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Guidelines LIVE, WORK, ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES .
LIVE. AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY Emmanuel Jean-Mary was born and raised in Haiti. He has earned an undergraduate degree in Business Management and graduate studies in International Business and International Management. development program. December 2012 © Copyright Page 2 . By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. WORK. He has lived in the USA and Canada from 2000 to2006. He has worked in banking industry. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. microfinance. health care management. HAITI 101.
…Page 7 SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………….Page 4 FRAMEWORK…………………………………………………………………………..…Page 13 HAITI 101.. TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………..Page 5 PART TWO GUIDELINES…………………………………………………………………………. WORK. December 2012 © Copyright Page 3 ..LIVE... By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES..Page 11 REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………...
LIVE. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. December 2012 © Copyright Page 4 . causing clashes of cultures. international affairs. immigrant minority relationships. Authors have used comparative analysis as an effective tool for this purpose. there is a need to predict behavior or interactions from the relationships. HAITI 101 CROSS –CULTURAL MANAGEMENT PART ONE: INTRODUCTION: The globalization era has increased tremendously interactions between people from different countries and culture in many situations: international or multinational workplace environment. This paper intends to provide useful guidelines for people interacting in multicultural context that involved Haitians or native from Haiti. WORK. HAITI 101. international business situations and international trade activities. To be successful in achieving some tasks and duties in such multicultural environment.
ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. Future orientation HAITI 101. f. Long-term orientation vs short term orientation (link to Confucianism approach). December 2012 © Copyright Page 5 . i. Specific vs Diffuse (whether diverse sides of relationships are connected or not). Power distance (the amount of hierarchy layers). Robert J. Nature (tendency to control or harmonize with). d. Hall (1976). House (2004). High context and low-context culture (whether direct and formal communication or not) b. Time (perception and usage of the time). Mark F. Peter A. c. Assertiveness o. Romie F. k. Neutral vs Affective (whether feelings are controlled or appear). Fons Trompenaars (1993). WORK. From different models devised by these authors we will track the following aspects to perform analysis: a. FRAMEWORK: For the purpose of these guidelines we use comparative analysis in the light of models developed by Geert Hosftede (1980).LIVE. m. l. Status (criteria that define status: achievements or social factors). Petersen (2004). Universalism vs Particularism (tendency to justify each decision separately). e. Individualism vs Collectivism. Masculinity vs Feminity (differentiation in sex roles). By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. Gender Egalitarianism n. Uncertainty Avoidance (tolerance to uncertainty). Littrell (2002). h. j. (dependence on the group to achieve life goals) g.
masculinity. Hindu. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. show pure African culture. German. p. Latin –American. uncertainty avoidance. collectivism. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. The author believes the world can be grouped in the following major civilizations: Japanese. African. Fundamentally from African ascendant.context and affective. December 2012 © Copyright Page 6 . Creole people were mostly house or domestic slaves and free mixed people and they become after Haiti independence the main residents in Haiti urban areas and some part of elite core. Colonization and segregation system.LIVE. Islamic. trade activities with Western and Northern Europe have encouraged migration movement in Haiti by Sweden. a new migration movement from the Middle-East has brought a new component in the contemporary business elite: Lebanese and Syrian people. HAITI 101. ascribed status. Italian. Confucian civilization (Orthodox and Buddhist). Haiti was ruled by French dominance until 1804 and previously controlled by Spanish Monarchy before 17th century. It is relevant to mention the Huntington’s work on grouping national cultures based on their similarities. Haiti national culture may contain also some facets from Western and LatinAmerican civilizations and results from Haiti own experience. short-term orientation. Performance orientation q. carrying black slaves from Africa. synchronic pertaining to time. In the mid 20th century. high. Danish business people who settled and integrated the economic elite. who were born in Africa and carried to the island. Human orientation From the model’s implication above we get to the conclusion that Haitian culture shows in general the following tendencies: high power distance. Creole people who were born in the island have experienced more western assimilation whereas Bossale. Bossale were exclusively field slaves and black and they become after Haiti independence the main source of rural areas population and majority of the overall population. In the late 19th century. have produced culturally two major types of people: the Creole and the Bossale. nostalgia. WORK. Western.
