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Course No: M03-010 Credit: 3 PDH
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A., Fellow ASCE, Fellow AEI
Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 firstname.lastname@example.org
An Introduction to Fire Protection Engineering for Buildings
44240 Clubhouse Drive El Macero, CA 95618 (530)7758-6637 email@example.com
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A.
Paul Guyer is a registered fire protection engineer, mechanical engineer, civil engineer, and architect with over 35 years experience in the design of buildings and related infrastructure. For an additional 9 years he was a senior-level advisor to the California Legislature on infrastructure and capital outlay issues, including those involving fire and life safety. He is a graduate of Stanford University and has held numerous national, state and local positions with the American Society of Civil Engineers and National Society of Professional Engineers.
This course is adapted from the Unified Facilities Criteria of the United States government, which is in the public domain, has unlimited distribution and is not copyrighted.
© J. Paul Guyer 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 2. The Fundamental Elements of Fire Protection Engineering 3. Building Materials and Design 4. Water Supply for Fire Protection 5. Fire Extinguishing Systems 6. Fire Alarm Systems 7. Special Occupancies and Hazards 8. Occupancy Hazard Classification System 9. Fire Flow Demand for Unsprinklered Facilities 10. Performance Based Fire Safety Design 11. Codes and Other Professional Resources
5 7 13 22 26 29 33 35 36 37
© J. Paul Guyer 2009
civil. INTRODUCTION This is an introductory course in fire protection engineering for all of the members of the building design team. R. Paul Guyer.E. add value to your career. show you some illustrative examples. and in your engineering practice. This © J. P. Fellow ASCE. As you go through this course. This is a course that will broaden your skills. This course will tell you about the principle requirements of fire safety in building design. there is little in the field that is theoretical in nature.A. Paul Guyer 2009 4 . and allow you to design safe and cost-effective buildings and related infrastructure for your company. mechanical and electrical features of buildings and their related infrastructure are all affected by the principles of fire protection engineering. and direct you to specific codes and other technical resources you will need to efficiently and effectively incorporate fire protection considerations in your building designs. agency. clients and the public.An Introduction to Fire Protection Engineering for Buildings J. With the exception of the hydraulic principles of fluid flow in sprinkler system pipes. Fellow AEI COURSE CONTENT 1. structural. keep some points in mind: • Fire protection engineering is almost completely code-and-regulation driven. The architectural.. Engineers need to know how fire safety requirements affect the design work they do in their individual technical disciplines..
means that in order to find out what you need to do in a given situation you will almost always need to refer to a code or regulation. The only way to manage this type of situation is to take special care to clearly explain your design in terms as non-technical as possible. • Keep in mind that this course is only an introductory overview of fire protection engineering. this means the local building department and the fire department. © J. and just plain be diplomatic. Rarely is a professional engineer the reviewer at the fire department. Paul Guyer 2009 5 . the individuals who review drawings for new construction are almost always individuals who began their careers as fire fighters. deferentially accept the fact that the fire department reviewer controls the fate of your project. In the case of a typical commercial building design project. your project will never get built. References to specific codes and regulations in this course are for illustration only. • Fire safety is a highly regulated enterprise. As noted above. Occasionally a fire department reviewer may feel a bit defensive when dealing with a professional engineer during the review process. This means that your building designs will be meticulously reviewed by the regulatory authorities. Absent the fire department approval. As fire departments have developed over the years. in practice you must always be guided by the codes and regulations applicable to your project in your local jurisdiction. • Managing fire department reviews requires a special level of diplomacy and care.
these are shown in Figure 1: Figure 1 Fundamental Elements of Fire Protection Engineering Element Considerations Basic criteria • Building Materials and Design • Water Supply • Fire Extinguishing Systems • Fire Alarm Systems • Special Occupancies and Hazards Fire areas Height limitations Interior fire spread Egress Interior finishes Insulation Roof coverings Roof and fire department access Air handling Plastic pipe and conduit Fire retardant wood products Demand for sprinklered facilities Demand for unsprinklered facilities Pressure requirements Required quantities and on-site storage Fire pumps Distribution systems Automatic sprinkler systems Foam (AFFF) systems Standpipes Dry chemical systems Carbon dioxide systems Halon 1301 systems Portable extinguishers Detection systems Reporting systems Evacuation systems Numerous These five elements are what will be discussed in this course. Paul Guyer 2009 6 .2. We will also discuss four other areas of technical interest: © J. THE FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING There are five fundamental elements of fire protection engineering.
smoke barriers NFPA 101. fire dampers with their fireresistive ratings.e. water distribution. Where applicable. Paul Guyer 2009 7 . This is a Design Analysis. height and area limitations. provided) indicated in Figure 3: Table 3 Typical Design Analysis Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Building code analysis (i.. location of fire hydrants Smoke control methods and smoke control systems Fire alarm system. discuss the minimum fire protection provisions (include required vs. including hydraulic analysis of required water demand Water supplies. smoke compartmentation. type of construction. and building separation or exposure protection) Classification of occupancy Compliance with applicable codes and regulations Requirements for fire-rated walls.Figure 2 Additional Topics Discussed in this Course • • • • Occupancy hazard classification system Fire flow demand for unsprinklered facilities Performance based fire safety design Codes and other professional resources After you have completed this course you should have sufficient understanding of the principles of fire protection engineering to begin the first step in the design process. A fire protection Design Analysis is required for all designs and must address the fire protection requirements of the project as required by applicable codes and regulations. type and location of equipment Fire detection system and location of detectors Standpipe systems and fire extinguishers Interior finish ratings Alarm reporting system Identification of occupancy and hazard areas Fire department access © J. fire-rated doors. Life Safety Code application Analysis of automatic sprinkler systems and suppression systems and protected areas.
