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verbals

nonfinite clauses

compound sentences
complex sentences and, or, but


that, because, which

reduced clauses

II

The Simple Sentence

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ii

The Simple Sentence

Sentence Patterns

1. S+V
2. S+V+O
3. S+V+C
4. S+V+O+O
5. S+V+O+C
SVOC
transitive
intransitivecompleteincomplete
object
2 4 5
1 3
complement
3 5
1 2
4

3 5

subjectpredicate

1. The dog barked at the mailman.


S
V

2. The dog bit the mailman.


S
V
O

1 the dog
the dog
(barked) barked
at the
mailman 1 The
dog barked

bark
2 bite

2 bit
the mailman

bite

Dont worry. It doesnt bite.


S V

it bite

2 bit

the dog
The dog bit

bite
3
S+V+C

3. The dog was a bulldog.


S
V
C

4. The dog was mean.


S
V
C

3 the dog was


the dog
a bulldog
was the dog a bulldog
be
4 The dog was mean.

Your girlfriend is beautiful.


You are so lucky.

is

The dog was Your


girlfriend is You are

(linking verb)

Be

look
seem
appear
sound
feel
taste
stay
remain
turn
prove
become
make

be

S+V+C

That purse looks pretty.


The question seems easy.
He appears quite a gentleman.
Your suggestion sounds exciting.
The woman feels dizzy.
The wine tastes sweet.
They stayed friends for life.
He remains single.
The player turned professional.
The drug proved effective.
He became a big star.
A school teacher makes a good wife.
be
That purse is pretty. The question
is easy.

S+V+C

S+V+O+C

S+V+O+C

I find the purse pretty.


The tip made the question easy.
I consider him quite a gentleman.
The boss found your suggestion exciting.
The bus ride made the woman dizzy.
I find the wine sweet.
The partnership made them friends for life.
His poverty kept him single.
The victory made the player professional.
The doctor proclaimed the drug effective.
The hit movie made him a big star.
Most people consider a school teacher a good wife.

I find the purse pretty. the purse pretty

be
The purse is pretty.
be S+V+O+C
be S+V+C
S+V+O+C

3 The dog was a bulldog.


a bulldog the dog
I consider him quite a gentleman. him
a gentleman


4 The dog was mean.
mean the dog
4 I consider the dog mean.
mean

The key is there.


S
V C

He left the key there.


S V O
C

there the key


there the key
be
be Be
linking verb be
be be
S+V

Cogito ergo sum.


I think; therefore I am. I am

I am
am
To be or not to be,
that is the question To be or not to be

be
To be or not to be

S+V+O+O
S+V+O+O

His wife gave him a jar of honey.


S
V O
O

gave
him

S+V+O+C

His wife called him Honey.


S
V
O C
Honey
Honey Honey him
His wife gave him some honey.him some honey

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The cat meowed pitifully.


The cat caught a mouse.
The cat looked elegant.
He fed the cat canned food.
He called the cat Fatty.

6. Girls love flowers.


7. Taiwan is an economic powerhouse.
8. A snake crawls on its belly.
9. They found the new house very comfortable.
10. Their friend sold them the house.

1. The cat meowed pitifully.


S
V

2. The cat caught a mouse.


S
V
O

3. The cat looked elegant.


S
V
C

4. He fed the cat canned food.


S V
O
O

5.

He called the cat Fatty.


S
V
O
C

6. Girls love flowers.


S
V
O

7. Taiwan is an economic powerhouse.


S V
C

8. A snake crawls on its belly.


S
V

9. They found the new house very comfortable.


S
V
O
C

10. Their friend sold them the house.


S
V
O
O

10

(Determiners) determine
Determiners
+ +

+ +

a
good
teacher
some
troublesome
students
their
very pretty
garden
that
rather old
jacket

the
these
all

smartest
juicy Japanese
healthy young

kid
apples
girls

11

a, some, their
teacher, students, garden
good, troublesome, pretty

their very pretty garden


their+ pretty+ garden
very Very
intensifier pretty
that rather old jacket old
rather adverb of degree

these juicy Japanese apples


juicy Japanese
all healthy young girls
healthy young

+ +
a good teacher good
a teacher the smartest kid
the smartest
Of all the kids in my class, Jack is the smartest.

the smartest the smartest kid


these juicy Japanese apples
these

I want these.

12

the

The rich are not always happier than the poor.

the rich the


are
+ + the rich

peoplethe rich
people people
the +

The new is not always better than the old.

The unknown is often feared.

the new the unknown the +

people thing
the new thing the unknown thing

definite the, those,


Johnsindefinite a, any, many
partitive someuniversal all

13


predeterminerscentral determiners
postdeterminers

all
half
both

brave
expensive
heroic

soldiers
houses
explorers

these
your
the

many
twenty
first

all, both, half, one-third, one-fifth, double, twice,


three times, such, what

all
both
half
double
twice
one-third
such
what

the
those
an
the
my
the
a
a

girls
cars
hour
sum
salary
time
surprise
day

three, 200first, second, 300th, last


many, much, little, few

my
the
the
a
the

three
seventh
last
few
many

children
day
month
people
difficulties

14

a, an, the
this, that, these, thosesome, any, either
no, neitherevery, eachmy, your, Johns

a
an
the
this
that
these
those
some
any
either
no
neither
every
each
my
your
Johns

book
egg
money
question
man
kids
places
time
trouble
bank
problem
boy
student
worker
home
car
daughter

all() my() many() friends

these some boys


any my car
neither Johns sister
every some mistake

many good students many good students


a new book a new book

15

(etymology) a(n) one


(reduction)a(n) one a(n)
one
a(n)

Black-faced spoonbills are an endangered species.

black-faced spoonbills (black-faced)


(spoonbills) spoonbills
a
a new book book
new book

the zero article

new books
new books

thea, an
a an
new books

a an

+ +
the rich people the rich
those yellow flowers those those

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a an

bravery,
exhaustion a an
gold, air
a an

Honesty is not necessarily the best policy.

Fresh water is a precious resource in Saudi Arabia.

honesty water a an
-s a an
-s

Bill Gates California man


place universal
man
place
this man that man one man
many men
Bill Gates Californiaparticular
Bill Gates Bill Gates

Bill Gates

17

a Bill Gates one Bill


Gates

Bill Gates a an -s
-s
a an
Sunday

There are five Sundays this month.


Sunday -s

I have an appointment on Sunday.


a
-s

Bill Gates is Chairman of Microsoft.


S
V
C

Bill Gates -s
a Chairman
Chairman
Chairman

18

Chairman

Bill Gates, according to some, is a better Chairman than Craig Barrett.


S
V
C

Chairman
Bill Gates
Chairman
Chairman a better Chairman

Bill Gates is also a trustee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
S
V
C

trustee Bill Gates

trustee

a trustee

Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General of the UN, is a very powerful man.

Secretary General of the UN who is


Secretary General of the UN who Ban
Ki-moon Secretary General Ban Ki-moon

19

Queen Elizabeth made Charles Prince of Wales.


S
V
O
C

prince
prince princes
Prince of Wales
Charles
Charles

You can contact him by phone.

Are you actually going around the lake on foot?

I always go to church on Sundays.

Mangos are not in season now.

You can go to the island by plane or by boat.

by phone phone
a

by phone phone

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by phone phone

on foot
foot on foot
foot

the
the that those that those
the

the
I need a book to read on my trip.

I have finished the book you lent me.

a book one book any book


the book that book

Modern history is my favorite subject.

The history of recent China is a sorry record.

modern history history a


modern history
the the history of recent China of
recent China
the

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He should be home; I saw a light in his house.

Turn off the portal light.

a light in his house


one light that light
in his house a light
the portal light portal

the light
a an onethe that/those

the

I'm going to the office now.

the office
the
Do you mind if I open the window?

window
the
a
Do you mind if I open a window?

any window

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Bill Gates
California
the this book that book
this book the book California
the

This is not the Bill Gates I know.

This is a photography show of the California 50 years ago.

Bill Gates
this that the Bill Gates

California the California 50 years


ago

the Pacific (Ocean)


the Atlantic (Ocean)
the Indian Ocean
the Mediterranean (Sea)
the Dead Sea
+ + the
Pacific (Ocean)Pacific ic
Ocean
the
Ocean Pacific

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Ocean
Ocean the Indian
the Mediterranean (Sea) the sea Mediterranean
Sea
the Dead Sea Seathe dead
people
the Philippine Islandsthe Philippines
the Alp Mountainsthe Alps
IslandsMountains

-s
the Mississippi (River)

the Titanic (Ship)


the Hilton (Hotel)

the United States of America


the United Nations
the Republic of South Korea
the Washington Post
(States, Nations, Republic,
Post) America South Korea
Washington

1. The dog ate the bone.

2. He liked it.

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2 he it 1 the dog the


bone

People often think that our difficulties are unique.

our peoplepeople
our
People often think that their difficulties are unique.
We often think that our difficulties are unique.

If the campaign succeeds in raising huge sums, the sponsors will devote it
all to disaster relief.

it huge sums

If the campaign succeeds in raising huge sums, the sponsors will devote
them all to disaster relief.
If the campaign succeeds in raising a huge sum, the sponsors will devote
it all to disaster relief.

When a teacher takes his students on a field trip, he is fully responsible


and must bring every one of them safely back to school with him.

he

25


he or she he or she

When a teacher takes his or her students on a field trip, he or she is fully
responsible and must bring every one of them safely back to school with him or
her.

When a teacher takes her students on a field trip, she is fully responsible
and must bring every one of them safely back to school with her.

Although the new regulations allow them to do it, high school graduates
seldom go abroad for higher education.

it
go abroad for higher
education go
it
Although the new regulations allow them to do so, high school graduates
seldom go abroad for higher education.
do so do so
go abroad for higher education

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought they were
very lucky people.

they
tourists the locals they tourists

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they the locals

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought these
outsiders were very lucky people.
When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals considered
themselves very lucky people.


a an
A an one the that/those

27

post-modifiers

+ +

a
that
my
many

small
popular
foolish
extreme
dearest
happy

garden
songs
plan
danger
friend
days

attributive adjectives
(attribute)

compounds

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that
your
a

flower
shop
trouser
pockets
worker
solidarity
shoe
factory
company
cars

that flower shop


flower flower
the flower shop
flower flowers
flower
flower
that flower shop
flower
trouser, worker, shoe

hyphen
-s

that
a
that

hard-to-solve
state-of-the-art
five-year-old
10-story-high

problem
technology
boy
building

a five-year-old boy five years


old a boy

years -s five-year-old
a boy 10-story-high
story

29

that
several
your

savings
damages
clothes
sports

bank
negotiations
hangers
car

that savings bank


savings savings
saving
damages negotiations
damages damage
damages damage negotiations

several clothes hangers


clothes several cloth hangers
cloth clothes
your sports car sports
sports

two

big old

houses

big old
houses

attributive

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adjectives

He graduated from a prestigious old American law school.

a school a school
law school
compound law school law
school law
attribute
school
American law
American
American
old
new old
American
prestigious
new old

new old

I threw away that dirty old blue silk necktie.

that necktie
necktie
neck tie neck
tie
silk silk necktie

31

silk necktie

blue

old
old dirty

predicative adjectives

These flowers smell sweet.


S
V
C

sweet these
flowers.
The boss kept us busy.
S
V
O C

busy us
That building is 18 stories tall.
S
V
C
18
18 stories tall that building
18 stories
I saw the dog crossing the street.
SV
O
C

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crossing the street
the dog
a-
a-
a-
attributive predicative

The patient was asleep.


S
V
C

a- asleep
attributive

The kid looked afraid.


S
V
C

She was not aware of the latest development.


S V
C

The new student stayed aloof.


S
V
C

The soldier remained alert throughout the night.


S
V
C

The coffee kept him awake.


S
V
O C

33


The drug kept the animals alive.
S
V
O
C

They found the man alone in the office.


S V
O
C

I consider the two options alike.


S
V
O
C

I am eager to begin the project.


S V C

I am eager eager
to begin the project
I am able to do the job.
SV C

I am able to do the
job
These people are used to working overtime.
S
V C

34

These people are used


to working overtime
to to
I am fond of country music.
SV C

I am fond of country music

The pilots wife is concerned that he might get killed.


S
V
C

The pilots wife is concerned


that he might get killed

attributive adjectives
(attribute) predicative adjectives (predicate)

attributive adjectives

1. His brother was sick yesterday and couldnt come to work.

2. His brother is a sick man.

1 sick his brother his brother


(predication) his brother
2 sick
man (attribute)

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post-modifiers

I am meeting someone important tonight.

someone, anybody some, any


one, body

someone important something special


a-
a- a-

Jane and her mother alike are teachers.

and Jane her mother alike


Jane and her mother alike
these people alonewood adrift
a-

the President elect


heir apparent
court martial
Asia Minor
Secretary General
Poet Laureate
devil incarnate
time immemorial

36

Unit 3 is longer than Unit 4.

Unit 3 is less difficult than Unit 4.

