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2 October 2011 V G PATEL 1

EARTHING
PRESENTED
BY
PROF. V. G. PATEL
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STANDARDS FOR EARTHING
IS 3043 (Code of practice for earthing).
IS 2309 (Protection of building against lightning).
IS 7689 (Protection against static electricity).
BS-7430 - 1990:- deals with code of Practice for
earthing.
IEEE 80 - 2000 (Grid layout and guide for safety
in the sub-station grounding).
Ìn general, empirical formulae of Standard ÌEEE -
80 are being used by most of the utilities for the
design of grounding system in the absence of the
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required software tool to do so. Used for some
solution / guidance of for design of earth-mat in
difficult conditions.
The quantitative analysis of effects of lightning
surges is beyond the scope of the standard.
Though the grounding recommend provide high
degree of protection against steep wave point but
leaves the subject considering human safety at
frequency greater than 50 Hz.
BS-7430 - 1990:- deals with code of Practice for
earthing and does not deal with the special
problems encountered with solid state electronic
components and equipments.
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NFPA -780 - Standard for installation of lightning
protection system (1997). Ìt does not address
either selection or installation of important
lightning sub-systems like lightning detectors,
strike counters, grounding electrode designs, etc.
IEEE-837 - For test regime
IEC- 61312 - !t deals with protection against
lightning electro magnetic impulse S Lightning
earth current distribution assumed in the standard
vastly differs from the currents observed in actual
lightning, experiments conducted.
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IEEE - 142 - The standard to recommended
practice for grounding Ìndustrial and commercial
power systems. Ìt does not consider and refer
ÌEC 61312 assumptions.
IEEE - 1100 - Recommendation to powering and
grounding electronic equipments & not compati-
ble to ÌEEE 142 since electronic equipment gro-
unding criteria considers high frequency, RF and
Video freq. Ìt does not cover aspects of grounding
against lightning in detail.
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EARTHING
hat is earthing ?
hy it is required ?
Definitions
Permissible values
Various types / methods of earthing
Methods of improvement of earth resistance
(especially for sub-station in rocky area and for
tower footing high resistance problems).
Earth resistivity and its measurement
Measurement of earth resistance
Conclusion
Step Potential and Touch Potential
Lightning
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WHAT IS EARTHING ?
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Earthing means an Electrical
connection to the general mass
of earth to provide safe passage
to fault current to enable to
operate protective devices and
provide safety to personnel.
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EARTHING
· EARTHÌNG MEANS MAKÌNG
CONNECTÌON TO THE GENERAL
MASS OF THE EARTH.
· EARTHÌNG MEANS TO PROVÌDE A
GROUND PATH FOR UNANTED
FAULT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE
CURRENT FROM ELECTRÌCAL
EQUÌPMENT OR ÌNSTALLATÌON
VÌA EARTHÌNG CONDUCTOR.
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EARTHING
EARTHING MAY BE DIVIDED IN TO
TWO PARTS :
·EQUÌPMENT EARTHÌNG OR BODY
EARTHÌNG
·SYSTEM EARTHÌNG OR NEUTRAL
EARTHÌNG
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I) Equipment earthing. This type of
earthing is also called safety earthing or
body earthing. Electricity is dangerous
and death can occur even with 230 volt
shock. The equipment earthing is an
essential safety measure.
The basic objectives of equipment
earthing are:
· To ensure freedom from exposure to
dangerous electrical shocks to persons
working in the substation.
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To provide current carrying capability
for flow of earth fault current of speci-
fied magnitude and duration (thus
permitting over current protection)
without any fire, damage or explosive
hazard. According to norms and
measured, all the exposed metal parts
must be earthed to ensure safety of
personnel.
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EQUIPMENT EARTHING
EQUÌPMENT
EARTHÌNG MEANS
NON CURRENT
CARRYÌNG PARTS OF
THE EQUÌPMENT TO
BE EARTHED FOR
SAFETY MEASURES.