These include: • Egress and Safety to Life. with self-closing and latching access doors of similar construction in the draft stop where there is no other means of access to the area. Follow the requirements of the IBC to determine the permitted types of construction. For fire resistance ratings of non-bearing partitions comply with NFPA 101. IBC fire resistance requirements for permanent partitions do not apply to non-bearing partitions. Use the IBC to determine required separation distances between buildings. • Type of Construction. building height limitations. and building separation distance requirements of the International Building Code (IBC). Paul Guyer 2009 8 . BUILDING MATERIALS AND DESIGN Basic Criteria Conform building construction to fire resistance requirements. For conflicts between the IBC and NFPA 101 related to fire resistance rating. Such roofs will not require sprinkler protection but will require draft stops to divide the spaces into areas not exceeding 3000 SF. Fire Areas © J.3. allowable floor areas. • Partitions. except where approved by local authority Type V (wood) roofs may be constructed on buildings of Type I or II construction provided that they are separated from all other areas of the building by horizontal 2-hour concrete or masonry fire resistive construction. Comply with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101 for building construction related to egress and safety to life. • Separation Between Buildings. Occupancy separation must comply with the “Required Separation of Occupancies” table in the IBC. consider favoring NFPA 101.
Fire Doors and Fire Windows. and wiring. FM. • Penetrations: The protection of ducts at point of passage through firewalls must be in accordance with NFPA 90A. Paul Guyer 2009 9 . Fire door assemblies are required on each side of the door opening in 4-hour fire walls when openings are fitted with 3-hour rolling or sliding fire doors. Local fabrication of fire doors is not permitted. Height Limitations Conform to the IBC. FM. Means of Egress • Requirements: Comply with the requirements of NFPA 101. © J.Conform to the IBC. or a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). or cold cathode type. Incandescent fixtures are not permitted except existing fixtures. such as piping. All other penetrations. conduit. and/or NFPA 90B. must be protected in accordance with NFPA 80. Internally illuminated signs must be light emitting diode (LED) type. Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems. Limiting Interior Fire Spread • Door Openings: Door openings. through firewalls must be protected with a material or system of the same hourly rating that is listed by UL. electroluminescence (LEC). which may remain in use. Signs must have lettering on an opaque background. (UL). Use fire doors listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. or a NRTL. in fire resistive construction. Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. • Means of Egress Marking: Mark means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101. Do not modify approved fire doors in the field.
Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. B. Insulation • Requirements: Use thermal and acoustical insulation with a flame spread (FS) rating not higher than 75. Interior Finish • Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish: Wall and ceiling finishes and movable partitions must conform to the requirements of NFPA 101 for interior finishes. Paul Guyer 2009 10 . Photoluminescent exit signs and egress path marking is permitted only where provided with a reliable external illumination (charging) source providing a minimum illumination of 54 lux (5 foot-candles) of unfiltered fluorescent light. Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Assemblies • Roof Coverings: Use roof coverings approved and listed by a NRTL. For certain types of insulation exceptions apply. Restrict Class C roof coverings to housing and buildings under 8. and a smoke developed (SD) rating not higher than 150 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 (NFPA 255). Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof Covering Materials and NFPA 256.000 SF and that are not mission essential. and C) of acceptable roof coverings based on compliance with UL 790. The UL Roofing Materials and Systems Directory lists three Classes (A. Test cellular plastic insulation in the same densities and thicknesses as the material that will be used in construction applications.Radioluminous exit signs are not permitted. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. • Roof Deck Assemblies: Roof deck assemblies must be FM Class 1 © J. Drop-out ceilings are not permitted.
such as bollards or gates.000 sq ft. At least one stairway must terminate at a standard door opening leading onto the roof surface. Roof and Fire Department Access • Roof Access. must not require more than one person to remove or open. Fixed Ladders. at the highest point of the stair tower. All buildings greater than 5. start from the road. with the exceptions of: (a) fully sprinklered buildings and (b) buildings less than 8. and terminate no farther than 33 ft from the building. unless the roof has a slope greater than 4 in 12. Dimensions of fire lanes and turnarounds must comply with NFPA 1. an approved hatch opening to the roof with an appropriate ladder that conforms to 29 CFR 1910.000 SF. • Access to Residential Facilities. Access may require fire apparatus to drive over a curb. Paul Guyer 2009 11 . Any locking device controlling vehicle access must be under control of the fire department or 24-hour security personnel located at the specific facility. • Fire Department (Emergency Vehicle) Access. All force protection equipment. with a minimum of 2 sides having access to sleeping rooms. The hatch must be not less than 16 ft in area.approved or UL listed as Fire Classified or equal listing or classification by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL).27. All enclosed exit stairs that extend to the top floor in any building three or more stories in height must have. or more than two stories in height must have at least one means of all-weather ground access to allow emergency vehicles unimpeded access to the building. • Vehicle Access. All-weather ground access must be paved. with a minimum dimension of 2 ft. Residential facilities must be provided with all-weather ground access to 3 sides. Uniform Fire Code. 2 © J.
Paul Guyer 2009 12 . New facilities four stories or more in height and all new warehouses must be provided with suitable all-weather ground access surface for aerial apparatus on a minimum of two sides of the perimeter of the structure. Egress corridors must not be used as a portion of a supply. ventilation and exhaust systems must comply with the requirements of NFPA 90A. sink closets. © J. Electrical wiring passing through the space. • Plenums. Air handling. such as in residential occupancies. Exception: Toilet rooms. must be plenum rated or must be in metal conduit. Plenums may be used as an integral part of an air handling system only if they conform to the requirements of NFPA 90A. Under no circumstances may combustible materials be located within the plenum space. Air transfer opening(s) must not be permitted in walls or in doors separating egress corridors from adjoining areas. and similar auxiliary spaces may have air transfer openings. shower rooms. • Corridors. Facilities with fire department connections for sprinkler or standpipe systems must be provided with suitable allweather ground access surface for pumper apparatus within 150 ft of such fire department connections. heating. including telephone and communication wiring. or exhaust air system serving adjoining areas. unless prohibited by NFPA 101. Rooms or areas that form a plenum space or that are used as a plenum must not be occupied for any purpose except during repairs or maintenance operations to the air handling equipment. return. bathrooms. Air Handling • Design Requirements. • Fire Department Connection.• Aerial Apparatus Access.
