍË (quotation marks) ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚‚ÂıÛ. "Do they still hurt?" he asked. I can't distinguish his L's. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ (‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰‚ÓÂÚÓ˜ËÂ) ÓÙÓÏÎÂÌËfl ‰ÂÎÓ‚ÓÈ ÍÓÂÒÔÓ̉Â̈ËË ÔÓÒΠӷ‡˘ÂÌËÈ: Dear Mr.

ëÎÓ‚‡¸) 3- ÎˈÓ. Ä·ÒÓβÚÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÈ (ÍÓÏ mine): hers. house — houses. ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ·˚Ú¸ / ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl (ÙÓÏ˚: be /am / is / are / was / were). 39. ̇ÔËÏÂ: 1..fi Like Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ „·„ÓÎÓÏ. ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÏÓ ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Í‡Í „·„ÓÎ. ̇ÒÚÓfl˘Â ‚ÂÏfl (Present) Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó ‚ Active Indefinite: ç wants to help you. ÖÒÎË Ò‡ÁÛ Á‡ ÙÓÏÓÈ to be ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚÓËÚ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. ÌÓ ·ÂÁ ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔËÁ̇ÍÓ‚. She did not be here two days ago. åÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı: boy — boys. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÏ ÔÓ Ó·˘ÂÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ (ÙÓχ -s'): my friends' housefi ‰ÓÏ ÏÓËı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. Ó͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ÎËflÌË ̇ ‚ÓÒÔËflÚË ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏÛ·ı Active Continuous (to be ~ ~ ~ ing): 115 . fen minutes' storyfi ‡ÒÒ͇Á ̇ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ÏËÌÛÚ ê‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ is — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ·˚ÒÚÓÈ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë: He's a good boy. II.. 1. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ to be ~ ~ ~. 40.¤ He has got some money. (ÒÏ. ÂÒÎË Ò‡ÁÛ Á‡ ÌËÏ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË (ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓÏ / ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ) ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ „·„ÓθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚: Be careful. 36. He is my friend. ç is like his mother. ê‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ has — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ·˚ÒÚÓÈ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë: He's got some money. 37. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË. ëÎÓ‚‡. ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ËÒÎÓ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl Ì ÔÓ Ó·˘ÂÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ: our children's toys èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ.¤ It is a new book. — Á̇˜ËÚ ˝ÚÓ Ì „·„ÓÎ. 38. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -s. 42. ÇÓÔÓÒËÚÂθ̇fl Ë ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ÙÓÏ˚ „·„Ó· to be ‚ Active Indefinite (Present / Past) Ó·‡ÁÛ˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÁ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó to do: Were you there yesterday? Did you be there yesterday? — Ì‚ÂÌÓ She was not here two days ago. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ‡Á‰ÂΠ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ë ÙÓÏ˚. tooth — teeth Ë ‰.¤ She has not come yet. ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÙÓÏÂ.ê‡Á‰ÂÎ III.¤ Your friend is not here. It's a new book. ours. I am a student. ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛˘Ë ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û ËÎË Á‚Û˜‡Ì˲. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -s.¤ He is a good boy. ü‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï (Active Indefinite / ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓ ̇ÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂ). ëÎÓ‚‡. They were there. 41. ÂÒÚ¸ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËfl: child — children. 35. my friend's book èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı. He cannot be there. èËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: father's car. É·„ÓÎ to be (was/were. She was here yesterday. — Ì‚ÂÌÓ 43. been). I. She's not come yet. Ç ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ó·‡˘‡ÂÏÒfl Í ÒÎÓ‚‡˛ like fi ÔÓıÓÊËÈ: éÌ (ÂÒÚ¸ ÔÓıÓÊËÈ) ÔÓıÓÊ Ì‡ χÏÛ. Ì Ëϲ˘ÂÈ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl: bus / famous / mathematics Ë ‰. Your friend's not here. ‡ ͇͇fl-ÚÓ ‰Û„‡fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ˜Ë. ÍÓÚÓ˚Â.

„‰Â ÓÌ ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË Ë ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ò ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: to be thristy fi ıÓÚÂÚ¸ ÔËÚ¸ (̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË Ê‡Ê‰˚).fi éÌ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔËÈÚË Í ÚÂÏ ˜‡Ò‡Ï. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ò „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be.fi Ö Á‡‰‡˜ÂÈ ·˚ÎÓ ÔËÒ‡Ú¸ ÔËҸχ (ÔËÒ‡ÌË ÔËÒÂÏ). to be hungry fi ıÓÚÂÚ¸ ÂÒÚ¸ (̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË „ÓÎÓ‰‡). Ë Passive Continuous (to be being ~ ~ ~ ed(3)): We are being waited for.)fi ‚β·ËÚ¸Òfl (‚ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó) Have you fallen in love with her?fi í˚ ˜ÚÓ. to fall asleep fi ÛÒÌÛÚ¸ Don't fall asleep./ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó) I was thristy.) fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl (ÍÓ„Ó. to be afraid (of smb. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏÛ·ı Passive Indefinite (to be ~ ~ ~ ed(3)): They were not invited. The important thing is helping people.fi å˚ ۉ˂ËÎËÒ¸.fi é̇ ÊË‚ÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÎÂÚ. àÌÓ„‰‡ "ÔÓÔ‡‰‡ÌË ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ" ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎÓÏ to fall (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ÛÔ‡ÒÚ¸): to fall in love (with smb. 45. Don't be sleeping. ë‡Ï˚Ï Ó·˘ËÏ ‰Îfl ˝ÚËı ÒÎÛ˜‡Â‚ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl „·„ÓÎ to get: ç got hungry.She is sleeping. 46. ‚β·ËÎÒfl ‚ ÌÂÂ? to fall ill fi Á‡·ÓÎÂÚ¸ He fell ill. (‚Ô‡ÎË Ò ÒÓÒÚÓflÌË ۉ˂-ÎÂÌÌÓÒÚË) ç got interested at once. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÚÂflÂÚ ÔËÁ̇ÍË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ë Ó˜Â̸ ÔË·ÎËʇÂÚÒfl Í Á̇˜ÂÌ˲ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (interested fi Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚È / worried fi ‚Á‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚È Ë ‰.fi éÌ Ò‡ÁÛ Ê Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡ÎÒfl.fi éÌË Û‰Ë‚ÎÂÌ˚.fi í˚ ÔÓ„ÓÎÓ‰‡Â¯¸Òfl. It began to grow dark. ËÌÓ„‰‡ — „·„ÓÎÓÏ to grow (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ‡ÒÚË): He grew old. ç is not married.fi ü ıÓÚÂÎ ÔËÚ¸.fi í·fl ‚ˉÂÎË Ú‡Ï. èË ˝ÚÓÏ to be ÏÓÊÌÓ Î„ÍÓ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË ‰Û„ËÏË „·„Ó·ÏË.fi ç‡Ò ʉÛÚ. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÙÓÏÛ· Active Continuous ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Ò ‚‡ˇÌÚÓÏ to be (ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ) + „ÂÛ̉ËÈ: Her task was writing letters. Ë Active Perfect Continuous (to have been ~ ~ ~ ing): She has been living here for twenty years. (ÔÂ¯· ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌË Á‡ÏÛÊÂÒÚ‚‡) We got surprised. 47.fi àı Ì Ô˄·¯‡ÎË.): Are you interested in football?fi í˚ ËÌÚÂÂÒÛ¯¸Òfl ÙÛÚ·ÓÎÓÏ? I am worried about his health. 44. Ë Passive Perfect (to have been ~ ~ ~ ed(3)): You have been seen there.fi He Á‡Ò˚Ô‡È. ÚÓ „·„ÓÎ to be fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÓÏ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· must Ë ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ: ç is to come by three o'clock.fi éÌ Á‡·ÓÎÂÎ. You will be hungry. (‚ԇΠ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌË „ÓÎÓ‰‡) She got married. ËÌÓ„‰‡ — „·„ÓÎÓÏ to become (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl): 116 . / smth. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ Ú‡ÍËı ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflı Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl -ed Ë ‰Â·˛Ú Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ‚Ò ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË ÔÓıÓÊËÏ Ì‡ ÙÓÏÛÎÛ Passive Indefinite: to be surprised fi ۉ˂ËÚ¸Òfl (̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË Û‰Ë‚ÎÂÌËfl).fi é̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ÏÛÊ.fi éÌ ÒÓÒÚ‡ËÎÒfl. ËÁÏÂÌfl˛˘ËÏË Á̇˜ÂÌË ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl Ë Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘ËÏË ‚Ô‡ÒÚ¸ ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: Á‰ÂÒ¸ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó· Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÈ ÓÚ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ ÙÓÏ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II. to be married fi ·˚Ú¸ ÊÂ̇Ú˚Ï / Á‡ÏÛÊÂÏ (̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË Á‡ÏÛÊÂÒÚ‚‡) They are surprised.fi éÌ Á‡ıÓÚÂÎ ÂÒÚ¸. I'm not afraid of you.fi LJÊÌ˚Ï ‰ÂÎÓÏ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ (ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÌËÂ) β‰flÏ.fi ü Ú·fl Ì ·Ó˛Ò¸.fi ü ÓÁ‡·Ó˜ÂÌ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂÏ Â„Ó Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl. ÇÓ ‚ÒÂı ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflı to be fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÏÂÌflÂÚ Ò‚Ó˛ ÙÓÏÛ.fi éÌ Ì ÊÂ̇Ú.fi 燘‡ÎÓ ÒÏÂ͇ڸÒfl. ÖÒÎË ÔÓÒΠto be ÒÚÓËÚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to (to be to ~ ~ ~).

˜ÂÏ ÓÌ (Á̇ÂÚ).fi é̇ ÔËıӉ˷ ‚˜Â‡ (fl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Û‚ÂÂÌ). 54. ç promised to help us and he did. 52. ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÏÓ„. 50. Do come in!fi çÛ. ˜ÚÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÒÓ‚Â¯‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. Ó·‡ÁÛfl ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ ·Û‰Û˘ËÈ — ( to-be fi ·Û‰Û˘ËË). — I need money. 49.fi He ÓÔ‡Á‰˚‚‡È. 117 . (ÓÚÒ˛‰‡: Made in. èË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Í to Ë would ‚ ÍÓ̈ (Ô˯ÂÚÒfl ˜ÂÂÁ ‰ÂÙËÒ).fi éÌ ‰Â·ÂÚ / ËÁ„ÓÚ‡‚ÎË‚‡ÂÚ ıÓӯˠ‚¢Ë. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â „·„Ó·-ÛÒËÎËÚÂÎfl ÔÂ‰ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ ÙÓÏ Active Indefinite (Present / Past). Ë ÔÓÏÓ„.Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı.fi éÌ Ó·Â˘‡Î ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. (would-be fi ·Û‰Û˘ËÈ (‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌ˚È / ÔÓÚÂ̈ˇθÌ˚È / ÔÂÚÂÌ‰Û˛˘ËÈ Ì‡ Óθ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó). to grow old ¤ to be old. She loves him. ÒÚÓfl˘Ë ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Little did he realize that.fi éÌ Ú‡Í ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌË˜Â„Ó Ë Ì ÔÓÌflÎ. éÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÚ „·„Ó· to make fi ‰Â·ڸ ÚÂÏ. But he does love you!fi çÓ ÓÌ Ê β·ËÚ Ú·fl (Ì ÒÓÏÌ‚‡ÈÒfl)! She did come yesterday. to fall ill ¤ to be ill. ‚ıÓ‰Ë ÊÂ! Do have some more tea. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ‰Â·ڸ (ÙÓÏ˚: do / does / did). èË ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ‚ÒÎÛı ÒÚÓËÚ ÔÓ‰ Û‰‡ÂÌËÂÏ: . Í‡Í to make ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ / ËÁ„ÓÚ‡‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: ç does it every day.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. This will become cheaper soon.fi çÛ ‰‡‚‡È ÔÓȉÂÏ ‚ ÍËÌÓ. 56. (ÓÌ Â˘Â ÌËÍÓ„Ó Ì ‚˚·‡Î ËÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı ÔÂÚẨÂÌÚÓÍ) III. She doesn't (does not) know this man. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl: Don't open any windows. ‡ Îӄ˘ÂÒÍÓ ۉ‡ÂÌË ÒÏ¢‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÒÎÓ‚‡..fi éÌ Ó·Â˘‡Î ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï..fi éÌ ‡ÁÓÁÎËÎÒfl. ç makes good things. 55.‰.. ÌÓ ÔÓ͇ ˜ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ ËÏfl Â„Ó ·Û‰Û˘ÂÈ ÊÂÌ˚ — ÓÌ ‰ÂÊËÚ Â„Ó ‚ ÒÂÍÂÚÂ) Nobody knows his would-be wife. 1. 48. Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘Ëı ÒÓ·ÓÈ Â‡ÍˆË˛ ̇ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌË ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ ÙÓÏ Active Indefinite (Present / Past) Ë ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Ëı ÛÒÒÍËÏ çÂÛÊÂÎË? Ë ü / äÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÚÓÊÂ. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÂ‰ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏ˚Ï ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ: Nobody knows his wife to-be.fi ùÚÓ ÒÍÓÓ ÒÚ‡ÌÂÚ ‰Â¯Â‚ÎÂ.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì Á̇ÂÚ Â„Ó ·Û‰Û˘Û˛ ÊÂÌÛ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ôˉ‡ÌËfl ÙÓÏ ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl ÓÚÚÂÌ͇ ̇ÒÚÓȘ˂ÓÈ ÔÓÒ¸·˚ / Û·ÂʉÂÌËfl: Do be careful.fi — åÌ ÌÛÊÌ˚ ‰Â̸„Ë. É·„ÓÎ to do (did / done). ̇ ÍÓÏ ÓÌ ÊÂÌËÚÒfl.fi He ÓÚÍ˚‚‡È ÓÍ̇.fi çÛ ‚˚ÔÂÈ Â˘Â ˜‡¯Â˜ÍÛ ˜‡fl. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ÔÓ‚ÚÓflÚ¸ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ ¢ ‡Á: I know it better than he does.fi íÓθÍÓ ·Û‰¸ ÔÓ‚ÌËχÚÂθÌÂÈ. fi ë‰Â·ÌÓ ‚ . Do let's go to the cinema. I do want to help you!fi ü ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú· (ÔÓ‚Â¸ ÏÌÂ)! àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â „·„Ó·-Á‡ÏÂÌËÚÂÎfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı ÒÓ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï ‚ ÙÓÏ Active Indefinite (Present /Past).) ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‰Îfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Active Indefinite ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı (Present / Past): Do you speak English? Did she come yesterday? You don't love him. (ÓÌË ÛÊ ¯ËÎË ÔÓÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl. — Do you? So do I. ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÔÓ˜ÚË ‚Ò„‰‡ ÔÓÒΠÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÏÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‰Û„Ëı „·„ÓÎ˚ to become / to get / to fall / to grow Ë ‰. 53. doesn't she? / does she not? Didn't you / Did you not see that film? àÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı . Don't be late. Only rarely does she come before ten o'clock.fi éÌ ‰Â·ÂÚ ˝ÚÓ (ÒÓ‚Â¯‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ) ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. ‚ ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl. to become angry ¤ to be angry Ë Ú. to grow dark ¤ to be dark. 51. ÏÓ„ÛÚ Î„ÍÓ Á‡ÏÂÌflÚ¸Òfl „·„ÓÎÓÏ to be Ò ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÏ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËÂÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl: to fall in love ¤ to be in love. do you? ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‰Îfl ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Active Indefinite ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı (Present / Past): I don't (do not) speak English.ç became angry. áÄèéåçàíÖ: ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı.fi ü Á̇˛ ˝ÚÓ ÎÛ˜¯Â.fi — çÂÛÊÂÎË? åÌ ÚÓÊÂ. Ç Ú‡ÍËı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÏ. They didn't (did not) come yesterday. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌ˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈Ëflı..fi é˜Â̸ ‰ÍÓ Ó̇ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ / é̇ ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ ‡Ì¸¯Â ‰ÂÒflÚË ˜‡ÒÓ‚. ç promised to help us but he didn't.

ought to / must have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) — ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸ / ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ: They ought to / must have left. She hasn't got to invite them.fi éÌË. they went on playing cards. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi ç‡Ï Ô˯ÎÓÒ¸ / å˚ ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ˚ ·˚ÎË ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ.fi åÌ ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡ÎË ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ. Ô‰¯ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡‚¯Â ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË: You needn't have come. may have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ. 63. got ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ Ì‡„ÛÁÍË Ë ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl. needn't have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ. — Didn't they? Neither did my sister. 118 . ü‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ú‡ÍÓ‚˚Ï. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ Á‡Í‡ÁÛ: I have my TV-set repaired. You'd better have that bad tooth pulled out. ÚÓ „·„ÓÎ to have fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl ˝Í‚Ë‚‡ÎÂÌÚÓÏ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı must / should / ought Ë ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ: We had to help them. ‚˚‡ÊÂÌÌÓÏÛ Ò͇ÁÛÂÏ˚Ï Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: I am sorry for having invited these people. îÓÏ˚ Perfect Gerund Ë Perfect Participle Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛Ú ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï.fi éÌ Ô˯ÂÎ. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏÛ·ı Active Perfect (to have ~ ~ ~ ed(3)): He has come. could /might have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ.fi ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. Ë Active Perfect Continuous (to have been ~ ~ ~ ing): I have been sitting here for two hours.fi á‡ÍÓ̘˂ ‡·ÓÚÛ. ê‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚: have ¤ have got ¤ 've got — I've got a house. / é̇ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ì Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸ Ëı. ÖÒÎË ÔÓÒΠ„·„Ó· to have ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒÚÓËÚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ Ò ˜‡ÒÚˈÂÈ to (to have to ~ ~ ~ ). ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸. ÓÌ ·˚Î Á‰ÂÒ¸. have ¤ had got ¤ 'd got — I'd got a wife. Having finished the work.fi í˚ ÏÓ„ ·˚ Ë Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ‚ ·˚ÒÚÓÈ Â˜Ë (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚÂ) ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‰ۈËÛÂÚÒfl ‰Ó gotta Ë Ì ҘËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÔËÁ̇ÍÓÏ ıÓÓ¯Â„Ó ÚÓ̇: You have got / You've got / You gotta call her. 1.fi éÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ Ì‡Ï ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ (ÌÓ Ì ҉Â·Π˝ÚÓ„Ó).fi ü ÒËÊÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡. ÛÂı‡ÎË. to have a try fi ÔÓÔ˚Ú‡Ú¸Òfl. 59. ıÓÚfl ÏÓ„ÎÓ ·˚ ·˚Ú¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ: ç could / might have helped us. She has a car. ˜ÚÓ Ô˄·ÒËÎ ˝ÚËı β‰ÂÈ. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ ‚ ÙÓÏÛΠPassive Perfect (to have been ~ ~ ~ ed(3)): They have been seen together. ÓÌË ÓÔflÚ¸ ÒÚ‡ÎË Ë„‡Ú¸ ‚ ͇Ú˚. 61. 58. ıÓÚfl Û‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂÚ: ç may have been here. ÂÒÎË Ò‡ÁÛ Á‡ ÌËÏ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ „·„ÓθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚: I have a house. ËÏÂÂÚ ÓÚÚÂÌÓÍ Ì‰ӂÓθÒÚ‚‡: You should have invited them. Has she got to invite them?fi ÖÈ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸ Ëı? 60.fi í· ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ Ëı (‡ Ú˚ Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎ).fi ÖÈ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ëı Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÂÈ. „‰Â Ì ËÏÂÂÚ Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl Ë Ì‡ ÛÒÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í Ì ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl: to have breakfast / lunch / dinner fi ÔÓÁ‡‚Ú‡Í‡Ú¸ / ÔÓӷ‰‡Ú¸ / ÔÓÛÊË̇ڸ. They had money. have ¤ has got ¤ 's got — She's got a car. îÓχ Perfect Infinitive ÔÓÒΠÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË (ÌÓ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Á‡‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl): should have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) — Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ.fi ü (Ò‡Ï) ÓÚÂÏÓÌÚËÓ‚‡Î χ¯ËÌÛ. É·„ÓÎ to have (had). I have repaired my car. IV.fi — éÌË Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË ‚˜Â‡. You haven't got to go there.fi ü ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸ Á‡ ÚÓ.fi — çÂÛÊÂÎË? åÓfl ÒÂÒÚ‡ ÚÓÊ (Ì ÔËıӉ˷).fi í· ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË Ë‰ÚË ÚÛ‰‡. 57. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï. Ç ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ӷ˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô˘‡ÒÚÌÓ„Ó Ó·ÓÓÚ‡ to have Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ Ê Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÙÓχ to have got.— They didn't come yesterday. ıÓÚfl Â„Ó ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸. Ç Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. ëÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ „·„ÓÎ ËÏÂÚ¸ (ÙÓÏ˚: have / has / had).fi àı ‚ˉÂÎË ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. ·˚ÎÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÓ.fi í· ÎÛ˜¯Â Û‰‡ÎËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ÔÎÓıÓÈ ÁÛ· (Ó·‡ÚËÒ¸ Í ‚‡˜Û). 62.

ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ shall.fi ê‡Á¯ËÚÂ. The Tenant shall return the keys to the Landlord. fl ·˚ Â„Ó Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎ. fl ÔÓÔÓ·Û˛. I'd rather you came tomorrow (than today). ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÌÂωÎÂÌÌÓ ÔÓÍËÌÛÎ ÏÂÌfl. ÓÚÌÓÒfl˘ËıÒfl Í ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: I don't think you shall ever see her again.Ô.. ˜ÂÏ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ ‚ӂΘ¸ Ò·fl ‚ ÔÓ‰ÍÛÔ.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ fl ÁÌ‡Î Â„Ó ‡Ì¸¯Â. to swim fi Ô·‚‡Ú¸.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÔÓÒÚÛ‰‡.fi ü Ì ‰Ûχ˛. 119 . 66. îÓχ had ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl Ò Ó·‡ÚÌ˚Ï ÔÓfl‰ÍÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚ Ë ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ì‡ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ: Had I known him before. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: ç is cold.fi í· ÎÛ˜¯Â ÔÓÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl. 68. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı) ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÒÓʇÎÂÌËfl / ÌÂÛ‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚË / ÌÂ¯ËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË. èÓÒΠshall ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. ¤ I had rather fail the exam . Ú‚Ófl Á‡Ô·ڇ ÔÓ‚˚ÒËÚÒfl. You say you will not help us. îÓχ had ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò rather (ÂÊ sooner) ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÚÂÌËfl / ·Óθ¯Â„Ó Ê·ÌËfl (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â would ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‰‡Ê ˜‡˘Â. 67. We shall be invited. May I have a look?fi åÓÊÌÓ ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸? Let me have a try. ‡ Ì Ò„ӉÌfl).fi í· ÎÛ˜¯Â ÔËÈÚË Á‡‚Ú‡ (.fi 䂇ÚËÓÒ˙ÂÏ˘ËÍ Ó·flÁ‡Ì ‚ÓÁ‚‡ÚËÚ¸ Íβ˜Ë 䂇ÚËÓÒ‰‡Ú˜ËÍÛ. 65. ˜ÂÏ ÒÚ‡ÌÛ Ó·Ï‡Ì˚‚‡Ú¸. to walk fi „ÛÎflÚ¸.) He's got a cold.fi ãÛ˜¯Â fl. you shall have higher wages.. ˜ÚÓ Ì ·Û‰Â¯¸ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ̇Ï.fi ãÛ˜¯Â fl Ì ҉‡Ï ˝ÍÁ‡ÏÂÌ. We'll be invited. to have a walk fi ÔÓ„ÛÎflÚ¸Òfl. éÚˈ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ÙÓχ shan't: We shan't be able to help you.fi He ̇‰Ó ·Û‰ËÚ¸ Ëı.fi í˚ „Ó‚Ó˯¸. or you'll miss the train. V. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‰ۈËÛÂÚÒfl. Ç Í‡˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó· ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÒÚ‡‰‡Ú¸ (·ÎËÁÍÓ Í ÛÒÒÍÓÏÛ flÁ˚ÍÛ): I've got a terrible headache. 69. îÓχ had ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò better+Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ̇ÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓÈ ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËË / ÔÓÒ¸·˚ / ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡: You had better / You'd better be quick.fi ÖÏÛ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ. / èÛÒÚ¸ ÓÌË ÎÛ˜¯Â ÔÓÒÔflÚ.): 64. to have a rest fi ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸ Ë ‰. I shouldn't have invited him. Á‡ÍÓ˛ ‰‚Â¸ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ. ÌÓ ‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ Ó·ÓËı ÒÎÓ‚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ — 'd): I'd rather fail the exam than cheat. í‡ÍË ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl ËÏÂ˛Ú ÓÚÚÂÌÓÍ ÌÂÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚÂθÌÓÒÚË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: to try fi Ô˚Ú‡Ú¸Òfl. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÙÓÏÛ·ı ‰Îfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Future ‚ 1-Ï ÎˈÂ: I shall help you. /¤ I would rather fail the exam. I'd better Jock the door.. Go and have a lie down. 1.fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÛʇÒÌÓ ·ÓÎËÚ „ÓÎÓ‚‡. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ¢ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚ÒÚÂÚ˯¸Òfl Ò ÌÂÈ. Ë̇˜Â Ú˚ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Â¯¸ ̇ ÔÓÂÁ‰.fi ü ·˚ Ô‰ÔӘ·. I'd rather you left at once.. What had / would you rather do?fi Ä ˜ÚÓ ·˚ Ú˚ ҉·Π(‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË)? Then we'd rather not come at all. to have a swim fi ÔÓÔ·‚‡Ú¸. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· shall ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Future Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl will: I will help you. You'd better not wake them up. but I say you shall (help us). ˜ÂÏ had.fi èÓÈ‰Ë ÔÓÎÂÊË. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ 2-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ӷ¢‡ÌËfl / Û„ÓÁ˚ / ÔË͇Á‡ÌËfl / Ô‰ÓÒÚÂÂÊÂÌËfl / Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ ÓÙˈˇθÌ˚ı ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ‡ı): If you work well.fi ÖÒÎË Ú˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ıÓÓ¯Ó ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸. ÔËÌËχfl ÙÓÏÛ 'll: I'll help you.to have a look fi ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸. ç had / would sooner resign than be involved in bribery.fi íÓ„‰‡ / Ç Ú‡ÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì‡Ï ÎÛ˜¯Â ‚ÓÓ·˘Â Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸.fi éÌ ÒÍÓÂÈ ÔÓ‰‡ÒÚ ‚ ÓÚÒÚ‡‚ÍÛ. (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: ü Ëϲ ÛʇÒÌÛ˛ „ÓÎÓ‚ÌÛ˛ ·Óθ. ‡ fl „Ó‚Ó˛ — ·Û‰Â¯¸. to rest fi ÓÚ‰˚ı‡Ú¸ Ë Ú.

éÚˈ‡ÚÂθ̇fl ‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ÙÓχ — won't: They won't be able to call you in the evening. 120 . ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ Ú˚ ıÓÚÂÎ. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË: Shall I start?fi (åÌÂ) 燘Ë̇ڸ? Shall he wait here?fi ÖÏÛ ÔÓ‰Óʉ‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸? When shall he come?fi äÓ„‰‡ ÂÏÛ ÔËÈÚË? What shall they do tomorrow?fi óÚÓ ËÏ ‰Â·ڸ Á‡‚Ú‡? VI. ÔËÌËχfl ÙÓÏÛ '11 (ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ò ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ shall): He'll be back in a minute. 70. please)?fi èÓÏÓ„Ë ÏÌ (. 75. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ̇‰Âʉ˚ / Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËfl / ÓÊˉ‡ÌËfl ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: That will be your sister telephoning.fi é̇ ˆÂÎ˚ÏË ‰ÌflÏË ıÓ‰ËÚ ÔÓ Ï‡„‡ÁË̇Ï. 71.ç doubts whether he shall be in tomorrow.fi ü ·Óθ¯Â Ì ·Û‰Û Ú‡Í ‰Â·ڸ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚Ó 2-Ï Îˈ ‚ ‚ÂÊÎË‚˚ı Ó·‡˘ÂÌËflı Ò ÔÓÒ¸·ÓÈ. I will do it. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÙÓÏÛ·ı ‰Îfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl Future ‚Ó 2-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÂ: They will leave tomorrow.fi å˚ Á‡È‰ÂÏ Í ‚‡Ï ‚˜ÂÓÏ. 76. Ó·‡ÁÛfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ. Will you be free tomorrow? Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë Ó˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ shall Ò 1-Ï ÎˈÓÏ: I will come back very soon. ·Û‰ÂÚ ÎË ÓÌ Á‡‚Ú‡ ̇ ÏÂÒÚÂ. ̇‚ÂÌÓÂ. will you?fi He ÓÔ‡Á‰˚‚‡È. ÇÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ will. Will we (Do you think we will / Is there any chance that we will) get there in time?fi (í˚ ̇‰Â¯¸Òfl.fi åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸. ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏ Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÏÌÂ. He'll do nothing for months and then suddenly he'll ring me. All right.fi éÌË Ì ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ Ú· ‚˜ÂÓÏ. 72. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ Ó·‡˘ÂÌ ‚ÓÔÓÒ. Pass the salt.fi å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ÔËÁ̇ÚÂθÌ˚. ÂÒÎË Ç˚ ÒÓÓ·˘ËÚÂ Ì‡Ï ‰‡ÚÛ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÔË·˚ÚËfl.) å˚ ‰Ó·ÂÂÏÒfl / ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÛ‰‡ ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl? This'll be the book you wanted.the date of your arrival. Won't you stay a little longer?fi He ıÓÚËÚ ÎË ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl Û Ì‡Ò ÔÓ‰Óθ¯Â? Don't be late.fi ùÚÓ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl „ÛÎflÌÓ„Ó. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ: Will you help me (. Call me tomorrow it you will.fi çÛ ÓÒڇ̸Òfl (. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌ˚Ï Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËÂÏ ‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË if you will ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ̇ÒÚÓȘ˂ÓÈ ÔÓÒ¸·˚ / Ê·ÌËfl (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ù‡Á˚): Stay if you will. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡). ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌË ÏÌ Á‡‚Ú‡. ÛÏÓÎfl˛ Ú·fl). 74.fi å‡Î¸˜Ë¯ÍË — ‚Ò„‰‡ χθ˜Ë¯ÍË. èÓÒΠwill ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. ˝ÚÓ Ë ÂÒÚ¸ Ú‡ ÍÌË„‡. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 1-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ‚ÓÎË / ¯ËÏÓÒÚË / ·Óθ¯Ó„Ó Ê·ÌËfl / Òӄ·ÒËfl / ӷ¢‡ÌËfl: I won't do it again. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 1-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl Û͇Á‡ÌËÈ ÓÚ Îˈ‡. 1.fi éÌ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ Ò Û‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. ıÓÓ¯Ó? èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ËÌÓ„‰‡ will ‚ ̇˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌË Í‡ÈÌÂÈ ‡Á‰‡ÊÂÌÌÓÒÚË „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó: Will you be quiet!fi ч ÛÒÔÓÍÓÈÚÂÒ¸ Ê ‚˚ (̇ÍÓ̈)! 73. Boys will be boys. ÒÓθ.fi å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ ÔËÁ̇ÚÂθÌ˚.fi èÓ¯Û Ú·fl. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‰ۈËÛÂÚÒfl. Ò‡‚ÌËÚ (ÔÓ Ó·˘ÂÏÛ Ô‡‚ËÎÛ): We shall be obliged if you inform us about the date of your arrival. Á‚ÓÌËÚ Ú‚Ófl ÒÂÒÚ‡.fi åÂÒflˆ‡ÏË ÓÌ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‰Â·ÂÚ. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‚ÚÓfl˛˘Â„ÓÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl / ÔË‚˚˜ÍË / ÛÒÚÓfl‚¯Â„ÓÒfl Ó·˚˜‡fl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: She will go shopping day after day. They'll help us. fl ҉·˛ ˝ÚÓ. We will call on you in the evening. ÂÒÎË Ç˚ ·Û‰ÂÚ β·ÂÁÌ˚ ÒÓÓ·˘ËÚ¸ Ì‡Ï ‰‡ÚÛ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÔË·˚ÚËfl.fi ïÓÓ¯Ó. will you?fi èÂ‰‡ÈÚÂ. àÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÒ¸·˚: We shall be obliged if you will inform us about.

fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó· ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÒΉÛÂÚ / ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ / ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ ·˚. Ç ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ÛÔÓÌÓ ÌÂÊ·ÌË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË..fi é̇ ÒÔÓÒË·. ÔËÂÁÊ‡È Á‡ ÏÌÓÈ. They should call me the day after tomorrow. not be late.fi å˚ ·˚ÎË ·˚ Ó˜Â̸ ‡‰˚ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ÚÛ‰‡ Ò ‚‡ÏË.fi éÌ Á‡‚¢‡Î Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë ÏÌÂ. (ÓÌ Ì ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÎ) She should have warned you. fl ·˚ ̇‰Â· Ò‚Ó ˜ÂÌÓ Ô·ڸÂ. „‰Â ‚ „·‚ÌÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚˚‡Ê‡ÂÚÒfl ۉ˂ÎÂÌË / Ì„Ӊӂ‡ÌË / ÒÓʇÎÂÌË / ‰Û„Ë ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚‡ (should ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂÎÂÌ. ˜ÚÓ ÔˉÂÏ ‡ÌÓ.fi í· ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. It's a pity that you (should) have to leave.. 87.fi é̇ ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ·˚· (ÌÓ Ì ҉·· ˝ÚÓ„Ó) Ô‰ÛÔ‰ËÚ¸ Ú·fl.. ÂÒÎË ·˚ ‰‡Î ÏÌ ÌÓÏÂ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇. ÂÒÎË ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚ — ÒÓÔÓÚË‚ÎÂÌË ÔË·„‡ÂÏ˚Ï ÛÒËÎËflÏ: ç won't help us. The door won't open.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ fl Ôӯ·..fi å˚ Ò͇Á‡ÎË. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÙÓÏ˚ Future-in-the-Past ‰Îfl 1-„Ó Îˈ‡: I thought I should.fi ÖÒÎË ÓÌË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ (̇ ˜ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ χÎÓ Ì‡‰Âʉ˚). ëÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Ë Á‚Û˜‡Ì˲ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï will fi ‚ÓÎfl: ç has a strong / weak will. She asked me if she should help them the next day.. I should like . I should prefer white wine. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ëı. Should I go. ÂÒÎË ·˚ Û Ì‡Ò ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÂÏfl. I should have called you if you had given me your number. ˜ÚÓ ‚‡¯‡ ÊÂ̇ ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡ÂÚ.fi Ñ‚Â¸ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. I'll tell them about your plan. ÌÛÊÌÓ ÎË ÂÏÛ ÓÚÔ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ.fi åÌ ·˚ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ Ú ÚÛÙÎË. come and get me. ˜ÚÓ ‚‡Ï ÔËıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸. 84. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ó˜Â̸ χÎÓÈ ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚË ‰Â·ÂÏÓ„Ó Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËfl: If they should call. I should say . fi ü ·˚ Ô‰ÔÓ˜ÂÎ. 78. ÌÛÊÌÓ ÎË ÂÈ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ËÏ Ì‡ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ ‰Â̸.fi é˜Â̸ ʇθ.. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ Ì‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï: 80. Should (ÙÓχ „·„Ó· shall).fi é˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ.fi éÌ ÌË Á‡ ˜ÚÓ Ì ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ Ì‡Ï (Ë Ì ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ).fi éÌË ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÏÌ ÔÓÒÎÂÁ‡‚Ú‡. We said we should arrive early.77.fi ç‡Ï ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸. We should like to have a rest.fi íÓÏ ÒÔÓÒËÎ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 1-Ï ÎˈÓÏ Â‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Ë ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ· ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ÏÌÂÌËfl / Ê·ÌËfl / ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡ / ÂÍÓÏẨ‡ˆËË ‚ ·ÓΠӷÚÂ͇ÂÏÓÈ ÙÓÏÂ: We should like to see this film. I should prefer . îÓχ Indefinite Infinitive ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚ¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ / ·Û‰Û˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: You should come here every day.. èÓÒΠshould ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÌflÎ.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÒËθ̇fl / Ò··‡fl ‚ÓÎfl.. Á‡‰‡‚‡ÂÏÓ„Ó Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl Û͇Á‡ÌËÈ: Tom asked if he should post the letter..fi ü ·˚ Ô‰ÔӘ· ·ÂÎÓ ‚ËÌÓ.fi ü ·˚ Ú· ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎ.. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÓÔÓÁ‰‡˛.fi ü ۉ˂ÎÂÌ ÚÂÏ.fi ÖÏÛ ÒΉӂ‡ÎÓ (·˚) ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ò ÌÂÈ. 85. ëÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Ë Á‚Û˜‡Ì˲ ÒÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚˚Ï „·„ÓÎÓÏ to will fi Á‡‚¢‡Ú¸: ç willed his money to me. I should wear my black dress.fi ç‡Ï ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËθÏ. fl ‡ÒÒ͇ÊÛ ËÏ Ó Ú‚ÓÂÏ Ô·ÌÂ. VII. 121 . ç should have spoken to her.. fi ü ·˚ Ò͇Á‡Î. 82. I should like to buy those shoes. It is important that you should understand this.fi ÖÒÎË ÓÌË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ Ú·Â. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 1-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl Û͇Á‡ÌËÈ ÓÚ Îˈ‡. Í ÍÓÚÓÓÏÛ Ó·‡˘ÂÌ ‚ÓÔÓÒ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í ÙÓχ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl: We should be very glad to go there with you if we had time. îÓχ Perfect Infinitive ÔÓÒΠshould Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ. ëÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı: Should /Shall I write it down?fi (åÌÂ) á‡ÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÓ? Should / Shall she show them her flat?fi ÖÈ ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ËÏ Ò‚Ó˛ Í‚‡ÚËÛ? àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 1-Ï Ë 3-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ÔË Ó·‡˘ÂÌËË ‚ ÍÓÒ‚ÂÌÌÛ˛ ˜¸ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡.fi ü ‰ÛχÎ. 1. ÌÓ Â„Ó ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë Ôˉ‡ÂÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ·Óθ¯Â ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚË): I'm surprised that your wife should object ( objects). 79. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ı (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË): Should they call you. 86. 83. 81...

They invited us. 97. too. ˜‡ÒÚÂ̸ÍÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Î‡ ÏÓÂÏÛ ÓÚˆÛ. ÏËÌÛÚÍÛ.fi éÌ ·˚Î ·˚ ‡‰ ‚ˉÂÚ¸ Ú·fl. 122 . ıÓ‰ËÎË Í ‰ÛÁ¸flÏ. ç should have saved enough money by then.If they should call tomorrow. 91. ·˚‚‡ÎÓ. 92.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ÓÚÍ˚Ú¸ ‰‚Â¸. ÒÓθ. Ëϲ˘Ëı ÓÚÚÂÌÓÍ ÔÓ‚˚¯ÂÌÌÓÈ ˝ÏÓˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚË / ‡Á‰‡ÊÂÌËfl ( Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ how Ë why): How should I know?fi éÚÍÛ‰‡ fl Á̇˛? Why should you do it?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ? How should they get the money?fi éÚÍÛ‰‡ / ɉ ÓÌË ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÛÚ ‰Â̸„Ë? VIII. 90. 93. ÔÂˆ.fi ÖÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÎË Á‡‚Ú‡ (̇ ˜ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ χÎÓ Ì‡‰Âʉ˚). She would often help my father. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í ÙÓχ ÒÓÒ·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËfl: ç would be glad to see you. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÌËχڸ ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌÛ˛ ÙÓÏÛ 'd: 1. èÓÒΠwould ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ÙÓχ Infinitive ·ÂÁ ˜‡ÒÚˈ˚ to.fi ÇÓÁÏÓÊÌÓ. 94. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ ÔˉÂÚ ÔÓÁÊÂ. ·˚‚‡ÎÓ. Í ÚÓÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ) ÓÌ ÛÊ ÒÍÓÔËÎ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‰ÂÌ„. would / will you?fi èÂ‰‡ÈÚÂ. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÒÓÔÓÚË‚ÎÂÌË ÔË·„‡ÂÏ˚Ï ÛÒËÎËflÏ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ç wouldn't listen to me. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ 2-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‚ ‚ÂÊÎË‚˚ı Ó·‡˘ÂÌËflı Ò ÔÓÒ¸·ÓÈ. ç is disappointed with her behaviour. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÙÓÏ˚ Future-in-the-Past ‰Îfl 2-„Ó Ë 3-„Ó Îˈ‡: We were told you would come later. Would /Will you pass the pepper.fi éÌ Ú‡Í Ë Ì ‚˚ÒÎÛ¯‡Î / Ì Á‡ıÓÚÂÎ ‚˚ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸-ÏÂÌfl.fi ÖÒÎË ÓÌË ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌflÚ (̇ ˜ÚÓ fl Ó˜Â̸ ̇‰Â˛Ò¸).fi ü ÔÓ·„‡˛. fl ‡ÒÒ͇ÊÛ ËÏ Ó Ú‚ÓÂÏ Ô·ÌÂ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl „ÛÎflÌÓ„Ó / ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‚ÚÓfl˛˘Â„ÓÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: Sometimes we would visit our friends who lived nearby.fi é̇ ·˚ Á‡Ô·ÚË· ˝ÚË ‰Â̸„Ë. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. I am being helped. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‰Îfl ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË / ÌÂËÁ·ÂÊÌÓÒÚË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: ç is the best student. Ó·‡ÁÛfl ‚ÓÔÓÒ. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. he should reach the place by now. ÂÒÎË ·˚ Ç˚ ÒÓÓ·˘ËÎË (·˚ÎË Î˛·ÂÁÌ˚ ÒÓÓ·˘ËÚ¸) Ì‡Ï ‰‡ÚÛ Ò‚ÓÂ„Ó ÔË·˚ÚËfl. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: If they call.fi He ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl. The car was very old and it wouldn't start. 95. She would have paid that money if she had had it. He'd / ç would like to come. ÇıÓ‰flÚ Ò ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Active Perfect Ë ‚ÒÂı ÙÓÏÛÎ Passive ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·: They have helped us. they would help you. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. 89. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò 3-Ï ÎˈÓÏ ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓÒÚË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: I suppose.fi å˚ ·˚ÎË ·˚ ÔËÁ̇ÚÂθÌ˚. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ̇ ÔÂ‚Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ: Would / Will you wait a moment (. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ed. 88. please?fi èÂ‰‡ÈÚÂ. We couldn't open the door locked many years ago. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÊËÎË ÌÂÔÓ‰‡ÎÂÍÛ. IX. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏË Îˈ‡ÏË ‰Îfl ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËfl ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚. 96. Pass the salt. We shall be invited.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ÓÚÍ˚Ú¸ Á‡ÔÂÚÛ˛ ̇ Íβ˜ ‰‚Â¸. ÖÒÎË ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÏ Ô‰ÏÂÚÂ.fi é̇. Ç ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸ ÛÔÓÌÓ ÌÂÊ·ÌË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.fi ÖÏÛ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔËÈÚË ÚÓÊÂ. please)?fi èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ. ëÎÓ‚‡. ÓÌ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ò‰‡ÒÚ ˝ÚÓÚ ˝ÍÁ‡ÏÂÌ. I should tell them about your plan. ÓÌË (Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ) ÔÓÏÓ„ÛÚ Ú·Â.fi (àÌÓ„‰‡) å˚. àÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ôˉ‡ÚÓ˜Ì˚ı ÛÒÎÓ‚Ì˚ı ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔÓÒ¸·˚: We should be obliged if you would inform us about the date of your arrival. Don't worry. ˜ÚÓ Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ÓÌ ÛÊ ‰Ó·‡ÎÒfl ‰Ó 'ÏÂÒÚ‡. îÓχ Active Indefinite Past Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚: ç asked me to help him.fi éÌ ‡ÒÒÚÓÂÌ Â Ôӂ‰ÂÌËÂÏ. ÂÒÎË ·˚ ÓÌË Û Ì ·˚ÎË.fi éÌ Ò‡Ï˚È ÎÛ˜¯ËÈ ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ. Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÓÚ Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚ı „·„ÓÎÓ‚: We couldn't open the locked door. She has not been invited. I'll tell them about your plan. Would (ÙÓχ „·„Ó· will). îÓχ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II. he would pass the exam.fi ç‡Ï Ò͇Á‡ÎË.fi 凯Ë̇ ·˚· ÒÚ‡ÓÈ Ë ÌËÍ‡Í Ì Á‡‚Ӊ˷Ҹ. Á‡ÔÂÚÛ˛ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ ÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÂÚ ÚÓÏÛ Ì‡Á‡‰. fl ·˚ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î ËÏ Ó Ú‚ÓÂÏ Ô·ÌÂ. 1. please.