3. relatives or community to achieve personal success in life. HAITI 101. In this way dependent attitude is developed. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. 4. uncle. the truth about the assassination of the first Emperor and one of the founders of the nation. perform tolerance toward difficulties instead of taking risk by standing up or taking a stand in order to avoid losing benefit or to keep economic advantage. job security or social status. WORK. 2. Or people tend to hope for a Good Samaritan or a leader to save them or make the miracle from desperate living conditions. and reciprocally sometimes people in their environment like to call them “my boss”. social obligation or for making a living or get out of difficulties. they would prefer to wait for the worse until they get fired. Uncertainty avoidance: People tend to endure bad situations. Commands are important in organizations for achieving crucial tasks. Reliance on the group: People rely on the group member. godmother and godfather…. unethical behavior and even crime. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. December 2012 © Copyright Page 7 . “ my chief “ in order to please them. has never been uncovered because the plot comes from close teammates. To save face or to avoid shame for the group people tend to hide trouble. In Haiti history. ensure effectiveness and discipline. PART TWO: GUIDELINES: From theoretical considerations above we recommend the following guidelines for people interacting with Haitian constituencies in various situations: 1. Also one can expect that subordinate employees tend to be very submissive. family.LIVE. Protection for the group: people tend to hide or avoid conflict in the group by submitting or accepting the decision from hierarchy. Also married couple prefers to endure turmoil instead of going to divorce. frustration. Sometimes Haitian in a situation of power like admiration and flattery. It is a common story among Haitian who were raised or feed or supported or sponsored in immigration by aunt. For example: people don’t quit job usually whatever happen at workplace. Example: sexual assault on young girls by family members or relatives or family violence in a couple are usually hidden or ended without pressing charges. Authoritarian style: Managers and executives are expected to be powerful or to show strong authority to be heard. Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
There is a tendency to go for solutions or options that provide quick returns. rules.LIVE. Sometimes something is hidden that the listener needs to feel. You will realize that later when they will not respect their word. There more concern for current or upcoming issues and underestimation for future consequences: problems are resolved when they come up but there is no anticipation and prevention. Some people in Haiti may have officially Christian faith while behind they may call for the help from Voodoo works. b. People are synchronic by performing many tasks at once: cooking. political meeting or agreement. This aspect is very relevant and useful particularly in business negotiations. In workplace environment. People tend to be tardy pertaining to the time and naturally show up behind schedule. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. The listener needs to foresee or consider the unspoken things in making decision upon the available information. People don’ t like to say the whole truth or to give detailed explanation when it comes to story report. talking on the phone and performing housekeeping jobs. looking after child or welcoming guess. Basically there is no consideration for win-win solutions or relations in a Confucianism philosophy but relationships in general tend to generate a winner and a looser or HAITI 101. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. Time: a. Or it is better to rely on facts rather than on words when you are not familiar with people or to be careful of sweet talkers. b. 5. supervisors may expect that subordinate employees will do their best to understand job tasks or proceedings by follow colleagues. December 2012 © Copyright Page 8 . history. 6. deduce or understand by himself. family history. WORK. in a short-term perspective. In situation of agreement people tend to say Yes or to make a promise just to please or appear nice. Expect half hour delay at least. job tasks or proceedings. You need to use your judgment and intuition to see when it is a true or a sincere positive answer or an attempt to fool. 7. Implicit language or non-verbal communication : a. but in fact they think No or they would say No. Therefore when you send invitation or plan meeting it is better to set the official or announced time in advance to the true starting time to avoid disappointment or misunderstanding. Short-term orientation: Decisions are usually motivated by the search of immediate need satisfaction.