In buildings with automatic sprinkler protection. smoke and heat vents must be arranged to operate automatically in accordance with NFPA 204. FRT plywood must not be used in any part of the roof or roofing system. Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops or UL 1479. Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops. partitions. Fire Retardant Treated(FRT) Plywood Use of FRT plywood is prohibited except as permitted by the IBC or local authority. shafts. © J. smoke and heat vents must be arranged to operate in the manual mode only. Plastic pipe and conduit must not be installed in exit stair enclosures.• Smoke and Heat Vents. Paul Guyer 2009 13 . and floors must be fire-stopped by an approved or listed method in accordance with ASTM E814. Smoke and heat vents may be considered in buildings where a high rate of heat release is anticipated during a fire. Smoke and Heat Venting. or in air plenum spaces unless specifically listed for that application. In buildings without automatic sprinklers. Plastic Pipe and Conduit Penetrations by plastic pipe or conduit through fire-rated walls. Skylights are the preferred method of providing manual smoke and heat vents.
• Design areas shown in Figure 4 are the hydraulically most remote areas. • The total water demand for sprinklered occupancies is equal to the sum of the domestic/industrial demand plus the sprinkler system(s) water demand and the hose stream(s) demand. as always. and each • sprinkler in the design area must discharge at least the flow rate required to • produce the stipulated density. discharge density. and at the pressure necessary to produce the required sprinkler density over the required hydraulically most remote area of sprinkler operation. type of construction. and other building features. Water Demand for Sprinklers • The water demand required for sprinklers must be determined from Figure 4. The total demand must be available at the sprinkler system connection to the underground main. Paul Guyer 2009 14 . for illustration purposes only. Hose streams are needed concurrently with sprinkler discharge in order to effect final extinguishment or to wet down adjacent structures. • The hose stream demand for sprinklered occupancies must be determined from Figure 4. design area. (Figure 4 is.4. WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION Factors Influencing the Water Demand for Sprinklers The water demand required for sprinkler protection depends upon occupancy. and type of sprinkler system (wet or dry). Applicable codes and regulations must be used. © J.) • Design densities indicated in Figure 4 are minimum densities.
SF Hose Stream Allowance.15 Design Area. GPM/SF Light Hazard Ordinary Hazard.20 3000 500 90 0. Group 2 Extra Hazard. Group 1 Ordinary Hazard. Paul Guyer 2009 15 . minutes 3000 3000 250 500 60 60 0. • Occupancy classification • Response time by fire department • Type of construction © J. Group 1 Extra Hazard.40 3000 750 120 Water Demands for Unsprinklered Facilities Water demands for buildings and facilities that are not fully sprinklered are based on fire department hose stream requirements. GPM Duration of Supply. Group 2 0.30 3000 750 120 0. The following factors affect the water demand and duration and must be considered to determine the specific demand and duration within a given range in accordance with Section 9.FIGURE 4 SPRINKLER SYSTEM AND WATER SUPPLY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SPRINKLERED FACILITIES Occupancy Classification Sprinkler System Design Density. Hose stream demands and duration requirements are outlined in Section 9.01 0.
Feet 0 – 64 Fire Flow Rate. Paul Guyer 2009 16 . GPM 500 65 – 119 750 120 -154 1000 155 – 199 1250 200 or greater 1500 Minimum duration: 240 minutes © J. Figure 5 shows required fire flow rates for above ground atmospheric POL tanks. Figure 6 shows required fire flow rates for above ground pressurized POL tanks.• Number of stories • Separation distances • Building floor area • Firefighting access Petroleum/Oil/Lubricant (POL) Areas Areas where POL materials are stored require special consideration. Figure 5 Atmospheric POL Tank Cooling Water Tank Diameter.
one or more tanks greater than 30.000 gallons capacity 500 2 to 6 tanks.000 gallons capacity 1000 7 or more tanks. each tank less than 30.000 gallons capacity 500 2 to 6 tanks.000 gallons capacity 1500 Minimum duration: 240 minutes Water Supply Pressure Requirements Pressure required for sprinklered facilities must be the most demanding pressure of the domestic/industrial demand. each greater than 30. Quantities of Water Required Requirements for fire protection water storage are based on the assumption that © J.000 gallons capacity Fire Flow Rate.000 gallons capacity 1000 7 or more tanks. one or more tanks greater than 30. GPM 250 Single tank more than 30. or hose stream demand and must be determined by hydraulic calculations. sprinkler demand.Figure 6 Pressurized POL Tank Cooling Water Tank Group Size Single tank less than 30. Paul Guyer 2009 17 .
This quantity represents fire protection requirements only. industrial. The quantity of water required is equal to the product of the fire protection water demand and the required duration. and must be available at all times.there will be only one fire at a time. and flow limitations imposed by the capacity of treatment operations. In computing the fire protection storage requirement. Paul Guyer 2009 18 . Water supply for domestic. a reduction in storage capacity is acceptable if an adequate replenishment source is available. • Total Storage Capacity. The total supply stored for fire protection purposes must be sufficient to meet the maximum required fire flow demand for the durations specified in applicable codes and regulations. its sustained flow capacity. The water storage must be self-replenishing. Factors that must be evaluated include the reliability of the makeup facility. Water for Fire Protection One or more of the following reliable means shall provide water to an installation for fire protection: • Multiple connections to looped or gridded public water distribution system(s) arranged so that during any single-point failure. and other demands must be added to these requirements to determine the total amount of water that is necessary at a facility. © J. • Reduction in Storage Capacity. at least 50% of the maximum required fire flow demand plus 100% of domestic demand can still be supplied to the activity / facility. its method of operation (automatic or manual). and within 24 hours curtailing normal consumption. It must reach required volume during normal consumption within 48 hours. • Replenishment of Storage.