1. to trumpet — trumpeted / to limit — limited / to fasten — fastened / to inhibit — inhibited / to linger — lingered — (Û‰‡ÂÌË Ì ̇ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„).: leveled) — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÂ‚˚È ÒÎÓ„). ÔÓËÁӯ‰¯ËÏË ÓÚ ÙÓÏ˚ è˘‡ÒÚËfl II. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. ÍÓ„‰‡ Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„ (ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËflÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡. Í‡Í ‡·ÓÚ‡ ·˚· Á‡‚Â¯Â̇. á* éڄ·„ÓθÌÓ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ (-ing).Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı) v ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ·ÓÎÂÂ. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Òӄ·Ò̇fl. The room was filled with the wounded.fi Ç ÍÓÏ̇Ú ·˚ÎÓ ÔÓÎÌÓ ‡ÌÂÌ˚ı. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ۉ‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl): to regret — regretted / to permit — permitted / to refer — referred — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ̇ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„). ÚÓ ÍÓ̘̇fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl: to stop — stopped / to plan — planned / to rob — robbed / to hug — hugged ÌÓ: to help — helped / to plant — planted — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰Û„‡fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl). ëÎÓ‚‡. We cannot help all the unemployed. to invest — invested / to remark — remarked — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰Û„‡fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl). Ì Ëϲ˘Â ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl: bed / to bleed / greed / hundred Ë ‰. ÇıÓ‰flÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÙÓÏÛÎ Active Continuous Ë Active Perfect Continuous ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó „·„Ó·: She is sleeping. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÊÂÌËÎÒfl ̇ ÌÂÈ. ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ed. îÓχ being ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‚˚¯Â ÒÎÛ˜‡flı -ed ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive „·„Ó·. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -x.fi LJ¯ ‰ÓÏ ÒÚÓËÚÒfl. to mention — mentioned / to regroup — regrouped — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı). ¸ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl [d] ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚. I don't approve of your having married her. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ ‡ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -1. The work having been finished. 100. to book — booked / to load — loaded — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ . to compel — compelled (‡ÏÂ. ÚÓ -Û ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ̇ -i: to carry — carried / to try — tried / to apply — applied / to spy — spied ÌÓ: to stay — stayed / to pray — prayed / to delay — delayed / to employ — employed — (ÔÂ‰ -Û „·Ò̇fl) v ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ Ë Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ing. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. ¸ ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl [id] ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚.98. åÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ ·ÛÍ‚‡ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl: to live — lived / to like — liked / to shave — shaved / to smile — smiled / to invite — invited v ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -Û.fi éÌ Ê‰ÂÚ Ì‡Ò Ò ÛÚ‡. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl „ÎÛıËÏ Òӄ·ÒÌ˚Ï Á‚ÛÍÓÏ (ÍÓÏ [t]): to pass — passed / to pack — packed / to like —liked / to finish — finished. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. 99. ÚÓ ·ÛÍ‚‡ -l Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl (‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÍÓ̘̇fl -1 Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı.fi é̇ ÒÔËÚ (ÒÂȘ‡Ò). the wounded fi ‡ÌÂÌ˚Â Ë ‰. ÚÓ ÍÓ̘̇fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl Ì ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl. 123 . Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ. ÇıÓ‰flÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÒÎÓÊÌ˚ı ÌÂ΢Ì˚ı ÙÓÏ „·„Ó· (ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ / „ÂÛ̉ËÈ / Ô˘‡ÒÚËÂ) ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚ÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË: ç could have helped us. ÍÓ„‰‡ Û‰‡ÂÌË ‚ ÒÎÓ‚Â Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„): to level — levelled (‡ÏÂ. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl Á‚Û͇ÏË [t] / [d] to want — wanted / to permit — permitted / to end — ended / to wound — wounded.fi ü Ì Ӊӷfl˛ ÚÓ„Ó.: compelled) — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„).fi éÌ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. we went home. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ Ë Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ (Ì -1). ¸ X.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ‚ÒÂÏ ·ÂÁ‡·ÓÚÌ˚Ï. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl Á‚ÓÌÍËÏ Òӄ·ÒÌ˚Ï / „·ÒÌ˚Ï Á‚ÛÍÓÏ: to call — called / to turn — turned / to enter — entered / to bow — bowed. to perplex — perplexed / to relax — relaxed / to transfix — transfixed ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ: ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl [t] ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚.fi èÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. to reveal — revealed — (ÔÂ‰ -l ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı) v ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ·ÓÎÂÂ. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰flÚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË Ë ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÒÎÓ‚: ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂ: v ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -Â. 101. Ï˚ ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÎËÒ¸ ‰ÓÏÓÈ. ëÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ò ÓÔ‰ÂÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ: the unemployed fi ·ÂÁ‡·ÓÚÌ˚Â. ëÎÓ‚‡. ÙÓÏÛÎ˚ Passive Continuous ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ‚ÚÓÓ„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·: Your house is being built. ç has been waiting for us since the morning.

to lie (fi ΄‡Ú¸) — lying. Would you start from the beginning. èËÁ̇ÍË è˘‡ÒÚËfl I: ¸ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ Í „·„ÓÎÛ -ing. ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ‚ÎËflÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ: ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -Â. ÍÓ„‰‡ Û‰‡ÂÌË ‚ ÒÎÓ‚Â Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„): to level — levelling (‡ÏÂ. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ Ë Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -I. ¸ ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏÛ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·.fi ùÚÓ Í‡ÒË‚Ó Á‰‡ÌË ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊËÚ Ì‡¯ËÏ Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌË͇Ï. ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡. to lie (lay / lain) (fi ÎÂʇڸ) — lying. ß ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ Ë Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ. Those beautiful buildings belong to our relatives. èÓÒΠÓڄ·„ÓθÌÓ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ó‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ (˜Â„Ó? /ÍÓ„Ó?) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ of: The beginning of the text was very difficult to translate. èËÁ̇ÍË Óڄ·„ÓθÌÓ„Ó ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó: ¸ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ Í „·„ÓÎÛ -ing. ÚÓ ÍÓ̘̇fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl.: compelling) — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„). ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. ÚÓ ·ÛÍ‚‡ -l Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ Òfl (‚ ‡ÏÂË͇ÌÒÍÓÏ ‚‡ˇÌÚ ÍÓ̘̇fl -I Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. to dye (fi Í‡ÒËÚ¸) — dyeing. to reveal — reveaPortishead — (ÔÂ‰ -l ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı) ß ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ·ÓÎÂÂ. ¸ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ. to book — booking / to load — loading — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı) ß ÂÒÎË „·„ÓÎ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚ ·ÓÎÂÂ. Ò̇˜‡Î‡. 5* ÉÂÛ̉ËÈ (-ing). ÚÓ ÍÓ̘̇fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl Û‰‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl: to stop — stopping / to plan — planning / to rob — robbing / to hug — hugging ÌÓ: to help — helping / to plant — planting — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰Û„‡fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl). ÇÒ ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ‚˚¯Â ÙÓÏ˚ 1. ¸ ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ Í‡Í Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË „·„Ó·. ¸ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ. ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ. ˜Â‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. / 2. Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ ÛÏÂÚ¸ ÓÚ΢‡Ú¸ Ëı ‰Û„ ÓÚ ‰Û„‡. Ú‡Í Ë Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Ë Ì‡˜Ëfl. 124 .fi 燘‡ÎÓ ÚÂÍÒÚ‡ ·˚ÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÚÛ‰Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl ÔÂ‚Ӊ‡. ˜ÂÏ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ„‡ Ë Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡ÂÚÒfl Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ (Ì -l).fi 燘ÌËÚÂ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ‚˚¯Â ÒÎÛ˜‡flı -ing ÔË·‡‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Í ÙÓÏ Infinitive „·„Ó·. / 3* / 4* / 5* ‚˚„Îfl‰flÚ Ë ÔÓËÁÌÓÒflÚÒfl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚Ó.fi í Í‡ÒË‚˚ Á‰‡ÌËfl ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊ‡Ú Ì‡¯ËÏ Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌË͇Ï. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ÍÓÚÓ‡fl Ì ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl.: leveling) — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÂ‚˚È ÒÎÓ„). to invest — investing / to remark — remarking — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰Û„‡fl Òӄ·Ò̇fl). ˜ÚÓ. ÍÓ„‰‡ Û‰‡ÂÌË ԇ‰‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„ (ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËflÏË fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚‡. Ӊ̇ÍÓ. 103. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰flÚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒÎÓ‚. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÌÌÛ˛ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆË˛. please. àÁ ÌËı 3* / 4* / 5* ÏÓ„ÛÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË Ò‡ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ. to trumpet — trumpeting / to limit — limiting / to fasten — fastening / to inhibit — inhibiting / to linger — lingering — (Û‰‡ÂÌË Ì ̇ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„). Óڂ˜‡˛˘Ë ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡ÍÓÈ?: This beautiful building belongs to our relatives. ß 102. Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl ·ÛÍ‚ÓÈ -x): to regret — regretting /to permit — permitting / to refer — referring — (Û‰‡ÂÌË ̇ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ÒÎÓ„). to tie (fi Á‡‚flÁ˚‚‡Ú¸ / Ò‚flÁ˚‚‡Ú¸) — tying. to mention — mentioning / to regroup — regrouping — (ÔÂ‰ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÈ Òӄ·ÒÌÓÈ ‰‚ „·ÒÌ˚ı). ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ò ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË. ¸ ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó.4* è˘‡ÒÚË I ("ing). ÚÓ ˝Ú‡ ·ÛÍ‚‡ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl: to live — living / to smile — smiling / to smoke — smoking / to give — giving / to take — taking ÌÓ (Á‡ÔÓÏÌËÚÂ!): to die (fi ÛÏÂÂÚ¸) — dying. ÔÂ‰ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÚÓËÚ Ó‰Ì‡ „·Ò̇fl. ¸ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. to perplex — perplexing / to relax — relaxing / to transfix — transfixing. ¸ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ͇ÍÓÈ? / ͇Í? / ÍÓ„‰‡? / ÔÓ Í‡ÍÓÈ Ô˘ËÌÂ? / ÔË Í‡ÍËı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı? / ÔË Í‡ÍÓÏ ÛÒÎÓ‚ËË?. to compel — compelling (‡ÏÂ.

fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡˛ÚÒfl Ú‡Í ‡ÌÓ.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û Á‡ÔÂÚËÚ¸ (˜ÚÓ? — Ú‚Ó ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÌËÂ) Ú· ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ Ò ˝ÚËÏ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ. ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ Â„Ó ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ‡·ÓÚ˚.. β·ÎÂÌË (ÍÓ„Ó?) ÔÓÎËÚËÍÓ‚) èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÔË ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËË Ó‰ÌÓÈ Ë ÚÓÈ Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÔÂ‰ ÙÓÏÓÈ.ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Å‡ÛÌ˚ ÔÂʉ ·˚‚‡ÎË ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÂÒÚÓ‡ÌÂ. ÓÌ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂΠ̇ ̇Ò. She regrets living so far from her family. ¸ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ.fi çÂıÓÓ¯Ó Ó·Ï‡Ì˚‚‡Ú¸. Listening to them he was still thinking about his wife.fi çËÍÚÓ Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓϯ‡Ú¸ Ì‡Ï ÔÓÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û Á‡ÔÂÚËÚ¸ Ú· (˜ÚÓ?) ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ Ò ˝ÚËÏ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ. Ó·‡ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ÔÂ‰ „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ: Nobody can prevent us / our getting married. Everybody dreads Harry / Harry's taking over the business.fi å˚ ‚˚ÒÓÍÓ ˆÂÌËÏ ÚÓ. èÓÒΠ„ÂÛ̉Ëfl Ó‰ËÚÂθÌ˚È Ô‡‰ÂÊ Ì ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ of: ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ She hates giving parties. ÌÓ Ì ÏÓÂÈ ÎË Û˜ÍÓÈ Ú˚ Ô˯¯¸? ‡ ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to appreciate fi (‚˚ÒÓÍÓ) ˆÂÌËÚ¸ / to dread fi Ó˜Â̸ ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl / to fancy fi Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ (Ò·Â) / to hate fi ÌÂ̇‚ˉÂÚ¸ / to imagine fi Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ (Ò·Â) / to mind fi ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Ú¸ / to miss fi ÒÍÛ˜‡Ú¸ / to remember fi ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ / to recall fi ‚ÒÔÓÏË̇ڸ / to resent fi Ó·ËʇڸÒfl / to understand fi ÔÓÌËχڸ Ë ‰. 104. Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ò Ô‰ÎÓ„ÓÏ.. ¸ ӷ·‰‡ÂÚ Í‡Í Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË „·„Ó·. (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: „Ó‚ÓÂÌË (˜Â„Ó?) ÎÊË) John's wife doesn't approve of his loving politicians so much.fi å‰ÎÂÌÌÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛ‚¯ËÒ¸.Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·. Forgive / Pardon me (for) asking / Pardon my asking. Excuse my being late. ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â Í‡Í ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ. but isn't that my pen you're writing with?fi àÁ‚ËÌË. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ·Óθ¯Â Ì ˄‡ÂÏ ‚ ͇Ú˚ ÔÓ ‚˜Â‡Ï. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò Ì‡˜ËÂÏ: Turning slowly / Slowly turning he looked at us. ç attempted walking slowly.fi ÖÏÛ Ó˜Â̸ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. ‡ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ — ÔÂ‰ „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ: We appreciate them / their paying so much attention to that problem. ‰‡‚‡ÌË / ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡ÌË (˜Â„Ó?) ‚˜ÂËÌÓÍ) Telling lies is wrong.fi íÂÔÂ¸. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌË ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÎË Ì‡Ò ‚ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚÛ? 125 . Ó̇ ÒÍÛ˜‡ÂÚ ·ÂÁ ˝ÚÓ„Ó.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚ (ÏÂÌfl) Á‡ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÌËÂ..fi ÇÒ ӘÂ̸ ·ÓflÚÒfl.fi ü Ì ÁÌ‡Î Ó ÚÓÏ. (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: . Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl -ing. I cannot forbid you talking to that man.fi é̇ ÒÓʇÎÂÂÚ Ó ÚÓÏ. I cannot forbid your talking to that man. ÂÒÎË fl Ô‰ÎÓÊÛ Ç‡Ï ˜‡¯Â˜ÍÛ ÍÓÙÂ? She misses us / our playing cards in the evenings. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÒΠ„·„ÓÎÓ‚ to prevent / to forbid fi Á‡Ô¢‡Ú¸ (Ì ‰ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ). Would you mind me/my offering you a cup of coffee?fi Ç˚ Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Ú¸. èËÁ̇ÍË „ÂÛ̉Ëfl: ¸ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËÂÏ Í „·„ÓÎÛ -ing. Can you recall them / their meeting us at the airport?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÚ¸. ˜ÚÓ ÊË‚ÂÚ Ú‡Í ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ ÓÚ ÒÂϸË. ÓÌ ÔÓ-ÔÂÊÌÂÏÛ ‰ÛÏ‡Î Ó Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÊÂÌÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Û‰ÂÎfl˛Ú ÒÚÓθÍÓ ‚ÌËχÌËfl ˝ÚÓÈ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ó·ÓʇÂÚ ÔÓÎËÚËÍÓ‚. ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÓÔËÒ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ (˜‡˘Â Óڂ˜‡˛Ú ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í‡Í? Ë ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÓÒΠ„ÂÛ̉Ëfl): I didn't know about their coming back so early.fi é̇ ÌÂ̇‚ˉËÚ ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ‚˜ÂËÌÍË. ¸ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚÓflÚ¸ Ò ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌ˚Ï .fi éÌ ÔÓÔÓ·Ó‚‡Î ˉÚË Ï‰ÎÂÌÌÓ.fi ëÎÛ¯‡fl Ëı.fi ÜÂÌ ÑÊÓ̇ Ó˜Â̸ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. Fancy / Imagine him / his singing!fi íÓθÍÓ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚¸ Ò· — ÓÌ ÔÓÂÚ! ç hates anyone / anyone's disturbing him when he is working. (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: . ˜ÚÓ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Î.. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ. I don't remember the Browns / the Browns' having been to this restaurant before.fi ü Ì ÔÓÏÌ˛. ˜ÚÓ ‰ÂÎÓ ÔÂÂȉÂÚ Í É‡Ë. ¸ Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËfl / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ ‚ Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊ ÒÚÓflÚ ÔÂ‰ è˘‡ÒÚËÂÏ I (Ó·‡ÁÛfl Ó·˙ÂÍÚÌ˚È Ô˘‡ÒÚÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ). to excuse / to pardon / to forgive fi ËÁ‚ËÌflÚ¸ Ë ‰. Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËflÏË. ¸ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏ˚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·. Excuse me (for) being late. Ú‡Í Ë Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó.

's / smth. Can you lend me one?fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ Û˜ÍË. ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇ ÚÓ. Ì ‰ÂÎ‡È ˝ÚÓ„Ó. 106. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ó ÌÂÈ „Ó‚Ó˯¸. XI.fi One should not leave things in this room. don't do it. 114. for the sake of smb. ˜ÚÓ ÒÚÓflÚ Ò΂‡.. ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛˘ËÂÒfl -ing. She says that she is leaving for good. She is leaving for two days. for good fi ̇‚Ò„‰‡.fi One doesn't like to have one's word doubted. .. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı. åÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÂ‰ ËÏÂ̇ÏË Ë Ù‡ÏËÎËflÏË ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÌÂÍËÈ / ÌÂÍÚÓ: One (Mr. Ç ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ day Ë Ò Ì‡Á‚‡ÌËflÏË ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ ÒÛÚÓÍ (·ÂÁ ‡ÚËÍÎfl) ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl Ӊ̇ʉ˚: one day / morning / afternoon / evening / nightfi Ӊ̇ʉ˚ / Ӊ̇ʉ˚ ÛÚÓÏ / ‰ÌÂÏ /‚˜ÂÓÏ / ÌÓ˜¸˛ 110.fi — ëÍÓθÍÓ Û Ú·fl ‚ÂÏÂÌË? — ÇÒÂ„Ó Ó‰ËÌ ‰Â̸.fi ü ˜ËÚ‡˛ ÍÌË„Ë ‡‰Ë (‰Îfl) Û‰Ó‚ÓθÒÚ‚Ëfl.fi One can find anything here.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. àÏÂÂÚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‡ÁÌ˚ı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ (ÒÏ. 115. „‰Â ÌÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó. For all you say.) Fox called you.'s sake fi ‡‰Ë ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó. ëÎÓ‚‡. for she had something to tell me.fi é̇ ÔÓÔÓÒË· ÏÂÌfl Ì ÛıÓ‰ËÚ¸. Please. ‡‰Ë χÏ˚.fi ü β·Î˛ ÂÂ. Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. (ÒÏ. ˜ÚÓ ÛÂÁʇÂÚ Ì‡‚Ò„‰‡.fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ÍÌË„. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÔÓÏ¢ÂÌËË ÌÂθÁfl ÓÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ‚¢Ë.fi åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl. ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ Ó̇.fi ü ÏÓ„Û Ò‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ‡‰Ë Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÂϸË. for mother's sake. 1. ëÎÓ‚Ó one. he is unhappy. fi ‡‰Ë ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ë ‰. èÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È Ô‰ÎÓ„. 1. ÂÒÎË / ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚ Â„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ı ÒÓÏÌ‚‡˛ÚÒfl.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ÚÓ˜ÌÓ. 112. Do you understand him / his taking the money?fi í˚ ÔÓÌËχ¯¸. / smth. é·˚˜ÌÓ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚ ̇˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë ‚Ò„‰‡ ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓÒΠÁ‡ÔflÚÓÈ: She asked me not to leave. — How much time do you have? — I just have one day. ˜ÚÓ fl ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎÒfl Û ‚‡Ò. XII. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‰ËÌˈ‡. for my part. åÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: a row of ones fi fl‰ ‰ËÌˈ 107.. For my part. ÌÓ Î„ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. for my part fi óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÂÌfl.fi ü Ê‰Û Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡ / ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ‰‚Ûı ˜‡ÒÓ‚. åÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠ/ Ò ‡ÚËÍÎÂÏ / ‚ ÔËÚflʇÚÂθÌÓÏ Ô‡‰ÂÊÂ.fi é̇ „Ó‚ÓËÚ. ÓÌ ÌÂÒ˜‡ÒÚÎË‚.fi ùÚÓ ‰Îfl ‚‡Ò.fi é̇ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. I can only do it for the sake of my family. ì˜ËÚ¸Òfl ÌÛÊÌÓ ıÓÓ¯Ó. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ÔÓ‚ÚÓflÚ¸ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ¢ ‡Á (ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë): I've got lots of books. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÓ˛Á‡ ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇: For all his money. Ì Ëϲ˘Â ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó „‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl: interesting / wing / to cling Ë ‰. I have not a pen. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓÏ Ó·ÓÓÚÂ: It is impossible for her to help us. ÇÂÏÂÌÌÓÈ Ô‰ÎÓ„ ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË / ̇: I have been waiting here for two hours.fi é̇ ÛÂÁʇÂÚ Ì‡ ‰‚‡ ‰Ìfl. ëÎÓ‚‡¸) I cannot say for certain where she comes from.fi óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÂÌfl. 113. ëÎÓ‚Ó for. I read books for pleasure. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl (‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë Ó˜Â̸ ‰ÍÓ) ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÓ˛Á‡ ÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Ú‡Í Í‡Í / ÔÓÒÍÓθÍÛ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡Âχfl ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í Î˛·ÓÏÛ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÛ: á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ‚ÒÂ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‚Ó‰ËÏÓ„Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÛÒÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ (˜‡ÒÚÓ Ò ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË).fi çÂÒÏÓÚfl ̇ Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ı ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflı: for certain fi ̇‚ÂÌfl͇. What did you do that for?fi ᇘÂÏ Ú˚ ˝ÚÓ Ò‰Â·Î? 111. 109. í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÏÌ ӉÓÎÊËÚ¸ (Û˜ÍÛ)? 108. / I'm not sure of this.fi One must study well. çËÍÓÏÛ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. I'm not sure of this. ëÎÓ‚Ó-Á‡ÏÂÌËÚÂθ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó. 126 .fi Ç‡Ï Á‚ÓÌËÎ ÌÂÍËÈ / ÌÂÍÚÓ („ÓÒÔÓ‰ËÌ) îÓÍÒ. The best of them are the ones on the left. ëÎÓ‚‡¸): It is for you. Á‡˜ÂÏ ÓÌ ·ÂÂÚ ‰Â̸„Ë? 105. ë‡Ï˚ ÎÛ˜¯Ë (ÍÌË„Ë) ÚÂ. ˜ÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ. for smb. I love her. Ú‡Í Í‡Í ıÓÚ· ÏÌ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. (ÚÓ) fl ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ì ۂÂÂÌ.I think your sister resents me/my staying at yours. óËÒÎËÚÂθÌÓ ӉËÌ.

fi ùÚ‡ ÍÌË„‡ ÏÓfl. á‰ÂÒ¸ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ.fi ùÚÓ ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÛÊ Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ. Why don't you come to see it?fi ü ÊË‚Û ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‚ ÌÓ‚ÓÏ ‰ÓÏÂ. 119.fi He ÚÓ. ᇂÂ¯‡ÂÚ ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌ˚È Ó·ÓÓÚ. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ˝ÚÓÚ: This book is mine. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ˜ÎÂÌÓ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl ‚ ÛÒËÎËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ó·ÓÓÚ (íÂχ 5): It was my sister who brought these tickets. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÒÎÓ‚‡-Á‡ÏÂÌËÚÂÎfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ Ò ˆÂθ˛ ËÁ·Âʇڸ ÔÓ‚ÚÓ‡ (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔË Ò‡‚ÌÂÌËflı): Your car is better than that of my brother. 127 .XIII. It's not that he needs the money.fi àÏÂÌÌÓ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÂÏÒfl ͇ʉÓ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸Â.fi ùÚÓ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌ Ô˯ÂÎ. Ú‡ ÍÌË„‡ Ú‚Ófl. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ú‡Í / Ú‡ÍÓÈ / ‚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË (˜‡ÒÚÓ ÒÓ ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ all ‚ÔÂ‰Ë): I am not allowed to walk that far.fi It is cold here. ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÓÔflÚ¸ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ. 120. 117. The girl (that) you met yesterday wants to see you again. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ‚‚Ó‰ËÏÓ„Ó ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó ÔË ÔÂ‚Ӊ ̇ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ flÁ˚Í ÛÒÒÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ. ÍÓÚÓÓ Ô˯ÎÓ ‚˜Â‡.fi ùÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌÓ. It isn't all that hot.fi ü ·˚Π̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ. I didn't know that. 123. èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ·˚ Ú· Ì ÔËÂı‡Ú¸ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ „Ó? XIV. ëÓ˛Á ÍÓÚÓ˚È.fi ÇÓÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ï˚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎËÒ¸. It is here that we meet every Sunday. åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ˝ÚÓ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ΄ÍÓ Û„‡‰˚‚‡˛˘ËıÒfl ‚ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚ Ô‰ÏÂÚÓ‚ ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: This book is really interesting but I have no time to read it. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÏ˚È ‰Îfl ‚˚‰ÂÎÂÌËfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌ˚ı ˜ÎÂÌÓ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: It is here that we met for the first time. that book is yours. I live in a new house now. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÏÓ„ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â.fi LJÊÌÓ.fi ü Û‚ÂÂÌ. Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡fl ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ Ò ÔÂ‚ӉÓÏ: It is very important.fi ùÚÓ ÏÓfl ÒÂÒÚ‡ ÔËÌÂÒ· ·ËÎÂÚ˚. 118. Ç˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÙÛÌ͈ËË ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË.fi He Ú‡Í ÛÊ Ë Ê‡ÍÓ (Í‡Í Ï˚ ‰ÛχÎË). „‰Â ÌÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â„Ó Ë Ò͇ÁÛÂÏÓ„Ó: ëÂȘ‡Ò ÔflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚.fi Ñ‚ۯ͇. 1.fi é·˙flÒÌË ˝ÚÓ. I was that tired I couldn't help you.fi ü Ì Á̇Π˝ÚÓ„Ó. please.fi åÌ Ì ‡Á¯‡˛Ú ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ú‡Í ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ. 122. Ò ÍÓÚÓÓÈ Ú˚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎÒfl ‚˜Â‡. 116. ˜ÂÏ (χ¯Ë̇) Û ÏÓÂ„Ó ·‡Ú‡. ëÓ˛Á ˜ÚÓ / ˜ÚÓ·˚. ëÎÓ‚Ó it. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÂÏÛ Ó˜Â̸ ÛÊ ÌÛÊÌ˚ ·˚ÎË ˝ÚË ‰Â̸„Ë. It isn't as interesting as all that. ì͇Á‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ÚÓÚ / Ú‡ / ÚÓ. Explain it. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl: I am sure (that) he will come. ëÎÓ‚Ó that. 121. ÌÓ Û ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ ÂÂ. . It is important (that) he should come.fi ùÚ‡ ÍÌË„‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ËÌÚÂÂÒ̇fl.fi It is five o'clock. 1. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl: This is the letter that came yesterday. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi í‚Ófl χ¯Ë̇ ÎÛ˜¯Â. (˜ÚÓ) ÓÌ ÔˉÂÚ.

outside fi ̇ ÛÎˈ (Ò̇ÛÊË/Á‡ Ô‰Â·ÏË Á‰‡ÌËfl): Wait here until they come outside. I work in Gogol Street. ÑÓÏ / ‰ÓÏÓÈ / ‰Óχ. I live at 46 Gorky Street.fi å˚ ÊË‚ÂÏ ‚ ‰‚Ûı˝Ú‡ÊÌÓÏ ‰ÓÏÂ. ëÎÓ‚‡¸).fi ç‡ ÛÎˈ (ÂÒÚ¸) ÔÓÎˈÂÈÒ͇fl χ¯Ë̇.fi ü ÊË‚Û Ì‡ ÛÎˈ ÉÓ¸ÍÓ„Ó.fi ç‡¯Ë ‰ÂÚË ˜‡ÒÚÓ Ë„‡˛Ú ̇ . / He is out. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ӉÌËı Ë ÚÂı Ê (ËÎË ÒıÓÊËı ÔÓ ÙÓÏÂ) ÒÎÓ‚ Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ (·ÓΠÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ — ÒÏ.fi ç‡ ÛÎËˆÛ Ì ıÓ‰Ë. „‰Â ÊË‚ÂÚ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌ˚È ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ): I left home at the age of 16.fi — í‚ÓÈ ÓÚˆ ‰Óχ? — ч. Í‡Í ‰Óχ.fi å˚ Ì ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÏ Ò·fl Á‰ÂÒ¸. Don't go outside. ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌÓ ‰Îfl ÒÔˆˇθÌ˚ı ˆÂÎÂÈ: madhouse fi ÒÛχү‰¯ËÈ ‰ÓÏ / henhouse fi ÍÛflÚÌËÍ to house fi ÛÒÚÓËÚ¸ ̇ ÌӘ΄ / ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ ÔÓÊË‚‡ÌËÂ: Can you house us for a week?fi å˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl Û ‚‡Ò ̇ ̉Âβ? 128 . he is in. ÛÎˈÂ. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ‡Á‰ÂΠ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÎÓ‚ Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËÈ Ó‰Ë̇ÍÓ‚˚ı (ËÎË Ó˜Â̸ ÔÓıÓÊËı) ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ. house fi ÒÚÓÂÌË / Á‰‡ÌËÂ. (‚ÂÒ¸ ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊËÚ Ì‡Ï) We live in a nine-storeyed block of flats. / No. at home fi ‰Óχ: Is your father at home?fi í‚ÓÈ ÓÚˆ ‰Óχ? Make yourself at home. (‚ÌÛÚË) We live in a new two-storeyed (‡ÏÂ.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ë‰ÚË (‰ÓÏÓÈ). Is your father in?fi (Á‚ÓÌÓÍ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ ‚ ÓÙËÒ) í‚ÓÈ ÓÚˆ ̇ ÏÂÒÚ / ‚ ÓÙËÒÂ? (ÂÒÎË ÓÚˆ Ë Ò˚Ì ‡·ÓÚ‡˛Ú ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ) to go / to come / to be (back) home fi Âı‡Ú¸ / ˉÚË / ÓÚÔ‡‚ÎflÚ¸Òfl / ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ (‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡Ú¸Òfl) ‰ÓÏÓÈ: When will you come / be back home?fi äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ‚Â̯¸Òfl (‰ÓÏÓÈ)? I have to go home.fi Ü‰Ë Á‰ÂÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ ˜¸ ˉÂÚ Ó ‰ÓÏÂ): — Is your father in? — Yes. Our children often play outside. Í‡Í ‰Óχ. in the street („‰Â street fi ‰ÓÓ„‡ ‚ ̇ÒÂÎÂÌÌÓÏ ÔÛÌÍÚÂ. ‚‰Óθ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌ˚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÒÚÓÂÌËfl): There is a police car in the street. ÓÌ ‚ ‰ÓÏÂ. he is not in. children's home fi ‰ÂÚÒÍËÈ ‰ÓÏ. home fi ÊËÎˢ (β·Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ.fi ü ÊË‚Û ‚ ‰ÓÏ 46 ÔÓ ÛÎˈ ÉÓ¸ÍÓ„Ó.fi ü ÔÓÒÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎ Ëı ̇ ÛÎˈÂ. he is in the house.fi å˚ ÊË‚ÂÏ ‚ ‰Â‚flÚ˽ڇÊÌÓÏ (ÏÌÓ„ÓÍ‚‡ÚËÌÓÏ) ‰ÓÏÂ. I just met them in the street.fi ê‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÈÒfl. ç‡ ÛÎˈÂ. „‰Â Ûı‡ÊË‚‡˛Ú Á‡ ‰Û„ËÏË Î˛‰¸ÏË: holiday / rest home fi ‰ÓÏ ÓÚ‰˚ı‡. Ô‰̇Á̇˜ÂÌ̇fl ‰Îfl ‰‚ËÊÂÌËfl β‰ÂÈ / Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ‡. I live in Gorky Street. Is it cold outside?fi ç‡ ÛÎˈ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ? 2. to be in / out fi ·˚Ú¸ ‰Óχ / Ì ·˚Ú¸ ‰Óχ (ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ ÔÓ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚÛ. home fi ÏÂÒÚÓ. ÔÓ͇ ÓÌË Ì ‚˚ȉÛÚ (̇ ÛÎˈÛ).fi ü ÔÓÍËÌÛÎ ‰ÓÏ ‚ 16 ÎÂÚ.ê‡Á‰ÂÎ IV. We can't feel at home here. 1.fi (Á‚ÓÌÓÍ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ ‚ ‰ÓÏ / Í‚‡ÚËÛ) — í‚ÓÈ ÓÚˆ ‰Óχ? — ч / çÂÚ.fi ü ‡·ÓÚ‡˛ /åÓfl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ ÛÎˈ ÉÓ„ÓÎfl.: — storied) house. old people's home fi ‰ÓÏ ÔÂÒÚ‡ÂÎ˚ı house fi ‰ÓÏ (Á‰‡ÌË / ÒÚÓÂÌËÂ): —Is your father at home? — Yes.

fi ü ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ Ò ÌËÏË. to make smb.fi èËflÚÌÓ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò Ç‡ÏË. (to smb. We are old acquaintances.fi ü ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ Ò ÌËÏ.fi é̇ ·˚· Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇ÍÓχ Ò ÌËÏË. fi (Ó)Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / (Ó)Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: Will you acquaint him with the facts of the case.fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚÂ.fi ч‚‡ÈÚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÏÒfl. to acquaint smb. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎÒfl Ò ÏÓÂÈ Ì‚ÂÒÚÓÈ. fl Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚β Ç‡Ï Ò‚Ó˛ ÊÂÌÛ.fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl.fi å˚ ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚.fi å˚. to smth.fi ÅÛ‰¸Ú β·ÂÁÌ˚. I don't want to get acquainted with him.fi ü Á̇˛ Â„Ó Ò ‚ˉÛ. She was very well acquainted with them. / é̇ Á̇· Ëı Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó. to introduce smb. fl ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏβ Ú·fl ÒÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÊÂÌÓÈ. ç has a wide circle of acquaintances.fi èÓÁ̇ÍÓϸÚÂÒ¸ Ò ÏÓËÏ ÏÛÊÂÏ — ÑÊÓÌ.fi å˚ ÒÚ‡˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Â. I don't think we've been introduced.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. ÌÓ ÔË ·ÓΠ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â ‚˚flÒÌËÎÓÒ¸. ÌÓ Ï˚ ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚.) fi Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl (Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): Have we met (before)?fi å˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚? We haven't met before. / àÏ ·˚· ÌÂËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇ ̇ÒÚÓfl˘‡fl Ô˘Ë̇ ‡Á‚Ó‰‡. (I am) Pleased to meet you.) fi ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl (Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): Let's get acquainted.fi ü ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó Á̇ÍÓÏ Ò ÌÂÈ.3. I am not acquainted with him.fi éÌË ·˚ÎË ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚ Ò ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÈ Ô˘ËÌÓÈ ‡Á‚Ó‰‡. / å˚ ‰‡‚ÌÓ Á̇ÂÏ ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡.) fi ·˚Ú¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï (Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): We are not acquainted. fi ·˚Ú¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï (ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚÌÓ) Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I have some little acquaintance with medicine. á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸(Òfl) / ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl) / Á̇ÍÓÏ˚È / Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Ó. fi ·˚Ú¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï / Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: They were not acquainted with the real reason for the divorce. Do you have any acquaintance with this car / model?fi í˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ Ò ˝ÚËÏ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎÂÏ? / í˚ Á̇¯¸ ˝ÚÛ ÏÓ‰Âθ? a nodding acquaintance with smb./smth. Let me introduce my wife to you. ͇ÊÂÚÒfl. fi Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: 129 .fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÌËÏ. to meet (smb.'s acquaintance / the acquaintance of smb.fi ëÍÓÓ ‚‡Ò ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏflÚ Ò Ô·ÌÓÏ.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÒÔÓÒËÚ¸  ӷ ˝ÚÓÏ — Ó̇ ‚ÒÂ„Ó Î˯¸ (ÏÓfl) Á̇ÍÓχfl. to get / to become acquainted (with smb. acquaintance fi Á̇ÍÓÏ˚È (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ): I can't ask her about it — she's only an acquaintance. / ì ÌÂ„Ó ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÁÌ˚ı Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ı. Let me introduce you to my wife. but he appeared to be on our side on/upon further acquaintance.fi éÌË ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎËÒ¸ ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ. / ü ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ Ò Ëı ‡·ÓÚÓÈ.fi èÓ̇˜‡ÎÛ Â„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í ˝ÚÓÈ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ ͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸ ÌÂflÒÌ˚Ï.fi ü ÌÂÏÌÓÊÍÓ Á̇ÍÓÏ Ò Ï‰ˈËÌÓÈ. fi ¯‡ÔÓ˜ÌÓ / ÔÓ‚ÂıÌÓÒÚÌÓ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Ó Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I have no more than a nodding acquaintance with them / with their work. Wouldn't you like to acquaint yourself with your new duties?fi ê‡Á‚ ‚‡Ï Ì ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl ÒÓ Ò‚ÓËÏË ÌÓ‚˚ÏË Ó·flÁ‡ÌÌÓÒÚflÏË? to be / to become acquainted with smth. to introduce smb.fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ¯ËÓÍËÈ ÍÛ„ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚. / oneself with smth. You will soon become fully acquainted with the plan.fi ч‚‡È. on/upon further acquaintance fi ÔË ‰‡Î¸ÌÂȯÂÏ / ·ÓΠ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â: His attitude towards this problem seemed unclear first. They became / got acquainted last month. to have acquaintance with smth. ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚. / å˚ Ì Á̇ÂÏ ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡. I'm slightly acquainted with her. to be acquainted (with smb. Meet my husband John.) fi ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸ / Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó): Allow me to introduce myself. but we've never met. I know him by sight.fi å˚ ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚. fi ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: Where / When did you first make their acquaintance?fi ɉ / äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ‚ÔÂ‚˚ ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎÒfl / ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎÒfl Ò ÌËÏË? I want you to make the acquaintance of my fiancee. ÓÁ̇ÍÓϸÚÂ Â„Ó Ò Ù‡ÍÚ‡ÏË ÔÓ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‰ÂÎÛ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì‡ ̇¯ÂÈ ÒÚÓÓÌÂ.

fi é̇ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ Ó˜Â̸ „ÓÏÍÓ.fi ü Ì Á̇˛ „Ó..fi éÌ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ. to cheat smb. Roughly speaking. fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó ÔӄӉ / ·ËÁÌÂÒ / ‡·ÓÚ / . ë͇Á‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸. / ü ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ Ò ÌËÏ. to be familiar (to smb. ç is talking too much.. to say smth.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËflı so to speak fi Ú‡Í Ò͇Á‡Ú¸. please.: You are talking shop too much. Ú‡Í Ò͇Á‡Ú¸.fi í˚ Ì ۄӂÓ˯¸ ÏÂÌfl ÔÓÈÚË ÚÛ‰‡. She talked him out of buying that car. Do you know the plan well?fi í˚ ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇¯¸ Ô·Ì? / í˚ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÎÒfl Ò Ô·ÌÓÏ? to be familiar with smth. to know smb. to talk smb. I had a serious talk with my daughter. so to speak. fi Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ӷχÌÓÏ Ò‰Â·ڸ / Ì ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓÎË·Ó: She cheated me out of buying that ear. 4.) fi ·˚Ú¸ ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: Her face is very familiar (to me) but I can't remember her name. I'd like to speak to / with you.fi é̇ ӷχÌÓÏ Á‡ÒÚ‡‚Ë· ÏÂÌfl ÓÚ͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ÓÚ ÔÓÍÛÔÍË ˝ÚÓÈ Ï‡¯ËÌ˚. ÂÒÎË Ê ÍÓÏÛ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. to Speak (to / with smb.fi éÌ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó „Ó‚ÓËÚ. fi ÓÚ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ò‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: You won't talk me into going there. fi Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÔÓ‰ ̇ÊËÏÓÏ Ò‰Â·ڸ / Ì ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.. to force smb. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ / „ÛÎflÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: You are talking too loudly. ÚÓ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ to: ç says nothing. fi Á̇ڸ / ·˚Ú¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I don't know him. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ / „ÛÎflÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: Do you speak English?fi Ç˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË? ç is speaking on the phone..fi í˚ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Â¯¸ / „Ó‚Ó˯¸ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ „ÓÏÍÓ.. talk fi ‡Á„Ó‚Ó / ·ÂÒ‰‡: No shop talk. into / out of doing smth. 130 . ÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ó ‡·ÓÚÂ.) fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ (Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó). to talk (to / with smb..fi é̇ ÓÚ„Ó‚ÓË· Â„Ó ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÛ Ï‡¯ËÌÛ. àÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ̇ ͇ÍÛ˛-ÎË·Ó ÚÂÏÛ: to talk weather / business / shop / .fi Ç˚ Ì ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔËÛ˜‡Ú¸ Â„Ó Í ÒÔËÚÌÓÏÛ (Á̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸ Ò ‡ÎÍÓ„ÓÎÂÏ).) fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ / ·ÂÒ‰ӂ‡Ú¸ (Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó). ÔÓÒΠto say Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ. fi ·˚Ú¸ ıÓÓ¯Ó Á̇ÍÓÏ˚Ï Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I don't know whether he is familiar with this technology. She speaks very loudly. We've known each other since we were children.) fi Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó (ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó). out of doing smth. ÌÓ fl Ì ÏÓ„Û ‚ÒÔÓÏÌËÚ¸  ËÏfl. the familiar story / sight / voice / . (to smb.fi å˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ / Á̇ÂÏ ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡ Ò ‰ÂÚÒÚ‚‡.fi í˚ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ó „Ó‚Ó˯¸ Ó ‡·ÓÚÂ.fi Ö ÎËˆÓ ÏÌ ӘÂ̸ Á̇ÍÓÏÓ. fi Û„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ò‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. fi Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÒËÎÓÈ Ò‰Â·ڸ / Ì ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ó‰ÌÓ‡ÁÓ‚Ó / (ÂÊÂ) „ÛÎflÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. into / out of doing smth. I'd like to talk with / to you.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ..fi éÌ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Â· Í‡ÒË‚ÓÈ Í‡Ê‰˚È ‰Â̸.Shall I introduce him to our plan?fi èÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸ Â„Ó Ò Ì‡¯ËÏ Ô·ÌÓÏ? / ê‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ Ó Ì‡¯ÂÏ Ô·ÌÂ? You shouldn't introduce him to alcohol. I do not like him at all.fi ü ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÓ ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÎ / ü ËÏÂÎ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌ˚È ‡Á„Ó‚Ó Ò ‰Ó˜Â¸˛. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ËÌÓ„‰‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ „·„Ó· to talk ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈Ëflı ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‰Û„Ë „·„ÓÎ˚: to press smb. fi Á̇ÍÓχfl ËÒÚÓËfl / Á̇ÍÓÏ˚È ‚ˉ / „ÓÎÓÒ / . Á̇ÍÓÏ ÎË ÓÌ Ò ˝ÚÓÈ ÚÂıÌÓÎÓ„ËÂÈ. into doing smth. into /out of doing smth.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi ü Ì Á̇˛. ÓÌ ÏÌ ‚Ó‚Ò Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. to talk smb. / smth.fi ÉÛ·Ó „Ó‚Ófl.. strictly / generally / roughly speaking fi ÒÚÓ„Ó / ‚ÓÓ·˘Â / „Û·Ó „Ó‚Ófl: I want you to look beautiful every day.

Û˜ËÚ¸ / ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ / ˆÂÎÛ˛ ̇ÛÍÛ: She studies medicine. to teach smb. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ: . / smth. ç said that I should not worry. she didn't learn their address. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ Â„Ó Ì‡ËÁÛÒÚ¸. . to learn fi Û˜ËÚ¸ / ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸. ç is told not to smoke.fi ùÚÓ ÒÚËıÓÚ‚ÓÂÌË ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÚÛ‰ÌÓÂ.fi éÌ Û˜ËÚÒfl ‚ ωˈËÌÒÍÓÏ ÍÓÎΉÊÂ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ì ÍÛËÚ.fi åÓË ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌËfl ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡˛Ú.fi ÉÓ‚ÓflÚ. . ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl Ì ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÎÒfl. . ˜ÚÓ fl ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Ô‡Â̸. She said (that) I am a good boy.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸.): They are studying the map. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ó‰ÌÓ‡ÁÓ‚Ó / (ÂÊÂ) „ÛÎflÌÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. to tell smb. to study fi Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl / ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸.fi éÌ Ò͇Á‡Î ÏÌ Ì ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl.fi Ö„Ó Í‡·ËÌÂÚ Ì‡‚ÂıÛ. ˜ÚÓ fl ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Ô‡Â̸. fi Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ Ô‡‚.fi é̇ Û˜ËÚÒfl Ô·‚‡Ú¸.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸. ç told (us) the truth. ç learns how to ride a horse..Û˜ËÚ¸Òfl ‚ ۘ·ÌÓÏ Á‡‚‰ÂÌËË: ç studies at the medical college. 5. She studies the origin of light. smth..fi éÌ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î (̇Ï) ‚Ò˛ Ô‡‚‰Û.fi éÌ Û˜ËÚÒfl ‚ÂıÓ‚ÓÈ ÂÁ‰Â. ì˜ËÚ¸Òfl / Û˜ËÚ¸ / ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸. to learn by heart fi ‚˚Û˜ËÚ¸ / Û˜ËÚ¸ ̇ËÁÛÒÚ¸: This poem is too difficult to learn by heart.fi é̇ Ò͇Á‡Î‡ ÏÓÂÈ Ï‡ÚÂË. She told my mother that I am a good boy. 'Don't worry.fi éÌË Û˜‡ÚÒfl ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ χ¯ËÌÛ. she didn't know their address.ç says nothing to me. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ: . Ç Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ.fi éÌË Ì ÛÁ̇ÎË ÏÌÓ„Ó ÓÚ Ì„Ó. I'am afraid. to tell Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl : ç is said not to smoke. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÒΉÛÂÚ ‡Á΢‡Ú¸ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl to learn fi ÔËÓ·ÂÒÚË ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ / ÛÁ̇ڸ Ë to know fi ÛÊ ËÏÂÚ¸ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛ / Á̇ڸ: I'm afraid.fi éÌ Ò͇Á‡Î: "ç ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl.fi é̇ Ò͇Á‡Î‡. fi Û˜ËÚ¸ / Ó·Û˜‡Ú¸ / ÔÂÔÓ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: 131 . ËÎË to say (ÂÒÎË ÌÂÚ ÍÓÏÛ): ç told me not to worry.fi é̇ ËÁÛ˜‡ÂÚ ÔÓËÒıÓʉÂÌË ҂ÂÚ‡.fi ü Û˜Û ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ÔÓ ‚ÓÒÍÂÒÂ̸flÏ. My studies show that he is right. Ô‰ÎÓ„ to Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: ç likes to tell long stories. They learn how to drive a car. Ó̇ Ì Á̇· Ëı ‡‰ÂÒ. ˜ÚÓ fl ıÓÓ¯ËÈ Ô‡Â̸.ËÁÛ˜‡Ú¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó (Ô‰ÏÂÚ / ÏÂÒÚÌÓÒÚ¸ / fl‚ÎÂÌË / .. ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÎÓ„ to Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl: ç tells me nothing. She said to my mother that I am a good boy.fi éÌË ËÁÛ˜‡˛Ú ͇ÚÛ. èËϘ‡ÌËfl: ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÔflÏÓÈ Â˜Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ to say: ç said.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò Ó̇ Û˜ËÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ.fi é̇ Ò͇Á‡Î‡ ÏÓÂÈ Ï‡ÚÂË.Û˜ËÚ¸(Òfl) / ÔËÓ·ÂÚ‡Ú¸ Á̇ÌËfl / ̇‚˚ÍË (‚ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í / Ë„ ̇ „ËÚ‡ / .ÛÁ̇ڸ / ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ËÌÙÓχˆË˛: I haven't learnt / learned his phone number. They didn't learn much from him..fi éÌ Î˛·ËÚ ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ËÒÚÓËË.fi ÖÏÛ Ò͇Á‡ÎË Ì ÍÛËÚ¸. She learns to swim. ÔÓÒΠto tell ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ / „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏÛ.): I team English on Sundays. Ó̇ Ì ÛÁ̇· Ëı ‡‰ÂÒ.fi éÌ Ò͇Á‡Î. .fi é̇ ËÁÛ˜‡ÂÚ Ï‰ˈËÌÛ.·˚Ú¸ Á‡ÌflÚ˚Ï ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ÍÓÈ: She is learning English now." ÔË ÔÂÂÒ͇Á ÔflÏÓÈ Â˜Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl to tell (ÂÒÎË ÂÒÚ¸ ÍÓÏÛ).fi éÌ ÌË˜Â„Ó ÏÌ Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ.fi éÌ çË˜Â„Ó Ì „Ó‚ÓËÚ ÏÌÂ. to say ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒÛ·˙ÂÍÚÌÓÏ ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÌÓÏ Ó·ÓÓÚÂ. study fi ͇·ËÌÂÚ / ËÁÛ˜ÂÌË / ËÒÒΉӂ‡ÌËÂ: His study is upstairs.fi ü Ì ÛÁ̇ΠÌÓÏÂ Â„Ó ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇.