Unit 4 is as boring as Unit 3.

tall, taller, tallest


expensive, more expensive, most
expensive

more most
moremost-er
-est
helpful
useless
famous
active
crowded
loving

more helpful
more useless
more famous
more active
more crowded
more loving

most helpful
most useless
most famous
most active
most crowded
most loving

37

-ful, -less, -ous

often
shallow

oftener (more often)


shallower (more shallow)

oftenest (most often)


shallowest (most shallow)

-en -ow

-y
i
happy
lucky

happier
luckier

happiest
luckiest

attributive
predicative

1. Yellowstone is crowded.
S
V C

2. Yellowstone is most crowded in summer.


S
V
C

crowded predicative adjective


Yellowstone

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1. Yellowstone is a crowded scenic spot.

2. Yellowstone is the most crowded of the states scenic spots.

1 a crowded scenic spot crowded


2 the most crowded of the
state's scenic spots the most
crowded one most crowded the one

the

John is the shorter of the twins.

shorter
the
that those

My car is bigger than you.

My car is bigger than yours.


yours your car
car
Cars made in Taiwan are better than those made in Korea.

39

it/they
that/those it/they
they cars made in Taiwan cars made in Korea
those cars those made in
Korea those cars made in Korea(these) cars made in Taiwan

40

I like Beijing food, especially roast duck.

especially roast duck

I. (Adverbs of Manner)
-ly

1. S+V

41

The dog barked furiously at the mailman.


S
V
(adv.)

at the mailman
S+V barked
furiously
furiously
The dog furiously barked at the mailman.

2. S+V+C

He stayed single reluctantly.


S
V
C
(adv.)

single
reluctantly reluctantly

He stayed reluctantly single.

reluctantly single

(ambiguous)

He reluctantly stayed single.


single

42

reluctantly stayed

3. S+V+O

He harassed the girl openly.


S
V
O
(adv.)

openly the girl

He openly harassed the girl sitting at the counter.


S (adv.)
V
O

sitting at the counter


the girl openly
harassed
He harassed the girl sitting at the counter openly.
openly sitting
sitting sit openly
openly sitting
openly the girl
He harassed the girl openly sitting at the counter.
openly sitting sitting
openly harassed

4. S+V+O+O

43

His father bought him a car generously.


S
V
O O
(adv.)

generously

The student politely asked the speaker a question.


S
(adv.) V
O
O

politely the speaker a question


asked

5. S+V+O+C

I consider you a member of the family proudly.


S V
O
C
(adv.)

youa member proudly


consider

I happily pronounce you man and wife.


S (adv.)
V
O
C

happily
I pronounce you man and wife happily.
happily

happily pronounce
man and wife

44

man and wife


happily

II.

1. (Focusing Adverbs)
only, merely, also, especially, particularly,
even
(focusing)

only

John saw the boss yesterday.

only
Only John saw the boss yesterday.

only John
John only saw the boss yesterday.

only saw
John saw only the boss yesterday.

45


only the boss
only the boss
only the boss
the young boss young
John saw the boss only yesterday.

only
yesterday
2. (Intensifiers)

You are absolutely a genius!

absolutely a genius
a genius
The test is extremely difficult.

extremely difficult
Your hair badly needs cutting.

badly needs
Time passed amazingly fast.

amazingly fast

46

3. (Adverbs of Degree)

The test is extremely difficult.


extremely
The test is difficult.

The plan almost failed.

almost

The plan failed.

Intensifiers

Your son is quite a man now.

quite a man

I barely know John.

47

barely know
He plays the piano rather well.

rather well
That is a fairly long story.

fairly long
III. (Sentence Modifiers)

1. (Conjuncts)
(Conjunctions) and
besides, furthermore but however, nevertheless
so therefore, consequently

Sales have increased 20%; besides, production cost has come down.
20%
besides

Consequently, we should have no problem reaching our goals this year.

consequently

However, projections for the next fiscal year are not very optimistic.

48

however

2. (Disjuncts)

Theoretically, your proposal might work.

theoretically your proposal might work

Theoretically speaking, your proposal might work.


theoretically speak

If we are speaking theoretically, your proposal might work.

scientifically

1. Your demand is practically impossible to meet.

2. Lets discuss this problem practically.

3. Practically, you dont stand a chance in court.

49


1 practically impossible
2 practically discuss
3 practically practically speaking

-er, -est fast, faster, fastest


more, most beautifully, more beautifully, most
beautifully
-ly-ly
-ly more,
most sweetly, more sweetly, most sweetly
-ly-er, -est
more, most often, oftener, oftenest often, more often, most
often
thethe
the

Of all my students, John runs (the) fastest.

fastest runs
the fastest the

50

input

The company is in trouble.

I am leaving for Hong Kong tomorrow.

The country is rich in mineral wealth.


51


The new janitor works half-heartedly at best.

particles
1. Come in.

2. The soldier stood up.

1 in
come 2 up stood

1. The plumber went down to the basement.

down went
to the basement to the
basement went
2. He has gone over to your house.

over has gone to


your house to your house
has gone

52

1. The man slept on the couch.

2. The man turned on the light.

1 S+V

The man slept on the couch.


S
V
slept on the couch
slept 2 S+V+O
The man turned on the light.
S
V
O
turned on the light
turned on 2 1

The man turned on the light.


S
V

on the light turned

turned on
turn on
phrasal
verbs

53


get over
Its only a cold; youll get over it soon enough.

get over get over


get over it
get over get it over with
get over

look into
The manager will look into your complaint at once.

take after
Henry takes after his father.

stand by
Dont worry; Ill stand by you.

stand by

Your team is next; please stand by.

come about
How did this all come about?

Come about
fall off

54

Business has fallen off badly since the SARS epidemic.


SARS
go off
The bomb went off in the middle of the night.

turn up
The meeting was postponed because too few people turned up.

bring up
That woman brought up eight children.
That woman brought eight children up.
That woman brought them up.

bring up eight children


bring up bring up
them
brought them up
call off
The boss has called off the meeting.
The boss has called the meeting off.
The boss has called it off.

turn down
Im going to turn down his offer.
Im going to turn his offer down.
Im going to turn it down.

make up
He made up a long story.
He made a long story up.

55

He made it up.

make up

He and his separated wife finally made up.

catch up with
Hes slowly catching up with his classmates in exam grades.

two-word verbs
catch up with
catch up
with

drop out of
John hurt his leg and had to drop out of the race.

get away with


If you take the money, you cant expect to get away with it.

go back on
I promised my kid a new notebook, so I cant go back on my word now.

56

at
The bus will stop at the dock to pick up passengers.

at
We have arrived at our destination.

The sniper is aiming at the kidnapper.

on, along
The student memorized 10 new words on his way to school.

on
along
There are many beautiful villas along the beach.

along on

I see three bookstores on this street.


3

57

along on
on
I strained my eyes but couldnt see any ship on the sea.

on
Theres a picture hanging on the wall.

on
The speaker is standing on the platform.

on
in
I like to stay in my office because its quiet there.

in
Well go our separate ways, and meet at my office at three.

at
I think Ill walk; there are too many cars in the street.

on along
in

58


at in on

Ill meet you at six oclock.

atat noon,
at midnight, at dinner, at sunrise, at sunset at night
I do most of my work in the morning.

inin the evening,


in May, in summer, in 2007
My birthday is on January 23.
23
on the morning, the evening
onon Monday, on the
morning of June 20, on New Years Day

apart from
except for

We had no trouble on the way apart from (= except for) a flat tire.

in addition to
Apart from (= in addition to) a flat tire, we also ran out of gas.

59

at
We joined the tour at $3,000 per person.
3000
The car was going at 90 km per hour.
90
but
No one but(= except) a fool would accept a challenge like that.

in
How do you say that in English?

He signed his name in black ink.

up to

Its not up to me to decide.

Im not up to this job.

Do you know what Tom has been up to recently?

on one's way / in one's way


He's on his way to Tokyo.

60


on his way
Step aside! You're in my way!

way
in my way
arrive in / arrive at
in at

in at
We'll arrive at Honolulu in 5 minutes, where we'll refuel before flying on to
San Francisco.

Honolulu

at
The home-coming hero arrived in town and was greeted by the crowd
gathered along Main Street.

Honolulu
in
made of / made from

made of made from

These shoes were made from rubber tires.

61

fromof a chair made


of wood of
wine made from grapesfrom
of from

from
of from

between / among
between among

between
among
The Rhine flows between France and Germany.

between
between between
between between

Among the major cities in the world, Shanghai is probably developing


most rapidly.

among the major cities in the world


among among

Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Austria and Italy.

62

between between

between
throw to / throw at
to toward towards
I forgot my keys. Please get them at my desk and throw them to me.

The kids are throwing rocks at the poor dog.

at
from to / from through

The circus will be here four months, from May to September.

The circus will be here five months, from May through September.

Through

above / over
above over
Mt. Everest soars above all other peaks in the Himalayas.

63

above
The little child couldn't keep the umbrella over his head and soon got wet.

Over
below / under
below under

The submarine is below the surface now.

below
Watch out! There's a dog under your car.

under

except / except for


except for except
except for except
You can all go except George.
You can all go except for George.
Except for George, you can all go.

on / about

on about
He has written a book on the temples of the Upper Nile.

64

Hes talking about his childhood.

65

(time)(aspect)

(voice)
be

be be
be have been
Be

This is a good book.

good a book

1. This is a best-selling book.

66

best-selling
-ing
best-selling
2. This is a well-written book.

well-written

well-written

The book is good.

good is the book

1. The book is selling well.

is selling
24 3
4 2
be
is
selling well
the book-ing selling well

2. The book is well written.

is written
is well written

67

the book
well written

24
be
static verbs

hit, kill, eat, run, talk, jump, swim

1. He is eating breakfast now.

2. The dog was swimming toward the shore then.

1 is eating 2
was swimming eat swim

1 is eating breakfast
he
2 was swimming toward the shore
the dog
eat swim eating swimming

68

kill, eat
-ing
I am busy; I have a lot of work to do.

This camera belongs to me.

George resembles his father a lot.

I believe his story.

I like milkshakes.

I consider him a true friend.

-ing
behaveconsider
be have
consider -ing
When I said she looked 25, I was being nice.
25
He was having lunch when I called.

69

The committee is considering your proposal.

24

The U.S. established diplomatic relations with the P.R.C. in 1979.

in 1979 establish
in 1979
established

The movable print was introduced to England in 1485.

be in 1485
was
introduced
-ed Be

Be was

70


I was visiting clients the whole day yesterday.

be the whole day


yesterday in 1979
wasBe visiting clients
IVisiting
-ing
Be
Be
was

I was watching TV when I heard the doorbell.

when I heard the doorbell


be
was
watching TV be watching TV
-ing

The witness was being questioned in court when he had a heart attack.

when he had a heart attack


had
be was be
being questioned
Be being be
-ing being
be questioned
-ed questioned

71

being questioned
was

now now

now

Wang pitches a fast ball. The hitter swings. It looks like a hit. The
shortstop fails to stop it. It's a double!

now
now
now

Wang Chien-Ming pitches for the Yankees.

now

All mothers love their children.

now
now

72

That retail chain is selling big cokes at a discount this month.

be this month now


is selling big
cokes

According to the NASA survey, the ozone layer is being depleted.

now
is being depleted
being -ing Depleted
-ed being depleted

5
5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

John will leave tomorrow.


John is going to leave tomorrow.
John is to leave tomorrow.
John is leaving tomorrow.
John leaves tomorrow.

1 will leave
will

2 is going to leave 1 will leave


is going to leave

73

Because the weatherman says it will rain this afternoon, Im going to bring
an umbrella.

it will rain this afternoon 1


Will V Im going to bring an umbrella
2 be going to V
3 is to leave 4 is leaving 2 is going to
leave
I will go tomorrow. 1

I am going to go tomorrow. 2
I am going to go going to go
going to go
I am to go tomorrow. 3
to go going
I am going tomorrow. 4
5 3 4
3 John is to leave tomorrow 4 John is leaving
tomorrow 2 John is going to leave tomorrow
3 4
go go, come, leave, arrive, begin, end

2 be going to V
be to V 3 be Ving 4
5 John leaves tomorrow

74

The train leaves at 2:30.

World Cup finals begin tomorrow night.

will

I will discuss the plan with my boss next week.

next week
will

Don't call me at six tomorrow. I'll still be sleeping then.

be will be
sleeping -ing
sleeping

The building will be razed next month.

next month will


be razed
-ed razed

75


would

It was mid-1945; Japan would soon raid Pearl Harbor.


1945
1945 1945

would soon raid


The weatherman said it would rain, but it didnt.

said
would rain

moods

when if
1. I know when he left the room.
S V
O()

2. He forgot his briefcase when he left the room.


S V
O
()

76

1 when he left the room know


when 2 when he left the room
forgot when
when

1. Ill ask if he has the money.


S V
O()

2. If he has the money, he can help us.


()
S
V O

1 if he has the money will ask


if 2 if he has the moeny
can help if
if

When if

When he gets here, the police will be waiting.

the police will be waiting will be


when he gets here when
gets
will get

if
If he gets to the hospital in time, hell be able to see his father for the last
time.

77


will be able to see
if he gets to the hospital in time if
gets will get

I'm sure I have seen this face somewhere.

I'm sure am

have seen

We have been working overtime for a week to fill your order.

be
have been for a week

78

have been working


-ing

I have lived here for 20 years.


I have been living here for 20 years.
20

I have read your book.

I have been reading your book.

The house has been redecorated twice since they moved in.

since they moved in

has been redecorated

Many soldiers had died from pneumonia before the discovery of penicillin.