© J. The discharge or suction line(s) from each individual tank or reservoir section shall be sized to deliver the maximum required fire flow. • For a small. approved by FM. and other equipment including automatic accessories must be listed by UL. • One or more on-site sources. non -essential activity. Paul Guyer 2009 19 . a single connection to a looped or gridded public water distribution system. or listed or classified by an NRTL. plus on-site storage that is adequate to supply domestic demand for 24 hours plus the maximum required fire flow demand in the event the connection to the public system is lost. arranged so that at least one-half of the water supply will always be available during tank or reservoir maintenance. Fire Pumps Pumps for fire protection must have adequate capacity with reliable power and water supply. with treated water storage capacity adequate to supply domestic demand for 24 hours plus the maximum required fire flow demand. Fire pumps. On-Site Storage Where on-site storage is part of a sole-source water supply. Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection. such as wells or open bodies of water. This equipment must conform to requirements of NFPA 20. drivers.• A single connection to a public water distribution system. or is needed to provide the required fire flow. capable of providing concurrent domestic and fire flow demands to the facility. the storage facilities must be divided into two or more approximately equal capacity tanks or reservoir sections. is acceptable.
Control valves must be provided in each source of water supply.Water Distribution Systems • Distribution Mains. • Valves. Distribution must be looped to provide at least 50 percent of the required fire flow in case of a single break. New valves must open by counter-clockwise rotation of the stem. Dry barrel or traffic-type hydrants must be used in areas where there is a danger of freezing. . A sufficient number of sectional valves must be provided so that not more than a combined total of five hydrants and sprinkler systems. NFPA 24. FM approved. accessible to fire department apparatus. Paul Guyer 2009 20 . Control valves must be either post-indicating or outside-stem-and-yoke types. Hydrants © J. Hydrants must not be closer than 3 ft nor farther than 7 ft from the roadway shoulder or curb line. The distribution system must be sized to accommodate fire flows plus domestic and industrial or flushing demands that cannot be restricted during fires. Distribution systems must be designed in accordance with American Water Works Association Manual M31 Distribution System Requirements for Fire Protection. • Hydrants Installation. such as tanks and pumps. Wet-barrel or California-type hydrants are preferable in areas where there is no danger of freezing. Sectional valves may be key-operated type. Fire Hose Connections. • Hydrants. Fire hydrants must be UL listed. Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. Hydrants must be installed adjacent to paved areas. or listed or classified by an NRTL and must have two 65 mm (2-1/2-inch) hose outlets and one 115m (4-1/2-inch) suction connection with national standard fire hose threads in accordance with NFPA 24 and NFPA 1963. Hydrants must be aboveground type. Dead-end mains must be avoided. or not more than three sprinkler systems must be out of service due to a single break.
must be installed with not less than 6-inch connection to the supply main. Barrels must be long enough to permit at least 18-inch clearance between the center of the 4-1/2-inch suction connection and grade. The ground must be graded so that any surface drainage is away from the hydrant. Paul Guyer 2009 21 . Suction connection should be perpendicular to the street to allow straight lined connection to the pumper. except as modified by this UFC. and valved at the connection. Installation must be in accordance with NFPA 24. © J.
• Hydraulic Calculations. in accordance with the procedures contained in NFPA 291. Pipe friction losses and equivalent lengths of pipe for fittings and valves must be in accordance with NFPA 13. activate both local and remote (fire department) alarms. In buildings protected by automatic sprinklers. Calculations must follow the format of NFPA 13. Properly engineered and installed automatic sprinkler systems are designed to detect the presence of fire.4. • Sprinkler Coverage. to determine available water supply for the water-based fire extinguishing systems. and distribute water in sufficient quantity to either control or extinguish the fire.500 ft² and greater must be designed using hydraulic calculations. FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS Water Flow Testing Conduct water flow tests. Building and structures requiring sprinkler protection must be provided with sprinkler systems that are designed using the Area/Density Method of NFPA 13. • Sprinkler Density and Hose Stream Requirements. The use of quick response automatic sprinklers (QRAS) is limited to wet pipe systems. Sprinkler systems must use equipment and devices listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). • Quick Response Automatic Sprinklers. sprinklers must provide coverage throughout 100 percent of the building © J. Use of pipe schedule designs is discouraged for any sprinkler system. Automatic Sprinkler Systems • Characteristics. Paul Guyer 2009 22 . New sprinkler systems protecting areas of 1. • Design Requirements.
but is not limited to. See Figure 7. For facilities four (4) stories and taller.except as permitted by NFPA 13. Paul Guyer 2009 23 . This includes. Figure 7 Floor Control Valve Assembly © J. The sprinkler system must be hydraulically calculated using the most hydraulically demanding riser. and other electrical and mechanical spaces. electrical equipment rooms. boiler rooms. Each floor control valve assembly for the sprinkler connection must include a check valve. there must be a combination sprinkler/standpipe riser in at least two stairwells that are interconnected on each floor. telephone rooms. transformer rooms. Coverage per sprinkler must be in accordance with NFPA 13. The calculations must not assume the use of both risers simultaneously. switchgear rooms. • Interconnection of Risers.