(up) at / in fi ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó to (tele)phone smb.fi ü ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ Á‡Í‡Á‡Ú¸ ‡Á„Ó‚Ó Ò ‰Û„ËÏ „ÓÓ‰ÓÏ.fi í˚ ÒÎ˚¯‡Î.fi é̇ Á‡ıӉ˷ Á‡ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÙÓÚÓ‡ÔÔ‡‡ÚÓÏ.ç is teaching English at school. ÌÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÓÚÁ˚‚‡ÎÒfl.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. Ô‰ÎÓ„ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ: I want to call the enquiry office / the inquiries. She is teaching the guitar to children. ÌÓ Ì Û͇Á‡ÌÓ ÍÓÏÛ.fi éÌ ÔÂÔÓ‰‡ÂÚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍËÈ ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÂ.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú· ‚ ÓÙËÒ.fi áÓ‚Ë ÏÂÌfl / é·‡˘‡ÈÒfl ÍÓ ÏÌ ÔÓÒÚÓ "é΄".fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ Ô‡‡ÎÎÂθÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇. ç called to me for help.fi é̇ Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. Shall I call you a taxi? / Shall I call a taxi for you?fi Ç˚Á‚‡Ú¸ Ú· ڇÍÒË? to call for smth.) back fi ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ / ÔÂÂÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á / ÔÓÁÊÂ: I'll call (you) back. Just call me Oleg. 6.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ‚ ÒÔ‡‚Ó˜ÌÛ˛.fi é̇ Ó·Û˜‡ÂÚ ‰ÂÚÂÈ Ë„ ̇ „ËÚ‡Â. to call (smb. to call for smb. I'll ring you (up) in London. (up) at / in fi ‚ ÓÙËÒ / ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ / to give smb. to call fi Á‚‡Ú¸ / ̇Á˚‚‡Ú¸: Did you hear what he called me? He called me a liar.fi é̇ ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. telephone directory / phone book (‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ÙÓχ) fi ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚È ÒÔ‡‚Ó˜ÌËÍ.fi ü Á‡È‰Û Á‡ ÚÓ·ÓÈ ‚ ÔÓÎÓ‚ËÌ ¯ÂÒÚÓ„Ó. Í‡Í Ô·‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓÈ ‚Ó‰Â. to call (to smb.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú· Á‡‚Ú‡. May / Can I use your (tele)phone?fi åÓ„Û fl ÓÚ ‚‡Ò ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸? You are wanted on the (tele)phone. íÂÎÂÙÓÌ / Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. to call fi ‚˚Á˚‚‡Ú¸ (ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ): Please call a doctor. That will teach you not to swim in cold water. fi Á‡ÈÚË Ì‡ ÍÓÓÚÍÓ ‚ÂÏfl /Á‡·Âʇڸ Á‡ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: She called for her camera. to make a long-distance (telephone) call fi Á‡Í‡Á‡Ú¸ ÏÂʉۄÓÓ‰Ì˚È / ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚È ‡Á„Ó‚Ó / Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ „ÓÓ‰ / ÒÚ‡ÌÛ: I'd like to make a long-distance call. To call. a call / ring at / in fi ‰ÓÏÓÈ / ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ „ÓÓ‰: I'll call you (up) tomorrow. She is making a call.fi Åۉ¯¸ Á̇ڸ.fi í·fl Í ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. to call smb.fi ü ÔÂÂÁ‚ÓÌ˛ (Ú·Â) ÔÓÁÊ / ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á. (up) at / in fi ÍÛ‰‡-ÎË·Ó to ring smb. to be / to speak on the telephone fi „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ: She is (speaking) on the (tele)phone now.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸. telephone — ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÙÓÏ phone fi ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ: telephone booth / phone booth / phone-box / public telephone / call-box fi ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ-‡‚ÚÓÏ‡Ú / ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ̇fl ·Û‰Í‡. ‚˚ÁÓ‚ËÚ ‚‡˜‡. fi Á‡ÈÚË Á‡ ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó (˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ÏÂÒÚ ˉÚË): I'll call for you at half past 5. ÖÒÎË Û͇Á‡ÌÓ ÍÛ‰‡ Á‚ÓÌËÚ¸.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú· ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ.) fi Á‚‡Ú¸ / Í˘‡Ú¸ (˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô˂Θ¸ ‚ÌËχÌËÂ): She called and called but nobody answered. 132 .fi é̇ Í˘‡Î‡ Ë Í˘‡Î‡. to make a (telephone) call fi ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ (ÂÒÎË Ì Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓÏÛ): I have to make a call. 7. a party line fi Ô‡‡ÎÎÂθÌ˚È ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ: I don't have a party line. Í‡Í ÓÌ Ì‡Á‚‡Î ÏÂÌfl? éÌ Ì‡Á‚‡Î ÏÂÌfl ÎʈÓÏ.fi éÌ ÔÓÁ‚‡Î ÏÂÌfl ̇ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. I'll phone you (up) at the office.

/ ÖÈ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ë‰ÚË. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ Á‡ÈÚË ‚ ·‡ÌÍ. Could you call by on your way to the office?fi í˚ Ì ÏÓ„ ·˚ Á‡ÈÚË (ÍÓ ÏÌÂ) ÔÓ ‰ÓÓ„Â ‚ ÓÙËÒ? Will you call by at the shop on the way home. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ó̇ ·ÓÒË· ÍÛËÚ¸.fi é̇ Á‡ıӉ˷ ÚÓθÍÓ. to call on / upon smb.fi í·fl Ì ·˚ÎÓ. ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÙÓÏ˚ to have got to. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ÔÓ‰ÂÏ ÚÛ‰‡? to call by (at some place) fi Á‡ÈÚË ÌÂ̇‰ÓÎ„Ó / Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ (ÔÓ ‰ÓÓ„Â): We called by to -thank you.fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÛ‰‡ ÔÓÂÁ‰ÓÏ.fi é̇ Ӊ‚‡ÂÚÒfl. to call (in / round) (on smb. fi ÔËÁ˚‚‡Ú¸ / Ú·ӂ‡Ú¸ /Ô˄·¯‡Ú¸ ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Call upon / on her to stop smoking.fi é̇ Ì β·ËÚ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ ‡ÌÓ. to call back fi ÔËÈÚË (ÓÔflÚ¸) ÔÓÁÊ / ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á: We'll call back later. at fi Á‡ÈÚË Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ÍÛ‰‡-ÎË·Ó: I have to call on John at the office. to get tired fi ÛÒÚ‡Ú¸ Ë ‰.¤ She has to leave. ˜‡¯Â˜ÍÛ ÍÓÙÂ. to call on smb. You don't have to get breakfast for me. ÔËÌÂÒË / ÔÓ‰‡È ÏÌ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÌ˚ ÚÛÙÎË. ÒÚ‡Ú¸ (ÔÂÂÈÚË ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ‚ ‰Û„ÓÂ): to get dressed fi Ó‰ÂÚ¸Òfl. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl. ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÏÓÒÚË Ò ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË Ë ‰Û„ËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË). fi ÔËÁ˚‚‡Ú¸ Í ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: ç calls for peace.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á‡·Âʇڸ Í ê‡ÒÒ·Ï. ‚ χ„‡ÁËÌ ÔÓ ‰ÓÓ„Â ‰ÓÏÓÈ.fi á‡È‰Ë. I have to call (in) on the Russels.'s fi Á‡ÈÚË ÌÂ̇‰ÓÎ„Ó ÍÛ‰‡-ÎË·Ó / Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: I'd like to call (in) at the bank. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛Ú Á‡ to get.to call (in) at some place / at smb.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ χ¯Ë̇.¤ I've got a car.fi é̇ ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ˉÚË. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÔËıӉ˷ (Í Ú·Â). ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ͇ÍËÏ-ÎË·Ó ‚ˉÓÏ Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ‡: Why didn't you want to get a plane to London?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì Á‡ıÓÚÂÎ ÎÂÚÂÚ¸ Ò‡ÏÓÎÂÚÓÏ ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ? You can get a train there. Do you think we should call at Richard's when we go there?fi í˚ ‰Ûχ¯¸ Ì‡Ï ÒÚÓËÚ Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ Í ê˘‡‰Û.fi å˚ Á‡¯ÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Ôӷ·„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ ‚‡Ò. to call for smth. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÔÓÒËÚ¸ Ó Ò‚ÓÂÏ Ò˚ÌÂ.fi éÌ ÔËÁ˚‚‡ÂÚ Í ÏËÛ. Ç Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ó·˘ÂÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχÂÚÒfl Í‡Í ÒÓ‚Â¯‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ. You were out when she called (in / round) to see you. She is getting dressed. ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË / (˜‡ÒÚÓ: ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ÍÛ‰‡-ÎË·Ó Ë ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó/˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): Get a doctor!fi è˂‰ËÚ ‚‡˜‡! Can I get you anything?fi í· ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË? Shall I get them from the airport?fi èË‚ÂÁÚË Ëı ËÁ ‡˝ÓÔÓÚ‡? Please get my slippers for me. 133 . é‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í „·„ÓÎÓ‚ (‚ ÓÒÌÓ‚ÌÓÏ. To get. 8.fi å˚ Á‡È‰ÂÏ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á / ÔÓÁÊÂ.¤ She must leave. to get lost fi Á‡·ÎÛ‰ËÚ¸Òfl.fi éÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ Á‡ıÏÂÎÂÎ (ÒڇΠԸflÌ˚Ï). He got drunk very quickly.fi èË„ÓÚÓ‚¸ ÏÌÂ. „‰Â Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl (¤ to have): I have a car. „‰Â Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl (¤ to have to ¤ must): She has got to leave. ÔË„ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸ (ÔˢÛ): Can I get you a drink / get a drink for you?fi Ç˚Ը¯¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸? Would you get me a cup of coffee. ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl (ÔÓÔ‡ÒÚ¸ ‚ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ): How do / How can I get there?fi ä‡Í ÏÌ ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl ÚÛ‰‡? What time will you get home?fi äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ ‰Óχ (‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ˜‡ÒÛ Ú˚ ‰Ó·Â¯¸Òfl ‰ÓÏÓÈ)? She doesn't like to get to work early. ‰Û„Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl ÓÔ‰ÂÎfl˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÚÂÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï. / í‡Ï Ú˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÒÂÒÚ¸ ̇ ÔÓÂÁ‰.fi í· Ì ӷflÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸ ÏÌ Á‡‚Ú‡Í. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl to get: ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ ÙÓÏ˚ to have got.) fi Á‡ÈÚË Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ÌÂ̇‰ÓÎ„Ó / Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸: She only called to ask about her son. to do smth.fi èÓÚ·ÛÈ. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á‡ÈÚË ‚ ÓÙËÒ Í ÑÊÓÌÛ.

— Didn't you hear a noise outside? — I'll get it.fi í˚ ÒÍÓÓ ÔÓÔ‡‚˯¸Òfl (Òڇ̯¸ Á‰ÓÓ‚˚Ï). ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚÒfl 42. to get smb.fi ü ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓ„Û ÔË‚˚ÍÌÛÚ¸ (ÒÚ‡Ú¸ ÔË‚˚ͯËÏ) Í Ú‚ÓËÏ Ï‡ÌÂ‡Ï. ß ß ß ß to go Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÛıÛ‰¯ÂÌË ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl / ËÁÏÂÌÂÌË ˆ‚ÂÚ‡: I don't want you to go mad because of that. — !'!i get it.fi é̇ ÔÓÒÚۉ˷Ҹ.fi äÓ„‰‡ Ú˚ ÛÁ̇¯¸  ÔÓ·ÎËÊÂ. Why don't you get the cooker cleaned?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ÔÓ˜ËÒÚ˯¸ ÔÎËÚÛ? ̇˜‡Ú¸ ÔÓÌËχڸ / ÓÒÓÁ̇‚‡Ú¸ / ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ / ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ Ë Ú. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÒÓ¯ÂÎ Ò Ûχ ËÁ-Á‡ ˝ÚÓ„Ó. — There's someone at the door.fi ü ÒÌËÏÛ ÚÛ·ÍÛ. gets me! fi óÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ‡Á‰‡Ê‡ÂÚ / .fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û. to get if / smth.) fi ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl (Û„ÓÁ‡) ‰Ó ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (Á‡ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÒÓ‰ÂflÌÌÓÂ): I'll get you (for reporting me)!fi ü ‰Ó·ÂÛÒ¸ ‰Ó Ú·fl (Á‡ ÚÓ.Ô. I'll come as soon as I get time. / ü Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ ÔËÌËχڸ ÏÓÒÍÓ‚ÒÍÛ˛ ÔÓ„‡ÏÏÛ Ì‡ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓÂ. ‚Ò ̇Ô‡ÒÌÓ) to come Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÂÂıÓ‰ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ‚ ‰Û„Ó (˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó ÌÂÊ·ÚÂθÌ˚È) ·ÂÁ ͇ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ÒÔˆˇθÌÓ Á‡Ú‡˜Ë‚‡ÂÏ˚ı ÛÒËÎËÈ: The ribbon in your hair is coming loose. She went blind a year ago. We cannot get Moscow channel on our TV.fi ì ÏÂÌfl ‡ÒÒÚ„ÌÛ·Ҹ Û·‡¯Í‡.: I got a letter from him yesterday.fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸' ÎÂÚ (Ú˛¸Ï˚) Á‡ ˝ÚÓ.fi èÓÒÚ‡‡ÈÒfl Ì Á‡·ÓÎÂÚ¸ „ËÔÔÓÏ. Get it?fi èÓÌËχ¯¸? 134 . ÒÓ‚Â¯‡Ú¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ (ËÁÏÂÌflfl Â„Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂ): We cannot get this window closed. Ó̇ ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ú·Â. They went blue with cold.fi ü Ú·fl Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛. you'll like her.fi ü ÓÚÍÓ˛.fi ùÚÓÚ Ï‡ÚÂˇΠÔÎÓıÓ ÒÚË‡ÂÚÒfl — ÓÌ ÚÂflÂÚ ˆ‚ÂÚ.fi ÖÒÎË ÛÏÌÓÊËÚ¸ 7 ̇ 6. The lock came rusty.fi éÌË ÔÓÒËÌÂÎË ÓÚ ıÓÎÓ‰‡. (tor smth.fi ì Ú·fl (‚ ‚ÓÎÓÒ‡ı) ÎÂÌÚӘ͇ ‡Á‚flÁ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. Í ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÍÎÓÌ˯¸ / ̇ ˜ÚÓ Ì‡ÏÂ͇¯¸ / ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ıӘ¯¸ ˝ÚËÏ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸.fi ü ÒıÓÊÛ ÔÓÒÏÓÚ˛ (˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ).fi (˜ÚÓ ÌË ‰Â·˛. This cloth doesn't wash well — it goes pale. Á‡·ÓÎÂÚ¸ (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ËÌÙÂ͈ËË): She got a cold.fi á‡ÏÓÍ Á‡ʇ‚ÂÎ. ä you multiply 7 by 6 you get 42. fi ÔÓÌËχڸ / ÔÓÌËχڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: I don't get your meaning.‚˚‚Ó‰ËÚ ÏÂÌfl ËÁ Ò·fl! : Their being so slow gets me!fi åÂÌfl ‚˚‚Ó‰ËÚ ËÁ Ò·fl Ëı ωÎËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸.fi (Ú·fl ËÌÚÂÌÒË‚ÌÓ Î˜‡Ú) I can't get used to your manners. I must get the breakfast ready.fi ü ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ÔË„ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸ Á‡‚Ú‡Í.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ (Û Ì‡Ò Ì ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl) Á‡Í˚Ú¸ ˝ÚÓ ÓÍÌÓ.fi ǘÂ‡ fl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÎ ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ. My shirt has come unbuttoned.Ô. How much are you going to get for your house?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ Ú˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl / ıӘ¯¸ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ Á‡ Ò‚ÓÈ ‰ÓÏ (ÔÓ‰‡‚ „Ó)? Where did you get this car?fi ɉ Ú˚ ‚ÁflÎ ˝ÚÛ Ï‡¯ËÌÛ? How do you get your living?fi ä‡Í Ú˚ Á‡‡·‡Ú˚‚‡Â¯¸ ̇ ÊËÁ̸? Get your money!fi ÑÂÊË Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë! You can get ten years for that. — I'll get it. Those flies really get me!fi (ùÚË) åÛıË ÛÊ ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÎË ÏÂÌfl (‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÏÌ ̇ ÌÂ‚˚)! I'll get it. fi (Ì ÛÚÛʉ‡È(ÚÂ) Ò·fl) ü Ò‡Ï (Á‡ÈÏÛÒ¸ ˝ÚËÏ): — The telephone is ringing.fi ÉÓ‰ ̇Á‡‰ Ó̇ ÓÒÎÂÔ·. I can never get to understand this. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: to get Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÔÂÂıÓ‰ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl ‚ ‰Û„Ó ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ͇ÍËı-ÎË·Ó (Ô‰̇ÏÂÂÌÌ˚ı) ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ: ç got drunk very quickly. Í‡Í ÚÓθÍÓ Û ÏÂÌfl ÔÓfl‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÂÏfl. I can't get used to your manners.fi ü ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÌflÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ„Ó. How did you get to know my address?fi ä‡Í Ú˚ ÛÁ̇ΠÏÓÈ ‡‰ÂÒ? ËÏÂÚ¸ / ‚·‰ÂÚ¸ / ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ / ÔËÓ·ÂÒÚË Ë Ú.fi ü ÔˉÛ. ˜ÚÓ "̇ÒÚÛ˜‡Î" ̇ ÏÂÌfl)! Smth. Try not to get ãË.You'll soon get better.: When you get to know her better.fi (ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚˚ÔËÎ) You'll soon get better.

fi åÌ ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ۉ‡ÂÚÒfl Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ „Ó. 9.fi He ÔËÌËÏ‡È ÏÂÌfl Á‡ ˉËÓÚ‡.fi ùÚÓ ÓÚÌËÏÂÚ Û Ú·fl ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË. It will take you much time. to take a deep breath fi „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ ‚Á‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸. to get ~ ~ ~ ing fi ÔËÒÚÛÔËÚ¸ Í ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲: I can't make him get sleeping. ÙËÍÒËÓ‚‡Ú¸ (ËÒÔÓθÁÛfl ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚ): Shall I take your temperature?fi àÁÏÂËÚ¸ Ú· ÚÂÏÔÂ‡ÚÛÛ? It is not allowed to take notes here.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÛÎÓÊËÚ¸ Â„Ó ÒÔ‡Ú¸. to take a look fi ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸. When will you get working?fi äÓ„‰‡ ‚˚ ̇˜ÌÂÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸? Let's get going / moving.fi í˚ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì Á‡ÒÚ‡‚˯¸  ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ Ú·Â.fi í˚ ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ ÔÓÌflÎ. Does she ever get to come here?fi ì Ì ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡? É·„ÓÎ to get ‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı ËÏÂÂÚ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ‰Û„Ëı Á̇˜ÂÌËÈ — ÒÏ. ÓÚÒ˛‰‡ ‚ ‰Û„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ): Can you take these letters to the post?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÓÚÌÂÒÚË ˝ÚË ÔËҸχ ̇ ÔÓ˜ÚÛ? I could take you home.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û Û„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ Â„Ó ·ÓÒËÚ¸ ÍÛËÚ¸. ÔËÌflÚ¸ / ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ / ‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl: Can I take a seat?fi ü ÏÓ„Û ÔËÒÂÒÚ¸ (‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÚÛÎÓÏ)? Take my advice. ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸ „ÛÎflÌÓ: Which cigarettes do you take?fi ä‡ÍË ÒË„‡ÂÚ˚ Ú˚ ÔÓÍÛԇ¯¸? Why don't you take apples?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔÓÍÛԇ¯¸ fl·ÎÓÍË? ÓÚÌflÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl: The work took three hours.fi ꇷÓÚ‡ Á‡Ìfl· ÚË ˜‡Ò‡.fi éÌ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ·ÂÂÚ ÏÓË ÍÌË„Ë. to take a bath fi ÔËÌflÚ¸ ‚‡ÌÌÛ. ÔËÌËχڸ ÔË˘Û / ÂÒÚ¸ / ÔËÚ¸: I don't take coffee with milk. in my car. Ô.Ô. to get smb. ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÚ¸ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ: I can't get him to stop smoking.fi éÌ ÔËÌflÎ ÏÂÌfl Á‡ ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ‰Û„Ó„Ó. ëÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ò ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË Ë ÔÓÒÎÂÎÓ„‡ÏË (ÒÏ. ç took me for someone else. ëÎÓ‚‡¸. ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (‚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËË Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Ï): to take a rest fi ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸.Ô. ÔËÓ·ÂÚ‡fl ‰Û„Ë Á̇˜ÂÌËfl.fi ü Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛ Â„Ó ¯ÛÚÓÍ. ‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ / Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸: 135 .fi He ·ÂË ÏÓ˛ χ¯ËÌÛ.fi èÓÒÎÛ¯‡ÈÒfl ÏÂÌfl (‚ÓÒÔÓθÁÛÈÒfl ÏÓËÏ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÓÏ).fi èÓ¯ÎË. ç never takes my books.fi ü ÏÓ„ ·˚ ÓÚ‚ÂÁÚË ‚‡Ò ‰ÓÏÓÈ Ì‡ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Ï‡¯ËÌÂ.fi ÖÏÛ Ì ÌÛÊÂÌ Ò‡ı‡.) fi ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ / Û‰‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl: I never get to invite him.fi é̇ ÔËÌfl· ‚‡ÌÌÛ Ë ÔÓÒÏÓÚ· ̇ Ò·fl ‚ ÁÂ͇ÎÓ. é‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í „·„ÓÎÓ‚. ë‡ÏÓ ӷ˘Â Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ: ·‡Ú¸ / ‚ÁflÚ¸. ëÎÓ‚‡¸). How much are you going to take for your car?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ (‰ÂÌ„) Ú˚ ıӘ¯¸/ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸ Á‡ Ò‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ? ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ (ÓÚÌÂÒÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÁÚË Ë Ú. to ~ ~ ~ fi Û„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ / Á‡ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ / ‚˚ÌÛ‰ËÚ¸ Ë Ú.You've got it wrong. I never get his jokes. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Ë ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl to take: ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ‚ÁflÚ¸ (‰Îfl Ò·fl): Don't take my car. You will never get her to help you.fi ü Ì Ը˛ ÍÓÙÂ Ò ÏÓÎÓÍÓÏ. / ÖÏÛ ·ÂÁ Ò‡ı‡‡ (ÓÌ Ì ÂÒÚ / Ì ԸÂÚ Ò Ò‡ı‡ÓÏ). / èÓÂı‡ÎË. Can you take a photograph of my wife?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ ÒÙÓÚÓ„‡ÙËÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÓ˛ ÊÂÌÛ? Ò˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ / ÔËÌËχڸ Á‡: Don't take me for a fool. She took a bath and looked at herself in the mirror. to take a holiday fi ‚ÁflÚ¸ ÓÚÔÛÒÍ Ë Ú. To take. ç doesn't take sugar. to get to ~ ~ ~ (‡ÏÂ.fi á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ‡Á¯‡ÂÚÒfl ÌË˜Â„Ó Á‡ÔËÒ˚‚‡Ú¸.

to have a look at smth. ıÓÚfl ‚ ÛÒÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı ÏÓ‰‡Î¸ÌÓÒÚ¸ Ì ӷÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚÒfl: Did you see him last night?fi í˚ ‚ˉÂÎ Â„Ó ‚˜Â‡ ‚˜ÂÓÏ? I can see nobody here. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÎ. / éÌ Ì ıÓÚÂÎ ÓÒÍÓ·ËÚ¸ Ú·fl Ò‚ÓËÏË ÒÎÓ‚‡ÏË. Does this dress look well on me?fi ùÚÓ Ô·ڸ ˉÂÚ ÏÌÂ? You look tired. You have a bad cough.fi é̇ ÔËÒχÚË‚‡ÂÚ Á‡ ÏÓËÏË ‰ÂÚ¸ÏË / ÏÓËÏ ‰ÓÏÓÏ. / smth. ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚Ï Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚÓÏ: I always take the bus to work. I saw this film. 136 . to look after fi ÔËÒχÚË‚‡Ú¸ Á‡: She is looking after my children / my house.fi í˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸ ÛÒÚ‡Î˚Ï.fi ëÏÓÚË ÒÚ‡ÌËˆÛ 1.fi He ÒÏÓÚË Ì‡ ÌÂÂ. ˜‡ÒÚÓ (Í‡Í Ë ‰Û„Ë „·„ÓÎ˚ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÒÔËflÚËfl) ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò can.fi éÌË ÒÏÓÚÂÎË ÒÂ‰ËÚÓ.fi àı ‰ÓÏ ‚˚„Îfl‰ËÚ Í‡Í-ÚÓ ÒÚ‡ÌÌÓ.fi í˚ Á‡Ï˜‡ÚÂθÌÓ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸. See that the door is locked. fi ÔËÌËχڸ Û˜‡ÒÚË ‚ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: We won't be taking part in this. Why doesn't a doctor take a look at you?fi åÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl Ú‚ÓÈ Í‡¯Âθ.fi ëÏÓÚË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ̇ ÏÂÌfl ÒÏÓÚflÚ. fi ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ ̇ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó (˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚flÒÌËÚ¸ Ô˘ËÌÛ ‚ÓÁÌËͯËı ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ): I want you to take a look at my car. ÍÛ‰‡ ˉ¯¸! to look at fi ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸: I don't like to be looked at. ëÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / ‚ˉÂÚ¸ / ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÚ¸ / ‚̯ÌËÈ ‚ˉ / ‚Á„Îfl‰. fi ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ ̇ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó (ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ): When can I have a look at your new car?fi äÓ„‰‡ fl ÒÏÓ„Û Û‚Ë‰ÂÚ¸ / ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ ̇ Ú‚Ó˛ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ? to take a look at smb. / smth.fi å˚ Ì ·Û‰ÂÏ Û˜‡ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ.fi He ‚ÓÒÔËÌËÏ‡È Â„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ Í‡Í ÓÒÍÓ·ÎÂÌËÂ.fi ü ‚Ò„‰‡ ÂÁÊÛ Ì‡ ‡·ÓÚÛ ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒÓÏ. èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ·˚ Ú· Ì ÔÓ͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ‚‡˜Û? not to like the look of smb. ˜ÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl Ò Ï‡¯ËÌÓÈ (‚ÓÁÌËÍÎË Í‡ÍËÂ-ÚÓ ÌÂÔÓ·‰ÍË). Ç ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËË ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË ÒÏÓÚË: See page 1. to take smb. Don't look at her. They took you to be an honest person. 10. Í‡Í Ú˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸ (˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸? / Ú˚ Ì Á‡·ÓÎÂÎ? / Û Ú·fl ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓÒÚË?). to take place fi ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÒÓÒÚÓflÚ¸Òfl: Where / When will their meeting take place?fi ɉ / äÓ„‰‡ ÒÓÒÚÓËÚÒfl Ëı ÒÓ·‡ÌË / ‚ÒÚ˜‡? to take part in smth.fi éÌË Ì Á‡ÒÚ‡ÌÛÚ ÏÂÌfl ‚‡ÒÔÎÓı. Ç ÔÓ‚ÂÎËÚÂθÌÓÏ Ì‡ÍÎÓÌÂÌËË ËÏÂÂÚ Á̇˜ÂÌË Ô‰ÛÔÂʉÂÌËfl — ·Û‰¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂÎÂÌ: Look where you are going!fi ÅÛ‰¸ ‚ÌËχÚÂÎÂÌ ÔË ‰‚ËÊÂÌËË! / ëÏÓÚË. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚Ó Û „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó): I don't like the look of you.fi ü Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌËÍÓ„Ó Ì ‚ËÊÛ.fi ü Ì β·Î˛.fi åÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. Ô‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Continuous. to look for fi ËÒ͇ڸ: What are you looking for?fi óÚÓ Ú˚ Ë˘Â¯¸? look fi ‚Á„Îfl‰ / ‚̯ÌËÈ ‚ˉ: They had angry looks on their faces. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÛıÛ‰¯ËÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓ Í‡ÍËÏ-ÎË·Ó Ô˘Ë̇Ï. Their house has a strange look.ß Don't take his words as offence. to look fi ‚˚„Îfl‰ÂÚ¸: You are looking very well.fi éÌË Ò˜ËÚ‡ÎË Ú·fl ˜ÂÒÚÌ˚Ï ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ.fi ü ıÓ˜Û. by surprise fi Á‡ÒÚ‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‚‡ÒÔÎÓı: They won't take me by suprise. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‰‚Â¸ ·˚· Á‡ÔÂÚ‡ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ. to see fi ‚ˉÂÚ¸ (‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ÁÂÌËÂÏ).fi ü ÒÏÓÚÂÎ ˝ÚÓÚ ÙËθÏ. fi Ì Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl (Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË / ‚̯ÌÂÏ ‚ˉ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó.

Are you.fi é̇ ÛÒÚ‡‚Ë·Ҹ ̇ ̇Ò. lots of books / lots of money a lot fi ÏÌÓ„Ó (‚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË / Ó˜Â̸ / ˜‡ÒÚÓ): You want quite a lot. She stared at us.fi éÌ Î˛·ËÚ ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÚÂ΂ËÁÓ.fi He ÒÎÛ¯‡ÈÚ „Ó. please. àÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‚ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸: I don't want to hear what you are telling me. ÂÒÎË ÔÓÒΠto listen Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÍÓ„Ó / ˜ÚÓ.fi ëÎÛ¯‡ÈÚÂ. to glance fi ·˚ÒÚÓ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / Ó„Îfl‰ÂÚ¸ / ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸: ç glanced at his watch.fi éÌË ÒÚÓflÎË. Watch me carefully. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÏÌ „Ó‚Ó˯¸. 11. She glanced round the room. ÁÎÓ·ÌÓ „Îfl‰fl ‚ „·Á‡ ‰Û„ ‰Û„Û.fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ ÏÌ ‚Á„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ (̇ ˝ÚÓ). to hear fi ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ (‚ÓÒÔËÌËχڸ ÒÎÛıÓÏ).fi He ÔflθÒfl ̇ ÏÂÌfl. to glare fi ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÁÎÓ·ÌÓ / „Ì‚ÌÓ: They stood glaring at each other.fi åÌ Ì ÒÎ˚¯Ì˚'·˚ÎË / ü Ì ÒÎ˚¯‡Î‡ Ëı „ÓÎÓÒ‡.fi ᇠÏÌÓÈ ÒΉflÚ. ̇ÔËÏÂ.fi ì Ì ÍÓÒӄ·ÁËÂ Ò ÓʉÂÌËfl. ëÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ / ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸. to squint fi ÍÓÒËÚ¸ (Ó „·Á‡ı) / ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÔˢÛflÒ¸. many — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: many books / many houses much — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: much money / much water a lot of (‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ÙÓχ lots of) — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË. 137 .Why do you say you don't like the look of your car?fi óÚÓ Ú· Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ Ú‚ÓÂÈ Ï‡¯ËÌ (fl. to listen => ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ (ÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÎÛıÓÏ). I don't like to listen to the radio. Ì ‚ËÊÛ ÌË͇ÍËı Ô˘ËÌ ‰Îfl ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚‡)? to watch fi ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ / ̇·Î˛‰‡Ú¸: ç likes to watch TV. 12. / ÛÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸: I didn't hear their voices. Don't listen to him. squint fi ÍÓÒӄ·ÁË / ·˚ÒÚ˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰: She was born with a squint.fi ü Ì β·Î˛ ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ ‡‰ËÓ.fi é̇ ÛÒÎ˚¯‡Î‡ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÚÓ ¯ÛÏ. She heard some noise.fi éÌ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂΠ̇ ˜‡Ò˚. stare fi ÔËÒڇθÌ˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰. to stare fi ‰ÓÎ„Ó ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ¯ËÓÍÓ ÓÚÍ˚Ú˚ÏË „·Á‡ÏË / „·ÁÂÚ¸ / ÛÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl:.fi é̇ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÓÒÏÓÚ· ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ.fi í˚ ıӘ¯¸ Ó˜Â̸ ÏÌÓ„Ó. åÌÓ„Ó. at a glance fi Ò ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚Á„Îfl‰‡. Don't stare at me. glare fi ÁÎÓ·Ì˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰. Ú‡Í Ë Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: a lot of books / a lot of money. watching something?fi í˚ Á‡ ˜ÂÏ-ÚÓ Ì‡·Î˛‰‡Â¯¸? I am being watched. glance fi ·˚ÒÚ˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ / ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸. watch fi ̇Û˜Ì˚ ˜‡Ò˚. ÚÓ Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl Ô‰ÎÓ„ to: Listen.fi ÇÌËχÚÂθÌÓ ÒΉËÚ Á‡ ÏÌÓÈ. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. Let me have / take a squint at it.

large quantity fi ·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó: We buy things in large quantities. Ú‡Í Ë Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: a great deal of workfi ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡·ÓÚ˚..fi å˚ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡ÂÏ (ÚÓ‚‡˚) ·Óθ¯ËÏË Ô‡ÚËflÏË.. several houses fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÓÏÓ‚ some — ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÏ flÁ˚Í ‚˚‡Ê‡ÂÚ Ò‡ÏÓ ӷ˘Â ÔÓÌflÚË ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ / ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó: some books fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌË„. I eat lots less than I used to. I think of you a great deal / a lot.fi èflÚ¸ (fl·ÎÓÍ / . å‡ÎÓ / ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó / ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ. a lot / lots+Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ fi ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó .fi å‡ÎÓ-ÔÓχÎÛ Ï˚ ҉·ÂÏ ˝ÚÓ.fi å˚ ÔÓ‰‡ÂÏ ˝ÚË ÚÓ‚‡˚ ‚ Ì·Óθ¯Ëı ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ı.fi éÌË ÔÓfl‚Îfl˛Ú ·Óθ¯Û˛ Á‡·ÓÚÛ Ó Ú·Â. few fi χÎÓ.fi ü ÏÓ„Û ÍÛÔËÚ¸ Î˯¸ Ì·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó.fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÂ Ú‡Í ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ / ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÔÎÂÈ. some water fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‚Ó‰˚ 138 ..They care about you a lot. Ú‡Í Ë Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: plenty of women fi ÏÌÓ„Ó ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ.: ç is feeling a lot better today. little + Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ fi ÌÂ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó: little money fi χÎÓ ‰ÂÌ„. ˜ÂÏ ‡Ì¸¯Â..fi ëÂȘ‡Ò fl ÂÏ Ì‡ÏÌÓ„Ó ÏÂ̸¯Â. little fi χÎÓ (Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË). several fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ: several books fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌË„. It is little warmer here. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË: few books fi χÎÓ ÍÌË„. She helps me a lot. plenty of — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË. It is a little warmer here.fi éÌË ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‚ˉflÚÒfl ‰Û„ Ò ‰Û„ÓÏ.fi é̇ ÏÌÓ„Ó / ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓÏÓ„‡ÂÚ ÏÌÂ. a little fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó: a little money fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„.) ı‚‡ÚËÚ..fi ë„ӉÌfl ÂÏÛ Ì‡ÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÛ˜¯Â. a few houses fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÓÏÓ‚ every few (days / weeks) fi ͇ʉ˚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ (‰ÌÂÈ / ̉Âθ). little time fi χÎÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. little by little fi χÎÓ-ÔÓχÎÛ / ÔÓÒÚÂÔÂÌÌÓ: Little by little we'll do it.) will be plenty. a little time fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË.. a great / a good deal of — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË. few houses fi χÎÓ ‰ÓÏÓ‚ a few fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ: a few books fi ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÍÌË„.fi ü ÏÌÓ„Ó / ˜‡ÒÚÓ ‰Ûχ˛ Ó Ú·Â. We sell these goods in small quantities. 13. small quantity fi Ì·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó (ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó): I can only buy a small quantity.fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ÌÂ̇ÏÌÓ„Ó ÚÂÔÎÂÈ. plenty of time fi ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË plenty fi ‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó (ÌÛÊÌÓ ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó): Five (apples / . a good deal of cigarettesfi ÏÌÓ„Ó ÒË„‡ÂÚ a great deal ¤ a lot: They see each other a great deal / a lot.

I suggest waiting here. They are somewhat disappointed with their new house.fi éÌ Ò‰Â·ΠÏÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. sentence fi Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË („‡ÏχÚ˘ÂÒÍÓ ÔÓÌflÚË ‚ flÁ˚ÍÂ): Could you repeat the last sentence. è‰·„‡Ú¸ / Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ./ .fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ Í Ú· (Ó˜Â̸ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÓÂ) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. 14. ÔÓÎۘ˂ ÔËÒ¸ÏÓ ÓÚ ÌËı. 1.fi ê‡ÌÂÌÓÏÛ Ò„ӉÌfl ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÎÛ˜¯Â.fi ü ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó Á̇˛ Â„Ó (Á̇ÍÓÏ.): I offer you my help.somewhat fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó (‚ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË).fi ÖÈ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÎË ÌÓ‚Û˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ. Tunnelling under the English Channel is a big proposition.fi éÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÎ ÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Í ‚‡˜Û.fi ü ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ / ü Ô‰·„‡˛ ÚÓÒÚ Á‡ Á‰ÓÓ‚¸Â ÊÂÌËı‡ Ë Ì‚ÂÒÚ˚. I (should like to) propose your wife's health.fi éÌË Ô‰ÎÓÊËÎË Ì‡Ï Á‡Û˜ËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡ËÁÛÒÚ¸. to propose a toast to smth.fi ü Ô‰·„‡˛ ʉ‡Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi éÌË ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ÁÓ˜‡Ó‚‡Ì˚ Ò‚ÓËÏ ÌÓ‚˚Ï ‰ÓÏÓÏ. I propose starting early / an early start / to make an early start / making an early start / that we should start early tomorrow. proposition fi Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (Ó·ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌË ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl Í Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ë‰Â / ‚ÓÒÔËflÚË ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó Ë‰ÂË. slightly fi ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó (‚ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË): I know him slightly.fi ü Ô‰·„‡˛ ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡‚Ú‡ ‡ÌÓ ÛÚÓÏ.'s health fi Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ ÚÓÒÚ Á‡ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / Á‡ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó Á‰ÓÓ‚¸Â: I should like to propose a toast to the bride and bridegroom. They suggested that we should learn it by heart.fi èÓÍ·‰Í‡ ÚÛÌÌÂÎfl ÔÓ‰ ã‡-å‡Ì¯ÂÏ — ˝ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÍÛÔÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË / ÍÛÔÌ˚È ÔÓÂÍÚ.. ҉·ڸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ: ç proposed (to me). ¤ to propose smb. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ô‰·„‡˛Ú (ÔËÓ·ÂÒÚË Û ÌËı / ҉·ڸ ‰Îfl ̇Ò)? to suggest fi ‚˚‰‚ËÌÛÚ¸ ˉ² ‰Îfl (ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌÓ„Ó) ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌËfl / ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl: ç suggested a visit to the doctor. Haven't you proposed (to her) yet?fi ê‡Á‚ Ú˚ ¢ Ì ҉·Π(ÂÈ) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ? 125.fi ü ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ / ü Ô‰·„‡˛ ÚÓÒÚ Á‡ Á‰ÓÓ‚¸Â Ú‚ÓÂÈ ÊÂÌ˚. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ô‰·„‡˛Ú (‰Â·ڸ)? to propose fi ‚˚‰‚ËÌÛÚ¸ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÛ˛ ˉ² ‰Îfl (ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌÓ„Ó) ‡ÒÒÏÓÚÂÌËfl / ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl: She proposed a new plan to us. / smb. to offer fi Ô‰·„‡Ú¸ (˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Ô‰ÏÂÚ / ÔÓÏÓ˘¸.fi ü Ô‰·„‡˛ ÚÂ·Â Ò‚Ó˛ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸.fi é̇ Ô‰ÎÓÊË· Ì‡Ï ÌÓ‚˚È Ô·Ì. She has been offered a new job. Can I offer you a cup of coffee?fi åÓ„Û fl Ô‰ÎÓÊËÚ¸ Ú· ˜‡¯Â˜ÍÛ ÍÓÙÂ? What did you offer him?fi óÚÓ Ú˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÎ ÂÏÛ (ÔËÓ·ÂÒÚË Û Ì‡Ò / ҉·ڸ ‰Îfl Ì„Ó)? offer fi Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: Do you like their offer?fi í· Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓ..fi ü Ô‰·„‡˛ Â„Ó Í‡Ì‰Ë‰‡ÚÛÛ Ì‡ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÏẨÊÂ‡. The wounded is slightly better today. What did you suggest to him?fi óÚÓ Ú˚ Ô‰ÎÓÊËÎ ÂÏÛ (͇ÍÛ˛ ˉ² / Ô·Ì)? suggestion fi Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ó (ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌÓÏ) ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË Í‡ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ: Do you like their suggestion?fi í· Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ÚÓ. ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı: She was somewhat surprised to get a letter from them.fi åÌ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ò‰Â·ڸ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË (‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ) ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‡Á Á‡ Ó‰ÌÛ Ì‰Âβ. 124. please?fi He ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ‚˚ ÔÓ‚ÚÓËÚ¸ ÔÓÒΉÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ? 139 . ÚÂ·Û˛˘ÂÈ „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓ„Ó ‡Ì‡ÎËÁ‡ / ËÁÛ˜ÂÌËfl): I have a proposition to make to you.fi é̇ ·˚· ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó Û‰Ë‚ÎÂ̇. ‚˚‰‚ËÌÛÚ¸ ͇̉ˉ‡ÚÛÛ («Ì‡ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚ¸» / ‰Îfl ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl Ó·flÁ‡ÌÌÓÒÚÂÈ): I propose him for manager. proposal fi ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË Í‡ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ: How did you like their proposal for cooperation?fi í· ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÎÓÒ¸ / ä‡Í Ú˚ ̇ıӉ˯¸ Ëı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ Ó ÒÓÚÛ‰Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚Â? I can have several proposals in one week. ÌÓ Ì ӘÂ̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó).