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ii) NeutraI point earthing. Ìt is also known as
system earthing. The neutral point earthing is most
important feature of system design. Ìn every
substation, neutral grounding is important because:
The earth fault protection is based on the
method of neutral earthing.
The system voltage during earth fault depends
on neutral earthing.
Neutral earthing is provided basically for the
purpose of protection against arcing grounds,
unbalanced voltages with respect to earth,
protection from lightning and for improvement of
the system.
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SYSTEM EARTHING
OR
NEUTRAL POINT EARTHING
SYSTEM EARTHÌNG
DEALS ÌTH THE
EARTHÌNG OF
CURRENT CARRYÌNG
PART OR
CONDUCTOR OR
NEUTRAL OF THE
SYSTEM.
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SÌGNÌFÌCANCE OF SYSTEM
EARTHÌNG
· FAULT LEVEL
· PROTECTÌON SYSTEM
· SYSTEM VOLTAGE AT THE TÌME OF FAULT
· EQUÌPMENT SÌZÌNG
· COST OF THE SYSTEM
· SYSTEM CONTÌNUÌTYAND RELÌABÌLÌTY
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132Kv TR. L!NE
STN D S E STN C1 S F
6.6/0.41SKv SST
Dy11
ET
11Kv
CEN. 11/138Kv CT dY1
11/6.6Kv UAT Dd0
11Kv/240v ET
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132Kv TR. L!NE
11/138Kv CT Yd1
132/66Kv TR. YY0
11/0.41SKv TR. DY
CONSUNERS
66/11Kv TR. DY
66Kv TR. L!NE
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EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMERS
· EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMERS ARE USED HERE
SYSTEM NEUTRAL ÌS NOT AVAÌLABLE, PARTÌCULARLY
HEN THE SYSTEM ÌS DELTA CONNECTED.
· EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMER MAY BE OF EÌTHER
THREE PHASE ZÌGZAG ÌNDÌNG TYPE OR STAR
OPEN DELTA TYPE.
· ÌN BOTH THE TYPES THE USUAL APPLÌCATÌON ÌS TO
ACCOMPLÌSH RESÌSTANCE TYPE EARTHÌNG OF AN
UNEARTHED SYSTEM.
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EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMERS
· ÌN STAR OPEN DELTA TYPE TRANSFORMER SUÌTABLE
LOADÌNG RESÌSTER ÌS CONNECTED TO OPEN DELTA
SECONDARY HÌCH PROVÌDES A PATH FOR ZERO
SEQUENCE CURRENT.
· THE EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMERS ARE DESÌGNED FOR
THE 30SECS. OR 60 SECS.
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Design of neutraI earth resistor shouId be such that it Iimits
the earth current to fuII Ioad current of the transformer.
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METHODS OF THE SYSTEM
EARTHING
· SOLÌD EARTHÌNG
· RESÌSTANCE EARTHÌNG
· REACTANCE EARTHÌNG
· GROUND FAULT NEUTRALÌZER EARTHÌNG
· EARTHÌNG TRANSFORMERS
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GROUNDING PRACTICE
NormaI VoItage Grounding practice
and reasons
Up to 600 V SoIid
Low earth fault current.
No sustained earth fault.
Easy fault detection.
Easy protection.
High safety.
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2.2 kV to 15 kV Low resistance grounding
or reactance grounding
To limit fault currents
To prevent damage to
machine from over voltage.
22 kV to 33 kV SoIid earthing
Earth fault currents limited
by fault resistance
No rotating machines are
connected at this voltage.
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Main advantage of earthed system:
(a) To limit the difference of electric
potential between all uninsulated
conducting objects.
(b) To provide for isolation of faulty
equipment and circuits when a fault
occurs.
(c) To limit over voltages appearing on the
system under various conditions.
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Ìn effectively earthed system,
Xo Xì is less than 3 and Ro Xì is less
than 1.
Under line fault conditions, the voltages of
other two healthy phases will never be more
than 80% of line to line voltage of the
system. This is also called as
"COEFFICIENT OF EARTHING".