Low-. New total flooding systems are not authorized in normally occupied areas. Carbon dioxide systems must conform to NFPA 12. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. Carbon dioxide systems must © J. and NFPA 16. Paul Guyer 2009 24 . Dry chemical extinguishing systems are no longer UL listed or FM approved for the protection of cooking equipment. Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems. Medium-. Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. and facilities such as dip tanks. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems Fixed dry chemical extinguishing systems are appropriate for the protection of certain types of special occupancies.AFFF) Foam installations must be in accordance with NFPA 11.Water Spray Systems Design requirements for water spray systems must conform to NFPA 15. Foam Systems (Aqueous Foam Film Forming . hazards. and other operations involving flammable liquids. Dry chemical extinguishing systems must conform to NFPA 17. and High-Expansion Foam. Dry chemical agents should not be used to protect sensitive electronics. the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook and FM Global Data Sheets contain data and information concerning installation and arrangement of foam systems for various types of flammable and combustible liquids hazards. For additional information. Carbon Dioxide Systems Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems are normally effective against flammable liquid (Class B) and electrical (Class C) fires. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems.
and facilities. and dip tanks. Halon 1301 Systems Gas extinguishing systems are highly desirable in facilities containing high-value electronic equipment because the gases do not damage the equipment. Wet chemical systems must conform to NFPA 17A. Portable Fire Extinguishers. installation of new Halon 1301 systems is now prohibited. cooking exhaust systems. Life Safety Code. Regrettably. which is much riskier for people who are present. Halon 1301 was a fluorocarbon. in facilities where people are present is that they rely on depleting the oxygen supply in order to smother the fire. Halon 1301 was a proprietary chemical system that effectively addressed this issue because. coupled with an annunciation (alarm) system. such as cooking surfaces. hazards. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. Most if not all Halon 1301 systems have now been de-commissioned. Portable fire extinguishers must be located and installed in accordance with NFPA 10. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems Fixed wet chemical systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. Thus. A major challenge with gas extinguishing systems.conform to NFPA 12. provided a safe environment that allowed time for personnel to evacuate the fire zone. © J. Paul Guyer 2009 25 . however. and its use is now banned on environmental grounds. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems. The only current replacement technology for this type of facility is carbon dioxide. Portable Fire Extinguishers Portable fire extinguishers must be provided where required by NFPA 101.
hazards. Clean agent fire extinguishing systems are not a substitute for required automatic sprinkler systems. and facilities. hazards. and facilities. Water mist fire protection systems must conform to NFPA 750. Water Mist Fire Protection Systems. © J.Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems Clean agent fire extinguishing systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. Paul Guyer 2009 26 . Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. Water Mist Fire Protection Systems Water mist fire protection systems are suitable for protection of certain types of special occupancies. Water mist fire protection systems are not a substitute for required automatic sprinkler systems. Clean agent fire extinguishing systems must conform to NFPA 2001.
Manual pull stations must be provided where fire alarm evacuation systems are required. except that a fire alarm system may be combined with a building mass notification system or with a combination building mass notification and public address system. Automatic alarm initiating devices such as detectors and water flow alarms must be connected to these systems when provided. Fire Alarm Evacuation Systems Fire alarm evacuation systems must be provided in the following locations: o Buildings required by NFPA 101. or supervised conductor types. an energy monitoring and control system (EMCS). National Fire Alarm Code. Fire alarm systems may be connected to security systems or an EMCS for monitoring purposes only. Consider compatibility of extensions of fire reporting systems with existing equipment. or other system. Fire alarm systems must be connected to a central alarm location. o Buildings requiring automatic detection or suppression systems. or alarm monitoring location. Paul Guyer 2009 27 . but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for © J. NFPA 70. National Electric Code. FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS Fire alarm reporting systems are reporting systems that connect the building fire alarm control panel(s) to the fire department. fire department. Fire alarm systems must be independent. Required systems are to be digital.5. telephonic. o These systems consist primarily of initiating devices and notification appliances. Building fire alarm evacuation systems must be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. Alarm reporting systems must conform to NFPA 72. radio. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security.
Fire alarm systems must be connected to a central alarm location. Wireless interior fire alarms are not permitted. Building fire alarm evacuation systems must be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. an energy monitoring and control system (EMCS). Automatic Fire Detection Systems • Fire detection systems must conform to the applicable provisions of NFPA72. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security. fire department. Automatic alarm initiating devices such as detectors and water flow alarms must be connected to these systems when provided. Detection systems must be arranged to alert building occupants and to transmit a signal to a constantly attended location. Fire Alarm Evacuation Systems These systems consist primarily of initiating devices and notification appliances. but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for operation. stand-alone systems that are not an integral part of a security system. energy/utility management systems. Manual pull stations must be provided where fire alarm evacuation systems are required. energy/utility management systems for monitoring purposes © J. Fire detection systems must be independent.operation. Fire alarm systems must be independent. or other building management. Wireless interior fire alarms are not permitted. or alarm monitoring location. Fire alarm systems may be connected to security systems or an EMCS for monitoring purposes only. Fire detection systems may be connected to security systems or building management. or other system. except that a fire alarm system may be combined with a building mass notification system or with a combination building mass notification and public address system. and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paul Guyer 2009 28 .
If a facility warrants protection and criteria does not require detection. Paul Guyer 2009 29 . especially smoke detection systems.e.. this may require additional smoke detectors for that area being protected). protection should be accomplished by a wet pipe sprinkler system. © J.only. • Detection systems. require significant maintenance. Wet pipe sprinklers provide superior protection with little maintenance. • The area of protection for smoke detection devices permitted by NFPA 72 must be reduced by 50 percent where ceiling fans are used (i. It is critical that the required detectors are properly installed and maintained. Providing detectors in locations that are not required increases the already high maintenance costs of alarm systems and strains the maintenance program for critical detection systems. but must in no way rely on any components of those other systems for operation.
6. other than dwelling units. The range top extinguishing system must be connected to the building fire alarm system to sound a general building fire alarm and must automatically shut off all sources of fuel and electric power that produce heat to the equipment being protected by that unit. Limit kitchen-extinguishing systems to wet chemical or automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with NFPA 96. flight medicine clinics. for illustration purposes. Medical Facilities Medical facilities include hospitals. • Areas. and similar facilities. There are many special requirements for medical facilities called for by applicable codes and regulations. Paul Guyer 2009 30 . ambulatory health care centers. dental clinics. composite medical facilities. Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. biological safety and medical laboratories. occupational health clinics. medical logistics facilities. outpatient clinics. A discussion of © J. Install fire suppression systems that sound a general building fire alarm and transmit a signal to the fire department or to a constantly monitored location. that are provided with residential type range top cooking surfaces must be equipped with an approved residential range top extinguishing system. Only a few are discussed here. SPECIAL OCCUPANCIES AND HAZARDS There are many special occupancies and hazards that require special fire protection features are required by applicable codes and regulations. Food Preparation Areas • Hood and duct systems for commercial cooking equipment that produces smoke or grease-laden vapors must comply with NFPA 96.