Ú˚.fi é·˚˜ÌÓ ÓÌË ÂÁ‰flÚ Ì‡ ‡·ÓÚÛ Ì‡ ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒÂ. ÚÓ ÔÓÒΠwork Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl to do: I won't be able to come because I have some work to do in the evening. ëÏ.fi éÌË ÔËÌÂÒÎË ˝ÚË ˆ‚ÂÚ˚ ÛÚÓÏ.fi ü Ë˘Û ÌÓ‚Û˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ.fi å‡Ï‡ Ôӯ· ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ. ˜ÚÓ ÌÛÊÌÓ ‰Â·ڸ / ‰Â·ÂÚÒfl: We don't like hard work. Fetch someone to help us.fi èË Ì˚̯ÌÂÈ ˝ÍÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ÚÛ‰ÌÓ Ì‡ÈÚË ‡·ÓÚÛ.fi ùÚ‡ ‡·ÓÚ‡ Ì ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl.fi éÌ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ˝ÚÓÏ Á‡‚Ӊ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ÎÂÚ.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ú‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ ‚ „‡‡Ê Ò„ӉÌfl. Her mother works for a foreign company.fi åÓfl ‡·ÓÚ‡ Ì ӘÂ̸ ËÌÚÂÂÒ̇fl. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ ÍÓÂ-͇͇fl ‡·ÓÚ‡ ̇ ‚˜Â. ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸. to fetch fi ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË (ÓÚÔ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl ÓÚÒ˛‰‡ ‚ ‰Û„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ Ë ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl ÓÔflÚ¸ Ò˛‰‡ Ò ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó/ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): I want you to fetch another chair. to take fi ÓÚÌÂÒÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÁÚË (ÓÚÒ˛‰‡ ‚ ‰Û„Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ): I cannot take your car to the garage today. / Ç ÛÍÂ Û Ì ·˚Î ÁÓÌÚ.fi å˚ Ì β·ËÏ ÚflÊÂÎÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ. Ú‡ÍÊ to get ‚˚¯Â. job fi ‡·ÓÚ‡ (ıÓÚ¸ ͇͇fl-ÌË·Û‰¸ / β·‡fl / Í‡ÚÍÓ‚ÂÏÂÌ̇fl): Have you got any jobs for me to do?fi ì ‚‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl ͇͇fl-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‡·ÓÚ‡? áÄèéåçàíÖ: ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ fi to (smb's) work: They usually go to (their) work by bus.fi éÌ ÔÓÚÂflÎ ‡·ÓÚÛ. This work is not for me. 16.fi ü ıÓ˜Û.fi 燯‡ ÒÂÒÚ‡ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ. She was carrying an umbrella in her hand. let me do it tomorrow.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ÏÌÓ„Ë (β‰Ë) ˢÛÚ ‡·ÓÚÛ.fi ëıÓ‰Ë Ë ÔË‚Â‰Ë ÍÓ„Ó-ÌË·Û‰¸ Ì‡Ï Ì‡ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Á̇˜ÂÌËË ‚Á‡ËÏÓÁ‡ÏÂÌflÂÏ Ò work: ç has lost his job.fi å˚ ÌÂÒÎË ˝ÚÛ ÍÓÓ·ÍÛ ‚ Û͇ı ‰‚ ÏËÎË.fi éÚˆ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ̇ ‡·ÓÚÂ. ꇷÓÚ‡. She works in a bank. to work (at / in / for) fi ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ (‚ / ̇ ): Our sister is working now.fi é̇ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ ‚ ·‡ÌÍÂ. ̇ ‡·ÓÚ fi at work / on the job: Father is at work / on the job now.fi ü Ì ÒÏÓ„Û ÔËÈÚË.fi ü ÔËÌÂÒÛ Ú· (˝ÚË) ÍÌË„Ë ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á. My job / work is not very interesting. to carry fi ÌÂÒÚË / ËÏÂÚ¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó (Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ): We carried the box (for) two miles. to bring fi ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÒÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË (ËÁ ‰Û„Ó„Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ Ò˛‰‡): I'll bring you the books next time.15. you must be pleased with your work — you've ruined everything!fi çÛ ‚ÓÚ. They brought these flowers in the morning. I'm looking for a new job / work. job — ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‡·ÓÚ˚ /‡·Ó˜Â ÏÂÒÚÓ. work — ÚÓ. It is difficult to find work in the present economic situation. ‰Ó‚ÓÎÂÌ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ‡·ÓÚÓÈ — ËÒÔÓÚËÎ ‚ÒÂ! work fi ÏÂÒÚÓ ‡·ÓÚ˚ / ‡·Ó˜Â ÏÂÒÚÓ: Mother went to (her) work. çÂÒÚË / ÔËÌÂÒÚË / ÓÚÌÂÒÚË / ‚ÂÒÚË /ÔË‚ÂÒÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÒÚË / ‚ÂÁÚË / ÔË‚ÂÁÚË / ÓÚ‚ÂÁÚË (ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ ‰Û„ÓÂ).fi Ç ÛÍ Ó̇ ÌÂÒ· ÁÓÌÚ. Many people are looking for work now. ‰‡‚‡È fl ҉·˛ ˝ÚÓ Á‡‚Ú‡. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÔËÌÂÒ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÛÎ. work fi ÂÁÛÎ¸Ú‡Ú Í‡ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË / ÛÒËÎËË: Is this all your own work?fi ùÚÓ ‚Ò Ú˚ Ò‡Ï Ò‰Â·Î? Well. ÖÒÎË „Ó‚ÓËÚÒfl Ó Ô‰ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÈ ‡·ÓÚÂ.fi Ö χڸ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ ‚ ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌÓÈ ÙËÏÂ. 140 . ç has been working at this plant for ten years.

price fi ˆÂ̇.fi ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ χÚÂˇÎÓ‚ / ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ Á‡Ú‡Ú˚ / ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ ÚÛ‰‡ Ë Ú. payroll / paysheet fi ‚‰ÓÏÓÒÚ¸ ̇ Á‡Ô·ÚÛ: Are you on the payroll?fi Ç˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚÂ Û Ì‡Ò? (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ. ñÂ̇ /ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ / Ô·ڇ / ÒÚÓËÚ¸ / Ô·ÚËÚ¸ (Á‡ ÚÓ‚‡ / ÛÒÎÛ„‡). pay fi ÓÔ·ڇ (ÚÛ‰‡) — (‚ ÔÓÌflÚË pay ‚ıÓ‰flÚ Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ wages Ë salary): Higher pay leads to higher prices. charge fi ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ (ÚÓ‚‡Ó‚ / ÛÒÎÛ„): What are the charges in this hotel?fi ä‡ÍË ‡ÒˆÂÌÍË ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂ? 141 . wage(s) (˜‡˘Â ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ) fi Á‡Ô·ڇ ‡·Ó˜Â„Ó: His wages are 50 dollars a week.fi éÌ Á‡‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚ 32000 ‰ÓηÓ‚ ‚ „Ó‰.? to cost fi ÒÚÓËÚ¸: How much does it cost?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ˝ÚÓ ÒÚÓËÚ? It cost me nothing.. LJ¯‡ Ù‡ÏËÎËfl ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ ÒÔËÒ͇ı ̇ Á‡Ô·ÚÛ?) pay-slip fi ÎËÒÚÓÍ Ò ‡Ò˜ÂÚÓÏ Á‡Ô·Ú˚.000 dollars a year. Ô. The price has gone up.?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓËÚ .fi ñÂ̇ ‚˚ÓÒ·. tee fi ÓÔ·ڇ ÛÒÎÛ„ ˜‡ÒÚÌ˚ı ˛ËÒÚÓ‚ / ‚‡˜ÂÈ / ÍÓÌÒÛθڇÌÚÓ‚..fi ü ıÓ˜Û.fi ñÂÌ˚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÌ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ Ì Ì‡‚flÚÒfl.. ÖÊÂÏÂÒfl˜Ì‡fl ‚˚Ô·ڇ ÒÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ 30 ‰ÓηÓ‚.Ô..fi åÌ ˝ÚÓ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÒÚÓËÎÓ. ß ËÌÓ„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ price: What is the cost of . to pay fi Ô·ÚËÚ¸: How much do they pay you?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ÓÌË Ú· Ô·ÚflÚ? payment fi ‚˚Ô·ڇ / ‰ËÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌ̇fl ÓÔ·ڇ (ÛÒÎÛ„ / ‡·ÓÚ / ÚÓ‚‡Ó‚): I want twenty dollars as payment (for the work). I want immediate payment. scolarship fi ÒÚËÔẨËfl.fi ìÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ÍÛ ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔ·ÚËÚ¸ ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË „Ó‰‡.fi ë„ӉÌfl ‰Â̸ Á‡Ô·Ú˚..fi éÌ ÔÓ¯ÂÎ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡Ú¸ Á‡Ô·ÚÛ. 18..fi ùÚ‡ ˆÂ̇ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ‚˚ÒÓ͇ ‰Îfl ÏÂÌfl.fi èÓ‚˚¯ÂÌË Á‡Ô·Ú˚ ‚‰ÂÚ Í ÔÓ‚˚¯ÂÌ˲ ˆÂÌ. pay-day fi ‰Â̸ ‚˚‰‡˜Ë Á‡Ô·Ú˚: Today is pay-day.fi ü ıÓ˜Û ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ‰ÓηÓ‚ (Á‡ Ò‚Ó˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ).fi éÌ Â˘Â Ì Ô˯ÂÎ Ò ‡·ÓÚ˚. salary fi Á‡Ô·ڇ ÒÎÛʇ˘Ëı (Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ÔÓ „Ó‰Ó‚ÓÈ ˆËÙÂ): His salary is 32. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÏÌ Á‡Ô·ÚËÎË Ò‡ÁÛ. What price are you asking (for this)?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ / ä‡ÍÛ˛ ˆÂÌÛ ‚˚ ÔÓÒËÚ (Á‡ ˝ÚÓ)? I don't like the prices here. ç went to get his wages. á‡Ô·ڇ / ÓÔ·ڇ (ÚÛ‰‡). Ò‡ÏÓ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌÓ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÈ ÍÛÔËÚ¸-ÔÓ‰‡Ú¸: What is the price of . royalty fi „ÓÌÓ‡.?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓËÚ .? The price is too high for me. 17... The telephone can be paid for in twelve monthly payments of 30 dollars. remuneration fi Ô·ڇ Á‡ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ / ÛÒÎÛ„Ë. cost fi ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ (·ÓΠÓÙˈˇθÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÔÓ Ò‡‚ÌÂÌ˲ Ò price): cost of materials / production cost / labour cost Ë Ú.fi éÌ Á‡‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚ 50 ‰ÓηÓ‚ ‚ ̉Âβ. pay-packet fi ÍÓ‚ÂÚ Ò Á‡Ô·ÚÓÈ.Ò ‡·ÓÚ˚ fi from (smb's) work: ç has not come from (his) work yet.

the greengrocer's fi Ó‚Ó˘ÌÓÈ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ: She goes to the greengrocer's every day. The charge for a front-row seat is $3. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÔ‡‰ÂÚÒfl.fi àÚ‡Í. drugstore (‡ÏÂ. How much do you charge for your fish?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚˚ ıÓÚËÚ Á‡ (Ò‚Ó˛) ˚·Û? They charged me 10 dollars for their help.000. 凄‡ÁËÌ.fi He ÔÓÍÛÔ‡È ÔÂ‚ÓÂ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚·‡Ú¸ ̇˷ÓΠÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘ËÈ ‚‡ˇÌÚ): Don't buy the first thing you see: shop around a bit. This year you will have to pay examination fees.fi åÂÒÚÓ ‚ ÔÂ‰ÌÂÏ fl‰Û ÒÚÓËÚ 3 ‰Óη‡. ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÂÂÍÛÒËÚ¸.fi é̇ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸ ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ Ó‚Ó˘ÌÓÈ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ.Their charges are very reasonable.) fi ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÛÌË‚ÂÒ‡Ï.).fi ü Ì β·Î˛ ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ‚ χ„‡ÁËÌ. 142 . to charge (smb.fi åÓÈ ‰ÓÏ ÓˆÂÌËÎË ‚ 32000 ‰ÓηÓ‚.fi ÇÒ ÚÓ‚‡˚ ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ·ÂÒÔ·ÚÌÓ.fi ñÂÌ˚ / ê‡ÒˆÂÌÍË Û ÌËı Ó˜Â̸ ÔËÂÏÎÂÏ˚Â. we have two hours to go shopping. fee fi Ô·ڇ Á‡ (ÛÒÎÛ„Ë) / ‚ÒÚÛÔËÚÂθÌ˚È ‚ÁÌÓÒ: I have to pay my fee to the doctor. supermarket (‡Ì„Î.) fi ‡ÔÚÂ͇. ÚÓ„Û˛˘ËÈ ÔÓ‰ÛÍÚ‡ÏË Ë ÚÓ‚‡‡ÏË ‰Îfl ‰Óχ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ҉·ڸ ÔÓÍÛÔÍË. ˜ÚÓ Ì‡ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂΠ‚ ‰‡ÌÌ˚È ÏÓÏÂÌÚ Ì ÔÓ‰‡ÂÚÒfl (͇ÚËÌ˚ / ‰Óχ / .fi åÓË fl·ÎÓÍË ÒÚÓflÚ ‰‚‡ ‰Óη‡.. fi ·‡Ú¸ ï ‰ÂÌ„ (Ò ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó) Á‡ (ÚÓ‚‡ / ÛÒÎÛ„Ë): How much will you charge me for it?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ fl ‚‡Ï ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·Û‰Û (Á‡Ô·ÚËÚ¸) Á‡ ˝ÚÓ? I charge 2 dollars for my apples. liquor store fi χ„‡ÁËÌ ÒÔËÚÌ˚ı ̇ÔËÚÍÓ‚. value fi ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ / ˆÂ̇ ÚÓ„Ó. to store fi ͇̇ÔÎË‚‡Ú¸ Ë ı‡ÌËÚ¸: How much food have you stored away?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚˚ Á‡Ô‡ÒÎË ÔˢË? department store fi ÛÌË‚Âχ„.fi ü Ì β·Î˛ ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ‚ χ„‡ÁËÌ. (work) shop fi ˆÂı (̇ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚Â): Have you ever been to a paint shop at our factory?fi í˚ ÍÓ„‰‡-ÌË·Û‰¸ Á‡ıÓ‰ËÎ ‚ Í‡ÒËθÌ˚È ˆÂı ̇ ̇¯ÂÈ Ù‡·ËÍÂ? store fi Ò‡ÏÓ ӷ˘Â ÔÓÌflÚË χ„‡ÁËÌ ‚ ëòÄ: I don't like to go to the store. Ë ‡ÏÂ. the butcher's fi ÏflÒÌÓÈ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ / ·‚͇.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Á‡Ô·ÚËÚ¸ ‚‡˜Û. 19. Û Ì‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡ ̇ ÚÓ. store fi ÒÍ·‰ / ÒÍ·‰ÒÍÓ ÔÓÏ¢ÂÌËÂ. ë̇˜‡Î‡ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÔËÒÏÓÚËÒ¸. the baker's fi ·ÛÎӘ̇fl.. to value fi ÓˆÂÌË‚‡Ú¸ / ̇Á̇˜‡Ú¸ ˆÂÌÛ: They valued my house at $32. shop fi Ò‡ÏÓ ӷ˘Â ÔÓÌflÚË χ„‡ÁËÌ ‚ ÇÂÎËÍÓ·ËÚ‡ÌËË: I don't like to go to the shop.fi 凄‡ÁËÌ Á‡Í˚Ú / ÓÚÍ˚Ú.fi àı ÔÓÏÓ˘¸ ӷӯ·Ҹ ÏÌ ‚ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ‰ÓηÓ‚. to shop / (˜‡˘Â) to go shopping fi ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Á‡ ÔÓÍÛÔ͇ÏË / ‰Â·ڸ ÔÓÍÛÔÍË: Now.) X money for smth.fi Ç ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û ‚‡Ï ÌÛÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ô·ÚËÚ¸ Á‡ Ò‰‡˜Û ˝ÍÁ‡ÏÂÌÓ‚.fi ü Á̇˛ ˆÂÌÛ Ú‚ÓËÏ Ó·Â˘‡ÌËflÏ. value-added tax (VAT) fi ̇ÎÓ„ ̇ ‰Ó·‡‚ÎÂÌÌÛ˛ ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ (çÑë). to shop around fi ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ÔÓ Ï‡„‡ÁËÌ‡Ï (Ò‡‚ÌË‚‡fl ÚÓ‚‡˚. The shop is closed / open. ˆÂ̇ (ÔÓÒÚÛÔÍÓ‚ / ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ): What is the value of this painting?fi ä‡ÍÓ‚‡ ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚ¸ ˝ÚÓÈ Í‡ÚËÌ˚? I know the value of your promises. All goods are delivered free of charge.

fl ‚ÂÌÛ Ëı Ú·Â. / to have smth. ‡ Ú˚ — ÏÓÈ „ÓÒÚ¸.fi ü ÔÓ¯Û ‰Â̸„Ë ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ‰Ó΄.).fi ÖÈ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ·˚Ú¸ ıÓÁflÈÍÓÈ ‚˜Â‡. manager fi ÚÓÚ. 燘‡Î¸ÌËÍ. owner fi ıÓÁflËÌ / ‚·‰ÂΈ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÒÚË: the owner of a car/a house /.20. chief fi ¯ÂÙ / ‚˚ү ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚÌÓ ÎËˆÓ (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ ÔÓ‰‡Á‰ÂÎÂÌËfl): chief of department fi ̇˜‡Î¸ÌËÍ Óډ·.fi Ç Ò‚ÓÂÏ ‰ÓÏ fl ıÓÁflËÌ / ıÓÁflÈ͇. loan fi Á‡ÂÏ / ‰Ó΄ / ÒÒÛ‰‡: I'm only asking for a loan — I'll pay you back. 126. ÍÚÓ ÛÔ‡‚ÎflÂÚ (‰Â·ÏË / ·‡ÌÍÓÏ / „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂÈ Ë Ú.fi ‚·‰ÂΈ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎfl / ‰Óχ/. We don't know the master of this dog / horse. 21.) ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÚ Îˈ‡ ͇ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÙËÏ˚ ËÎË Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆËË. ÍÚÓ ÔËÌËχÂÚ „ÓÒÚÂÈ): She likes to be the hostess of the party.. boss (‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÂ) fi ÚÓÚ. ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í Ú‡ÚÛ Ë ÍËÌÓ — ÚÓÚ. chief fi „·‚Ì˚È.fi ü ıÓÁflËÌ.fi éÌ Ò‡Ï ıÓÁflËÌ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÛ‰¸·˚. head (Ó·˘Â ÔÓÌflÚËÂ) fi „·‚‡ / ÚÓÚ. chief accountant fi „·‚Ì˚È ·Ûı„‡ÎÚÂ Ë Ú. landlord / landlady fi ıÓÁflËÌ / ıÓÁflÈ͇ (ÚÓÚ. ч‚‡Ú¸ / ·‡Ú¸ ‚Á‡ÈÏ˚. to lend fi ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ‚Á‡ÈÏ˚: I Ò‡Ô lend you some money.000 dollars to you. fl ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÛ Ú‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ? Can I borrow some money from you?fi í˚ ÏÓʯ¸ Ó‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸ ÏÌ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„? to loan (˜‡˘Â ÓÙˈˇθÌÓÂ) fi ‰‡‚‡Ú¸ ÒÒÛ‰Û: Our bank can loan 50. chief engineer fi „·‚Ì˚È ËÌÊÂÌÂ. supervisor fi ÌÂÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È Ì‡˜‡Î¸ÌËÍ (˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ì‡ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚Â) ¤ χÒÚÂ (ÛÒÒÍ. director fi 1.Ô. host / hostess fi ıÓÁflËÌ / ıÓÁflÈ͇ (ÚÓÚ.. ïÓÁflËÌ / ıÓÁflÈ͇.fi 燯 ·‡ÌÍ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‰‡Ú¸ ‚‡Ï ÒÒÛ‰Û ‚ ‡ÁÏÂ 50000 ‰ÓηÓ‚. She is her own mistress.. master / mistress fi ÚÓÚ. fl ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÛ Ú‚Ó˛ χ¯ËÌÛ? 143 . ˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ÒÓ‚ÂÚ‡ ‰ËÂÍÚÓÓ‚ fi the Board of Directors.fi ü ÏÓ„Û Ó‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸ Ú· ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„. housewife fi ‰ÓÏÓıÓÁflÈ͇ (Ì ‡·ÓÚ‡˛˘‡fl ÊÂ̇ ıÓÁflË̇ ‰Óχ). ÍÚÓ ‚ÓÁ„·‚ÎflÂÚ: The head of a department is called the chief.fi å˚ Ì Á̇ÂÏ ‚·‰Âθˆ‡ ˝ÚÓÈ ÒÓ·‡ÍË / ÎÓ¯‡‰Ë. ÒΉfl˘‡fl Á‡ ÔÓfl‰ÍÓÏ ‚ ˜ÛÊÓÏ ‰ÓÏÂ). ÍÚÓ ‡ÒÔÓflʇÂÚÒfl / ‚·‰ÂÂÚ ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I am master / mistress in my own house. ÍÚÓ Ò‰‡ÂÚ ‚̇ÂÏ Í‚‡ÚËÛ): I am your landlady and you are my tenants. 22.fi é̇ ҇χ ıÓÁflÈ͇ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÛ‰¸·˚. ç is his own master. on loan (from) fi ·‡Ú¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ‚Á‡ÈÏ˚ / ̇ ‚ÂÏfl: May I have the loan of your car? / May I have the car on loan from you?fi åÓÊÌÓ.. ÍÚÓ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ËÚ ‡ÍÚfi‡ÏË / ÓÔÂ‡ÚÓ‡ÏË / ÓÒ‚ÂÚËÚÂÎflÏË / „ËÏÂ‡ÏË Ë Ú. I am the host and you are my guest.fi ü ‚‡¯‡ ıÓÁflÈ͇. ‡ ‚˚ — ÏÓË ÊËθˆ˚. to borrow (from) fi ·‡Ú¸ ‚Á‡ÈÏ˚ (Û): May I borrow your car?fi åÓÊÌÓ. to have the loan of smth.‰. house-keeper fi ıÓÁflÈ͇ / ˝ÍÓÌÓÏ͇ (ÊÂÌ˘Ë̇.fi 燘‡Î¸ÌË͇ Óډ· ̇Á˚‚‡˛Ú ¯ÂÙÓÏ. ‚ıÓ‰fl˘ËÈ ‚ ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚Ó ÍÓÏÔ‡ÌËÂÈ / ÙËÏÓÈ.Ô. ÍÚÓ ÍÓχ̉ÛÂÚ / ÛÍÓ‚Ó‰ËÚ.

Right. the other day fi ̇ ‰Ìflı / ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ Ì‡Á‡‰: She left the other day. (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ): — Well. ˝ÚÓ ‚ˉÌÓ ‚ÒÂÏ ÓÒڇθÌ˚Ï (ÒÚÛ‰ÂÌÚ‡Ï). ç is waiting for us on the other side. to be all right fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ıÓÓ¯ÂÏ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË: I'm all right.fi éÌË Ì ÔËÚ‡˛Ú ÒËÏÔ‡ÚËË ‰Û„ Í ‰Û„Û. another (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ)fi 1.fi ïÓÓ¯Ó. you are not right. / That's right.23.fi é̇ ÛÂı‡Î‡ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ Ì‡Á‡‰. That's all right. ÏÂÌfl Á‰ÂÒ¸. fi (ч ·‰ÌÓ. / ÇÒ ‚ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ.: 144 .fi í˚ ҉·ΠÔ‡‚ËθÌ˚È ‚˚·Ó. / çË˜Â„Ó ÒÚ‡¯ÌÓ„Ó (Ì ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ).) ç ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÚÂÒ¸.fi é‰Ì‡ ËÁ ˝ÚËı χ¯ËÌ ÏÓfl.fi éÌË ¯ÎË ‰Û„ Á‡ ‰Û„ÓÏ. β·‡fl ‰Û„‡fl ÏÂÌfl ÛÒÚÓËÚ. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ÒÎÓ‚Ó ‰Û„Ë ·ÂÁ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó (ÍÓ„‰‡ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ ÔÓ ÍÓÌÚÂÍÒÚÛ) ÔÂ‚ӉËÚÒfl some / any others / more: I don't like these shoes. each other / one. every other + ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ‚ ‰. the others will go there. the other fi ‰Û„ÓÈ / ‚ÚÓÓÈ ËÁ ‰‚Ûı: One of these cars is mine. every other student / all the others can see that.fi Co ÏÌÓÈ ‚Ò ‚ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ.fi í˚ Ì „ÓÚÓ‚.fi — àÚ‡Í. any other will be OK. —è‡‚ËθÌÓ (fl Ëϲ ‚ ‚Ë‰Û ËÏÂÌÌÓ ˝ÚÓ).fi — èÓ‰ÓʉË. / No. you are wrong. ÓÒڇθÌ˚ ÔÓȉÛÚ ÚÛ‰‡. ‰Û„ÓÈ (Ì ڇÍÓÈ): Can I have another chair?fi åÓÊÌÓ fl ‚ÓÁ¸ÏÛ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÛÎ? other fi ‰Û„Ë (Ò ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ): I'd like to buy a few other books. ‰Û„ÓÈ (¢ ӉËÌ): Would you like another cup of tea?fi ïÓÚËÚ ¢ ˜‡¯Â˜ÍÛ ˜‡fl? 127. ‚˚ ıÓÚËÚ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÓ‚˚È ‰ÓÏ. Have you got any others / any more?fi åÌ Ì Ì‡‚flÚÒfl ˝ÚË ÚÛÙÎË. / Right. one after the other / one after another fi Ó‰ËÌ Á‡ ‰Û„ËÏ: They were walking one after another / one after the other.fi ü ·˚ ıÓÚÂÎ ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰Û„Ëı ÍÌË„. fi è‡‚ËθÌÓ. — ïÓÓ¯Ó. another fi Ó‰ËÌ ‰Û„Ó„Ó / ‰Û„ ‰Û„‡: They don't like each other / one another.fi å˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÏÒfl Á‰ÂÒ¸. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.fi ùÚÓ ÏÓ„ ҉·ڸ β·ÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ Ï‡Î¸˜ËÍ. That's right. ì ‚‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Û„ËÂ? I'd like to see some others / some more. (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌË / ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ): — Would you wait for me here. ˜ËÒΠ/ all the others fi ‚Ò ‰Û„Ë / ÓÒڇθÌ˚Â: You are not ready. — Right. Any other boy could do it. the other is my sister's. — All right.fi ü ıÓÚ· ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ‰Û„ËÂ. Ú˚ ÌÂÔ‡‚. ‰Û„‡fl — ÏÓÂÈ ÒÂÒÚ˚. 24.fi åÌ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˝Ú‡ χ¯Ë̇.fi — ü Ô‡‚? — çÂÚ. you want to buy a new house.fi éÌ Ê‰ÂÚ Ì‡Ò Ì‡ ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌÂ. right fi Ô‡‚˚È / wrong fi ÌÂÔ‡‚˚È: — Am I right? — No. All right. ÑÛ„ÓÈ / ‰Û„Ó / another / other / the others. Where are the others?fi ɉ ÓÒڇθÌ˚Â? any other fi β·ÓÈ ‰Û„ÓÈ: I don't like this car. the others fi ÓÒڇθÌ˚Â: We shall stay here. right fi Ô‡‚˚È / left fi ΂˚È: Shall I turn right at the station?fi åÌ ÔÓ‚Ó‡˜Ë‚‡Ú¸ ̇Ô‡‚Ó Û ‚ÓÍÁ‡Î‡? right fi Ô‡‚ËθÌ˚È: What is the right time?fi ä‡ÍÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl? You've made the right choice.

Let's turn left. I'm coming right now / right away.fi ïÓÓ¯Ó. right how / right away fi ÌÂÁ‡Ï‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ: All right. instantly: She sensed instantly that her son and this woman were involved in a love affair. 26. — That's all right. on smb. as fast as you can / as quick as possible: Come to my house as fast as you can / as quick as possible. ˜ÚÓ Û Â Ò˚̇ Ò ˝ÚÓÈ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌÓÈ ÓÏ‡Ì ( Ò˚Ì Ë ˝Ú‡ ÊÂÌ˘Ë̇ ‚β·ÎÂÌ˚ ‰Û„ ‚ ‰Û„‡). left fi ΂˚È: right / left hand / side / wall /.fi ü ıÓ˜Û ÛÂı‡Ú¸ / ÛÈÚË ÒÂȘ‡Ò ÊÂ.fi é̇ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ‰ÂÒflÚË (˜‡ÒÓ‚). — ÇÒ ‚ ÔÓfl‰Í (Ì ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÚÂÒ¸). 27. right now / away: You must do it right away / now. I don't like instant coffee. 25. first right. second left and it will be the third building on your right.. ÇÔ‡‚Ó (‚΂Ó) / ÒÔ‡‚‡ (Ò΂‡) / ̇Ô‡‚Ó (̇΂Ó).fi ü Ì β·Î˛ ‡ÒÚ‚ÓËÏ˚È ÍÓÙÂ.fi ëÓ˜ÌÓ ÔËÂÁÊ‡È ÍÓ ÏÌ ‰ÓÏÓÈ.fi Ô‡‚‡fl / ΂‡fl Û͇ / ÒÚÓÓ̇ / ÒÚÂ̇ / . without delay: Come here without delay. It serves smb.fi èÓ‰ÂÎÓÏ Ú·Â. to turn (to the) right / left fi ÔÓ‚Ó‡˜Ë‚‡Ú¸ ̇Ô‡‚Ó / ̇΂Ó: Why didn't you turn (to the) right?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛΠ̇Ô‡‚Ó? They turned right. on the spot: We can't do it on the spot. (‚ ·‡ÌÍÂ/Û Í‡ÒÒ / .. ÔÓÚÓÏ Ì‡Î‚Ó: (You will turn) First right.. right angle fi ÔflÏÓÈ Û„ÓÎ. ó‡Ò / ˜‡Ò˚. It serves you right.fi ч‚‡È ҉·ÂÏ ˝ÚÓ ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò.. right fi Ô‡‚˚È.fi èËıÓ‰Ë Ò˛‰‡ ÌÂÁ‡Ï‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ.— I'm sorry.fi éÌË ÔÓ‚ÂÌÛÎË Ì‡Ô‡‚Ó. immediately: She will come back immediately after 10 o'clock..'s right / left fi ÒÔ‡‚‡ / Ò΂‡ ÓÚ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó: It is the second window on your left.fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Ò‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò. at once: Come to my house at once. ‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸÒfl: 145 . ‚˚ÂÁʇ˛ ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò.fi (èÓ‚ÂÌËÚÂ) ë̇˜‡Î‡ ̇Ô‡‚Ó. / èÓ‰ÂÎÓÏ.) It will be the first door on your right. straight away: Let's do it straight away. çÂωÎÂÌÌÓ / ÌÂÁ‡Ï‰ÎËÚÂθÌÓ / ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò / Ò‡ÁÛ.fi ùÚÓ ‚ÚÓÓ ÓÍÓ¯ÍÓ Ò΂‡ ÓÚ ‚‡Ò. fi í‡Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó Ë Ì‡‰Ó.: It serves him right. ÔÓÚÓÏ Ì‡Î‚Ó. o'clock — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ó‚ÌÓ (ÒÚÓθÍÓ-ÚÓ ˜‡ÒÓ‚). I want to leave immediately. right. Ë ˝ÚÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÚÂڸ Á‰‡ÌË ÒÔ‡‚‡ ÓÚ ‚‡Ò.fi èËÂÁÊ‡È ÍÓ ÏÌ (‰ÓÏÓÈ) ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò.fi é̇ Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Î‡.fi å˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ Ò‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ Ò‡ÁÛ / ÔflÏÓ ÒÂȘ‡Ò (Ì‡Ï ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl).fi — àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. second left fi Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ̇Ô‡‚Ó.fi ùÚÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ÔÂ‚‡fl ‰‚Â¸ ÒÔ‡‚‡ (ÓÚ ‚‡Ò).fi í‡Í ÂÏÛ Ë Ì‡‰Ó (Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ ·Óθ¯Â Ú‡Í (ÔÎÓıÓ) ÔÓÒÚÛÔ‡Ú¸).fi ч‚‡È ÔÓ‚ÂÌÂÏ Ì‡Î‚Ó.

from time to time fi ‚ÂÏfl ÓÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ç calls me from time to time. ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÌÂθÁfl ÌÓÒËÚ¸ Ò ÒÓ·ÓÈ). It is nearly three hours / o'clock.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ÔÓ˜ÚË ÚË (˜‡Ò‡).fi ü ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸ Ó˜Â̸ ·˚ÒÚÓ.fi é̇ Ô˯· ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl.Ô. He'll come back in an hour.fi Ç˚ Ì Ò͇ÊÂÚÂ. What does your watch say? / What time is it by your watch?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ì‡ Ú‚ÓËı (̇Û˜Ì˚ı / ͇χÌÌ˚ı) ˜‡Ò‡ı? 28. What time is it? / What is the time?fi äÓÚÓ˚È ˜‡Ò? Could you tell me the time. to have a good time => ıÓÓ¯Ó ÔÓ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl: Did you have a good time?fi Ç˚ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÔÓ‚ÂÎË ‚ÂÏfl? to pass the time fi Á‡ÌËχڸ / Û·Ë‚‡Ú¸ ‚ÂÏfl: What shall we do to pass the time?fi óÂÏ ·˚ Ì‡Ï Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl (˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚ÂÏfl ÔÓ¯ÎÓ ·˚ÒÚÓ)? 146 .fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú· ‚ ÔflÚ¸ (˜‡ÒÓ‚). ÂÒÎË Âı‡Ú¸ ̇ χ¯ËÌÂ. It is nearly three (o'clock).fi éÌ Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÏÌ ‚ÂÏfl ÓÚ ‚ÂÏÂÌË. ahead of time fi Ò ÓÔÂÂÊÂÌËÂÏ: Our bus is twenty minutes ahead of time. time fi ‚ÂÏfl: Time is money.fi éÌË Ô˯ÎË Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ.fi ç‡¯Ë ˜‡Ò˚ Ó˜Â̸ ÒÚ‡˚Â.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ÔÓ˜ÚË ÚË (˜‡Ò‡).fi To ·˚ÎË ıÓӯˠ‚ÂÏÂ̇. at times fi ‚ÂÏÂ̇ÏË: ç calls me at times.fi 燯 ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒ Ë‰ÂÚ Ò ÓÔÂÂÊÂÌËÂÏ ‡ÒÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ̇ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÏËÌÛÚ.m. at the same time you must help the others. (pocket) watch fi ˜‡Ò˚ ͇χÌÌ˚Â: Your (pocket) watch is (three minutes) slow.fi å˚ ·Û‰ÂÏ Ú‡Ï ˜ÂÂÁ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡. hour fi ˜‡Ò (‚ β·˚ı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı): I'll call you at five hours / o'clock.fi í‚ÓË (͇χÌÌ˚Â) ˜‡Ò˚ ÓÚÒÚ‡˛Ú (̇ ÚË ÏËÌÛÚ˚). on time fi ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl (ÔÛÌÍÚۇθÌÓ): She came on time.fi ü ҉·˛ ˝ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ·˚ÒÚÓ. (o'clock — ÌÂθÁfl) We'll be thb-re after two hours' drive. (o'clock — ÌÂθÁfl) Office hours are 9 a. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ˜‡Ò? times fi ‚ÂÏÂ̇: Those were good times. I'll come back in no time. clock fi ˜‡Ò˚ (̇ÒÚÂÌÌ˚Â Ë Ú. in time fi ‚Ó‚ÂÏfl (‰ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓ˜ÌÓ ‡ÌÓ): We are in time to catch the bus. in no time fi Ó˜Â̸ ·˚ÒÚÓ / ÒÍÓÓ: I'll do it in no time. I know you are tired.fi ÇÂÏfl — ‰Â̸„Ë.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ Ú· ‚ ÔflÚ¸ (˜‡ÒÓ‚). at the same time fi Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓ / ‚ ÚÓ Ê ‚ÂÏfl / ÚÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ: They came at the same time. Time. behind time fi Ò ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÌËÂÏ: The train is twenty minutes behind time.I'll call you at five (o'clock).fi éÌ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl ˜ÂÂÁ ˜‡Ò. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ ÙÓÏ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ˜ËÒ·: Our clock is very old..fi ü Á̇˛.m. please.fi å˚ ¢ ÛÒÔ‚‡ÂÏ Ì‡ ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒ. Ë ÚÂÏ Ì ÏÂÌÂÂ. Ú˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÓÒڇθÌ˚Ï.fi ÇÂÏÂ̇ÏË ÓÌ Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÏÌÂ.fi èÓÂÁ‰ ÓÔ‡Á‰˚‚‡ÂÚ Ì‡ ‰‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸ ÏËÌÛÚ. to 5 p. (wrist) watch fi ˜‡Ò˚ ̇Û˜Ì˚Â: My (wrist) watch is (five minutes) fast.fi ÇÂÏfl ‡·ÓÚ˚ (Û˜ÂʉÂÌËfl) Ò 9 (ÛÚ‡) ‰Ó 5 (‚˜Â‡). Ú˚ ÛÒÚ‡Î.fi åÓË (̇Û˜Ì˚Â) ˜‡Ò˚ ÒÔ¯‡Ú (̇ 5 ÏËÌÛÚ).

fl ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ Ôӷ·„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ ‚ÒÂı ‚‡Ò Á‡ Ó͇Á˚‚‡ÂÏÛ˛ (ÏÌÂ) ÔÓ‰‰ÂÊÍÛ.. I remember my first lesson very well. . Û ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Îfl ‚‡Ò Ó˜Â̸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚË. fl ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ ̇ÔÓÏÌËÚ¸ ‚‡Ï Ó ‚‡¯Ëı Ó·flÁflÌÌÓÒÚflı. .. for the first time fi ‚ÔÂ‚˚ / ‚ ÔÂ‚˚È ‡Á. at first fi Ò̇˜‡Î‡ /‚̇˜‡ÎÂ: At first it was very difficult.fi ÇÓ-‚ÚÓ˚ı.. I'd like to thank all of you for your help.. They saw me first. another time fi (͇Í-ÌË·Û‰¸) ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á.fi í˚ Ô˯ÂÎ ÔÂ‚˚Ï.. ˜ÂÏ (Ò)‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó) / èÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó (ÔÓ‰˜ÂÍË‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÚÓ„Ó.. for the last time fi ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌËÈ ‡Á. I have something very important to tell you. First. the next time fi ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ËÈ ‡Á..fi éÌË ÔËıÓ‰ËÎË Ò˛‰‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡Á. / Ç-ÚÂÚ¸Ëı.: Firstly. .. Lastly.fi èÂʉ ‚ÒÂ„Ó (Ó·‡˘‡˛ ‚‡¯Â / Ú‚Ó ‚ÌËχÌË ̇ ˝ÚÓ). fl ıÓ˜Û ËÁ‚ËÌËÚ¸Òfl Á‡ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÌËÂ... at first sight fi Ò ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚Á„Îfl‰‡ / ̇ ÔÂ‚˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰: 147 .fi éÌË ÔÂ‚˚ÏË Û‚Ë‰ÂÎË ÏÂÌfl. fi ë̇˜‡Î‡ (ÔÂʉÂ.. First of all. next time fi (͇Í-ÌË·Û‰¸) ‚ ‰Û„ÓÈ ‡Á. ÏÌ „Ó‚ÓflÚ.fi ë̇˜‡Î‡ ÓÌ ÚÓθÍÓ ÓÚÍ˚Î ‰‚Â¸. . Ï˚ Ì ÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎËÚ¸ Ò· ÔÓÚ‡ÚËÚ¸ ÒÚÓθÍÓ ‰ÂÌ„. fi ë̇˜‡Î‡ . .. ˜ÂÏ (Ò)‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó): I want you to show me your papers first..fi Ç̇˜‡Î ·˚ÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÚÛ‰ÌÓ. / Firstly. 29. lastly / (ÂÊÂ) last of all fi (Ë) ̇ÍÓ̈.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÔÓÏÌ˛ Ò‚ÓÈ ÔÂ‚˚È ÛÓÍ.fi ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı.fi ùÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ò ÌÂÈ ‚ÒflÍËÈ ‡Á (ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ). ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Á‡ÌflÚ. I'd like to remind you of your duties. Secondly. . fi ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı (ÔË ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌËË). First.time fi ‡Á: They came here many times.fi ü ıÓ˜Û..fi ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı. . ÍÓ„‰‡ Ó̇ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl Ӊ̇. every time fi ͇ʉ˚È / ‚ÒflÍËÈ ‡Á (‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı / ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ): It happens to her every time she stays alone. First of all. / Third. we can't spend so much money.. /ÇÓ-ÔÂ‚˚ı. (the) first fi ÔÂ‚˚È: You are the first to come.. then he started to get out... First. Ë ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÂÂÁ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‚ÂÏfl ̇˜‡Î ‚˚·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl (ËÁ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎfl). I'd like to thank all my friends.. in the second place / secondly fi ‚Ó-‚ÚÓ˚ı.fi ÇÒflÍËÈ ‡Á (ËÌÓ„‰‡).fi (à) ç‡ÍÓ̈.. In the first place. ÍÓ„‰‡ fl ÔËıÓÊÛ Ò˛‰‡. . Ó ˜ÂÏ ÔÓȉÂÚ ˜¸): First of all he just opened the door.: First. I want to apologize for coming late. this time fi ‚ ˝ÚÓÚ ‡Á. Second. each time fi ͇ʉ˚È / ‚ÒflÍËÈ ‡Á (‚ ͇ʉÓÏ ÍÓÌÍÂÚÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â): Each time I come here they say you are busy.. first fi ‚ÔÂ‚˚Â: Where did you first see him? / Where did you see him first?fi ɉ Ú˚ ‚ÔÂ‚˚ ‚ÒÚÂÚËΠ„Ó? first fi Ò̇˜‡Î‡ / ‚̇˜‡Î (ÔÂʉÂ...fi ë̇˜‡Î‡ fl ıÓÚÂÎ ·˚ Ôӷ·„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ ‚ÒÂı ÏÓËı ‰ÛÁÂÈ. . last time fi ‚ ÔÓ¯Î˚È ‡Á. for the first / for the second time fi ‚ ÔÂ‚˚È / ‚Ó ‚ÚÓÓÈ ‡Á. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ Ò̇˜‡Î‡ ÔÓ͇Á‡ÎË ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ˚. ÇÓ-‚ÚÓ˚ı.

fi éÌË Ò΄͇ ÔÂÂÍÛÒËÎË ıηÓÏ Ò Ò˚ÓÏ.fi Ö β·ËÏÓ ·Î˛‰Ó — ·ËÙ¯ÚÂÍÒ Ò Ï‡Í‡Ó̇ÏË. Å˚Ú¸ ̇ ‰ËÂÚ / ıÛ‰ÂÚ¸. 30. ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ó„‡Ì˘˂‡Ú¸ Ò·fl ‚ ÔˢÂ. My wife is dieting herself very strictly. . last / family name fi Ù‡ÏËÎËfl. At first sight it (car) was good. 31. on a diet fi ÔÓÒ‡‰ËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ì‡ ‰ËÂÚÛ: The doctor put me on a diet.fi ü ̇ ‰ËÂÚÂ. dish fi ·Î˛‰Ó: Her favourite dish is steak and macaroni. ‚ ëòÄ — 1-È ˝Ú‡Ê.fi ì Ì‡Ò ‚Ò ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓ. first-hand fi ËÁ ÔÂ‚˚ı ÛÍ (ËÌÙÓχˆËfl Ë Ú.fi ùÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÔÂ‚ÓÍ·ÒÒÌÓ ¯ÓÛ.fi éÌ ÔÓӷ¢‡Î ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ ÔÂ‚˚Ï ‰ÂÎÓÏ Á‡‚Ú‡. foodstuff fi Ôˢ‚˚ ÔÓ‰ÛÍÚ˚. food for thought fi Ôˢ‡ ‰Îfl Ûχ. meal fi ÔËÂÏ ÔˢË: I have three meals a day. Ó̇ (χ¯Ë̇) ·˚· ıÓÓ¯‡fl.fi ü ÔËÚ‡˛Ò¸ ÚË ‡Á‡ ‚ ‰Â̸.fi ç‡ ‚ÚÓÓ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓ‰‡˛Ú ÓÒÚ·ËÙ Ò Í‡ÚÓÙÂÎÂÏ. Did you enjoy your meal?fi Ç‡Ï ÔÓÌ‡‚ËÎÒfl Á‡‚Ú‡Í / ӷ‰ / ÛÊËÌ? They had a light meal of bread and cheese. second / middle name fi ÓÚ˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó.) ̇ ÒÚÓÎÂ: Why should I wash the dishes?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ fl ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ Ï˚Ú¸ ÔÓÒÛ‰Û? course fi Ӊ̇ ËÁ ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ meal / ·Î˛‰Ó: What is the first course?fi óÚÓ Ì‡ ÔÂ‚ÓÂ? The main course here is roast beef and potatoes.fi Ç (˝ÚÓÏ) ÏÂÌ˛ ÚÓθÍÓ ÚË ÏflÒÌ˚ı ·Î˛‰‡.fi ÇÒÂÏ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ıÓÓ¯‡fl Ôˢ‡.. food fi Ôˢ‡ (Ó·˘Â ÔÓÌflÚËÂ): Everybody likes good food.fi ùÚ‡ ËÌÙÓχˆËfl / ü ÛÁ̇Π˝ÚÓ ËÁ ÔÂ‚˚ı ÛÍ.fi ÑÓÍÚÓ ÔÓÒ‡‰ËÎ ÏÂÌfl ̇ ‰ËÂÚÛ. food poisoning fi Ôˢ‚Ó ÓÚ‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ. first floor fi ‚ ÇÂÎËÍÓ·ËÚ‡ÌËË — 2-È ˝Ú‡Ê (1-È ˝Ú‡Ê fi ground floor). There are only three meat dishes on the menu.. We are getting on first-rate. first thing fi ÔÂ‚˚Ï ‰ÂÎÓÏ (ÔÂʉÂ. Is she still dieting?fi é̇ Â˘Â Ì‡ ‰ËÂÚÂ? to be on a diet fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ ‰ËÂÚÂ: I am on a diet. first-class fi ÔÂ‚ÓÍ·ÒÒÌ˚È. first-rate fi ÓÚ΢Ì˚È / ÔÂ‚ÓÍ·ÒÒÌ˚È / ÓÚ΢ÌÓ: It was a first-rate show.fi ç‡ ÔÂ‚˚È ‚Á„Îfl‰. the dishes fi ‚Òfl ÔÓÒÛ‰‡ (Ú‡ÂÎÍË / ˜‡¯ÍË / ·Î˛‰ˆ‡ / .fi éÌ ‚β·ËÎÒfl ‚ ÌÂÂ Ò ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚Á„Îfl‰‡.fi ü Ú‡Í ‡ÒÔÓÎÌ·.Ô. to put smb. to be reducing / slimming fi ıÛ‰ÂÚ¸: 148 .): I learned it first-hand.ç fell in love with her at first sight.fi åÓfl ÊÂ̇ ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÂÒÚ — ıÛ‰ÂÂÚ. èˢ‡ / ‰‡ / ·Î˛‰Ó. first name fi ËÏfl ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇. food department fi ÔÓ‰ÛÍÚÓ‚˚È ÓÚ‰ÂÎ. to diet (oneself) fi Ó„‡Ì˘˂‡Ú¸ Ò·fl ‚ ÔˢÂ: I am so fat that I have to diet myself. ˜ÂÏ Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó ‰Û„ËÏ) / ‚ ÔÂ‚Û˛ Ó˜Â‰¸: ç promised to do it first thing tomorrow.