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hy it is required ?
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·Common household appliances are .
- ashing machine
- Television
- Geyser (Ìnstant/Ìmmersion/Storage)
- Air conditioner
- Radio/sound system
- Domestic floor mill
- Room heater
- Electric lighter
- Cooking range
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- Mixer/Grinder/Juicer
- Lighting
- Electric iron
- Microwave oven
- Refrigerator
- Fan (Ceiling/Table/Pedestal/Exhaust)
- Toaster
- Hot plate
- Computer
- Air cooler
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The most important and common
point for all these appliances is
RELIABLE
AND
GOOD
EARTHING
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VoItage Exposure:
Electrical accident statistics clearly
indicate that many fires and personal
injuries are caused as a result of
current carrying parts coming in contact
with metallic parts, which are expected
to remain non ÷ energized. Proper
earthing or grounding can avoid these
mishaps.
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The impedance of the grounding conductor
must be low enough to accept the full
magnitude of earth fault current without
creating a voltage drop large enough to be
dangerous.The grounding conductor must
be capable of conducting the full fault
current without excessively raising the
temperature of the ground conductor or
causing the expulsion of sparks or across
that could initiate a fire or an explosion.
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Ob]eo11ves o] £or1Þ1ng
· To ensure that no part of equipments, other than live
parts, assume dangerous potential.
· To allow sufficient current to flow safely for proper
operation of protective devices.
· To suppress dangerous potential gradients on the
earth surface which may cause incorrect operation of
control & protective devices and also may cause
shock or injury to personnel.
· Provide stability of voltage, prevent excessive voltage
peaks during disturbances and protect against
lightning surges.
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The functionaI requirements of
earthing system are:
To provide earth connection for the
neutral points of transformer, reactor,
generators, capacitor banks,filter banks
etc.
To provide discharge path for lightning
over voltages coming via rod gaps,
surge arresters, shielding wires, etc.
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To ensure safety of operating staff by
limiting voltage gradient at ground
level in substation.
To provide low resistance path to the
earthing switch earthed terminals,
so as to discharge the trapped charge
to earth prior to maintenance and
repairs.
To ensure safe touch potential.
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· To provide means to carry electric currents
into the earth (both in magnitude and duration)
under normal and fault conditions without
exceeding any operating and equipment
limits or adversely affecting continuity of
service.
· To assure that a person in the vicinity of
grounded facilities is not exposed to the
danger of critical electric shock.
Ìn principle, a safe grounding design has
the following two objectives:
hy do we install an earthing system?
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A shock risk arises whenever accidental
contact is made between the live conductor
and exposed metal work. Fire risk in electri-
cal installations also can arise due to earth
fault current, particularly if the earthing and
bonding arrangements are not capable of
carrying a sustained fault current without
excessive heating. AS FAR AS ELECTRICITY
IS CONCERNED, EFFICIENT EARTHING IS A
MUST.
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Effective earthing primariIy depends on
÷Dimension & number of electrodes.
÷Earth's conductivity - sole factor that
goes long way in achieving effective
earthing.
Ìt is possible to increase earth's conductivity
by enhancing absorption power &
increasing its richness with charge carrying
ions.
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Before discussing further in detail
regarding earthling, let us under-
stand some of the terminologies
(definitions) related to earthling.
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EARTH: A connection to the general mass of
earth by means of an earth electrode.
EARTHED: An object is said to be when it is
electrically connected to an earth electrode.
EARTH CURRENT:The current flowing to earth.
EARTH ELECTRODE:A metal plate, pipe or other
conductor connected to the general mass of earth
EARTHÌNG LEAD:The conductor by which the
connection to the earth electrode is made.
DEAD:"Dead¨ means at or about earth potential
and disconnected from any live system. BOND:To
connect together electrically two or more
conductors or metal parts.