If this supervision is by direct line of sight. Sprinkler piping in inmate areas must be concealed. it must be separated by not less than one-hour fire rated construction. Detention and Correctional Facilities Comply with NFPA 101 and the following: • Individual fire areas must not exceed 50. • Provide an automatic smoke removal system in cell areas.A.000 ft .these requirements is far beyond the scope of this introduction to fire protection engineering principles. provide manual system activation controls at a continuously manned position outside of the cell area. • 2 Provide mechanical or closed circuit electrical gang release devices 31 © J. • Construction type must not be less that Type I . • Provide complete automatic sprinkler protection. • Provide a minimum separation from other structures and public ways of 20 ft. In addition. as defined in the IBC. • Provide smoke detection in all areas as required by NFPA 101and American Correctional Association’s (ACA) Planning and Design Guide for Secure Adult and Juvenile Facilities. • Provide for constant visual supervision of cell areas. Design must utilize institutional (breakaway) type sprinklers. Paul Guyer 2009 .
Paul Guyer 2009 32 . administrative telephone rooms.e. telephones. individual computer work stations. 25 or less) and must have a SD rating not exceeding 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. and other mission critical systems.g. Protection of Information Technology Equipment.. • Construct and protect electronic equipment installations in accordance with NFPA 75. • Interior finish including padded cells must be Class A flame spread (i. and systems. Incidental electronic equipment such as word processing stations. identically keyed. prison-type locks for exit and corridor doors not requiring gang release devices that must be opened for evacuation in the event of fire. printers. reproduction equipment. printers. Provide complete coverage throughout the building including electronic equipment areas. communication centers. • Electronic equipment installations must be located in buildings protected by wet-pipe automatic sprinklers. command and control systems. Require gang release devices to open doors necessary to evacuate prisoners to an area of refuge. office automation systems.whenever 10 or more locks must be operated to release prisoners confined in cells. Require heavy. Electronic Equipment Installations • These areas include major automatic data processing (ADP) areas. etc. video conference centers.. individual data output stations (e. Protect electrical equipment installations by disconnecting the power upon activation of the fire © J. desk top computers.). and similar equipment do not require protection under this section.
a 1-hour fire rated barrier. Paul Guyer 2009 33 . the spaces must be protected by an automatic fire suppression system.protection system. High Rise Buildings • High rise buildings must comply with NFPA 101. • Consideration may be given to the use of a supplementary clean agent fire extinguishing system inside the electronic equipment units or a total flooding system for the room and raised floor. and must be a minimum of 96 ft² with a minimum dimension of 8 ft. Supplementary clean agent fire extinguishing systems will augment the wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system and will not be considered as a substitute. and schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core. • Power and communication (data) cabling installed in spaces above ceilings or below raised floors must be plenum rated or installed in metallic conduit. If this cannot be achieved. • The central control station must have exterior and interior access. a fire department control panel for smoke control systems (includes visual status indicators and controls). fire-fighting equipment and fire department access. fire protection systems. • The central control station must also include air-handling system status indicators and controls. means of egress. © J.
scattered amounts of flammable liquids in closed containers are allowable in quantities not exceeding 5 gal per fire area. If more hazardous processes or areas exist within a given occupancy. OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM The principal occupancy classifications are light hazard. Paul Guyer 2009 34 . stockpiles of combustibles do not exceed 8 ft. scattered amounts of flammable liquid. in closed containers are allowable in quantities not to exceed 20 gal per fire area. quantity of combustibles is moderate. Examples of this classification include: offices. laundries. parking garages. Light Hazard Occupancies Occupancies or portions of occupancies where the quantity and combustibility of the contents are low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release are expected. sheet metal shops. protect these areas in accordance with the fire protection requirements pertaining to the hazard classification of that area. Group 2 Occupancies or portion of occupancies where quantity and combustibility of © J. The basic hazard classification of occupancy does not define the fire hazard present in all areas of that occupancy. Ordinary Hazard.8. Listed below are the classifications with examples of common occupancies listed under each. Small. Ordinary Hazard. Determine the classification for unlisted occupancies from the definitions or by comparison with one of the listed occupancies. and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected. Examples of this classification include: kitchens and bakeries. gymnasiums. churches. Group 1 Occupancies or portions of occupancies where combustibility is low. ordinary hazard. and extra hazard. theatres and auditoriums. Modest. and child development centers.
and fires with moderate rate of heat release are expected. supermarkets. stockpiles do not exceed 12 ft. © J. Moderate. scattered amounts of flammable liquids in closed containers are allowable in quantities not exceed 50 gal per fire area. Special Occupancies Special occupancies are facilities or areas that cannot be assigned a specific classification because of special protection requirements. Small amounts of flammable liquids may be exposed as required by normal operations. electrical maintenance shops. Refer to the appropriate NFPA codes and standards. Examples of this classification include: warehouses and aircraft hangars. laboratories and switchgear rooms.contents is moderate. Paul Guyer 2009 35 . Examples of this classification include: department stores.
Paul Guyer 2009 36 .9. FIRE FLOW DEMAND FOR UNSPRINKLERED FACILITIES Refer to Appendix C of the Department of Defense’s Unified Facilities Criteria. © J. Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities for a description and examples of the procedure to use to determine fire flow demand for unsprinklered facilities.
Paul Guyer 2009 37 .10. Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities for a description of the procedure to use to implement performance based fire safety design. PERFORMANCE BASED FIRE SAFETY DESIGN Refer to Appendix D of the Department of Defense’s Unified Facilities Criteria. © J.