79


in 1928
before the discovery of penicillin before 1928 1928
had died

I had been smoking three packs of cigarettes a day before I decided to


quit.

decided before I decided


decided
had been smoking three
packs of cigarettes a day -ing

Japan had not been defeated yet by the time Germany surrendered
unconditionally.

had not been


defeated

will

Next April, I will have worked here for 20 years.

80

next April
for 20 years
next April
will

Come back at 5:00. Your car will have been fixed by then.

will have been fixed

In two more minutes, she will have been talking on the phone for three
hours!

be she talking
-ing
(for three hours)
will have been

be

Be

81

Boy: Do you want to go and see Gone with the Wind with me tonight?
Girl: No! I ___ (1. see) it.
Boy: Oh, really? When did you see it?
Girl: I ___ (2. go) to see it the first day it was onlast Monday.
Boy: To tell you the truth, I have seen it too. In fact, I ___ (3. see) it
before you did.
Girl: That's impossible. I told you I saw it the first day it was on.
Boy: But it's the truth! I ___ (4. see) it seven or eight years ago, the last
time that old picture ___ (5. come) in town.
Girl: In that case, why did you ask me to go in the first place?
Boy: Well, I just ___ (6. want) to go out with you tonight. Since you have
seen the picture, will you go to the baseball game with me instead?
Girl: I ___ (7. guess) I will, if Father says Okay. But you will have to pick
me up at my place.
Boy: Great! I ___ (8. see) you at 5:30 then. I'll bring my car.
Girl: But why 5:30? Why not seven o'clock?
Boy: Because the game ___ (9. start) by then. These evening
games ___ (10. begin) at 6:30, you know. Don't forget now, 5:30 at your
place!

1. have seen

2. went
last Monday
3. had seen
before you did you did

4. saw

5. came
the last time

82

6. wanted
Why did you?
7. guess
now
8. will see
at 5:30
9. will have started
by then

10. begin
these evening games
now

83

must, will, would, should, can, could, may, might


ought to, have to, used to, need, dare, had better, would rather,
might as well

1. We must be very careful.

2. John must be very careless.

1
2

must

We must all keep together.

He said we must all keep together.

will/would
will/would

84

I will have my own way.

He said he would have his own way.

would would

Would you like a cup of coffee?

would

shall/should
Shall shall I, shall we

Shall we go now?

shall
The enemy shall not pass!

should
Should

We should always be on time.

He said we should leave early, and we did.

85

can/could

I can drink a dozen beers in an hour.

Last night there was something wrong with my stomach, and I couldnt
even finish one beer.

could
Could you please help me with my homework?

could

may/might

You may go now.

He said we might go.

might
Might I ask a big favor of you?

might

86

would, should, could, might


have Ven

I would have left the country if I had known what was going to happen.

would have left

You should have attended the meeting last week; why didnt you?

should have attended

With a little help, I could have finished a lot sooner.

could have finished

Under a more reasonable boss, I might have done a much better job.

might have done

will/would, can/could, may/might


will, can, may
would, could, might

have Ven
must might

87

must
Listen! It must be raining hard outside.

It must have rained last nightthe ground is still wet.

will
That will be George at the door, I expect.

You will all have heard the news last night.

would
This seat would be mine, right?

That would have been the mailman just now; I found some new mail in the
box.

should
We should be on the right track.

He should have left; his car is gone.

can
Where can he be at this hour?

Where can he have gone

could
Of course, I could be wrong.

88


The police is here; something could have gone wrong.

may
Dont go near that snake; it may be dangerous.

It may have been dangerous, but now its gone.

might
Bring a compass; you might get lost in the woods.

Check the answering machine; he might have left a message for you.

ought to
I think you ought to apologize to him.

He ought to be home now.

Ought we to go?

You oughtnt to have done that.

89

have to
You have to tell your father.

That has to be the pizza man at the door.

Do you have to leave now?

I dont have to leave now.

used to
He used to smoke a pipe.

Used he to smoke a pipe?


Did he use(or used) to smoke a pipe?

He used not to smoke a pipe.


He didnt use(or used) to smoke a pipe.
need
I dont think you need go.

Need I remind you of the consequences?

You neednt do that.

90

Need
I dont think you need to go.
Do I need to remind you of the consequences?
You dont need to do that.
dare
Im not sure I dare touch that snake.

Dare you sleep in that haunted house alone?

I dare not tell my wife the truth.

dare
Im not sure I dare to touch that snake.
Do you dare to sleep in that haunted house alone?
I dont dare to tell my wife the truth.
had better
I think we had better leave now.

Hadnt we better be leaving now?

You had better not lie to me.

would rather
I would rather go abroad than study at a local graduate school.

91


would rather than than
go
study

Would you rather stay here?

I would rather not talk about it.

might as well
We might as well walk, with so much traffic on the road.

We might as well not drive at all.

Would, could might

92


(Moods)

(Indicative Mood)
(Conditional Mood)
(Subjunctive Mood)
(Imperative Mood)

I will go to the U.S. next year to study for an MBA degree.

will
I will go to the U.S. next year
will He went to the U.S. last year.

I am going to go to the U.S. next year.


I am to go to the U.S. next year.
I am going to the U.S. next year.
I go to the U.S. next year.

I go to the U.S. next year

93


The weatherman says sunrise tomorrow is at 5:32.

will
The movie starts in 5 minutes.

will

I'll be ready when he comes.

when he comes
comes
(I'll be ready)
If you are late again, you'll be fired.

If you are late

must, should, will/would,


can/could, may/might

94

1. You are right.

2. You may be right.

3. You may leave now.

1
2 3 may

1.
If I were you, I wouldn't do it.

I am you
I were you
would
wouldn't do

2.
If I had known earlier, I might have done something.

earlier

had known

95

might have
done

3.
If I were to take the bribe, I could never look other people in the eye again.

be going to
were to
were to should

If I should take the money, can (or could) you guarantee secrecy?
?
should take can guarantee
could guarantee

If an asteroid should hit the earth, man can (or could) die out.

should hit can die out

could die out

1 2 3

96

would, might, could

1 2 3 if
1 2

should
were to 3

If I had studied harder in school, I could qualify for the job now.

(had
studied)(now) could
(could have qualified)

I could have contributed to the fund drive then, only that I didn't have any
money with me.

(could have contributed)

didn't have

97

It's time you kids were in bed.

it is time
is
were in bed
If only I had more time!

I wish I had more time!


wish

had

Come in! You may


come in!

The court demands that the witness leave the courtroom.

98

(You must) Leave the courtroom!


you

leave
There is a strong expectation among the public that someone take
responsibility for the disaster.

take

It is necessary that...
I insist that...

It is necessary that the letter be sent out before noon.

it is necessary

be
I insist that the letter be sent out before noon.

be

I insist that the letter was sent out before noon.

99

before noon
was

100

voiceactive voicepassive
voice be
be + Ven

S+V+O, S+V+O+O, S+V+O+C

S+V+O

The author wrote the book in 2003.


S
V
O
2003
the author the author
the author
the book the book
the book the book

The book was written (by the author) in 2003.


S
V
2003
was written
the author by

101

S+V+O+O

He showed the guard his pass.


S
V
O1
O2

the guard was shown

The guard was shown his pass.


S
V
O
his pass
His pass was shown the guard.
S
V
O

He showed his pass to the guard.


S
V
O
S+V+O
his pass
His pass was shown to the guard.
S
V
His pass was shown the guard His pass was
shown to the guard
S+V+O+C

All his friends call him Lucky.


S
V O
C

102

Lucky
him
He is called Lucky by all his friends.
S
V
C

Somebody sat on my hat.


S
V

sat on
my hat
My hat was sat on.
S
V

be + Ven

be

The book was written in 2003.


S
V
C
The guard was shown his pass.
S
V C
His pass was shown the guard.
S
V C
His pass was shown to the guard.
S
V
C

103

He is called Lucky by all his friends.


S V C
My hat was sat on.
S
V C

be
A bridge is being built across that river.

is being built
is

A bridge is being built across that river.


S V
C
is being
built
being built
Your application has been approved.

has been approved


be
Your application has been approved.
S

be has been
approved
Ven Ven

104

have have + Ven

1. I am very annoyed with him.

2. I was annoyed by mosquitoes all night.

1 annoyed
very I am very angry with him S+V+C
annoyed angry
2 was annoyed
by mosquitoes
2 I was bitten by mosquitoes S+V was
annoyed was bitten
1 2

be be

Clean water is safe to drink.

Boiled water is safe to drink.

105

boiled clean
water

The water is clean.

The water is boiled.

boiled clean be
water beVen be
boiled water
be
be

I can't find my wallet. It's gone.

is gone be + Ven
go

It is gone.
SV C
gone
it

The leaves are all fallen, now that winter is here.

106


fall are fallen be + Ven

The leaves are fallen.


S
V
C

I'm done. It's all yours.

do
am done done

He is disappointed at his scores.

disappoint, satisfy, surprise, amaze, astonish,


scare, terrify, please, tire, exhaust
disappointed

His scores disappoint him.


S
V
O

him

He is disappointed by his scores.


S
V

107

is disappointed
by his scores disappointed
unhappy
He is unhappy with his scores.
S V
C
by with his
scores
unhappy
disappointed
He is disappointed with his scores.
S V
C
disappointed
by with

I am satisfied with the progress.

He was surprised at the result.

We were all amazed at his improvements.

He is scared of losing his girlfriend.

The coach is pleased with our performance.

The boss is tired of his excuses.

be
by

108

They speak Portuguese in Brazil.

speak
they people

Portuguese is spoken in Brazil.

Someone stole my wallet.

someone

My wallet was stolen.

Although the doctor ordered him not to smoke, the patient found it
impossible to quit the vice.

the doctor the patient

Although he was ordered by the doctor not to smoke, the patient found it
impossible to quit the vice.

109

Although ordered by the doctor not to smoke, the patient found it


impossible to quit the vice.

The manager is not available right now because a meeting is being


presided over by him.

the manager
a meeting

The manager is not available right now because he is presiding over a


meeting.

110

Verbals

be be + Ving

The tree was swaying in the breeze.


S
V

was swaying

be

The tree was swaying in the breeze.


S
V
C
swaying-ing
swaying

I saw the tree swaying in the breeze.


SV
O
C

111

swaying
be
the tree
-ing be

He was teaching his son English at the time.


S
V
O
O

was teaching
his son English
be
He was teaching his son English at the time.
S V
C()
be teaching his son English
be teaching -ing
teaching his son English

We found him teaching his son English.


S
V O
C()

teaching his son English


him
Ving Ving

1. He was writing a book in the countryside.


S
V
O

112

2. The book could be very interesting.


S
V
C

1 was writing
a book 2 interesting
very Ving Ving
Ving
Ving
1
He was writing a book in the countryside.
S V C()

1.2.

That black dog doesn't bite.

A barking dog doesn't bite.

barking black
dog barking

-ing

-ful
useful
-ish
grayish
-less
valueless
-ing

113

The dog is black.

The dog is barking.

barking black be
dog-ing
be + Ving is barking
a barking dog
barking

disappoint,
satisfy, surprise
He is disappointed
His scores are disappointing.

His scores disappoint him.


S
V
O

be
His scores are very disappointing to him.
S
V
C

his scores disappointing


very disappointing
to him

His scores are very unsatisfactory to him.


S
V
C

114

Disappointing unsatisfactory
to him

He finds the scores very disappointing.


S V
O
C

disappointing the scores

The progress is satisfying to me.

He finds the result surprising.

His improvements were amazing to all of us.

The idea of losing his girlfriend is scaring to him.

Our performance is pleasing to the coach.

The boss finds his excuses rather tiring..

interesting books
an astonishing discovery
troubling developments
a frightening earthquake

115

be

I have no comment to make while the case is being investigated by police.


S
V
C

while be
being investigated
Being be
-inginvestigated
being investigated

116


Ving

Ving

Let me buy you a drink.

Drinking is his only vice.

a drink
drinking

have a drink drinking


swimming, skiing, skating,
mountain-climbing, dancing, jogging

(swimming)(climbing)

I am not afraid of death, but I am scared of dying.

death

There are two weddings at the restaurant tonight.

117

two
weddings two -s

the burninghis runningtwo


weddings

1:
Picking strawberries can be fun.

2:
The picking of strawberries requires patience.

3:
Strawberry-picking is a strenuous job.

picking strawberries pick


strawberries-ing picking
strawberries
picking the the picking
The picking
of strawberries the picking
strawberry-picking strawberries
picking
strawberry hyphen
strawberry-picking mountain-climbing
being Ven

Being invited here is a great honor.


S
V
C

118


being invited here
invited

being-ing being invited

being being be
be -ing -ing

invited here invite


invitation being being
invited here invited

That flying bird is a black-faced spoonbill.

flying that bird

That bird is flying.


S
V C

that flying bird


that flying bird flying That bird is flying flying

119

that flying bird flying


bird flying

That flying jacket looks smart on you.

flying

flying
That jacket is flying. ()
S

that flying jacket


flying

That's a jacket for flying.


a flying jacket flying a flying jacket
a jacket for flying flying
a flying jacket flying
a flying jacket
flying

120


to

I will go.

I want to go.