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As an Electrical Engineer, one should know the
Ì.E. Rules pertaining to earthing. Salient point of
Earthing and Ì.E. Rules are as under:
RuIe 33 Ìn case of Medium, High and Extra High
Tension installations, a consumer has to provide
his own earthing system over and above the
earthing terminal provided by the supplier.
RuIe51D) All metal work associated with the
installation other than that designed to serve as a
conductor, be connected with earth.
RuIe612) All metallic part pertaining to apparatus
and equipments shall be earthed by owner by two
separate and distinct connections with earth.
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RuIe 614)Before supply is made " ON " all
earthing system shall be tested to ensure efficient
earthing .
RuIe 615)All earthing system shall be tested for
resistance on dry day during the dry day season
not less than once every two years.
RuIe 616)A record of every earth test made and
the result thereof shall be kept.
RuIe 66a)herever conductors are enclosed in
metal sheathing, the metal sheathing shall be
earthed.
RuIe 66b)The resistance of the earth connection
should be low enough to blow fuse or trip breaker
in the installation concerned.
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RuIe 882)herever guard wires are provided,
these guard wires shall be connected with earth.
RuIe 92 2)The earthing lead for any lightning
arrestor shall not pass through any iron or steel
pipe, but shall be taken as directly as possible
from the lightning arrestor to a separate earth
electrode subject to the avoidance of bends
wherever practicable.
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EARTHÌNG & GROUNDÌNG
Both terms seem almost alike, but there is
difference between the two, e.g. the electrical
system of an aircraft in flight is having a ground
bus. So, where equipment cannot refer to earth
potential while referring to voltage exposure
magnitudes, the term grounding is used. Ìn
aircraft, the main body of the aircraft is the
reference ground as far as voltage exposure
magnitude is concerned and this has nothing to
do with earth. So grounding is the proper term
here. Ìn short, what is earthed can be called as
grounded, but what is grounded, may not have
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anything to do with earth. Earthing is called
Grounding in USA. Now, one should clarify
difference between system grounding and
equipment grounding. System grounding means
a system of current carrying conductors in which
at least one conductor or point (neutral in case of
star winding of transformer or generator) is
intentionally grounded,either directly or through
some impedance / resistance. here as
equipment grounding or earthing relates to the
manner in which non-electrical conductive
material, which either encloses energized
conductors or adjacent thereto, is to be
interconnected and grounded.
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Objectives can be summarized as:-
[1]For the safety of personnel from electric shock.
[2]For the safety of equipment and personnel
against lightning and voltage surges.
[3]For reducing the voltage stresses on line and
equipment with respect to earth and under vario-
us operating and fault conditions and also for
controlling the earth fault currents for protective
relays.
[1] & [2] is known as equipment earthing.
[3] is known as system earthing.
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PERMISSIBLE VALUES
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Types of
InstaIIation
Maximum permissibIe
resistance
Large Power
Station
0.5 Ohms
Major Sub station 1.0 Ohms
Small Sub station 2.0 Ohms
General Domestic
Ìnstallation
8.0 Ohms
Tower footing 10.0 Ohms
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VARIOUS TYPES /
METHODS OF
EARTHING
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EARTH ELECTRODES
Basically all ground electrodes may be divided
into two groups ; the first group comprises
underground metallic piping systems, metal
building frame-works , steel piling and other
underground metal structures installed for
purposes other than grounding . The second
group comprises " made electrode " specifically
designed for grounding purposes. The metal
building frames are normally attached by long
anchor bolts to their concrete foundation footing.
The anchor bolts in concrete serve as
electrodes, while the metal building frame is
simply a grounding conductor.
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Continuous underground water system may have
a resistance to earth of less than 3 ohms where
as other first group electrodes may have less
than 25 ohms. For safety grounding and for small
distribution systems where the ground currents
are of relatively of small magnitude, such
electrodes are usually preferred because they are
economical in first cost. Ìn such case frequent
measuring of earth resistance is advisable.
The second group comprises " made electrode "
specifically designed for grounding purposes. The
metal building frames are normally attached by
long anchor bolts to their concrete foundation
footing.