West Conshohocken. 6th Floor. 20036. 19111-5094 A17. PA.astm. Three Park Ave. ASME International. © J.. PA. Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators.ansi. PA. Paul Guyer 2009 38 . http://www. West Conshohocken.astm.109. 100 Barr Harbor Dr.. New York.astm.. Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750ºC. 19428. PA. Philadelphia.. http://www.gpoaccess. http://www. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Department of the Army.11. Safety Manual. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).af.org ASTM E 136. 700 Robbins Avenue. http://www.html 29 CFR 1910.htm AFMAN 91-201. West Conshohocken. NY. 19428. Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops.20.1. Standardization Documents Order Desk.access-board. Philadelphia.1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). www. DC.gpoaccess.org ASTM E 119. 191115094 ASTM E 84. 1819 L Street. Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. PA. 19428. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). West Conshohocken. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. PA. Standardization Documents Order Desk.mil/ AR 385-64. Fixed Ladders.gov/adaag/html/adaag. NW. Bldg 4D.e-publishing. www. Explosives Safety Program. www. CODES AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES 29 CFR 1910.astm. Explosives and Blasting Agents. 1-800-843-2763 ADAAG.27. Pipe Thread. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards. 19428. Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines. 100 Barr Harbor Dr.org DOD 6055. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Bldg 4D.9-STD.gov/cfr/index. 100 Barr Harbor Dr. 10016-5990.gov/cfr/index.org B1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Washington.html 385-100. Explosives Safety Standard. Department of the Air Force. www. Department of the Army. www. United States Access Board.org ASTM E 814. 700 Robbins Avenue.
Factory Mutual Global (FM). Factory Mutual Global (FM). 19111-5094 NAVSEA OP-5. © J. RI. International Code Council (ICC). CO. American Water Works Association (AWWA). Fire Extinguishing Agent. Quincy Ave.htm FMDS 1-20. for Fresh and Seawater. Production. Bldg 4D. PA. Department of the Navy.. Factory Mutual Global (FM). Philadelphia.access-board. 02919 FMDS 1-23. Johnston. Johnston.icc-safe. 5203 Leesburg Pike. 1301 Atwood Ave. Carousel Storage and Retrieval Systems. Anechoic Chambers.gov/ufas/ufas-html/ufas. 80235 MIL-F-24385F.. Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross Connection Control.Department of Defense. 02919 FMDS 8-33... PO Box 7500. Denver. Transformers. Johnston. Factory Mutual Global (FM).. 1301 Atwood Ave. http://www. PO Box 7500. 80235 Manual M31. Paul Guyer 2009 39 . Renovation. Factory Mutual Global (FM). Suite 600. PO Box 7500. Storing..dtic. International Building Code (IBC). Aqueous Film-forming Foam (AFFF) Liquid Concentrate. RI. 22041.. 6666 W. United States Access Board. 700 Robbins Avenue.org Manual M 14. Washington Headquarters Service. Department of the Army. Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure. 1301 Atwood Ave. and Shipping. Ammunition and Explosives Ashore Safety Regulations for Handling. PO Box 7500. Safety and Health Requirements Manual.mil/whs/directives/ EM-385-1-1. RI. Distribution System Requirements for Fire Protection. Bldg 4D. Johnston. 1301 Atwood Ave. 700 Robbins Ave. (memorandum) 14 January 2002. 1301 Atwood Ave. 02919 FMDS 1-53. VA. Standardization Documents Order Desk. American Water Works Association (AWWA). CO. 19111-5094 FED-STD-795. 02919 FMDS 5-4. Philadelphia. 02919 Guidance for Family Housing Master Plans. RI. Protection of Openings in Fire Subdivisions. PA. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense. 6666 W. Standardization Documents Order Desk. RI. Falls Church. PO Box 7500. http://www. Uniform Federal Accessibility Act. www. Quincy Ave. Johnston. Denver.
org NFPA 16. Medium. 02269-9101. Quincy. Low-Expansion Foam. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. Quincy. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. 02269-9101. MA. MA. 02269-9101.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 17. Paul Guyer 2009 40 . www.NFPA 1.org NFPA 13R.org NFPA 14. 02269-9101.org NFPA 10. www. Quincy. Quincy.org NFPA 12. MA. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. www.nfpa. www. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems. Quincy.org NFPA 11. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. Quincy.nfpa. www. Private Hydrant.org NFPA 17A. National Fire Protection © J. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Installation of Standpipe. MA. Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 1 Batterymarch Park. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems. 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa.nfpa. www. and Hose Systems. 022699101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa.and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes. Quincy.org NFPA 13. Quincy. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 15. MA. MA. MA. MA.org NFPA 11A.and High-Expansion Foam Systems. MA. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. 02269-9101. Quincy. Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 13D. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. Portable Fire Extinguishers. Quincy. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www.nfpa. Fire Prevention Code. www.nfpa. Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height. 022699101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. MA. 02269-9101. MA.org NFPA 75. Quincy. www. cylinders.org NFPA 55. MA. Quincy.nfpa. Quincy. Quincy. MA. 02269-9101. Quincy.org NFPA 51. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy.nfpa. Use.nfpa. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. MA. www. Quincy.nfpa.nfpa.nfpa. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.nfpa. Cutting.org NFPA 30. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). © J. www. Quincy. www. 02269-9101. National Electric Code. MA. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding. www. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. www. Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. MA. Quincy. 02269-9101. and Allied Processes.org NFPA 20. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection.org NFPA 24. Quincy. www.nfpa. National Fuel Gas Code. MA. www. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa.org NFPA 58. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Alarm Code. 02269-9101. Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. Paul Guyer 2009 41 .org NFPA 54. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).org NFPA 72. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www. 1 Batterymarch Park. and Tanks.Association (NFPA). www.nfpa.org NFPA 30A. MA. 02269-9101. Standard for the Storage. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. Quincy.org NFPA 37. MA.org NFPA 70. 02269-9101.