I am reducing.fi ü ıÛ‰Â˛.
She is slimming.fi é̇ ıÛ‰ÂÂÚ.

32. èÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸/ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸.
to fit fi
ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ (ÔÓ ‡ÁÏÂÛ / ÙÓÏÂ):
Does this dress fit me?fi ùÚÓ Ô·ڸ ÏÓÂ„Ó ‡ÁÏÂ‡?
These shoes don't fit me (well).fi ùÚË ÚÛÙÎË Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰flÚ ÏÌ ÔÓ ‡ÁÏÂÛ.
The coat fits you perfectly.fi ùÚÓ Ô‡Î¸ÚÓ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ Ú· (ÔÓ ‡ÁÏÂÛ).
Your key does not fit the lock.fi í‚ÓÈ Íβ˜ Ì ÓÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó Á‡Ï͇.
128. ÔӉӄ̇ڸ (ÔÓ ‡ÁÏÂÛ / ÙÓÏÂ):
I want to have this new skirt fitted.fi ü ıÓ˜Û, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ ÔӉӄ̇ÎË ˝ÚÛ ˛·ÍÛ ÔÓ ÏÓÂÏÛ ‡ÁÏÂÛ.
1.

fit fi ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘ËÈ / ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÈ:
The food was not fit to eat.fi èˢ‡ ·˚· ÌÂÔ˄Ӊ̇ ‰Îfl ‰˚.
Do as you think fit.fi Ñ·È, Í‡Í Ò˜Ëڇ¯¸ ÌÛÊÌ˚Ï.
to suit fi
ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸./ ˉÚË (·˚Ú¸ Í ÎˈÛ):
Does this hat suit me?fi ùÚ‡ ¯ÎflÔ‡ ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ / ˉÂÚ ÏÌÂ?
This sweater doesn't suit me.fi ùÚÓÚ Ò‚ËÚÂ ÏÌ Ì ˉÂÚ.
129. ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡Ú¸ (·˚Ú¸ Û‰Ó·Ì˚Ï ‰Îfl):
Will ten o'clock suit you?fi Ç‡Ò ÛÒÚÓËÚ ‰ÂÒflÚ¸ ˜‡ÒÓ‚ (‰Îfl ÔËÂχ / ‚ÒÚÂ˜Ë Ë Ú.Ô.)?
Does the food suit you / your taste?fi ìÒÚ‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ ‚‡Ò Ôˢ‡?
1.

to be suited to / for ¤ to be fit for fi ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸:
That man is not fit for the job.¤ That man is not suited to / for the job.fi ùÚÓÚ ÏÛʘË̇ Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ ‰Îfl ‰‡ÌÌÓÈ
‡·ÓÚ˚.
to match fi
ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ (Ó‰ÌÓ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ÔÓ ˆ‚ÂÚÛ, ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Û / ...):
These shoes don't match my frock.fi ùÚË ÚÛÙÎË Ì ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰flÚ Í ÏÓÂÏÛ Ô·ڸ˛.
The curtains should match the carpet.fi òÚÓ˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Í ÍÓ‚Û.
130. ÔÓ‰Ó·‡Ú¸ (ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó):
Can you match the silk?fi Ç˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓ‰Ó·‡Ú¸ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ Í .¯ÂÎÍÛ?
1.

33. éÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ‚ ͇ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó ÏÂÒÚ / Û ÍÓ„ÓÎË·Ó).
to stop fi
ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl / ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸Òfl:
Do the buses stop here?fi Ä‚ÚÓ·ÛÒ˚ ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡˛ÚÒfl Á‰ÂÒ¸?
My watch has stopped.fi åÓË ˜‡Ò˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸.
The rain has stopped.fi ÑÓʉ¸ ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÎÒfl.
131. ÔÂÍ‡ÚËÚ¸ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ, ÂÒÎË Ò „ÂÛ̉ËÂÏ:
She stopped reading.fi é̇ ÔÂÂÒڇ· ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ (ÔÂÍ‡ÚË· ˜ÚÂÌËÂ).
132. ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ͇ÍÓÂ-ÚÓ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ), ÂÒÎË Ò ËÌÙËÌËÚË‚ÓÏ:
They stopped to rest.fi éÌË ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸ (, ˜ÚÓ·˚) ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸.
to stay fi ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ / ̇ ÌӘ΄ / Û ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó); ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÙÓÏ Continuous Present:
I am staying at my mother's.fi ü ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎÒfl Û Ï‡Ï˚.
Where are you staying?fi ɉ ‚˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸?
We are staying at the hotel.fi å˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸ ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂ.
She is staying at her relatives'.fi é̇ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚Ë·Ҹ Û Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍÓ‚.
1.

34. éÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl.
to stop:
Why don't you want to stop for dinner?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÌÂ. ıӘ¯¸ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ÛÊËÌ?
149

I'm stopping (at) home tonight.fi ë„ӉÌfl fl ÌËÍÛ‰‡ ÌÂ Ë‰Û / ÒËÊÛ ‰Óχ.
to stop at some place / at smb.'s fi ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (̇ ‚ÂÏfl) „‰Â-ÎË·Ó / Û ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó:
You Ò‡Ô stop at my parents' (house for a few days).fi Ç˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl (̇ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ ‚ ‰ÓÏÂ) Û
ÏÓËı Ó‰ËÚÂÎÂÈ.
to stay fi ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl;
to leave fi ÛÂı‡Ú¸ / ÛÈÚË / ÌÂ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl:
Why don't you want to stay with us?¤ Why do you want to leave?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ıӘ¯¸ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl Ò Ì‡ÏË?
Stay here.¤ Don't leave here.fi éÒÚ‡‚‡ÈÒfl / ÅÛ‰¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸.
I can't stay.¤ I have to leave.fi ü ÌÂ ÏÓ„Û ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl.
I'm too busy to stay.¤ I'm too busy not to leave.fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl, Û ÏÂÌfl ÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÎ.
to have smth. left fi ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl (ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ ̇΢ËË):
We only have 10 dollars left.fi ì Ì‡Ò ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ ‚ÒÂ„Ó 10 ‰ÓηÓ‚.
They have 5 minutes left.fi ì ÌËı ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl / ÓÒÚ‡ÎÓÒ¸ 5 ÏËÌÛÚ.

35. è‡‡.
pair fi
‰‚‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡, ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËıÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚ / Ó‰ËÌ Ô‰ÏÂÚ, ÒÓÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ËÁ ‰‚Ûı ÌÂ‡Á‰ÂÎËÏ˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ:
a pair of socks fi Ô‡‡ ÌÓÒÍÓ‚;
a pair of shoes fi Ô‡‡ ÚÛÙÎÂÈ;
a pair of gloves fi Ô‡‡ ÔÂ˜‡ÚÓÍ;
a pair of trousers fi Ô‡‡ ·˛Í;
a pair of scissors fi ÌÓÊÌˈ˚;
a pair of tights fi ÍÓ΄ÓÚÍË
133. ‰‚‡ ÚÂÒÌÓ Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ (ÏÛÊ Ë ÊÂ̇ / ÊÂÌËı Ë Ì‚ÂÒÚ‡ / Ô‡ÚÌÂ˚ ‚ ڇ̈ / ·ËÁÌÂÒÂ Ë Ú.‰.):
They make a very good pair.fi éÌË Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯‡fl Ô‡‡.
1.

couple fi
‰‚‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡ / ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇, Ì ҂flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ ·ÎËÁÍÓ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ:
She will be back in a couple of minutes.fi é̇ ‚ÂÌÂÚÒfl ˜ÂÂÁ Ô‡Û ÏËÌÛÚ.
I can wait a couple of weeks.fi ü ÏÓ„Û ÔÓ‰Óʉ‡Ú¸ Ô‡Û Ì‰Âθ.
I need a couple of dollars.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Ô‡Û ‰ÓηÓ‚.
134. ‰‚‡ ÚÂÒÌÓ Ò‚flÁ‡ÌÌ˚ı ÏÂÊ‰Û ÒÓ·ÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ (¤ pair):
They make a very good couple.fi éÌË Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯‡fl Ô‡‡.
1.

match fi ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ, ÔÓ‰ıÓ‰fl˘ËÈ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ‰Îfl ÒÛÔÛÊÂÒÚ‚‡:
She is a good match.fi é̇ ıÓÓ¯‡fl Ô‡‡.
They decided to make a match of it.fi éÌË ¯ËÎË ÔÓÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl.

36. Ö˘Â.
yet fi Ó ÌÂÒÓ‚Â¯Ë‚¯ÂÏÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË:
ç has not come yet. / He has not yet come.fi éÌ Â˘Â Ì Ô˯ÂÎ.
still fi Ó ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇ˛˘ÂÏÒfl / „ÛÎflÌÓÏ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË:
She is still waiting.fi é̇ (‚ÒÂ) Â˘Â Ê‰ÂÚ.
She still comes here.fi é̇ ‚Ò ¢ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ Ò˛‰‡.
one more / (yet) another fi ¢ ӉËÌ:
He bought one more car.fi éÌ ÍÛÔËΠ¢ ӉÌÛ Ï‡¯ËÌÛ.
Would you like to see another pair of shoes?fi Ç˚ ıÓÚÂÎË ·˚ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ¢ ӉÌÛ Ô‡Û (Ó·Û‚Ë)?
some more fi ¢ ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸;
ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı / ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı, ÍÓ„‰‡ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ Û‚ÂÂÌ, ˜ÚÓ ÚÓ, Ó ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ
„Ó‚ÓËÚ, ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ ̇΢ËË:
My son would like some more potatoes.fi Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÔËÌÂÒÚË ÏÓÂÏÛ Ò˚ÌÛ Â˘Â Í‡ÚÓ¯ÍË?
Can I offer you some more coffee?fi åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ , ¢ ÍÓÙÂ?
150

any more fi ¢ ÒÍÓθÍÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸;
ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰Ë-ÚÂθ-Ì˚ı / ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı, ÍÓ„‰‡ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ Ì ۂÂÂÌ, ˜ÚÓ ÚÓ, Ó ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ
ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡ÂÚ, ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ ̇΢ËË:
Have you got any more water?fi ì ‚‡Ò ÂÒÚ¸ ¢ ‚Ó‰‡?
I'm not sure if he has got any more money.fi ü Ì ۂÂÂÌ, ÂÒÚ¸ ÎË Û ÌÂ„Ó Â˘Â ‰Â̸„Ë.
someone / somebody else fi ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ Â˘Â (‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı):
There was someone else in the house.fi Ç ‰ÓÏ ·˚Π¢ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ.
anyone / anybody else fi ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ¢ (‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ı):
Was there anyone / anybody else in the house?fi Ç ‰ÓÏ ·˚Π¢ ÍÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸?
something (‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ — anything) else fi ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ (˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸) ¢Â:
There is something else under the bed.fi èÓ‰ ÍÓ‚‡Ú¸˛ ÂÒÚ¸ ¢ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ.
Is there anything else in his pocket?fi ÖÒÚ¸ Û ÌÂ„Ó ‚ ͇χÌ ¢ ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸?
a few / several / some more fi ¢ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ (Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË):
I want a few / several / some more postcards.fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ Â˘Â ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÓÚÍ˚ÚÓÍ.
I've got some more questions.fi ì ÏÂÌfl (ÂÒÚ¸) ¢ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚.
a little / some more fi ¢ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó (Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË):
Will you wait a little more, please.fi èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ, ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡, ¢ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó.
I'd like a little more ice-cream.fi åÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ¢ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÏÓÓÊÂÌÓ„Ó.
even + Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθ̇fl ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ fi ¢ ...:
I'm even older now.fi ëÂȘ‡Ò fl ¢ ÒÚ‡¯Â.
Tomorrow I'll come even later.fi ᇂÚ‡ fl ÔË‰Û Â˘Â ÔÓÁÊÂ.
ç is even more handsome.fi éÌ Â˘Â ·ÓΠÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌ˚È.
She is even less interested in this.fi é̇ ¢ ÏÂ̸¯Â Á‡ËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ì‡ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ.

37. ä‡ÒË‚˚È - Í‡ÒË‚‡fl / ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθÌ˚È –ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÚÂθ̇fl.
Ó ÏÛʘËÌÂ: good-looking / handsome;
Ó ÊÂÌ˘ËÌÂ: attractive / beautiful / good-looking / handsome / lovely / pretty / ravishing.

38. åÂÒÚÓ.
place (Ó·˘Â ÔÓÌflÚËÂ):
I like this place.fi åÌ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl ˝ÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ (ÚÂËÚÓËfl / „ÓÓ‰ / ‡ÈÓÌ / ÛÎˈ‡ / ‰ÓÏ / ÏÂÒÚÓ ‡·ÓÚ˚ /
Ú‡Ú / ÂÒÚÓ‡Ì / ...).
to take place fi ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ / ÒÎÛ˜‡Ú¸Òfl (ËÏÂÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ):
Their wedding took place last week.fi àı Ò‚‡‰¸·‡ ·˚· ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂÎÂ.
seat fi ÏÂÒÚÓ (ÒˉÂ̸Â):
the back / front seat of the car fi Á‡‰Ì / ÔÂ‰Ì ÒˉÂ̸ ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·ËÎfl;
Our seats are in the back row.fi ç‡¯Ë ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ Á‡‰ÌÂÏ fl‰Û.
Is this seat vacant?fi ùÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ì Á‡ÌflÚÓ?
to take a seat fi ÒÂÒÚ¸ / Á‡ÌflÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ:
Take your seats, please.fi á‡ÈÏËÚ ҂ÓË ÏÂÒÚ‡, ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.
May I take a seat?fi åÓÊÌÓ ÏÌÂ ÒÂÒÚ¸?
Take the seat.fi èËÒ‡ÊË‚‡ÈÚÂÒ¸.
to seat fi ‚Ï¢‡Ú¸:
My car seats five (persons).fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÔflÚËÏÂÒÚÌ˚È ‡‚ÚÓÏÓ·Ëθ.
Be seated. fi ëˉË(ÚÂ). / ç ‚ÒÚ‡‚‡È(ÚÂ).:
Be seated, please.fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡, ÒˉËÚ (‚‡Ï ÌÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË ‚ÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸).
room fi ÏÂÒÚÓ (ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó ‰Îfl ‡ÁÏ¢ÂÌËfl ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó/ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó):
There is room for you in the car.fi í· ı‚‡ÚËÚ ÏÂÒÚ‡ ‚ χ¯ËÌÂ.
Is there room for my books in your case?fi Ç Ú‚ÓÂÏ ˜ÂÏÓ‰‡Ì ÂÒÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‰Îfl ÏÓËı ÍÌË„?
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to button fi Á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ ̇ Ôۄӂˈ˚ / ÍÌÓÔÍË: Why don't you button your coat?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì Á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Â¯¸ ԇθÚÓ? to zip fi Á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ ̇ Á‡ÏÓÍ (ÏÓÎÌ˲): She couldn't zip / unzip her dress.): Is this seat free?fi ùÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ? Do you have free rooms?fi ì ‚‡Ò (‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈÂ) ÂÒÚ¸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚ ÌÓÏÂ‡? 138. ë‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚È / ÌÂÁ‡ÌflÚ˚È / ÔÛÒÚÓÈ. 137. Ì ҂flÁ‡ÌÌ˚È Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌËflÏË: You are free to stay or leave.fi ùÚ‡ ÍÓÏ̇ڇ ÔÛÒÚ‡fl.fi Ç˚ Ì ÔËÒÚ„ÌÛÎËÒ¸ ÂÏÌÂÏ (·ÂÁÓÔ‡ÒÌÓÒÚË).fi é̇ Ì Ïӄ· Á‡ÒÚ„ÌÛÚ¸ / ‡ÒÒÚ„ÌÛÚ¸ Ô·ڸÂ. room fi ÍÓÏ̇ڇ.fi Ç˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl ËÎË ÛÂÁʇڸ —.fi íÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓfl˜Ë ÏÂÒÚ‡. empty fi ÔÛÒÚÓÈ (Ì Ëϲ˘ËÈ ÌË˜Â„Ó ‚ÌÛÚË): This room is empty. Ì Á‡ÌflÚ˚È (Ó ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÂ): She is free /¤ She is not busy now. to belt fi ÔËÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ ÂÏÌÂÏ: ç belted his gun on. 39. 136. Don't believe his empty promises.fi ü ıÓ˜Û ÓÒ‚Ó·Ó‰ËÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‰Îfl Ó‰Âʉ˚. not occupied fi Ì Á‡ÌflÚ˚È (Ó ÏÂÒÚ ‚ fl‰Û / Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË / Ó ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Â): ç is not occupied with anything / He is not busy now.fi ç‡ ˝ÚÓÏ Ô‰ÔËflÚËË ÌÂÚ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚ (‰Îfl ÛÒÚÓÈÒÚ‚‡ ̇ ‡·ÓÚÛ). to pin fi ÔËÍÂÔÎflÚ¸ / ÒÍÂÔÎflÚ¸ (·Û·‚ÍÓÈ / ÒÍÂÔÍÓÈ): Shall I pin the papers?fi ëÍÂÔËÚ¸ ·Ûχ„Ë? 152 . I can't see any empty seats here. Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚È (Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË): I don't know if he has free time to meet with you.fi ùÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ.fi èËÒÚ„ÌËÚ ÂÏÌË. 135. to fasten fi Á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ (ÔÓ˜ÌÓ ÒÍÂÔÎflÚ¸ / Á‡ÍÂÔÎflÚ¸): Does this dress fasten down the back?fi ùÚÓ Ô·ڸ Á‡ÒÚ„˂‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÒÔËÌÂ? You didn't fasten your safety belt. á‡ÒÚ„˂‡Ú¸ / ÒÍÂÔÎflÚ¸. This seat is not occupied..fi é̇ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ҂ӷӉ̇ (Ì Á‡ÌflÚ‡ ÌË͇ÍËÏ ‰ÂÎÓÏ). space fi ÏÂÒÚÓ (Ó„‡Ì˘ÂÌÌÓ ÌÂÁ‡ÌflÚÓ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó): Have you enough space here to make your experiments?fi í· ı‚‡Ú‡ÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÂÒÚ‡. ̇ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ‚ËÒÂÎ ÔËÒÚÓÎÂÚ.fi He ‚Â¸ Â„Ó ÔÛÒÚ˚Ï Ó·Â˘‡ÌËflÏ. free fi Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚È (Ì ‡·): We want to be free. vacant fi Ì Á‡ÌflÚ˚È (Ó ÏÂÒÚ ‚ fl‰Û / ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú / ‚ Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ / Ó ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚË): Do you have any vacant rooms in your hotel?fi ì ‚‡Ò ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ ÂÒÚ¸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚ ÌÓÏÂ‡? Is this seat vacant?fi ùÚÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ? There are no vacant positions at this factory. Í‡Í ıÓÚËÚÂ. 1.fi å˚ ıÓÚËÏ ·˚Ú¸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚ÏË.Standing room only.fi éÌ ÒÂȘ‡Ò Ì˘ÂÏ Ì Á‡ÌflÚ. Fasten your belts. ÂÒÚ¸ ÎË Û ÌÂ„Ó (Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓÂ) ‚ÂÏfl ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl Ò ‚‡ÏË.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓ‚Ó‰ËÚ¸ ˝ÍÒÔÂËÏÂÌÚ˚? space fi ÍÓÒÏ˘ÂÒÍÓ ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚Ó. to make room (for) fi ÓÒ‚Ó·Óʉ‡Ú¸ / „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ (‰Îfl): I want to make room for my clothes. 40.fi éÌ Á‡ÚflÌÛÎ ÂÏÂ̸. Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚È / Ì Á‡ÌflÚ˚È (Ó ÏÂÒÚ ‚ fl‰Û / ‚ ÍÓÏ̇Ú / ‚ Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ / .fi ü Ì Á̇˛.fi ü Ì ‚ËÊÛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰Ì˚ı ÏÂÒÚ.

everything fi ‚Òfi: I know everything..fi ÇÒ ÓÌË ıÓÚflÚ ÔËÈÚË.fi ü ϘڇΠӷ ˝ÚÓÏ ‚Ò˛ Ò‚Ó˛ ÊËÁ̸. ëÎÓ‚‡¸. All women love children..fi ÇÒ Á‰ÂÒ¸ (ÒÓ·‡ÎËÒ¸).fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Á‡·Ë‡Ú¸ ‚Òfi.fi ç‡Ï ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÂ‚flÁ‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÛ Ó‰ÂʉÛ. Ú‡Í Ë Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ‚Ó ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ: All girls want to be beautiful.fi ÇҠ β·flÚ.fi ֢ Ì ‚Ò ۘ‡ÒÚÌËÍË ÔË·˚ÎË. 139. All seven boys are my friends.fi åÓʯ¸ Á‡·Ë‡Ú¸ ‚Òfi.fi é·˙fl‚ÎÂÌË ·˚ÎÓ ÔËÍÂÔÎÂÌÓ Í ÒÚÂÌÂ. All of them want to come. We have spent all the money. this year / month / week / morning / afternoon / evening / night fi ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û / ÏÂÒflˆÂ / ̇ ˝ÚÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ Ò„ӉÌfl ÛÚÓÏ / ‰ÌÂÏ / ‚˜ÂÓÏ / ÌÓ˜¸˛. all fi ‚Ò / ‚Òfi.fi ÇÒ Ï˚ β·ËÏ ˝ÚÓÚ „ÓÓ‰. All are here. All ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‰Û„Ëı Á̇˜ÂÌËflı — ÒÏ. I know every street here. next year / month /week / morning / afternoon / evening / night fi ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏ „Ó‰Û / ÏÂÒflˆÂ / ̇ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ Á‡‚Ú‡ ÛÚÓÏ / ‰ÌÂÏ / ‚˜ÂÓÏ / ÌÓ˜¸˛.The notice was pinned to the wall.fi ÇÒ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌ˚ β·flÚ ‰ÂÚÂÈ. all of fi ‚Ò / ‚Òfi: Not all of the participants have come yet. ÂÒÎË ‚Ò / ‚Òfi ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í ‰Û„ËÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï: every fi ‚ÒÂ.fi ÇÒ ÛÎˈ˚ ÏÌ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚.fi ÇÒ ‰Â‚Û¯ÍË ıÓÚflÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡ÒË‚˚ÏË.fi ÇÒ ‰Â‚Û¯ÍË ıÓÚflÚ ·˚Ú¸ Í‡ÒË‚˚ÏË. ‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ — ͇ʉ˚È: Every girl wants to be beautiful. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ Ò ËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ. What did you bring all these books for?fi ᇘÂÏ / ÑÎfl ˜Â„Ó Ú˚ ÔËÌÂÒ ‚Ò ˝ÚË ÍÌË„Ë? I have been dreaming about this all my life. 153 . Ú‡ÍÓ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Ó·˚˜ÌÓ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Not all people here like it. last year / month / week / morning / afternoon / evening / night fi ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ „Ó‰Û / ÏÂÒflˆÂ / ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ ‚˜Â‡ ÛÚÓÏ / ‰ÌÂÏ / ‚˜ÂÓÏ / ÌÓ˜¸˛.fi ü ‚Òfi Á̇˛... 42. Ç ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û / ̇ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ ‚ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÏ ÏÂÒflˆÂ / . ÇÒ / ‚Òfi.fi çÂÍÓÚÓ˚Ï (β‰flÏ) Á‰ÂÒ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl. Ç ÓÚ΢ˠÓÚ ÛÒÒÍÓ„Ó flÁ˚͇ Ô‰ÎÓ„Ë Ì ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl. I know everybody / everyone here. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í Ò ÌÂËÒ˜ËÒÎflÂÏ˚ÏË ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ÏË. 41.fi ü Á̇˛ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚ÒÂı. 1. / Some of the participants have not come yet.fi ÇÒ ÒÂÏÂÓ Ï‡Î¸˜ËÍÓ‚ ÏÓË ‰ÛÁ¸fl. èËϘ‡ÌËÂ: ‰Îfl ÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl Ì ‚Ò ÔÂ‰ all ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ not.fi He ‚ÒÂÏ (β‰flÏ) Á‰ÂÒ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.fi å˚ ÔÓÚ‡ÚËÎË ‚Ò ‰Â̸„Ë. ÂÒÎË ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚Ò / ‚Òfi Ì ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl ÌË Í Í‡ÍÓÏÛ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ ÒÎÓ‚Û: everyone / everybody fi ‚Ò (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒΠÒÓ Á̇˜ÂÌËÂÏ Í‡Ê‰˚È / β·ÓÈ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ): Everyone / Everybody loves her.fi ÇÒ ÛÎˈ˚ ÏÌ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚. to tie fi ÒÍÂÔÎflÚ¸ / Ò‚flÁ˚‚‡Ú¸ (‚Â‚ÍÓÈ / ÎÂÌÚÓÈ / ÔÓ‚ÓÎÓÍÓÈ / . all fi ‚Òfi / ‚ÒÂ: You may take all. . I know ail streets here. Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂ: Some people here don't like it. All of us like this town. I don't want to take all of it.): We have to tie up these clothes.

fi éÌ ÊÂÌËÎÒfl ̇ ÌÂÈ ‚ 1990 „Ó‰Û. — Ò͇Á‡Î‡ Ó̇ ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ. 154 .fi éÌ ÒÚÓflÎ. ÅÓflÚ¸Òfl. fi (Ó˜Â̸ / ÛʇÒÌÓ) ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ËÒÔ˚Ú˚‚‡Ú¸ (·Óθ¯ÓÈ) ÒÚ‡ı ÔÂ‰ ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I have a great fear of war. / She is married. Don't be frightened. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÓÔ‡Á‰˚‚‡ÂÚ. to be scared fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÔÛ„‡ÌÌ˚Ï: ç was scared by the noise. to get married fi ÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl / ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ (ÂÒÎË Ì Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÍÓÏ / Á‡ ÍÓ„Ó): I don't want to get married.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸. We were scared of the dark.fi He ·ÓÈÒfl. I was aghast when I found out what had happened. 44. Ôˉfl ‚ ÛÊ‡Ò ÓÚ Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.. I fear .fi í˚ ‚Ò„‰‡ ·ÓflÎÒfl ÒÏÂÚË. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÛÁ̇Î. I fear nobody can help you. ÜÂÌËÚ¸Òfl / ‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ.fi éÌË Ú‚ÓʇÚÒfl. fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: They feared the worst.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸. ÓÌ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔËÈÚË.fi ü ·Ó˛Ò¸.". ˜ÚÓ Ï˚ ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÂÏ. You have always feared death. ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ Ú·Â. fear fi ÒÚ‡ı: They couldn't move for fear.fi ü ·˚Î ÒÚ‡¯ÌÓ Ì‡ÔÛ„‡Ì. I fear we'll be late. Don't be afraid (of me / of the car).. to be afraid (of smb.fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl Á‡ Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë.fi éÌ ÊÂ̇Ú.fi He ·ÓÈÒfl (Ì ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl) / ç ÔÂÂÊË‚‡È Á‡ ÏÂÌfl.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸.fi ü ÛʇÒÌÓ ·Ó˛Ò¸ ‚ÓÈÌ˚..fi å˚ ·˚ÎË Ì‡ÔÛ„‡Ì˚ ÚÂÏÌÓÚÓÈ. .fi éÌË Ì ÏÓ„ÎË Ôӯ‚ÂÎËÚ¸Òfl ÓÚ ÒÚ‡ı‡.fi "ᇷۉ¸ „Ó!" — "çËÍÓ„‰‡. I'm afraid he won't be able to come. She married him in 1990. to have (a great) fear of smth.fi He ·ÓÈÒfl (ÏÂÌfl / χ¯ËÌ˚).— she answered aghast at the suggestion. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ.. They are frightened at his being late..43.. to fear smth. fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸.: I'm afraid (that) I don't know his address. I fear to speak in his presence. I'm afraid . to be frightened fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÔÛ„‡ÌÌ˚Ï / ‚ÒÚ‚ÓÊÂÌÌ˚Ï: She is frightened of him. / é̇ Á‡ÏÛÊÂÏ. fi ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl / ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÔÂÂÊË‚‡Ú¸ Á‡ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Don't fear for me.fi ÅÓ˛Ò¸.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û ÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl / ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Á‡ÏÛÊ. She is afraid of you.) fi ·˚Ú¸ ̇ÔÛ„‡ÌÌ˚Ï: There's nothing to be afraid of.fi éÌË ·ÓflÎËÒ¸ / ÓÔ‡Ò‡ÎËÒ¸ ıÛ‰¯Â„Ó..fi He ̇‰Ó ·ÓflÚ¸Òfl (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂÚ ÌË˜Â„Ó ÒÚ‡¯ÌÓ„Ó). to marry smb.fi é̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ ÌÂ„Ó Á‡ÏÛÊ ‚ 1990 „Ó‰Û. ‰Óʇ ÓÚ ÒÚ‡ı‡. / to do smth. to be aghast fi ÔËÈÚË ‚ ÛÊ‡Ò / ÒÚ‡¯ÌÓ Ì‡ÔÛ„‡Ú¸Òfl: "Forget him!" — "Never".fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl ÎÓ¯‡‰ÂÈ.fi é̇ ÔÓÚÂfl· ‰‡ Â˜Ë ÓÚ ÒÚ‡ı‡. fi ÊÂÌËÚ¸Òfl/‚˚ÈÚË Á‡ÏÛÊ (ÂÒÎË Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ̇ ÍÓÏ / Á‡ ÍÓ„Ó): ç married her in 1990.. / smth. ç stood there shaking with fear. She fears for her money. She fears horses. . / smth.fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl Ú·fl.fi é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl „Ó. Don't be scared.fi Ö„Ó Ì‡ÔÛ„‡Î ¯ÛÏ. to be married fi ·˚Ú¸ ÊÂ̇Ú˚Ï / Á‡ÏÛÊÂÏ: ç is married.fi ü ·Ó˛Ò¸ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ‚ Â„Ó ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚ËË.fi ç ÔÛ„‡ÈÒfl. She was unable to speak from fear. to fear for smb. fl Ì Á̇˛ Â„Ó ‡‰ÂÒ‡.

fi é̇ ÛʇÒ̇fl Á‡ÌÛ‰‡.fi He ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈ Ï‡ÏÛ. 1.fi ü ÛʇÒÌÓ „ÓÎÓ‰ÂÌ / ıÓ˜Û ÔËÚ¸. ¤ to bother smb. Everybody was bored of this tedious conversation.fi ùÚ‡ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚ¸ Ì ‰‡ÂÚ ÏÌ ÔÓÍÓfl.fi í˚ ‰‡Ê ‰‚Â¸ Ì Á‡Í˚Î (Ì ÔÓ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÎÒfl Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ). ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl Í‡Í ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓÏ.fi He ̇‰Ó‰‡È ÂÏÛ — ÓÌ ÛÒÚ‡Î. fi Ô˘ËÌflÚ¸ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚Ó ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. terribly fi ÛʇÒÌÓ. (with smth. This news disturbs me very much.fi ü ÛʇÒÌÓ ÛÒڇΠ(ÓÚ ‡·ÓÚ˚). ÇÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸(Òfl) / ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸(Òfl). Don't bother her with your questions. The food was terrible. You look terribly beautiful.fi He ÔËÒÚ‡‚‡È Í ÌÂÈ ÒÓ Ò‚ÓËÏË ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡ÏË. She is terribly boring.fi á‰ÂÒ¸ ÛʇÒÌÓ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ.fi ùÚË Ï˚ÒÎË Ì ‰‡‚‡ÎË ÏÌ ÔÓÍÓfl.: Don't disturb us when we are working.fi èÓ„Ó‰‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ ÛʇÒ̇fl. Ó˜Â̸ ÌÂÔËflÚÌ˚È: The weather is horrible. Don't bother him because he is tired.fi He ‡ÒÒÚ‡Ë‚‡È Â„Ó ˝ÚÓÈ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚ¸˛ (Ì ÒÓÓ·˘‡È ÂÏÛ ˝ÚÛ ÌÓ‚ÓÒÚ¸). 46. Å˚Ú¸ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ô˄·ÒËÚ¸ Ëı? to disturb smb. Don't trouble him with this news. These thoughts disturbed me.fi ü Ó˜Â̸ / ÛʇÒÌÓ ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸.45.fi He ϯ‡È Ì‡Ï / He ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈ Ì‡Ò. to be bored (of) fi ·˚Ú¸ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ (ÓÚ ÒÍÛÍË / ·ÂÁ‰Âθfl) / ̇‰ÓÂÒÚ¸: I'm bored.) fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ϯ‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ̇Û¯‡Ú¸ (‰Û¯Â‚Ì˚È) ÔÓÍÓÈ: Stop bothering us.fi èÓ„Ó‰‡ ·˚· ÛʇÒ̇fl.fi ü ÛʇÒÌÓ / Ó˜Â̸ ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸. ÔÛÒÚ¸ Ó̇ ÒÔËÚ. not to bother to do smth.fi ÇÒÂÏ ÛʇÒÌÓ Ì‡‰Ó· ˝Ú‡ ÛÚÓÏËÚÂθ̇fl ·ÂÒ‰‡.fi ùÚÓ ·˚· ÛʇÒ̇fl ÒÏÂÚ¸. 155 . to trouble smb. 140.fi ùÚÓ ·˚· ÛʇÒ̇fl ‚ÓÈ̇.fi ì ÏÂÌfl ÛʇÒÌÓ ·ÓÎËÚ „ÓÎÓ‚‡. ìʇÒÌÓ / ÛʇÒÌ˚È. horrible fi ÛʇÒÌ˚È / ̇‚Ó‰fl˘ËÈ ÛʇÒ: It was a horrible crime.fi ùÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÛʇÒÌÓ ÔÂÒÚÛÔÎÂÌËÂ.fi äÓÏËÎË ÛʇÒÌÓ. (by / with smth. let her sleep. terrible fi ÛʇÒÌ˚È (‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÒÚ‡ı / ‰ËÒÍÓÏÙÓÚ / Ó˜Â̸ ÔÎÓıÓÈ): It-was a terrible war. awful (Ó˜Â̸ ·ÎËÁÍÓ Í terrible) fi ÛʇÒÌ˚È: It was an awful death. I'm awfully hungry / thirsty. to trouble smb. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ï˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ. Don't disturb mother. 47. I'we got a terrible headache. Ï˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ. It is awfully cold here.fi éÌ ·˚Î Ó·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÂÌ (‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÎÒfl) ËÁ-Á‡ ˝ÚÓÈ ÌÓ‚ÓÈ ÔÓ·ÎÂÏ˚. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÔÓÎÓÊËÚÂθÌÓÏ (¤ Ó˜Â̸) Á̇˜ÂÌËË: I'm terribly sorry. awfully fi ÛʇÒÌÓ (¤ Ó˜Â̸): I'm awfully sorry.) fi ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (ËÁ-Á‡ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó) / ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó (˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): ç was troubled by this new problem. fi Ì ÔÓ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸Òfl Ó ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: You didn't even bother to shut the door. to be tired (of) fi ·˚Ú¸ ÛÒÚ‡‚¯ËÏ (ÓÚ ‡·ÓÚ˚ / ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËfl ͇ÍËı-ÎË·Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÈ): I'm awfully tired (of working).fi åÌ ̇‰ÓÂÎÓ ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‰Â·ڸ. What an awful nonsense!fi ä‡Í‡fl ˜ÂÔÛı‡! The weather was awful. to bother smb. we are working.fi He ϯ‡ÈÚ ̇Ï. Why didn't you bother to invite them?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ì ÔÓ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÎÒfl Ó ÚÓÏ.fi í˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸ ÛʇÒÌÓ / Ó˜Â̸ Í‡ÒË‚ÓÈ.

fi ü ÔË‚˚Í· Í ÚÓÏÛ. 156 . either. worry fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚Ó / Ú‚ӄ‡ / ‚ÓÎÌÂÌËÂ: We want you to tell us your worries.fi ü ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸ Á‡ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚Ó..˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ÚÓ„Ó. to worry / to be worried (about smb. ÌÂÛ‚ÂÂÌÌÓÒÚË: What is worrying you?fi óÚÓ Ú·fl ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ? / èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚Á‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚È? Don't worry. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌ˚ı Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ı (·ÂÁ ÓÚˈ‡ÌËfl) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı: I. ÌÓ ÏÌ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰Ëχ ‚‡¯‡ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. They can help us. / smth. . She didn't trouble to call us yesterday.fi å‡Î¸˜ËÍÓÏ ÓÌ. It will cause you a lot of trouble.fi ü ıÓ˜Û Ò˙ÂÁ‰ËÚ¸ Ú‡ÍÊ ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ.) fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸Òfl / ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl (Ó ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó / Ó ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó): Don't worry / Don't be worried about us.fi ü ÚÓÊ ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÂı‡Ú¸ ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ.fi åÓʯ¸ Ì ÏÂÌflÚ¸ Ò‚ÓË ‰Â̸„Ë (Ì ÛÚÛʉ‡È Ò·fl). I want to go to London too. either. ÔÓÚÓÏÛ ˜ÚÓ Ì Á̇˛. „‰Â ÓÌ. not to trouble to do smth. ˜ÚÓ Ú‚ÓÊËÚ Ú·fl. You look terribly / awfully worried. but could you tell me the time? / show me the way to the station?fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. fi Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ „ÛÎflÌÓÂ. ·˚‚‡ÎÓ. Those animals are too dangerous. „‰Â χχ. Are they used to hard work / working hard?fi éÌË ÔË‚˚˜Ì˚ Í ‡·ÓÚÂ? You'll soon get used to this weather.¤ I'm in a jam. . She couldn't help us. too (ÂÒÎË ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ÍÓ̈ ËÎË ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌ (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË) Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl) fi ÚÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊÂ. to be used to smth.fi í˚ ·˚ÒÚÓ ÔË‚˚Í̯¸ Í Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÔÓ„Ó‰Â.. either.fi éÌË ÚÓÊ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÈÚË Ò Ì‡ÏË.fi å˚ ıÓÚËÏ. fi ·˚Ú¸ ÔË‚˚˜Ì˚Ï Í ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: I am used to his smoking in the room.fi é̇ ÚÓÊ Ì Á̇ÂÚ. everything will be all right. ¤ not to bother to do smth.fi ëÏËÚ ‡Ì¸¯Â ·˚Î Û˜ËÚÂÎÂÏ.fi í˚ ‚˚„Îfl‰Ë¯¸ ÛʇÒÌÓ ‚Á‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚Ï. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î ̇Ï.fi á‡ Ì‡Ò Ì ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl / Ì ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒfl.fi í ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ÓÔ‡ÒÌ˚Â.: Don't trouble to change your money.fi éÌ ÚÓÊ Á‰ÂÒ¸. too.fi Ö„Ó ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌ ÍÛËÚ ‚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÂ. Why are you worried?fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ‚ÒÚ‚ÓÊÂ̇ / ‚Á‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ì‡? I worry because I don't know where mother is. but I need your help. too. too. Used to / to be used to smth.fi é̇ Ì ÔÓÚۉ˷Ҹ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ Ì‡Ï ‚˜Â‡. 49. fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸ / ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó/‚˚Á˚‚‡Ú¸ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó Ú‚ӄË. trouble fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚Ó / ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓÒÚ¸: Did it give you much trouble?fi ùÚÓ ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÎÓ Ú· ÏÌÓ„Ó ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚‡ / ıÎÓÔÓÚ? I am in (bad) trouble. Something worries him. ‚˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ÏÌ ‚ÂÏfl?/ ÔÓ‰Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ÏÌÂ..fi ùÚÓ ‰ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ Ú· ÏÌÓ„Ó ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓÈÒÚ‚‡. too. to worry smb. want to go to London. She doesn't know where he is. I want to go to London.. Will you go there. used to be fi ‡Ì¸¯Â ·˚Î: Smith used to be a teacher.fi éÌ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ Á‡ÌflÚ. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‚ÚÓfl˛˘ÂÂÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: ç used to come here every day when he was a little boy.fi He ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl. used to do smth. íÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊÂ.fi ì ÏÂÌfl (·Óθ¯ËÂ) ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓÒÚË. ç is here. ÔËıÓ‰ËÎ Ò˛‰‡ ͇ʉ˚È ‰Â̸. 48. too?fi í˚ ÚÓÊ ÔÓȉ¯¸ ÚÛ‰‡? too (ÂÒÎË ÒÚÓËÚ ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ë Ì ‚˚‰ÂÎflÂÚÒfl Á‡ÔflÚ˚ÏË) fi ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ: ç is too busy to go with us. Í‡Í ‰Ó·‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Ó ‚ÓÍÁ‡Î‡? May I trouble you to call me tomorrow?fi Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ Á‡‚Ú‡ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÏÌÂ? I'm sorry to trouble you.fi é̇ ÚÓÊ Ì ÒÏӄ· ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ̇Ï.fi åÌ ÓÌ ÚÓÊ Ì Ì‡‚ËÚÒfl.fi ü ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓ˛Ò¸. either fi ÚÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊ (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËflı): I don't like him. ‚Ò ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ.fi ü ÚÓÊ ıÓ˜Û ÔÓÂı‡Ú¸ ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ôˉ‡Ú¸ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ‚ÂÊÎË‚ÓÒÚË: I'm sorry to trouble you..