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The anchor bolts in concrete serve as electrodes,
while the metal building frame is simply a
grounding conductor.
However, normally pipe electrodes and plate
electrodes are more commonly used and are
arranged as shown in the figures. Plate earthing
is normally used for large power stations and
transmission lines where fault current is very
high, whereas pipe earthing is used for small
power stations and sub-stations.
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Made electrodes selection depends upon type of
soil and depth available. Grids, buried strips, etc.
are used where lesser depths are available. Also
lesser depth grids are frequently used for
substation or generating station to provide
equipotential areas throughout the entire station
where hazard to life and property would justify the
higher cost. Buried plates have not been used
extensively in recent years because of the higher
cost compared to rods or strips. Also when used
in small numbers, they are least efficient type of
made electrodes.
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Buried cable electrodes used to ground
transmission line towers and structures. hen
multiple electrodes are used, spacing of less than
3 meters do not provide the most economical use
of materials. Driven electrodes are normally rods.
Few deep rods are normally used than multiplicity
of short rods, since the soil resistivity generally
decreases with depth due to the increased
moisture content. Below 22 % moisture, the
resistivity increases sharply. Above 22%
moisture, it remains almost constant.
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Concrete below ground level is semi-conducting
medium of about 3000 Ohm cms resistivity which
is slightly lower than the average resistivity.
Consequently wire or rod electrodes when cove-
red with concrete results into lower resistancy
due to reduction of the resistance of the material
closest to electrode which serves the purpose of
chemical treatment concrete foundations forced
with steel bars provides ready-made grounding
electrodes. Ìt is only necessary to bring out an
adequate electrical connection from main reinfor-
cing bars.
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Purpose of chemical treatment for concrete
foundations forced with steel bars provides ready-
made grounding electrodes. Ìt is only necessary
to bring out an adequate electrical connection
from main reinforcing bars. Such type of footing
electrode will offer resistance of less than driven
electrodes (form 0.25 to 0.80 ohms).
Steel rods in concrete found greatly superior than
made electrodes for rocky soil. Majority of steel
towers of high voltage transmission lines are
provided grounds by such type.
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Types of Electrodes
· etal Plates (Copper,Cast Iron or Galvanized
Iron) rectangle / square / circular
At least 60*60 cm (but not ~1*1 mtr) 6 mm thick
C plates not · 1 mm & cu not · 315 mm thick
med & Iew HT installation, conIined to station grounds
· etal Pipes/Rods normally of Galvanized Iron,
Copper, Stainless steel &Copper coated S Rods
Gen 13, 16, 19 mm in dia & length varies Irom 10
0 mm
Expose greater surIace area compared to plates
· GI tapes / Copper Tapes of 25mm or 50mm width
and 2, 3 or 5 mm thickness
used in rocky soils where penetration not Ieasible
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Types of EIectrodes
·PIates Cast Iron or Copper) Square
--60*60 cm
--C.Ì plates - 6.3 mm & Copper - 3.15 mm
thick. Plate to be buried vertically with top edge
minimum 1.5 mtr from ground surface.
·MetaI Pipes/Rods of GaIvanized Iron
--38 mm dia & 2.5 m long pipes (minimum).
--63 mm dia. & 3 mtr long pipes now a days
standardized by consultants.
(Expose greater surface area compared to plates)
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Around plate, an alternate layers of salt and
charcoal of 15 cm thickness is formed. For
copper plate copper wire of sufficient thickness
and for GÌ plate GÌ wire of sufficient thickness is
bolted and brought to ground level in a 19 mm
dia. GÌ pipe and terminated in a cement-concrete
structure[300 mm x 300 mm x 300 mm having
wall thickness of 12.5 mm] and GÌ hinged cover is
provided on GÌ frame on concrete work which is
flushed to ground level.
A suitable funnel is provided for pouring water to
keep surrounding area of earth plate moist.
Fortnightly 4-5 buckets of water should be poured
OR a permanent water tap should be provided on
concrete work (kundi).
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