1. He is right.

2. He may be right.

3. He seems to be right.

infinitive
not final not finalized

1 He is right
may 2 He may be right

121


3 He seems to be right

1. It must be raining now.

2. It may rain any minute now.

3. It might even snow.

1 must 2
3 may might
It may rain any minute now It might even snow
might may
must
may, might

It must have rained last night.

must, may might

must have rained

122


It seems to have rained last night.

seems
last night
to

to have rained

musthave to
will/wouldbe going to, be willing to
shouldought to
can/couldbe able to
may/mightbe likely to, be allowed to

To hesitate now would be fatal.


S
V
C

123

to hesitate
should ought to
it

It would be fatal to hesitate now.


S
V
C

I want to marry you.


S V
O

to marry you want


will going to
S+V+O+C it

I found it hard to stay awake.


S V
OC
it to stay awake
can able to
His suggestion is to start as soon as possible.
S
V
C

to start as soon as possible


to should ought to

They talked about moving to the South.

124


about moving

I have two reports to write this week.

to write two reports


to must have to

Everyone is to leave the building immediately.


S
V
C

to leave the building immediately


Everyone to must have to

I want you to tell me the truth.


S V O
C

to tell me the truth


you to must have to

125

I went online to find some answers.

to find some answers went


to can able to
Your question is easy to answer.

to answer easy to
can able to
Who will win the election is still too early to say.

too early to say


too to can able to

begin

hope
avoid
remember

126

1.

-ing
2.

begin, prefer, like, love, hate

After supper, they began to watch (or watching) TV.

to watch begin will going to


watching

would love, would like, would hate

I would love to come to your party.

hope, expect, agree, decide, intend

I expect to see you again soon.

127

expect
going to(will) able to(can)
to see

hope, agree, decide, intend

dislike, avoid, enjoy, keep, practice

I dislike reading ebooks on the computer.

dislike
dislike

He practiced speaking English with his American colleague.

practice

remember, forget, regret, stop

I forgot to put the food in the refrigerator; now its all spoiled.

forget
to going to(will) ought to(should)
Forget to do something

128

I forgot putting the food in the refrigerator, so I couldnt find it anywhere.

forget
Forget doing something

The little girl asked her mother to come to the PTA meeting.
S
V
O
C

Ask
to come
to able to(can) going to(will)
Will you come? Can you come?
make, let, help, have

The teacher made the little girl stay behind.


S
V
O
C

Will you stay behind?


The teacher asked the little girl to stay behind.
S
V
O
C

to stay behind

129

Stay behind!

let, have, make

John had his car painted over.


S
V
O
C

I heard her playing the violin.


S V O
C

see, hear, watch ...


to play the
violin to going to(will)

playing
heard playing the violin

I heard her cry out in pain.


S V O
C

crying

130

She was crying in pain.

to to
to to
to
to in, on, at
to toward
be used tolook forward to

to

1. The Inuits are used to cold weather.

2. The Inuits are used to living on ice.

1 to 2 living on ice

1. The lady agreed to come over and help with the cooking.

2. The manager agreed to downsizing.

1 to come over to
will(going to) come 2 to downsizing
to downsizing

131

1. be being Ven
be
being Ven
The house was being renovated when it collapsed on the workers.

2. have been Ven


have been

You have been warned, so be careful.

3. have been Ving


have been

I have been watching this film for 20 minutes now.


20
4. to be Ving

Its impossible to be going on like this much longer.

it to be
will(going to) can(ableto)
going on be
5. to be Ven

132

Children like to be praised.

to be like to can(able
to) praised be

(A) to V(B)
Ving(C)
1. The barber's apprentice practiced ___ (shave) on a watermelon.
2. I love ___ (watch) horror movies alone.
3. ___ (Listen) to music can be very relaxing.
4. You must not forget ___ (pay) the phone bill.
5. The workers finished ___ (paint) and left.
6. Seeing is ___ (believe).
7. To see is ___ (believe).
8. Thank you for ___ (call).
9. John's ___ (leave) the party so early was rather impolite.
10. I really enjoyed ___ (be) at your party.

1. (B)
shave practice
shaving
2. (C)
watching to watch

3. (B)
dancing, mountain-climbing

133

4. (A)
must not forget
to pay
5. (B)
finish
painting
6. (B)
believing seeing
7. (A)
to believe to see
8. (B)
calling
9. (B)
leaving
10. (B)
enjoy to be
being

134



(compound
sentences)(complex sentences)

clausefinite clausesnonfinite
clauses

He understands that he did the wrong thing then.

He understands
understandsHe did the wrong thing
then did

He hates his girlfriends spending so much time on makeup every day.

He hates hates
his girlfriends spending so much time on
makeup every day spending

135


We are sitting here in the sun.

We can see snow-covered hills.

We are sitting here in the sun, and we can see snow-covered hills.

As we sit here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.

Sitting here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.

coordinate clauses

and, or but

George and Mary were good friends.

George Mary
and

136

George, Mary, and Jane were always together.

and

We always worked and played together.

worked played and

We always worked together.


We always played together.
and
We always worked together and we always played together.
we always together
We always worked
and played together.
We ran, jumped, and shouted for joy.

and

We take our holidays in July or August.

137


July August
in July or August take

correlatives
He spoke to George and me.

George me to
to George and me spoke

both and
He spoke both to George and to me.

and, or, but

both A and B
either A or B; neither A nor B
not only A but also B

A B

1. Gold jewelry looks beautiful and elegant.

2. Gold jewelry looks beautiful and lasts forever.

138

1 and beautiful elegant


2 and looks beautiful lasts forever

Gold jewelry lasts forever but expensive.

but expensive
but forever lasts
expensive

Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also elegant.


but elegant beautiful
not only A but also B
A B A beautiful
looks beautifulB elegant

3. Gold jewelry looks not only beautiful but also elegant.


4. Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also lasts forever.
3 not only but also beautiful elegant
4 not only but also looks
beautiful lasts forever

Everyone was in the hall and the door had been closed.

139


and
Most of us were in the hall, the doors had been closed, and the lights were
out.

and

A. He did not like us, and everyone knew, but no one admitted it.

A and
and
Everyone knew it.
No one admitted it.
but
Everyone knew it, but no one admitted it.
it
Everyone knew, but no one admitted it.
A

Either he did not like our hairstyle, or we had offended him in some other
way.

140


either or
either A or B A B A B

China is not only the world's most populous state but also the largest
market in the 21st century.

not only A but also B A the


worlds most populous stateB the largest market in the 21st century

not only

Not only is China the world's most populous state but also the largest
market in the 21st century.
not only A but also B
A B not only
not only but A is China
the worlds most populous state but B
the largest market...

Not only is China the world's most populous state but it is also the largest
market in the 21st century.
also but also only
(focusing)Not only also
21 also the largest
market

141

War is destructive, wasteful, and ultimately a futile deed.

and destructive wasteful


and ultimately a
futile deed
War is destructive, wasteful, and ultimately futile.
futile
and

The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the
width of China and important as a transportation conduit as well, has nurtured
the Chinese civilization for millennia.

The Yangtze River has nurtured the Chinese civilization.


S
V
O
The
Yangtze River
and the most vital source
important and
and

The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the
width of China and an important transportation conduit, has nurtured the
Chinese civilization for millennia.

142

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth and generally harm the
fetus.

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of the fetus,


S1
V1
O1
and it may generally harm the fetus.
S2
V2
O2
smoking by pregnant women fetus

fetus
fetus of fetus
harm fetus of

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of and generally harm
the fetus.

143

complex sentences

1. Chicago is a grain-shipping center.

2. Chicago is a center that ships grain.

1 a grain-shipping center
grain-shipping center 2
Chicago is a center that that
ships grain a center
1 grain-shipping
1. He worked overtime for the money.

2. He worked overtime because he needed the money.

1 for the money


worked 2 He worked overtime
because because he needed the money
worked 1 for
the money
1. I saw the mirror.

2. I saw that the mirror was broken.

1 S+V+O I saw
the mirror 2 S+V+O I saw

144

something that
that the mirror was broken saw
1 the mirror

that

1. He didnt take the money.

2. I believe that.
S V
O

1 that that he didnt take the


money 2

I believe that he didnt take the money.


S V
O

Information Question
Yes/No Question
Information Question
who, which, what, when, why, how, where
Information Question

1. What happened at his party?


S
V

145


2. I never asked him the question.
S
V
O
O

1 what
what

what happened at his party 2

I never asked him what happened at his party.


S
V
O
O

1. Where did he keep the money?


S V
O

2. He never revealed the question.


S
V
O

1 where Information Question

where
where he kept the money 2

He never revealed where he kept the money.


S
V
O
Yes/No Question
Yes/No Question
whether if

146

1. Is it going to rain soon?

2. By looking at the sky, I can tell the question.


S
V
O

1 Yes/No Question

it is going to rain soon

either or
Either it is going to rain soon or it is not.

either whether
whether it is going to rain soon (or not) 2

By looking at the sky, I can tell whether it is going to rain (or not).
S V
O
whether if
I can tell if it is going to rain
whether if
Whether if
whether if
whether if
Whether we can win the big prize will be decided soon.

if If we can win the big prize

147


whether if
whether if
The manager hinted at whether he would sign the contract.

at whether
if

whether

that
wh-

that
That that

that that
that that
wh- who, what, where, when

That
1. Something is strange.
S
V C

148

2. He didn't show up on time.

2 He didn't show up on time 1 something


2 that
1 (something)

That he didn't show up on time is strange.


S
V
C
that that

He didn't show up is strange.


that He didn't show
up is strange that
that

it (expletive)
It is strange

It is strange (that) he didn't show up on time.


SV C

that it is strange

that
Wh-
1. Where is he hiding now?

2. The question is a big mystery.


S
V
C

149


1 where
where he is hiding now 2

Where he is hiding now is a big mystery.


S
V
C
it

It is a big mystery where he is hiding now.


SV
C

That
1. The defendant said something.
S
V
O

2. He didn't do it.

2 He didn't do it 1 something
2 that
1 said

The defendant said (that) he didn't do it.


S
V
O
that
that
that

150

S+V+O+C

it
1. I find something strange.
SV
O
C

2. He didn't show up on time.

2 He didn't show up on time 1 something


that 1
something strange
it

I find it strange (that) he didn't show up on time.


S VO C

I find it strange he didnt show


up on time that
Wh-
1. Why had he bought so much of that stock?

2. He explained the question.


S
V
O

1 why Information Question


why he had bought so much of that stock
2 the question

He explained why he had bought do much of that stock.


S
V
O

151


That
1. The car is ruined. The important thing is that thing.
S
V
C

2. We are all right.

2 we are all right that


1 be
that thing the important thing

The important thing is (that) we are all right.


S
V
C
that
that
Wh-
1. We all know what happened. The question is this.
S
V C

2. Can we do anything about it?

2 Yes/No Question
whether whether we can do anything about it
1 this

The question is whether we can do anything about it.


S
V
C

152


appositive

That
The story (that) he once killed a man might just be true.

he once killed a man that


the story

That that

I am afraid (that) I can't help you.


SV
C

I can't help you


that
I am afraid

1. I am afraid of that thing.


2. I can't help you.
2 I can't help you that 1
that thing
1. That thing
2. That thing that I can't help you
3. Of that thing
of that thing

153

I am afraid (that) I can't help you.

that thing
that
You had better take care that nothing goes wrong.
S
V
O

nothing goes wrong that

S+V+O care

1. You'd better take care of that thing.


2. Nothing goes wrong.
2 that that nothing goes wrong 1
that thing of that thing

You'd better take care (that) nothing goes wrong.

that
Wh-
The question why the dinosaurs died out may never be answered.

why Why did the dinosaurs die out?


why the dinosaurs died out why
the question

I am not sure what caused the delay.


SV
C

154

what What caused the delay?


what
what caused the delay
I am not sure S+V+C

I am not sure of the question what caused the delay.

what caused the delay the question


of the question

that
wh-

1. My response depends on the question.


S
V

2. What did he really mean by that?

2 what
what he really meant by that 1
the question
the question
My response depends on what he really meant by that.

wh- that

155

1. His response dwells on the fact.


S
V

2. I owe him a favor.

2 I owe him a favor 1


the fact
that that I owe him a favor that
the fact

His response dwells on the fact (that) I owe him a favor.

you know, I guess, I suppose

(Comment Clause)
This is your last offer, I suppose?

He was really afraid, I believe.

This trick, you know, will never work.

156

1. The guard said, The road is closed.


S
V
O
2. The guard said (that) the road was closed.
S
V
O

The road is closed, said the guard.


The road is closed, the guard said.
The road was closed, said the guard.
The road was closed, the guard said.

1. The earthquake was a 6.9, said Dr. Chang, Director of the


Yangmingshan Geological Observatory.

2. Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said


S
V
that the earthquake was a 6.9.
O
2
that the earthquake was a 6.9
that

3. The earthquake was a 6.9, Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan


O
S
Geological Observatory, said.
V

157

Dr. Chang said


said

that


whether

that

158

that

that because,
although, if, as, when, where

1. I believe that ghosts are real.


S V
O

2. I believe that, because I have seen one with my own eyes.


S V
O

1 ghosts are real


that believe
2 I have seen one with my own eyes
because
believe
1 I believe
2 I believe
that

159

so that, such that, in that, in


order that that
that
so that, such that, in that, in order that

1. He said sincerely that he was sorry.


S V
O

2. He said it so sincerely that his wife forgave him right away.


S
V O

1 he was sorry that


said
He said
2 his wife forgave him right away
so that
sincerely
He said it sincerely
Information Question

no matter-ever

1. Where the criminal is hiding is anybodys guess.


S
V
C

2. No matter where the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him
soon.

S
V
O

160


3. Wherever the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him soon.

S
V
O
1 where Where is the criminal hiding?
where the criminal is hiding

is anybodys guess
2 Where is the criminal hiding?
where the criminal is hiding no matter
no matter where the criminal is hiding
is going to
get The police is going to get him
soon 3 2 no
matter where wherever
Yes/No Question
Yes/No Question
whether
either or
whether whether

whether no matter

1. Whether hes still alive (or not) is difficult to say.


S
V
C

2. Whether hes still alive (or not), Im not going to marry anyone else.

S
V
O

3. No matter hes still alive (or not), Im not going to marry anyone else.

S
V
O

161

Is he still alive?
whether whether he is still
alive (or not) 1
whether if if
1
whether if is difficult to say

whether he is still alive (or not) whether

whether no matter 3
2 3 am
going to marry Im not going to marry anyone
else

1. He became more frugal after he got married.

after became

2. I'll be waiting for you until you're married.

until will be

162

2 are

3. It was all over when I got there.

when was

4. A small town grew where three roads met.

where
grew

1. If he calls, I'll give him the message.

if will say

1
calls
2. He won't have it his way, as long as I'm here.

as long as
won't have

163

3. Suppose you were ill, where would you go?

suppose would
go

1.
As there isn't much time left, we might as well call it a day.

as might call

2.
There's nothing to worry about, now that Father is back.

now that is

that
that
Now that
Father is back
3.
He looked so sincere that no one doubted his story.

so that
sincere so that

164

4.
The mother locked the door from the outside, so that the kids couldn't get
out when they saw fire.

so that locked
so that
when they saw fire couldnt
get out

1.
The mother locked away the drugs so that the kids wouldn't swallow any
by mistake.

so that
locked so that

2.
I've typed out the main points in boldface, in order that you won't miss
them.

in order that
have typed out that
in order that
3.
I've underlined the key points, lest you miss them.

165

lest have
underlined
4.
You'd better bring more money, in case (that) you should need it.

in case in case that


bring

1.
Although you may object, I must give it a try.

although though
must give
2.
While the disease is not fatal, it can be very dangerous.

while can be
while although

3.
Wh-ever No matter wh-

Whether (= No matter) you agree or not, I want to give it a try.

166

want

Whoever (= No matter who) calls, I won't answer.

Whichever (= No matter which) way you go, I'll follow.

However (= No matter how) cold it is, he's always wearing a shirt only.

Wherever (= No matter where) he is, I'll get him!

Whenever (= No matter when) you like, you can call me.

1.
As far as money is concerned, you needn't worry.

as far as
needn't worry
2.
Picasso was a revolutionary in that he broke all traditions.

167

in that
was
in that in the sense that

1. He plays the piano as a maestro does.

as plays

2.
He writes as if he is left handed.

He writes as if he were left handed.

He writes as if he was left handed.

writes
as if
is
were

be were was

was

168

when

1. He didnt tell me when he bought the house.


S
V
O
O

2. He didnt tell me the price when he bought the house.


S
V
O
O

tell S+V+O+O 1
didnt tell me when he
bought the house When did he buy the house?
when
2 didnt tell me the price
S+V+O+O when he bought the house
didnt tell when

1. Do you know when he will return?


S
V
O

2. He will call you when he returns.


S
V
O

169

1 when he will return When will he return?


when
when he will return
know
will return
2 when he returns
when will call

returns

2 when as soon as,


before, after

You can have this computer when I have finishedin about half an hour.
S
V
O

when I have finished


when can have

have finished

1. Ill let you know when he will return.


S V O C

2. Ill let you know when he returns.


S V O C

170

1 when he will return will return


when

know
2 will let when he
returns
when
will let

if
1. I cant remember if I turned off the gas or not.
S
V
O

2. I have to go back if I didnt turn off the gas.


S
V

1 cant remember
if I turned off the gas or not cant
remember if whether
Yes/No Question whether if
Did I turn off the
gas?
2 have to go
if I didnt turn off the gas
if
have to go back

1. I have no idea if this plan will work or not.


S V
O

171

2. I have a large reward for you if this plan works.


S V
O

1
I have no idea about the question.
Will this plan work?
Yes/No Question whether
whether this plan will work (or not) 1
the question about the question
I have no idea whether this plan will work
if 1
will work

1 if
2 if this plan works
have if

will

1 works

because, if, although


no matter wh- wh-ever

172

For a boyfriend, I'm looking for a man.

He is tall, rich, and well-educated.

a man he a man he

(wh-)
he who who is tall, rich,
and well-educatedWho he

who a man
For a boyfriend, I'm looking for a man who is tall, rich, and well-educated.

173

1. I know that I am right.


S V O

2. I know this, because I have proof.


S V O

3. I know something which nobody else knows.


S V
O

1 I am right that
2 I have
proof because
3

I know something.
Nobody else knows it.
something it
it which which nobody
else knows something

who(whom, whose), which, that

174

when, where, how, why

who(whom, whose)
which
who which that
that

restrictive usage
finite clause

who which that

nonrestrictive usage

who which that


1. I met a friend who(that) went to the same high school with me.

2. I met Jack Wang, who went to the same high school with me.

1 who went to the same high school with me

175


that
2
Jack Wang

the

2 Jack Wang

who
that
1
I met a friend who(that) worked at the same company with me.

2
I met Jack Wang, who worked at the same company with me.

who which that

I met a friend, quite by chance, who(that) went to the same high school
with me.

176

a friend
quite by chance

that

1. The man is my uncle.


S
V
C

2. You saw him just now.


S
V
O

2 him 1 man
whom
you saw whom just now
S V
O

whom you saw just now


O S V

177

3. The man [whom you saw just now] is my uncle.


S1
O2 S2 V2
V1 C1

whom you saw


just now The man... is my uncle.

1. The man is my uncle.


S
V C
2. He was here just now.
S
V C
2 he who
who was here just now
S
V C
1
3. The man [who was here just now] is my uncle.
S1
S2 V2 C2
V1 C1

who

The man was here just now is my uncle.


S

The man was here


just now S+V+C
is

178


S+V

He is not the man [he used to be].


S1 V1
C1
S2
V2

He used to be the man.


S
V
C
the man the man
who
who he used to be
C S
V
Who whom
who

who, whom, whose


who whom
who

who whom
who whom whom
with whom, to whom whom

179


whom
who whom
1. Jack is a man.

2. I trust the man completely.


S V
O

man 2 the man trust


him whom
whom 1 a man

(A) Jack is a man whom(who, that, ___) I trust completely.


O
S V

who
that

1. Jack is a man.
2. I have complete faith in him.
S V
O

2 him in
whom
whom
Jack is a man whom(who, that, ___) I have complete faith in.

180

whom
who thatA

Jack in a man in whom I have complete faith.

whom
whom that

whose
1Jack is a man.

2. I trust his judgment.


S V
O

2 his 1 a man
whose
Jack is a man whose judgment I trust.

which, whose, of which


which
which Which
who whose
of which
1. I saw a mountain.

181

2. Its top was completely covered in snow.

3. The top of the mountain was completely covered in snow.


2 its 1 a mountain
which whose
I saw a mountain whose top was completely covered in snow.

3 mountain
which
I saw a mountain the top of which was completely covered in snow.
of which
I saw a mountain of which the top was completely covered in snow.
that
who which that
That
that
Man is an animal that is capable of reason.

an animal
The animal is capable of reason

which that
that which

182

that
who which
all, anything, everything
first, next, last, only

that who which


1. Money is the only thing that interests him.

2. He's the best man that I can recommend.

3. Armstrong was the first man that set foot on the moon.

that who which


that
that

that who which

For a boyfriend, I'm considering your brother John, who is tall and rich.

your brother John

183

that
that

I like The Da Vinci Code, [which many people like, too].


O
S
V

which
that which

which

which

1. The whole house was overrun with ants, which was rather weird.

which ants
ants which
was which ants
This was rather weird
which
2. The whole house was overrun with ants, which were rather weird.

which were which


ants

184

which

The whole house was overrun with ants, which frightened the visitor.

frightened which

which
1. The whole house was overrun with ants, a sight which frightened the
visitor.

a sight
a sight
2. The whole house was overrun with ants, nasty insects which frightened
the visitor.

nasty insects

thing,
people, anybody

185

what, whatever, whoever(whomever), whichever

what
what
1. I have the thing.
S V
O

2. You need it.


S V O

the thing it

3. I have the thing [which you need].


S1 V1 O1() O2
S2 V2
which that

which that need

4. I have the thing [you need].


S1 V1 O1()S2 V2
the thing
which that the thing the thing
I have (that you need which you
need)
5. I have what you need.
S V
O

186

that what
what the thing
who, which, that
what the
thing what you need 5
have
whatever
anything
whatever
Anything [that you say now] may be used against you in court.
S
V
C

be
used
anything anything
that whatever
Whatever you say now may be used against you in court.
S
V
C

whichever
whichever

1. Of these cars, you can take any one.


S
V
O

2. You like it.


S VO

187

any one it
3. Of these cars, you can take any one [that you like].

that (that you like)

4. Of these cars, you can take any one you like.


any car that whichever

5. Of these cars, you can take whichever you like.


S
V
O

6. You can take whichever car you like.


S
V
O
whichever
take
whoever(whomever)
who whoever

1. I'll shoot any person.


S V
O

2. He moves.
S
V

any person he
3. I'll shoot any person [that moves].
S V
O

188

any person who


person whoever anywhoever

4. I'll shoot [whoever moves].


S V
O
whoever
will shoot whoever
moves whoever moves
whoever
1. Ill give 100 dollars to any person.

2. He returns first.
S
V

2 he 1 any person

Ill give 100 dollars to any person that returns first.


any person
whoever
Ill give 100 dollars to whoever returns first.

whom to
whoever whoever returns first whoever
returns

1. Any person qualifies for the job.


S
V

189


2. You see the person in this room
S V
O

person that
Any person [that you see in this room] qualifies for the job.
S

V
any person whomever

Whomever you see in this room qualifies for the job.


S
V

you see whomever see


whoever/whomever who/whom
whomever
whoever

1. There are two apples in the basket.

2. The basket is lying on the table.

190

the basket which

3. There are two apples in the basket which is lying on the table.

is which
which basket two apples

1. You can find two apples in the basket.

2. I bought the apples.

apples which

You can find two apples which I bought in the basket.

which I bought two


apples in the basket can find
bought

in the basket
You can find two apples in the basket which I bought.

which
apples basket

191


in the basket
3.In the basket you can find two apples which I bought.

in the basket can find

1. A plague broke out.

2. It lasted 20 years.

2 1 a plague

A plague which lasted 20 years broke out.

3. A plague broke out which lasted 20 years.

192

when, where, how, why

when
when then
1. The rain came at a time.
S
V

2. The farmers needed it most then.


S
V O

a time then then at that


time then when

3. The rain came at a time when(that) the farmers needed it most.


S
V

when a time

that when
a time

4. The rain came at a time the farmers needed it most.

193

what, whatever, whichever, who(m)ever

*The rain came when the farmers needed it most.


S
V

at a time

when
came when
that

1. I need some time.


S V
O

2. I can be with my daughter then.


S V
C

some time then at that time


when
3. I need some time when(that) I can be with my daughter.
S V O

when
some time
when that
time when
4. I need some time I can be with my daughter.
S V O

194

some time
I need when I can be with my daughter.
some time when
need

1. I know the time.


S V
O

2. He will arrive then.


S
V

the time then


when
3. I know the time when(that) he will arrive.
S V O

when the time

that when
4. I know the time he will arrive.
S V O
the time

I know when he will arrive.

195

*I know when he will arrive.


S V
O
when he will arrive When will he arrive?
know
when that

*I know that he will arrive.


S V
O

when that He will arrive


that know

where
where there when

1. The car stopped at a place.


S
V

2. Three roads met there.


S
V

1 a place 2 there
there
The car stopped at a place where(that) three roads met.
S
V

196

where three roads met


a place
that where
The car stopped at a place three roads met.
S
V

The car stopped where three roads met.


S
V

where
stopped where
that

The Johnsons have a place where(that) they can get away from other
people.
S
V
O

where a place
where that

The Johnsons have a place they can get away from other people.
S
V
O

a place
The Johnsons have where they can get away from other people.
how
when, where, how, why when where

197


how why

1. I never found out the way.


S
V
O

2. He escaped so.
S
V

2 so in this way 1
the way how

I never found out the way how (that) he escaped.


S
V
O

that how how


I never found out the way he escaped.
S
V O
the way

I never found out how he escaped.


S
V

how he escaped How did he escape?


found out
I never found out that he escaped.
S
V

198

how thatthat
he escaped that

why
why how
1. I've forgotten the reason.
S
V
O

2. I called for a reason.


S V

reason 2 for a reason


why
1. I've forgotten the reason why(that) I called.
S
V
O

why why I called the


reason why
that
I've forgotten the reason I called.
S
V
O

I've forgotten why I called.