.fi éÚˆ β·ËÚ ˜ËÚ‡Ú¸ „‡ÁÂÚ˚.fi ü ¢ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ Ëı Ú‡ÒÚÓ‚˚È ‰Ó„Ó‚Ó. ÌÓ Ò ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ÏË Ú‡ÍÊÂ Ë ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚ ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ. ÍÓÚÓÓ ˜ÛÚ¸ ·˚ÎÓ Ì ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ‚ Ôӯ‰¯ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË: She was on the point / on the verge of calling him..fi éÌË Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓ ‰ÂÎÛ / ‚ ÍÓχ̉ËÓ‚ÍÂ. ÓÌ „Ó‚ÓËÚ ‰ÂÎÓ. What's the matter?fi Ç ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? The matter is (that)...fi í˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl? å˚ ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÏ ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ..: ç not only knows everyone here but also works together with some.fi ùÚÓ ‰ÂÎÓ ÒÓ‚ÂÒÚË / ·Óθ¯ÓÈ ‚‡ÊÌÓÒÚË / ÔË̈ËÔ‡ / ‚ÂÏÂÌË / ‚ÍÛÒ‡. I suppose he means business. to get ready fi ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl („ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl Í ÓÚ˙ÂÁ‰Û / ÔÛÚ¯ÂÒڂ˲ / ÔÓıÓ‰Û ‚ Ú‡Ú / .fi éÌ ÚÓÊ ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Óχ. That's none of your business. but also fi Ì ÚÓθÍÓ . affair fi ‰ÂÎÓ (ÚÓ. I was going to meet with them. fi ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. not only . ç is having an affair with his secretary.fi àı ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‡ÒıÓ‰flÚÒfl Ò ‰ÂÎÓÏ. That's a matter of conscience / great importance / principle / time / taste. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ·ÎËÁÍÓ ÔÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë (‚ÓÚ-‚ÓÚ): ç was about to leave.fi ùÚÓ Ì ÔÛÒÚflÍË. ÌÓ Ú‡ÍÊÂ Ë . ‡ Ú‡ÍÊÂ Ë ÊÛ̇Î˚. fi ÒÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó.. 157 . case fi ‰ÂÎÓ (Òۉ·ÌÓÂ): ç has never been a judge in a murder case before..fi éÌË Ú‡ÍÊ ‰‡‰ÛÚ Ì‡Ï ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‰ÂÌ„. deed fi ‰ÂÎÓ (‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ) / ÓÙˈˇθÌ˚È ‰ÓÍÛÏÂÌÚ (˛ˉ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ÚÂÏËÌ): ç is a man of deeds.fi He ÎÂÁ¸ / ç ÒÛÈ ÌÓÒ Ì ‚ Ò‚Ó ‰ÂÎÓ. ÌÓ ÓÌË ‚ÌÂÁ‡ÔÌÓ ÛÂı‡ÎË.fi ùÚÓ Ì ڂÓ ‰ÂÎÓ. In the present state of affairs . business fi ‰ÂÎÓ (‡·ÓÚ‡ / Á‡ÌflÚËÂ): Mind your own business. That is not a small matter. ç also wants to stay at home. I have not seen their trust deed.fi ü ıÓ˜Û Ú‡ÍÊ ÛÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ ÓÚ Ú·fl ÒÓ‚ÂÚ. to be about to do smth.): Are you getting ready? We are leaving in a few minutes. ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl. as well fi ÚÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊ (‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓ): I want your advice as well.fi é̇ ÚÓÊ ÔˉÂÚ. to be going to do smth. Í‡Í Í ·ÎËÁÍÓÏÛ. as well as fi ‡ Ú‡ÍÊÂ: Father likes to read newspapers as well as magazines.fi ü ÒÓ·Ë‡ÎÒfl ‚ÒÚÂÚËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÌËÏË. matter fi ‰ÂÎÓ (‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı): I don't want to discuss business matters with them. Ú‡Í Ë Í ÓÚ‰‡ÎÂÌÌÓÏÛ ÔÓ ‚ÂÏÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒڂ˲: ç is going to come. 51.... ÑÂÎÓ. Their deeds do not agree with their words. but they suddenly left. They are here on a business trip.fi å˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÏ / ÒÓÚÛ‰Ì˘‡ÂÏ Ò ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËÏË ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ÙËχÏË.fi éÌ ˜ÛÚ¸ ·˚ÎÓ Ì ۯÂÎ.. 50.fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Ó·ÒÛʉ‡Ú¸ Ò ÌËÏË ‰ÂÎÓ‚˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. / éÌË „Ó‚ÓflÚ Ó‰ÌÓ..fi éÌ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Á̇ÂÚ ‚ÒÂı Á‰ÂÒ¸. ëÓ·Ë‡Ú¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó..fi èË Ì˚̯ÌÂÏ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË ‰ÂÎ .fi ùÚÓ ÏÓ ‰ÂÎÓ (fl Ò‡Ï ‡Á·ÂÛÒ¸)..fi éÌ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ ‰Â· / ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ): That's my affair.also fi ÚÓÊ / Ú‡ÍÊÂ: She also will come. ‡ ‰Â·˛Ú ‰Û„ÓÂ. We do business with several foreign companies. to be on the point / on the verge of doing smth fi Ó ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËË.. They will also give us some money.fi é̇ ÛÊ ˜ÛÚ¸ ·˚ÎÓ Ì ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌË· ÂÏÛ..fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÓÏ‡Ì Ò ÒÂÍÂÚ‡¯ÂÈ.fi ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ.fi çËÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÂʉ ÂÏÛ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓÒ¸ ·˚Ú¸ ÒÛ‰¸ÂÈ Ì‡ ÔÓˆÂÒÒ ÔÓ ‰ÂÎÛ Ó· Û·ËÈÒÚ‚Â.fi éÌ ÒÓ·Ë‡ÂÚÒfl ÔËÈÚË (Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ÔˉÂÚ).. yet.fi åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl.

fi éÌË ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇÎË Ê‰‡Ú¸ ‚ÂÒÚÂÈ ÓÚ Ì„Ó. (just) in case fi ̇ ‚ÒflÍËÈ ÒÎÛ˜‡È: It may be cold there — you'd better take a sweater (just) in case (it is).) fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó / ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸÒfl: Go on.fi Ç ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÒÓ˜ÌÓÈ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË Á‚ÓÌË ÔÓ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌÓÏÂÛ. to continue (+ to ~ ~ ~ /+ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ / + smth.fi éÌ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇΠÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ Ì‡Ï ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. In that case nobody will be able to help you. This weather won't continue long.fi çË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡È ËÏ. She broke the vase accidentally. It's a strange thing we haven't heard from him since he left. ëÎÛ˜‡È / ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë / ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ / ‚ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â.fi í˚ ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl Á‰ÂÒ¸.fi í‡Í‡fl ÔÓ„Ó‰‡ ‰ÓÎ„Ó Ì ÔÓ‰ÂÊËÚÒfl.fi ü ·Û‰Û ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ıÓ‰ËÚ¸ ÚÛ‰‡. to go on (+ „ÂÛ̉ËÈ / + with smth. accident fi ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë (‡‚‡Ëfl) /ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓÒÚ¸: A road accident held up traffic for two hours.fi ü ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌ˛ ÂÈ ‚ β·ÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â.fi èÓ‰ÓÎʇÈÚ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸. ç wants you to continue your study. Í‡Í ÓÌ ÛÂı‡Î.fi Ç Ú‡ÍÓÏ / Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ú· ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸. Í‡Í Ì‡¯‡ ‰Ó˜¸ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ÏÛÊ. incident fi ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë (˜‡˘Â Ì Ëϲ˘Â ·Óθ¯Ëı ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËÈ) / Ë̈ˉÂÌÚ: 158 .fi é̇ ‡Á·Ë· ‚‡ÁÛ Ì ̇Ó˜ÌÓ.fi (ÇÒÂ) ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. That's quite another thing.fi éÌË ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊ‡Ú ˝ÚÛ ‡·ÓÚÛ Á‡‚Ú‡. My getting this money was a pure accident.) fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ (‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó) / ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸÒfl: ç continued to call us after my daughter's marriage.fi ü ·Ó˛Ò¸ Â„Ó Ï‡ÚÂË. fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸(Òfl) (ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. Í‡Í ·˚ÎÓ ÔÂ‚‡ÌÓ): The meeting resumed after 10 minutes' break. . ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl Ò Ì·Óθ¯ËÏË ËÌÚÂ‚‡Î‡ÏË: It was dark and cold but he kept (on) walking. In case of emergency call this number. ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ‚Ò ‰ÂÎÓ. that's the thing. They will resume this work tomorrow.fi éÌ ıÓ˜ÂÚ. In no case you have to stay here. accidentally fi ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ (ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌÓ / Ì ̇Ó˜ÌÓ): I met them accidentally at the station. The thing is she doesn't love anyone at all. Keep smiling! fi ìÎ˚·‡ÈÒfl (ÒÓı‡ÌflÈ ÛÎ˚·ÍÛ)! ç kept calling us even after our daughter's marriage.fi ü ‚ÒÚÂÚËÎ Ëı ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ Ì‡ ‚ÓÍÁ‡ÎÂ.fi ëÚ‡ÌÌÓ ‰ÂÎÓ.fi éÌ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇΠÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ Ì‡Ï ‰‡Ê ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. èÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ(Òfl) / ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÚ¸(Òfl). ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó Ì ·˚ÎÓ ÌË͇ÍËı ËÁ‚ÂÒÚËÈ Ò ÚÂı ÔÓ.fi èÓ‰ÓÎʇÈÚ (β·Ó ÔÂ‚‡ÌÌÓ ÌÂ̇‰ÓÎ„Ó Á‡ÌflÚËÂ). fi ùÚË ‰Â̸„Ë Ó͇Á‡ÎËÒ¸ Û ÏÂÌfl Î˯¸ ÔÓ ˜ËÒÚÓÈ ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓÒÚË.fi ëÓ·‡ÌË ÔÓ‰ÓÎÊËÎÓÒ¸ ÔÓÒΠ10 ÏËÌÛÚÌÓ„Ó ÔÂÂ˚‚‡. ˜ÚÓ Ó̇ ‚ÓÓ·˘Â ÌËÍÓ„Ó Ì β·ËÚ.fi ùÚÓ (ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ) ‰Û„Ó ‰ÂÎÓ.fi Å˚ÎÓ ÚÂÏÌÓ Ë ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ. They continued waiting for him to be heard from. 53.fi ùÚÓ ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ‰Û„Ó ‰ÂÎÓ. Í‡Í ÏÓfl ‰Ó˜¸ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ÏÛÊ. fi Ç ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û ·˚ÎÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡‚‡ËÈ Ì‡ ÊÂÎÂÁÌÓÈ ‰ÓÓ„Â. I will keep going there. in no case. I came here by accident. to resume smth. How long will this bad weather go on?fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‰ÎËÚ¸Òfl ڇ͇fl ÔÎÓı‡fl ÔÓ„Ó‰‡? to keep (on) + „ÂÛ̉ËÈ fi ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇڸ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó. ˜ÚÓ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔÓËÁÓÈÚË): I shall call her in any case. Go on working / with your work.fi í‡Ï ÏÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸ ıÓÎÓ‰ÌÓ — Ú· ÎÛ˜¯Â ‚ÁflÚ¸ Ò‚ËÚÂ ̇ ‚ÒflÍËÈ ÒÎÛ˜‡È. in no case fi ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: Don't tell them anything.That's another / a different matter.fi ü ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ Á‡¯ÂÎ Ò˛‰‡. thing fi ‰ÂÎÓ (‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı): I am afraid of his mother. ÌÓ ÓÌ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇΠˉÚË. 52. case fi ÒÎÛ˜‡È (‚ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËflı Ôˉ‡ÂÚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËË ı‡‡ÍÚÂ ÚÓ„Ó. There have been many railway accidents this year. fi ÑÓÓÊÌÓ ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë Á‡‰ÂʇÎÓ ‚Ò ‰‚ËÊÂÌË ̇ ‰‚‡ ˜‡Ò‡. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ú˚ ÔÓ‰ÓÎʇΠۘ·Û.

Ï˚ Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÏ ˝ÚÛ ‡·ÓÚÛ Ì ‡Ì¸¯Â. on no account / by no means fi ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: Don't tell them anything. Ì Á̇¯¸ ÌÓÏÂ Â„Ó ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇? Some people.fi Ñ·È. ÓÚÌÓ¯ÛÒ¸ Í Ëı ˜ËÒÎÛ. by no means / on no account (= in no case). ˜ÂÏ ˜ÂÂÁ ‰‚‡ ‰Ìfl.fi ÇÁflÚÓ˜Ì˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó ‚ ̇¯Ë ‰ÌË — Ó·˚˜ÌÓ fl‚ÎÂÌËÂ.fi ÇÓ ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. Ì‡Ï ÔˉÂÚÒfl ÔÓ‰‡Ú¸ χ¯ËÌÛ. Ë̇˜Â Û Ú·fl ·Û‰ÛÚ ÌÂÔËflÚÌÓÒÚË. opportunity fi ·Î‡„ÓÔËflÚ̇fl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸: I've had no opportunity to visit him recently.fi He ÛÔÛÒÍ‡È ˝ÚÛ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ / ˝ÚÓÚ ÒÎÛ˜‡È — ‰Û„ÓÈ Ú‡ÍÓÈ / ‰Û„Ó„Ó Ú‡ÍÓ„Ó ÏÓÊÂÚ Ì Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl. She is by no means foolish. occasion fi ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ / ÔÓ‚Ó‰: I'll buy a new car if the occasion arises. Í‡Í Ú· „Ó‚ÓflÚ. 159 . Ë̇˜Â ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Â¯¸. incidentally fi ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ. It was an unfortunate occurrence. do you know his telephone number?¤ Do you happen to know his telephone number?fi í˚. Ë fl. Don't miss this opportunity: it may never come again. anyhow. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl ‚‚‰ÂÌËfl ‰ÓÔÓÎÌËÚÂθÌÓÈ ËÌÙÓχˆËË. at (the) best / worst fi ‚ ÎÛ˜¯ÂÏ / ıÛ‰¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: We can't finish this work in two days at best.fi é̇ ÌË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â Ì „ÎÛÔ‡fl. At worst we'll have to sell the car.fi í· ÎÛ˜¯Â ÔÓÚÓÓÔËÚ¸Òfl.fi Ç ÎÛ˜¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. otherwise you'll be in trouble.fi ÇÓ ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. Í ÒÓʇÎÂÌ˲.fi ì ÏÂÌfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË (ÒÎÛ˜‡fl) ̇‚ÂÒÚËÚ¸ Ëı ‚ ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl. ÂÒÎË Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸. Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛Ú ¯ÛÚÓÍ. otherwise fi ‚ ÔÓÚË‚ÌÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: You should hurry.fi Ç ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl Û ÏÂÌfl Ì ·˚ÎÓ ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚË / ÏÌ Ì Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÎÒfl ÒÎÛ˜‡È ÔÓ·˚‚‡Ú¸ Û Ì„Ó.fi ü ÍÛÔβ ÌÓ‚Û˛ χ¯ËÌÛ. you Ò‡Ô try. and incidentally that includes me. Do as you're told. Ó ÍÓÚÓÓÈ „Ó‚Ófl˘ËÈ ÚÓθÍÓ ˜ÚÓ ÔÓ‰ÛχÎ: Incidentally. ÏÓʯ¸ ÔÓÔÓ·Ó‚‡Ú¸ / ÔÓÔ˚Ú‡Ú¸Òfl. ¢ ÒÎ˯ÍÓÏ ‡ÌÓ. I've had no occasion to visit them recently.She can describe that incident in detail. ÒÎÛ˜‡ÈÌÓ. Anyway. occurrence fi ÒÓ·˚ÚË / ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚Ë / ÒÚ˜ÂÌË ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚: Bribery is now an everyday occurrence.fi çË ‚ ÍÓÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡È ËÏ.fi Ç ıÛ‰¯ÂÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â. anyhow / anyway fi ‚Ó ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â: It's too early. There have not been so many border incidents this year.fi Ç ˝ÚÓÏ „Ó‰Û Ì‡ „‡Ìˈ ÒÔÓÍÓÈÌÂÈ (ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÏÌÓ„Ó Ë̈ˉÂÌÚÓ‚).fi é̇ ÏÓÊÂÚ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Ú¸ ‚ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÒÚflı / ÓÔËÒ‡Ú¸.fi çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ β‰Ë.fi ùÚÓ ·˚ÎÓ ÌÂÛ‰‡˜ÌÓ ÒÚ˜ÂÌË ӷÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚. cannot understand jokes. ˜ÚÓ ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ (˝ÚÓÚ ÒÎÛ˜‡È / ÔÓËÒ¯ÂÒÚ‚ËÂ). otherwise you'll be late.

‚ ÔÓ‰Ú‚ÂʉÂÌË ËÌÙÓχˆËË. / èÓ·„‡˛. shan't ¤ shall not. ‰‡ (·ÓËÚÒfl). won't ¤ will not. LA. ¤ She is not here. ‰‡ (ÔˉÛÚ). ‰‡ (‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡). Ç ˝ÚÓÏ ‡Á‰ÂΠ‡ÒÒχÚË‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÔËÂÏ˚. — Did she tell him everything? — I'm afraid so. / I guess so. èÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ Ó·˘Ëı ‚ÓÔÓÒÓ‚ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ÂÚÒfl (˝ÚÓ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓ ‰Îfl ÍÓÓÚÍËı Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ): (Are) You OK? fi ë ÚÓ·ÓÈ ‚Ò ÌÓχθÌÓ? / ì Ú·fl ‚Ò ‚ ÔÓfl‰ÍÂ? (Do) You know him? fi í˚ Á̇¯¸ „Ó? (Does) She knows (know) him? fi é̇ Á̇ÂÚ Â„Ó? (Has) He got money? fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÂÒÚ¸ ‰Â̸„Ë? (Have) You got time? fi ì Ú·fl ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÂÏfl? 4. ¤ Los Angeles Ë ‰. ¤ I got no money. 鷢ˠ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ ·ÂÁ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó „·„Ó·. fi — é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl ÏÂÌfl? — ÑÛχ˛. We'd like to stay here. ê‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌË (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌËÂ) ÒÎÓ‚. I have no money.fi ü ·Û‰Û ʉ‡Ú¸ Ú·fl Á‰ÂÒ¸. Ç ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı ̇ Ó·˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Óڂ˜‡˛˘ËÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚ ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚ ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚ‡ËË. ¤ I do not like this house. 2. / I believe so. fi — Å‡ÛÌ˚ ÔˉÛÚ Í Ì‡Ï Ì‡ ӷ‰? — ç‡‰Â˛Ò¸. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÎÓ‚‡ Ë ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl. I'll come tomorrow. fi éÌ ÔˉÂÚ Á‡‚Ú‡. ¤ I've got everything. I don't like this house. / I think so. ëÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Û˛Ú ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡ˇÌÚÓ‚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl Ëı: 1. ¤ I've got no money. phone ¤ telephone. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ·Û‰Û˘Â„Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË will ÔÓ˜ÚË ‚Ò„‰‡ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ shall Ò 1-Ï ÎˈÓÏ: I will be waiting for you here. ¤ I got everything. ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ÂÈÒfl ‚ ‚ÓÔÓÒÂ. 3. to have ¤ to have got ¤ 've got ¤ got: I have everything. ä‡ÚÍË ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ Ó·˘Ë ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚. ¤ I have got no money. ê‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓχ Ó·ÓËı ÒÎÓ‚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡ÂÚ — 'll: He'll come tomorrow. 160 . fi ü Ì ·Û‰Û ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ. fi ü ÚÓÊ ÔË‰Û Á‡‚Ú‡. I won't do it. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ÓÔËÒ‡ÌËfl ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËÈ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. — Are the Browns coming to dinner? — I hope so. Will ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ shall. / I suppose so. too. 1.ê‡Á‰ÂÎ V. fridge ¤ refrigerator. / I think so. ¤ I have got everything. ‰‡ (·ÓËÚÒfl). ¤ We should / would like to stay here. ÑÎfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë (ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ·˚ÒÚÓÈ) ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡ÌË ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı (ÒÓÍ‡˘ÂÌÌ˚ı) ÙÓÏ ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÎÓ‚: She's not here. fi — é̇ ÂÏÛ ‚Ò ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡? — ÅÓ˛Ò¸. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÒÎÓ‚Ó so: — Is she afraid of me? — I believe so.

. ÌÂÚ (Ì ·ÓËÚÒfl). ÌÂÚ (Ì ·ÓËÚÒfl). 4. / (ü) ëÓÏÌ‚‡˛Ò¸ .fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ˜‡Ò? 2. Ç ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ ‚‡ˇÌÚ‡ ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â + ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È / ÏÓ‰‡Î¸Ì˚È „·„ÓÎ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË ‚ ÙÓÏ ӷ˙ÂÍÚÌÓ„Ó Ô‡‰Âʇ: — Who wants to play football? — I do. ˜ÚÓ ÔˉÛÚ. / I don't. —Are the Browns coming to dinner? — I'm not sure (of it). ÍÓ„‰‡. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl I'm sure (of) . Don't ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ doesn't. ̇ÒÚÓfl˘ÂÏ ‚ÂÏÂÌË (doesn't) ˜‡ÒÚÓ Á‡ÏÂÌflÂÚÒfl ÙÓÏÓÈ ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó Ë ‚ÚÓÓ„Ó Îˈ‡ (don't): She don't know you. ÓڂΘ¸ ÓÚ Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Á‡ÌflÚËfl: Excuse me. / ü Û‚ÂÂÌ. / I don't suppose so. ‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÏ ˜ËÒÎÂ.. fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. fi — ü Ì ۂÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. / ü Û‚ÂÂÌ. ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl I'm not sure (of). / ç fl.: — Did she tell him everything? — I'm not sure (of it).2. / I suppose not. / èÓ·„‡˛. 5. ˜ÚÓ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡.. 3.. ‚ ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı. Excuse me fi ‚ ̇˜‡Î ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡. ÌÂÚ (Ì Á̇ÂÚ). / I doubt if they are. are you Mr.: — Did she tell him everything? — I'm sure of it. ÌÓ ÏÌ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰Ëχ ‚‡¯‡ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸. fi ü Û‚ÂÂÌ.please)? fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. 6.. / ç‡‰Â˛Ò¸. what is the time (. ä‡ÚÍË ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ˚ Í ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘ÂÏÛ.. Ë ‚‰Û„ Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ. fi — é̇ ‚Ò ÂÏÛ ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡? — ü Û‚ÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. 4.. (I'm) Sorry (ÂÊ Excuse me) fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚ / èÓÒÚËÚ Á‡ ÓÔÎÓ¯ÌÓÒÚ¸ / ÌÂÎÓ‚ÍÓÒÚ¸ (ÚÓÎÍÌÛÎË / ̇ÒÚÛÔËÎË Ì‡ ÌÓ„Û / ÛÓÌËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ /.. / I can't.fi — äÚÓ ÛÏÂÂÚ „ÓÚÓ‚ËÚ¸? — éÌ. / I doubt if she did. .¤ Not me. fi — äÚÓ ıÓ˜ÂÚ Ë„‡Ú¸ ‚ ÙÛÚ·ÓÎ? — ü. / I'm sorry. (˜ÚÓ) ‡ÒÒ͇Á‡Î‡.¤ He doesn't have money. / ü ÒÓÏÌ‚‡˛Ò¸.¤ Not me. ‚˚ ‚ˉËÚÂ. ˜ÚÓ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ (β‰Ë) ‚‰ÂÚ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÛ˛ ·ÂÒÂ‰Û / Á‡ÌflÚ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚÓÈ: I'm sorry to interrupt you. please? fi — àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ.¤ Him. 7... Ç‡Ï ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÂ‚‡Ú¸ ·ÂÒ‰Û: — Excuse me (a moment). Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı Ú‚Â‰Û˛ Û·ÂʉÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. / I don't suppose so. — Does she know his telephone number? — 1 don't think so. ‚˚ „ÓÒÔÓ‰ËÌ ëÏËÚ? — Excuse me.. Í‡Í ÓÚ‚ÎÂÍÎËÒ¸ ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ Á‡ÌflÚËfl Ë ‚ÌÓ‚¸ ‚ÓÁ‚‡˘‡ÂÚÂÒ¸ Í ÌÂÏÛ: ‚‰ÂÚ ·ÂÒÂ‰Û Ò ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÏ — Á‚ÓÌËÚ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌ: 1. / èÓ¯Û ÔÓ˘ÂÌËfl. fi ü Ì ۂÂÂÌ . / I doubt . / Sorry. ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËfl: Ç˚ ‚‰ÂÚ ·ÂÒÂ‰Û Ò ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÏ.. — ч? — ë͇ÊËÚÂ. — Yes? — What is the time. —Does she know his telephone number? — I'm afraid not.. Ó·‡˘‡flÒ¸ Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÒÚÓ Ó·‡ÚËÚ¸Òfl Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. but I need your help. ‚ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ı ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ so ÒÚ‡‚ËÚÒfl not: — Is she afraid of me? — I think not. 161 . (˜ÚÓ) ÔˉÛÚ.¤ Me. — Are the Browns coming to dinner? — I'm sure of it. ËÎË ÊÂ: — Is she afraid of me? — I don't think so. — Who can cook? — ç can. ‚ ̇˜‡Î ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡. / I hope not. fi é̇ Ì Á̇ÂÚ Ú·fl..¤ She doesn't know you. ÍÓÚÓ˚È ˜‡Ò? Excuse me. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‚‡Î ‚‡Ò. Ç ëòÄ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÙÓχ „·„Ó· to do Ò ÓÚˈ‡ÌËÂÏ ‚ 3-Ï ÎˈÂ. 2. fi — é̇ ·ÓËÚÒfl ÏÂÌfl? — ÑÛχ˛.fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. / I don't believe so. fi — Å‡ÛÌ˚ ÔˉÛÚ Í Ì‡Ï Ì‡ ӷ‰? — ü Û‚ÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. / I'm sure she did.fi — ü Ì ۂÂÂÌ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. / ü ÒÓÏÌ‚‡˛Ò¸. fi — He ‰Ûχ˛. / I don't believe so. fi — é̇ Á̇ÂÚ ÌÓÏÂ Â„Ó ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇? — ÅÓ˛Ò¸.. ç don't have money. ‚ ÍÓ̈ ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡. Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡˛˘Ëı ÒÓÏÌÂÌË „Ó‚Ófl˘Â„Ó.): 1. ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ˚‚‡˛ / ÔÂ·˂‡˛ ‚‡Ò.): I am sorry.. (please). ÂÒÎË ÔÂ‰ ˝ÚËÏ ÓÚ‚ÎÂÍÎË ˜ÂÎÓ‚Â͇ ÓÚ Í‡ÍÓ„Ó-ÚÓ Á‡ÌflÚËfl: I'm sorry to have interrupted you. 3. ÌÂÚ (Ì ·ÓËÚÒfl). Smith? fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. ÔÓÒΠÚÓ„Ó. ÂÒÎË ÌÛÊÌÓ ÓڂΘ¸Òfl ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ͇ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Á‡ÌflÚËfl (‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡ / ‡·ÓÚ˚ / . / I'm sure they are. / ç fl. fi — He ‰Ûχ˛.

ÌÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ·ÓΠËÁ˚Ò͇ÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏÓÈ. thank you. fi — åÓfl χχ Ì ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ıÓÓ¯Ó ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò·fl. I apologize. And you? — Fine. fi ÑÓ·Ó ÛÚÓ. Pardon? / Excuse me? / Sorry? fi èÓÒÚËÚÂ? (Ì ÔÓÌflÎ / Ì ‡ÒÒÎ˚¯‡Î). Á‚Û˜ËÚ Í‡Í ÔÓÒ¸·‡ Ó ÚÓÏ. I'm fine. But my son is not well. fi ü ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸.Excuse me. 8.Ô. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛Ú ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó.: —Hello! —Hello! — How are you? — I'm well. thank you. (Ó·flÁ‡ÚÂθÌÓ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ËÚ¸ Á‡ ÔÓfl‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È ËÌÚÂÂÒ Í ‚‡¯ÂÏÛ Á‰ÓÓ‚¸˛ / ‰Â·Ï). — Oh. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ù‡ÁÛ ÔÓ‚ÚÓËÎË Â˘Â ‡Á: —Are you English? —Pardon? —Are you English? —What is your age? fi ä‡ÍÓÈ ‚‡¯ ‚ÓÁ‡ÒÚ? —Pardon? —How old are you? fi —ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡Ï ÎÂÚ? I beg your pardon. èË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ëfl Ë ÓÚ‚ÂÚ˚ ̇ ÌËı. thank you. ıÓÓ¯Ó.. 162 . fi åÌ ӘÂ̸ ʇθ / åÌ Ô˜‡Î¸ÌÓ ÒÎ˚¯‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÓ: — My mother is not well. ë‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ ̇ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó Ç‡¯ÂÏ Ò‡ÏÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚ËË / LJ¯Ëı ‰Â·ı ÒΉÛÂÚ ÔÓËÌÚÂÂÒÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËÂÏ Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl / ‰ÂÎ ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌË͇: And what about you? fi Ä Û Ú·fl? And you? (·ÓΠ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ) fi Ä Ú˚? / Ä Û Ú·fl? éÚ‚ÂÚ: I'm well. / Pardon?. Forgive me. / å‡Ï ÌÂÁ‰ÓÓ‚ËÚÒfl. fi ÑÓ·˚È ‚˜Â. (Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Á‡ ÒÂ¸ÂÁÌÛ˛ ÔÓ‚ËÌÌÓÒÚ¸). Hallo! / Hello! / Hullo! fi á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ. fi èÓÒÚË(ÚÂ) ÏÂÌfl. — ‡Á„Ó‚‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. (ÔË ·ÓΠ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â) fi ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó. ç‡ ˜ÂÏ Ï˚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÎËÒ¸? (‰ÓÒÎÓ‚ÌÓ: „‰Â Ï˚ ·˚ÎË?) I'm sorry to hear that. Good afternoon. (Ò‡ÏÓ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌÓ ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËÂ) Hi! fi èË‚ÂÚ. / Sorry. fi çÓ Ò˚ÌÛ ÌÂÁ‰ÓÓ‚ËÚÒfl. Where were we? fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. thanks. (ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Ë ıÓÓ¯Ëı Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ı / ‰ÛÁÂÈ / ÍÓÎ΄ ÔÓ ‡·ÓÚÂ Ë Ú. thank you. é˜Â̸ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÒÂı ÔÂ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËÈ (ÍÓÏ How do you do?) ÒΉÛÂÚ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl / ‰ÂÎ: How are you? fi ä‡Í ÔÓÊË‚‡Â¯¸? / ä‡Í Á‰ÓÓ‚¸Â? How are you doing? fi ä‡Í ‰Â·? How are you getting on? fi ä‡Í ÔÓÊË‚‡Â¯¸? How is it getting on? fi ä‡Í ‰Â·? How is it going? fi ä‡Í ‰Â·? How is everything? fi ä‡Í Á‰ÓÓ‚¸Â / ‰Â·? éÚ‚ÂÚ Ì‡ ÔÓ‰Ó·Ì˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Á‚Û˜ËÚ Ú‡Í: I'm well. Good evening. (please). I'm sorry to hear that. ˜ÚÓ Ë Excuse me. ¤ I'm sorry. / Fine. fi èÓ¯Û ÔÓ˘ÂÌËfl. ÔÓ ÓÍÓ̘‡ÌËË ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ: — I'm sorry. — I'm sorry to hear that. How do you do? fi á‰‡‚ÒÚ‚ÛÈÚÂ. fi ÑÓ·˚È ‰Â̸. thank you. (ÓÙˈˇθÌÓ ÔË‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËÂ). too. ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â. / Fine.— ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÚÂı Ê ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı. (Good) Morning. ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ëòÄ).

èË ‡ÒÒÚ‡‚‡ÌËË. fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡ (ÏÌ ·˚ÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ÔËflÚÌÓ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸ ‚‡Ï ˝ÚÛ ÛÒÎÛ„Û).?: What is your name.. / Glad to meet you. . Remember me to smb. before? fi Ç˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ Ò ÏÓËÏ ÏÛÊÂÏ / Ò ÏÓÂÈ ÊÂÌÓÈ / Ò . / Allow me to introduce myself..(This is) Mr. Give my regards to smb. / Bye. : — Let me introduce you. (This is) Mr. fi ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó. Í‡Í ‚‡Ò ÁÓ‚ÛÚ? How old are you. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. „‰Â ÔÓ‰‡ÁÛÏ‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÌÂÓ‰ÌÓÍ‡ÚÌÓ ӷ‡˘ÂÌË Á‡ ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ / ÛÒÎÛ„‡ÏË (‚ χÒÚÂÒÍËı / χ„‡ÁË̇ı Ë Ú.. 12.Ô. ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı. fi ÑÓ ‚ÒÚ˜Ë. (I'm) Pleased to meet you.. fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚‡Ï ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó. fi ÑÓ Ò‚Ë‰‡ÌËfl.. ·Û‰ÂÏ ‡‰˚ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸). áÄèéåçàíÖ: ÒÎÓ‚Ó please ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ ̇ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÌÓÒÚË. fi ç Á‡ ˜ÚÓ. fi èÂ‰‡‚‡È (ÓÚ ÏÂÌfl) ÔË‚ÂÚ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. please. / èÓ͇. Please go away. That's all right.. èË Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â. fi èÂ‰‡‚‡È (ÓÚ ÏÂÌfl) ÔË‚ÂÚ / ÏÓË Ì‡ËÎÛ˜¯Ë ÔÓÊ·ÌËfl ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó. 13. You are. please — ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÔË Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËË ÔÓÒ¸·˚. fi èÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‚‡Ï Ó·flÁ‡Ì. 10. Let me introduce you. Don't mention it. ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÎË? Let me introduce myself. Not at all.¤ Please help me. ÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡Ï ÎÂÚ? 163 . Smith. please. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÒÚÓËÚ ÛÔÓÏË̇ÌËfl). fi ÑÓ ‚ÒÚÂ˜Ë Á‡‚Ú‡ / ̇ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘ÂÈ Ì‰ÂΠ/ . fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡ (Ó·‡˘‡ÈÚÂÒ¸ Í Ì‡Ï / ÍÓ ÏÌ ¢Â. ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó.. haven't you? fi Ç˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚ Ò ÏÓËÏ ÏÛÊÂÏ. / ç ÒÚÓËÚ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡ÌÓÒÚÂÈ. / Å·„Ó‰‡˛ ‚‡Ò..9. Thanks. ç Á‡ ˜ÚÓ. .(This is) Mr.. Will you. I'm very glad to meet you. fi ÇÒ ÌÓχθÌÓ. please? fi ë͇ÊËÚÂ.. See you (later / soon).. Have you met before? fi Ç˚ Á̇ÍÓÏ˚? / Ç˚ ‚ÒÚ˜‡ÎËÒ¸ ‡Ì¸¯Â? Have you met my husband / wife / . Brown.) My pleasure. help my father. fi èËflÚÌÓ Ò ‚‡ÏË ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl. Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÍÓ̈ ËÎË ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl: Help me. to you. Thank you (very much). please? fi ë͇ÊËÚÂ. . fi (ÅÓθ¯ÓÂ) ëÔ‡ÒË·Ó. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. Good-bye. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. welcome. / é„ÓÏÌÓ ÒÔ‡ÒË·Ó.? You've met my husband before.. fl Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚β ‚‡Ò (‰Û„ ‰Û„Û). (·ÓΠ‡Á„Ó‚Ó̇fl ÙÓχ) I owe you. fi ç Á‡ ˜ÚÓ (ÏÓfl ÛÒÎÛ„‡ ̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÌÂÁ̇˜ËÚÂθ̇.. . èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.. ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í ‚ ̇˜‡ÎÂ. fi ü Ó˜Â̸ ‡‰ Ò ‚‡ÏË ÔÓÁ̇ÍÓÏËÚ¸Òfl.. 11.. See you tomorrow / next week / .. fi ÑÓ Ò‚Ë‰‡ÌËfl. Bye-bye. (This is) Mr. please? fi ë͇ÊËÚÂ. fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚÂ. Let me introduce smb.. fi èÓÁ‚ÓθÚ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl.

— Where is my coat. ÍÓ„‰‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚ / ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl fl‰ÓÏ Ò ‚‡ÏË. — Where are my keys? — Here are your keys. please. Here we are. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ‡ ÍÚÓ-ÚÓ Ë˘ÂÚ Â„Ó ‚ ‰Û„ÓÏ ÏÂÒÚÂ: — Where is my coat? — It is (over) here.please). Could you wait a little. Will you ~ ~ ~ . fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. — Here is the menu. 15. it is not. The bus-stop is over there. èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡ ÔË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË ÔÓÒ¸·˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓ-‰Û„ÓÏÛ: 2) ÂÒÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ(˚) Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡Â(˛)ÚÒfl ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂÏ: ç„ + ÏÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌË + is / are. There is my car. Could you ~ ~ ~ . here fi Á‰ÂÒ¸. Would you ~ ~ ~ . Would -you call me tomorrow. (over) here fi (‚ÓÚ) Á‰ÂÒ¸. — Is that your car over there? — Yes. 3) ÂÒÎË ÔÓËÁÌÓÒËÚÒfl ̇Á‚‡ÌË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡: Here+ is / are + ̇Á‚‡ÌË Ô‰ÏÂÚ‡: — I'd like the menu. Á‡‚Ú‡. ÔÓÏÓ„ËÚ ÏÌÂ. please? — Here it is. fi — èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. fi ÇÓÌ ÓÌ/ Ó̇ / ÓÌÓ (ÌÂӉۯ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È Ô‰ÏÂÚ). (Ò‡Ï˚ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚Â). — ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÔË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË ÔÓÒ¸·˚. ÏÂÌ˛. (please). There it is. — Where are my keys? — Here they are. / ÇÓÚ ‚‡¯Â ԇθÚÓ. it is. Í‡Í ‚ 13. fi — èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. — Your son is (over) here. 1) ̇ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÒıÂχ: 1 2 åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. — Where are my keys? — They are (over) here. ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌË ÍÓÌÒÚÛ͈ËË Ú‡ÍÓ ÊÂ. Here I am.: Here is my son.. — Here you are. — Here it is. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. there fi Ú‡Ï . (. fi èÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚÂ. (.: — I'd like the menu.please). 14. — Where is my coat. fi èÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.. Will you help me.Here you are. „‰Â ÏÓ ԇθÚÓ? — Here you are. Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Â ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ 164 . ÍÓ„‰‡ Ô‰ÏÂÚ / ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÓÚ ‚‡Ò ̇ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÏ ‡ÒÒÚÓflÌËË / ‚ Ô‰Â·ı ‚ˉËÏÓÒÚË: My car is over there. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÔÓ‰‡ÂÚ / ÔÓ͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚ / ÔËÌÂÒÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ Ë Ú. fi (Ä) ÇÓÚ Ë fl. please? fi — ë͇ÊËÚÂ.please).Ô. fi ÇÓÌ ÏÓfl χ¯Ë̇... (please). / ÇÓÚ Ï˚ Ë Ô˯ÎË / ÔËÂı‡ÎË (‰Ó·‡ÎËÒ¸ ‰Ó ÏÂÒÚ‡ ̇Á̇˜ÂÌËfl).. fi (Ä) ÇÓÚ Ë Ï˚. — Is this your car? — No. please. çÂÛÊÂÎË? (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ). fi ÇÓÚ ÏÓÈ Ò˚Ì. ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ. (ÇÓÚ) á‰ÂÒ¸. fi Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ‰Óʉ‡Ú¸? 16. please. They are over there. over there fi ‚ÓÌ Ú‡Ï. / (ÇÓÌ) í‡Ï. ÇÂÊÎË‚˚ ӷ‡˘ÂÌËfl. fi — èËÌÂÒËÚÂ. (please). (.: — I'd like the menu. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡..

— Neither was I. = I've got. — Hasn't it? — Mother is not sleeping. — Me too. „·„ÓÎ I don't speak French.. Now then. ¤ Me either. / á̇˜ËÚ. = Me too. Now.. fi Me too. ¤ Me either. — She has got a terrible headache.. — So does my mother-in-law. Okay.. / Okay.. fi àÚ‡Í.. — So have I.. — Does she? — The letter has come.. / çÛ Î‡‰ÌÓ. (‚ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËË good ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ... — I like this house. — Neither has my mother-in-law. — Good. — Isn't she? 17. .... ü / äÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÚÓÊ (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ). / á̇˜ËÚ. (Ò‡ÏÓ ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌÓÂ) fi çÛ. — Neither do I. ... / á̇˜ËÚ.fi My mother-in-law does.. / àÚ‡Í. 19.. too. — Do you? — She wants to help us.K. ..... 165 . ÌÓ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ‡͈ËË Ì‡ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌË ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ÚÓθÍÓ good): Come tomorrow.. / á̇˜ËÚ. either. ËÎË ÒıÂχ: 1 2 3 So ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ I / smb.... / All right.Á‡ÏÂÌfl˛˘Â ÔÓ‰ÎÂʇ˘Ë — I don't like you.. fi ïÓÓ¯Ó. — I've got a terrible headache.. / Nor has my mother-in-law. / çÛ ˜ÚÓ ÊÂ..... Good... He hasn't come.well.. too.— I like this house. Neither / Nor 18... / á̇˜ËÚ.. either. fi I don't. — ÌÂθÁfl) All right. — Doesn't she? — The letter has not come. — Has it? — Mother is sleeping. / Nor was I. / O. fi I wasn't. / àÚ‡Í.... — Me too. ïÓÓ¯Ó (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ‚˚Ò͇Á˚‚‡ÌËÂ). / Nor do I.. ËÎË ÒıÂχ: 1 2 3 ÔÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È I / smb.ıÓÓ¯ËÈ.... fi àÚ‡Í. ... fi My mother-in-law hasn't. She wasn't invited. . — I like this house... = I do.... çÛ.. 2) ̇ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: ÔË ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â Ò ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÓÏ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ò ü ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Me either: — I don't speak French. too. Come tomorrow. Well. fi àÚ‡Í. (Well. — Me either. — Is she? 2) ̇ ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌË ÒıÂχ: 1 2 èÂ‚˚È ‚ÒÔÓÏÓ„‡ÚÂθÌ˚È „·„ÓÎ + not ‰ۈËÓ‚‡Ì̇fl ÙÓÏÛ· åÂÒÚÓËÏÂÌËÂ. — Don't you? — She doesn't want to go with us. / í‡Í. either.. ̇˜Ë ıÓÓ¯Ó . So. — So do I.. — Good. 1) ̇ ÛÚ‚Â‰ËÚÂθÌÓ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÂ: ÔË ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â Ò ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÓÏ ‚Ó ‚ÒÂı ÒËÚÛ‡ˆËflı Ò ü ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ Me too: — I like this house.

fi It seems to me (that) ..... May I put you a question? / May I put a question to you? 23. fi ü ‰Ûχ˛. fi I suppose (that) .. / smth. / èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ. ? fi ä‡Í‡fl ˆÂ̇ .. fi åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl.... óÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸? / Ç ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? What's / What is your problem? What's / What is the matter (with smb..) What's / What is the trouble (with smb..... / èÓ‰ÓʉËÚÂ. 24. fi I expect (that) .... åÓÊÌÓ ‚‡Ò ÒÔÓÒËÚ¸? May I ask you (something)? I've got a question. (please)..? How much does it cost? fi ëÍÓθÍÓ ˝ÚÓ ÒÚÓËÚ? How much do I owe you? fi ëÍÓθÍÓ fl ‚‡Ï ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ? / ëÍÓθÍÓ Ò ÏÂÌfl? 25.. Ä ‚ ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? / èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ‚˚ ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡ÂÚÂ? 22... ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡.)? Why? (ÔÓÒΠÓÚ‚ÂÚ‡ ̇ ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌ˚È ‚ÓÔÓÒ): — How old are you? — Twenty.. fi I reckon (that) .. åËÌÛÚÓ˜ÍÛ. .20. Why? fi — ëÍÓθÍÓ ‚‡Ï ÎÂÚ? — Ñ‚‡‰ˆ‡Ú¸. ëÍÓθÍÓ ÒÚÓËÚ? How much (is it)? (Ó ÒÚÓËÏÓÒÚË ‚¢ÂÈ / ÛÒÎÛ„ / ... I believe (that) .. fi I figure (that) .. / ü ÔÓ·„‡˛. Just a minute.... ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. / smth. . / åÌ ͇ÊÂÚÒfl.) fi Ò‡Ï˚È ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚È ‚‡ˇÌÚ. ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó. / smth. fi åËÌÛÚÓ˜ÍÛ. (please). I think (that) ...)? What's / What is wrong (with smb.. äÂÏ ‚˚ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚÂ? What is your job? fi äÂÏ ‡·ÓÚ‡ÂÚÂ? What is your occupation? fi óÂÏ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÂÒ¸? ¤ What do you do? fi óÂÏ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÂÒ¸? How do you get your living? / What do you do for a living? fi óÂÏ Á‡‡·‡Ú˚‚‡ÂÚ ̇ ÊËÁ̸? What are you? (Ì ÔÛÚ‡Ú¸ Ò Who are you? fi äÚÓ ‚˚? / ä‡Í ‚‡¯Â ËÏfl / Ù‡ÏËÎËfl?) = What is your occupation? fi äÚÓ ‚˚? / óÂÏ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÂÒ¸? 166 . ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó. fi I guess (that) . What is the price of . . Waif a minute / moment. ü ‰Ûχ˛.. 21...)? What is it? (‡͈Ëfl ̇ ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ÌÂÓÊˉ‡ÌÌÓÂ Ë ÌÂÔÓÌflÚÌÓÂ: ¯ÛÏ / ¯ÓÓı /„ÓÎÓÒ / ..)? What's / What has happened (to smb.. / ü Ò˜ËÚ‡˛.. .

fi ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ‰ÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸Òfl. fi ü ‚‡Ò Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛. fi He Í·‰ËÚ (. fi ü ÔÂÂÁ‚ÓÌ˛ (ÔÓÁÊÂ). What about ... ‚˚ ‚˚Ô¸ÂÚ ¢ ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó ‚Ë̇? 29. / ùÚÓ fl.....? How about . I don't get it / your meaning.) ÚÛ·ÍÛ. Ó ˜ÂÏ ‚˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚÂ. — ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl Ó ÒÓ‚ÏÂÒÚÌÓÏ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌËË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl: What / How about your friend? fi ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ Ú‚ÓÂ„Ó ‰Û„‡? („ÓÚÓ‚ / ‚ ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËË / ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÎË ÓÌ Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl ˜ÂÏÎË·Ó ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò Ì‡ÏË?) What about his qualifications for this position? fi ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ Â„Ó Í‚‡ÎËÙË͇ˆËË — Ó̇ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ˝ÚÓÈ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚË? é·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl (ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl „ÂÛ̉ËÈ) ÏÓÊÌÓ ÓÔÛÒ͇ڸ. fi ãËÌËfl Á‡ÌflÚ‡. ÂÒÎË ÓÌÓ ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ ÔÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÛ: How / What about (having) dinner tonight? fi ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ ÔÓӷ‰‡Ú¸ Ò„ӉÌfl ‚˜ÂÓÏ? How about (drinking) some more wine? fi åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸.ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡. ˜‡˘Â ËÒÔÓθÁÛÂÚÒfl ‰Îfl Ó·ÓÁ̇˜ÂÌËfl ÒÓÒÚÓflÌËfl. fi çÓÏÂ Ì Óڂ˜‡ÂÚ. The line is engaged / busy.please). (trade Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‡·ÓÚÛ.— I'm a teacher (by profession). ÇÓ ‚ÂÏfl ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡ ÔÓ ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÛ. ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÏÛ˛ Û͇ÏË / ÂÏÂÒÎÓ). You are through. (I'm sorry). What did you say? fi óÚÓ ‚˚ Ò͇Á‡ÎË (fl Ì ÔÓÌflÎ / ÔÓÒÎÛ¯‡Î)? (I'm sorry). Pardon? / Excuse me? / Sorry? / I beg your pardon? fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ? Come again? (ÔË ·ÎËÁÍÓÏ Á̇ÍÓÏÒÚ‚Â Ò ÒÓ·ÂÒ‰ÌËÍÓÏ) ¤ What did you say? 27. / I don't understand you.) ü Ì ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ÔÓÌflÎ ‚‡Ò / Ì ÒÓ‚ÒÂÏ ‡ÁÓ·‡Î ‚‡¯Â ËÏfl / ‚‡¯ ÌÓÏÂ ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇ (I'm sorry. ‡ 2.? é˜Â̸ ·ÎËÁÍË ÔÓ Á̇˜ÂÌ˲. fi ü Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛. fi ÉÓ‚ÓËÚÂ. (profession Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ‡·ÓÚÛ ÔÓÒΠÔÓÎÛ˜ÂÌËfl ‚˚Ò¯Â„Ó Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl / ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÈ ÔÓ‰„ÓÚÓ‚ÍË). fi (àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. I don't follow you. / Hold the line (. / ü Ì ÏÓ„Û ÛÒΉËÚ¸ Á‡ ıÓ‰ÓÏ ‚‡¯Ëı Ï˚ÒÎÂÈ. 26. fi ü Ì ‡ÁÓ·‡Î ‚‡¯Â ËÏfl / ÌÓÏÂ ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇ / ‡‰ÂÒ / .. I didn't get your name / telephone number / address / .).) ü Ì ‡ÒÒÎ˚¯‡Î / Ì ‡ÁÓ·‡Î (‚ÂÏfl / ÏÂÒÚÓ / ‡‰ÂÒ / .. / ü Û ÚÂÎÂÙÓ̇.. Speaking.. I'll call back (later)... 5. Hold on (. Can I take a message (for him / her)? / Is there any message? fi óÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ (ÂÏÛ / ÂÈ)? Can / Could you take a message (for him / her)? fi Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÍÓÂ-˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‰‡Ú¸ (ÂÏÛ / ÂÈ)? 167 .. I didn't understand you.. fi ü Û˜ËÚÂθ. Could you put me through to smb. fi (àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ.. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ Ò͇Á‡ÎË. ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ .? 1. óÂÏ ÏÓ„Û ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓÎÂÁÂÌ? / óÂÏ ÏÓ„Û ÔÓÏÓ˜¸? Can / May I help you? fi ü ÏÓ„Û ˜ÂÏ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ‚‡Ï? What can I do for you? fi óÚÓ fl ÏÓ„Û ‰Îfl ‚‡Ò ҉·ڸ? ë‡Ô I be of (any) help to you? fi ü ÏÓ„Û (˜ÂÏ-ÌË·Û‰¸) ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ‚‡Ï? 28. / ü ÔÓÒÎÛ¯‡Î..) ü ‚‡Ò Ì ÔÓÌflÎ / Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛. ıÓÚfl 1. I didn't quite catch you / your name / your telephone number / .? fi Ç˚ Ì ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ÒÓ‰ËÌËÚ¸ ÏÂÌfl Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó? I can't get through. fi ü ÔÎÓÚÌËÍ. fi ü ÒÎÛ¯‡˛.) I missed. — I'm a carpenter (by trade). (àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ.please). There is no reply at this number.

