Sensors for Mini - UAV

Rajesh H Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering IV B.TECH Amrita School of Engineering Coimbatore

Abstract – There has been rapid improvements in Sensor

Technology in recent days, which had made miniature flying robots fully possible. This Paper speaks about the various types of sensors needed in mini - UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and also tells why a particular sensor is needed and their basic working. This paper also provides information about some of the various commercially available sensors that can be installed in Mini – UAV.

this paper provides the required information regarding sensors by providing the list of major sensors needed in section II, need of each sensor in section III, basic working of each sensor in Section IV and few commercially available sensors in section V.

II.

LIST OF MAJOR SENSORS

I.

INTRODUCTION • Accelerometer Rate Gyros SONAR GPS Receiver

An UAV is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle which doesn’t require an on-board pilot. The prefix mini is used as the system or vehicle is very small is size. An example of such an UAV is shown in Fig.1


III.

NEED FOR

A PARTICULAR SENSOR

Fig. 1 As UAV like Quad Rotor1 is an aerial vehicle with six degrees of freedom, it requires various control actions to be taken to properly maneuver and keep the craft in a required flight condition. Whenever there is a need for control action, then there is a need for sensors to measure the control variables. Thus,
1

The six degrees of freedom of any flying robot are movement along three axis (X, Y, and Z) and rotation about three axes. To control these six degrees of freedom, we need some kind of measurement of changes in each degree of freedom. The three degrees of freedom, namely translational motion along each axis can be controlled by measuring the acceleration along each axis, respectively. For this measurement of acceleration along an axis, accelerometer can be used. The rest of the three degrees of freedom, namely rotational motion about each axis can be controlled by measuring the acceleration about each axis. For this measurement of acceleration about each axis, Rate Gyros can be used. This Para can be easily

Quad Rotor UAV is my present project

GPS satellites orbit at 11. anywhere. A gyro operation is based on the fundamental principle of the conservation of angular momentum: In any system of particles. a gyroscope is an indispensable sensor for defining the position of a vehicle. Obstacles can be avoided by detecting whether any obstacle is present at a particular distance from robot.4. which identifies a sensor capable of measuring a distance through ultrasound waves.understood from Fig. Fig. as in Fig. One capsule is used for the wave transmission while the other one for the wave reception. In many cases. These two capsules are transducers which convert ultrasonic waves into electrical signals and vice versa. anyone can determine their location with great precision. there will be need of sensors for obstacle avoidance and to know where the Robot is located on Earth at any instant.000 nautical miles above the Earth. Using the receiver. 4 Rate Gyro Rate Gyros are sensors used to sense the angular rate of turn about some defined axis. in any weather. GPS Receiver The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations.3 Fig.2 and from a typical example in Fig. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SENSORS . BASIC WORKING OF EACH SENSOR Accelerometer Accelerometers are sensors and instruments used for measuring acceleration and vibration. SONAR SONAR is the acronym of SOund Navigation And Ranging. Accelerometers are based on properties of rotating masses. The most common design is based on a combination of Newton’s law of mass acceleration and Hooke’s law of spring action. It composed of two ultrasound capsules. where a geomagnetic field is either absent (in space) or is altered by the presence of some disturbances. The satellites transmit signals that can be detected by anyone with a GPS receiver. 2 Fig. 3 Apart from the sensors for controlling these six degrees of freedom of a flying robot. using SONAR. V. the total angular momentum of the system relative to any point fixed in space remains constant provided no external forces act on the system. IV. They are continuously monitored by ground stations located worldwide. The exact robot’s location on earth can be found using GPS Receiver onboard. GPS is the only system today able to show exact position on the Earth anytime.

Accelerometer (Analog devices) Gyroscope (Silicon sensing) Accelerometer .ADXL203 (ruler is in centimeters) Gyroscope (Silicon Sensing) Accelerometer (Memsic) Gyroscope .ADXRS150EB (ruler in centimeter) Gyroscope (Murata) SRF08 SONAR (Devantech) .

Springer. Designs. Marcelo Becker. various sensors which are commercially available and suitable for using On-board in Mini – UAV are explored. Amrita University. Also. Coimbatore.siliconsensing. dual-axis thermal accelerometer MX2125 CONCLUSION This paper described about most needed sensors for Mini – UAV and their importance in Mini – UAV. [3] Samir Bouabdallah. I would also like to thank Mr. who inspired and helped me to do Quad Rotor UAV as one of my academic projects. ACKNOWLEDGMENT IMU (Inertial Measuring Unit) I would like thank Dr.com [8] www. Control.com [9] www. J. Springer.com [7] www./sec. and Automation: Science and Engineering.Silicon sensing memsic CRS02c Single axis angular rate sensor low cost. 3rd ed. [2] Jacob Fraden. 2003. 2007.com [10] www. 2005. Dzul. angular rate sensor Angular rate gyro ADXL202 ADXL311 ADXRS300ABG ADXRS150ABG ENC 03 Silicon sensing CRS04c Single axis angular rate sensor . “Toward Obstacle Avoidance on Quadrotors”. [5] www. and Applications”.Chandrasekaran.microstrain.com List of Available Sensors Analog Devices Analog Devices Analog Devices Analog Devices Analog Devices Murata ADXL203EB Dual Axis Accelerometer Dual Axis Accelerometer Dual Axis Accelerometer 300deg/s single chip rate gyro 150 deg. and Roland Siegwart. International Series on Intelligent Systems. Radhamani Pillai.memsic. [4] Kimon P. Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Dynamic Problems of Mechanics. Rogelio Lozano and Alejandro E.honeywell. Springer. Head of Aerospace Department.analog. who is guiding me in Project on Quad Rotor UAV.rctoys. “Modeling and Control of Mini-Flying Machines”. vol 33. REFERENCES [1] Pedro Castillo. Former Senior Lecturer in Amrita University. Advances in Industrial Control.. “Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics.com [6] www. Coimbatore. 2007. Vincent de Perrot.Valavanis. “Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – State of the Art and the Road to Autonomy”.