S
V
O
why why I called
have forgotten Why
that
I've forgotten that I called.
S
V
O

199

That have forgotten

that

1. Shakespeare was born in 1564.


1564
2. Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne then.

2 then 1 1564
when 1564
a time

3. Shakespeare was born in 1564, when Queen Elizabeth I was on the


throne.

that

1. The best museum in Paris is the Louvre.

2. You can see many priceless treasures there.

200

3. The best museum in Paris is the Louvre, where you can see many
priceless treasures.

that
where

Wh-
wh-
1. who, whichwhen, where, how,
why

My father is a man [who always keeps his word].

Paris, [which has a long history], is a legendary city.

Ill never forget my high school days, [when life seemed so simple].

Lets spend the weekend at Tommys, [where we can be quite free].

Please show me the way [how I can start this motorcycle].

Money is one reason [why I dont take any vacations].

2. who, which, what, when, where, how, why

[Who stole the money] will be revealed soon.

201


Tell me [which of the two designs is prettier].

The question is [what youre going to do about it].

Nobody knows [when he will return].

I have a pretty good idea [where he may be hiding].

The most important thing in fishing is [how you prepare the bait].

That is [why I need your help].

3. when, where

The game ended [when he hit a homerun].

The ship is to boldly go [where none has gone before].

Wh-ever
wh-ever
1. what(ever), whoever, whichever anything
that, anyone that
[What(ever)= Anything that he says] cant be true.

I sincerely envy [whoever(= anyone that) lives in that grand mansion].

Ill buy [whichever car(= any car that) you recommend].

2. no matter whoever, whichever, whatever,


whenever, wherever, however

[Whoever (= No matter who) told you that story], dont believe it.

202

There will be difficulties [whichever way (= No matter which way) you go].

[Whatever (= No matter what) you do], just dont stay put.

[Whenever(= No matter when) he gets angry], he counts to 10.

Youll never find a place like home, [wherever(= No matter where) you
may go].

He can never beat his rival, [however hard(= No matter how hard) he
tries].

that
that
1. that

Are you sure [that everything is all right]?

2. so that, such that, in order that, in that

He started work early [so that he can finish on time].

It was such a great meal [that everyone of us ate too much].

3. who, whichwhen, where, how,


why

Hes the man [that I told you about]. ( who)

Whats the best movie [that youve ever seen]? ( which)

The accident happened at a time [that traffic was heaviest]. ( when)

203

That restaurant is a place [that most gourmets in town go]. ( where)

Ive found several ways [that I can be of help to you]. ( how)

Is this the reason [that he left so early]? ( why)

204


-s

subject-verb
agreement

Bill Gates, New York


gold, airinformation, courage
ruinsremains
outskirts damage
damages

gold -s
remains -s gold remains

There are people waiting outside to see you.

205

people -s
people
Three aboriginal peoples live along this river.

a people three peoples

Many fish in this lake live on algae.

fish a fish
many fish fishes
many fishes

Mathematics is an exacting science.

mathematics -ics
-s civics
ethicsphysicsmetaphysics

Mumps is not a serious disease.

mumps -s
hepatitismeningitis

206

Seven thousand dollars is a lot of money to spend in one evening!

seven thousand dollars seven thousand


dollars -s
is dollars
seven thousand dollars
seven houses a thousand booksHouses
books dollars
seven dollars

Two hours and 28 minutes is the total length of the movie.


28
Five kilometers is not too long a distance to walk in one hour.

Three pounds of brown sugar is quite enough for now.

The media has been(or have been) reporting this murder for days.

media medium
medium media

This data isor These data are quite out-of-date.

Data datumData

207

bacteria bacteriumwhereabouts
whereaboutheadquarters whereabout

statistics

Statistics draws heavily on mathematics.

statistic statistics
This statistic is quite accurate.

These statistics are mostly accurate.

family, crew, committee,


staff, faculty, team, police, government

1. The police is working on this case.

2. The police are here.

1 the police 2 the police

1. The committee was founded in 1980, so it has quite a bit of history


now..

208

1980
2. The committee are mostly seated now, and they are impatient to begin.

1
it 2
committee
they
1. My family is large.

2. My family are all highly educated intellectuals.

large family
is 2 highly educated intellectuals family
are.

All the students have gone on the trip.

All the money has been put in the bank.

all the students


all the students all the money
all the money

all of

209

All of the students have gone on the trip.


All of the money has been put in the bank.
all of the students all
of the students
the students all the money all

all of predeterminer
the students money
all of
all of all of the students
all of the money

Part of the difficulty lies in communication.

part of the part of the difficulty


difficulty some of,
most of, one-third of
One-third of the products were defective.

Half of the participants have finished the marathon now.

Some of the time was spent on looking for tools.

Most of my high school classmates are in college now.

More of the blame is on me than on you.

210

Less, fewer

many books much time


many
much more more
more books, more time
few few days little
little faithfew fewer little less

1. Less money was spent on education than on national defense.

2. Fewer people go to the U.S. to study now than 10 years ago.

Money little little


money Little less less money
people few few
peopleFew fewer fewer people less
people less less days, less products

A lot of, lots of


1. A lot of mistakes were made because of the time pressure.

2. Lots of the credit goes to the project manager.

a lot of lots of
1 a lot of
mistakes 2 lots of credit

None of
1. None of the meat was left.

211


2. None of the sandwiches was fresh.

3. None of the restaurants were open.

None of 1 meat
none not one
none of
2 3
A number of, the number
1. A number of major earthquakes happen every year.

2. The number of major earthquakes last year was five.

1 a number of
earthquakes number
a number of
happen
2 the number
of major earthquakes
the number earthquakes
the number
it was
A pair
trousersglassesscissorspliers
shoes
1. A pair of shoes is left outside the door.

212

2. Three pairs of shoes are left outside the door.

3. These shoes were new.

A pair
of shoes 1 a pair
2 three pairs 3 these shoes

Every, each, either, neither, many a

Every day is a new beginning.

Each participant is entitled to a memorial pin.


Each of the participants is entitled to a memorial pin.

Either way is fine with me.


Either of the ways is fine with me.

Neither solution looks attractive.


Neither of the solutions looks attractive.

Many a student has felt the urge to cheat in exams.

Many a

213

John together with his family is on vacation in Florida.

The list of Presidential candidates is in todays newspapers.

Monkeys in this national park are a menace to visitors.

and, or, but both and, either or,


neither nor, not only but also
And, both and
1. Your brother John has come to see you.

2. Your brother and John have come to see you.

1 your brother John


2 your brother
and John
and

1. The senator and delegate wants to make an announcement.

2. The senator and the delegate want to make an announcement.

Senator delegate
1 the senator and delegate the
and senator delegate

214

2 the senator the delegate

Every man and every woman has to do something for the country.

every man every woman


man woman
every
every man and every woman man or woman,
every person

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

all work no play all no


(all work)
(no play) all work and no play

1. A cup and saucer was placed on the table.

2. A cup and a dish were placed on the table.

1 saucer
a cup and saucer a
2
a cup and a dish

215


1. A brown and white dog is at your doorsteps.

2. A brown and a white dog are fighting over a bone.

1 a brown white
dog
2 a brown and a white dog a brown
dog and a white dog
dog

1. Bread and butter is not very tasty but very filling.

2. Bread and butter have both risen in price.

Bread butter
1 bread and butter
Bread butter
bread and butter

2 bread and butter

Both bread and butter have risen in price.


both and
Or, either or, neither nor

216

or
and but

John or his sisters are going to attend the meeting.

John his sisters or

John is going to attend the meeting, or his sisters are going to attend the
meeting.
or be
going to attend the meeting is going to
attend the meeting
Does he or his friends want to go?

Does he want to go, or do his friends want to go?

Either my father alone or both my parents are coming.

Either my father alone is coming or both my parents are coming.


is coming

217

Neither he nor his friends were there at that time.

Neither he was there nor his friends were there at that time.
was there
But, not only but also
But
except
Everyone but a few complete idiots was able to see that.

but but except


but a few complete idiots except a few complete idiots
everyone

Not only you but also I was at fault.

Not only but also

Not only you were at fault but also I was at fault.

Not only were you at fault but I was also at fault.

218

As well as no less than

You want to borrow money? But I, as well as you, am broke.

I as well as you

I am broke, as well as you are broke.


I am broke as well as
you are broke
I am broke, as well as you are.
I, as well as you are, am broke.
I, as well as you, am broke.

I, no less than you, am responsible.

I am responsible, no less than you are responsible.

I am responsible, no less than you are.


I, no less than you are, am responsible.
I, no less than you, am responsible.

219

I don't trust people who talk too much.

who talk too much who people people


who talk

1. He has three options, which look equally attractive.

2. He has three options, which is a good thing.

1 which three options

2 whichhe has three options


Which

it is
that it is
It was the Johnson boys that(who) were here last night.

It the Johnson boys


that that who
the Johnson boys

220

Smoking is an awful habit.

To see her is to love her.

What I need is your word.

221

inversion

be do

I.

A.

The police said, None was killed in the accident.


S
V
O

"None was killed in the accident," said the police.


O
V
S

222


said

"None was killed in the accident," the police said.


O
S
V
None
was killed in the accident.the police said

The WHO warns (that) cholera is coming back.


S
V
O

that
that warns

Cholera is coming back, warns the WHO.


O
V
S
that

Cholera is coming back, the WHO warns


O
S
V
Cholera is coming back
the WHO warns

223

The WHO, a powerful medical and environmental organization under the


S
UN dedicated to maintaining world health, warns that Cholera is coming back.
V
O

S+V+O
Cholera is coming
back

Cholera is coming back, the WHO, a powerful medical and environmental


O
S
organization under the UN dedicated to maintaining world health, warns.
V
the
WHO warns warns

Cholera is coming back, warns the WHO, a powerful medical and


O
V
S
environmental organization under the UN dedicated to maintaining world
health.

14

B. there is/are

224

there is/are

There is/are There is a book


on the desk
A book is there on the desk.
S V C
Be there
be linking verb

There is a book on the desk.


C V S

there
is
There goes the train.
V
S

Here
is your ticket for the opera.
V
S

here, there
In Loch Ness dwells a mysterious monster.

V
S

225

To the west of Japan lies China.


To the east spreads the expanse of the Pacific.

(spatial order)(To
the west..., To the east...)
C.

1. The U.S. President is a man.

2. A heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not, falls on him.

2 him 1 a man

The U.S. President is a man [on whom a heavy responsibility, whether he


likes it or not, falls].
V
S
a man
on whom

on whom falls
falls

a heavy responsibility falls


whether he likes it or not
on whom

226

The U.S. President is a man [on whom falls a heavy responsibility,


whether he likes it or not].
V
S

whom a man on whom


falls falls a heavy responsibility

The U.S. President is a man [who shoulders a lot of responsibility].


S
V
O

He shoulders a lot of responsibility he who

II. be
be

be if
if
if
be if
be
[If
I had been there], I could have done something to help.

S
V
C

if had

227

[Had I been there], I could have done something to help.


be

[If I knew how], I would gladly do it.

knew be

III. be do
be
do

(not, never, hardly...)

We don't have such luck every day.

not every day


not every day not
do not
do
Not every day do we have such luck.

I will not stop waiting for you until you are married.

not until you are married


will

228

Not until you are married will I stop waiting for you.
hardly, barely, seldom
not not
I seldom see such a beautiful sight.

seldom
seldom
seldom not see
do
Seldom do I see such a beautiful sight.

I had hardly sat down to work when the phone rang.

hardly
had
Hardly had I sat down to work when the phone rang.

Hardly anyone knew him.

hardly anyone

only
Only I saw him yesterday.

229

Only I

I saw him only yesterday.

only yesterday

Only yesterday did I see him.

1. Gradually they became close friends.

2. Only gradually did they become close friends.

1 gradually
2 only gradually
not at once not very fast
Not only but also

He not only passed the exam but also scored at the top.

but Not only but also


passed the exam scored at the top

not only not only

Not only did he pass the exam but also scored at the top.

230

but he passed
the exam scored at the top

Not only did he pass the exam but also he scored at the top.
but
also only but also
but also he
scored at the top not only did he
pass... also scored
Not only did he pass the exam but he also scored at the top.

IV. be do
be
do

A. So do I, neither will I

He likes basketball.

So do I.

He can speak Spanish.

He is a teacher.

He wont give up.

So can I.

So am I.

Neither will I.

He likes basketball I like basketball


like basketball
so
like basketball

231

I like
do So do I

B.

1. Girls like cats more than boys.

2. Girls like cats more [than boys do].


S
V O
S V

3. Girls like cats more [than they like boys].


S V O
S V O

2 3
than

1 2 3
ambiguous 2
do 3
2
Girls like cats more [than boys, who as a rule are a cruel lot, do].
S V O
S

boys who as a rule are a


cruel lot do
boys

232

Do do
boys
do like cats

do boys

Girls like cats more [than do boys], who as a rule are a cruel lot.
S V O
V S
do boys do like
cats

233

(nonfinite clauses) Ving


Ven to V(nonfinite verbs)

(reduced clauses)

to V, Ving Ven

(clear)
(concise)

234

be

-ing
-en
be + to

be

be

one, everybody, people

1. While he was taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of


buoyancy.

S
V
O

Archimedes he

be
While taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy.