fi ÇÓÚ ˝ÚÓ ‰‡! / èÓ‰Ûχڸ ÚÓθÍÓ! Hell! / Damn! / Shit! / Bull-shit! / Fuck! (Û„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ) fi óÂÚ ‚ÓÁ¸ÏË! /óÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÂË! (‚˚‡ÊÂÌË „Ì‚‡ / ‡Á‰‡ÊÂÌËfl / ÔÓÍÎflÚËfl) You're a pain in the ass! („Û·ÓÂ) fi ä‡Í Ú˚ ÏÌ ̇‰ÓÂÎ! The hell with you (it)! / Damn you (it)! / Shit on you (it)! / Fuck you (it)! fi (ч) èÓ¯ÂÎ Ú˚ (‚Ò ˝ÚÓ) Í ..) God! / My God! /Jesus! / Jesus Christ! /(Good) Heavens! Oh dear! / Wow! fi é.? Should / Shall she come tomorrow? fi ÖÈ ÔËÈÚË Á‡‚Ú‡? Should / Shall I call him? fi (åÌÂ) èÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸ ÂÏÛ? 31.. ÔÓʇÎÛÈ.. know? fi éÚÍÛ‰‡ fl Á̇˛? / éÚÍÛ‰‡ ÓÌ / Ó̇ /ÓÌË Á̇Â(˛)Ú? 32.) äÚÓ „Ó‚ÓËÚ? 30. fi ìÒÔÓÍÓÈÒfl. Ú˚ ‰Â·¯¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸? Why the hell didn't you help her? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ. fi ü Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÎ (‰ÂÎÓ / ˜¸). / He ÒÛÈ ÌÓÒ Ì ‚ Ò‚Ó ‰ÂÎÓ. Shut up! fi á‡ÚÍÌËÒ¸! / á‡ÏÓΘË! I don't mind. Ú˚ Ì ÔÓÏÓ„ ÂÈ? àÌÓ„‰‡ ‚ÏÂÒÚÓ the hell ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ on earth (ÏÂÌ ‡„ÂÒÒË‚ÌÓÂ) ËÎË Ê the fuck (·ÓΠ‡„ÂÒÒË‚ÌÓÂ): What on earth are you doing here? Why the fuck didn't you help her? 33. Calm down. ç‚ÂÊÎË‚˚È ÓÚ͇Á ‚ ÙÓÏ ‚ÒÚ˜ÌÓ„Ó ‚ÓÔÓÒ‡. That's none of your business. What number were you calling? fi ä‡ÍÓÈ ÌÓÏÂ ‚˚ ̇·Ë‡ÎË? Could you speak up (. ç‡Ë·ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl ˝ÏÓˆËÈ.? Should I / he / she / they / we ~~~~~~ . fi ì Ú·fl ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚÒfl. ˜ÂÚ ÔÓ·ÂË.. fi Ç˚ Á‚ÓÌËÚ Ì ÔÓ ÚÓÏÛ ÌÓÏÂÛ. That's all.! ÖÒÎË ‚ ÒÔˆˇθÌÓÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒ Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ the hell. / ìÒÔÓÍÓÈÒfl. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ Ù‡Á˚ / ÂÔÎËÍË.. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌËÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ). That is (about) all there is to it..? Why should I do it? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ fl ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ? Why should they help him? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ (˝ÚÓ) ÓÌË ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ? Why should I bust my hump? fi ᇘÂÏ ÏÌ „ÌÛÚ¸ ÒÔËÌÛ? How should I / smb. You'll make it. Shall I / he / she / they /we ~~~~~~ .. fi èÓÌflÚÌÓ. fi He Ú‚Ó ‰ÂÎÓ. Easy! fi èÓ΄˜Â.You have / 've got the wrong number. I see. / Ç˚ ӯ˷ÎËÒ¸ ÌÓÏÂÓÏ. fi ÇÓÚ. That's the whole point. ÅÓÊÂ! (‚˚‡ÊÂÌË ۉ˂ÎÂÌËfl) My word!. fi Ç ˝ÚÓÏ-ÚÓ ‚ÒÂ Ë ‰ÂÎÓ. / èÓÌËχ˛... (Oh. 168 . ˜ÂÚ ÔÓ‰ÂË. I think so. Ë ‚Ò (‚ ÍÓ̈ ÔflÏÓÈ ˜Ë). fi ëӄ·ÒÂÌ. fi ì ÏÂÌfl ‚Ò (‚ ÍÓ̈ ÔflÏÓÈ ˜Ë). / ç ÎÂÁ¸ ̇ ÓÊÓÌ. fi çË˜Â„Ó Ì Ëϲ ÔÓÚË‚. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚÒfl Á̇˜ÂÌË ˜ÂÚ ÔÓ·ÂË: What the hell are you doing here? fi óÚÓ.please)? fi He ÏÓ„ÎË ·˚ ‚˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ „ÓϘÂ? (May I ask) Who is speaking? fi (åÓ„Û fl ÛÁ̇ڸ. é·‡˘ÂÌË Á‡ ÒÓ‚ÂÚÓÏ (̇ҘÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó. Why should I / she / he /we / they ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . I'm through / finished.

fi ü ÔÓ͇ / ¢ Ì ‰ÛχΠӷ ˝ÚÓÏ. Time's up. fi íÛÚ ‚˚ Ô‡‚˚. fi ùÚÓ ÏÂÌfl ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡ÂÚ. (Come) This way (. Hear me out! fi Ç˚ÒÎÛ¯‡ÈÚ ÏÂÌfl! I couldn't reach you. I don't give a shit.). It's (over and) done with. Get out of my way. / ç ÔÂÂÊË‚‡È. fi ç ̇‰Ó Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ. It makes no difference whether you go today or tomorrow. fl ‚‡Ï Ì ÔÓϯ‡˛. fi àÒÚËÌ̇fl Ô‡‚‰‡. fi ìÈ‰Ë Ò ‰ÓÓ„Ë. / ê‡ÒÒ··¸Òfl. fi à‰Ë Ò˛‰‡ — Ú‚ÓÈ ÏÛÊ Á‚ÓÌËÚ. ÔÓʇÎÛÈÒÚ‡ (ÔËÌËχfl „ÓÒÚÂÈ / ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎÂÈ). 169 . fi àÒ˜ÂÁÌË. I don't give a damn / a shit (about smth. fi ç‡‰Â˛Ò¸. I mean it. óÂÒÚÌÓÂ-ÒÎÓ‚Ó. fi í˚ ÒÓ¯ÂÎ Ò Ûχ. fi ü ‰‡Ï ‚‡Ï Á̇ڸ / ÒÓÓ·˘Û Ó Ò·Â. You'll hear from me. (‚Û脇ÌÓÂ) fi à‰Ë Í ˜ÂÚÛ. Let happen whatever would happen. It makes things easier. fi í‡Í ΄˜Â (ÔÂÂÊË‚‡Ú¸ / ÔÂÂÌÓÒËÚ¸ ·Óθ). (‚Û脇ÌÓÂ) fi åÌ ‰Ó ·ÏÔÓ˜ÍË / ·ÂÁ‡Á΢ÌÓ: Tell him whatever you want. Take it easy. / åÓÚ‡È ÓÚÒ˛‰‡. fi óÂÒÚÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. fi ùÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ (ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó) Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. / Fuck off. So far so good. Let's get to the point. You are out of your mind. / ìÒÚÓËÚ. / It doesn't make any /much difference.. fi èÓ͇ ˜ÚÓ ‚Ò ˉÂÚ ıÓÓ¯Ó. fi He ÔËÌËÏ‡È ·ÎËÁÍÓ Í ÒÂ‰ˆÛ. / íÓÊ ‚ÂÌÓ. is on the phone. fi èÛÒÚ¸ ·Û‰ÂÚ. I haven't given it much thought. fi ч‚‡ÈÚ ·ÎËÊÂ Í ‰ÂÎÛ. It makes no difference. ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl ÔÓÏÓ„ Ú·Â? — ֢ ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡Â¯¸! Sounds good to me. fi ÇÒ ·Û‰ÂÚ ıÓÓ¯Ó. fi äÚÓ-ÚÓ Á‚ÓÌËÚ.Don't worry.. / èÓ‚‡ÎË‚‡È. fi í‡Í. You bet! fi ֢ ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡Â¯¸!: — Do you want me to help you? — You bet! fi — í˚ ıӘ¯¸.. I was half out of my mind. / Don't be worried. It's going to be all right. (̇ҘÂÚ Ô·ÌÓ‚ ̇ ·Û‰Û˘ÂÂ) It serves you / smb. right. / It doesn't matter (at all). fi åÌ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û.please). fi ü ˜ÛÚ¸ Ì ÒÓ¯ÂÎ Ò Ûχ.: Come here. Your husband is on the phone. / ìÒÔÓÍÓÈÒfl. You have a point there. Don't mention that. / è‡‚ËθÌÓ. fi åÓʯ¸ „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÂÏÛ ‚ÒÂ. That's the gospel truth. fi He ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÒfl. It never crossed my mind (that). fi ü ıÓ˜Û ÍÛÔËÚ¸ ‚‡¯ ‰ÓÏ.. ˜ÚÓ . fi ùÚÓ Ì ËÏÂÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËfl. fi ÇÂÏfl ‚˚¯ÎÓ. fi ëÓȉÂÚ. I want to buy your house. fi (èÓıÓ‰ËÚÂ) 벉‡. fi í‡Í Ú· / ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó Ë Ì‡‰Ó. ÔÓ‰¯¸ Ú˚ Ò„ӉÌfl ËÎË Á‡‚Ú‡. / Relax. / ü „Ó‚Ó˛ ËÒÍÂÌÌÂ. Go to hell. I hope I'm not intruding. ˜ÚÓ Û„Ó‰ÌÓ — ÏÌ ‰Ó ·ÏÔÓ˜ÍË. I mean it. fi ë ˝ÚËÏ ÔÓÍÓ̘ÂÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ. Smb. It'll / That'll do. fi ü Ì ÏÓ„ ‰ÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸Òfl ‰Ó Ú·fl. That's it. Get lost.

fi ü ‰Ó‚Âfl˛ Ú·Â. fi He ÚÓ. fi Ä Ú˚ ÌÂ Ú‡Í ÔÓÒÚ (Í‡Í Í‡Ê¯¸Òfl). except that . / ÇÓÎfl ‚‡¯‡. / ç ‰ÛË. ˜ÚÓ·˚ fl Ì .... — You know what I mean all right. Tend to your own affairs. 170 . This time there'll be no slip up. ÌÓ ÏÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÍÓÂ-˜ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ڸ. fl Ò‡Ï ÒÔ‡‚Î˛Ò¸. I can make it on my own. fi èÓ‰ÛÏ‡È ıÓÓ¯Â̸ÍÓ. fi åÌ ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û. fi He ‚ÓÎÌÛÈÚÂÒ¸.. I wouldn't be taking the trouble. ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ. Don't let yourself become so upset. ÒÏÓ„ ÎË ·˚ ÓÚˆ Ó„‡ÌËÁÓ‚‡Ú¸ ÏÌ Á‡ÏÛÊÂÒÚ‚Ó Ò ÑÊÓ‰ÊÂÏ? — ëÍÓÂÈ ‚Ò„Ó. Ë ‚Òfi. Ó ˜ÂÏ ‚˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚÂ.: —I wonder if my father could arrange a marriage for me with George. ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÏÂÚ¸ ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂ Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‰ÂÎÛ. There is no point in doing smth.Mark my words.. — I don't know what you mean. ͇ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ ÚÓ. Ë ‚ è‡ËÊ fl Ì ÔÓ‰Û. Let's hold to reason. Come on. / Ç˚ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ Ï˚ÒÎËÚÂ. ÍÓÚÓ˚ Ô˘ËÌfl˛ ‚‡Ï. fi ç „ÎÛÔË.. —ÇÒ ‚˚ ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓ ÔÓÌËχÂÚ (ÚÓθÍÓ ‰Â·ÂÚ ‚ˉ. fi ä‡Í ıӘ¯¸. Don't be silly.. Don't dispute him. fi ü ËÁ‚ËÌfl˛Ò¸. I am at your service... / Ñ·È. It's just there. I bow to the opinion (of smb. It never occurred to. Not likely. fi àÁ‚ËÌËÚÂ. — Coffee? — If it is no bother. Í‡Í Á̇¯¸. Ó ˜ÂÏ ‚˚ „Ó‚ÓËÚÂ. fi á‡ÔÓÏÌË ÏÓË ÒÎÓ‚‡. fi He ‡ÒÒÚ‡Ë‚‡ÈÒfl Ú‡Í ÒËθÌÓ. I'm sorry to have to bother you with this. I cannot see how anything you say can have any bearing on this matter. ÌÓ . fi ü ıÓÚÂÎ ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í ÎÛ˜¯Â. fi ÇÓÎfl ‚‡¯‡. fi ü ÒÍÎÓÌfl˛Ò¸ Í ÏÌÂÌ˲ (ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó). You will get over this.: — Why do you ask? — No reason in particular.. fi He ÚÓ. fi ч‚‡ÈÚ ·ÎËÊÂ Í ÚÂÏÂ. Let's get this over with. fi ü ·˚ Ì ÛÚÛʉ‡Î Ò·fl. but. It's just there. / ÅÂÁ ÓÒÓ·ÓÈ Ô˘ËÌ˚. Pardon me for asking. ˜ÚÓ ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸ ‚‡Ò ÔÓ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û. — Not likely. ÖÒÎË ÚÓθÍÓ Ú˚ Ì ̇ÒÚÓ˯¸ ̇ ˝ÚÓÏ. ˜ÚÓ . You don't ask why. fi He ÒÔÓ¸ Ò ÌËÏ.: I trust you.. Think it over. fi — ü Ì ÔÓÌËχ˛. / ç ÎÂÁ¸ Ì ‚ Ò‚Ó ‰ÂÎÓ.: Suit yourself. You know better than that.. èÓÒÚÓ ‰Ó‚Âfl˛. / ç‡ ˝ÚÓÚ ‡Á ‚Ò ÔÓȉÂÚ. fi èÓÒÚÓ Ú‡Í. fi óÚÓ Ò‰Â·ÌÓ. but.. ÌÓ... ÂÒÎË ·˚ Ì .... ÌÂÚ. fi — äÓÙÂ? — ÖÒÎË Ì ÚÛ‰ÌÓ. but I've got a work to do and I won't go to Paris.. ˜ÚÓ . fi ü ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ‡˛Ò¸ Ò ‚‡ÏË Á‡ ‚Ò ÌÂÛ‰Ó·ÒÚ‚‡. fi èÓÒÚÓ Ú‡Í ÓÌÓ ÂÒÚ¸. Unless you insist on that... / í˚ ÒÔ‡‚˯¸Òfl Ò ˝ÚËÏ. Don't worry. fi ãÛ˜¯Â Á‡ÈÏËÒ¸ Ò‚ÓËÏË ‰Â·ÏË. fi — àÌÚÂÂÒÌÓ. You are on the right track.. fi (ì Ú·fl) ùÚÓ ÔÓȉÂÚ. ç ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡È. fi ч‚‡È Á‡ÍÓ̘ËÏ Ò ˝ÚËÏ ‰ÂÎÓÏ. fi ëÍÓÂÈ ‚Ò„Ó. ÚÓ Ò‰Â·ÌÓ. I'll pay for any inconvenience I cause you.. Unless . fi ç‡ ˝ÚÓÚ ‡Á ÓÒ˜ÍË Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ. fi çÂÚ ÒÏ˚Ò· Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó.) that .. fi Ç˚ ̇ Ô‡‚ËθÌÓÏ ÔÛÚË... ÖÒÎË ÚÓθÍÓ . I meant only the best. ˜ÚÓ ÒÔ‡¯Ë‚‡˛. Suit yourself. ˜ÚÓ Ì ÔÓÌËχÂÚÂ). What's done is done and cannot be undone. fi ü Ì ‚ËÊÛ. It's not that I don't. No reason in particular. Í‡Í ÔÓ Ï‡ÒÎÛ.me that.: It was not that he didn't love her. fi ü Í ‚‡¯ËÏ ÛÒÎÛ„‡Ï... ÌÂÚ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÌ Ì β·ËÎ ÂÂ.

/ èÓχÎÍË‚‡È. fi åÌ ÌÛÊÌÓ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÌËÚ¸. (that) . ÌÓ fl ‚˚ÌÛʉÂÌ ÔÓÍËÌÛÚ¸ ‚‡Ò. It's just the way I feel. fiB ˝ÚÓÏ ÌÂÚ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÒÓÏÌÂÌËfl. Í‡Í ıӘ¯¸. It crossed my mind. I can't explain. èÓÒÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl Ú‡ÍÓ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó. Get it? fi èÓÌËχ¯¸? / í· ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ. fi ü ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸ ˜ÂÂÁ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ. ÚÓ„Ó Ì ÏËÌÓ‚‡Ú¸. I have no cash to spare. The matter admits of no delay. / ùÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl Ë Ú·fl. fi He Á̇˛. We can't help him. I'll be goddamned fi ÅÛ‰¸ fl ÔÓÍÎflÚ. I see your point. Fortune has smiled up on us. => He ‚¯‡È ÏÌÂ Î‡Ô¯Û Ì‡ Û¯Ë. Don't curtsy to him. fi He Á‡·Û‰¸ ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: Be sure to invite them. fi He ËÏÂÂÚ ÒÏ˚Ò· ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ.. fi å˚ ҉·ÂÏ ‚ÓÚ ˜ÚÓ. fi ùÚÓ ‚˚¯Â ÏÓÂ„Ó ÔÓÌËχÌËfl. èÓÒÚÓ Û ÏÂÌfl Ú‡ÍÓ ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó: — Today the wedding is off. fi ê¯‡È Ò‡Ï (ÔËÌËÏ‡È ¯ÂÌË ҇ÏÓÒÚÓflÚÂθÌÓ). — èÓ˜ÂÏÛ? óÚÓ ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸? — ü Ì Á̇˛. / Ñ·È. fiì ÏÂÌfl ÌÂÚ Î˯ÌËı ‰ÂÌ„. fi ë‡ÏË ¯‡ÈÚ — ÛÂÁʇڸ ‚‡Ï ËÎË ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl. That goes for you too. There is no point in doing smth. Be sure to do smth. fi ÅÂÒÔÓÎÂÁÌÓ / He ËÏÂÂÚ ÒÏ˚Ò· ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: There is no point in doing that. ˜ÚÓ Ú‚Ófl ÒÂÒÚ‡ — Á‚ÂÁ‰‡. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë. fi ä Ú· ˝ÚÓ ÚÓÊ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl. fi ü Ë ‡Ì¸¯Â Á‡Ï˜‡Î ˝ÚÓ Á‡ ÌËÏ. I've noticed this about him before. ç ÏÓ„Û Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ¸. I don't know. ˜ÚÓ. Spare me that old chestnut (about smth.? fi ä‡Í Ú‡Í ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl. fi ü Ú‡Í Ì ҘËÚ‡˛. I would like to set the records straight. fi He Á‡·Û‰¸ Ô˄·ÒÚ¸ Ëı.: Spare me that old chestnut about your sister being a star. but I must leave. fi ùÚÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓ ÏÌ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û. It's up to you. fi ùÚÓ ·˚Î ÔÓ‰‡ÓÍ ÒÛ‰¸·˚. fi ç‡Ï ÛÎ˚·ÌÛ·Ҹ ÙÓÚÛ̇ / Û‰‡˜‡. fi (ùÚÓ) ÑÂÎÓ Ì ÚÂÔËÚ ÓÚ·„‡ÚÂθÒÚ‚‡. I've got a phone call to make. I don't hold with that. fi He ‰ÂÎ‡È ÂÏÛ ‚Â‡ÌÒÓ‚. Hold your tongue. 34. I'll only be a few minutes. I regret.. It beats me. fi ê‡Ì¸¯Â ̇‰Ó ·˚ÎÓ ‰Ûχڸ.). fi í‡Í Ï˚ ÌË Í ˜ÂÏÛ Ì ÔˉÂÏ. fi óÂÏÛ ·˚Ú¸.. It's just the way I feel. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ‚ÓÔÓÒËÚÂθÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚ / Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. fi — 낇‰¸·˚ Ò„ӉÌfl Ì ·Û‰ÂÚ. fi ü ÔÓÌËχ˛ ‚‡Ò. / ÑÂÊË flÁ˚Í Á‡ ÁÛ·‡ÏË. / ü Ì Ӊӷfl˛ ˝ÚÓ„Ó. å˚ ‚ÒÂ‡‚ÌÓ Ì ÒÏÓÊÂÏ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÏÛ. / doing smth. — Why? What happened? — I don't know. We are getting nowhere. You may leave or stay according as you decide. ÚÂÔÂ¸ ÔÓ‡ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸. fiåÌ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·˚ ‚ÌÂÒÚË flÒÌÓÒÚ¸.? 171 . => He ‚¯‡È ÏÌÂ Î‡Ô¯Û Ì‡ Û¯Ë. Here's what we'll do. fi åÓΘË.Whatever is to be will be. Ó ˜ÂÏ fl „Ó‚Ó˛? How's that? fi ä‡Í ˝ÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ¸? / óÚÓ Ú˚ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ‰Ûχ¯¸? How come. There is no doubt about it. fi ü Ó˜Â̸ ÒÓʇβ. It was a gift of Lady Luck. / ç ÔÓ„Ë·‡ÈÒfl ÔÂ‰ ÌËÏ. / ü Ì Òӄ·ÒÂÌ Ò ˝ÚËÏ. The time for thinking is past. now is the time for action only..

? fi í· ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔËıÓ‰ËÎÓ ‚ „ÓÎÓ‚Û.... íÓÏ. fi — ä‡Í ̇ҘÂÚ Ú˚Òfl˜Ë? — í˚ ˜ÚÓ.? Is that it? fi í‡Í? / è‡‚ËθÌÓ? What if... ˜ÚÓ .? 172 ..? fi Ä ˜ÚÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÒÛ‰ËÚ¸ ̇Ò? What gave you that idea? fi óÚÓ Ì‡‚ÂÎÓ Ú·fl ̇ ˝ÚÛ Ï˚Òθ? No fooling? fi ëÂ¸ÂÁÌÓ? / í˚ Ì ¯ÛÚ˯¸? Does it enter your mind that.Do you think so? fi í˚ Òӄ·ÒÂÌ? What makes you so sure? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ú‡Í Û‚ÂÂÌ? What is your thought? fi óÚÓ Ú˚ Ó· ˝ÚÓÏ ‰Ûχ¯¸? Are you nuts? fi í˚ ˜ÚÓ. I take it? fi ü flÒÌÓ ‚˚‡Ê‡˛Ò¸? / ü ÔÓ·„‡˛.?: What if I refuse? fi Ä ˜ÚÓ.. Ú· ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ. ˜ÚÓ fl ·˚Î Ú‡Ï? Coming along? fi à‰Â¯¸? / ։¯¸ (ÒÓ ÏÌÓÈ / Ò Ì‡ÏË)?: — Let's go to the bar.? fi ä‡Í ‚˚ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂÒ¸ Í .. fi çÂÛÊÂÎË Ú˚ Ì ‚ˉÂÎ Ëı (ÍÓ̘ÌÓ ÊÂ. Ò Ûχ ÒÓ¯ÂÎ? What is taking so long? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú‡Í ‰Ó΄Ó? / óÚÓ Ú‡Í Á‡‰ÂÊË‚‡ÂÚ? What is going on (here)? fi óÚÓ (Á‰ÂÒ¸) ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ? Are you kidding? fi í˚ Òϯ¸Òfl / ¯ÛÚ˯¸ / ËÁ‰Â‚‡Â¯¸Òfl?: — How about one thousand? — Are you kidding? I could do it myself for this money./ çÛ Ë ˜ÚÓ ËÁ ÚÓ„Ó? What did you do? What line of work? fi óÂÏ ‚˚ Á‡ÌËχÎËÒ¸? ä‡ÍÛ˛ ‡·ÓÚÛ (‚˚) ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÎË? Can you be more specific? fi óÚÓ ‚˚ ËÏÂÂÚ ‚ ‚ˉÛ? / óÚÓ ‚˚ ıÓÚËÚ ˝ÚËÏ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸? Why would he do it? What could he have to gain? fi ᇘÂÏ ÂÏÛ ·˚ÎÓ ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ? ë ͇ÍÓÈ ÒÚ‡ÚË? What is this all about? fi Ç ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? / èÓ Í‡ÍÓÏÛ ÔÓ‚Ó‰Û ‚Òfl ˝Ú‡ ÍÛÚÂ¸Ï‡? Who are they to judge us? fi äÚÓ ÓÌË Ú‡ÍËÂ. ‡ Ú˚ ˉ¯¸ (Ò Ì‡ÏË)? What remains to be done? fi óÚÓ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ‰Â·ڸ? Are you getting the picture? fi í˚ ÔÓÌËχ¯¸ (Í ˜ÂÏÛ Ë‰ÂÚ ‰ÂÎÓ / Ó ˜ÂÏ Ë‰ÂÚ ‡Á„Ó‚Ó)? I'm making myseli clear.. ÂÒÎË . — ïÓÓ¯Ó.: What makes you think I was there? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ‰Ûχ¯¸. — éä.. ËÁ‰Â‚‡Â¯¸Òfl? ᇠڇÍË ‰Â̸„Ë fl ÏÓ„ ·˚ ҉·ڸ ˝ÚÓ Ë Ò‡Ï. Tom? fi — èÓ¯ÎË ‚ ·‡. Ú˚ Ëı ‚ˉÂÎ. What makes you think (that) .. ÂÒÎË fl ÓÚ͇ÊÛÒ¸? Surely you can see that. ̇˜Ë̇˛˘ËÂÒfl ÒÎÓ‚ÓÏ surely ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÏÂ˛Ú Á̇˜ÂÌË ÌÂÛÊÂÎË?): Surely you saw them.. Coming along. ÌÓ Ì ıӘ¯¸ ÔËÁ̇ڸÒfl)? Are you crazy? / Are you mad? fi í˚ ˜ÚÓ. Ó ˜ÂÏ fl „Ó‚Ó˛... fi çÂÛÊÂÎË Ú˚ Ì ÔÓÌËχ¯¸? (‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl.? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ‰Ûχ¯¸.. ˜ÚÓ .. So what? fi çÛ Ë ˜ÚÓ? / çÛ Ë ‚ ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ? . ÌÂÌÓχθÌ˚È? What do you do in your spare time? fi óÂÏ ‚˚ Á‡ÌËχÂÚÂÒ¸ ‚ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ ‚ÂÏfl? What have I got to do? fi Ä ˜ÚÓ ÏÌ ¢ ÓÒÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ‰Â·ڸ? What's the use of + „ÂÛ̉ËÈ? fi ᇘÂÏ / ä‡ÍÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó?: What's the use of worrying? fi ä‡ÍÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ÔÂÂÊË‚‡Ú¸? Why ~~~~~~? fi ᇘÂÏ / ä‡ÍÓÈ ÒÏ˚ÒÎ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó?: Why worry him? fi ᇘÂÏ ‚ÓÎÌÓ‚‡Ú¸ „Ó? What is your position on .

fi Ÿ˛Ò¸ Ó· Á‡Í·‰.?: Is that why they didn't invite us? fi í‡Í ‚ÓÚ ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ ÓÌË Ì Ô˄·ÒËÎË Ì‡Ò.. åÓ„ÛÚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl Í‡Í ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ Ì‡˜‡ÎÂ. . what are you going to do about all this? fi ÇÓÔÓÒ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‚ ÚÓÏ. ÓÌ ıÓÓ¯ËÈ ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθ. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ Ù‡Á˚ / ÒÎÓ‚‡ / ‚˚‡ÊÂÌËfl. Ú˚ Á̇¯¸ ˝ÚÛ ÊÂÌ˘ËÌÛ.? fi í‡Í ‚ÓÚ ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ / „‰Â / ˜ÚÓ / . I'll bet.. Is that where you were? fi í‡Í ‚ÓÚ „‰Â Ú˚ ·˚Î. What are you going to be when you grow up? fi äÂÏ Ú˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸... .. fi — ä‡Í‡fl ‡ÁÌˈ‡? — ÅÓθ¯‡fl. ÍÚÓ ÛıÓ‰ËÚ.. It goes without saying .ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏËÌÛÚ? Have you got a pencil to spare? fi ì ‚‡Ò ÌÂÚ Î˯ÌÂ„Ó Í‡‡Ì‰‡¯‡? Are you out of your mind? fi í˚ ‚ Ò‚ÓÂÏ ÛÏÂ? How so? fi ä‡Í ˝ÚÓ? 35. . ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl ‰Â·ڸ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂÏ ˝ÚËÏ? So what's the hitch? fi í‡Í ‚ ˜ÂÏ Ê Á‡„‚ÓÁ‰Í‡? Would you rather we spoke English? fi åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸.. ˜ÚÓ ÚÓ„‰‡? The question now is.... what then? fi çÓ.fi Ÿ˛Ò¸ Ó· Á‡Í·‰..fi ë‡ÏÓ ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl... ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓ„Ó (‰ÓÔÓÎÌfl˛˘Â„Ó /ÔÓflÒÌfl˛˘Â„Ó / ÍÓÏÏÂÌÚËÛ˛˘Â„Ó) ˝ÎÂÏÂÌÚ‡. ÍÓ„‰‡ ‚˚‡ÒÚ¯¸? Is that why / where / what / . Ì‡Ï ÎÛ˜¯Â „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÔÓ-‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍË? What is your point? fi Ç ˜ÂÏ Á‡Íβ˜‡ÂÚÒfl Ú‚Ófl ˉÂfl? Can you manage it? fi ëÔ‡‚˯¸Òfl Ú˚ Ò ˝ÚËÏ?: I want to know who enters..... Can you manage it? fi ü ıÓ˜Û Á̇ڸ.. Can you spare me a few minutes? fi Ç˚ ÏÓÊÂÚ ۉÂÎËÚ¸ ÏÌ . 173 ..?: Why is it you don't like me? fi çÛ ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ fl Ú· Ì Ì‡‚Î˛Ò¸? — What difference does it make? — It makes a good deal of difference. / í‡Í Ú˚ ·˚Î Ú‡Ï? Why is it . fi — í˚ ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ Û‚ÂÂÌ (‚ ˝ÚÓÏ)? — Ä·ÒÓβÚÌÓ.. fi ë‡ÏÓ ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‡ÁÛÏÂÂÚÒfl. Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊËÏ.? fi Ç ˜ÂÏ Ô˘Ë̇ ÚÓ„Ó.? fi ÇÓÔÓÒ ÒÂȘ‡Ò ‚ ÚÓÏ. Ó̇ ‚˚¯Î‡ Á‡ ÌÂ„Ó Á‡ÏÛÊ.. and where they go. ˜ÚÓ . fl Ì Á̇˛.. ëÔ‡‚˯¸Òfl? Do you think I don't know what's been going on behind my back? fi ÑÛχ¯¸.? fi ä‡Í ‚˚ Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ / ÏÓÊÂÚ ӷ˙flÒÌËÚ¸ Ò‚ÓË ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl?: How do you account for being late? fi ä‡Í ‚˚ Ó·˙flÒÌËÚ ҂Ó ÓÔÓÁ‰‡ÌËÂ? How can you be sure? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ Ú‡Í Û‚ÂÂÌ? — For sure? — For sure. ˜ÚÓ Ú‚ÓËÚÒfl Û ÏÂÌfl Á‡ ÒÔËÌÓÈ? What is it to you? fi Ä Ú·Â-ÚÓ ˜ÚÓ? / ä‡ÍÓ Ú· ‰ÂÎÓ? What's the hold-up? fi ᇠ˜ÂÏ ‰ÂÎÓ ÒÚ‡ÎÓ? / Ç ˜ÂÏ Á‡‰ÂÊ͇? How long did you hold office? / How long have you held office? fi ä‡Í ‰ÓÎ„Ó ‚˚ Á‡ÌËχÎË / Á‡ÌËχÂÚ ˝ÚÛ ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÒÚ¸? Why not do smth.. It goes without saying that he is a good driver.. who leaves. Ú‡Í ‚ ÒÂ‰ËÌÂ Ë ‚ ÍÓ̈ Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËfl. ˜ÚÓ ÚÓ„‰‡?: But supposing she did marry him — what then? fi çÓ.. while we are about it? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ·˚ Ì‡Ï Ì ҉·ڸ Á‡Ó‰ÌÓ Ë ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó Â˘Â?: Why not ask for $100 while you are about it? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ ·˚ Ú· Á‡Ó‰ÌÓ Ì ÔÓÔÓÒËÚ¸ 100 ‰ÓηÓ‚? Can you give me a little on account? fi åÓÊÂÚ ÎË ‚˚ ‰‡Ú¸ ÏÌ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ Á‡‰‡ÚÓÍ? How do you account for doing smth. ÍÚÓ ÔËıÓ‰ËÚ. Ë ÍÛ‰‡ ÓÌË Ì‡Ô‡‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl. I'll bet you know this woman. Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊËÏ.But supposing..?: The question now is.

. fi ... ÓÒÚ‡‚¸ ÏÂÌfl ‚ ÔÓÍÓÂ.. . ÔÓÏÓÊÂÚ Ì‡Ï. ... / ä‡Í ·˚ ÌË ‡Á‚Ë‚‡ÎËÒ¸ ÒÓ·˚ÚËfl ... For the rest. fi èË Î˛·ÓÏ ‡ÒÍ·‰Â .. if you will.. fi éÌ ÛÊ ‰‡‚ÌÓ Ô˯ÂÎ Í ‚˚‚Ó‰Û.. . if memory serves fi ÂÒÎË ÏÌ Ì ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚ Ô‡ÏflÚ¸ Most likely.: For the rest.... It's cheaper in the long run. in the long run. call a plumber or a carpenter or an electrician. fi . : — Where is the money? — Let's say I lost it.. fi LJ¯Ë ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ëfl Ò Ì‰‡‚ÌËı ÔÓ — ÏÓfl Á‡·ÓÚ‡. ˜ÚÓ ÓÌË Ò͇ÊÛÚ Ú· ˝ÚÓ? . ÚÓ ‚Ò ·˚ÎÓ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÓ¯Ó. by and large . . it was very good.. .. there Was nothing he could do about it.. fi èË Î˛·ÓÏ ‡ÒÍ·‰Â ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó ÛÊ ÔÓ˜ÚË ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì Á‡‚ËÒÂÎÓ. Ú˚ ÓÚÔ‡‚˯¸Òfl ‚ Ú˛¸ÏÛ.. fi ÖÒÎË fl Ô‡‚ËθÌÓ (‚‡Ò) ÔÓÌflÎ. . ü Ëϲ ‚ ‚ˉÛ...'s part. leave me alone.....fi é̇. ˜ÚÓ .. fi . Our concern... for smb... ÒÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚.. ‚˚Á˚‚‡È Ò‡ÌÚÂıÌË͇ ËÎË ÒÚÓÎfl‡... / .. Ú‡Í ‰Â¯Â‚ÎÂ. and none other. ˜ÚÓ fl Ëϲ ‚ ‚ˉÛ. Ë ÌËÍÚÓ ‰Û„ÓÈ.. fi ü ÛÊ ‚˚Ô·ÚËÎ ÂÏÛ ‚ÂÒ¸ ‰Ó΄. . fl ÔÓÚÂflÎ Ëı. ÂÒÎË ·˚Ú¸ ÚÓ˜Ì˚Ï. shall we say.... .... fi ÖÒÎË ˜ÂÒÚÌÓ.. .. .. fi .. Ë ÌËÍÓ„Ó ‰Û„Ó„Ó.../ê‡‰Ë ‚ÒÂ„Ó Ò‚flÚÓ„Ó. ÂÒÎË ‚˚ ÔÓÌËχÂÚÂ. . íÓ be frank. ÌÓ ‰ÂÎÓ / ÒÛÚ¸ Ì ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ..: If something goes kaput. fi á̇¯¸. ˜ÚÓ Ú˚ Ô‡‚. ËÎË ˝ÎÂÍÚË͇.. ‚ÓÓ·˘Â „Ó‚Ófl. fi ÖÒÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÌË·Û‰¸ ‚˚ȉÂÚ ËÁ ÒÚÓfl. you will go to prison. fi ë͇ÊÂÏ Ú‡Í. fi ëÍÓÂÈ ‚Ò„Ó. . ‚ ÍÓ̘ÌÓÏ Ò˜ÂÚ .. fi ä‡Í Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸.. 燯‡ Á‡·ÓÚ‡. ... I mean...fi ì ÌÂ„Ó Ò‡ÏÓ ·Óθ¯Â 10 Ú˚Òfl˜.. if you will... Most likely. ... but that's not the point...: I have already paid all the money I owed him.. fi óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÒڇθÌÓ„Ó.: ç has finally decided to divulge his secret to her and none other..... If I understand correctly.. what makes you think they'll tell you that? fi ÖÒÎË ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÚ¸... fi Ò‡ÏÓ ·Óθ¯Â He's got 10 thousand at the most. For Christ's sake. .: Assuming you are right. ÔÓÙÂÒÒËÓ̇θÌÓ ӷÒÎÛÊË‚‡ÌËÂ. fi ë͇ÊÂÏ... ˜ÚÓ Î˛·‡fl ÙËÁ˘ÂÒ͇fl ‰ÂflÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸..Tell you what. at the most. ..: ç is of very little help. ÌËÍÓÏÛ ‰Û„ÓÏÛ.... . . fi ë͇ÊÂÏ Ú‡Í.... ˜ÚÓ fl Ò͇ÊÛ Ú· ... As it turned out.. .. . .. fi . to be precise. for her part. ÂÒÎË ıÓÚËÚÂ..: 174 . fi ä ‚‡¯ÂÏÛ Ò‚Â‰ÂÌ˲. fi — ɉ ‰Â̸„Ë? — ë͇ÊÂÏ. ÚÓÎÍÛ ÓÚ ÌÂ„Ó Ï‡ÎÓ. Ç ÍÓ̘ÌÓÏ Ò˜ÂÚÂ.... fi óÚÓ Í‡Ò‡ÂÚÒfl ÓÒڇθÌÓ„Ó. In either event. fi ëÍÓÂÈ ‚Ò„Ó. fi ê‡‰Ë ÅÓ„‡. Assuming...: In either event. ıÓÚfl fl Ó˜Â̸ ‰‡ÎÂÍ ÓÚ Ú‡ÍÓÈ Ï˚ÒÎË... ÂÒÎË ıÓÚËÚÂ.: ç has long since decided that all physical activity is by and large a waste of time. ˝ÚÓ ÔÛÒÚ‡fl Ú‡Ú‡ ‚ÂÏÂÌË.... and I don't for an instant concede that you are...fi ê‡‰Ë ÅÓ„‡. . ÌÓ ÒÛÚ¸ Ì ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ. fi ÖÒÎË ‰ÓÔÛÒÚËÚ¸.. .. ÔÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ‰Ûχ¯¸.: She... Professional maintenance. fi .. .: Your recent activities are very much my concern... For Christ's/God's/goodness' sake . ÒÓ Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚. For your information.. if you see what I mean. fi .. .. ... shall we say. but that's not the point.. fi .. Let's say . ‚ÓÓ·˘Â „Ó‚Ófl.. fi Ç ÍÓ̈ ÍÓ̈ӂ ÓÌ ¯ËÎ ÔÓÒ‚flÚËÚ¸ ‚ Ò‚ÓÈ ÒÂÍÂÚ ÚÓθÍÓ ÂÂ. .. will help us...

. ïÓÚfl......... fi ùÚÓ ·˚Î ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍ. . by the way? fi äÒÚ‡ÚË. .... God. for that matter. . ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Ó˜Â̸ ·ÓflÎËÒ¸ ‚ ÍËÏË̇θÌÓÏ ÏËÂ.... . .. fi . fi ü Ì ıÓ˜Û Ô˘ËÌflÚ¸ ÂÏÛ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ‚‰‡.... . all they have a number of things in common. .... . ÌË˜Â„Ó Ì ÔӉ·¯¸. I'll stay there five minutes maybe.. presumably... which is more probable. and the like. ... Ë.~fortunately or otherwise... ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÂ... Ó̇ ·˚· Ó˜Â̸ Ô‡‚‡.. fl ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Û˛ Ò·fl ÔÓÚÂflÌÌ˚Ï. ..... ‚ ˜ÂÏ fl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Û‚ÂÂÌ..... government. .. Ú‡ÍË ‚ÓÚ ‰Â·.... Ë ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÂ. ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÂ... I feel lost.... fi .. fi ü ÔÓ·Û‰Û Ú‡Ï ÏËÌÛÚ ÔflÚ¸. presumably.. By the way. of what I am certain.: They are affiliated with the government. fi ... ÌÓ Ì ÚÂÒÌÓ. At any rate... Ò‡ÏÓ ·Óθ¯ÂÂ. .. . . ... ... but loosely.. fi éÌË ‰‡ÊÂ Ë Ì ÒÓ·Ë‡ÎËÒ¸ ÔÓÏÓ„‡Ú¸ ̇Ï. ˜ÂÏ ÓÌ Ú‡Í ‰ÓÎ„Ó Á‡ÌËχÂÚÒfl ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌÂ? I don't want any harm to come to him.. In truth... ...: She believes in country. fi ü ‚ÂÌÛÒ¸ ‚ „ÓÒÚËÌËˆÛ Í ÔÓÎÛ‰Ì˛. fi . ÂÒÎË ÛÊ Ì‡ ÚÓ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ.. íÓ put it bluntly. . => à. . . One at the latest.: I'll be back at the hotel by noon. fi . ˜ÚÓ . .. . ÂÒÎË ÛÊ Ì‡ ÚÓ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ. Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÂ.. Ú‡Í-ÚÓ ‚ÓÚ. . .. I could not have asked for a better place of living. Ë Ú‡Í ‰‡ÎÂÂ. „‰Â ‚‡¯ ÏÛÊ? .: ç was a man enormously feared in criminal circles. ten at the outside. so to speak. / Frankly speaking. and rightly so.... I have my doubts.... Í Ò˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ ËÎË Í ÌÂÒ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛.. ... at the outside. ‰ÂÒflÚ¸. Ú‡Í-ÚÓ ‚ÓÚ. Ò‚flÁ‡Ì˚ Ò Ô‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚ÓÏ. Ò‡ÏÓ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÂ.at the latest... ë‡ÏÓ ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÂ. Í Ò˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ ËÎË Í ÌÂÒ˜‡ÒÚ¸˛. Á‡‚Ú‡ ‡ÌÓ ÛÚÓÏ.. ‚ ˜ÂÏ fl ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ Û‚ÂÂÌ. ÔÓ·„‡˛. of what I am certain. and. fi ... so that is that. what has he been doing in London? fi ÖÒÎË ÛÊ Ì‡ ÚÓ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ.. ... fi éÌË. and I hazard the guess that . fl Ì ÏÓ„ Ë Ï˜ڇڸ 6 ÎÛ˜¯ÂÏ ÊËθÂ... fi Ç Ó·˘ÂÏ Ë ˆÂÎÓÏ. ... Ë no-Ô‡‚Û.: — What will she be doing there? — Waiting for her husband's call.. fi . and rightly so. Û ‚ÒÂı ÌËı ÂÒÚ¸ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ó·˘Ëı ˜ÂÚ..... though. Ë ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÂ. Ë fl ËÒÍÌÛ ‚˚Ò͇Á‡Ú¸ ‰Ó„‡‰ÍÛ / Ô‰ÔÓÎÓÊÂÌËÂ. .. ... fi óÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl. to put it kindly. fi . at the outside. fi óÂÒÚÌÓ „Ó‚Ófl.. Í ˜‡ÒÛ.: And where is your husband.. .... so there. . fi à Í‡Í Ó͇Á‡ÎÓÒ¸. ‚ ÅÓ„‡ Ë ÚÓÏÛ ÔÓ‰Ó·ÌÓÂ. fi åfl„ÍÓ „Ó‚Ófl. fi ..: He will be here later this evening or. and the like. Ò‡ÏÓ ·Óθ¯Â / ÔÓÁ‰ÌÂÂ... for that matter. in a manner of speaking. in a manner of speaking.. : All in all.: And. All in all... ...: 175 . she was very right. ÔÓÌflÚÌÓ? àÎË Ú·Â. Ú‡Í Ò͇Á‡Ú¸..: To put it bluntly. fi é̇ ‚ÂËÚ ‚ ÒÚ‡ÌÛ.. ˜ÚÓ ·ÓΠ‚ÂÓflÚÌÓ. understand? Or to you........ . Û ÏÂÌfl ÂÒÚ¸ ÒÓÏÌÂÌËfl ̇ ˝ÚÓÚ Ò˜ÂÚ. . They were not even going to help us.. fi . : For that matter. / . fortunately or otherwise.And as it turned out. fi èÓ Ô‡‚‰Â „Ó‚Ófl.. => Ç Ó·˘ÂÏ Ë ˆÂÎÓÏ. ÔÓ·„‡˛.. fi . ‚ Ô‡‚ËÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó. fi .. early tomorrow morning. / . and so forth and so on... fi äÒÚ‡ÚË. fi éÌ ·Û‰ÂÚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ò„ӉÌfl ‚˜ÂÓÏ ËÎË. fi .◊... . fi ÇÓ ‚ÒflÍÓÏ ÒÎÛ˜‡Â.. fi . Ë no-Ô‡‚Û. fi .. fi — óÚÓ Ó̇ ÒÓ·Ë‡ÂÚÒfl ‰Â·ڸ Ú‡Ï? — ܉‡Ú¸ Á‚ÓÌ͇ ÓÚ ÏÛʇ....

