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Homomorphic Filtering

# Homomorphic Filtering

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01/18/2014

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# HOMOMORPHIC FILTERING

Illumination-Reflection MODEL
 Images are denoted by two dimensional light intensity

functions of the form f(x,y).

 The value of f at spatial coordinates(x,y) gives the

intensity of the image at that point.

 f(x,y) must be nonzero and finite 0<f(x,y)<∞

 The function f(x,y) may be characterized by two

components 1) Illumination 2) Reflection

Homomorphic Filtering

 The digital images are created from optical image

that consist of two primary components:
 

The lighting component The reflectance component

 The lighting component results from the lighting

condition present when the image is captured.

Can change as the lighting condition change.

Homomorphic Filtering

 The reflectance component results from the way the

objects in the image reflect light.

Determined by the intrinsic properties of the object itself. Normally do not change.

 In many applications, it is useful to enhance the

reflectance component, while reducing the contribution from the lighting component.

Homomorphic Filtering

 Basis: illumination-reflectance model

 Homomorphic filtering is a frequency domain

filtering process that compresses the brightness (from the lighting condition) while enhancing the contrast (from the reflectance properties of the object).

Derivation
 The two functions combine as a product to form

f(x,y): f(x,y)=i(x,y)r(x,y) 0<i(x,y)<∞ and

0<r(x,y)<1

Cont..
 The fourier transform of the product of two functions

is not seperable : Ŧ{f(x,y)} ≠Ŧ {i(x,y)}Ŧ{r(x,y)} Suppose if we define z(x,y)=ln f(x,y) =ln[ i(x,y) r(x,y)] =ln i(x,y)+ln r(x,y)

Cont..
 Then

Ŧ{ z(x,y)} =Ŧ {ln(f(x,y)} = Ŧ{ln i(x,y)}+Ŧ{ln r(x,y)} Z(u,v) =I(u,v) +R(u,v) Where I(u,v) = Fourier transform of ln i(x,y) R(u,v)= Fourier transform of ln r(x,y)

Cont..
 Now if we process Z(u,v)by means of a filter function

H(u,v) then S(u,v)= H(u,v)Z(u,v) =H(u,v)[I(u,v) +R(u,v)] = H(u,v) I(u,v) + H(u,v) R(u,v) In time domain, s(x,y) =Ŧ-1{S(u,v)} =Ŧ-1 {H(u,v) I(u,v)} + Ŧ-1{H(u,v) R(u,v)}

Cont..
By letting i’(x,y) = Ŧ-1 {H(u,v) I(u,v)} And

r’(x,y) = Ŧ-1{H(u,v) R(u,v)}, Now s(x,y) can be expressed as s(x,y) = i’(x,y)+r’(x,y)

Cont..
 Enhanced image g(x,y) is

g(x,y)=es(x,y) = e[ i’(x,y)+r’(x,y)] =e i’(x,y). er’(x,y) =i(x,y) r(x,y)

Block Diagram
f(u,v)
Fourier transform

H(u,v)F(u,v)
Filter function H(u,v) Inverse Fourier transform

Pre processing

Post processing

f(x,y) Input image

g(x,y) enhanced image

Homomorphic filtering for image enhancement
f(x,y)

ln

DFT

H(u,v)

g(x,y)
Inverse DFT exp

Filter function

original image

image processed by homomorphic filtering

Applications
Application of homomorphic filtering results in  Sharper image  Increase in contrast  Increase in dynamic range compression

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