235


2. Whether it is insured or not, your house, [which is a wooden building],

needs a fire alarm.


V
O

Your house needs a fire alarm whether


whether it is insured or not which which is
a wooden building it which
your house it which
be

Whether insured or not, your house, a wooden building, needs a fire


alarm.

be 1 while he was taking


a bath taking a bath 2 whether it is insured or not
whether insured or not 2 which is a wooden building
a wooden building be
be
be
(Subject)(Predicate)

S+V+C
be
Be linking verb

Birds are lovely.


S V
C

236


be
S+V+C

Birds are lovely be


birds
lovely
be
be

be be

be
1 while he was taking a bath was taking
2 whether it is insured or not
is insured
be
be taking a bath
insured or not
be
be

1.
be

You must go at once.


You are to go at once.

The train will leave in 10 minutes.


The train is to leave in l0 minutes.

237

He should do as I say.
He is to do as I say.

You may call me Sir.


You are to call me Sir.

Children can't watch this movie.


Children are not to watch this movie.

be
going to,
willing to, able to, likely to, in order to, so as to, free to, bound to...

He studied hard so that he could get a scholarship.

so that he
could get was (able) to get
be to get a scholarship

He studied hard to get a scholarship.


so that he could

He studied hard so as to get a scholarship.


He studied hard in order to get a scholarship.
be

2. Ving
be
be -ing

238

be Ving
be
be

John remembers that he saw the lady before.


S
V
O

that that he saw the lady before he


John saw be

John remembers saw the lady before


he saw the lady before he was seeing the lady before
be saw
seeing he was

John remembers seeing the lady before.


S
V

that he saw the lady before


remembers seeing the lady before

be
-ing Ving

be

239

1. The man is here.


S
V C

2. You asked about him.


S
V

2 him 1 the man


him whom whom

The man [whom you asked about] is here.

whom about
The man [you asked about] is here.

you asked about

be

be
The man [who wants to see you] is waiting outside.
S
V
O

240

who
the man
who be
wants be
-ing wanting

The man [wanting to see you] is waiting outside.

that

Do you know the girl who is sitting next to John?

who
be
Do you know the girl sitting next to John?

241


Ven

1. Beer is most delicious.

2. It is chilled to 6.

2 it 1 beer which

Beer [which is chilled to 6] is most delicious.


S

be
which beer
be chilled be

Beer chilled to 6 is most delicious.

beer
chilled

Your brother John, [who was wounded in the war], will soon be sent home.
S V
C

your brother John

242


be
Your brother John, wounded in war, will soon be sent home.

Ving
be+Ving be

The ship [which is coming to shore] is from Japan.


S V C

which the ship be


coming be

The ship coming to shore is from Japan.

be Ving

My old car, [which breaks down every other week], won't last much longer.
S
V

breaks down be
be is breaking down
be
breaks down breaking down
be
My old car, breaking down every other week, won't last much longer.

243

A Big John is a machine.

The machine drills tunnels.


S
V
O

machine

A Big John is a machine that drills tunnels.

that drills tunnels


that machine drills tunnels
tunnel-drillingtunnel
Tunnel-drilling
a machine

A Big John is a tunnel-drilling machine.

That magazine is for women.

That magazine looks beautiful.


S
V
C

244

magazine

That magazine which looks beautiful is for women.

beautiful-looking

That beautiful-looking magazine is for women.

Im enjoying the sunset.

The sunset is vanishing fast.


S
V
C

sunset
Im enjoying the sunset, which is vanishing fast.

which is vanishing fast which


be is vanishing fast
vast-vanishing
Im enjoying the fast-vanishing sunset.

I love these high peaks.

245

These high peaks are covered with snow.


S
V
C

these high peaks

I love these high peaks, which are covered with snow.


which are covered with snow
be covered with snow
snow-covered
I love these high, snow-covered peaks.

These apples are beginning to rot.

These apples were bitten by frost.


S
V
C

These apples, which were bitten by frost, are beginning to rot.

which be were

These apples, bitten by frost, are beginning to rot.


bitten by frost
frost-bitten
These frost-bitten apples are beginning to rot.

246

to V

John is the one who should go this time.

who should go be
be + to who is to go be
who is
John is the one to go this time.

the one

1.

1. Theres still one more person to notify.


2. Theres still one more person to be notified.

1 to notify 2 to be notified

Theres still one more person.


We must notify the person.
S
V
O
the person one more person

247

Theres still one more person whom we must notify.

whom
Theres still one more person we must notify.

we we
must notify
to notify 1 Theres still one more person to notify

Theres still one more person.


He must be notified.
S
V
C
he one more person who

Theres still one more person who must be notified.

who must to
2 Theres still one more person to be notified

248

When John stepped into his office, the boss was seen waiting there by
him.
John
boss
John him

When John stepped into his office, he saw the boss waiting there.

he John

Stepping into his office, John saw the boss waiting there.

When John stepped into his office


Stepping into his office
22

When John stepped out of his office, a car hit him.


John
a car
John him
When John stepped out of his office, he was hit by a car.

249

Stepping out of his office, John was hit by a car.

I must stay at the office [because I have some people] to notify.

to notify to be notified

1. I must stay at the office.


2. I have some people.
3. I must notify them.
I 3
I 3 I must notify them

I must stay at the office [because I have some people] whom I must notify.

I
I I
whom I must notify
whom I must
to to notify I must stay at the
office because I have some people to notify

The news cant be released yet [because there are some people] to be
notified first.

250


to be notified first
to notify first

1. The news cant be released yet.


2. There are some people.
3. These people must be notified first.
1 the news 2 some people
2 some people
3 these people 3 people
2 3 these people
to be notified
The news cant be released yet [because there are some people] who
must be notified first.
The news cant be released yet
some people who some people
must
to
The news cant be released yet [because there are some people] to be
notified first.

2.

1. This is exactly the thing


to do.

251

2. This is exactly the time


to do it.

1
This is exactly the thing.
We should do the thing.
S
V
O
the thing
This is exactly the thing which we should do.

which should do

This is exactly the thing we should do.

we
should 1 This is exactly the thing to do
to do
which

This is exactly the time.

We should do it at this time.


S
V
O

at this time the time


when

252

This is exactly the time when we should do it.

This is exactly the time we should do it.

2 This is exactly
the time to do it to do it
when
3.
to talk to, to deal with, to get into

1. He will be the toughest guy.

2. You must deal with the guy.


S
V
O

2 the guy must deal with 1 the


toughest guy
He will be the toughest guy that you must deal with.

that
must deal with
He will be the toughest guy you must deal with.

253


you must to
He will be the toughest

guy to deal with.

4.

for
I have a job that your brother can do.

that do
I have a job your brother can do.

can to your
brother I have a job to do.

I have a job for your brother to do.


be
be
Hilary Clinton, who is pretty and intelligent, was a popular First Lady.

254

Hilary Clinton

who be pretty and intelligent

Hilary Clinton, pretty and intelligent, was a popular First Lady.

pretty and intelligent


(a pretty woman)
(The woman is pretty)

be

Bill Clinton, who is an ex-President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer.

who an ex-President of the U.S.


be
Bill Clinton, an ex-President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer.

255


be

someone, people be

that
who, what, where...
that
Ving to V

Ven

(be+Ven) be Ven
Ving to V
Ving
be
-ing

That I drink good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.


S()
V
C

I drink good wine with friends.


that
I my
greatest enjoyment be
drink drinking be

[That I am drinking good wine with friends] is my greatest enjoyment.


SV
C

256

be
drinking
I be that
Drinking good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.

drinking good wine with friends

Not having a cell-phone can save you a great deal of trouble.


S()
V
O
O

not having a cell-phone that you dont have a


cell-phone you you
have -ing not having a cell-phone

1.
Many husbands enjoy that they do the cooking.
S
V
O

they husbands
do be -ing
Many husbands enjoy doing the cooking.

2.
1. He got used to something.
S V
C

257

2. He worked late into the night.


S
V

2 1 something 2 something
that he worked late into the night
something to 2
-ing working late into the
night to
He got used to working late into the night.

O()

His favorite pastime is that he goes fishing on weekends.


S
V
C

he ing
His favorite pastime is going fishing on weekends.

1. S+V+O+C

S+V+O+C
I imagined that a beautiful girl was singing to me.
S V
O

a beautiful girl I
be

258

I imagined singing to myself.

a beautiful girl be
I imagined a beautiful girl singing to me.
S
V
O
C
a beautiful girl singing to me
S+V+O+C

2.
That he calls my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S
V
C

he
Calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S
V C

he calling my girlfriend every day


he he
calling...
His calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S
V
C
Ving

3.

259

I am worried that my son lies all the time.


SV
C

S+V+C

I am worried about the fact that my son lies all the time.
SV
C

that my son lies all the time the fact


the fact about
my son I

1. I am worried about my son's lying all the time.


SV
C

O
my son about lying all the time
my son
2. I am worried about my son lying all the time.
SV C
O

1 2 1
(that my son lies all the
time) my son's lying all the time
2 (my son)(lying all
the time)

Im surprised that there is no index to the book.


SV
C

260

Im surprised at the fact that there is no index to the book.


SV
C
()
that there is no index to the book the fact
at the fact
at
Im surprised at there being no index to the book.

there is

is being there being no index to the book

be Ven

That anyone is called a liar is the greatest insult.


S
V
C

anyone
be that

Called a liar is the greatest insult.


called a liar
called calling
calling a liar
called be
being being called a liarBe
ing

261

Being called a liar is the greatest insult.


SV
C

1. I am looking forward to something.

2. I am invited to the party.

2 1 something something
2 be

I am looking forward to invited to the party.


invited... to
invited
I am looking forward to the invitation to the party.

being invited
I am looking forward to being invited to the party.

The actors greatest achievement is that he has been nominated twice for
the Oscar.

he
actor he be
has been has been

262

nominated has been


having been
The actors greatest achievement is having been nominated twice for the
Oscar.

be
be
-ing being
That one is a teacher requires a lot of patience.
S
V
O

be a teacher
being...
Being a teacher requires a lot of patience.

be
A teacher requires a lot of patience.

That he was busy is no excuse for the negligence.


S
V
C

be busy
be busy
-ing
His being busy is no excuse for the negligence.

263

he
being his
Being busy is no excuse for his negligence.

he negligence
his
to V

(to V)
The children expect that they can get presents for Christmas.
S
V
O

can
be+to

The children expect that they are to get presents for Christmas.

be that they are

The children expect to get presents for Christmas.

Ving
I think it strange that man should fear ghosts.
S V O C

264

think
strange it (expletive)

man
should
I think it strange to fear ghosts.

to V

S+V+O+C
S+V+O+C
I want that you should go.
S V
O

you
should be + to
I want that you are to go.
S V
O
be you to go

1. I want you to go.


S V O C

265

2. I promised you to go.


S
V
O O

1 S+V+O+C to go
you you should go 2 S+V+O+O
you to go
2
I promised you that I would go.
S
V
O
O
that I would go I
would to 2
for
for

That the Clippers should beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat.

the Clippers
for
For the Clippers to beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat.

of
of
for
It is kind of you to say so.
SV C

266


It is kind that you can say so.
SV C

it
you for It is
kind of can
to
It is kind of you to say so.
S V C

It was silly of him to believe that story.


S V C

that he should believe that story


It was silly
of should to

It takes time to learn skiing well.


S V
O

It takes time that anybody can learn skiing well.


S V
O

267

it
anybody can to

It takes time to learn skiing well.


S V
O

It didnt take Richard much time to learn skiing well.


It didnt take much time for Richard to learn skiing well.
Richard didnt take much time to learn skiing well.
There is/are
I want that there will be no mistake.
I want there to be no mistake.

that
that

1. What should I do?


2. I don't know the question.
S
V
O
1 2 the question what

I don't know what I should do.


S
V
O
I
I don't know what to do.
S
V O

268

what where
to V, how to V, when to V...

Yes/No question whether

1. Should I vote for the KMT?


2. I can't decide the question.
1 2 the question 1
2 whether
I can't decide whether I should vote for the KMT (or not).
S
V
O

whether either...or I
to V
I can't decide whether to vote for the KMT.

Wh- to V
Hell tell us what to do.
Hell tell us when to do it.
to have Ven
I hope to have read this book by next weekend.
He expects to have completed the job before next January.
to be Ving
I dont want to be sitting here all day.
I dont want you to be sitting here all day.
to be Ven
to V Ving

269

He forgot that he should see his dentist that day.


S
V
O

should see

He forgot to see his dentist that day.

He forgot that he saw the man before.


S
V
O

saw
be -ing
He forgot seeing the man before.
O

I love driving on the freeway.


SV
O

that I drive on the freeway


that I am driving on the freeway driving on the freeway

1. I would love to drive to work in my own car.


S
V
O

270

can
2. I would love that I can drive to work in my own car.
S
V
O

1
I avoid being late to any appointment.
S V
O

I avoid that I am late to any appointment.


S V
O

I hope to get to the concert on time.


S V
O

can
I hope that I can get to the concert on time.
S V
O
to V Ving

271

272

be
be

Ving
Ving
(be+Ving) be
Ving be
be Ving
While he was lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

S
V C

he the boy
be Linking Verb
be
1. While lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

while

while before if, although...

2. Lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

273

while when because


as, since

2 while
lying on the couch
the boy
fell

lying on the couch


fell

lying on the couch while he was lying on the couch


while 1
while
while
lying on the couch
be
be (can, must, may...)
Ving
Because we have nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

S V

to do here
that we can do here
nothing have be

be have having: Because we are having
nothing to do here , we might as well go home.
having
nothing to do here we are
Having nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

274


because, since...

because

Although we have nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

S
V

we have
having
Although having nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

although although

although

Having nothing to do here, we still can't leave early.


still although
although
He raised his hand, as if he was trying to hit her.
S
V
O

he was
1. He raised his hand, as if trying to hit her.

275

1 as if
2. He raised his hand, trying to hit her.

2 as if
because

being
be being

As I am a student, I can't afford to get married.

S
V
O

I am
a student as a student
a
student
As a student, I can't afford to get married.

a student I am
as
be being
Being a student, I can't afford to get married.

being a student being a student


I

before, after, since, as


being

276

Before he was in school, he used to be a naughty child.

S
V
C

he was before

In school, he used to be a naughty child.

before
before
Before in school, he used to be a naughty child.
before before
before 1977, before the war before
before
before before in school
in school
in before before school
before school

be
Before being in school, he used to be a naughty child.

be in school be being
before

before, after, since

being

277

After he wrote the letter, he put it to mail.

wrote put
after
1. After writing the letter, he put it to mail.

he Ving 1
after
after writing the letter
after

Writing the letter, he put it to mail.


after When he was writing the letter, he
put it to mail.
when after

2. Having written the letter, he put it to mail.

When he had written the letter, he put it to mail.

whenhad written
put
had written be had
-ing having written when 2

278

Dangling Modifier

Dangling Modifiers

When the child was already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to

S
V
kiss her goodnight.

(the child)(her mother)


be
Already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

Dangling Modifier
already sleeping soundly in bed

her mother

Dangling Modifier

Already sleeping soundly in bed, the child did not know it when her mother

S
V
came to kiss her goodnight.

279

be

The child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her

S
V
goodnight.
already
sleeping soundly in bed the child
the child

be
be

When the child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss
her goodnight.
be

be
The child sleeping soundly... the child sleeping soundly...
be

280

Ving

Ven
be
(be+Ven) be Ven
After he was shot in the knee, he couldn't fight.

he
be
Shot in the knee, he couldn't fight.

after shot
after

Although he was shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers.

although

Although shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers.

281

although

Shot in the knee, he still killed three more enemy soldiers.

before, after, since

Before it was redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

before
Redecorated, the house was in bad shape.
redecorated
before before

Before redecorated, the house was in bad shape.


before redecorated
redecorated
being
Before being redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

be being
-ing before
redecorated redecoration

Before redecoration, the house was in bad shape.

282

before after since

having been
having been
1. Because they had been warned, they proceeded carefully.

they had been


warned be had been
be had been
having been
2. Having been warned, they proceeded carefully.

1 had been be
be 1
3. Warned, they proceeded carefully.

warned
had been
2 3 having been
having been 2
having... 3 warned
2 having been 3 warned
having been

Ven

283

When the coffin had been interred, the minister said a few comforting
words.

(Having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

The coffin (having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting
words.

to V
can, should, must

He studied hard in order that he could get a scholarship.

could get
be+to
be to

He studied hard in order to get a scholarship.

I'll only be too glad if I can help.

284


can help

I'll only be too glad to help.

be to to V
be
be

be

When you are under attack, you must take cover immediately.

be under attack

When under attack, you must take cover immediately.

While it is small in size, the company is very competitive.

small
While small in size, the company is very competitive.

285


Although he was a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.

a doctor
Although a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.

be

before after
because since
because of, as a result of

When she arrived at the party, she found all the people gone.

when on upon
Upon arriving at the party, she found all the people gone.

-ing
Upon her arrival at the party, she found all the people gone.

286

arrive arrival

When she completed the project, she was promoted.

Upon completing the project, she was promoted.

complete completion
Upon completion the project, she was promoted.
complete the project completion
of
Upon completion of the project, she was promoted.

The construction work was delayed because it had been raining.

because of
The construction work was delayed because of rain.

it had been rain



Although he opposed it, the plan was carried out.

287


although despite in spite of
Despite his opposition, the plan was carried out.

itAlthough
Despite he opposed
his opposition
If there should be a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

if in case of there
should be fire
In case of a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

Because the exam is only a week away, I have no time to waste.

S V
C

the exam I

With the exam only a week away, I have no time to waste.


because with the exam be
only a week away

288

sentence-combining

289


(Non-finite Clauses)
TIME
sentence combining

be

1. The patient had not responded to the standard treatment.

2. This fact greatly puzzled the medical team.

2 this fact 1

2 this fact 1
The patient had not responded to the standard treatment, which greatly
puzzled the medical team.
which

the standard treatment

290

(ambiguous)

1 2 this fact
that 2 this fact

That the patient had not responded to the standard treatment greatly
puzzled the medical team.
that
be the patient
had not responded be

be be
can, must, should... (to V)
-ing
had not responded
not having responded the patient
(the patient's) that

The patient's not having responded to the standard treatment greatly


puzzled the medical team.

The patient's failure to respond to the standard treatment greatly puzzled


the medical team.

1. The summer tourists are all gone.

291

2. The resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.

after, because, now that... 1 1 2

Now that the summer tourists are all gone, the resort town has resumed
its air of tranquillity.
Now that
the summer tourists
be (are)(gone) be
now that
(With) the summer tourists all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of
tranquillity.
with the summer tourists all gone

with now that the


tourists with all gone
with

1. Confucius must have written on pieces of bamboo.

2. Confucius lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

3. Paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

292

1 2 Confucius
2 Confucius who
(1+2) Confucius, who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have
written on pieces of bamboo.
(who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty)
who lived living
Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on
pieces of bamboo.
3
3 because

(+3) Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on
pieces of bamboo, because paper was not available until the Eastern Han
Dynasty.
because
paper be

be being because

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on


pieces of bamboo, paper not being available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

1. The movable-type press was invented by Gutenberg.

2. The movable-type press was introduced to England in 1485.

3. This event marked the end of the Dark Ages there.

293

1 2 the movable-type press


which
(1+2) The movable-type press, which was invented by Gutenberg, was
introduced to England in 1485.
which which be
was invented
The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to
England in 1485.
3 this event
an event 3
the event
(+3) The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to
England in 1485, an event which marked the end of the Dark Ages there.
an event
which marked marking
The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to
England in 1485, marking the end of the Dark Ages there.

1. Lee Tenghui was educated in the U.S.

2. Lee Tenghui shows a global view at times.

3. Lee Tenghui deals with economic matters at these times.

1 2
1 because 2

294

(1+2) Because he was educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a


global view at times.
because he was
because educated
Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view at times.
3 at times 3
at these times when
(+3) Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view (at times)
when he deals with economic matters.
at times when
he deals
dealing at times when
when
Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view when dealing with
economic matters.

1. I'd like something.

2. You will meet some people.

3. Then you can leave.

1 something 2 2
that 1 something like

(1+2) I'd like that you (will) meet some people.

295

1+2 that
will
you
like
to V must, should, will(would), can(could),
may(might) be+to be to
will meet to meet
I'd like you to meet some people.
3 3 before

(+3) I'd like you to meet some people before you (can) leave.
before
before
you leave
leaving
I'd like you to meet some people before leaving.

1. I have not practiced very much.

2. I should have practiced very much.

3. I am worried about something.

4. I might forget something.

5. What should I say during the speech contest?

1 2 as...as

296

(1+2) I have not practiced as much as I should (have practiced).


3
because
(+3) Because I have not practiced as much as I should, I am worried
about something.
Because I
have not
practiced be -ing not
having practiced Because
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.
something 4
something about
about the possibility 4 that
possibility
(+4) Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried (about the
possibility) that I might forget something.
about the possibility that
that about
that I might
forget to forget about
forgetting
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting
something.
something 5

something forget
(+5) Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about
forgetting what I should say during the speech contest.

297

what I should
say to say
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting
what to say during the speech contest.

1. James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then.

2. James Sung is Governor of Taiwan Province now.

3. James Sung saw something.

4. The KMT failed in the important Legislative Yuan election.

5. James Sung offered something.

6. He would assume responsibility.

7. He would tender his resignation.

1 2
and
(1+2) James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then and he is
Governor of Taiwan Province now.

and he is

298

(A) James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of
Taiwan Province now.
A
3 4 3 something
4 4 that
3 something saw
(3+4) James Sung saw that the KMT failed in the important Legislative
Yuan election.
that KMT
failed failure
(B) James Sung saw the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan
election.

B
5 6 5 something 6
6 5 something

(5+6) James Sung offered that he (would) assume responsibility.


to V he be to assume
be
James Sung offered to assume responsibility.
A A

James Sung who James Sung

(+A) James Sung, who was Secretary General of the KMT then and
Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility.

299

who who be was

James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan
Province now, offered to assume responsibility.
B
B
because
(+B) Because he saw the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan
election, James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of
Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility.
because
he James Sung saw be
seeing because
Seeing the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election, James
Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan Province
now, offered to assume responsibility.
7
(assume responsibility) 7
assume
by
7 (He would tender his resignation.) by by
7
he would tender tendering

(+7) Seeing the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election,
James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan
Province now, offered to assume responsibility by tendering his resignation.

300

Test 21

1.
Lee Tenghui was educated in the US. (because)
Lee Tenghui has a worldview.
Lee Tenghui deals with economic matters. (while)
2.
I'd like something.
You will meet some people. (that)
3.
I'm not sure.
What should I do?
4.
He worked late into the night.
He was trying to finish the report. (because)
5.
The soldier was wounded in the war. (after)
He was sent home.
6.
He used to smoke a lot.
He got married. (before)

301

7.
I am afraid.
The DPP might win a majority. (that)
8.
I have nothing better to do. (when)
I enjoy something.
I play poker. (that)
9.
Mike won the contest. (when)
Mike was awarded ten thousand dollars.
10.
The motorcyclist was pulled over by the police car.
The motorcyclist did not wear a safety helmet. (who)
11.
The mayor declined.
The mayor was a very busy person. (who)
The mayor was asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony. (when)
12.
Tax rates are already very high. (although)
Tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
13.
The resort town is crowded.
There has been an influx of tourists for the holiday season. (because)
14.
The student had failed in two tests. (though)
The student was able to pass the course.
15.
The president avoided the issue. (that)
This was obvious to the audience.

302

16.
Anyone could tell he was upset.
He had the look on his face. (because)
17.
Michael Crichton is in town.
He is author of Jurassic Park. (who)
He could promote his new novel. (so that)
18.
I am a conservative. (although)
I'd like to see something.
The conservative party is chastised in the next election. (that)
19.
The man found a fly in his soup. (when)
The man called to the waiter.
20.
It is a warm day. (because)
We will go to the beach.
Answer 21

1.
Because he was educated in the US, Lee Tenghui has a world view while
he deals with economic matters.

Educated in the US, Lee Tenghui has a world view while dealing with
economic matters.
2.
I'd like that you will meet some people.

I'd like you to meet some people.


3.

303

I'm not sure what I should do.

I'm not sure what to do.


4.
He worked late into the night because he was trying to finish the report.

He worked late into the night trying to finish the report.


5.
After the soldier was wounded in the war, he was sent home.

(After being) wounded in the war, the soldier was sent home.
6.
He used to smoke a lot before he got married.

He used to smoke a lot before getting married.


7.
I am afraid that the DPP might win a majority.

I am afraid of the DPP's winning a majority.


8.
When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy that I play poker.

When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy playing poker.


9.
When Mike won the contest, he was awarded ten thousand dollars.

(Upon) winning the contest, Mike was awarded ten thousand dollars.
10.
The motorcyclist who did not wear a safety helmet was pulled over by the
police car.

304

The motorcyclist not wearing a safety helmet was pulled over by the police
car.
11.
The mayor, who was a very busy person, declined when he was asked to
give a speech at the opening ceremony.

The mayor, a very busy person, declined when asked to give a speech at
the opening ceremony.
12.
Although tax rates are already very high, they might be raised further to
rein in inflation.

Although already very high, tax rates might be raised further to rein in
inflation.
13.
The resort town is crowded because there has been an influx of tourists
for the holiday season.

The resort town is crowded with an influx of tourists for the holiday
season.
14.
Though the student had failed in two tests, he was able to pass the
course.

Though having failed in two tests, the student was able to pass the
course.
15.
That the president avoided the issue was obvious to the audience.
It was obvious to the audience that the president avoided the issue.

The president's avoiding the issue was obvious to the audience.


The president's avoidance of the issue was obvious to the audience.

305

16.
Anyone could tell he was upset because he had the look on his face.

Anyone could tell he was upset, with the look on his face.
17.
Michael Crichton, who is author of Jurassic Park, is in town so that he
could promote his new novel.

Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is in town to promote his new


novel.
18.
Although I am a conservative, I'd like to see that the conservative party is
chastised in the next election.

Although (being) a conservative, I'd like to see the conservative party


chastised in the next election.
19.
When the man found a fly in his soup, he called to the waiter.

Finding a fly in his soup, the man called to the waiter.


20.
Because it is a warm day, we will go to the beach.

It being a warm day, we will go to the beach.

306

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