.... — what is the right word to use? — . fi ëÚ‡ÌÌÓ... . fi . .. .. fi ÑÂÎÓ ‚ ÚÓÏ. . to have in mind fi ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ ‚Ë‰Û (ıÓÚÂÚ¸ Ò͇Á‡Ú¸): What do you have in mind? fi óÚÓ Ú˚ Ëϯ¸ ‚ ‚ˉÛ? to make up one's mind to do smth.... .. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÛÒÚÓȘ˂˚ ÒÓ˜ÂÚ‡ÌËfl.. fi á‡ÔÓÏÌË. fi èÓ ÒÎÓ‚‡Ï ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó. .. . On the other hand. to take smth. fi ü ¯ËÎ ÓÒÚ‡Ú¸Òfl.. fi í˚ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ÔËÌËχڸ ˝ÚÓ Í‡Í ‰ÓÎÊÌÓÂ. in smb... ËÎË ˜ÚÓ-ÚÓ ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ Ó‰Â. fi Á‡·ÓÎÂÚ¸ / Á‡‡ÁËÚ¸Òfl: He caught a fever.. It's odd. and was having an affair with her best friend. Sad as it is.. fi ÛÒÔÂÚ¸ ̇ Ú‡ÌÒÔÓÚ: I didn't catch the bus..... fi ÇˉËÚ ÎË.. fi ÔӉ͇Î˚‚‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ÔˉË‡Ú¸Òfl: Why do you pick on me? fi èÓ˜ÂÏÛ Ú˚ ÔˉË‡Â¯¸Òfl ÍÓ ÏÌÂ? to walk out on smb.. fi ü ÓÔÓÁ‰‡Î / Ì ÛÒÔÂΠ̇ ‡‚ÚÓ·ÛÒ. . no matter what.. fi .: I'm never going to get a divorce.. isn't it.. no matter what. fi Ÿ˛Ò¸ Ó· Á‡Í·‰... fi Ç Ò‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl . fi ㇉ÌÓ. to be up fi Ì ÎÓÊËÚ¸Òfl ÒÔ‡Ú¸: She is up until two o'clock every day.. fi ä‡Í ˝ÚÓ ÌË Ô˜‡Î¸ÌÓ. fi Ç ÍÓ̈ ÍÓ̈ӂ. ÌË ÔË Í‡ÍËı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı.Indeed. . You see.. / ç‡ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ.... ˜ÚÓ . .. fi ü ÌËÍÓ„‰‡ Ì ÔÓÎÛ˜Û ‡Á‚Ó‰.. / In fact . .. I bet.. The thing is. let me inform you on ... . fi ÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ (‚ ·Â‰Â / ·ÂÁ ÔÓÏÓ˘Ë)... fi Ç Ò‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl fl ÚÓÊ Ì ·ÎËÒڇΠ‚ ¯ÍÓÎÂ. for granted fi ÔËÌËχڸ Í‡Í Ò‡ÏÓ ÒÓ·ÓÈ ‡ÁÛϲ˘ËÈÒfl Ù‡ÍÚ (Ú‡Í Ë ‰ÓÎÊÌÓ ·˚Ú¸): You have to take it for granted... (‰Îfl Ô˂ΘÂÌËfl ‚ÌËχÌËfl Ë Ó‰ÌÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÈ ÒÏÂÌ˚ ÚÂÏ˚ ‡Á„Ó‚Ó‡): Here..... . to catch the bus / train / . ... — Í‡Í ·˚ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÚӘ̠‚˚‡ÁËÚ¸Òfl? — ... ËÁÏÂÌËÚ¸ ‚ ÒÛÔÛÊÂÒÚ‚Â: ç walked out on her. in my time. fi . 176 . Needless to say.. fi î‡ÍÚ˘ÂÒÍË.. 36. ˜‡ÒÚÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÛ˛˘ËÂÒfl ÔË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌËË Ô‰ÎÓÊÂÌËÈ ‚ ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ ˜Ë.. fi (çÛ) ㇉ÌÓ.. Ì Ô‡‚‰‡ ÎË.. fi çÂÚ ÌÂÓ·ıÓ‰ËÏÓÒÚË „Ó‚ÓËÚ¸. ..: I never did well in school. Mind you. . Shortly after . to work weekends fi ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ ÔÓ ‚˚ıÓ‰Ì˚Ï. fi ë ‰Û„ÓÈ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚.. ..... to catch a disease / cold / virus / . ˜ÚÓ . either. . fi ÔËÌflÚ¸ ¯ÂÌË / ¯ËÚ¸ ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: I have made up my mind to stay. fi ç‡ÒÍÓθÍÓ fl Á̇˛.. fi ÇÒÍÓ ÔÓÒΠ. . ... ...... fi é̇ Ì ÎÓÊËÚÒfl ÒÔ‡Ú¸ ‰Ó ‰‚Ûı ˜‡ÒÓ‚.......... or something. According to smb.. . / èÓÈÏË...... . ÌÂÒÏÓÚfl ÌË Ì‡ ˜ÚÓ / ÌË ÔË Í‡ÍËı Ó·ÒÚÓflÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ı.. After all. to pick on smb. For all I know. fi éÌ ËÁÏÂÌËÎ ÂÈ Ë Á‡‚ÂÎ ÓÏ‡Ì Ò Â ÎÛ˜¯ÂÈ ÔÓ‰Û„ÓÈ. fi éÌ Òı‚‡ÚËÎ ÎËıÓ‡‰ÍÛ..... Here... .. .. ÚÂÔÂ¸ ÔÓÁ‚ÓθÚ ÏÌ ÒÓÓ·˘ËÚ¸ ‚‡Ï Ó ..'s time....

ÒÍÓθÍÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚÒfl ÌÓχθÌ˚Ï: Pay me whatever you figure is fair. to drop by fi Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ / Á‡ÒÍÓ˜ËÚ¸ (̇ ÏËÌÛÚÓ˜ÍÛ): Would you mind to drop by to see my house? fi åÓÊÂÚ ·˚Ú¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÍÛÔ‡Ú¸ ˝ÚÓÚ ‰ÓÏ.. fi á‡Ô·ÚËÚ ÒÚÓθÍÓ. to drive smb. fi åÓʯ¸ ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÏÂÌfl. fi ‡ÒÒ˜ËÚ˚‚‡Ú¸ ̇ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: You may count on me. fi Ö ÔÓÈχÎË Ò ÔÓ΢Ì˚Ï. to see no point in doing smth. fi ÔÓËÁ‚ÂÒÚË ıÓӯ / ÔÎÓıÓ ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎÂÌË ̇ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó: Did I make a good impression on him? fi ü ÔÓËÁ‚· ̇ ÌÂ„Ó ıÓӯ ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎÂÌËÂ? down payment fi Á‡ÎÓ„. and you'll get the balloon payment later. fi ü Ì ‚ËÊÛ ÒÏ˚Ò· ‚ ÚÓÏ. fi ÛÊËÚ¸Òfl Ò ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I don't get along with my mother-in-law. fi Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: I have nothing to do with this. fi í˚ ÏÓ„ ·˚ ÒÚ‡Ú¸ ıÓÓ¯ËÏ ‚Ó‰ËÚÂÎÂÏ. to pick smb. : I see no point in buying this house. to be on a drunk fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ Á‡ÔÓÂ: ç looked like he had been on a drunk for several days. fi èÓÒΉÌÂÈ Í‡ÔÎÂÈ ·˚Î ÚÂÎÂÙÓÌÌ˚È Á‚ÓÌÓÍ ËÁ åÓÒÍ‚˚. to make a good / excellent smth. to pay cash fi Ô·ÚËÚ¸ ̇΢Ì˚ÏË: He always pays cash. red-handed fi ÔÓÈχڸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó Ò ÔÓ΢Ì˚Ï: She was caught red-handed. up fi Á‡ÈÚË / Á‡Âı‡Ú¸ Á‡ ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I'll pick you up at 10. fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ·˚Î Ú‡ÍÓÈ ‚ˉ. fi ÇÓÚ Á‡ÎÓ„. fi éÌ ‚Ò„‰‡ Ô·ÚËÚ Ì‡Î˘Ì˚ÏË. to have nothing to do with smb. to smth. on sight fi Ò ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚Á„Îfl‰‡: She hated me on sight. to get along with smb. to count on smb. fi ü Ì Ëϲ Í ˝ÚÓÏÛ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. / smth. ‡ ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓÍ ‚˚ ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ ÔÓÁÊÂ. to make a good / bad impression on smb. to catch smb. / smth. You could make a good driver. balloon payment fi ÓÒÚ‡ÚÓÍ: Here is the down payment. whatever one figures to be fair fi Á‡Ô·ÚËÚ¸ ÒÚÓθÍÓ. ˜ÚÓ·˚ . fi ü Á‡Â‰Û Á‡ ÚÓ·ÓÈ ‚ 10 ˜‡ÒÓ‚.'s place fi ÔÓÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Ò·fl ̇ ÏÓ / ˜¸Â-ÎË·Ó ÏÂÒÚÓ: Put yourself into my place. fi ü Á‡ÒÍÓ˜ËÎ Í ÌÂÏÛ ‚ ÓÙËÒ. 177 . to put oneself into my / smb. ·Û‰ÚÓ ÓÌ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‰ÌÂÈ Ì ‚˚ıÓ‰ËÎ ËÁ Á‡ÔÓfl. fi Ç ÔÓÒΉÌ ‚ÂÏfl ÏÌ ‚ÂÁÂÚ / Ì ‚ÂÁÂÚ.. fi Ì ‚ˉÂÚ¸ ÒÏ˚Ò· ‚ ÚÓÏ. fi èÓÒÚ‡‚¸ Ò·fl ̇ ÏÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ.. fi é̇ ‚ÓÁÌÂ̇‚ˉ· ÏÂÌfl Ò ÔÂ‚Ó„Ó ‚Á„Îfl‰‡. fi ÒÚ‡Ú¸ / ÔÓÎÛ˜ËÚ¸Òfl: She will make an excellent wife for you. fi é̇ ·Û‰ÂÚ Ú· ıÓÓ¯ÂÈ ÊÂÌÓÈ. to be on a winning / losing streak fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ÔÓÎÓÒ ‚ÂÁÂÌËfl / Ì‚ÂÁÂÌËfl: I have been on a winning / losing streak lately. fi ì Ì‡Ò ÍÓ̘‡˛ÚÒfl ‰Â̸„Ë. ÒÍÓθÍÓ Ò˜ËÚ‡ÂÚ ÌÛÊÌ˚Ï / ÌÓχθÌ˚Ï. to be running out of time / money / . fi ÍÓ̘‡Ú¸Òfl / ·˚Ú¸ ̇ ËÒıÓ‰Â: We are running out of money.. fi ‰Ó‚ÂÒÚË ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰Ó ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: ç could drive me to suicide.the last / final straw fi ÔÓÒΉÌflfl ͇ÔÎfl (ÔÂÂÔÓÎÌË‚¯‡fl ˜‡¯Û ÚÂÔÂÌËfl): The final straw was a telephone call from Moscow. fi ü ÌËÍ‡Í Ì ÏÓ„Û ÛÊËÚ¸Òfl ÒÓ Ò‚ÂÍÓ‚¸˛ / Ú¢ÂÈ. Á‡„Îfl̯¸ ͇Í-ÌË·Û‰¸ ̇ ÏËÌÛÚÓ˜ÍÛ ÔÓÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ ÏÓÈ ‰ÓÏ? to drop in on smb. (at some place) fi Á‡„ÎflÌÛÚ¸ / Á‡ÒÍÓ˜ËÚ¸ Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó (ÍÛ‰‡-ÎË·Ó): I dropped in on him at the office. fi éÌ ÏÓ„ ‰Ó‚ÂÒÚË ÏÂÌfl ‰Ó Ò‡ÏÓÛ·ËÈÒÚ‚‡. on purpose fi ̇Ó˜ÌÓ / ÛÏ˚¯ÎÂÌÌÓ: Did you do it on purpose? fi í˚ Ò‰Â·Π˝ÚÓ Ì‡Ó˜ÌÓ? to pay smb.

— Come here! — I'm on my way. not to mind in the least fi Ì ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Ú¸ ÌË ‚ χÎÂȯÂÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË: Some of them were very tired. fi åÌÓ„Ë β‰Ë ÔÓ ÛÚ‡Ï ¢ Ì ‚ ÎÛ˜¯ÂÈ ÙÓÏÂ. fi åÌ Ì ÚÂÔËÚÒfl ۂˉÂÚ¸ Ëı. to make a guess fi ‰Ó„‡‰˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl: I couldn't even make a guess. fi ü ‰‡Ê Ì ‰Ó„‡‰˚‚‡ÎÒfl. she must not create any ill will that might put the whole family in a bad light. fi é̇ ˜ÛÚ¸ Ì ۷Ë· „Ó. ˜ÚÓ Ì ‰ÓÎÊ̇ ÔÓfl‚ÎflÚ¸ ‚‡Ê‰Â·ÌÓÒÚ¸. Ë ‚ÓÚ Í‡Í ‚Ò ӷÂÌÛÎÓÒ¸. fi éÌ ÔËÌflÎ ˝ÚÓ Á‡ ˜ËÒÚÛ˛ ÏÓÌÂÚÛ. fi á‡ÌËχflÒ¸ ‰Óχ¯ÌËÏË ‰Â·ÏË. to take / to catch smb. to the very core of one's soul fi ÌÂ̇‚ˉÂÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ‰Ó „ÎÛ·ËÌ˚ ‰Û¯Ë: She had grown up with her cousin and hated him to the very core of her soul. ÌÓ ¯Ë· Ì ‰Â·ڸ ˝ÚÓ„Ó. to point-blank refuse to do smth. to go about one's chorus fi Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl ‰Óχ¯ÌÂÈ ‡·ÓÚÓÈ: She worked very hard at remaining cheerful and matter-of-fact as she went about her chorus. to be on smb. to take smth. fi éÌË Á‡ÒÚ‡ÎË Ì‡Ò ‚‡ÒÔÎÓı. fi ëÂȘ‡Ò ÓÌË Ì‡Ô‡‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl ‚ ãÓ̉ÓÌ. fi é̇ ‚˚ÓÒ· ‚ÏÂÒÚÂ Ò ‰‚Ó˛Ó‰Ì˚Ï ·‡ÚÓÏ Ë ÌÂ̇‚ˉ· Â„Ó ‰Ó „ÎÛ·ËÌ˚ ‰Û¯Ë. to be (completely) under smb. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÓÌ Ì‡ÓÚÂÁ ÓÚ͇Á‡ÎÒfl Âı‡Ú¸. to have a heart-to-heart talk fi ÔÓ„Ó‚ÓËÚ¸ ÔÓ ‰Û¯‡Ï. 178 .'s way fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ÔÛÚË: They are on their way to London. to decide against smth. at face value fi ÔËÌËχڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó Á‡ ˜ËÒÚÛ˛ ÏÓÌÂÚÛ: ç took it at face value and here we are. Ó̇ Ó˜Â̸ Ò‰ÂÊË‚‡Î‡ Ò·fl.fi é̇ Ò͇Á‡Î‡ Ò·Â. to be in smb. to hate smb. / smth. to be anxious to do smth. in a bad light fi ‚˚ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‚ ÔÎÓıÓÏ Ò‚ÂÚÂ: She told herself. fi é̇ ıÓÚ· Ó·ÒÛ‰ËÚ¸ ˝ÚÓ Ò ÏÛÊÂÏ. ÍÓ„‰‡ ÚÓθÍÓ Ì‡˜‡Î ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸. fi ü ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓ˛Ò¸. fi — à‰Ë Ò˛‰‡! — (ìÊÂ) à‰Û. to be all / completely at sea fi ÔÎÓıÓ ÓËÂÌÚËÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl / ÒÓÓ·‡Ê‡Ú¸: I was all at sea when I began my job. fi é̇ ·˚· ÌÂÏÌÓ„Ó Û‰Ë‚ÎÂ̇.'s spell fi ̇ıÓ‰ËÚ¸Òfl (ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛) ÔÓ‰ ˜¸ËÏ-ÎË·Ó ‚ÎËflÌËÂÏ: She is completely under his spell. to be at one's best fi ·˚Ú¸ ‚ ̇ËÎÛ˜¯ÂÈ ÙÓÏÂ: Most people are not at their best in the morning. ÌÓ ÌËÍÚÓ ÌË ‚ χÎÂȯÂÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Ì ‚ÓÁ‡Ê‡Î. ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÓÒÚ‡‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÊËÁÌÂ‡‰ÓÒÚÌÓÈ Ë ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ. fi é̇ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÔÓ‰ Â„Ó ‚ÎËflÌËÂÏ. but no one minded in the least.'s way fi ϯ‡Ú¸ / ÒÚÓflÚ¸ ̇ ÔÛÚË: You are in my way. to be anxious about / for / over smb. in the strict sense of the word fi ‚ ÔflÏÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒΠÒÎÓ‚‡: She was on the verge of killing him' in the strict sense of the word. fi í˚ Ï̠ϯ‡Â¯¸.to take the day-off fi ·‡Ú¸ ÓÚ„ÛÎ. to put smb. ‚ ÔflÏÓÏ ÒÏ˚ÒΠÒÎÓ‚‡. fi ·ÂÒÔÓÍÓËÚ¸Òfl / Ú‚ÓÊËÚ¸Òfl Ó ÍÓÏ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I'm anxious for his safety. fi ÑÓ·Ó‚ÓθÌÓ Ì‡ ˝ÚÓ ÌËÍÚÓ Ì ÔÓȉÂÚ. fi Ì ÚÂÔÂÚ¸Òfl ҉·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: I'm anxious to see them. fi ÓÚ͇Á‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ÓÚÂÁ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: She was a little surprised when he point-blank refused to go. to do smth. of one's own free will fi ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó ÔÓ ‰Ó·ÓÈ ‚ÓÎÂ: Nobody will do that of his own free will. fi ü Ó˜Â̸ ÔÎÓıÓ ÒÓÓ·‡Ê‡Î. fi çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁ ÌËı ·˚ÎË Ó˜Â̸ ÛÒÚ‡Î˚Â. / smth. / doing smth. fi ÔËÌflÚ¸ ¯ÂÌË Ì ‰Â·ڸ ˜Â„Ó-ÎË·Ó: She considered discussing it with her husband but decided against it. by surprise fi Á‡ÒÚ‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‚‡ÒÔÎÓı: They took us by surprise. Í‡Í ·˚ Ò ÌËÏ ˜Â„Ó Ì ÒÎÛ˜ËÎÓÒ¸. ˜ÚÓ·˚ Ì ‚˚ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ‚Ò˛ ÒÂϸ˛ ‚ ÔÎÓıÓÏ Ò‚ÂÚÂ.

/ for doing smth. fi èÓ̇˜‡ÎÛ Û ÌÂ„Ó Ì ӘÂ̸ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÎÓÒ¸. fi ë̇˜‡Î‡ ÓÌ ‰Ó ÒÏÂÚË Ì‡ÔÛ„‡Î ÏÂÌfl. in one's bones fi ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó‚‡Ú¸ ÒÂ‰ˆÂÏ: It is the very truth. Are you sure your sister has the knack for baby-sitting? fi Ä Ú˚ Û‚ÂÂÌ. My car has stood me in good stead this winter. 179 . to count / not to count fi ËÏÂÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌË / Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ Á̇˜ÂÌËfl: Where you live doesn't count. fi ·˚Ú¸ ÔËÓʉÂÌÌ˚Ï ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: That's because I'm just a natural born driver. to have the knack of smth.fi Ö„Ó ‚·‰ÂÌË ËÌÓÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ÏË flÁ˚͇ÏË ÒÓÒÎÛÊËÎÓ ÂÏÛ ıÓÓ¯Û˛ ÒÎÛÊ·Û ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓÏ. fi á‡Ï˜‡ÌË ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÂθÌÓ Â ÓÚˆ‡ ‚‰Û„ Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÎÓ ‚Ò ‰ÂÎÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ËÌÓÏ Ò‚ÂÚÂ.: I'm a long way from poor yet. fi ͇ʉ‡fl ÏËÌÛÚ‡ ‰ÓÓ„‡. fi óÛÂÚ ÏÓ ÒÂ‰ˆÂ — ˝ÚÓ ˜ËÒÚ‡fl Ô‡‚‰‡. fi ËÏÂÚ¸ ÔË‚˚˜ÍÛ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: ç is not in the habit of waiting for me. to put an entirely different light on the matter fi Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ÎflÚ¸ ‚Ò ÒÓ‚Â¯ÂÌÌÓ ‚ ËÌÓÏ Ò‚ÂÚÂ: The remark about her father suddenly put an entirely different light on that matter. fi é̇ Ïӄ· ıÓÓ¯Ó Ô‰ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ ÒÂ·Â Â„Ó Â‡ÍˆË˛ ̇ Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÔÓ‚ÓÓÚ ÒÓ·˚ÚËÈ. fi ü ‚Ó‚Ò Ì Ô˚Ú‡˛Ò¸ ‚·ËÚ¸ ÍÎËÌ ÏÂÊ‰Û ‚‡ÏË. Ë ˝ÚÓ Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡ÂÚ ÒÓÏÌÂÌËÈ. fi ùÚÓ ÔÓÚÓÏÛ. fi ̇ۘËÚ¸Òfl ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó / ÛÏÂÚ¸ ‰Â·ڸ ˜ÚÓ-ÎË·Ó: At first he was awkward. to feel smth. fi å˚ ‰ÓÎÊÌ˚ ÒÚ‡‚ËÚ¸ Â„Ó ·Î‡„ÓÒÓÒÚÓflÌË ‚˚¯Â ̇¯Â„Ó. or how you dress. out of smb. / smth. fi ɉ Ú˚ Ê˂¯¸ Ë Í‡Í Ó‰Â‚‡Â¯¸Òfl. disservice fi Ó͇Á‡Ú¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó Ï‰‚Âʸ˛ ÛÒÎÛ„Û: We must consider his welfare above ours or we might do him some great disservice. but soon he had the knack of it. to have nothing to do with smb. ˜ÚÓ Ú‚Ófl ÒÂÒÚ‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÏÓÚÂÚ¸ Á‡ ·ÂÌÍÓÏ? to scare smb. to hold oneself in check fi Ò‰ÂÊË‚‡Ú¸Òfl: She held herself in check. ıÓÚfl ÂÈ Ó˜Â̸ ıÓÚÂÎÓÒ¸ ·ÓÒËÚ¸Òfl Í ÌÂÏÛ.to drive a wedge between smb. ÌÓ ‚ÒÍÓ ÓÌ Ì‡Û˜ËÎÒfl ˝ÚÓÏÛ. fi Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl Í ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó / ˜ÂÏÛ-ÎË·Ó: His belongings have nothing to do with me. fi ì ÌÂ„Ó ÌÂÚ ÔË‚˚˜ÍË Ê‰‡Ú¸ ÏÂÌfl.fi ü ¢ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì ·Â‰ÌflÍ. to do smb. to be a long way from smth.'s wits fi ̇ÔÛ„‡Ú¸ ÍÓ„Ó-ÎË·Ó ‰Ó ÒÏÂÚË: First he scared me out of my wits — then he yelled when I tried to help him. fi ‚·Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÍÎËÌ ÏÂÊ‰Û ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó Ë ÍÂÏ-ÎË·Ó: I'm not driving a wedge between you. every minute counts. such a turn of events fi Ú‡ÍÓÈ ÔÓ‚ÓÓÚ ÒÓ·˚ÚËÈ: She could well imagine his reaction to such a turn of events. / ü Ì Ëϲ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl Í Â„Ó ‚¢‡Ï. to have the blues fi ı‡Ì‰ËÚ¸: You've got the blues — that's what's wrong with you. fi åÓfl χ¯Ë̇ ıÓÓ¯Ó ÔÓÒÎÛÊË· ÏÌ ˝ÚÓÈ ÁËÏÓÈ. I feel it in my bones. fi Ö„Ó ‚Â˘Ë Ì ËÏÂ˛Ú ÍÓ ÏÌ ÌË͇ÍÓ„Ó ÓÚÌÓ¯ÂÌËfl. ‡ ÔÓÚÓÏ Ì‡˜‡Î Í˘‡Ú¸. Ò ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï fl ÏÓ„Û ÊËÚ¸ — Ú˚. ˜ÚÓ fl ÔËÓʉÂÌÌ˚È ‚Ó‰ËÚÂθ. Á̇˜ÂÌËfl Ì ËÏÂÂÚ. fi ëÍÓÓ ÓÌ ÔË‚˚Í ÔËÌËχڸ ÔÓ ÛÚ‡Ï ‚‡ÌÌÛ Ë ·ËÚ¸Òfl. fi Ö‰ËÌÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÏÛʘË̇. though she longed to run to him. and that is out of the question. to stand smb. yet fi ·˚Ú¸ ¢ ‰‡ÎÂÍÓ Ì . in good stead fi ÒÓÒÎÛÊËÚ¸ ÍÓÏÛ-ÎË·Ó ıÓÓ¯Û˛ ÒÎÛÊ·Û: His facility with languages other than his own had stood him in good stead in the past. fi Ha Ú·fl ̇¯Î‡ ı‡Ì‰‡ — ‚ÓÚ ˜ÚÓ Ò ÚÓ·ÓÈ. ÍÓ„‰‡ fl ÔÓÔ˚ڇ·Ҹ ÔÓÏÓ˜¸ ÂÏÛ. to get into the habit fi Á‡ËÏÂÚ¸ ÔË‚˚˜ÍÛ / ÔË‚˚ÍÌÛÚ¸: Soon he got into the habit of bathing and shaving in the morning. to be out of the question fi Ì ‚˚Á˚‚‡Ú¸ (ÌË͇ÍËı) ÒÓÏÌÂÌËÈ: The only man I can live with is you. to be in the habit of doing smth. fi é̇ Ò‰ÂÊË‚‡Î‡ Ò·fl. to be a natural born smth. Ë̇˜Â Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ Ó͇Á‡Ú¸ ÂÏÛ Ï‰‚Âʸ˛ ÛÒÎÛ„Û...

fi ü ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Á‡ÌflÚ ‚ Ò‰Û. can'tcha ¤ can't you. awys ¤ orluss ¤ always. how'bout ¤ how about. hadda ¤ had to. a ¤ o' ¤ of. 180 . g'by ¤ good by. . ain't ¤ am not / is not / are not / have not / has not I ain't going there. 'ave / 've / 'a ¤ have. c'mon ¤ come on. inna ¤ mto. 'appen ¤ happen. g'night ¤ good night. didja ¤ did you. 'ow ¤ how. an' ¤ and. fi ü Ì ÔÓÈ‰Û ÚÛ‰‡. 'ome ¤ home. gon'ta ¤ gonna ¤ to be going to: You gonna stay here long? fi í˚ ÒÓ·Ë‡Â¯¸Òfl ‰ÓÎ„Ó ÔÓ·˚Ú¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸? / í˚ ·Û‰Â¯¸ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‰Ó΄Ó? gotta ¤ have got to. hellya ¤ hell do you. jes' ¤ just. gerrup ¤ get up. gerraway ¤ get away. anyways ¤ anyway. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ̇˷ÓΠ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌÌ˚ ‰ۈËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ / ËÒ͇ÊÂÌÌ˚ ÙÓÏ˚. We ain't got money. 'ere ¤ here. ain'tcha ¤ ain't you. fella ¤ fellow. gimme ¤ give me. 37. ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ‡Á„Ó‚ÓÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÌËÁÍÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl. 'e ¤ he. heah ¤ here. fost ¤ first. wok ¤ work. coulda ¤ could have. don'tcha ¤ don't you. fi ì Ì‡Ò ÌÂÚ ‰ÂÌ„. coupla ¤ couple of. helluva ¤ hell of a. a'bin ¤ have been.to be booked (up) fi ·˚Ú¸ ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Á‡ÌflÚ˚Ï (Ì ËÏÂÚ¸ ‚ÂÏÂÌË): I'm booked (up) on Wednesday.

'member ¤ remember.. tha' ¤ that. gerron ¤ get on. ÔÓÎۘ˯¸ ‚ ÌÓÒ. musta ¤ must have. wi' ¤ with. puncha ¤ punch: You toucha my car. thirdy ¤ thirty. shurrup ¤ shut up. 'sail right ¤ it's all right.. toucha ¤ touch. I puncha your nose. oughta ¤ ought to. on'y ¤ only. tek ¤ take. tomorra ¤ tomorrow. wanta ¤ wanna ¤ want to. t'day ¤ today. tellya ¤ tell you. usta ¤ used to. talka ¤ talk to. sonuvabitch ¤ son of a bitch. fi ÑÓÚÓ̯¸Òfl ‰Ó χ¯ËÌ˚. they's ¤ there is. noa ¤ nope ¤ naw ¤ no. toleja ¤ told you. outa ¤ out of. 181 .leggo ¤ let go. speaka ¤ speak to. 'n' ¤ than. twenny ¤ twenty. shuah ¤ sure. me ¤ my: me car / me house / . mistah ¤ mister. s'pose ¤ suppose. wun't ¤ won't. letcha ¤ let you. orright ¤ all right. les's see ¤ let us see. lemme ¤ let me. mek ¤ make. so's ¤ so as.

I tell ye. àÎË Ê ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ÒÎÓ‚‡ÌÓÈ Òڇڸ Û͇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl. ËÎË ÔÂÙËÍÒÓ‚ — ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ ̇˜‡Î ÒÎÓ‚‡. 'cepting it were a rough sea. I'll tell you. Ò Í‡ÍËÏ ÒÛÙÙËÍÒÓÏ ÏÓÊÂÚ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸Òfl ‰‡ÌÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó. ëÎÓ‚‡¸. Was not any on deck until she blew. Helped load 'er meself. 'Ope 'e rots in 'ell who lit it. ya / ye ¤ you / your. èÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ „·‚Ì˚Ï ÔÓÏÓ˘ÌËÍÓÏ ËÁÛ˜‡˛˘Â„Ó flÁ˚Í ‚ ˝ÚÓÏ ‚ÓÔÓÒ ‰ÓÎÊÂÌ ·˚Ú¸ ÒÎÓ‚‡¸. Û „·„ÓÎÓ‚ — Á‚ÓÌÍËÈ). wuddaya ¤ what do you. yeah / yeap ¤ yes. except it was a rough sea. ÔÓ‰‰‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ËÁÛ˜ÂÌ˲ Ë ÒÚÓ„Ó ÓÔ‰ÂÎfl˛˘ÂÈ. ¤ Gunpowder. a 'course. I helped to load her myself. — Weel. Ë ˜ÚÓ ÔÓÎÛ˜‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÂÁÛθڇÚ ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËfl Í ÌÂÏÛ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ÒÛÙÙËÍÒ‡. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ÒÓ‚Ô‡‰‡˛Ú ÔÓ ‚Ë‰Û Ë Á‚Û˜‡Ì˲. ¤ Just a weak one in one of the topsails. Then there was fire everywhere. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰flÚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË Ë (ÂÊÂ) ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË ÒÎÓ‚ — ÒÏ. ëÎÓ‚‡¸ çÓ‚˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚˚‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÓÏ ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËfl ÒÛÙÙËÍÒÓ‚ — ÒÚ‡‚flÚÒfl ‚ ÍÓ̈ ÒÎÓ‚‡. èË·‡‚ÎÂÌË ÒÛÙÙËÍÒ‡ Ó·˚˜ÌÓ Ì ÏÂÌflÂÚ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡.whenja ¤ when did you. — What was in the hold? — Gunpowder. I hope he'll rot in hell who lit it. Now. — Was there a fire on board? — Jes' a wee one in one o' the topsails. Ç ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í Ì ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Í‡ÍÓÈ-ÎË·Ó ÒËÒÚÂÏ˚. ıÓÚfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÌË͇ÍËı ‡Á΢ËË ÌÂÚ: present fi ÔËÒÛÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÈ present fi ÔÓ‰‡ÓÍ present fi ‰‡ËÚ¸ Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓ ÓÚ΢‡ÂÚÒfl. ¤ Well. åÌÓ„Ë ÒÎÓ‚‡ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚Í ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í ‡ÁÌ˚Ï ˜‡ÒÚflÏ ˜Ë. ÓÚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚Û˛˘Â„Ó ÂÏÛ „·„Ó· ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËÂÏ ÔÓÒΉÌÂ„Ó Òӄ·ÒÌÓ„Ó Á‚Û͇ (Û ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı — „ÎÛıÓÈ. ͇ÍÓ ËÏÂÌÌÓ ÒÎÓ‚Ó Ë Ò Í‡ÍËÏ ÒÛÙÙËÍÒÓÏ ÏÓÊÌÓ ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡Ú¸. Then they 'us fire everywhere. wudja ¤ what do you /what did you. Warn't none on deck 'til she blew. ê‡Á‰ÂÎ VI. ıÓÚfl ‡·ÒÓβÚÌÓ Ì˘ÂÏ Ì ÓÚ΢‡˛ÚÒfl ‚ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌËË / ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË: like fi Ì‡‚ËÚ¸Òfl like fi ÔÓıÓÊËÈ çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÓÚÌÓÒflÚÒfl Í ‡ÁÌ˚Ï ˜‡ÒÚflÏ Â˜Ë Ë ‡Á΢‡˛ÚÒfl ÔÓ ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌ˲ (˜‡˘Â ‚ÒÂ„Ó Û‰‡ÂÌËÂÏ). ÌÓ ÔË ˝ÚÓÏ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÂÂıÓ‰flÚ ËÁ Ó‰ÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË Â˜Ë ‚ ‰Û„Û˛ Ë ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔË‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ú¸ÂÈ. ÌÓ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ·˚Ú¸ ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË ‡ÁÌ˚ı ˜‡ÒÚÂÈ ˜Ë: 182 . — ÒÏ. ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚. willya ¤ will you.éÒÌÓ‚Ì˚ ÒÔÓÒÓ·˚ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌËfl ÒÎÓ‚ ‚ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÏ flÁ˚ÍÂ. it wam't much different from any other cross-ing. tell me what happened just before the ship sank. èËÏÂ ‡Ì„ÎËÈÒÍÓÈ ËÒ͇ÊÂÌÌÓÈ Â˜Ë ÌËÁÍÓ„Ó ÛÓ‚Ìfl: — Who the' dell are yet An' why ye brung me 'ere? ¤ Who the devil are you? And why did you bring me here? — I want to ask you some questions and I want truthful answers. It was not much different from any other crossing. of course. èË ˝ÚÓÏ ÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ¸ Ì·Óθ¯Ë ËÁÏÂÌÂÌËfl ‚ ̇ÔËÒ‡ÌËË ÒÎÓ‚‡: use [ju:s] — to use [ju:z] bath — to bathe breath — to breathe Ë ‰.

-„
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ / ̇Â˜Ë˛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ Ò‡‚ÌËÚÂθÌÛ˛ ÒÚÂÔÂ̸ (è‡‚ËÎÓ 9)
small — smaller
easy — easier
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í „·„ÓÎÛ Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ ÚÓ„Ó, ÍÚÓ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ
to drive — driver
to teach — teacher
ËÎË Ô‰ÏÂÚ, Ò ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÂÚÒfl ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚ËÂ:
to mix — mixer
to cook — cooker fi ÔÎËÚ‡ ÌÓ
ÔÓ‚‡ fi cook
ËÌÓ„‰‡ ÏÓÊÂÚ ÔË·‡‚ÎflÚ¸Òfl Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ, Ó·‡ÁÛfl ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ
strange fi ÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚È / ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓÏ˚È — stranger fi ÌÂÁ̇ÍÓψ
ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË -„ (Ì ÒÛÙÙËÍÒ)
copper — ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ
teeter — „·„ÓÎ
never — ̇˜ËÂ
-ant / -ent
ÔË·‡‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Í „·„ÓÎÛ; ÏÓ„ÛÚ Ó·‡ÁÓ‚˚‚‡Ú¸ Í‡Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚Â
to assist—assistant;
to study — student
Ú‡Í Ë ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚Â
to resist — resistant;
to differ — different
ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl ˝ÚËÏË ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË (Ì ÒÛÙÙËÍÒ)
relent — „·„ÓÎ;
grant — „·„ÓÎ / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ
-Ân
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÂ
wood — wooden
gold — golden
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ / ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ „·„ÓÎ
wide — widen
length — lengthen
ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔÓÒÚÓ Á‡Í‡Ì˜Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl ·ÛÍ‚‡ÏË -Ân
listen — „·„ÓÎ
abdomen —.ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÂ
-ly
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓ / ̇˜ËÂ
friend — friendly fi ‰ÛÊÂβ·Ì˚È / ‰ÛÊÂβ·ÌÓ
week — weekly fi (ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚.) ÂÊẨÂθÌËÍ / ÂÊẨÂθÌ˚È / ÂÊẨÂθÌÓ / Í‡Ê‰Û˛ ̉Âβ
ÔË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ Ì‡˜ËÂ
bad — badly
recent — recently

ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌ˚ı.
-or
collect — collector
-ian
Russia — Russian (̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸ / ̇Á‚‡ÌË flÁ˚͇)
magic-magician
-ion (-ation / -sion)
product — production
to install — installation
to prolong — prolongation
to divide — division
183

-ese
Japan — Japanese (̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸ / ̇Á‚‡ÌË flÁ˚͇)
China — Chinese (̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸ / ̇Á‚‡ÌË flÁ˚͇)
-ist
science — scientist (Ó‰ Á‡ÌflÚËÈ)
commune — communist (ÔË‚ÂÊÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸ / ÔË̇‰ÎÂÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Í (ÔÓÎËÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÏÛ) Ú˜ÂÌ˲)
-‡nÒÂ
to resist — resistance
-ence
to differ — difference
-ment
to develop — development
-ness
dark — darkness
-hood
child — childhood
-ism
real — realism
-ure
to press — pressure
-ing
to begin — beginning
-ship
friend — friendship
-dom
free — freedom
-th
(ËÁÏÂÌflÂÚ Ì‡ÔËÒ‡ÌËÂ Ë ÔÓËÁÌÓ¯ÂÌË ÒÎÓ‚‡)
strong — strength
deep — depth

ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌ˚ı.
-less
(ÓÚÒÛÚÒÚ‚Ë ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ / Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡)
use — useless
harm — harmless
-able / -ibie
(̇΢ˠ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚‡ / Ò‚ÓÈÒÚ‚‡)
to interchange — interchangeable
to flex — flexible
-ful
(Ëϲ˘ËÈ ÔËÁ̇ÍË)
help — helpful
use — useful
-ous
fame — famous
-ive
to create — creative
-al
184

fraction — fractional
-ic
nostalgia — nostalgic
-y
luck — lucky
-ish
Poland — Polish (̇Á‚‡ÌË flÁ˚͇ / ̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸)
Ú‡ÍÊ — Pole => ÔÓÎflÍ / ÔÓθ͇ (̇ˆËÓ̇θÌÓÒÚ¸)
girl — girlish (Ò ÔËÁ͇̇ÏË)
white — whitish

ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ „·„ÓÎÓ‚.
-fy
clear — clarify
justice — justify
-ize / -ise
memory — memorize / memorise
legal — legalize / legalise

ëÛÙÙËÍÒ˚ ̇˜ËÈ.
-ward(s)
east — eastward(s), Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌËÂ
toward(s)
onward(s)
upward(s)
-wise
clock — clockwise (Ó·ÓÁ̇˜‡ÂÚ Ì‡Ô‡‚ÎÂÌË ˜‡ÒÓ‚ÓÈ ÒÚÂÎÍË)
anticlockwise

èÂÙËÍÒ˚.
àÏÂ˛Ú (Á‡ ‰ÍËÏ ËÒÍβ˜ÂÌËÂÏ) ÒÓ·ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ ÒÏ˚ÒÎÓ‚Ó ÒÓ‰ÂʇÌËÂ. èË ÔË·‡‚ÎÂÌËË Í ÒÎÓ‚Û ËÁÏÂÌfl˛Ú ‚ ÚÓÈ ËÎË
ËÌÓÈ ÒÚÂÔÂÌË Â„Ó Á̇˜ÂÌËÂ Ë ÔÓ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ ÒÎÓ‚‡ ÔË‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ‚ ‚ˉ ÓÚ‰ÂθÌÓÈ ÒÚ‡Ú¸Ë. Ç ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı ÒÎÛ˜‡flı Ô˯ÛÚÒfl
ÒÎËÚÌÓ, ‚ ÌÂÍÓÚÓ˚ı — ˜ÂÂÁ ‰ÂÙËÒ.
anfi
ÔÓÚË‚Óantifreeze
antiseptic
anti-aircraft
ÒÓÒÓco-author
co-operative / cooperative
contraÔÓÚË‚Ócontraception
contradict
counterÔÓÚË‚Ó- / ÍÓÌÚcounter-attack
counteroffer
de185

./ ÏÂÊ.(ÔÂ‰ r) im./ nepeover-critical to overestimate postÔÓÒÎÂpost-war postscript „‰Ó..(ÔÂ‰ m / p) ÓÚˈ‡ÚÂθÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË inability illogical irrational immoral impatience in‚ÌÛÚË-./ emÔË ÔËÒÓ‰ËÌÂÌËË Í ÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚ËÚÂθÌÓÏÛ / ÔË·„‡ÚÂθÌÓÏÛ Ó·‡ÁÛÂÚ „·„ÓÎ to enlarge to enrage to embody to embrace in.(ÔÂ‰ 1) ir.) in-patient fi ·ÓθÌÓÈ ÒÚ‡ˆËÓ̇‡ out-patient fi ‡Ï·Û·ÚÓÌ˚È ·ÓθÌÓÈ in-laws fi Ó‰ÒÚ‚ÂÌÌËÍË ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÏÛʇ / ÊÂÌ˚ inter‚Á‡ËÏÓ.il. Ó·‡ÚÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË out input — output fi ‚ıÓ‰ — ‚˚ıÓ‰ (‚ ‡ÔÔ‡‡ÚÛ / ÔÓ„‡ÏÏËÓ‚‡ÌËË / .ÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË to degenerate to deform disÔÓÚË‚ÓÔÓÎÓÊÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË dishonest to disagree disagreement en./ Ô‰pre-war precaution re186 ./ ËÌÚÂinterdependent intercontinental international mis‚˚ÔÓÎÌflÚ¸ ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Ë ÌÂÔ‡‚ËθÌÓ to misunderstand to misuse nonÌÂnon-flammable non-violance overÒ‚Âı.

Close.1975. 1977. 187 .H. 1990. A Reference Grammar for Students of English by R.S. Second Edition. Fourth Edition. àÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍË è˂‰ÂÌÌ˚ ‚ ÍÌË„Â ÔËÏÂ˚ ‚ÁflÚ˚ ËÁ ÒÎÂ‰Û˛˘Ëı ËÒÚÓ˜ÌËÍÓ‚: Oxford Student's Dictionary of Current English by A. Harrap's Standard Learners' English Dictionary by P. 1975./ χÎÓ-.A. Christina Ruse.ÔÂÂ-(‰Â·ڸ) / ҉·ڸ Á‡ÌÓ‚Ó to remarry to relocate subÔÓ‰subway sub-conscious sub-committee under̉Ó. Ó·‡ÚÌÓ Á̇˜ÂÌË overto underestimate underskirt to underline underpayment. Jan Svartvik./ ÔÓ‰. 1989.Hornby. ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ ËÁ ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌÓÈ ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛ˚ ÇÂÎËÍÓ·ËÚ‡ÌËË Ë ëòÄ. Choosing Your English by John Haycraft and Terence Creed. A Communicative Grammar of English by Geoffrey Leech. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary by A.S.1990.Collin. Hornby.