1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy. Quincy. Fire Doors and Fire Windows. Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations. Hypobaric Facilities. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. www.org NFPA 88A. MA.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 102. Quincy. 022699101. 02269-9101.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems. 02269-9101.org NFPA 90B. MA.org NFPA 101. www. MA. Quincy. Quincy. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy.nfpa.nfpa.MA. 02269-9101. www.org NFPA 99.nfpa.nfpa.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. 1 Batterymarch Park. Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. 1 Batterymarch Park. Quincy.org NFPA 96. www.nfpa. 02269-9101.nfpa. www.org NFPA 211. MA. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Health Care Facilities.org NFPA 90A.org NFPA 220.nfpa. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). www.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 80.nfpa. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). and Membrane Structures. 1 Batterymarch Park. Fireplaces. Grandstands. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101.org NFPA 99B. Quincy. www. Tents. Types of Building Construction. Quincy. Folding and Telescopic Seating. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Paul Guyer 2009 42 . www. MA. and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances. Vents. Quincy.org © J. MA.org NFPA 80A. Standards for the Fire Protection of Storage. Protection of Buildings From Exterior Fire Exposures. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. 02269-9101.org NFPA 230. Parking Structures. MA.nfpa. Life Safety Code. www. www.nfpa. Chimneys. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. MA. 022699101. MA. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. www. Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. MA.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. Standard on Aircraft Hangars. 02269-9101. www.nfpa. 1 Batterymarch Park. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. MA.org NFPA 1963. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. 1 Batterymarch Park. Repair. 02269-9101.nfpa. MA.NFPA 241. Fire Protection of Vessels During Construction. Piers. www. 02269-9101.org NFPA 501A. Standard on Water Mist fire Protection Systems. Quincy. MA.nfpa. 02269-9101. MA. Quincy. Quincy. Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured Home Installations. 1 Batterymarch Park. and Demolition Operations. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). MA. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Storage of Ammonium Nitrate.nfpa. 02269-9101. 022699101.org NFPA 409. Alteration. 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. 02269-9101. National Fire Protection Association © J. Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards. www.nfpa. Safeguarding Construction. 1 Batterymarch Park. 02269-9101. Quincy. 1 Batterymarch Park. www. 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 256. Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers.org NFPA 430.org NFPA 307. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. Paul Guyer 2009 43 . www. Quincy. Storage of Pesticides.org NFPA 312. 02269-9101.org NFPA 750. 02269-9101. Quincy. Quincy. and Wharves. Fire Test of Roof Coverings. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park. MA. www.nfpa.org NFPA 434. www. MA. Quincy.nfpa. and Lay-Up. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 022699101.org NFPA 255. www. MA. Site and Communities. www. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Quincy. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa.nfpa. MA.org NFPA 490. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1 Batterymarch Park.org NFPA 303. www. Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.nfpa. Fire Hose Connections.nfpa. Quincy.
DOD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings.wbdg. MD. Navy. Quincy. PA. Waterfront Construction. U.wbdg.org NFPA 8503. 19111-5094 UFC 3-230-10A. Bldg 4D. http://dod.org NFPA 2001. www. www. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).(NFPA). 02269-9101. Quincy. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.org UFC 4-152-01. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. MA. 20706-4322. Dockside Utilities. Appendix G.wbdg. 1 Batterymarch Park. http://dod.wbdg.org NFPA Handbook.org UFC 4-151-10.org UFC 4-213-10.wbdg.org UFC 4-159-01N. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Unified Facilities Criteria Program. MA. Standardization Documents Order Desk.org UFC 4-150-02.wbdg. MA. 1999. 1-800-222-5646 SS 521-AA-MAN-010. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.nfpa. 02269-9101. http://dod. Department of the Army.nfpa.org Planning and Design Guide for Secure Adult and Juvenile Facilities.org UFC 4-010-01. Graving Drydocks. http://dod. 02269-9101. TI 800-01. 02269-9101. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Hyperbaric Facilities. www. 1 Batterymarch Park. http://dod. Philadelphia. Pulverized Fuel Systems. 4380 Forbes Blvd.org UFC 3-460-01.wbdg.S. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. http://dod. 1 Batterymarch Park. © J. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.nfpa. diving and Manned Hyperbaric Systems Safety Certification Manual. Quincy. http://dod. Petroleum Fuel Facilities. 700 Robbins Avenue. Quincy. American Correctional Association (ACA). Paul Guyer 2009 44 . Unified Facilities Criteria Program. 1 Batterymarch Park. Water Supply Systems. http://dod. Piers and Wharves. Water Supply: Water Distribution. www. Design Criteria.org UFC 3-230-02. MA.wbdg. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).nfpa. Lanham.
Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Northbrook. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.gov/ USC Title 15. Office of the Law Revision Counsel.. 333 Pfingsten Rd. IL. (also referred to as the "Fire Safety Act. http://uscode.http://dod.gov/ © J. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.house.house. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Underwriters Laboratory (UL). Covered Storage.org UFC 4-442-01N.") Office of the Law Revision Counsel. http://uscode. 30062-2096 USC Title 10. http://dod. 333 Pfingsten Rd. Child Development Centers. Military Child Care. Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops.org UFC 4-213-12. IL. Section 2227. Hazardous Waste Storage. Fire Administration Authorization Act. 30062-2096 UL 1479. Section 1794.gov/ USC Title 15.wbdg. Unified Facilities Criteria Program. Drydocking Facilities Characteristics. Safety Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof Covering Materials. Unified Facilities Criteria Program.wbdg.house. http://dod.house. http://dod. Paul Guyer 2009 45 .org UFC 4-451-10N.org UFC 4-740-14.wbdg. Section 272. Section 2225. http://uscode. Hotel-Motel Fire Safety. Northbrook. http://dod. http://uscode.wbdg.wbdg..gov/ USC Title 15. Medical Military Facilities.wbdg. Underwriters Laboratory (UL).org UL 790.org UFC 4-510-01. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Utilization of Consensus Technical Standards by Federal Agencies. http://dod.
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