Other gatherings like community events. For church on Sunday. On business etiquette. beyond the ordinary way: Haitian guests like or usually expect to receive a VIP treatment and reciprocally hosts may compete to offer a lavish welcome. consequently Haitian consumers will pay the price. first communion. event and issue. it is recommended to be impressive pertaining to dress. Haitian firms remain small and don’t grow. For some specific events such as funeral. Also.). WORK. formal dress is required: jacket. expansion or modernization to gain economic of scale that guarantee lower selling prices.LIVE. health and education expenses etc…. For example: people strive to afford expensive dress and jewelry for giving gifts or themselves in special occasions. tie. Dress to impress is important for Haitians like Afro-American. 8. different leaders and pressure groups in Haiti have unreasonable expectations about foreign direct investment (FDI) and tourism in the country by HAITI 101. December 2012 © Copyright Page 9 . bringing gifts and making praise can be important assets in negotiations. wedding. In general in all gathering. event organization. meeting. the population in general no matter their conviction or viewpoint tends to assume that the evaluation is specifically to criticize Haiti. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. it is better to dress carefully. in addition to above recommendations. 9. Example: nowadays more people with low –income or from middle-class tend to manage their living from day to day (food. Haitians is likely to decide and react on diverse situations under influence of their sensitivity to a person. the smart and the fool. food or dinners need to be carefully planned in a way to be impressive. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. For welcoming guest. church service.. Affectivity : Decisions are usually supported mostly by emotional considerations and don’t come from rational reasoning. Manners & Etiquette : Good appearance matters in Haiti. food planning and so on. Example: Every time Transparency International ranks Haiti badly in a Corruption Index report. sneakers and jeans are not recommended and pants are expected to be inserted inside pants in French-style. shoes. welcoming guest. because traditional Haitian businessmen don’t like to invest in long term assets in equipment. they prefer to have high unit costs in outdated equipment that provide high selling prices and therefore reach or target small percentage from the population or the demand. social events. rent.
HAITI 101.LIVE. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. underestimating or not taking into consideration country competitiveness that is determinant in FDI inflow. December 2012 © Copyright Page 10 . WORK. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES.
People are concerned of uncertainty by the risk of losing benefits or social status. neighborhood. December 2012 © Copyright Page 11 . Pay and benefit should be tied to position particularly for local managers because of coherence and protection regarding social status as perceived in the society. relatives. To reward performance it is better to redistribute the benefit to the unit. Job security and income security are important. community members tend to rely on them for economic support. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. because community environment may think that foreign firm managers and even local middle-managers are in comfortable economic situation. Social benefits are important: health insurance.LIVE. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. Compensation-strategy for rewarding for local managers can be effective when the goal is to encourage or support competiveness and aggressiveness. HAITI 101. Seniority-based compensation is more acceptable by the fact it strengthens and protects social status. WORK. branch and not to single employees. Merit-based compensation is not recommended for regular employees: the pay should not be linked to performance it may affect group harmony and cohesiveness by triggering jealously and hostility. Therefore family. family compensation. Group-based compensation is more appropriate form above. Some firms may opt to large differential pay between hierarchical positions but it is not always recommended. SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS : Human Resources Management (HRM) These recommendations should be considered in setting up HRM policies in Haiti.
By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. business activities and networks. People tend to recommend friends or relatives and not necessarily a qualified colleague as candidate.LIVE. For example: positions in government agencies are accessible only from political link or patronage. social activities and project. In distant locations or rural areas in the country people count on informal relationships (friends or friends of friends) for health care. transportation. emergency situation. Credit line for import and export financing in banking industry in Haiti are more accessible through business clique. To obtain services from public agencies like important papers people rely on their social capital quality. Informal systems and relationships are important in many areas of living: workplace. Other recommendations for business and workplace: Hiring: for recruitment. project implementation etc… HAITI 101. be careful when using capital social which may not be the best way in some situations to get qualified employees. December 2012 © Copyright Page 12 . WORK.
897-914. T. & Andrews. ACT AND DO BUSINESS IN CONTEXT INVOLVING HAITIAN CONSTITUENCIES. 4th ed. 2nd ed. “The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order”. Thousand Oaks.shtml.” Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE’S and Hofstede’s approaches”. New Delhi.(Accessed: 19 August 2011) Jean-Mary. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37. S.geert-hofstede. International business.doi: 10. December 2012 © Copyright Page 13 .8400234. « Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions ». Chichester.G. HAITI 101. India : Penguin Books. (2009). Available at: http://www. CA: Sage Publications. & Luo. University of Liverpool /Laureate Online . International management. Shenkar. Mead. E. (2007).1057/palgrave. “Negotiating successfully with Japanese in international business context”. (Accessed : 17 December 2012) Huntington.com/hofstede. ITIM International (2009). R. University of Liverpool [ Online].(2011).(1997 ).P. O. REFERENCE: House et al ( 2006 ).jibs.LIVE. Y. Geert HofstedeITIM [Online]. WORK. By Emmanuel Jean-Mary. England: John Wiley & Sons.
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